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Sample records for preterm pigs fed

  1. Intestinal threonine utilization for protein and mucin synthesis is decreased in formula-fed preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Puiman, Patrycja J; Jensen, Mikkel; Stoll, Barbara; Renes, Ingrid B; de Bruijn, Adrianus C J M; Dorst, Kristien; Schierbeek, Henk; Schmidt, Mette; Boehm, Günther; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2011-07-01

    Threonine is an essential amino acid necessary for synthesis of intestinal (glyco)proteins such as mucin MUC2 to maintain adequate gut barrier function. In premature infants, reduced barrier function may contribute to the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Human milk protects against NEC compared with infant formula. Therefore, we hypothesized that formula feeding decreases the MUC2 synthesis rate concomitant with a decrease in intestinal first-pass threonine utilization, predisposing the preterm neonate to NEC. Preterm pigs were delivered by caesarian section and received enteral feeding with formula (FORM; n = 13) or bovine colostrum (COL; n = 6) for 2 d following 48 h of total parenteral nutrition. Pigs received a dual stable isotope tracer infusion of threonine to determine intestinal threonine kinetics. NEC developed in 38% of the FORM pigs, whereas none of the COL pigs were affected (P = 0.13). Intestinal fractional first-pass threonine utilization was lower in FORM pigs (49 ± 2%) than in COL pigs (60 ± 4%) (P = 0.02). In FORM pigs compared with COL pigs, protein synthesis (369 ± 31 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) vs. 615 ± 54 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1); P = 0.003) and MUC2 synthesis (121 ± 17%/d vs. 184 ± 15%/d; P = 0.02) were lower in the distal small intestine (SI). Our results suggest that formula feeding compared with colostrum feeding in preterm piglets reduces mucosal growth with a concomitant decrease in first-pass splanchnic threonine utilization, protein synthesis, and MUC2 synthesis in the distal SI. Hence, decreased intestinal threonine metabolism and subsequently impaired gut barrier function may predispose the formula-fed infant to developing NEC. PMID:21593357

  2. New generation lipid emulsions prevent PNALD in chronic parenterally fed preterm pigs

    PubMed Central

    Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; Ng, Kenneth; Stoll, Barbara; Benight, Nancy; Chacko, Shaji; Kluijtmans, Leo A. J.; Kulik, Wim; Squires, E. James; Olutoye, Oluyinka; Schady, Deborah; Finegold, Milton L.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Burrin, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions can reverse PNALD, yet it is unknown if they can prevent PNALD. We studied preterm pigs administered TPN for 14 days with either 100% soybean oil (IL), 100% fish oil (OV), or a mixture of soybean oil, medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), olive oil, and fish oil (SL); a group was fed formula enterally (ENT). In TPN-fed pigs, serum direct bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and plasma bile acids increased after the 14 day treatment but were highest in IL pigs. All TPN pigs had suppressed hepatic expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), cholesterol 7-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and plasma 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) concentrations, yet hepatic CYP7A1 protein abundance was increased only in the IL versus ENT group. Organic solute transporter alpha (OSTα) gene expression was the highest in the IL group and paralleled plasma bile acid levels. In cultured hepatocytes, bile acid-induced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression was inhibited by phytosterol treatment. We show that TPN-fed pigs given soybean oil developed cholestasis and steatosis that was prevented with both OV and SL emulsions. Due to the presence of phytosterols in the SL emulsion, the differences in cholestasis and liver injury among lipid emulsion groups in vivo were weakly correlated with plasma and hepatic phytosterol content. PMID:24478031

  3. Enteral but not parenteral antibiotics enhance gut function and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in formula-fed newborn preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Birck, Malene M; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Cilieborg, Malene S; Kamal, Shamrulazhar S; Nielsen, Dennis S; Damborg, Peter; Olsen, John E; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Sangild, Per T; Thymann, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Preterm infants are susceptible to infection and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and are often treated with antibiotics. Simultaneous administration of enteral and parenteral antibiotics during the first days after preterm birth prevents formula-induced NEC lesions in pigs, but it is unknown which administration route is most effective. We hypothesized that only enteral antibiotics suppress gut bacterial colonization and NEC progression in formula-fed preterm pigs. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs (90-92% of gestation) were fed increasing amounts of infant formula from birth to day 5 and given saline (CON) or antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole) via the enteral (ENT) or parenteral (PAR) route (n = 16-17). NEC lesions, intestinal morphology, function, microbiology, and inflammatory mediators were evaluated. NEC lesions were completely prevented in ENT pigs, whereas there were high incidences of mild NEC lesions (59-63%) in CON and PAR pigs (P < 0.001). ENT pigs had elevated intestinal weight, villus height/crypt depth ratio, and goblet cell density and reduced gut permeability, mucosal adherence of bacteria, IL-8 levels, colonic lactic acid levels, and density of Gram-positive bacteria, relative to CON pigs (P < 0.05). Values in PAR pigs were intermediate with few affected parameters (reduced lactic acid levels and density and adherence of Gram-positive bacteria, relative to CON pigs, P < 0.05). There was no evidence of increased antimicrobial resistance following the treatments. We conclude that enteral, but not parenteral, administration of antibiotics reduces gut bacterial colonization, inflammation, and NEC lesions in newborn, formula-fed preterm pigs. Delayed colonization may support intestinal structure, function, and immunity in the immediate postnatal period of formula-fed preterm neonates. PMID:26680737

  4. New generation lipid emulsions prevent PNALD in chronic parentally fed preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions can reverse PNALD, yet it is unknown if they can prevent PNALD. We studied preterm pigs administered TPN for 14 days with either 100...

  5. Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis alter gut colonization in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cilieborg, Malene S; Boye, Mette; Mølbak, Lars; Thymann, Thomas; Sangild, Per T

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates is dependent on bacterial colonization, but it remains unclear whether a particular microbiota or specific pathogens are involved. We hypothesized that gut colonization differs between preterm and term neonates and that overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens predisposes to NEC. By using terminal-RFLP and FISH, we characterized the gut microbiota of preterm, caesarean-delivered, formula-fed pigs (n = 44) with or without NEC and of formula- or colostrum-fed term, and vaginally born pigs (n = 13). A different microbiota with high C. perfringens abundance was observed in preterm pigs with NEC compared with healthy individuals. However, immunization against C. perfringens toxins did not prevent NEC, and C. perfringens inoculation (3.6 × 10 cfu/d) failed to induce NEC (n = 16), whereas prophylactic broad-spectrum antibiotics treatment prevented NEC (n = 24). Colonization in both groups of term pigs differed from preterm pigs and was dominated by Lactobacilli spp. In conclusion, gestational age (GA) and NEC influence neonatal gut colonization, whereas diet has minor effects. C. perfringens is more abundant in pigs with NEC but rather as a consequence than a cause of disease. The general bacterial load and underdeveloped gut immune responses in preterm neonates seem more important for NEC development than specific pathogens. PMID:20924317

  6. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  7. Enteral feeding induces diet-dependent mucosal dysfunction, bacterial overgrowth and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm parenterally-fed pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preterm neonates have an immature gut and metabolism and may benefit from a period of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) before enteral food introduction. Conversely, delayed enteral feeding may inhibit gut maturation and sensitize to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intestinal mass and NEC lesions we...

  8. Multi-omic profiles of hepatic metabolism in TPN-fed preterm pigs administered new generation lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Gregory; Kulkarni, Madhulika; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; Stoll, Barbara; Ng, Kenneth; Martin, Camilia; Belmont, John; Hadsell, Darryl; Heird, William; Newgard, Christopher B; Olutoye, Oluyinka; van Goudoever, Johannes; Lauridsen, Charlotte; He, Xingxuan; Schuchman, Edward H; Burrin, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to characterize the lipidomic, metabolomic, and transcriptomic profiles in preterm piglets administered enteral (ENT) formula or three parenteral lipid emulsions [parenteral nutrition (PN)], Intralipid (IL), Omegaven (OV), or SMOFlipid (SL), for 14 days. Piglets in all parenteral lipid groups showed differential organ growth versus ENT piglets; whole body growth rate was lowest in IL piglets, yet there were no differences in either energy expenditure or (13)C-palmitate oxidation. Plasma homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance demonstrated insulin resistance in IL, but not OV or SL, compared with ENT. The fatty acid and acyl-CoA content of the liver, muscle, brain, and plasma fatty acids reflected the composition of the dietary lipids administered. Free carnitine and acylcarnitine (ACT) levels were markedly reduced in the PN groups compared with ENT piglets. Genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation were increased, whereas those associated with alternative pathways of fatty acid oxidation were decreased in all PN groups. Our results show that new generation lipid emulsions directly enrich tissue fatty acids, especially in the brain, and lead to improved growth and insulin sensitivity compared with a soybean lipid emulsion. In all total PN groups, carnitine levels are limiting to the formation of ACTs and gene expression reflects the stress of excess lipid on liver function. PMID:27474222

  9. Rapid gut growth but persistent delay in digestive function in the postnatal period of preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Thymann, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Holst, Jens Juul; Hartmann, Bolette; Hilsted, Linda; Langhorn, Louise; Jelsing, Jacob; Sangild, Per Torp

    2016-04-15

    Preterm infants often tolerate full enteral nutrition a few weeks after birth but it is not known how this is related to gut maturation. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that intestinal structure and digestive function are similar in preterm and term individuals at 3-4 wk after birth and that early enteral nutrition promotes maturation. Preterm or term cesarean-delivered pigs were fed total parenteral nutrition, or partial enteral nutrition [Enteral (Ent), 16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1) of bovine colostrum] for 5 days, followed by full enteral milk feeding until day 26 The intestine was collected for histological and biochemical analyses at days 0, 5, and 26 (n = 8-12 in each of 10 treatment groups). Intestinal weight (relative to body weight) was reduced in preterm pigs at 0-5 days but ENT feeding stimulated the mucosal volume and peptidase activities. Relative to term pigs, mucosal volume remained reduced in preterm pigs until 26 days although plasma glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and glucose-dependent insulin-trophic peptide (GIP) levels were increased. Preterm pigs also showed reduced hexose absorptive capacity and brush-border enzyme (sucrase, maltase) activities at 26 days, relative to term pigs. Intestinal structure shows a remarkable growth adaptation in the first week after preterm birth, especially with enteral nutrition, whereas some digestive functions remain immature until at least 3-4 wk. It is important to identify feeding regimens that stimulate intestinal maturation in the postnatal period of preterm infants because some intestinal functions may show long-term developmental delay. PMID:26822913

  10. Whey protein processing influences formula-induced gut maturation in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Østergaard, Mette V; Jiang, Pingping; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2013-12-01

    Immaturity of the gut predisposes preterm infants to nutritional challenges potentially leading to clinical complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Feeding milk formulas is associated with greater risk than fresh colostrum or milk, probably due to loss of bioactive proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-β) during industrial processing (e.g., pasteurization, filtration, spray-drying). We hypothesized that the processing method for whey protein concentrate (WPC) would affect gut maturation in formula-fed preterm pigs used as a model for preterm infants. Fifty-five caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were distributed into 4 groups given 1 of 4 isoenergetic diets: formula containing conventional WPC (filtration, multi-pasteurization, standard spray-drying) (CF); formula containing gently treated WPC (reduced filtration and pasteurization, gentle spray-drying) (GF); formula containing minimally treated WPC (rennet precipitation, reduced filtration, heat treatment <40°C, freeze-drying) (MF); and bovine colostrum (used as a positive reference group) (BC). Relative to CF, GF, and MF pigs, BC pigs had greater villus heights, lactose digestion, and absorption and lower gut permeability (P < 0.05). MF and BC pigs had greater plasma citrulline concentrations than CF and GF pigs and intestinal interleukin-8 was lower in BC pigs than in the other groups (P < 0.05). MF pigs had lower concentrations of intestinal claudin-4, cleaved caspase-3, and phosphorylated c-Jun than CF pigs (P < 0.05). The conventional and gently treated WPCs had similar efficacy in stimulating proliferation of porcine intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that processing of WPC affects intestinal structure, function, and integrity when included in formulas for preterm pigs. Optimization of WPC processing technology may be important to preserve the bioactivity and nutritional value of formulas for sensitive newborns. PMID:24047702

  11. Vitamin E in new-generation lipid emulsions protects against parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in parenteral nutrition-fed preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants leads to PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). PNALD has been linked to serum accumulation of phytosterols that are abundant in plant oil but absent in fish oil emulsions. Whether modifying the phytosterol and vitamin E composition of soy and fish oil lipi...

  12. Minimal short-term effect of dietary 2'-fucosyllactose on bacterial colonisation, intestinal function and necrotising enterocolitis in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Cilieborg, Malene S; Bering, Stine B; Østergaard, Mette V; Jensen, Michael L; Krych, Łukasz; Newburg, David S; Sangild, Per T

    2016-09-01

    Human milk decreases the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), a severe gastrointestinal disease that occurs in 5-10 % of preterm infants. The prebiotic and immune-modulatory effects of milk oligosaccharides may contribute to this protection. Preterm pigs were used to test whether infant formula enriched with α1,2-fucosyllactose (2'-FL, the most abundant oligosaccharide in human milk) would benefit gut microbial colonisation and NEC resistance after preterm birth. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed formula (Controls, n 17) or formula with 5 g/l 2'-FL (2'-FL, n 16) for 5 d; eight 2'-FL pigs (50 %) and twelve Controls (71 %) developed NEC, with no difference in lesion scores (P=0·35); 2'-FL pigs tended to have less anaerobic bacteria in caecal contents (P=0·22), but no difference in gut microbiota between groups were observed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation and 454 pyrosequencing. Abundant α1,2-fucose was detected in the intestine with no difference between groups, and intestinal structure (villus height, permeability) and digestive function (hexose absorption, brush border enzyme activities) were not affected by 2'-FL. Formula enrichment with 2'-FL does not affect gut microbiology, digestive function or NEC sensitivity in pigs within the first few days after preterm birth. Milk 2'-FL may not be critical in the immediate postnatal period of preterm neonates when gut colonisation and intestinal immunity are still immature. PMID:27452119

  13. Enteral feeding induces diet-dependent mucosal dysfunction, bacterial proliferation, and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs on parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bjornvad, Charlotte R; Thymann, Thomas; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Burrin, Douglas G; Jensen, Søren K; Jensen, Bent B; Mølbak, Lars; Boye, Mette; Larsson, Lars-Inge; Schmidt, Mette; Michaelsen, Kim F; Sangild, Per T

    2008-11-01

    Preterm neonates have an immature gut and metabolism and may benefit from total parenteral nutrition (TPN) before enteral food is introduced. Conversely, delayed enteral feeding may inhibit gut maturation and sensitize to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intestinal mass and NEC lesions were first recorded in preterm pigs fed enterally (porcine colostrum, bovine colostrum, or formula for 20-40 h), with or without a preceding 2- to 3-day TPN period (n = 435). Mucosal mass increased during TPN and further after enteral feeding to reach an intestinal mass similar to that in enterally fed pigs without TPN (+60-80% relative to birth). NEC developed only after enteral feeding but more often after a preceding TPN period for both sow's colostrum (26 vs. 5%) and formula (62 vs. 39%, both P < 0.001, n = 43-170). Further studies in 3-day-old TPN pigs fed enterally showed that formula feeding decreased villus height and nutrient digestive capacity and increased luminal lactic acid and NEC lesions, compared with colostrum (bovine or porcine, P < 0.05). Mucosal microbial diversity increased with enteral feeding, and Clostridium perfringens density was related to NEC severity. Formula feeding decreased plasma arginine, citrulline, ornithine, and tissue antioxidants, whereas tissue nitric oxide synthetase and gut permeability increased, relative to colostrum (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, enteral feeding is associated with gut dysfunction, microbial imbalance, and NEC in preterm pigs, especially in pigs fed formula after TPN. Conversely, colostrum milk diets improve gut maturation and NEC resistance in preterm pigs subjected to a few days of TPN after birth. PMID:18818317

  14. Elective cesarean delivery affects gut maturation and delays microbial colonization but does not increase necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Siggers, R H; Thymann, T; Jensen, B B; Mølbak, L; Heegaard, P M H; Schmidt, M; Buddington, R K; Sangild, P T

    2008-03-01

    Although preterm birth and formula feeding increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), the influences of cesarean section (CS) and vaginal delivery (VD) are unknown. Therefore, gut characteristics and NEC incidence and severity were evaluated in preterm pigs (92% gestation) delivered by CS or VD. An initial study showed that newborn CS pigs (n = 6) had decreased gastric acid secretion, absorption of intact proteins, activity of brush-border enzymes and pancreatic hydrolases, plasma cortisol, rectal temperature, and changes in blood chemistry, indicating impaired respiratory function, compared with VD littermates (n = 6). In a second experiment, preterm CS (n = 16) and VD (n = 16) pigs were given total parenteral nutrition (36 h) then fed porcine colostrum (VD-COL, n = 6; CS-COL, n = 6) or infant milk formula (VD-FORM, n = 10; CS-FORM, n = 10) for 2 days. Across delivery, FORM pigs showed significantly higher NEC incidence, tissue proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-6), Clostridium colonization, and impaired intestinal function, compared with COL pigs. NEC incidence was equal for CS (6/16) and VD (6/16) pigs, CS pigs had decreased bacterial diversity and density, higher villus heights, and increased brush-border enzyme activities (lactase, aminopeptidases) compared with VD pigs. In particular, VD-FORM pigs showed reduced mucosal proportions, reduced lactase and aminopeptidases, and increased proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 compared with CS-FORM (P < 0.06). Despite the initial improvement of intestinal and metabolic functions following VD, gut function, and inflammation were similar, or more negatively affected in VD neonates than CS neonates. Both delivery modes exhibited positive and negative influences on the preterm gut, which may explain the similar NEC incidence. PMID:18160527

  15. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, were determined in a 138-d feeding trial conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. Pigs were weaned at 21d of age and were fed a commercial starter-...

  16. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial exposure to formula feedi...

  17. Bovine colostrum improves neonatal growth, digestive function, and gut immunity relative to donor human milk and infant formula in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Stine O; Martin, Lena; Østergaard, Mette V; Rudloff, Silvia; Li, Yanqi; Roggenbuck, Michael; Bering, Stine B; Sangild, Per T

    2016-09-01

    Mother's own milk is the optimal first diet for preterm infants, but donor human milk (DM) or infant formula (IF) is used when supply is limited. We hypothesized that a gradual introduction of bovine colostrum (BC) or DM improves gut maturation, relative to IF during the first 11 days after preterm birth. Preterm pigs were fed gradually advancing doses of BC, DM, or IF (3-15 ml·kg(-1)·3 h(-1), n = 14-18) before measurements of gut structure, function, microbiology, and immunology. The BC pigs showed higher body growth, intestinal hexose uptake, and transit time and reduced diarrhea and gut permeability, relative to DM and IF pigs (P < 0.05). Relative to IF pigs, BC pigs also had lower density of mucosa-associated bacteria and of some putative pathogens in colon, together with higher intestinal villi, mucosal mass, brush-border enzyme activities, colonic short chain fatty acid levels, and bacterial diversity and an altered expression of immune-related genes (higher TNFα, IL17; lower IL8, TLR2, TFF, MUC1, MUC2) (all P < 0.05). Values in DM pigs were intermediate. Severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was observed in >50% of IF pigs, while only subclinical intestinal lesions were evident from DM and BC pigs. BC, and to some degree DM, are superior to preterm IF in stimulating gut maturation and body growth, using a gradual advancement of enteral feeding volume over the first 11 days after preterm birth in piglets. Whether the same is true in preterm infants remains to be tested. PMID:27445345

  18. Changes in Neuroactive Steroid Concentrations After Preterm Delivery in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jonathan J.; Palliser, Hannah K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. Allopregnanolone, a key metabolite of progesterone, has neuroprotective and developmental effects in the brain. The objectives of this study were to measure the neuroactive steroid concentrations following preterm delivery in a neonatal guinea pig model and assess the potential for postnatal progesterone replacement therapy to affect neuroactive steroid brain and plasma concentrations in preterm neonates. Methods: Preterm (62-63 days) and term (69 days) guinea pig pups were delivered by cesarean section and tissue was collected at 24 hours. Plasma progesterone, cortisol, allopregnanolone, and brain allopregnanolone concentrations were measured by immunoassay. Brain 5α-reductase (5αR) expression was determined by Western blot. Neurodevelopmental maturity of preterm neonates was assessed by immunohistochemistry staining for myelination, glial cells, and neurons. Results: Brain allopregnanolone concentrations were significantly reduced after birth in both preterm and term neonates. Postnatal progesterone treatment in preterm neonates increased brain and plasma allopregnanolone concentrations. Preterm neonates had reduced myelination, low birth weight, and high mortality compared to term neonates. Brain 5αR expression was also significantly reduced in neonates compared to fetal expression. Conclusions: Delivery results in a loss of neuroactive steroid concentrations resulting in a premature reduction in brain allopregnanolone in preterm neonates. Postnatal progesterone therapy reestablished neuroactive steroid levels in preterm brains, a finding that has implications for postnatal growth following preterm birth that occurs at a time of neurodevelopmental immaturity. PMID:23585339

  19. Fetal lipopolysaccharide exposure modulates diet-dependent gut maturation and sensitivity to necrotising enterocolitis in pre-term pigs.

    PubMed

    Cilieborg, Malene S; Schmidt, Mette; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Boye, Mette; Weber, Nicolai R; Heegaard, Peter M; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T

    2011-09-01

    Uterine infections during pregnancy predispose to pre-term birth and postnatal morbidity, but it is unknown how prenatal bacterial exposure affects maturation of the immature gut. We hypothesised that a prenatal exposure to gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has immunomodulatory effects that improve resistance towards necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. At approximately 85 % gestation, pig fetuses were injected intramuscularly with saline or LPS (0·014 mg/kg), or intra-amniotically with LPS (0·4 mg/kg). Pigs were delivered by caesarean section 3-5 d later and fed colostrum (C) or formula (F) for 48 h. Gut indices did not differ between pigs injected intramuscularly with saline or LPS, and these groups were therefore pooled into two control groups according to diet (control-F, n 32 and control-C, n 11). Control-F pigs showed reduced villus heights, mucosal structure, gut integrity, digestive enzymes, elevated NEC incidence (38 v. 0 %, P < 0·05) and several differentially expressed immune-related genes, relative to control-C pigs. Compared with the control-F and control-C groups, values in formula-fed pigs given intra-amniotic LPS formula (n 17) were intermediate for villus height, enzyme activities, intestinal permeability and NEC incidence (18 %, P = 0·2 relative to control-F), and numbers of differentially expressed immune genes. In conclusion, prenatal exposure of the fetal gut to Gram-negative bacteria may modulate the immediate postnatal response to an enteral diet and colonising bacteria. PMID:21676273

  20. Calcium and vitamin D requirements of enterally fed preterm infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone health is a critical concern in managing preterm infants. Key nutrients of importance are calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Although human milk is critical for the health of preterm infants, it is low in these nutrients relative to the needs of the infants during growth. Strategies should be ...

  1. Invited Review: The preterm pig as a model in pediatric gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Sangild, P. T.; Thymann, T.; Schmidt, M.; Stoll, B.; Burrin, D. G.; Buddington, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    At birth, the newborn mammal undergoes a transition from a sterile uterine environment with a constant nutrient supply, to a microbe-rich environment with intermittent oral intake of complex milk nutrients via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). These functional challenges partly explain the relatively high morbidity and mortality of neonates. Preterm birth interrupts prenatal organ maturation, including that of the GIT, and increases disease risk. Exemplary is necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which is associated closely with GIT immaturity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization. Infants with NEC may require resection of the necrotic parts of the intestine, leading to short bowel syndrome (SBS), characterized by reduced digestive capacity, fluid loss, and dependency on parenteral nutrition. This review presents the preterm pig as a translational model in pediatric gastroenterology that has provided new insights into important pediatric diseases such as NEC and SBS. We describe protocols for delivery, care, and handling of preterm pigs, and show how the immature GIT responds to delivery method and different nutritional and therapeutic interventions. The preterm pig may also provide a sensitive model for postnatal adaptation of weak term piglets showing high mortality. Attributes of the preterm pig model include close similarities with preterm infants in body size, organ development, and many clinical features, thereby providing a translational advantage relative to rodent models of GIT immaturity. On the other hand, the need for a sow surgical facility, a piglet intensive care unit, and clinically trained personnel may limit widespread use of preterm pigs. Studies on organ adaptation in preterm pigs help to identify the physiological basis of neonatal survival for hypersensitive newborns and aid in defining the optimal diet and rearing conditions during the critical neonatal period. PMID:23942716

  2. Bovine colostrum against gut inflammatory lesions in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine colostrum is rich in bioactive factors and may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. We hypothesized that both native and sterilized, heat-treated colostrum protect neonates against NEC following preterm birth and formula feeding. Further, we aimed to investigate if pr...

  3. Considerations in meeting protein needs of the human milk-fed preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Hanson, Corrine; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Preterm infants provided with sufficient nutrition to achieve intrauterine growth rates have the greatest potential for optimal neurodevelopment. Although human milk is the preferred feeding for preterm infants, unfortified human milk provides insufficient nutrition for the very low-birth-weight infant. Even after fortification with human milk fortifier, human milk often fails to meet the high protein needs of the smallest preterm infants, and additional protein supplementation must be provided. Although substantial evidence exists to support quantitative protein goals for human milk-fed preterm infants, the optimal type of protein for use in human milk fortification remains uncertain. This question was addressed through a PubMed literature search of prospective clinical trials conducted since 1990 in preterm or low-birth-weight infant populations. The following 3 different aspects of protein quality were evaluated: whey-to-casein ratio, hydrolyzed versus intact protein, and bovine milk protein versus human milk protein. Because of a scarcity of current studies conducted with fortified human milk, studies examining protein quality using preterm infant formulas were included to address certain components of the clinical question. Twenty-six studies were included in the review study. No definite advantage was found for any specific whey-to-casein ratio. Protein hydrolyzate products with appropriate formulations can support adequate growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status and may reduce gastrointestinal transit time, gastroesophageal reflux events, and later incidence of atopic dermatitis in some infants. Plasma amino acid levels similar to those of infants fed exclusive human milk-based diets can be achieved with products composed of a mixture of bovine proteins, peptides, and amino acids formulated to replicate the amino acid composition of human milk. Growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status are similar for infants fed human milk

  4. Early administration of probiotics alters bacterial colonization and limits diet-induced gut dysfunction and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Siggers, Richard H; Siggers, Jayda; Boye, Mette; Thymann, Thomas; Mølbak, Lars; Leser, Thomas; Jensen, Bent B; Sangild, Per T

    2008-08-01

    Following preterm birth, bacterial colonization and enteral formula feeding predispose neonates to gut dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious gastrointestinal inflammatory disease. We hypothesized that administration of probiotics would beneficially influence early bacterial colonization, thereby reducing the susceptibility to formula-induced gut atrophy, dysfunction, and NEC. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were provided total parenteral nutrition (1.5 d) followed by enteral feeding (2 d) with porcine colostrum (COLOS; n = 5), formula (FORM; n = 9), or formula with probiotics (FORM-P; Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus: L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. pentosus, L. plantarum; n = 13). Clinical NEC scores were reduced (P < 0.05) in FORM-P (2.0 +/- 0.2) and COLOS groups (1.7 +/- 0.5) compared with FORM pigs (3.4 +/- 0.6). Lower NEC scores were associated with elevated intestinal weight, mucosa proportion, villus height, RNA integrity, and brush border aminopeptidase A and N activities, and lower gastric organic acid concentration in the FORM-P and COLOS groups (P < 0.05). Diversity of the mucosa-associated bacteria in the distal small intestine was similar among formula-fed pigs, yet the abundance of specific bacterial groups differed between FORM-P and FORM pigs. FORM-P pigs had lower colonization density of a potential pathogen, Clostridium perfringens, and had commensal Lactobacillus bacteria more closely associated with enterocytes along the villus-crypt axis relative to FORM pigs. These results suggest that probiotic administration immediately after birth promotes the colonization of a beneficial commensal microbiota capable of limiting the formula-induced mucosal atrophy, dysfunction, and pathogen load in preterm neonates, thereby reducing the incidence and severity of NEC. PMID:18641188

  5. Lactase phlorhizin hydrolase turnover in vivo in water-fed and colostrum-fed newborn pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, M A; Burrin, D G; Quaroni, A; Rosenberger, J; Cook, G; Nichols, B L; Reeds, P J

    1996-01-01

    We have estimated the synthesis rates in vivo of precursor and brush-border (BB) polypeptides of lactase phlorhizin hydrolase (LPH) in newborn pigs fed with water or colostrum for 24h post partum. At the end of the feeding period, piglets were anaesthetized and infused intravenously for 3h with L-[4-3H]- phenylalanine. Blood and jejunal samples were collected at timed intervals. The precursor and BB forms of LPH were isolated from jejunal mucosa by immunoprecipitation followed by SDS/PAGE, and their specific radioactivity in Phe determined. The kinetics of precursor and BB LPH labelling were analysed by using a linear compartmental model. Immunoisolated LPH protein consisted of five polypeptides [high-mannose LPH precursor (proLPHh), complex glycosylated LPH precursor (proLPHe), intermediate complex glycosylated LPH precursor (proLPH1i) and two forms of BB LPH]. The fractional synthesis rate (Ks) of proLPHh and proLPHc (approx. 5%/min) were the same in the two groups but the absolute synthesis rate (in arbitrary units, min-1) of proLPHh in the colostrum-fed animals was twice that of the water-fed animals. The Ks values of proLPHi polypeptides were significantly different (water-fed, 3.89%/min; colostrum-fed, 1.6%/min), but the absolute synthesis rates did not differ. The Ks of BB LPH was not different between experimental treatment groups (on average 0.037%/min). However, the proportion of newly synthesized proLPHh processed to BB LPH was 48% lower in colostrum-fed than in water-fed animals. We conclude that in neonatal pigs, the ingestion of colostrum stimulates the synthesis of proLPHh but, at least temporarily, disrupts the processing of proLPH polypeptides to the BB enzyme. PMID:9003357

  6. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  7. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. lactose ...

  8. A preterm pig model of lung immaturity and spontaneous infant respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caminita, Frank; van der Merwe, Marie; Hance, Brittany; Krishnan, Ramesh; Miller, Sarah; Buddington, Karyl; Buddington, Randal K

    2015-01-15

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia remain the leading causes of preterm infant morbidity, mortality, and lifelong disability. Research to improve outcomes requires translational large animal models for RDS. Preterm pigs delivered by caesarian section at gestation days (GD) 98, 100, 102, and 104 were provided 24 h of neonatal intensive care, monitoring (pulse oximetry, blood gases, serum biomarkers, radiography), and nutritional support, with or without intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV; pressure control ventilation with volume guarantee). Spontaneous development of RDS and mortality without MV are inversely related with GD at delivery and correspond with inadequacy of tidal volume and gas exchange. GD 98 and 100 pigs have consolidated lungs, immature alveolar architecture, and minimal surfactant protein-B expression, and MV is essential at GD 98. Although GD 102 pigs had some alveoli lined by pneumocytes and surfactant was released in response to MV, blood gases and radiography revealed limited recruitment 1-2 h after delivery, and mortality at 24 h was 66% (35/53) with supplemental oxygen provided by a mask and 69% (9/13) with bubble continuous positive airway pressure (8-9 cmH2O). The lungs at GD 104 had higher densities of thin-walled alveoli that secreted surfactant, and MV was not essential. Between GD 98 and 102, preterm pigs have ventilation inadequacies and risks of RDS that mimic those of preterm infants born during the saccular phase of lung development, are compatible with standards of neonatal intensive care, and are alternative to fetal nonhuman primates and lambs. PMID:25398985

  9. A Pig Model of the Preterm Neonate: Anthropometric and Physiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Eiby, Yvonne A.; Wright, Layne L.; Kalanjati, Viskasari P.; Miller, Stephanie M.; Bjorkman, Stella T.; Keates, Helen L.; Lumbers, Eugenie R.; Colditz, Paul B.; Lingwood, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Large animal models are an essential tool in the development of rationally-based new clinical therapies for preterm infants. We provide a description of the newborn pig as a model of the preterm neonate in terms of growth parameters, physiology and the requirement for intensive care over a range of gestational ages. Methods Twenty-nine litters of piglets (n = 298) were delivered by caesarean section at six timepoints during gestation from 91d to 113d (term = 115d). Two groups, at 91 and 97d gestation, also received maternal glucocorticoid treatment. At four of these timepoints, piglets (n = 79) were ventilated, sedated and monitored using standard neonatal intensive care techniques for up to 8 h in various experimental protocols. Results Body weight increased from mean 697 g (SD 193) at 91d gestation to 1331 g (SD 368) at 113d gestation. Piglets delivered at 97d gestation were able to be resuscitated and kept alive for at least 8 h on respiratory support after surfactant administration. Maternal glucocorticoid treatment 48 h and 24 h hours prior to delivery reduced the requirement for ventilator support and improved cardiovascular stability. Conclusion The pig provides a relevant model for the study of human preterm physiology and for investigation of novel therapies to improve outcomes. PMID:23874755

  10. Growth performance and intestinal microbial populations of growing pigs fed diets containing sucrose thermal oligosaccharide caramel.

    PubMed

    Orban, J I; Patterson, J A; Adeola, O; Sutton, A L; Richards, G N

    1997-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine growth performance and changes in intestinal microbial populations of growing pigs fed diets containing sucrose thermal oligosaccharide caramel (STOC). Ninety-six barrows and 96 gilts were group-fed experimental nursery diets for 32 d after weaning in both Exp. 1 and 2. For each experiment, pigs were divided into four groups of 48 pigs and were fed either control, antibiotic (Apramycin sulfate, 34 mg/kg), 1% STOC, or 2% STOC diets for 32 d after weaning. Each diet was replicated six times with eight pigs per replication. Pigs were either orally gavaged (Exp 1) with water of STOC (2 g per pig) or pigs were creep-fed (Exp 2) either a control diet or a 2% STOC diet for 5 d before weaning (33 d). At the end of Exp 1 and 2, cecal material was collected for enumeration of total aerobes, total anaerobes, coliforms, lactobacilli, and bifidobacteria. Gilts (96 per experiment) used in Exp. 3 and 4 were weaned at 26 d and fed experimental nursery diets for 32 d. They were fed either a control or 1% STOC diet and were otherwise treated as previously described. There were no significant effects of STOC or antibiotic on ADG, ADFI, feed efficiency, or cecal microbial populations in pigs in this study. Feeding diets containing either antibiotic of STOC did not improve animal performance or change intestinal bacterial populations in the present study. PMID:9027562

  11. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Shen, René L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Krych, Łukasz; Nielsen, Dennis S; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T

    2015-09-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1)) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass (27 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 g/kg) and glucagon-like peptide 2 release, relative to TPN (P < 0.05). The incidence of mild NEC lesions was higher in IF than BC and TPN pigs (60 vs. 0 and 15%, respectively, P < 0.05). Only the IF pigs showed reduced gastric emptying and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release, and increased tissue proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β and IL-8, P < 0.05) and expression of immune-related genes (AOAH, LBP, CXCL10, TLR2), relative to TPN. The IF pigs also showed reduced intestinal villus-to-crypt ratio, lactose digestion, and some plasma amino acids (Arg, Cit, Gln, Tyr, Val), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P < 0.05). Colonic microbiota analyses showed limited differences among groups. Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth. A diet-dependent feeding guideline may be required for newborn preterm infants. PMID:26138468

  12. Persistence of increased adiposity in parenterally fed neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional environment during fetal and neonatal life is a key determinant affecting the risk for adult-onset diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Studies show that preterm infants experience increased risk for glucose intolerance as adolescents and young adults. Preterm infants often receiv...

  13. Multielement residues in tissues of guinea pigs fed sweet clover grown on fly ash.

    PubMed

    Furr, K; Stoewsand, G S; Bache, C A; Gutenmann, W A

    1975-05-01

    Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) was harvested from fly ash dumped in a landfill site at Lansing, NY. This clover was chopped, dried, and formulated at 45% into an otherwise purified diet and fed to six guinea pigs for 90 days. Control sweet clover was harvested from gravelly subsoil and processed and fed to another group of guinea pigs for the same period. Samples of fly ash, gravelly subsoil, sweet clover, liver, kidneys, and left-rear gastrocnemius muscle of all guinea pigs were freeze-dried and analyzed for 35 elements by neutron activation analysis. The fly ash contained 28 elements at higher levels than the gravelly subsoil, while the clover harvested from fly ash contained 19 elements in increased amounts over those in the clover harvested from the gravel soil. Growth rate of both groups of guinea pigs was similar. Rubidium and selenium were present at higher levels in the tissues of guinea pigs fed the fly ash clover. PMID:1130838

  14. Intestinal morphology and enzymatic activity in newly weaned pigs fed contrasting fiber concentrations and fiber properties.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, M S; Eskildsen, M; Laerke, H N; Pedersen, C; Lindberg, J E; Laurinen, P; Knudsen, K E Bach

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of fiber source and concentration on morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW 8.6 +/- 1.4 kg) and divided into 5 treatment groups. Diets containing fiber of various physico-chemical properties and concentrations were formulated to contain 73, 104, or 145 g of dietary fiber/kg of DM. The diets were based on raw wheat and barley flours. Pectin and barley hulls, representing soluble and insoluble fiber sources, respectively, were used to increase the fiber concentration. The pigs were fed the experimental diets for 9 d, and then the pigs were euthanized and the entire gastrointestinal tract was removed. Tissue samples were taken from the mid and distal small intestine and from the mid colon. Inclusion of pectin in the diets significantly decreased (P < 0.001) ADFI and ADG compared with pigs fed no pectin. The villi and the crypts were shorter in pigs fed pectin-containing diets, but the villous height/crypt depth ratio was unaltered. Pectin significantly decreased the area of mucins in the crypts of the small intestine, indicating that the pigs fed the pectin-containing diet would probably be more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria, although this cannot be separated from the impact on ADFI. The lectin-binding pattern of the intestinal mucosa was unaffected by diet. The activity of lactase and maltase was increased in pigs fed diets with high fiber content, whereas sucrase activity was increased in pigs fed the pectin-containing diets. The activity of the peptidases, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, was increased when feeding high fiber diets, whereas the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase remained unaffected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, the reduced feed intake observed with the pectin-containing diets could explain the

  15. Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aceti, Arianna; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Maggio, Luca; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD −3.15 days (95% CI −5.25/−1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management. PMID:27483319

  16. Increased Fiber Digestion and Decreased Fecal Output in Pigs Fed Fibrolytic Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber digestibility increases when pigs are fed for longer periods of time, suggesting an adaptation of intestinal microbiota with increased concentrations of fiber utilizing bacteria. We investigated whether feeding fiber utilizing bacteria to pigs would result in improved fiber digestion and reduc...

  17. Aggressiveness and brain amines in pigs fed the ß-adrenoreceptor agonist Ractopamine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the widely used feed additive Ractopamine (RAC), gender and social rank on aggressiveness and concentrations of brain amines in finishing pigs. Thirty-two barrows and 32 gilts (4 pigs/pen/gender) were fed either control or RAC (5 mg/kg/2 w...

  18. Effect of Addition of Allium hookeri on the Quality of Fermented Sausage with Meat from Sulfur Fed Pigs during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ki-Won

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the addition of Allium hookeri on the quality of fermented sausage made with meat from sulfur fed pigs was examined, throughout a 60 d ripening period. There were two treatments in animal management: normal feed fed pigs, and sulfur fed pigs given 0.3% sulfur mixed normal feed. Fermented sausage manufactured with meat from normal feed fed pigs, and with meat from sulfur fed pigs, and 1% A. hookeri-containing fermented sausage processed with meat from sulfur fed pigs, were determined at 1 d, 15 d, 30 d, and 60 d. The meat qualities in fermented sausage were measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ABTS+ radical scavenging activity (ABTS+), total phenolic acids, and total flavonoid contents. Fermented sausage made from pigs that had been fed with 0.3% sulfur was protected from oxidation by reduced free radical, as shown by the significant increase in DPPH and ABTS+ values, compared with fermented sausage made from normal feed fed pigs (p<0.05). A. hookeri-added fermented sausage with sulfur fed pork was shown to increase the values in DPPH, ABTS+, total phenolic acid, and total flavonoid contents, by comparison with both the control sausage, and sausage with sulfur fed pork, at 60 d. These results suggest that A. hookeri in meat from sulfur fed pigs could be a source of natural addition, to increase quality in the food industry. PMID:26761166

  19. Preterm birth affects GABAA receptor subunit mRNA levels during the foetal-to-neonatal transition in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, J C; Palliser, H K; Walker, D W; Hirst, J J

    2015-06-01

    Modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor signalling by the neurosteroid allopregnanolone has a major role in late gestation neurodevelopment. The objective of this study was to characterize the mRNA levels of GABAA receptor subunits (α4, α5, α6 and δ) that are key to neurosteroid binding in the brain, following preterm birth. Myelination, measured by the myelin basic protein immunostaining, was used to assess maturity of the preterm brains. Foetal guinea pig brains were obtained at 62 days' gestational age (GA, preterm) or at term (69 days). Neonates were delivered by caesarean section, at 62 days GA and term, and maintained until tissue collection at 24 h of age. Subunit mRNA levels were quantified by RT-PCR in the hippocampus and cerebellum of foetal and neonatal brains. Levels of the α6 and δ subunits were markedly lower in the cerebellum of preterm guinea pigs compared with term animals. Importantly, there was an increase in mRNA levels of these subunits during the foetal-to-neonatal transition at term, which was not seen following preterm birth. Myelination was lower in preterm neonatal brains, consistent with marked immaturity. Salivary cortisol concentrations, measured by EIA, were also higher for the preterm neonates, suggesting greater stress. We conclude that there is an adaptive increase in the levels of mRNA of the key GABAA receptor subunits involved in neurosteroid action after term birth, which may compensate for declining allopregnanolone levels. The lower levels of these subunits in preterm neonates may heighten the adverse effect of the premature decline in neurosteroid exposure. PMID:25661827

  20. Performance of growing pigs fed diets based on by-products of maize and wheat processing.

    PubMed

    Mwesigwa, Robert; Mutetikka, David; Kugonza, Donald Rugira

    2013-02-01

    Forty-eight crossbred Landrace × Large white pigs with an average body weight of 8.5 ± 0.4 kg and aged 2 months were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics of pigs fed two diets in which bran from maize or wheat was used as the energy source. A third diet based on whole maize grain was used as a control. Animals in groups of four, balanced for litter, sex and weight were allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomised design with four replications. Data were collected on feed intake and weight gain for a period of 4 months. A digestibility trial was carried at the end of the feeding trial using two male pigs per treatment while six pigs per treatment were randomly selected for slaughter to determine carcass characteristics. Daily gain averaged 0.23, 0.31 and 0.13 kg/day, for pigs fed maize bran, wheat bran and whole maize diets, respectively. Average feed intake and final body weight were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by diets. Digestibility of dry matter, crude fibre and calcium were higher (P < 0.05) for pigs fed maize bran while crude protein digestibility was highest (P < 0.05) for the pigs fed wheat bran. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the diets in carcass yield, ham, head, trotters and heart weights and also for rib weight, rib eye muscle and other tissues. This study indicates that comparable performance of growing pigs fed cereal bran and full-grain diets are real. PMID:22836486

  1. Growth performance and behaviour in grouped pigs fed fibrous diet.

    PubMed

    Bakare, A G; Madzimure, J; Ndou, S P; Chimonyo, M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding fibrous diets on growth performance and occurrence of aggressive behaviours in growing pigs. Sixty healthy castrated pigs (initial body weight: 46.7±4.35 kg) were used. A basal diet was diluted with maize cobs to two levels (0 and 160 g/kg dry matter). Behavioural activities were observed using video cameras for three weeks, 8 h/d starting at 0800 h. Pigs subjected to control diet gained more weight compared to pigs receiving fibrous diet in week 1 (0.47 vs 0.15 kg, respectively) and 2 (1.37 vs 1.04, respectively) (p<0.05). Average daily gain was not affected by treatment diet in the third week. Pigs on high fibrous spent more time eating, lying down, standing, walking and fighting (p<0.05) compared to pigs on control diet. Time spent eating increased as the weeks progressed whilst time spent lying down decreased. Time of day had an effect on time spent on different behavioural activities exhibited by all pigs on different treatment diet (p<0.05). Inactivity was greatest in 5th (1200 to 1300 h) hour of the day for all the pigs on different dietary treatments. Skin lesions appeared the most on neck and shoulder region followed by chest, stomach and hind leg region, and finally head region (p<0.05). Pigs on high fibre diet had more skin lesions in all body regions compared to pigs on control diet (p<0.05). It can be concluded that the high fibrous diet with maize cobs did not affect growth performance and also did not reduce aggressive behaviours. Aggressive behaviours emanated out of frustration when queuing on the feeder. The findings of this study suggest that maize cobs can be included at a level of 160 g/kg in diets of pigs. However, to reduce the level of aggression more feeding space should be provided. PMID:25083116

  2. Microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds in the large intestine of pigs fed two different diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only little is known about the microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in the 18 gastrointestinal tract, the dietary influence, and the magnitude of this production. To investigate intestinal VSC production in more detail, pigs were fed diets based on either wheat and barley (CONTRO...

  3. Phenolic Acids in the Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract of Pigs Fed Black Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black raspberries (BRB) contain high levels of anthocyanins and have been demonstrated to be chemopreventative against colon cancer. In this study, pigs were fed freeze-dried BRB powder and three segments of the GI tract (small intestine, cecum and colon; 4 hours after feeding) were collected for an...

  4. Gastric ulceration and suspected vitamin A toxicosis in grower pigs fed fish silage.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J W; Holbek, N E; Beames, R M; Puls, R; O'Brien, W P

    1998-01-01

    In 3 feeding trials, gastric ulceration was diagnosed in 2 of 12 lame and recumbent grower pigs fed a diet of 50% fish silage produced from the offal of farmed Atlantic salmon. Premature femoral physeal closure and elevated serum retinyl palmitate levels, features of vitamin A toxicosis, were also observed. Images Figure 1. PMID:9524722

  5. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in egg from hyperimmunized hens fed to weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Kiarie, E; Kahindi, R K; Maiti, P; Woyengo, T A; Nyachoti, C M

    2012-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in egg from hens hyperimmunized with Escherichia coli K88 antigens (EGG) fed to weaned pigs. Spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP) was included for comparison. Eight barrows (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc; initial BW of 17 ± 1 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed 2 diets in a completely randomized design to give 4 replicates per diet. The diets were corn (Zea mays) starch based with either EGG or SDPP as the sole source of protein and were formulated to contain 130 g/kg CP. At the end of the study, a 50 g/kg casein diet was fed to all pigs (n = 8) to quantify endogenous N and AA losses to determine SID. Titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) was included in the diets as an indigestible maker. Each period lasted for 7 d. Pigs were adapted to their respective diets for 5 d followed by 12 h of continuous ileal digesta collection on days 6 and 7. Daily feed allowance was set at 4% BW at the beginning of each period and offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h as a dry mash. Pigs had unlimited access to water via low pressure nipple drinkers. The AID (%) of CP and indispensable AA were lower (P < 0.05) in EGG compared with SDPP. The SID (%) of CP (82 vs. 96) and indispensable AA were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed EGG compared with SDPP. In conclusion, the average AID and SID of N and indispensable AA in EGG are lower than in SDPP when fed at high levels. PMID:23365342

  6. Apparent digestible energy value of crude glycerol fed to pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apparent digestible energy of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was determined in two studies conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. In the first study, 24 barrows with an average body weight of 11.0 kg were fed 376 g/d of a basal corn...

  7. Bioavailability of zinc from inorganic and organic sources for pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, K J; Lewis, A J; Giesemann, M A; Miller, P S

    1994-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted with pigs 1) to determine the effect of supplemental Zn on growth performance, bone Zn, and plasma Zn in pigs fed Zn-unsupplemented, corn-soybean meal diets and 2) to assess bioavailability of Zn from inorganic and organic Zn sources. In both experiments, weanling pigs were fed a diet with no supplemental Zn for 5 wk to deplete their Zn stores. In Exp. 1, 192 pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet (growing diet, 32 mg/kg of Zn; finishing diet, 27 mg/kg of Zn) supplemented with feed-grade ZnSO4.H2O to provide 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of supplemental Zn. Supplemental Zn did not affect weight gain, feed intake, or gain/feed during either the growing or the finishing period (P > .05). However, bone and plasma Zn concentrations increased linearly (P < .01) in response to supplemental Zn at dietary Zn levels between 27 mg/kg (basal) and 47 mg/kg (breakpoint). In Exp. 2, three levels of supplemental Zn from ZnSO4.H2O (0, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg of supplemental Zn) were used to construct a standard curve (metacarpal, coccygeal vertebrae, and plasma Zn concentrations regressed on supplemental Zn intake; R2 = .93, .89, and .82, respectively). From the standard curve, the bone and plasma Zn concentrations obtained from pigs fed 15 mg/kg of supplemental Zn from ZnO and 7.5 mg/kg of supplemental Zn from Zn-methionine (ZnMET) and Zn-lysine (ZnLYS) were used to calculate bioavailable Zn via multiple linear regression, slope-ratio analysis. The estimates of Zn bioavailability differed depending on which variable was used. Overall trends indicated the following rankings: ZnSO4.H2O > ZnMet > ZnO > ZnLys. PMID:7883627

  8. Parenteral lipid fatty acid composition directly determines the fatty acid composition of red blood cell and brain lipids in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in enterally-fed infants have shown a positive effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementatin on neurodevelopment. The effect of n-3 LCPUFA in fish oil-based parenteral (PN) lipid emulsions on neuronal tissues of PN-fed preterm infants is unknown. The objective ...

  9. Identification of anthocyanins in the liver, eye, and brain of blueberry-fed pigs.

    PubMed

    Kalt, Wilhelmina; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; McDonald, Jane E; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda R; Fillmore, Sherry A E; Graf, Brigitte A; O'Leary, Jennifer M; Milbury, Paul E

    2008-02-13

    Dietary intervention with anthocyanins may confer benefits in brain function, including vision. Research to date indicates that animals have only a limited capacity to absorb anthocyanins, compared to other types of flavonoids. Pigs, which are a suitable model for human digestive absorption, were used to examine the deposition of anthocyanins in tissues including the liver, eye, and brain tissue. Pigs were fed diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2, or 4% w/w blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Jersey') for 4 weeks. Prior to euthanasia, pigs were fasted for 18-21 h. Although no anthocyanins were detected in the plasma or urine of the fasted animals, intact anthocyanins were detected in all tissues where they were sought. LC-MS/MS results are presented for the relative concentration of 11 intact anthocyanins in the liver, eye, cortex, and cerebellum. The results suggest that anthocyanins can accumulate in tissues, including tissues beyond the blood-brain barrier. PMID:18211026

  10. Comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to sows and growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Jessica E; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare values for digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in 11 diets fed to both growing pigs and gestating sows. Three diets were based on corn, wheat or sorghum and eight diets were based on a combination of corn and soybean meal, canola meal, conventional distillers' dried grains with solubles, low-fat distillers' dried grains with solubles, corn germ meal, corn bran, wheat middlings or soybean hulls. A total of 88 gestating sows (252 ± 24.2 kg BW; parity two to six) and 88 growing barrows (40 ± 4.7 kg BW) were used and randomly allotted to the 11 diets with eight replicate sows or pigs per diet. Faecal and urine samples were collected for 4 d following a 19 d adaptation period. The DE, ME and ATTD of gross energy (GE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) in the 11 diets were calculated. Gestating sows had greater (p < 0.05) ATTD of GE and CP and DE values for all diets compared with growing pigs. Gestating sows also had greater (p < 0.05) ME values than growing pigs for the three grain diets and the diets containing wheat middlings and soybean hulls. No differences were observed in ATTD of ADF and NDF between gestating sows and growing pigs for any of the diets, except that gestating sows had greater (p < 0.05) ATTD of NDF than growing pigs when they were fed the four protein diets. The ATTD of GE and CP and DE values in gestating sows may be predicted by using equations generated from the values of ATTD of GE and CP and DE values obtained in growing pigs. Results of this research indicate that ATTD values of CP and GE obtained in gestating sows are greater than the values obtained in growing pigs, but values for ATTD of ADF obtained in growing pigs are not different from values in gestating sows. PMID:25738743

  11. Greater mortality and mordidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants <1,250 g birth weight recei...

  12. Identification of Eight Different Isoforms of the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Guinea Pig Placenta: Relationship to Preterm Delivery, Sex and Betamethasone Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Zarqa; Dyson, Rebecca M.; Palliser, Hannah K.; Wright, Ian M. R.; Lu, Nick; Clifton, Vicki L.

    2016-01-01

    The placental glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is central to glucocorticoid signalling and for mediating steroid effects on pathways associated with fetal growth and lung maturation but the GR has not been examined in the guinea pig placenta even though this animal is regularly used as a model of preterm birth and excess glucocorticoid exposure. Guinea pig dams received subcutaneous injections of either vehicle or betamethasone at 24 and 12 hours prior to preterm or term caesarean-section delivery. At delivery pup and organ weights were recorded. Placentae were dissected, weighed and analysed using Western blot to examine GR isoform expression in nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts. A comparative examination of the guinea pig GR gene identified it is capable of producing seven of the eight translational GR isoforms which include GRα-A, C1, C2, C3, D1, D2, and D3. GRα-B is not produced in the Guinea Pig. Total GR antibody identified 10 specific bands from term (n = 29) and preterm pregnancies (n = 27). Known isoforms included GRγ, GRα A, GRβ, GRP, GRA and GRα D1-3. There were sex and gestational age differences in placental GR isoform expression. Placental GRα A was detected in the cytoplasm of all groups but was significantly increased in the cytoplasm and nucleus of preterm males and females exposed to betamethasone and untreated term males (KW-ANOVA, P = 0.0001, P = 0.001). Cytoplasmic expression of GRβ was increased in female preterm placentae and preterm and term male placentae exposed to betamethasone (P = 0.01). Nuclear expression of GRβ was increased in all placentae exposed to betamethasone (P = 0.0001). GRα D2 and GRα D3 were increased in male preterm placentae when exposed to betamethasone (P = 0.01, P = 0.02). The current data suggests the sex-specific placental response to maternal betamethasone may be dependent on the expression of a combination of GR isoforms. PMID:26840867

  13. Identification of Eight Different Isoforms of the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Guinea Pig Placenta: Relationship to Preterm Delivery, Sex and Betamethasone Exposure.

    PubMed

    Saif, Zarqa; Dyson, Rebecca M; Palliser, Hannah K; Wright, Ian M R; Lu, Nick; Clifton, Vicki L

    2016-01-01

    The placental glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is central to glucocorticoid signalling and for mediating steroid effects on pathways associated with fetal growth and lung maturation but the GR has not been examined in the guinea pig placenta even though this animal is regularly used as a model of preterm birth and excess glucocorticoid exposure. Guinea pig dams received subcutaneous injections of either vehicle or betamethasone at 24 and 12 hours prior to preterm or term caesarean-section delivery. At delivery pup and organ weights were recorded. Placentae were dissected, weighed and analysed using Western blot to examine GR isoform expression in nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts. A comparative examination of the guinea pig GR gene identified it is capable of producing seven of the eight translational GR isoforms which include GRα-A, C1, C2, C3, D1, D2, and D3. GRα-B is not produced in the Guinea Pig. Total GR antibody identified 10 specific bands from term (n = 29) and preterm pregnancies (n = 27). Known isoforms included GRγ, GRα A, GRβ, GRP, GRA and GRα D1-3. There were sex and gestational age differences in placental GR isoform expression. Placental GRα A was detected in the cytoplasm of all groups but was significantly increased in the cytoplasm and nucleus of preterm males and females exposed to betamethasone and untreated term males (KW-ANOVA, P = 0.0001, P = 0.001). Cytoplasmic expression of GRβ was increased in female preterm placentae and preterm and term male placentae exposed to betamethasone (P = 0.01). Nuclear expression of GRβ was increased in all placentae exposed to betamethasone (P = 0.0001). GRα D2 and GRα D3 were increased in male preterm placentae when exposed to betamethasone (P = 0.01, P = 0.02). The current data suggests the sex-specific placental response to maternal betamethasone may be dependent on the expression of a combination of GR isoforms. PMID:26840867

  14. Relative bioavailability of phosphorus in inorganic phosphorus sources fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, G I; Pedersen, C; Lindemann, M D; Stein, H H

    2011-02-01

    The relative bioavailability of P in 5 sources of inorganic P was determined using growing pigs. The 5 sources of inorganic P were dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP) containing 50% MCP (MCP50), MCP containing 70% MCP (MCP70), MCP containing 100% MCP (MCP100), and monosodium phosphate (MSP). A total of 11 diets were formulated. The basal diet was formulated to contain 0.10% P, and 10 additional diets were formulated by adding 0.07 or 0.14% P from each of the 5 P sources to the basal diet. Growing pigs (n = 44; initial BW: 16.8 ± 4.3 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to the 11 experimental diets. Feed was provided on an ad libitum basis throughout the 28-d experimental period. At the conclusion of the experiment, all pigs were killed, and 4 bones (i.e., the third and fourth metacarpals on both front feet) were harvested. Bone-breaking strength, bone ash, and Ca and P concentrations were determined. The concentration of bone ash increased (P < 0.05) as MCP50, MCP70, MCP100, or MSP were added to the basal diet, and the concentration of bone P also increased (P < 0.05) as MCP70, MCP100, or MSP were added to the basal diet. The relative bioavailability of P in each of the feed phosphates was determined using slope ratio methodologies based on breaking strength, and expressed relative to MSP. The slope of the regression line for diets containing MSP or MCP100 was steeper (P < 0.05) than the slope for pigs fed the diet containing DCP, but not different (P > 0.05) from that of pigs fed diets supplemented with MCP50 or MCP70. In conclusion, P in MSP and MCP100 is more bioavailable than P in DCP, but there were no differences within MCP sources. PMID:20952526

  15. Sow-reared neonatal pigs exhibit increased innate immune response than formula-fed pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast milk with its varied immune modulating components helps develop stronger resistance against infections in infants than formula feeding. The increased resistance to infection in breast-fed infants could be due to augmentation of innate immune response, a first line of defense against pathogen...

  16. Efficacy of dietary spray dried plasma protein to mitigate the negative effects on performance of pigs fed diets with corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Weaver, A C; Campbell, J M; Crenshaw, J D; Polo, J; Kim, S W

    2014-09-01

    The ability of spray dried plasma protein (SDPP) to reduce the negative effects of multiple mycotoxins from naturally contaminated corn on weaned pig performance and health was investigated (n = 180; 6.84 ± 0.11 kg). For 12 d after weaning, pigs were fed phase 1 nursery diets with either 0% SDPP (PP0) or 6% SDPP (PP6). After 12 d, pigs were fed phase 2 diets for 3 wk. Pigs fed PP0 in phase 1 continued to be fed a phase 2 diet with no SDPP (PP0/PP0) or were fed a diet including corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins (M), labeled PP0/PP0M. Pigs fed SDPP in phase 1 were fed either a diet with no SDPP (PP6/PP0), a diet with M and no SDPP (PP6/PP0M), a diet with M and 3% SDPP (PP6/PP3M), or a diet with M and 6% SDPP (PP6/PP6M). During phase 1, pigs fed PP6 had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and G:F, whereas immunological parameters were not altered. During phase 2, pigs consuming PP0/PP0M had reduced ADG (P < 0.01) and ADFI (P < 0.05) in contrast to pigs fed PP0/PP0, whereas the performance of pigs fed PP6/PP0M was intermediate to pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0. The ADG and ADFI did not differ for pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0M during phase 2. Performance of pigs fed PP6/PP3M in contrast to pigs fed PP6/PP0M during phase 2 did not differ; however, these pigs had lower (P < 0.05) tumor necrosis factor α and tended (P = 0.094) to have lower DNA damage. During phase 2, ADG and ADFI of pigs fed PP6/PP6M did not differ from pigs fed PP6/PP0M, but G:F tended (P = 0.067) to be increased in pigs fed PP6/PP6M. Over the entire study period, pigs fed PP0/PP0M had reduced (P < 0.05) ADG and tended (P = 0.067) to have reduced ADFI. During this time, pigs fed PP6/PP0M tended to have greater ADG and ADFI (P = 0.093 and P = 0.067, respectively) compared with pigs fed PP0/PP0M. Overall, feeding a diet with SDPP improved growth performance and feed intake of young pigs directly after weaning. Feeding multiple M had a negative impact on growth performance of pigs during

  17. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharides degrading enzymes to two hulless barley varieties fed in diets for weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Morlacchini, M; Giuberti, G; Moschini, M; Rzepus, M; Della Casa, G

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2 hulless barley varieties, with or without the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme complex (β-glucanase and xylanase), on growth performance of weaned piglets in a 42-d feeding study. The study was conducted with 140 piglets (PIC × Duroc). Pigs were allocated to pens (4 castrated males or 4 females per pen) based on BW and sex, and pens were assigned to 5 experimental diets with 4 pens of castrated males and 3 pens of females per treatment. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were compared: 1) control corn-based diet (CTR), 2) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Astartis hulless barley variety (AS), 3) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AS supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ASE), 4) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Alamo hulless barley variety (AL), and 5) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AL supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ALE). The diets were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient requirements and offered in 2 phases: d 0 to 14 and d 14 to 42. At the end of the study, pigs fed AS and AL had equal weights as pigs fed CTR. Pigs fed the hulless barley diets had greater (P < 0.05) ADG during the second phase (P2) and overall phase, BW at d 42, and G:F during the P2 than those fed the CTR. Pigs fed the ASE and ALE had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI during the P2 and overall ADG than those fed the AS and AL. The increases in ADG during the P2 and final BW obtained with NSP enzyme supplementation were greater in pigs fed the AS than those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). On the other hand, the NSP enzyme complex increased G:F in pigs fed the AS during the P2 and overall phase, but it had no effect on those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). In conclusion, hulless barley with or without the NSP enzyme complex can be a replacement ingredient for corn and wheat bran in weaned pig diets. Addition of the NSP enzyme complex to AS

  18. Pseudorabies in farmed foxes fed pig offal in Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Liang; Gao, Shu-Man; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Pseudorabies (PR, Aujeszky's disease) is an acute, highly contagious viral disease resulting in major economic losses to the swine industry. PR is endemic in wild and domestic animals, although its natural host is the pig. Here, we report an outbreak of PR in foxes on a fur-producing farm in Yuncheng county, Shandong, China, that were fed pig offal. The diagnosis of PR was based on nervous signs and standard PCR methods and by isolation of PRV from fox brain tissue in Vero cells. The diagnosis was confirmed by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial (804 nt) viral glycoprotein gC gene sequence indicated that it was likely to be a field strain closely related to a cluster of PRV previously identified in China. PMID:26563317

  19. Metabolomic analysis of survival in carbohydrate pre-fed pigs subjected to shock and polytrauma.

    PubMed

    Witowski, Nancy E; Lusczek, Elizabeth R; Determan, Charles E; Lexcen, Daniel R; Mulier, Kristine E; Wolf, Andrea; Ostrowski, Beverly G; Beilman, Greg J

    2016-04-26

    Hemorrhagic shock, a result of extensive blood loss, is a dominant factor in battlefield morbidity and mortality. Early rodent studies in hemorrhagic shock reported carbohydrate feeding prior to the induction of hemorrhagic shock decreased mortality. When repeated in our laboratory with a porcine model, carbohydrate pre-feed resulted in a 60% increase in death rate following hemorrhagic shock with trauma when compared to fasted animals (15/32 or 47% vs. 9/32 or 28%). In an attempt to explain the unexpected death rate for pre-fed animals, we further investigated the metabolic profiles of pre-fed non-survivors (n = 15) across 4 compartments (liver, muscle, serum, and urine) at specific time intervals (pre-shock, shock, and resuscitation) and compared them to pre-fed survivors (n = 17). As hypothesized, pre-fed pigs that died as a result of hemorrhage and trauma showed differences in their metabolic and physiologic profiles at all time intervals and in all compartments when compared to pre-fed survivors. Our data suggest that, although all animals were subjected to the same shock and trauma protocol, non-survivors exhibited altered carbohydrate processing as early as the pre-shock sampling point. This was evident in (for example) the higher levels of ATP and markers of greater anabolic activity in the muscle at the pre-shock time point. Based on the metabolic findings, we propose two mechanisms that connect pre-fed status to a higher death rate: (1) animals that die are more susceptible to opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, a major factor in ischemia/reperfusion injury; and (2) loss of fasting-associated survival mechanisms in pre-fed animals. PMID:26989839

  20. Alternative and classical complement pathway activity in sera from colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, H W; Gilmore, R J

    1980-01-01

    Haemolytic assays were used to compare alternative and classical complement (C) pathway activities in sera obtained from neonatal pigs reared on porcine colostrum, bovine colostrum or an immunoglobulin-free synthetic diet. Dramatic increases in immunoglobulin concentrations were noted in the colostrum-fed animals during the first day of life, but there was not a concurrent, marked increase in either classical or alternative C pathway activity. Whether fed on homologous or heterologous colostrum, neonatal pigs had a similar gradual increase in alternative and classical C pathway activity in the post-natal period. If direct passive absorption of C components occurs in newborn pigs, it has only a minor influence on functional levels of alternative and classical C pathway activity in their sera. In pigs fed homologous and heterologous colostrum there was, respectively, an 83% and 80% increase in classical pathway activity, but only a 13% and 12% increase in alternative pathway activity during the first 3 days of life. Pigs fed the immunoglobulin-free synthetic diet had a 37% increase in classical C and a 24% increase in alternative C pathway activity. Part of the increase in classical C pathway activity in the post-natal period may be caused by a stimulating factor in colostrum. Most if not all of the increase in alternative C pathway activity and some of the increase in classical C pathway activity is most likely caused by normal humoral homeostatic mechanisms in the neonatal pig. PMID:7429550

  1. Growth, nutrient utilization and intestinal morphology of pigs fed high-fiber diets.

    PubMed

    Moore, R J; Kornegay, E T; Grayson, R L; Lindemann, M D

    1988-06-01

    Two trials (24 and 48 pigs; 9.7 kg initial body weight) were conducted to determine the effects of dietary fiber on growth, nutrient utilization and intestinal morphology of young pigs. The four diets fed were: basal corn-soybean meal (B), 15% oat hulls (OH), 15% soybean hulls (SH), and 20% alfalfa meal (AM). Fiber source did not have major effects on performance in a 35-d feeding trial. Balance trials (7-d duration) were conducted 32 d (Trial 1) or 6 d (Trial 2) after completion of the feeding trials. Feed intakes were equalized at 8.7% (Trial 1) or 10.3% (Trial 2) of initial body weight (kg.75). All fiber sources decreased apparent digestibilities of N, energy and dry matter (P less than .05) with no effect on N retention. Apparent digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber, cellulose, and hemicellulose were reduced by OH and AM (P less than .01), but not by SH. Fiber sources did not affect apparent Ca, P, Zn or Mn absorption or retention, or Mg absorption, but decrease Mg retention (P less than .05). Apparent Na absorption was decreased by OH and increased by AM (P less than .05) but was unaffected by SH. All fiber sources increased K intake, but only SH and AM increased apparent K absorption (P less than .05). Fiber sources did not affect Na or K retention. The OH increased Cu intake and balance (P less than .05). All fiber sources increased Fe intake, but only SH and AM increased (P less than .05) Fe balance. Villus shape and surface morphology in jejunum and ileum examined by scanning electron microscopy (Trial 1 only) appeared to be independent of diet. However, jejunum villus morphologies of two pigs fed AM were characterized by loss of epithelial cells and microvilli at the villus apex, and ileum villi were blunted and frequently folded in one pig fed SH. Fiber sources at the levels included in a corn-soybean meal diet fed in this study had only a minimal impact on performance and utilization of minerals and N and intestinal structure, although

  2. Changes in Bacterial Population of Gastrointestinal Tract of Weaned Pigs Fed with Different Additives

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Mercè; Nofrarías, Miquel; Majó, Natàlia; Pérez de Rozas, Ana María; Castillo, Marisol; Martín-Orúe, Susana María; Espinal, Anna; Pujols, Joan; Badiola, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide novel insights into the gastrointestinal microbial diversity from different gastrointestinal locations in weaning piglets using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Additionally, the effect of different feed additives was analyzed. Thirty-two piglets were fed with four different diets: a control group and three enriched diets, with avilamycin, sodium butyrate, and a plant extract mixture. Digesta samples were collected from eight different gastrointestinal segments of each animal and the bacterial population was analysed by a PCR-RFLP technique that uses 16S rDNA gene sequences. Bacterial diversity was assessed by calculating the number of bands and the Shannon-Weaver index. Dendrograms were constructed to estimate the similarity of bacterial populations. A higher bacterial diversity was detected in large intestine compared to small intestine. Among diets, the most relevant microbial diversity differences were found between sodium butyrate and plant extract mixture. Proximal jejunum, ileum, and proximal colon were identified as those segments that could be representative of microbial diversity in pig gut. Results indicate that PCR-RFLP technique allowed detecting modifications on the gastrointestinal microbial ecology in pigs fed with different additives, such as increased biodiversity by sodium butyrate in feed. PMID:24575403

  3. Microbial community dynamics in continuous microbial fuel cells fed with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Sotres, Ana; Tey, Laura; Bonmatí, August; Viñas, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Two-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operating with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry were assessed. Additionally, the use of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES-Inh) was studied. The synthetic wastewater-fed MFC (MFCSW) showed a maximum power density (PDmax) of 2138mWm(-3), and the addition of BES-Inh (10mM) did not show any improvement in its performance (PDmax=2078mWm(-3)). When pig slurry was used as feed (MFCPS), PDmax increased up to 5623mWm(-3). The microbial community composition was affected by the type of substrate used. While, Pseudomonadaceae and Clostridiaceae were the most representative families within the acetate-based medium, Flavobacteriaceae, Chitinophagaceae, Comamonadaceae and Nitrosomonadaceae were predominant when pig slurry was used as feed. Otherwise, only the Eubacterial microbial community composition was strongly modified when adding BES-Inh, thus leading to an enrichment of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Oppositely, the Archaeal community was less affected by the addition of BES-Inh, and Methanosarcina sp., arose as the predominant family in both situations. Despite all the differences in microbial communities, 6 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Bacteroidetes (Porphyromonadaceae and Marinilabiaceae) and Firmicutes (Clostridiales) were found to be common to both MFCs, also for different contents of COD and N-NH4(+), and therefore could be considered as the bioanode core microbiome. PMID:27243446

  4. Higher vitamin D intake in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula is associated with increased bone accretion.

    PubMed

    van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; Schaafsma, Anne; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Lafeber, Harrie N

    2013-09-01

    During the first half of infancy, bone accretion in preterm infants fed an isocaloric, protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula (PDF) is higher compared with those fed term formula (TF) or human milk (HM). This may be related to higher protein, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D intakes. This study investigated serum calcium, phosphate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in relation to bone mineral content (BMC) in PDF-, TF-, and HM-fed preterm infants between term age (40 wk postmenstrual age) and 6 mo corrected age (CA). Between term age and 6 mo CA, 52 preterm infants were fed PDF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.7 g protein, 65 mg calcium, 38 mg phosphorus, 56 IU vitamin D), 41 were fed TF (per 100 mL: 67 kcal, 1.47 g protein, 50 mg calcium, 30 mg phosphorus, 48 IU vitamin D), and 46 were fed HM. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and 25(OH)D were measured at term age and at 3 and 6 mo CA. BMC (g) was measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at term age and at 6 mo CA. Between term age and 6 mo CA, intakes of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D were significantly higher in PDF- compared with TF-fed infants, and PDF-fed infants reached significantly higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations at 6 mo CA (103 ± 24.3 vs. 92.8 ± 15.5 nmol/L, P = 0.003). Between term age and 6 mo CA, increases in serum 25(OH)D were associated with an increase in BMC (β = 0.001; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.003; P = 0.046). In conclusion, during the first 6 mo postterm, higher vitamin D intake and greater increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration in PDF-fed preterm infants were associated with increased bone accretion. PMID:23902955

  5. Nutritional value of full-fat green canola seed fed to growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Yánez, J; Young, M G; Lanz, G; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Immature green canola seed (full-fat green canola seed [FFGC]) is rejected by canola crushing plants due to chlorophyll staining of oil destined for human consumption. With >35% oil, FFGC can contribute energy to pig diets. The nutritive value of FFGC for growing-finishing pigs was determined in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 6 ileal-cannulated barrows (46.5 kg BW) were fed 3 diets as a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square to determine standardized ileal digestible (SID) coefficients of AA and calculate DE and NE values for FFGC. A diet including 40% FFGC replaced wheat in a basal diet and a cornstarch-based N-free diet were fed to determine energy and nutrient digestibility by difference and to estimate basal endogenous AA losses to calculate SID of AA. In Exp. 2, 1,100 pigs (32.9 kg BW), housed in 50 pens of 22 barrows or gilts per pen, were fed 5 diets including 0, 5, 10, and 15% constant or declining amounts (15, 10, 5, 0, and 0%, respectively) of FFGC over 5 phases to determine effects of feeding FFGC on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Phase diets were formulated to provide 4.00, 3.60, 3.25, 2.90, and 2.65 g SID Lys/Mcal NE for d 0 to 21, d 22 to 42, d 43 to 62, d 63 to 74, and d 75 to 123 kg market weight. Carcass characteristics were measured using the Destron grading system. On DM basis, FFGC contained 43% ether extract, 25% CP, 22% NDF, 10 μmol/g glucosinolates, 1.35% Lys, 0.5% Met, 0.9% Thr, and 0.27% Trp. In FFGC, SID coefficients of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were 86.9, 87.3, 76.9, and 84.3%, respectively, and calculated DE and NE values were 4.92 and 3.50 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. Overall, increasing dietary FFGC inclusion from 0 to 15% linearly decreased (P < 0.05) G:F, carcass weight, and dressing percentage (0.392 to 0.381 kg/kg, 96.7 to 95.7 kg, and 78.4 to 77.8%, respectively) and tended to decrease (P = 0.078) ADG. Pigs fed decreasing amounts of FFGC by growth phase compared with controls (0% FFGC) had lower (P = 0.011) overall G:F (0.392 vs. 0

  6. DIET- AND COLONIZATION-DEPENDENT INTESTINAL DYSFUNCTION PREDISPOSES TO NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS IN PRETERM PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Preterm birth and formula feeding are key risk factors associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants, but little is known about intestinal conditions that predispose to disease. Thus, structural, functional, and microbiologic indices were used to investigate the etiol...

  7. GLP-2 delays but does not prevent the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a complex disease thought to occur due to an immaturity of gastrointestinal tract of preterm infants. Intestinal dysfunction induced by total parental nutrition (TPN) may increase the risk for NEC upon introduction of enteral feeding. We hypothesized that the intes...

  8. Gene expression profiling in hepatic tissue of newly weaned pigs fed pharmacological zinc and phytase supplemented diets

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M; Hill, Gretchen M; Raney, Nancy E; Rilington, Valencia D; Tempelman, Robert J; Link, Jane E; Wilkinson, Christopher P; Ramos, Antonio M; Ernst, Catherine W

    2008-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element. However, Zn bioavailability from commonly consumed plants may be reduced due to phytic acid. Zn supplementation has been used to treat diarrheal disease in children, and in the U.S. swine industry at pharmacological levels to promote growth and fecal consistency, but underlying mechanisms explaining these beneficial effects remain unknown. Moreover, adding supplemental phytase improves Zn bioavailability. Thus, we hypothesized that benefits of pharmacological Zn supplementation result from changes in gene expression that could be further affected by supplemental phytase. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding newly weaned pigs dietary Zn (150, 1,000, or 2,000 mg Zn/kg) as Zn oxide with or without phytase [500 phytase units (FTU)/kg] for 14 d on hepatic gene expression. Liver RNA from pigs fed 150, 1,000, or 2,000 mg Zn/kg, or 1,000 mg Zn/kg with phytase (n = 4 per treatment) was reverse transcribed and examined using the differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique. Liver RNA from pigs fed 150 or 2,000 mg Zn/kg (n = 4 per treatment) was also evaluated using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray. Results Expressed sequence tags for 61 putatively differentially expressed transcripts were cloned and sequenced. In addition, interrogation of a 13,297 element oligonucleotide microarray revealed 650 annotated transcripts (FDR ≤ 0.05) affected by pharmacological Zn supplementation. Seven transcripts exhibiting differential expression in pigs fed pharmacological Zn with sequence similarities to genes encoding GLO1, PRDX4, ACY1, ORM1, CPB2, GSTM4, and HSP70.2 were selected for confirmation. Relative hepatic GLO1 (P < 0.0007), PRDX4 (P < 0.009) and ACY1 (P < 0.01) mRNA abundances were confirmed to be greater in pigs fed 1,000 (n = 8) and 2,000 (n = 8) mg Zn/kg than in pigs fed 150 (n = 7) mg Zn/kg. Relative hepatic HSP70.2 (P < 0.002) mRNA abundance was confirmed to

  9. Plasma lipids and large bowel volatile fatty acids in pigs fed on white rice, brown rice and rice bran.

    PubMed

    Marsono, Y; Illman, R J; Clarke, J M; Trimble, R P; Topping, D L

    1993-09-01

    Adult male pigs were fed on a diet containing (% of energy) fat 25 starch 55 from white rice and providing 20 g fibre/pig d (diet WR). In two other groups rice bran was added to the diet to provide 43 g fibre/d. One group received the diet unmodified (diet RB), but in another (diet RO) heat-stabilized unrefined rice oil replaced the palm oil. In a further group brown rice replaced white rice and provided 37 g fibre/pig per d (diet BR). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were similar with diets WR, RB and BR. With diet RO the concentration was significantly lower than with diets WR and BR but was not different from diet RB. Plasma high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol and plasma triacylglycerols were unaffected by diet. In all groups, digesta mass rose from the caecum to the proximal colon but fell in the distal colon. Diet WR gave the lowest digesta mass while diet BR gave a significantly higher mass along the large bowel length. RB- and RO-fed pigs had equal masses of digesta which were intermediate between BR- and WR-fed pigs at all sampling sites. Pools of individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the proximal large bowel were unaffected by diet. Pools of total and individual VFA in the median and distal colon were lowest with diets WR and RB and significantly higher with diet BR. In these regions of the colon pools of acetate in RO-fed pigs did not differ from those in the BR-fed group but were higher than in other groups. However, pools of propionate and butyrate with the RO diet were significantly lower than with diet BR and the same as with diets WR and RB. Portal venous VFA concentrations were unaffected by diet. The higher large bowel digesta masses and VFA with diet BR may reflect the escape of starch from the small intestine. PMID:8260477

  10. Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, C; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Stappers, L J N; van Hees, H M J; Gerrits, W J J; Kemp, B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs' postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P<0.01). Moreover, ALG increased average daily DM intake, and reduced backfat thickness and carcass gain : digestible energy (DE) intake (P<0.05). RS increased feed intake per meal, meal duration (P<0.05) and inter-meal intervals (P=0.05), and reduced the number of meals per day (P<0.01), but did not affect daily DM intake. Moreover, RS reduced energy, DM and CP digestibility (P<0.01). Average daily DE intake was reduced (P<0.05), and gain : DE intake tended to be increased (P=0.07), whereas carcass gain : DE intake was not affected by RS. In week 12, ALG+RS- increased standing and walking, aggressive, feeder-directed, and drinking behaviours compared with ALG+RS+ (ALG×RS interaction, P<0.05), with ALG-RS- and ALG-RS+ in between. No other ALG×RS interactions were found. In conclusion, pigs fed ALG compensated for the reduced dietary DE content by increasing their feed intake, achieving similar DE intake and ADG as control pigs. Backfat thickness and carcass efficiency

  11. Intestinal threonine utilization for protein and mucin synthesis is decreased in formula-fed preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Threonine is an essential amino acid necessary for synthesis of intestinal (glyco)proteins such as mucin (MUC2) to maintain adequate gut barrier function. In premature infants, reduced barrier function may contribute to the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Human milk protects against ...

  12. Multi-omic profiles of hepatic metabolism in TPN-fed preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New generation lipid emulsions comprised of fish oil or blends of soybean/fish/medium chain triglyceride/olive oil are emerging that result in favorable clinical metabolic outcomes in pediatric populations. Our aim was to characterize the lipidodomic, metabolomic, and transcriptomic profiles these ...

  13. Standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratios in growing pigs fed corn-based and non-corn-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed corn-based diets compared to non-corn-based diets. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the optimum SID Tr...

  14. Odor and gas emissions and nutrient excretion from pigs fed diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutrient composition of corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) may contribute to the production of odorous compounds from manure of pigs fed diets containing DDGS. A 10-wk trial was conducted to determine odor and gas characteristics of swine manure, and nitrogen and phosphorus balanc...

  15. Objective and sensory measures of meat quality and fatty acid profile of longissimus intramuscular lipid from pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The longissimus dorsi from 87 pigs (43 barrows, 44 gilts) fed corn-soybean meal based diets containing 0, 5, or 10% crude glycerol for 138 days were examined for objective and sensory measures of meat quality and the fatty acid profile of LD lipid was determined. Crude glycerol was obtained from AG ...

  16. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerol were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerol utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerol, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days pos...

  17. Effects of dietary lysine and energy density on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs fed ractopamine.

    PubMed

    Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Brown, D C; Friesen, K G; Musser, R E; Johnson, Z B; Armstrong, T A

    2004-11-01

    Two hundred sixteen crossbred barrows and gilts (84.3 kg BW) were used to test the effects of dietary energy density and lysine:energy ratio (Lys:ME) on the performance, carcass characteristics, and pork quality of finishing pigs fed 10 ppm ractopamine. Pigs were blocked by BW and gender, allotted to 36 pens (six pigs per pen), and pens were assigned randomly within blocks to dietary treatments (as-fed basis) arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial design, with two levels of energy (3.30 or 3.48 Mcal/kg) and three Lys:ME (1.7, 2.4, or 3.1 g lysine/Mcal) levels. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 28 d, and weights and feed disappearance were recorded weekly to calculate ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Upon completion of the feeding trial, pigs were slaughtered and carcass data were collected before fabrication. During carcass fabrication, hams were analyzed for lean composition using a ham electrical conductivity (TOBEC) unit, and loins were collected, vacuum-packaged, and boxed for pork quality data collection. Energy density had no (P > 0.22) effect on ADG or ADFI across the entire 28-d feeding trial; however, pigs fed 3.48 Mcal of ME were more (P < 0.02) efficient than pigs fed 3.30 Mcal of ME. In addition, ADG and G:F increased linearly (P < 0.01) as Lys:ME increased from 1.7 to 3.1 g/Mcal. Carcasses of pigs fed 3.48 Mcal of ME were fatter at the last lumbar vertebrae (P < 0.08) and 10th rib (P < 0.04), resulting in a lower (P < 0.03) predicted fat-free lean yield (FFLY). Conversely, 10th-rib fat thickness decreased linearly (P = 0.02), and LM depth (P < 0.01) and area (P < 0.01) increased linearly, with increasing Lys:ME. Moreover, FFLY (P < 0.01) and actual ham lean yield (P < 0.01) increased as Lys:ME increased in the diet. Dietary energy density had no (P > 0.19) effect on pork quality, and Lys:ME did not (P > 0.20) affect muscle pH, drip loss, color, and firmness scores. Marbling scores, as well as LM lipid content, decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as Lys:ME increased from 1.7 to

  18. Hormonal and metabolic responses to the stress of transport and slaughterhouse procedures in clenbuterol-fed pigs.

    PubMed

    Baldi, A; Bontempo, V; Cheli, F; Corino, C; Polidori, F

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if metabolic and endocrine adaptive responses to stressful stimuli are influenced by clenbuterol treatment in pigs. Two groups of nine Goland barrows of 167 kg liveweight, fed diets containing 0 (control) or 1 ppm of clenbuterol (clenbuterol-treated) for 40 days, were used. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture the day before (day 40) and at slaughter (day 41). On day 40 clenbuterol-treated pigs had lower levels of thyroxin, tri-iodothyronine, insulin, urea and higher levels of lactate and creatine phosphokinase activity. On day 41, thyroxin concentration was lower and creatine phosphokinase activity higher in clenbuterol-treated pigs than in controls. In response to transport and slaughterhouse procedures, most of the parameters considered both in clenbuterol-treated and in control pigs increased. PMID:7941835

  19. Characterization of protected designation of origin Italian meat products obtained from heavy pigs fed barley-based diets.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Gallo, A; Faeti, V; Della Casa, G

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of protected designation of origin (PDO) Parma ham and Piacentina neck obtained from heavy pigs (Italian Duroc × Italian Large White) fed barley-based diets. Four diets were tested: 1) a corn-based diet (control), 2) the control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulled barley variety (Cometa), 3) the control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulless barley variety (Astartis), and 4) the control diet with 80% of a low-amylose hulless barley variety (Alamo). All the meat products were analyzed for physicochemical and color parameters. The dry-cured hams and necks were also evaluated for sensory properties. The data of physicochemical, color, and sensory parameters were separately analyzed by multivariate factor analysis, and interpretation of each extracted factor was based on specific original variables loading on each one. The meat products obtained from pigs fed the barley-based diets differed from those obtained from the control pigs on the PUFA factors characterized by C18:2-6 and omega-3:omega-6 ratio. In particular, the meat products obtained from pigs fed the barley-based diets had a lower content of C18:2-6 and a higher omega-3:omega-6 ratio ( < 0.05) than the control. In fresh hams, iodine number and SFA (C16:0 and C18:0) in addition to PUFA and omega-3:omega-6 ratio loaded on the PUFA/SFA factor. The fresh hams produced from pigs fed the barley-based diets had subcutaneous fat (SC) with a lower iodine number and a higher SFA level compared with those produced from the control pigs ( < 0.05). A sex effect was measured for PUFA/SFA and oleic acid factors. In particular, the barrow SC had a lower SFA content, higher PUFA and C18:1-9 levels, and a higher iodine number ( < 0.05) than the gilt SC. There were no appreciable differences in the color and sensory properties of meat products obtained from pigs fed the different diets. The hams from barrows differed from those obtained from gilts on

  20. Effect of postnatal progesterone therapy following preterm birth on neurosteroid concentrations and cerebellar myelination in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Palliser, H K; Kelleher, M A; Tolcos, M; Walker, D W; Hirst, J J

    2015-08-01

    Allopregnanolone protects the fetal brain and promotes normal development including myelination. Preterm birth results in the early separation of the infant from the placenta and consequently a decline in blood and brain allopregnanolone concentrations. Progesterone therapy may increase allopregnanolone and lead to improved oligodendrocyte maturation. The objectives of this study were to examine the efficacy of progesterone replacement in augmenting allopregnanolone concentrations during the postnatal period and to assess the effect on cerebellar myelination - a region with significant postnatal development. Preterm guinea pig neonates delivered at 62 days of gestation by caesarean section received daily s.c. injections of vehicle (2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) or progesterone (16 mg/kg) for 8 days until term-equivalent age (TEA). Term delivered controls (PND1) received vehicle. Neonatal condition/wellbeing was scored, and salivary progesterone was sampled over the postnatal period. Brain and plasma allopregnanolone concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay; cortisol and progesterone concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay; and myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP), oligodendroctye transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα) were quantified by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Brain allopregnanolone concentrations were increased in progesterone-treated neonates. Plasma progesterone and cortisol concentrations were elevated in progesterone-treated male neonates. Progesterone treatment decreased MBP and PLP in lobule X of the cerebellum and total cerebellar OLIG2 and PDGFRα in males but not females at TEA compared with term animals. We conclude that progesterone treatment increases brain allopregnanolone concentrations, but also increases cortisol levels in males, which may disrupt developmental processes. Consideration should be given to the use of non-metabolizable neurosteroid

  1. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  2. Aggressiveness and brain amine concentration in dominant and subordinate finishing pigs fed the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist ractopamine.

    PubMed

    Poletto, R; Cheng, H W; Meisel, R L; Garner, J P; Richert, B T; Marchant-Forde, J N

    2010-09-01

    Under farm conditions, aggression related to the formation of social hierarchy and competition for resources can be a major problem because of associated injuries, social stress, and carcass losses. Any factor that may affect the regulation and amount of aggression within a farmed system, for instance, feeding the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist ractopamine (RAC), is therefore worthy of investigation. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of the widely used swine feed additive RAC, considering also the effects of sex and social rank on aggressiveness and concentrations of brain amines, neurotransmitters essential for controlling aggression, in finishing pigs. Thirty-two barrows and 32 gilts (4 pigs/pen by sex) were fed either a control diet or a diet with RAC (Paylean, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) added (5 mg/kg for 2 wk, followed by 10 mg/kg for 2 wk). The top dominant and bottom subordinate pigs (16 pigs/sex) in each pen were determined after mixing by a 36-h period of continuous behavioral observation. These pigs were then subjected to resident-intruder tests (maximum 300 s) during the feeding trial to measure aggressiveness. At the end of wk 4, the amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and raphe nuclei were dissected and analyzed for concentrations of dopamine (DA); serotonin (5-HT); their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively; norepinephrine; and epinephrine using HPLC. Ractopamine-fed gilts performed more attacks during the first 30 s of testing than pigs in all other subgroups (P < 0.05). By the end of the resident-intruder test (300 s), the dominant control gilts and barrows, and both dominant and subordinate RAC-fed gilts performed the greatest percentage of attacks (P < 0.05). Gilts had decreased norepinephrine and DOPAC concentrations in the amygdala and frontal cortex, and when fed RAC, gilts also had the least 5-HIAA concentration and

  3. Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia SSP) modifies LDL metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, M.L.; McNamara, D.J. )

    1990-02-26

    The effects of dietary pectin on plasma and hepatic cholesterol (CH) levels, plasma lipoprotein profiles, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to hepatic membranes were investigated by feeding 1% pectin to guinea pigs on a high CH diet. Animals were fed either chow + 0.25% CH (HC diet) or the CH diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet) for 25 days. Plasma CH levels were decreased 26% by the HC-P with 33% decreases in LDL and KDL. LDL peak density shifted from 1.040 to 1.055 g/ml with pectin. Hepatic total, free and esterified CH levels were reduced 60, 40 and 85% respectively by the HC-P diet. In contrast, HMG-CoA reductase activity was unaffected. {sup 125}I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased by intake of the HC-P diet compared to the HC diet. The affinity of the apo B/E receptor for LDL was not affected by dietary pectin while the receptor number was increased 1.5-fold in animals on the HC-P diet. These data suggest that the parameters of HC metabolism affected by dietary pectin are consistent with an increased demand on the hepatic CH pools which possibly results from increased fecal excretion of bile acids.

  4. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids; Part I. Effects on growth performance, microbial populations and immune status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs (n=88) weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age were used in a 14 d study to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on immune status, Salmonella infection and shedding, and intestinal microbial populations following a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge. Pigs were ch...

  5. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids: Part II. Effects on intestinal histology and active nutrient transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on intestinal morphology and active nutrient absorption in weanling pigs following deliberate Salmonella infection. Pigs (n = 88) were weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age and assigned to one...

  6. Performance Responses, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Measures of Gastrointestinal Health in Weanling Pigs Fed Protease Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Tactacan, Glenmer B; Cho, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Jin H; Kim, In H

    2016-07-01

    Although exogenous protease enzymes have been used in poultry diets quite extensively, this has not been the case for pig diets. In general, due to their better gut fermentative capacity and longer transit time, pigs have greater capacity to digest dietary proteins than poultry. However, in early-weaned piglets, the stress brought about by weaning adversely affects the digestion of dietary proteins. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the effects of a commercial protease enzyme in weanling pigs. Indices of growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora, fecal gas emission and fecal scores were measured during the study. A total of 50 weanling pigs (6.42±0.12 kg) at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 dietary treatments: i) control diet (corn-soy based) with no supplemental protease (CON), and ii) control diet+200 g/ton protease (PROT) for 42 d. A completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatments, 5 replicates, and 5 pigs in each replicate was used. Growth performance in terms of body weight (27.04±0.38 kg vs 25.75±0.39 kg; p<0.05) and average daily gain (491±7.40 g vs 460±7.46 g; p<0.05) in PROT fed pigs were increased significantly, but gain per feed (0.700±0.01 vs 0.678±0.01; p>0.05) was similar between treatments at d 42. Relative to CON pigs, PROT fed pigs had increased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (84.66%±0.65% vs 81.21%±1.13% dry matter and 84.02%±0.52% vs 80.47%±1.22% nitrogen) and decreased (p<0.05) NH3 emission (2.0±0.16 ppm vs 1.2±0.12 ppm) in the feces at d 42. Except for a decreased (p<0.05) in blood creatinine level, no differences were observed in red blood cell, white blood cell, lymphocyte, urea nitrogen, and IgG concentrations between treatments. Fecal score and fecal microflora (Lactobacillus and E. coli) were also similar between CON and PROT groups. Overall, the supplementation of protease enzyme in weanling pigs resulted in improved growth rate and nutrient

  7. Performance Responses, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Measures of Gastrointestinal Health in Weanling Pigs Fed Protease Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Tactacan, Glenmer B.; Cho, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Jin H.; Kim, In H.

    2016-01-01

    Although exogenous protease enzymes have been used in poultry diets quite extensively, this has not been the case for pig diets. In general, due to their better gut fermentative capacity and longer transit time, pigs have greater capacity to digest dietary proteins than poultry. However, in early-weaned piglets, the stress brought about by weaning adversely affects the digestion of dietary proteins. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the effects of a commercial protease enzyme in weanling pigs. Indices of growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora, fecal gas emission and fecal scores were measured during the study. A total of 50 weanling pigs (6.42±0.12 kg) at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 dietary treatments: i) control diet (corn-soy based) with no supplemental protease (CON), and ii) control diet+200 g/ton protease (PROT) for 42 d. A completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatments, 5 replicates, and 5 pigs in each replicate was used. Growth performance in terms of body weight (27.04±0.38 kg vs 25.75±0.39 kg; p<0.05) and average daily gain (491±7.40 g vs 460±7.46 g; p<0.05) in PROT fed pigs were increased significantly, but gain per feed (0.700±0.01 vs 0.678±0.01; p>0.05) was similar between treatments at d 42. Relative to CON pigs, PROT fed pigs had increased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (84.66%±0.65% vs 81.21%±1.13% dry matter and 84.02%±0.52% vs 80.47%±1.22% nitrogen) and decreased (p<0.05) NH3 emission (2.0±0.16 ppm vs 1.2±0.12 ppm) in the feces at d 42. Except for a decreased (p<0.05) in blood creatinine level, no differences were observed in red blood cell, white blood cell, lymphocyte, urea nitrogen, and IgG concentrations between treatments. Fecal score and fecal microflora (Lactobacillus and E. coli) were also similar between CON and PROT groups. Overall, the supplementation of protease enzyme in weanling pigs resulted in improved growth rate and nutrient

  8. Amino acid digestibility of heat damaged distillers dried grains with solubles fed to pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of heat treatment on the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs. The second objective was to develop regression equations that may be used to predict the concentration of SID AA in corn DDGS. A source of corn DDGS was divided into 4 batches that were either not autoclaved or autoclaved at 130°C for 10, 20, or 30 min. Four diets containing DDGS from each of the 4 batches were formulated with DDGS being the only source of AA and CP in the diets. A N-free diet also was formulated and used to determine the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Ten growing pigs (initial BW: 53.5 ± 3.9 kg) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a replicated 5 × 4 Youden square design with 5 diets and 4 periods in each square. The SID of CP decreased linearly (P < 0.05) from 77.9% in non-autoclaved DDGS to 72.1, 66.1, and 68.5% in the DDGS samples that were autoclaved for 10, 20, or 30 min, respectively. The SID of lysine was quadratically reduced (P < 0.05) from 66.8% in the non-autoclaved DDGS to 54.9, 55.3, and 51.9% in the DDGS autoclaved for 10, 20, or 30 min, respectively. The concentrations of SID Arginine, Histidine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, or Threonine may be best predicted by equations that include the concentration of acid detergent insoluble N in the model (r2 = 0.76, 0.68, 0.67, 0.84, 0.76, 0.73, or 0.54, respectively). The concentrations of SID Isoleucine and Valine were predicted (r2 = 0.58 and 0.54, respectively) by the Lysine:CP ratio, whereas the concentration of SID Tryptophan was predicted (r2 = 0.70) by the analyzed concentration of Tryptophan in DDGS. In conclusion, the SID of AA is decreased as a result of heat damage and the concentration of SID AA in heat-damaged DDGS may be predicted by regression equations

  9. Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium supplements fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca exist among Ca supplements and that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD and STTD of Ca. One hundred and four growing barrows (average initial BW of 17.73 ± 2.53 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 13 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A basal diet containing corn, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, soybean oil, calcium carbonate, monosodium phosphate, vitamins, and minerals was formulated. Five additional diets were formulated by adding monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or a high-Ca sugar beet co-product to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Six additional diets that were similar to the previous 6 diets with the exception that they also contained 500 units per kilogram of microbial phytase were also formulated. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, MCP had the greatest (P < 0.05) ATTD and STTD of Ca. The ATTD and STTD of Ca in DCP were greater (P < 0.05) than in calcium carbonate, L. calcareumC a, or in the sugar beet co-product, but no differences were observed among the ATTD and STTD of Ca in calcium carbonate, L. calcareum Ca, or sugar beet co-product. Inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD and STTD of Ca in the diets, but this was not the case in the Ca supplements. Regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, the ATTD of P was greater ( P< 0.05) in pigs fed basal, MCP, or DCP diets than in pigs fed calcium carbonate, L. calcareum Ca, or the sugar beet co-product, but pigs fed calcium carbonate diets had greater ( P< 0.05) ATTD of P than pigs fed L. calcareumCa or the sugar beet co

  10. Expression of cationic amino acid transporters, carcass traits, and performance of growing pigs fed low-protein amino acid-supplemented versus high protein diets.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Grageola, F; García, H; Araiza, A; Zijlstra, R T; Cervantes, M

    2013-01-01

    Free amino acids (AA) appear to be absorbed faster than protein-bound AA (PB-AA). We conducted an experiment to assess the effect of feeding pigs with a partially free (F-AA) or totally PB-AA diet on expression of selected genes and performance of pigs. The expression of cationic AA transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in intestinal mucosa, liver, and longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (SM) muscles, as well as that of myosin in LM and SM, was analyzed. Twelve pigs (31.7 ± 2.7 kg) were used. The F-AA diet was based on wheat, supplemented with 0.59% L-Lys, 0.33% L-Thr, and 0.10% DL-Met. The PB-AA diet was formulated with wheat-soybean meal. Average daily feed intake was 1.53 kg per pig. The expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 was analyzed in jejunal and ileal mucosa, liver, LM, and SM; myosin expression was also analyzed in both muscles. Pigs fed the PB-AA diet tended to have higher weight gain and feed efficiency (P < 0.10), and had thinner back fat (P = 0.02). The expression of b(0,+) was higher (P < 0.01) in jejunum but lower (P < 0.01) in the liver of pigs fed the F-AA diet; CAT-1 tended to be lower in liver but higher in LM of PB-AA pigs. Myosin expression was not affected. Intestinal AA absorption was faster in pigs fed the F-AA diet, but AA uptake by the liver seemed to be faster in pigs fed the PB-AA. Performance and expression of AA transporters and myosin suggest that the dietary content of free or protein-bound AA does not affect their availability for protein synthesis in pigs. PMID:24222247

  11. Supplemental Escherichia coli phytase and strontium enhance bone strength of young pigs fed a phosphorus-adequate diet.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Angela R; Yasuda, Koji; Roneker, Karl R; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Lei, Xin Gen

    2007-07-01

    Young pigs represent an excellent model of youth to assess potentials of dietary factors for improving bone structure and function. We conducted 2 experiments to determine whether adding microbial phytase (2,000 U/kg, OptiPhos, JBS United) and Sr (50 mg/kg, SrCO3 Alfa Aesar) into a P-adequate diet further improved bone strength of young pigs. In Expt. 1, 24 gilts (8.6 +/- 0.1 kg body wt) were divided into 2 groups (n = 12), and fed a corn-soybean-meal basal diet (BD, 0.33% available P) or BD + phytase for 6 wk. In Expt. 2, 32 pigs (11.4 +/- 0.2 kg) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8), and fed BD, BD + phytase, BD + Sr, or BD + phytase and Sr for 5 wk. Both supplemental phytase and Sr enhanced (P < 0.05) breaking strengths (11-20%), mineral content (6-15%), and mineral density (6-11%) of metatarsals and femurs. Supplemental phytase also resulted in larger total bone areas (P < 0.05) and a larger cross-sectional area of femur (P = 0.06). Concentrations of Sr were elevated 4-fold (P < 0.001) in both bones by Sr, and moderately increased (P = 0.05-0.07) in metatarsal by phytase. In conclusion, supplemental phytase at 2000 U/kg of P-adequate diets enhanced bone mechanical function of weanling pigs by modulating both geometrical and chemical properties of bone. The similar benefit of supplemental Sr was mainly due to an effect on bone chemical properties. PMID:17585033

  12. Performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles-containing diets supplemented with phytase and multi-carbohydrase.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Ige, Dupe V; Akinremi, Oluwole O; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Effect of supplementing wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS)-containing diet with enzymes on nutrient utilization by growing pigs was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 60 pigs weighing ~30 kg were fed five diets that included a corn-based diet (Control), Control with 10% wheat DDGS (DDGS-PC), DDGS-PC without inorganic P source (DDGS-NC), and DDGS-NC plus phytase alone or with multi-carbohydrase for 4 weeks to determine average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F). In Experiment 2, 30 barrows weighing 22 kg were fed five diets fed in Experiment 1 to determine nutrient digestibility and retention. Pigs fed DDGS-PC and Control diets had similar ADG and G:F. The ADG and G:F for DDGS-PC diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those for DDGS-NC diet. Phytase improved (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, total tract P digestibility and P retention by 6.6, 8.7, 86.0 and 85.5%, respectively. Addition of multi-carbohydrase to phytase-supplemented diet did not affected growth performance, but reduced (P < 0.05) P retention. In conclusion, inclusion of 10% wheat DDGS in growing pig diet may not affect growth performance of growing pigs. Phytase supplementation to wheat DDGS-containing diet can eliminate the need for inorganic P supplement in pig diets. PMID:26304783

  13. Nutritionally related blood metabolites and performance of finishing pigs fed on graded levels of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Archibold Garikayi; Ndou, Saymore Petros; Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to determine effect of feeding fibrous diets on performance and biochemical profiles of finishing pigs. A total of 84 clinically healthy male pigs were used in the experiment. Body weight of the pigs at the beginning of the experiment was 85 ± 10.1 kg. Maize cob (MC), sunflower hulls (SH), lucerne hay (LH) and dried citrus pulp (PU) were incorporated in a basal diet for finishing pigs at different inclusion levels of 0, 80, 160, 240, 320 and 400 g/kg. Effects of week of feeding, fibre source and inclusion level of fibre were significant (P < 0.05). Pigs consumed more LH compared to MC, SH and PU. Average daily gain was high for pigs consuming diets with inclusion levels of 0, 80, 160 and 240 g/kg and low for pigs consuming 320 and 400 g/kg inclusion level of fibre in a diet. There was an increase in serum total concentration (TP) with an increase in PU, MC and LH in pig diets (P < 0.05). Creatine kinase (CK) concentrations decreased as levels of PU, LH and MC increased (P < 0.05). Increasing inclusion level of LH and SH in pig diets resulted in an increase in glycated haemoglobin concentration (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that level of PU, LH, MC and SH in diets of finishing pigs negatively influences average daily feed intake, average daily gain and biochemical profiles. PMID:26984596

  14. Performance, serum amino acid concentrations and expression of selected genes in pair-fed growing pigs exposed to high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Grageola, F; García, H; Arce, N; Araiza, B; Yáñez, J; Cervantes, M

    2014-10-01

    Heat stress (HS) depresses pig performance mainly because of appetite reduction, although other factors involved in the cellular availability of nutrients may also contribute to that depression. An experiment was conducted with twelve pair-fed pigs (30.3 ± 2.7 kg BW) to examine the effect of severe HS (up to 45 °C) on the expression of genes coding for two cationic amino acid (AA) transporters (b(0,+) AT and CAT-1), leptin, heat-shock protein (Hsp-90) and myosin in several tissues; serum concentrations (SC) of AA; and performance. There were two treatments: Comfort, pigs housed at an average temperature of 22 (±2) °C; and HS, pigs housed in a similar room with no climate control, where temperature was raised up to 45 °C. All pigs received the same wheat-soybean meal diet and had similar daily feed intake. Comfort pigs had a higher daily gain and better gain/feed ratio than HS pigs (p < 0.05). The expression of b(0,+) AT in jejunum and liver, that of myosin in the Semitendinosus muscle, and leptin in adipose tissue was lower, but CAT-1 in jejunum and liver, and Hsp-90 in liver was higher in HS pigs. The SC of Lys and Met in HS pigs were around 55% and 20%, respectively, of that in Comfort pigs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, HS affects the expression of cationic AA transporters, myosin, Hsp-90, leptin; the SC of Lys and Met; and the performance of pair-fed pigs. These results suggest that HS-related changes in gene expression affect the performance of pigs beyond the effect caused by the reduction in voluntary feed intake. PMID:24393083

  15. Differences in metabolic parameters and gene expression related to osteochondrosis/osteoarthrosis in pigs fed 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, David; Farquharson, Colin; Thomson, Jill; Smith, William; Seawright, Elaine; McCormack, Heather; Whitehead, Colin

    2002-01-01

    Osteochondrosis/osteoarthrosis (OC/OA) are common terms for various joint pathologies that occur in pigs. Pathologies that may contribute to these disorders have been described, but the primary cause(s) remain unknown. We hypothesised that as OC has some similarities to dyschondroplasia, which involves a failure of growth plate chondrocytes to fully differentiate and hypertrophy, treatment with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-D) might reduce the incidence and/or severity of lesions in pigs, as it does in chickens with dyschondroplasia. Control pigs were fed a commercial diet ad libitum. In the treated group this diet was supplemented with 25-D at 0.1 mg/kg. Ten pigs from each of the control and treated groups were sampled at 7, 12, 16 and 21 weeks. Treatment with 25-D had no effect on the incidence or severity of OC/OA lesions. Cartilage dry weight, total collagen content and proteoglycan content, and plasma levels oftotal calcium, inorganic phosphorous, vitamin C, insuline-like growth factor-I, parathyroid hormone and tumour necrosis factor alpha were unaffected by treatment. In addition, none of these parameters were correlated with the incidence or severity of OC/OA lesions. The mRNA expression levels of 21 out of 23 genes assayed by RT-PCR were unaltered in articular cartilage from OA lesion samples as compared to normal articular cartilage. However, collagen type II was reduced and collagen type X increased in OA lesion and near lesion samples. These results suggest that OA in pigs may share some features of osteoarthritis in other mammalian species. PMID:12199365

  16. Modification in the transmural concentration of cholesterol and the transmural distribution of /sup 131/I-albumin in the aortas of pigs fed cholesterol: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, F.P.

    1983-01-01

    Transmural cholesterol concentrations and transmural distribution of intravenously injected /sup 131/I-albumin were measured simultaneously in the aorta of both normal and cholesterol-fed pigs. The characteristic profile of /sup 131/I-distribution across the normal pig aorta in areas of high and low permeability (as identified by Evans Blue dye) is modified by cholesterol feeding. Additionally, the transmural concentration of cholesterol, which is similar in areas of high and low permeability of the normal pig aorta, is remarkably higher in the intima of high permeability areas of aortas of cholesterol-fed pigs and suggests that differential permeability in focal areas of the aorta is important only under conditions of hyperlipemia.

  17. Blood parameters in fattening pigs fed whole-ear corn silage and housed in group pens or in metabolic cages.

    PubMed

    Abeni, F; Petrera, F; Dal Prà, A; Rapetti, L; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of whole-ear corn silage (WECS) in diets for advanced fattening heavy pigs (substitution for part of the dry corn and wheat bran) allocated or not in metabolic cages on the main blood parameters. The high-moisture shelled corn is largely used in pig feeding while WECS is less often used despite the fact that it increases the DM crop yield. Three experimental diets were fed to 27 barrows (Italian Large White × Italian Duroc), with an average BW of 98.2 (±5.6) kg at the start of the trial, and randomly allotted to 3 experimental groups including a control diet (CON) containing cereal meals (corn, barley, and wheat, 80.2% DM in total), soybean meal (9% DM), wheat bran (8% DM), minerals and supplements (2.8% DM), and 2 diets containing WECS (15 or 30% DM referred to as 15WECS and 30WECS, respectively) in partial or complete substitution for wheat bran and corn meal. The pigs were randomly housed in 9 pens with 3 animals per pen and 3 pens per dietary treatment. Six pigs per each of the 3 treatments were moved from the pens to individual metabolic cages for 3 consecutive periods (2 pigs per treatment per period). Each period lasted 14 d, and blood was collected at the start and at the end of the periods. Blood was drawn from the jugular vein before feed distribution in the morning, at 14 d intervals, and analyzed for hematological, metabolic, and serum protein profiles. The effect of the metabolic cage housing was included in the statistical model to compare the results obtained in the 2 different environments of restrained and group-housed barrows. The WECS affected the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The main diet effect on plasma metabolites was recorded for plasma NEFA, with higher values in WECS diets compared with the CON. The metabolic cage housing affected both hematological (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) and metabolic (protein and

  18. Tooth length and incisal wear and growth in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) fed diets of different abrasiveness.

    PubMed

    Müller, J; Clauss, M; Codron, D; Schulz, E; Hummel, J; Kircher, P; Hatt, J-M

    2015-06-01

    Dental diseases are among the most important reasons for presenting guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and other rodents to veterinary clinics, but the aetiopathology of this disease complex is unclear. Clinicians tend to believe that the ever-growing teeth of rabbits and rodents have a constant growth that needs to be worn down by the mastication of an appropriate diet. In this study, we tested the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness [due to both internal (phytoliths) and external abrasives (sand)] or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 guinea pigs on incisor growth and wear, and tooth length of incisors and cheek teeth. There was a positive correlation between wear and growth of incisors. Tooth lengths depended both on internal and external abrasives, but only upper incisors were additionally affected by the feeding of whole hay. Diet effects were most prominent in anterior cheek teeth, in particular M1 and m1. Cheek tooth angle did not become shallower with decreasing diet abrasiveness, suggesting that a lack of dietary abrasiveness does not cause the typical 'bridge formation' of anterior cheek teeth frequently observed in guinea pigs. The findings suggest that other factors than diet abrasiveness, such as mineral imbalances and in particular hereditary malocclusion, are more likely causes for dental problems observed in this species. PMID:25041439

  19. [Proximal composition, lipid and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed peach-palm meal (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) and synthetic lysine].

    PubMed

    Jerez-Timaure, Nancy; Rivero, Janeth Colina; Araque, Humberto; Jiménez, Paola; Velazco, Mariela; Colmenares, Ciolys

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the proximal composition, lipids and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed diets with peach-palm meal (PPM), with or without addition of synthetic lysine (LYS). In experiment 1, 24 pigs were randomly allotted into six treatments with three levels of PPM (0.16 and 32%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). In experiment II, 16 finishing pigs were fed with two levels of PPM (0 and 17.50%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). At the end of each experiment (42 and 35 d, respectively), pigs were slaughtered and loin samples were obtained to determine crude protein, dry matter, moisture, ash, total lipids, and cholesterol content. In experiment I, pork loin from 16% PPM had more dry matter (26.45 g/100 g) and less moisture (73.49 g/100g) than pork loin from 32% PPM (25.11 y 75.03 g/100g, respectively). Meat samples from pigs without LYS had higher (p < 0.05) content of lipids (2.11 g/100 g) than meat from pigs that consumed LYS (1.72 g/100 g). In experiment II, the proximal, lipids and cholesterol content were similar among treatments. The PPM addition to pig diets did not affect the proximal composition of pork, while LYS addition indicated a reduction of total lipids, which could result as an alternative to obtain leaner meat. PMID:22097296

  20. Digestible and metabolizable energy concentrations in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Son, A R; Ji, S Y; Kim, B G

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure DE and ME in copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR) in growing pigs. Eight boars with an initial BW of 67.3 ± 5.8 kg were individually housed in metabolism crates that were equipped with a feeder and a nipple drinker. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design was used with 4 dietary treatments, 4 periods, and 8 animals. A basal diet mainly contained corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal. Three additional diets were formulated to contain 30% of CM, PKM, and CR. All diets contained the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 4.14:1. The apparent total tract digestibility of energy was 89.5, 84.1, 82.4, and 87.9% (P < 0.001) in the basal, CM, PKM, and CR diets, respectively. The DE in CM and PKM were greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3440 and 3238 vs. 2966 kcal/kg as-fed). The ME in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3340 vs. 2935 kcal/kg as-fed) but not different from the ME in PKM (3168 kcal/kg as-fed). In conclusion, CM and PKM have a higher DE value than CR, and CM has a higher ME value than CR. PMID:23365309

  1. Epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis enhances growth performance of early-weaned pigs fed diets devoid of blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Bedford, A; Li, Z; Li, M; Ji, S; Liu, W; Huai, Y; de Lange, C F M; Li, J

    2012-12-01

    The effect of supplementing Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) that was engineered to express epidermal growth factor (EGF-LL) to early-weaned pigs fed diets with typical levels of blood plasma (5%) or diets without blood plasma [blood plasma was substituted with soybean (Glycine max) meal and fish meal, based on amino acid supply] was examined. A total of 108 weaned piglets (19-26 d of age; mean initial BW 6.58 kg; 9 pigs per pen) were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program without growth promoters. Three pens were assigned to each of 4 treatments: i) blood plasma-containing diet with blank bacterial growth medium (BP-Con), ii) blood plasma-containing diet with fermented EGF-LL (BP-EGF), iii) blood plasma-free diet with blank bacterial growth medium (BPF-Con), and iv) blood plasma-free diet with fermented EGF-LL (BPF-EGF). The amount of epidermal growth factor (EGF) was determined in the fermentation product and pigs were allotted 60 μg EGF/kg BW/d for 3 wk postweaning. There were no differences in overall growth performance between BP-Con and BP-EGF pigs and no differences in overall growth performance between LoCon and BPF-EGF pigs. Pigs fed BPF-EGF showed increased daily BW gain (410 vs. 260 g/d; P < 0.01) and gain:feed (0.67 vs. 0.58; P < 0.05) compared to BPF-Con pigs in wk 3 postweaning; this was comparable to values for the BP-Con group (400 g/d and 0.64). These results indicate that supplementation with EGF-LL can be effective in enhancing the performance of early-weaned piglets fed a low complexity diet and reduces the need for feeding high-quality animal proteins and antibiotics. PMID:23365266

  2. Feed intake and growth performance of growing pigs fed on Acacia tortilis leaf meal treated with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Hlatini, Vuyisa Andries; Khanyile, Mbongeni; Zindove, Titus Jairus; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the response in feed intake and performance of pigs fed on incremental levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Forty-eighty male F1 hybrid pigs were randomly allotted to six diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g/kg of PEG, respectively. Acacia tortilis leaf meal was included at a rate of 150 g/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to eight pigs in individual pens. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), scaled feed intake (SFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined weekly. The ADG showed a linear response to PEG (p < 0.01). The linear regression equation was y = 0.0061x + 0.6052 (R(2) = 0.64). There was a quadratic response to PEG on ADFI, and SFI (p < 0.01) and G:F (p > 0.05). The regression equations and R(2) values were as follows: ADFI y = 0.0008x(2) - 00086x + 1.2339 (R(2) = 0.96), SFI y = 0.0147x(2) - 0.2349x + 40.096 (R(2) = 0.95), and G:F ratio y = 0.0002x(2) - 0.0017x + 0.5168 (R(2) = 0.56). The ADFI, SFI, and ADG increased as weeks of feeding progressed (p < 0.01), but the G:F ratio decreased as weeks increased. It can be concluded that the relationship between PEG inclusion and performance of growing pigs fed on A. tortilis is exponential, rather than linear. The economic benefit of using PEG depend on cost of labor, availability of Acacia, costs of harvesting together with processing, and acceptability of the pork. PMID:26894498

  3. Identification of Anthocyanins in the Liver, Eye, and Brain of Blueberry-fed Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary intervention with anthocyanins may confer benefits in brain function, including vision. Research to date indicates that animals have only a limited capacity to absorb anthocyanins, compared to other types of flavonoids. Pigs, which are a suitable model for human digestive absorption, were us...

  4. Persistence of an adverse metabolic phenotype in parenterally fed neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional environment during fetal and neonatal life is a key determinant affecting the risk for adult-onset diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. We previously showed that chronic parenteral (PN) compared to enteral (EN) nutrition in neonatal pigs for two weeks leads to increased glucose in...

  5. Enhanced skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in pigs treated with somatotropin requires fed amino acids levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic somatotropin (pST) treatment in pigs increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis and circulating insulin, a known promoter of protein synthesis. Previously, we showed that the pST-mediated rise in insulin alone could not account for the pST-induced increase in protein synthesis. This study...

  6. Fetal lipopolysaccharide exposure modulates diet-dependent gut maturation and sensitivity to necrotising enterocolitis in pre-term pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uterine infections during pregnancy predispose to pre-term birth and postnatal morbidity, but it is unknown how prenatal bacterial exposure affects maturation of the immature gut. We hypothesised that a prenatal exposure to gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has immunomodulatory effects that imp...

  7. Adipose tissue transcriptional response of lipid metabolism genes in growing Iberian pigs fed oleic acid v. carbohydrate enriched diets.

    PubMed

    Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Rodríguez, C; Daza, A; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C

    2016-06-01

    Diet influences animal body and tissue composition due to direct deposition and to the nutrients effects on metabolism. The influence of specific nutrients on the molecular regulation of lipogenesis is not well characterized and is known to be influenced by many factors including timing and physiological status. A trial was performed to study the effects of different dietary energy sources on lipogenic genes transcription in ham adipose tissue of Iberian pigs, at different growth periods and on feeding/fasting situations. A total of 27 Iberian male pigs of 28 kg BW were allocated to two separate groups and fed with different isocaloric feeding regimens: standard diet with carbohydrates as energy source (CH) or diet enriched with high oleic sunflower oil (HO). Ham subcutaneous adipose tissue was sampled by biopsy at growing (44 kg mean BW) and finishing (100 kg mean BW) periods. The first sampling was performed on fasted animals, while the last sampling was performed twice, with animals fasted overnight and 3 h after refeeding. Effects of diet, growth period and feeding/fasting status on gene expression were explored quantifying the expression of a panel of key genes implicated in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism processes. Quantitative PCR revealed several differentially expressed genes according to diet, with similar results at both timings: RXRG, LEP and FABP5 genes were upregulated in HO group while ME1, FASN, ACACA and ELOVL6 were upregulated in CH. The diet effect on ME1 gene expression was conditional on feeding/fasting status, with the higher ME1 gene expression in CH than HO groups, observed only in fasting samples. Results are compatible with a higher de novo endogenous synthesis of fatty acids (FA) in the carbohydrate-supplemented group and a higher FA transport in the oleic acid-supplemented group. Growth period significantly affected the expression of most of the studied genes, with all but PPARG showing higher expression in finishing pigs according to

  8. Digestibility of energy and phosphorus in ten samples of distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, C; Boersma, M G; Stein, H H

    2007-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure DE and ME and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, N, and P in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs. Ten sources of DDGS were obtained from ethanol plants in South Dakota and Minnesota, and 11 diets were formulated. One diet was based on corn (96.8%), limestone, salt, vitamins, and microminerals. Ten additional diets were formulated by mixing the corn diet and each of the 10 sources of DDGS in a 1:1 ratio. Eleven growing pigs (initial BW of 29.3 +/- 0.42 kg) were allotted to an 11 x 11 Latin square design, with 11 periods and 11 pigs. Each of the 11 diets was fed to each pig during 1 period. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages that allowed for the total, but separate, collection of feces and urine. Samples were analyzed for GE, N, and P and energy and N balances, and the ATTD of GE, N, and P were calculated for each diet. By subtracting the contribution from the corn diet to the DDGS-containing diets, the energy and N balances and the ATTD for GE, N, and P for each source of DDGS were calculated. Results of the experiment showed that the DE and ME differed (P < 0.001) among the 10 sources of DDGS (3,947 to 4,593 kcal of DE/kg of DM and 3,674 to 4,336 kcal of ME/kg of DM). The average DE and ME in DDGS were 4,140 and 3,897 kcal/kg of DM, respectively. These values were not different from the DE and ME in corn (4,088 and 3,989 kcal/kg of DM, respectively). Based on the analyzed GE and nutrient composition of DDGS and the calculated values for DE and ME, prediction equations for DE and ME were developed. These equations showed that DE and ME in DDGS may be predicted from the concentration of ash, ether extract, ADF, and GE. The retention of N from DDGS was greater (P < 0.001) than from corn, but when calculated on a percentage basis, the N retention did not differ between DDGS and corn. The ATTD of P in DDGS was 59.1% on average for the 10 samples. This value was greater (P < 0

  9. Genome sequences of copper resistant and sensitive Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from copper-fed pigs in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Six strains of Enterococcus faecalis (S1, S12, S17, S18, S19 and S32) were isolated from copper fed pigs in Denmark. These Gram-positive bacteria within the genus Enterococcus are able to survive a variety of physical and chemical challenges by the acquisition of diverse genetic elements. The genome of strains S1, S12, S17, S18, S19 and S32 contained 2,615, 2,769, 2,625, 2,804, 2,853 and 2,935 protein-coding genes, with 41, 42, 27, 42, 32 and 44 genes encoding antibiotic and metal resistance, respectively. Differences between Cu resistant and sensitive E. faecalis strains, and possible co-transfer of Cu and antibiotic resistance determinants were detected through comparative genome analysis. PMID:26203344

  10. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no

  11. Carcass traits and cutting yields of entire and immunocastrated pigs fed increasing protein levels with and without ractopamine hydrochloride supplementation.

    PubMed

    Needham, T; Hoffman, L C

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasing balanced protein, with and without ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC), in the finisher diets of immunocastrates on their carcass cutting yields and respective muscle, fat, and bone proportions. Carcass traits and yields of 120 individually housed entire male pigs and immunocastrates were evaluated following a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design. Vaccination occurred at 16 and 20 wk of age and slaughtering at 24 wk. Up until 20 wk of age, all pigs received a commercial grower diet. Low-, medium-, and high-protein (7.50, 9.79, and 12.07 g standardized ileal digestible [SID] lysine/kg, respectively) diets were then fed for the last 28 d with RAC supplemented at 0 or 10 mg/kg. Immunocastration and RAC supplementation increased ( = 0.003 and = 0.017, respectively) the live weight at slaughter. The interaction between sex and protein ( = 0.039) for caliper backfat depths showed greater backfat depths in immunocastrates fed medium protein whereas RAC decreased ( = 0.027) the caliper backfat depth. Feeding RAC increased the trotters ( = 0.040), tenderloins (fillets; < 0.001), shoulder ( = 0.002), hindquarter ( = 0.026), loin ( = 0.028), and belly ( = 0.044) percentages. The shoulder ( < 0.001), hindquarter ( < 0.001), and loin ( = 0.005) muscle percentages were increased and the hindquarter fat percentages were decreased ( = 0.032) with RAC supplementation. Immunocastration increased the belly cut ( = 0.006), loin fat ( < 0.001), and belly fat ( < 0.001) percentages. Therefore, carcass cutting and lean yields can be improved by RAC supplementation while decreasing the backfat depth, and the increase in backfat due to immunocastration could be avoided with the correct dietary protein level. PMID:26440353

  12. Suppression of serum iron-binding capacity and bone marrow cellularity in pigs fed aflatoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.B.; Clark, D.E.; Huff, W.E.; Kubena, L.F.; Corrier, D.E. ); Phillips, T.D. )

    1988-05-01

    Flavus-parasiticus species of the genus Aspergillus are recognized as the primary producers of aflatoxins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1}, and G{sub 2}, hereafter referred to as aflatoxin (AF). The effects of feeding AF-contaminated diets to growing and finishing pigs have been described with changes in clinical performance, serum biochemistry, histology, and hematology attributed to aflatoxicosis. However, most of these studies evaluated AF-induced changes for a single AF dosage at a given point in time. The present study was designed to characterize how various AF dosages influence bone marrow histology, hematology, prothrombin and activated thromboplastin times, serum amino acids, and serum iron binding capacity during aflatoxicosis in growing pigs.

  13. Suppression of serum iron-binding capacity and bone marrow cellularity in pigs fed aflatoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.B.; Clark, D.E.; Huff, W.E.; Kubena, L.F.; Corrier, D.E.; Phillips, I.D.

    1988-04-01

    Flavus-parasiticus species of the genus Aspergillus are recognized as the primary producers of aflatoxins B/sub 1/, B/sup 2/, G/sup 1/, and G/sup 2/, hereafter referred to as aflatoxin (AF). The effects of feeding AF-contaminated diets to growing and finishing pigs have been described with changes in clinical performance, serum biochemistry, histology, and hematology attributed to aflatoxicosis. However, most of these studies evaluated AF-induced changes for a single AF dosage at a given point in time. The present study was designed to characterize how various AF dosages influence bone marrow histology, hematology, prothrombin and activated thromboplastin times, serum amino acids, and serum iron binding capacity during aflatoxicosis in growing pigs.

  14. Digestibility energy and amino acids of canola meal from two species (Brassica juncea and Brassica napus) fed to distal ileum cannulated grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Le, M H A; Buchet, A D G; Beltranena, E; Gerrits, W J J; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica juncea is a novel canola species targeted to grow in the southern Canadian prairies where thermotolerance, disease resistance, and adaptation to dry agronomic conditions are required. The support of its cultivation needs nutritional evaluation of its coproduct. The B. juncea canola meal (CM) contains less fiber than conventional, dark-seeded Brassica napus CM but also slightly less Lys. In a 6 × 6 Latin square, 6 distal ileum cannulated pigs (47 kg BW) were fed 6 diets to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, AID and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, and VFA content in digesta and feces. Pigs were fed 6 diets: basal [46% wheat (Triticum aestivum) and corn (Zea mays) starch], 4 diets with 46% wheat and either B. juncea or B. napus CM at 25 or 50%, and a N-free diet based on corn starch. The B. juncea CM had higher (P < 0.05) ATTD of energy than B. napus CM (68.6 vs. 60.3%) likely due to its lower fiber content. Ileal total VFA was lower (P < 0.001) in pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus CM diets. In pigs fed B. juncea CM, the molar ratio in digesta was lower (P < 0.001) for acetate and butyrate whereas the propionate ratio was lower (P < 0.001) in feces than in pigs fed B. napus CM diets. The CM species did not affect the AID of energy, SID of AA, and feces VFA content. The DE value was higher (P < 0.05) and content of SID Lys was lower (P < 0.05) for B. juncea than B. napus CM. In conclusion, availability of B. juncea CM, a coproduct of a canola species grown in Canadian prairie land, will increase flexibility in swine feed formulation. PMID:23365335

  15. Ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery is increased and its amino acid pattern is altered in pigs fed quebracho extract.

    PubMed

    Steendam, C A Carina; Tamminga, Seerp; Boer, Huug; de Jong, Erik-Jan; Visser, G Henk; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2004-11-01

    Ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery (ENR) in pigs (9 +/- 0.6 kg body weight) was estimated simultaneously using the (15)N-isotope dilution technique ((15)N-IDT) and the peptide alimentation ultrafiltration (UF) method. Diets were cornstarch, enzyme-hydrolyzed casein with no (control) or high (4%) content of quebracho extract (Schinopsis spp.) rich in condensed tannins. The amino acid (AA) pattern of the ENR was also determined. The ENR of pigs fed the quebracho diet was higher (P = 0.0001) than that of pigs fed the control diet [6.00 vs. 1.95 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) for the (15)N-IDT and 5.18 vs. 1.49 g/kg DMI for the UF method, respectively]. With the (15)N-IDT, ENR values were 0.44-0.79 g/kg DMI (24%) higher (control P = 0.0032, quebracho P = 0.0002) than for the UF method. Apparent nitrogen digestibility depended on diet (69.0% quebracho vs. 86.0% control, P = 0.0001). Real nitrogen digestibility (RD-N) determined by the UF method was higher (P = 0.0001) for the control than for the quebracho diet (91.4 vs. 88.2%). Corresponding values for the (15)N-IDT did not differ (P = 0.0569) between diets (92.8 vs. 91.4%). The (15)N-IDT gave higher values for RD-N of both diets (control P = 0.0030, quebracho P = 0.0002) compared with the UF method. Endogenous AA recoveries (g/kg DMI) were increased 300% (P = 0.0001) and the AA-pattern of ENR was changed (P from 0.0001 to 0.7530 for different AA) by the quebracho diet. A constant AA-pattern of ENR cannot be assumed. Despite limitations of both techniques, the (15)N-IDT and the UF method gave similar results with respect to ENR. PMID:15514278

  16. Vitamin E added to intralipid and enriched in omegaven protects against PNALD in TPN-fed preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) may lead to cholestasis and parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD). The etiology of PNALD is unknown, but plant phytosterols in soybean oil emulsions (e.g., Intralipid) have been suggested to negatively impact bile acid homeostasis (BAH) by antagoni...

  17. Improved gut barrier function via increased threonine utilization may explain enhanced resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs fed colostrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Threonine is an essential amino acid necessary for synthesis of gut mucins that form the protective intestinal mucous layer. In premature infants, this function might be compromised leading to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that enteral feeding with colostrum, relative to infant fo...

  18. Cellular stress marker alteration and inflammatory response in pigs fed with an ochratoxin contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Chiara; Grilli, Ester; Duvigneau, Johanna Catharina; Zannoni, Augusta; Tugnoli, Benedetta; Gentilini, Fabio; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Spinozzi, Silvia; Camborata, Cecilia; Bacci, Maria Laura; Piva, Andrea; Forni, Monica

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this study was to characterize the effects of an ochratoxin A (181 ± 34 ng/g) contaminated diet on growth performances, blood parameters, systemic cytokine levels, cell stress markers and reactivity of immune system of weaned pigs. Growth performance was not affected by OTA consumption even if OTA levels increased in plasma, kidney and liver. OTA diminished the protein content in the serum and increased levels of TNF-alpha and IL-10 in plasma. HO-1 mRNA, indicative for cells stress, was decreased in the kidney but increased in the liver. Additionally, whole blood of the animals of the OTA-group showed a decreased capacity to respond with cytokine expression (mRNA and protein) to ex vivo challenge with LPS. In conclusion our findings indicate that chronic ingestion with OTA-contaminated feed, even at low level, is hazardous for the animal and virtually for human health, pig being an excellent model for human. PMID:25151433

  19. Protein metabolism in growing pigs fed corn or cassava peel based diets containing graded protein levels.

    PubMed

    Tewe, O O

    1985-05-01

    Sixty-four Large White cross Landrace weanling pigs were randomly allotted to eight treatments in a two by four factorial arrangement. The two dietary variables were cassava peel (0 and 40 per cent) and crude protein (20, 15, 10 and 5 per cent). Total serum protein concentration was significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced by protein deficiency and by its interaction with cassava peel. The multiple coefficient of determination (R2) showed that protein intake was the primary factor determining changes in serum protein. R2 values for cyanide intake (independent variable) on serum protein (dependent variable) increased from day 30 to 90 of the trial. Serum urea was increased on the 5 per cent protein diets on days 60 and 90 of the trial. The R2 values for cyanide and protein intake on serum urea concentration increased from day 30 to day 90 of the trial. Serum creatinine increased (P less than 0.05) on the 5 per cent protein diet on day 90 of the trial. The R2 value for the effects of protein intake on serum creatinine was higher than for cyanide intake on days 30 and 90. The results confirm the progressive and pronounced effects of long term cyanide intake on serum nitrogenous metabolites in pigs consuming between 110 and 120 ppm hydrocyanic acid, especially in diets containing 10 per cent or less protein. PMID:2989987

  20. Accumulation of copper in the kidney of pigs fed high dietary zinc is due to metallothionein expression with minor effects on genes involved in copper metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zetzsche, A; Schunter, N; Zentek, J; Pieper, R

    2016-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of high dietary zinc (Zn) oxide on trace element accumulation in various organs with special emphasis on the kidney. A total of 40 weaned piglets were allocated into two groups with 16 and 24 piglets each receiving a diet containing normal (NZn; 100mg Zn/kg) or high (HZn; 2,100mg Zn/kg) Zn concentration, respectively. After two weeks, eight piglets from each treatment were killed and organ samples were taken. Eight piglets from the remaining 16 pigs fed HZn diets were changed to NZn diets (CZn). All remaining piglets were killed after another two weeks for organ sampling. Trace element concentration was determined in the jejunum, liver, kidney, pancreas, bone (metacarpal IV), spleen, lung, thymus, tonsils and lymph nodes of jejunum, ileum and colon. Kidney mRNA expression of Zn transporter ZnT1 and ZIP4, genes involved in Cu metabolism (Ctr1, Atox1, SOD1, ATP7A, CCS, CP) and divalent metal ion transport (DMT1) and binding (MT-1a, MT-2b, MT-3) were determined. The Zn concentration in jejunum, liver, pancreas tissue and metacarpal IV was higher (P<0.05) in HZn group compared with NZn and CZn groups. Trace element concentration in organs of CZn pigs was similar to those fed NZn diets. Zn concentration in muscle, lung and lymphatic organs as thymus, tonsils, spleen and lymph nodes of jejunum, ileum and colon did not differ between the groups. Zn and Cu were positively correlated (R=0.67; P<0.05) in the kidney. No significant differences for Cu chaperones, Cu transporters and Cu-dependent factors were determined despite decreased expression of Atox1 after two weeks and increased Ctr1 expression over time in the HZn group. Expression of MT-1a, MT-2b and MT-3 were significantly higher in HZn fed pigs with most pronounced effects for MT-1a > MT-2b > MT-3. Gene expression of MTs in pigs fed CZn diets did not differ from pigs fed NZn diets. The data suggest that high dietary Zn feeding in pigs leads to Cu co-accumulation in the

  1. Tannin is a key factor in the determination and prediction of energy content in sorghum grains fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pan, L; Li, P; Ma, X K; Xu, Y T; Tian, Q Y; Liu, L; Li, D F; Piao, X S

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the DE and ME content as well as the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE in 28 samples of sorghum grain fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE, ME, and the ATTD of GE based on chemical analysis. The 28 samples included 8 low-tannin sorghum cultivars (LTS; tannin ≤ 0.16%), 10 medium-tannin sorghum cultivars (MTS: 0.67% ≤ tannin ≤ 0.98%), and 10 high-tannin sorghum cultivars (HTS; 1.11% ≤ tannin ≤ 1.51%) obtained from 9 provinces in China and 3 samples of LTS cultivars were obtained internationally. The 28 diets were formulated to contain 96.9% of 1 of the 28 sorghum grains and 3.1% of vitamins and minerals. Eighty-four barrows (36.5 ± 3.4 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design conducted during 2 consecutive periods ( = 6 per treatment) with the pigs fed different diets during the 2 periods. For each period, pigs were placed in metabolic crates for a 5-d total collection of feces and urine following 7 d of adaptation to the diets. Among the 28 samples, GE, CP, and ADF content (DM basis) ranged from 4,363 to 4,496 kcal/kg, 8.26 to 13.41%, and 3.26 to 5.78%, respectively. The average tannin content was 0.08, 0.84, and 1.29% in the LTS, MTS, and HTS samples, respectively. The DE and ME content (DM basis) ranged from 3,861 to 3,989 and from 3,784 to 3,905 kcal/kg, respectively, in LTS; from 3,646 to 3,740 and from 3,588 to 3,669 kcal/kg, respectively, in MTS; and from 3,481 to 3,617 and from 3,418 to 3,538 kcal/kg, respectively, in HTS. The mean DE, ME, DE/GE, ME/GE, and ATTD of GE in MTS were less than those in LTS ( < 0.05) and greater than those in HTS ( < 0.05). The correlation coefficients between DE, ME, or the ATTD of GE and tannin content were all -0.96 ( < 0.01). The best-fit equations for DE and ME (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 28 sorghum grains were 6,974 - (236 × % tannin) - (43.27 × % ADF) + (24.96 × % CP) - (0.71 × % GE) for

  2. Ileal digestibility of amino acids of cassava, sweet potato, cocoyam and erythrina foliages fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Régnier, C; Jaguelin, Y; Noblet, J; Renaudeau, D

    2012-04-01

    Ileal digestibility in growing pigs fed starch-based diets with inclusion of four tropical leaves in a meal form was studied in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Five diets were formulated with only casein as protein source in the basal diet (CAS), and casein plus dry cassava (CA) leaves, casein plus dry sweet potato (SP) leaves, casein plus dry cocoyam (CO) leaves and casein plus erythrina (ER) leaves in the other four diets. All diets contained the same amount of CP (14%), either provided by only CAS or a combination of casein and 250 g of leaf meal per kg of diet in the other diets. Leaves were separated manually from stems, and only the leaf part was used. A protein-free diet was fed during a sixth period in order to estimate the endogenous protein losses and calculate the CP- and amino-acid (AA)-standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values. The values for the foliages were calculated according to the difference method, assuming no interaction between the foliage and the casein. The ileal tract apparent digestibility of CP, organic matter and energy was higher in diet CAS than in the other diets (P < 0.05). The SID of CP and AA was close to 0.950 for casein, whereas the SID of AA was markedly lower in the foliages; the SID of indispensable and dispensable AA was highest in CO (0.500 and 0.352) and lowest in ER (0.170 and 0.195); intermediate values were obtained for SPs (0.367 and 0.349) and CA (0.232 and 0.242) leaves. Accordingly, the SID of lysine was highest (0.538) for CO leaves and lowest (0.126) in ER leaves; intermediate values were measured for CA and SP leaves. These low SID values in foliage meals must be related to the high levels of dietary fibre and the presence of secondary metabolites (tannins). These results suggest that it is only possible to replace a fraction of the conventional protein sources such as soyabean meal by tropical foliages in growing pig diets with a preference for CO leaves. PMID:22436274

  3. Ileal microbiota of growing pigs fed different dietary calcium phosphate levels and phytase content and subjected to ileal pectin infusion.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Vahjen, W; Baumgärtel, T; Rodehutscord, M; Mosenthin, R

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments with growing pigs were conducted to determine the effects of dietary P and Ca levels, phytase supplementation, and ileal pectin infusion on changes in bacterial populations in the ileum and on ileal and fecal fermentation patterns. Growing pigs (BW 30.1 +/- 1.3 kg) were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and were fed a low-P corn-soybean meal control diet (3 g of P/kg), or the control diet supplemented with either 15 g of monocalcium phosphate (MCP)/kg (Exp. 1) or 1,000 phytase units of phytase/kg (Exp. 2). Daily infusion treatments consisted of either 60 g of pectin dissolved in 1.8 L of demineralized water or 1.8 L of demineralized water as a control infusion, infused via the ileal cannula. In each experiment, 8 barrows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments according to a double incomplete 4 x 2 Latin square design. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were the control diet with water infusion, the control diet with pectin infusion, the MCP diet with water infusion, or the MCP diet with pectin infusion. In Exp. 2, the pigs received the same control treatments as in Exp. 1 and the phytase diet in combination with water or pectin infusion. Gene copy numbers of total bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus amylovorus/Lactobacillus sobrius, Lactobacillus mucosae, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, bifidobacteria, the Clostridium coccoides cluster, the Clostridium leptum cluster, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyrmonas group, and Enterobacteriaceae were determined by quantitative PCR in DNA extracts of ileal digesta. In Exp. 1, addition of MCP reduced ileal gene copy numbers of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.048), E. faecium (P = 0.015), and the C. leptum cluster (P = 0.028), whereas pectin infusion enhanced (P = 0.008) ileal d-lactate concentration. In Exp. 2, supplemental phytase led to greater ileal gene copy numbers of the C. coccoides (P = 0.041) and C. leptum (P = 0.048) clusters and

  4. Nutrient value of spray field forages fed to pigs and the use of feed enzymes to enhance nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Passos, A A; Andrade, C; Phillips, C E; Coffey, M T; Kim, S W

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the DE, ME, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N, and N retention of spray field forages (Bermuda grass, forage sorghum, and sweet sorghum) fed to pigs and the effects of the supplemental feed enzymes on energy and N utilization. A basal diet was formulated with 96% corn and 4% amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Test diets contained 85% basal diet + 15% Bermuda grass, forage sorghum, or sweet sorghum. Allzyme SSF (Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) was used as a feed enzyme, which was composed of cellulase, glucanase, xylanase, phytase, and protease. The basal diet and test diets were evaluated by using 4 sets of 2 × 2 Latin square designs consisting of 2 pigs and 2 periods with a total of 32 barrows (38.7 ± 7.9 kg). Each period (10-d adjustment and 4-d collection) had 2 Latin squares. The 2 treatments were levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 200 mg/kg). Pigs received experimental diets twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) at a fixed amount based on BW of pigs (0.09 × BW0.75 kg). On d 10, chromic oxide (0.5%) was added to the diets at 1700 h as an external marker. Fecal and urine samples were collected during 4 consecutive days. The basal diet contained 3,850 kcal DE/kg, 3,769 kcal ME/kg, 86.06% ATTD of N, and 71.10% N retention and was not affected by enzyme supplementation. Bermuda grass contained 893 kcal DE/kg, 845 kcal ME/kg, -16.50% ATTD of N, and -37.49% N retention and tended to be improved by enzyme supplementation to 1,211 kcal DE/kg (P = 0.098), 1,185 kcal ME/kg (P = 0.081), and -10.54% N retention (P = 0.076). The ATTD of N of Bermuda grass increased (P < 0.05) to 0.08% by enzyme supplementation. The forage sorghum contained 1,520 kcal DE/kg, 1,511 kcal ME/kg, -0.72% ATTD of N, and -16.99% N retention. The sweet sorghum contained 1,086 kcal DE/kg, 1,061 kcal ME/kg, -75.47% ATTD of N, and -49.22% N retention. Enzyme supplementation did not improve energy digestibility of forage sorghum and sweet sorghum. Nitrogen in these

  5. The effect of supplementing microbial phytase and organic acids to a corn-soybean based diet fed to early-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Omogbenigun, F O; Nyachoti, C M; Slominski, B A

    2003-07-01

    The effect of microbial phytase (MP) and organic acids (OA) supplementation in diets for early-weaned pigs was investigated in an in vitro assay and a growth performance and digestibility trial involving 96 pigs (18 d old). The experimental diets were: 1) a control (C) formulated according to NRC (1998); 2) a negative control (NC) that was similar to diet C except that available P was reduced by 0.19%; 3) NC plus MP (500 U/kg); and 4) NC+MP and OA (NC+MPOA). In the in vitro assay, the four diets were incubated under simulated gut conditions. Addition of MP increased (P = 0.003) phytate hydrolysis from 34 (NC) to 87.5% (NC+MP); this was further increased to 90.1% due to the addition of OA (NC+MPOA). In the 4-wk growth trial, each diet was randomly assigned to six pens each with four pigs. At the end of wk 3, a mobility test was conducted on one pig randomly selected from each pen. Pigs fed the NC diet tended to have a lower (P = 0.06) mobility score compared with those fed the other diets. At the end of wk 4, six pigs per treatment were killed and samples of digesta from different sections of the gut and the third metatarsal bone were collected for nutrient digestibility and bone ash measurements, respectively. There were no differences in ADFI, ADG, and gain:feed ratio among treatments (P > 0.05); however, ADG was 6.5% higher in piglets fed the NC+MPOA diet compared with those fed the C diet. Bone ash content was lower (P = 0.003) in NC fed pigs than in those fed the other treatments. Supplementing NC with MP and MP+OA improved bone ash content to the same level as C. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of DM and CP did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments and averaged 80.7 and 79.4%, respectively. Of all AA, only AID of isoleucine, histidine, and aspartic acid was increased (P < 0.05) by MP+OA supplementation. Overall, there were slight numerical improvements in AID of AA due to MP and OA supplementation, with AID of essential AA averaging 79.4, 77.7, 80.1, and

  6. Consequences of copper (Cu) deficiency are not differentially influenced by fructose or starch in growing pigs fed a dried skim milk-based diet

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenemann, H.M.; Failla, M.L.; Fields, M. )

    1989-02-09

    Some carbohydrates (CHO), e.g., fructose or sucrose but not starch, are known to aggravate the consequences of dietary Cu deficiency in rats. To evaluate if this Cu x CHO interaction is relevant to human health, the pig was used as an animal model. In the first experiment, weanling pigs (21 days of age, n=36) were fed dried skim milk (DSM)-based diets for 10 weeks with 20% of the total calories provided as either cornstarch (ST), fructose (F), or glucose (GL) and containing either deficient (-Cu; 1.4 ppm) or adequate (+Cu; 7 ppm) Cu. Plasma and tissue levels of Cu, plasma ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, activity of Cu, Zn-SOD in liver and erythrocytes, and hematocrits were lower in animals fed -Cu diets. The relative cardiac mass of all -Cu groups was greater than that of animals fed +Cu diets. These effects were not influenced by type of CHO. Similar results were obtained in a second experiment with weanling pigs (n=33) when the GL diets were excluded. For comparison, weaned male rats were also fed the same ST or F diets as pigs for as long as 10 weeks. Rats consuming both -Cu diets exhibited significantly lower hematocrits, decreased tissue Cu levels, and enlarged hearts. These changes were evident as early as 5 weeks. Together, these data demonstrate that (a) DSM-based diets are not suitable for delineation of Cu x CHO interactions, and (b) one or more components of DSM (possibly lactose) may exacerbate the consequences of dietary Cu deficiency.

  7. Hypolipidemic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chawda, Hiren M; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Parmar, Pravin H; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root (HCS) were evaluated in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C), atherogenic indices and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, and CK-MB) were performed in each group at 0 days and at the end of 60 days. Histological study of liver and kidney was done in groups 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in HCS and its antioxidant activity were evaluated by the DPPH assay. Both doses of HCS decreased serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices (P < 0.05). HCS has lipid lowering, immunosuppressive and antioxidant properties, and mays have value in atherosclerosis prevention. The higher dose of HCS also reduced serum AST, ALP, and LDH levels and rosuvastatin increased AST and ALP levels (P < 0.05). Histology of the liver showed decreased lipid accumulation and improvement in hepatocytes in HCS-treated animals. The antioxidant activity of HCS may be responsible for its lipid lowering and cytoprotective action. HCS had significant lipid lowering and antioxidant activity, which; may be due to the phenolic compounds. HCS may be a safe and cost effective alternative to current statin therapy for patients with dyslipidaemia. PMID:25480512

  8. Pigs fed camelina meal increase hepatic gene expression of cytochrome 8b1, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and thiosulfate transferase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oil seed crop which can be grown on marginal lands. Camelina seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids (>35%) and γ-tocopherol but is also high in erucic acid and glucosinolates. Camelina meal, is the by-product after the oil has been extracted. Camelina meal was fed to 28 d old weaned pigs at 3.7% and 7.4% until age 56 d. The camelina meal supplements in the soy based diets, improved feed efficiency but also significantly increased the liver weights. Gene expression analyses of the livers, using intra-species microarrays, identified increased expression of phase 1 and phase 2 drug metabolism enzymes. The porcine versions of the enzymes were confirmed by real time PCR. Cytochrome 8b1 (CYP8B1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Aldh2), and thiosulfate transferase (TST) were all significantly stimulated. Collectively, these genes implicate the camelina glucosinolate metabolite, methyl-sulfinyldecyl isothiocyanate, as the main xeniobiotic, causing increased hepatic metabolism and increased liver weight. PMID:24383433

  9. Pigs fed camelina meal increase hepatic gene expression of cytochrome 8b1, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and thiosulfate transferase.

    PubMed

    Meadus, William Jon; Duff, Pascale; McDonald, Tanya; Caine, William R

    2014-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oil seed crop which can be grown on marginal lands. Camelina seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids (>35%) and γ-tocopherol but is also high in erucic acid and glucosinolates. Camelina meal, is the by-product after the oil has been extracted. Camelina meal was fed to 28 d old weaned pigs at 3.7% and 7.4% until age 56 d. The camelina meal supplements in the soy based diets, improved feed efficiency but also significantly increased the liver weights. Gene expression analyses of the livers, using intra-species microarrays, identified increased expression of phase 1 and phase 2 drug metabolism enzymes. The porcine versions of the enzymes were confirmed by real time PCR. Cytochrome 8b1 (CYP8B1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Aldh2), and thiosulfate transferase (TST) were all significantly stimulated. Collectively, these genes implicate the camelina glucosinolate metabolite, methyl-sulfinyldecyl isothiocyanate, as the main xeniobiotic, causing increased hepatic metabolism and increased liver weight. PMID:24383433

  10. Estimating pasture intake and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs fed a concentrate-forage diet by n-alkane and acid-insoluble ash markers.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Jean Serge; Kanengoni, Arnold Tapera; Makgothi, Onkabetswe Gogakgamatsamang; Baloyi, Joseph Jimu

    2012-10-01

    A study was carried out to determine voluntary forage intake and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed a mixed forage and concentrate diet. Twenty-five 8-week-old Large White × Landrace crossbred male pigs (27 ± 3.8 kg) were blocked by weight into five groups, and each was randomly allocated to four indoor treatments (A, B, C, and D), which received 100, 90, 80, and 70 % of ad lib concentrated intake and an outdoor treatment (E) that received 80 % of ad lib concentrate. Indoor treatments were either fed the concentrate only (A) or also received freshly cut Kikuyu grass (Pennissetum clandestinum) ad libitum (B, C, and D), while pigs on treatment E were reared outdoors in Kikuyu grass paddocks. There was a significant correlation between the amount of concentrate offered and its intake (P < 0.01). The intake of Kikuyu was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). Mean acid-insoluble ash digestibility estimates of organic and dry matter were superior to C(32) estimates (P < 0.05). Kikuyu intake was higher (P < 0.05) than the estimated intake by 0.076 ± 0.03 kg. It was concluded that Kikuyu intake was not affected by the reduction of the concentrate allowance, and this should be taken into consideration when feeding pigs on pasture. PMID:22467043

  11. Effects of dietary soybean hulls and wheat middlings on body composition, nutrient and energy retention, and the net energy of diets and ingredients fed to growing and finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L L; Kil, D Y; Ji, F; Hinson, R B; Beaulieu, A D; Allee, G L; Patience, J F; Pettigrew, J E; Stein, H H

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this experiment were 1) to determine the effect of dietary soybean hulls (SBH) and wheat middlings (WM) on body composition, nutrient and energy retention, and the NE of diets and ingredients fed to growing or finishing pigs and 2) to determine if finishing pigs use the energy in SBH and WM more efficiently than growing pigs. Forty growing barrows (initial BW: 25.4 ± 0.7 kg) and 40 finishing barrows (initial BW: 84.8 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly allotted to 5 groups within each stage of growth. Two groups at each stage of growth served as the initial slaughter group. The remaining pigs were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments and harvested at the conclusion of the experiment. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal and was formulated to be adequate in all nutrients. Two additional diets were formulated by mixing 70% of the basal diet and 30% SBH or 30% WM. In the growing phase, ADG, G:F, and retention of lipids were greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the basal diet than for pigs fed the diets containing SBH or WM. Retention of energy was also greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the basal diet than for pigs fed the SBH. In the finishing phase, pigs fed the SBH diet tended (P = 0.10) to have a greater ADG than pigs fed the WM diet, and energy retention was greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the basal diet than for pigs fed the WM diet. The NE of the basal diet fed to growing pigs was greater (P < 0.01) than the NE of the diets containing SBH or WM, and there was a tendency for a greater (P = 0.05) NE of the basal diet than of the other diets when fed to finishing pigs. The NE of SBH did not differ from the NE of WM in either growing or finishing pigs, and there was no interaction between ingredients and stage of growth on the NE of diets or ingredients. The NE of diets for growing pigs (1,668 kcal/kg) was not different from the NE of diets for finishing pigs (1,823 kcal/kg), and the NE of the diets containing SBH (1,688 kcal/kg) was not different

  12. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of soft winter wheat fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rosenfelder, P; Mosenthin, R; Spindler, H K; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E; Sauer, N; Htoo, J K; Eklund, M

    2015-03-01

    A study with growing pigs was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 wheat genotypes that have recently been added to the German Descriptive Variety List. These genotypes included Tabasco, KWS Erasmus, Tobak, Skalmeje, Mulan, Event, Tommi, and Adler. The 8 genotypes were grown under identical environmental conditions on the same site, and they were harvested and processed under the same conditions. Nine barrows with an initial BW of 32 ± 2 kg were surgically fitted with simple ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a row-column design with 9 pigs and 8 periods of 6 d each. Wheat was the sole dietary source of CP and AA. Among the 8 wheat genotypes, contents of CP ranged from 10.9 to 13.3% (as-fed basis), whereas contents of total nonstarch polysaccharides ranged from 8.0 to 9.4% (as-fed basis). The SID of CP in the 8 genotypes ranged from 83 to 87%, with greatest ( = 0.01) values for Event and lowest ( = 0.01) for all other wheat genotypes. Intermediate SID of CP values were obtained for Adler and KWS Erasmus. For Lys, greater ( < 0.05) SID was observed in Adler (73%) and KWS Erasmus (74%) in comparison to Tommi, Tobak, and Mulan (69%). Adler had greater SID of Met (88%; = 0.01) when compared to Tabasco (86%); Tobak, Skalmeje, and Mulan (85%); and Tommi (84%). Among the 8 wheat genotypes, standardized ileal digestible content (cSID) of CP followed total CP content and ranged from 9.1 to 11.3% (as-fed basis). Standardized ileal digestible content of both CP and AA were greater ( < 0.001) in Adler compared to all other genotypes. For most AA, Tabasco had the lowest ( < 0.001; except for His, Trp, Asp, and Cys) cSID values of all wheat genotypes. The cSID of CP decreased ( < 0.001) as the starch content in the 8 wheat genotypes increased, but cSID of CP increased ( < 0.001) as the CP content in the 8 genotypes increased. Because SID and cSID of CP and most AA increased ( < 0.05) with lower test weight

  13. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates. PMID:24157971

  14. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Schinckel, A. P.; Einstein, M. E.; Jungst, S.; Matthews, J. O.; Booher, C.; Dreadin, T.; Fralick, C.; Wilson, E.; Boyd, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    A trial was conducted to: i) evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii) evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii) to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts), two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen) recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI), ME (MEI) and NE (NEI) intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d) were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively). Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001) than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d). However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49) or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13), thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377) and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113) was less (p<0.001) for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150), therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  15. Oral IGF-I alters the posttranslational processing but not the activity of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in formula-fed neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Burrin, D G; Stoll, B; Fan, M Z; Dudley, M A; Donovan, S M; Reeds, P J

    2001-09-01

    To determine the cellular mechanism whereby oral insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increases intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) activity, we studied 2-d-old pigs fed cow's milk formula (control, n = 5), formula + low IGF-I (0.5 mg/L; n = 6) or formula + high IGF-I (12.0 mg/L, n = 6) for 15 d. On d 15, intestinal protein synthesis and lactase processing were measured in vivo in fed pigs using a 6-h intravenous, overlapping infusion of multiple stable isotopes (2H(3)-Leu, 13C(1)-Leu, 13C(1)-Phe, 2H(5)-Phe, 13C(6)-Phe and 13C(9)-Phe). Morphometry and cell proliferation also were measured in the jejunum and ileum. Neither dose of IGF-I affected the masses of wet tissue, protein or DNA, or the villus height, cell proliferation or LPH-specific activity. Oral IGF-I decreased the synthesis and abundance of prolactase-phlorizin hydrolase (pro-LPH), but increased brush-border (BB)-LPH synthesis in the ileum. The BB-LPH processing efficiency was twofold to threefold greater in IGF-fed than in control pigs. In all pigs, villus height and the total mucosal and specific activity of LPH activity were greater in the ileum than in the jejunum, yet the synthesis of BB-LPH were significantly lower in the ileum than in the jejunum. We conclude that oral IGF-I increases the processing efficiency of pro-LPH to BB-LPH but does not affect LPH activity. Moreover, the posttranslational processing of BB-LPH is markedly lower in the ileum than in the jejunum. PMID:11533260

  16. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  17. Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael L; Thymann, Thomas; Cilieborg, Malene S; Lykke, Mikkel; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Bent B; Schmidt, Mette; Kelly, Denise; Mulder, Imke; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment improves NEC resistance and intestinal structure, function, and immunity in neonates. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed 3 days of parenteral nutrition followed by 2 days of enteral formula. Immediately after birth, they were assigned to receive either antibiotics (oral and parenteral doses of gentamycin, ampicillin, and metronidazole, ANTI, n = 11) or saline in the control group (CON, n = 13), given twice daily. NEC lesions and intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunity markers were recorded. None of the ANTI but 85% of the CON pigs developed NEC lesions by day 5 (0/11 vs. 11/13, P < 0.05). ANTI pigs had higher intestinal villi (+60%), digestive enzyme activities (+53-73%), and goblet cell densities (+110%) and lower myeloperoxidase (-51%) and colonic microbial density (10(5) vs. 10(10) colony-forming units, all P < 0.05). Microarray transcriptomics showed strong downregulation of genes related to inflammation and innate immune response to microbiota and marked upregulation of genes related to amino acid metabolism, in particular threonine, glucose transport systems, and cell cycle in 5-day-old ANTI pigs. In a follow-up experiment, 5 days of antibiotics prevented NEC at least until day 10. Neonatal prophylactic antibiotics effectively reduced gut bacterial load, prevented NEC, intestinal atrophy, dysfunction, and inflammation and enhanced expression of genes related to gut metabolism and immunity in preterm pigs. PMID:24157972

  18. Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Michael L.; Thymann, Thomas; Cilieborg, Malene S.; Lykke, Mikkel; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Bent B.; Schmidt, Mette; Kelly, Denise; Mulder, Imke; Burrin, Douglas G.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment improves NEC resistance and intestinal structure, function, and immunity in neonates. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed 3 days of parenteral nutrition followed by 2 days of enteral formula. Immediately after birth, they were assigned to receive either antibiotics (oral and parenteral doses of gentamycin, ampicillin, and metronidazole, ANTI, n = 11) or saline in the control group (CON, n = 13), given twice daily. NEC lesions and intestinal structure, function, microbiology, and immunity markers were recorded. None of the ANTI but 85% of the CON pigs developed NEC lesions by day 5 (0/11 vs. 11/13, P < 0.05). ANTI pigs had higher intestinal villi (+60%), digestive enzyme activities (+53–73%), and goblet cell densities (+110%) and lower myeloperoxidase (−51%) and colonic microbial density (105 vs. 1010 colony-forming units, all P < 0.05). Microarray transcriptomics showed strong downregulation of genes related to inflammation and innate immune response to microbiota and marked upregulation of genes related to amino acid metabolism, in particular threonine, glucose transport systems, and cell cycle in 5-day-old ANTI pigs. In a follow-up experiment, 5 days of antibiotics prevented NEC at least until day 10. Neonatal prophylactic antibiotics effectively reduced gut bacterial load, prevented NEC, intestinal atrophy, dysfunction, and inflammation and enhanced expression of genes related to gut metabolism and immunity in preterm pigs. PMID:24157972

  19. Prediction of digestible and metabolisable energy in soybean meals produced from soybeans of different origins fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongchao; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Guo, Panpan; Liu, Ling; Piao, Xiangshu; Stein, Hans H; Li, Defa; Lai, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) in 22 sources of soybean meal (SBM) produced from soybeans from different countries and subsequently to establish equations for predicting the DE and ME in SBM based on their chemical composition. The 22 sources of SBM were all processed in Chinese crushing plants, but the soybeans used originated from China (n=6), the US (n=6), Brazil (n=7) or Argentina (n=3). The basal diet was a corn-based diet and 22 additional diets were formulated by mixing corn and 24.3% of each source of SBM. The average DE and ME in SBM from China, the US, Brazil and Argentina were 15.73, 15.93, 15.64 and 15.90 MJ/kg and 15.10, 15.31, 14.97 and 15.42 MJ/kg, respectively, and no differences among countries were observed. From a stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were generated. The best-fit equations for SBM were DE=38.44-0.43 crude fibre -0.98 gross energy +0.11 acid detergent fibre (R2=0.67, p<0.01) and ME=2.74+0.97 DE -0.06 crude protein (R2=0.79, p<0.01). In conclusion, there were no differences in the DE and ME of SBM among the different soybean sources used in this experiment. The DE and ME of SBM of different origin can be predicted based on their chemical composition when fed to growing pigs. PMID:26457348

  20. Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet.

    PubMed

    Heinritz, Sonja N; Weiss, Eva; Eklund, Meike; Aumiller, Tobias; Louis, Sandrine; Rings, Andreas; Messner, Sabine; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana; Bischoff, Stephan C; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host's health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P<0.001) and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P<0.05) were higher in the LF pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae were more abundant in the HF pigs (P<0.001). Higher numbers of proteins affiliated to Enterobacteriaceae were also present in the HF samples. Proteins for polysaccharide breakdown did almost exclusively originate from Prevotellaceae. Total and individual fecal SCFA concentrations were higher for pigs of the LF treatment (P<0.05), whereas fecal ammonia concentrations did not differ between treatments (P>0.05). Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05), while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available via

  1. Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet

    PubMed Central

    Heinritz, Sonja N.; Weiss, Eva; Eklund, Meike; Aumiller, Tobias; Louis, Sandrine; Rings, Andreas; Messner, Sabine; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana; Bischoff, Stephan C.; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host’s health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P<0.001) and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P<0.05) were higher in the LF pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae were more abundant in the HF pigs (P<0.001). Higher numbers of proteins affiliated to Enterobacteriaceae were also present in the HF samples. Proteins for polysaccharide breakdown did almost exclusively originate from Prevotellaceae. Total and individual fecal SCFA concentrations were higher for pigs of the LF treatment (P<0.05), whereas fecal ammonia concentrations did not differ between treatments (P>0.05). Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05), while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available

  2. The effects of phytase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, plasma parameters, performance and carcass traits of pigs fed diets based on low-phytate barley fed without inorganic phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 80 crossbred pigs (25.5 + 2.6 kg) were assigned to one of eight dietary treatments. A positive control, based on Harrington barley, was formulated to meet requirements for total phosphorus. Three experimental diets (low in total phosphorus) were formulated based on either Harrington barl...

  3. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  4. Transition from parenteral to enteral nutrition induces immediate diet-dependent gut histological and immunological responses in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Siggers, Jayda; Sangild, Per T; Jensen, Tim K; Siggers, Richard H; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Bering, Stine B; Boye, Mette

    2011-09-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants develops very rapidly from a mild intolerance to enteral feeding into intestinal mucosal hemorrhage, inflammation, and necrosis. We hypothesized that immediate feeding-induced gut responses precede later clinical NEC symptoms in preterm pigs. Fifty-six preterm pigs were fed total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for 48 h followed by enteral feeding for 0, 8, 17, or 34 h with either colostrum (Colos, n = 20) or formula (Form, n = 31). Macroscopic NEC lesions were detected in Form pigs throughout the enteral feeding period (20/31, 65%), whereas most Colos pigs remained protected (1/20, 5%). Just 8 h of formula feeding induced histopathological lesions, as evidenced by capillary stasis and necrosis, epithelial degeneration, edema, and mucosal hemorrhage. These immediate formula-induced changes were paralleled by decreased digestive enzyme activities (lactase and dipeptidylpeptidase IV), increased nutrient fermentation, and altered expression of innate immune defense genes such as interleukins (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-18), nitric oxide synthetase, tight junction proteins (claudins), Toll-like receptors (TLR-4), and TNF-α. In contrast, the first hours of colostrum feeding induced no histopathological lesions, increased maltase activity, and induced changes in gene expressions related to tissue development. Total bacterial density was high after 2 days of parenteral feeding and was not significantly affected by diet (colostrum, formula) or length of enteral feeding (8-34 h), except that a few bacterial groups (Clostridium, Enterococcus, Streptococcus species) increased with time. We conclude that a switch from parenteral to enteral nutrition rapidly induces diet-dependent histopathological, functional, and proinflammatory insults to the immature intestine. Great care is required when introducing enteral feeds to TPN-fed preterm infants, particularly when using formula, because early feeding-induced insults may predispose to NEC

  5. Calcium-regulating hormones, bone mineral content, breaking load and trabecular remodeling are altered in growing pigs fed calcium-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Eklou-Kalonji, E; Zerath, E; Colin, C; Lacroix, C; Holy, X; Denis, I; Pointillart, A

    1999-01-01

    Studies on calcium nutrition in appropriate large animal models can be directly relevant to humans. We have examined the effect of dietary Ca deficiency on various bone and bone-related variables, including plasma markers, histomorphometry, mineral content and breaking strength in pigs. Three groups of eight 38-d-old female pigs were fed adequate (0.9%; control), low (0.4%; LCa) or very low (0.1%; VLCa) Ca diets for 32 d. Plasma Ca significantly decreased over time only in the VLCa-deficient pigs. The concentrations of the parathyroid hormones (PTH) and calcitriol increased as Ca deficiency developed, and the plasma PTH and calcitriol levels varied inversely with dietary Ca. The total bone ash contents, bending moments, trabecular bone volume and the mineral apposition rate all decreased as the calcium intake decreased. The osteoclast surface areas were greater than those of controls in both Ca-deficient groups, whereas the osteoblast surface areas were greater only in the VLCa group. The plasma osteoblast-related markers (alkaline phosphatase, carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen and osteocalcin) were either greater or unaffected in the Ca-deficient pigs. The results indicate that deficient bone mineralization combined with an increased bone resorption led to bone loss and fragility. The differences in the changes in bone cells (number and activity) between LCa and VLCa groups might be due to differences (time and extent) of circulating PTH and calcitriol. The defective mineralization in both Ca-depleted groups resulted mainly from the lack of Ca because their osteoblast activity was either maintained or stimulated. The results also underline the progressive sensitivity of pigs to Ca supply and the usefulness of this model. PMID:9915898

  6. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids metabolism pathways in the body of pigs fed diets with different sources of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Poławska, Ewa; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława; Weremko, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out on 24 gilts (♀ Polish Large White × ♂ Danish Landrace) grown with body weight (BW) of 60 to 105 kg. The pigs were fed diets designed on the basis of a standard diet (appropriate for age and BW of pigs) where a part of the energy content was replaced by different fat supplements: linseed oil in Diet L, rapeseed oil in Diet R and fish oil in Diet F (6 gilts per dietary treatment). The fat supplements were sources of specific fatty acids (FA): in Diet L α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA); in Diet R linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6, LA) and in Diet F eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-3, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). The protein, fat and total FA contents in the body did not differ among groups of pigs. The enhanced total intake of LA and ALA by pigs caused an increased deposition of these FA in the body (p < 0.01) and an increased potential body pool of these acids for further metabolism/conversions. The conversion efficiency of LA and ALA from the feed to the pig's body differed among groups (p < 0.01) and ranged from 64.4% to 67.2% and from 69.4% to 81.7%, respectively. In Groups L and R, the level of de novo synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated FA was higher than in Group F. From the results, it can be concluded that the efficiency of deposition is greater for omega-3 FA than for omega-6 FA and depends on their dietary amount. The level of LA and ALA intake influences not only their deposition in the body but also the end products of the omega-3 and omega-6 pathways. PMID:25530317

  7. Postnatal amniotic fluid intake reduces gut inflammatory responses and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Siggers, Jayda; Ostergaard, Mette V; Siggers, Richard H; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mølbak, Lars; Thymann, Thomas; Schmidt, Mette; Møller, Hanne K; Purup, Stig; Fink, Lisbeth N; Frøkiær, Hanne; Boye, Mette; Sangild, Per T; Bering, Stine B

    2013-05-15

    Preterm neonates are susceptible to gastrointestinal disorders such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Maternal milk and colostrum protects against NEC via growth promoting, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial factors. The fetal enteral diet amniotic fluid (AF), contains similar components, and we hypothesized that postnatal AF administration reduces inflammatory responses and NEC in preterm neonates. Preterm pigs (92% gestation) were delivered by caesarean section and fed parental nutrition (2 days) followed by enteral (2 days) porcine colostrum (COLOS, n = 7), infant formula (FORM, n = 13), or AF supplied before and after introduction of formula (AF, n = 10) in experiment 1, and supplied only during the enteral feeding period in experiment 2 (FORM, n = 16; AF, n = 14). The NEC score was reduced in both AF and COLOS pigs, relative to FORM, when AF was provided prior to full enteral feeding (9.9 and 7.7 compared with 17.3, P < 0.05). There was no effect of AF when provided only during enteral feeding. AF pigs showed decreased bacterial abundance in colon and intestinal inflammation-related genes (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-6, NOS) were downregulated, relative to FORM pigs with NEC. Anti-inflammatory properties of AF were supported by delayed maturation and decreased TNF-α production in murine dendritic cells, as well as increased proliferation and migration, and downregulation of IL-6 expression in intestinal cells (IEC-6, IPEC-J2). Like colostrum, AF may reduce NEC development in preterm neonates by suppressing the proinflammatory responses to enteral formula feeding and gut colonization when provided before the onset of NEC. PMID:23518680

  8. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding. PMID:25245085

  9. Comparison of spray-dried egg and albumen powder with conventional animal protein sources as feed ingredients in diets fed to weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Piao, Xiangshu; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Zeng, Zhikai; Tian, Qiyu; Li, Yao

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in spray-dried egg (SPE) and albumen powder (AP) compared with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), dried porcine solubles (DPS) and fish meal (FM). Additionally, the effects of these egg byproducts as a replacement for conventional animal proteins on the performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets were studied. In Exp. 1, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannulas were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin Square design and fed six diets. The AID and SID of AA were generally higher in AP and FM (P < 0.01) than in the other protein sources. In Exp. 2, 150 piglets weaned at 21 days, were fed diets containing the five protein sources for 3 weeks. Weight gain of piglets fed SDPP was the highest among the treatments. Dry matter and protein digestibility for pigs offered SDPP were higher (P < 0.01) than those offered FM and DPS. AP decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli counts in the cecum. DPS decreased (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase compared with SPE. In conclusion, AP and SPE are competitive with traditional animal protein sources and can be successfully fed to piglets without compromising performance. PMID:25827306

  10. Effects of Added Zinc on Skeletal Muscle Morphometrics and Gene Expression of Finishing Pigs Fed Ractopamine-HCL.

    PubMed

    Burnett, D D; Paulk, C B; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Vaughn, M A; Phelps, K J; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Haydon, K D; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-01-01

    Finishing pigs (n = 320) were used in a 35-day study to determine the effects of ractopamine-HCl (RAC) and supplemental Zinc (Zn) level on loin eye area (LEA) and gene expression. Pens were randomly allotted to the following treatments for the final 35 days on feed: a corn-soybean meal diet (CON), a diet with 10 ppm RAC (RAC+), and RAC diet plus added Zn at 75, 150, or 225 ppm. Sixteen pigs per treatment were randomly selected for collection of serial muscle biopsies and carcass data on day 0, 8, 18, and 32 of the treatment phase. Compared to CON carcasses, RAC+ carcasses had 12.6% larger (P = 0.03) LEA. Carcasses from RAC diets with added Zn had a tendency for increased (quadratic, P < 0.10) LEA compared to the RAC+ carcasses. Compared to RAC+ pigs, relative expression of IGF1 decreased with increasing levels of Zn on day 8 and 18 of treatment, but expression levels were similar on day 32 due to Zn treatments increasing in expression while the RAC+ treatment decreased (Zn quadratic × day quadratic, P = 0.04). A similar trend was detected for the expression of β1-receptor where expression levels in the RAC+ pigs were greater than Zn supplemented pigs on day 8 and 18 of the experiment, but the magnitude of difference between the treatments was reduced on day 32 due to a decrease in expression by RAC+ pigs and an increase in expression by the Zn pigs (Zn quadratic × day quadratic, P = 0.01). The ability of Zn to prolong the expression of these two genes may be responsible for the tendency of Zn to increase LEA in RAC supplemented pigs. PMID:26634949

  11. Effects of Supplemental Beta-mannanase on Digestible Energy and Metabolizable Energy Contents of Copra Expellers and Palm Kernel Expellers Fed to Pigs.

    PubMed

    Kwon, W B; Kim, B G

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of β-mannanase supplementation on digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of copra expellers (CE) and palm kernel expellers (PKE) fed to pigs. Six barrows with an initial body weight of 38.0 kg (standard deviation = 1.5) were randomly allotted to a 6×6 Latin square design with 6 dietary treatments and 6 periods. Six experimental diets were prepared in a 3×2 factorial treatment arrangement with 3 diets of a corn-soybean meal-based diet, a CE 30% diet, and a PKE 30% diet and with 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase at 0 or 2,400 U/kg. All diets had the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 2.88:1. The marker-to-marker procedure was used for fecal and urine collection with 4-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. No interactive effects were observed between diet and β-mannanase on energy digestibility and DE and ME contents of experimental diets. However, diets containing CE or PKE had less (p<0.05) DE and ME contents compared with the corn-soybean meal-based diet. The DE and ME contents in CE and PKE were not affected by supplemental β-mannanase. Taken together, we failed to find the effect of β-mannanase supplementation on energy utilization in CE and PKE fed to pigs. PMID:26104407

  12. Effects of Supplemental Beta-mannanase on Digestible Energy and Metabolizable Energy Contents of Copra Expellers and Palm Kernel Expellers Fed to Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, W. B.; Kim, B. G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of β-mannanase supplementation on digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of copra expellers (CE) and palm kernel expellers (PKE) fed to pigs. Six barrows with an initial body weight of 38.0 kg (standard deviation = 1.5) were randomly allotted to a 6×6 Latin square design with 6 dietary treatments and 6 periods. Six experimental diets were prepared in a 3×2 factorial treatment arrangement with 3 diets of a corn-soybean meal-based diet, a CE 30% diet, and a PKE 30% diet and with 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase at 0 or 2,400 U/kg. All diets had the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 2.88:1. The marker-to-marker procedure was used for fecal and urine collection with 4-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. No interactive effects were observed between diet and β-mannanase on energy digestibility and DE and ME contents of experimental diets. However, diets containing CE or PKE had less (p<0.05) DE and ME contents compared with the corn-soybean meal-based diet. The DE and ME contents in CE and PKE were not affected by supplemental β-mannanase. Taken together, we failed to find the effect of β-mannanase supplementation on energy utilization in CE and PKE fed to pigs. PMID:26104407

  13. Determination and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from the chemical composition of chinese corn gluten feed fed to finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, T T; Liu, D W; Huang, C F; Liu, L; Piao, X S; Wang, F L

    2014-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of corn gluten feed (CGF) for finishing pigs and to develop equations predicting the DE and ME content from the chemical composition of the CGF samples, as well as validate the accuracy of the prediction equations. In Exp. 1, ten CGF samples from seven provinces of China were collected and fed to 66 finishing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial body weight (BW) of 51.9±5.5 kg. The pigs were assigned to 11 diets comprising one basal diet and 10 CGF test diets with six pigs fed each diet. The basal diet contained corn (76%), dehulled soybean meal (21%) and premix (3%). The ten test diets were formulated by substituting 25% of the corn and dehulled soybean meal with CGF and contained corn (57%), dehulled soybean meal (15.75%), CGF (24.25%) and premix (3%). In Exp. 2, two additional CGF sources were collected as validation samples to test the accuracy of the prediction equations. In this experiment, 18 barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial BW of 61.1±4.0 kg were randomly allotted to be fed either the basal diet or two CGF containing diets which had a similar composition as used in Exp. 1. The DE and ME of CGF ranged from 10.37 to 12.85 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM) and 9.53 to 12.49 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Through stepwise regression analysis, several prediction equations of DE and ME were generated. The best fit equations were: DE, MJ/kg of DM = 18.30-0.13 neutral detergent fiber-0.22 ether extract, with R(2) = 0.95, residual standard deviation (RSD) = 0.21 and p<0.01; and ME, MJ/kg of DM = 12.82+0.11 Starch-0.26 acid detergent fiber, with R(2) = 0.94, RSD = 0.20 and p<0.01. These results indicate that the DE and ME content of CGF varied substantially but the DE and ME for finishing pigs can be accurately predicted from equations based on nutritional analysis. PMID:25050026

  14. Effects of production area and microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sotak-Peper, K M; González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2016-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if the area in which soybeans are grown influences the concentration of P, phytate, and macro- and microminerals in the soybean meal (SBM) produced from the beans and, therefore, also influences the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in SBM. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that inclusion of microbial phytase will increase the ATTD and STTD of P in SBM regardless of where the beans were grown. Twenty sources of SBM were procured from crushing facilities located in different regions of the United States that were separated into 3 zones: 1) the northern growing area (Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota), 2) the eastern growing area (Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio), and 3) the western growing area (Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska). For each source of SBM, 2 diets based on cornstarch and SBM were formulated; one of these diets contained no microbial phytase and the other diet contained 500 units/kg of microbial phytase. Two hundred growing barrows (16.90 ± 1.79 kg initial BW) were individually placed in metabolism crates and allotted to a randomized complete block design with 40 diets and 5 replicate pigs per treatment. Feces were collected for 4 d after a 4-d adaptation period using the marker-to-marker procedure. Results indicated that there were no differences in concentration of Ca, P, phytate, and macro- and microminerals among SBM from the different zones. However, there was a tendency ( = 0.055) for an increase in concentration of nonphytate P in SBM from the western growing area (0.25%) compared with SBM from the northern growing area (0.23%) and the eastern growing area (0.23%). There were no differences in feed intake, absorbed P, ATTD of P, STTD of P, Ca intake, Ca output, or ATTD of Ca for pigs fed SBM from the 3 zones. However, there was a tendency (P = 0.066) for an increase in P intake and P output from pigs fed SBM from the

  15. Studies on the bioavailability of deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in pigs fed with sodium sulfite-treated DON-contaminated maize.

    PubMed

    Paulick, Marleen; Winkler, Janine; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-11-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate. PMID:26556376

  16. Studies on the Bioavailability of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON Sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in Pigs Fed with Sodium Sulfite-Treated DON-Contaminated Maize

    PubMed Central

    Paulick, Marleen; Winkler, Janine; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate. PMID:26556376

  17. Ileal digestibility of amino acids, phosphorus, phytate and energy in pigs fed sorghum-based diets supplemented with phytase and Pancreatin®.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, M; Gómez, R; Fierro, S; Barrera, M A; Morales, A; Araiza, B A; Zijlstra, R T; Sánchez, J E; Sauer, W C

    2011-04-01

    The effects of phytase supplementation on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) have been inconsistent. Two experiments evaluated the effect of providing a mixture of pancreatic enzymes (Pancreatin(®) ) to growing pigs fed sorghum-soybean meal diets supplemented with phytase on the AID of AA, energy, and phosphorus (P), as well as the ileal digestibility (ID) of phytate; there were four periods per experiment. In Experiment 1, eight pigs (BW 22.1±1.3 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Each period consisted of 9 days; 7 days for diet adaptation, and 2 days for digesta collection. Treatments (T) were: (i) basal sorghum-soybean meal diet, (ii) basal diet plus Pancreatin®, (iii) basal diet plus phytase and (iv) basal diet plus phytase and Pancreatin®. Phytase increased the digestibilities of phytate and P (p<0.001), but did not affect the AID of AA and energy (p>0.10). Except for methionine (p=0.07), Pancreatin® did not affect the AID of AA. Phytase and Pancreatin® did not interact (p>0.10). Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1, but Pancreatin® was infused into duodenum. Pancreatin® infusion did not affect the AID of AA (p>0.10); and tended to reduce (p=0.09) the AID of lysine. Phytase × Pancreatin® interactions were not observed (p>0.10). In conclusion, phytase and Pancreatin® did not improve the AID of AA in growing pigs fed sorghum-soybean meal diets indicating that phytates did not affect AA digestibility. PMID:20666859

  18. Fecal microbiome of growing pigs fed a cereal based diet including chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) forage.

    SciTech Connect

    Dicksved J, Johan; Jansson, Janet K.; Lindberg , Jan E.

    2015-12-18

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how inclusion of chicory forage or ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet influenced the fecal microbial community (microbiome) in newly weaned (35 days of age) piglets. The piglets were fed a cereal-based diet without (B) and with inclusion (80 and 160 g/kg air-dry forage) of vegetative shoots of chicory (C) and leaves of ribwort (R) forage in a 35-day growth trial. Fecal samples were collected at the start (D0), 17 (D17) and 35 (D35) days after weaning and profiles of the microbial consortia were generated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). 454-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to analyze the microbial composition in a subset of the samples already analyzed with T-RFLP. RESULTS: The microbial clustering pattern was primarily dependent on age of the pigs, but diet effects could also be observed. Lactobacilli and enterobacteria were more abundant at D0, whereas the genera Streptococcus, Treponema, Clostridium, Clostridiaceae1 and Coprococcus were present in higher abundances at D35. Pigs fed ribwort had an increased abundance of sequences classified as Treponema and a reduction in lactobacilli. However, the abundance of Prevotellaceae increased with age in on both the chicory and the ribwort diet. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the abundance of Bacteroides and the digested amount of galactose, uronic acids and total non-starch polysaccharides, and between the abundance of Bacteroidales and the digested amount of xylose. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that both chicory and ribwort inclusion in the diet of newly weaned pigs influenced the composition of the fecal microbiota and that digestion of specific dietary components was correlated with species composition of the microbiota. Moreover, this study showed that the gut will be exposed to a dramatic shift in the microbial community structure several weeks after weaning.

  19. True and standardized total tract phosphorus digestibility in canola meals from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, P A; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) fed to growing pigs. Fifty-four barrows with an initial BW of 19.9 ± 0.22 kg (mean ± SEM) were allocated in 3 consecutive blocks to 1 of 9 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design to give 6 replicate pigs per diet. Dietary treatments were cornstarch based with increasing concentrations of P, that is, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, and 3.3 g/kg (as-fed basis) from either BNB or BJY as the sole source of P and a gelatin-based P-free diet. Limestone was added to maintain a Ca:total P ratio of 1.2:1 in all diets. All diets contained titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) as an indigestible marker. Daily feed allowance was calculated to supply 2.6 times the maintenance energy requirement based on the BW at the beginning of each period and offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h as a dry mash. Pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed experimental diets for 16 d, including 9 d for adaptation to feed and 5 d for total but separate collection of feces and urine. The apparent total tract digestibility values of P increased from 19.0 to 30.0% for BNB and from 17.3 to 28.3% for BJY as the dietary P content increased from 0.8 to 3.3 g/kg DM. The TTTD of P was determined using the regression analysis as dietary P content increased from 0.8 to 3.3 g/kg whereas the STTD of P was calculated for the diet with the highest P content (i.e., 3.3 g/kg, as-fed basis) using the P-free diet to estimate endogenous P losses (EPL). The total and basal EPL estimates obtained with regression analysis and the P-free diet were 665 ± 0.03 and 209 ± 96 mg/kg DMI, respectively. The TTTD of P was 33.3 and 32.0% in BNB and BJY, respectively. Respective STTD values were 31.0 and 28.3%. The results indicated that the TTTD and STTD of P were comparable in the 2 canola meals from BNB and BJY

  20. Gene expression, serum amino acid levels, and growth performance of pigs fed dietary leucine and lysine at different ratios.

    PubMed

    García, H; Morales, A; Araiza, A; Htoo, J K; Cervantes, M

    2015-01-01

    We examined 96 pigs (28.1 ± 0.83 kg) to analyze the effect of Leu:Lys ratios on expression of the cationic amino acid transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in the jejunum and liver as well as myosin expression in 2 muscles to estimate the optimum standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu:Lys ratio for growth rate and efficiency. A wheat-and wheat bran-based diets were formulated to meet the requirements of SID amino acids other than Leu (0.70%) and Lys (0.80%). L-Leu was added to the basal diet in 5 SID Leu:Lys ratios (88, 100, 120, 140, and 160% in diets 1-5). Tissue samples were collected from 8 pigs with ratios of 88, 120, and 160%. Relative expression of b(0,+), CAT-1, and myosin was analyzed. b(0,+) expression in the jejunum was higher but lower in the liver of pigs with the 120% ratio compared to those with the 88 or 160% ratio; myosin expression in longissimus dorsi was also higher in pigs with the 120% ratio (P < 0.05). CAT-1 was lower in the jejunum and longissimus dorsi of pigs with 120 or 160% ratios than in pigs with 88%. Serum concentration of nearly all amino acids decreased with excess dietary Leu (P < 0.05). The SID Leu:Lys of 104 and 109% optimized average daily gain and feed conversion ratio, respectively. Thus, the dietary Leu:Lys ratio affects the expression of genes coding for amino acid transporters and myosin, the availability of Lys, and the growth rate and efficiency in pigs. PMID:25867302

  1. Route of tracer administration does not affect ileal endogenous nitrogen recovery measured with the 15N-isotope dilution technique in pigs fed rapidly digestible diets.

    PubMed

    Steendam, C A Carina; Verstegen, Martin W A; Tamminga, Seerp; Boer, Huug; van 't End, Marianne; Verstappen, Berthe; Caine, William R; Visser, G Henk

    2004-11-01

    The (15)N-isotope dilution technique ((15)N-IDT), with either pulse-dose oral administration or continuous i.v. administration of [(15)N]-l-leucine (carotid artery), both at 5 mg/(kg body weight . d), was used to measure ileal (postvalve T-cecum cannula) endogenous nitrogen recovery (ENR) in pigs (9 +/- 0.6 kg). Diets were cornstarch, enzyme-hydrolyzed casein with no (control) or high (4%) content of quebracho extract (Schinopsis spp.) rich in condensed tannins. Blood was sampled from a catheter in the external jugular vein. Mean plasma (15)N-enrichment at d 8-10 was higher (P = 0.0009) after i.v. than after oral administration [0.0356 vs. 0.0379 atom% excess (APE)]. Plasma (15)N-enrichment for i.v. infused pigs was 0.01117 APE higher (P < 0.0001) and for orally dosed pigs 0.0081 APE lower (P < 0.0001) at 11 h postprandial compared with 1 h postprandial. Apparent ileal N digestibility was higher (P < 0.0001) for the control (85.5%) than for the quebracho diet (69.5%). ENR was calculated from the ratio of (15)N-enrichment of plasma and digesta. The ENR for the quebracho diet was approximately 300% higher than for the control diet (6.03 vs. 1.94 g/kg dry matter intake, P < 0.001). The real N digestibility (92.2 +/- 0.4%) was equal for both diets (P = 0.1030) and both tracer methods (P = 0.9730). We concluded that oral administration of [(15)N]leucine provides reasonable estimates of ENR in pigs fed semipurified diets with high or low content of tannins; however, one must be careful in extrapolating this conclusion to studies with other protein sources or feeding frequencies. PMID:15514277

  2. Effects of pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing different levels of fiber and fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rojas, O J; Vinyeta, E; Stein, H H

    2016-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects of pelleting, extrusion, and extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing low, medium, or high concentrations of fiber. Three diets were formulated: 1) the low-fiber diet contained corn and soybean meal; 2) the medium-fiber diet contained corn, soybean meal, and 25% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS); and 3) the high-fiber diet contained corn, soybean meal, 25% DDGS, and 20% soybean hulls. Each diet was divided into 4 batches after mixing. One batch was not further processed and was fed in a meal form, one batch was pelleted at 85°C, one batch was extruded at 115°C using a single-screw extruder, and one batch was extruded at 115°C and then pelleted at 85°C. Thus, 12 different diets were produced. Twenty-four growing pigs (26.5 ± 1.5 kg initial BW) had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum and were allotted to the 12 diets in a split-plot design with 8 pigs allotted to the low-fiber diets, the medium-fiber diets, and the high-fiber diets, respectively. Diets were fed to the pigs during four 14-d periods. Within each type of diet, the 8 pigs were fed the diets produced using the 4 processing technologies. Therefore, there were 8 replicate pigs per diet. Pigs were adjusted to their diets for 14 d before the experiment was initiated. Each of the four 14-d periods consisted of 5 d for adaptation, 5 d of fecal collection according to the marker to marker approach, and ileal digesta were collected on d 13 and 14. Results indicated that pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting improved ( < 0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility of starch and most indispensable AA. In most cases, there were no differences between the pelleted, the extruded, and the extruded and pelleted diets. The apparent total tract digestibility of GE was also improved ( < 0.05) by pelleting and by the combination of extrusion and pelleting. The ME of pelleted diets was greater ( < 0.05) than

  3. Comparison of dietary selenium fed to grower-finisher pigs from various regions of the United States on resulting tissue Se and loin mineral concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mahan, D C; Brendemuhl, J H; Carter, S D; Chiba, L I; Crenshaw, T D; Cromwell, G L; Dove, C R; Harper, A F; Hill, G M; Hollis, G R; Kim, S W; Lindemann, M D; Maxwell, C V; Miller, P S; Nelssen, J L; Richert, B T; Southern, L L; Stahly, T S; Stein, H H; van Heugten, E; Yen, J T

    2005-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the mineral content of pork tissue with particular emphasis on Se between various states (regions) having different diet (grain) indigenous Se concentrations. The study involved 19 states in the north, central, and southern regions of the United States, with committee members of NCR-42 and S-1012 (formerly S-288). A total of 62 pigs were used, with collaborators sending 100-g samples each of loin, heart, and liver, and a 3- to 4-g sample of hair (collected along the topline) from two to five market-weight pigs to a common laboratory for analysis. Diets at each station were formulated with locally purchased soybean meal and grain that was either grown or normally fed to pigs within their state. Tissues were analyzed for Se, but only the loin was analyzed for the macro- and micromineral elements. Correlation of dietary minerals to the tissue element was determined. The results demonstrated differences in tissue Se among states (P < 0.01), with high correlations of dietary Se to loin (r = 0.84; P < 0.01), heart (r = 0.84; P < 0.01), liver (r = 0.83; P < 0.01), and hair Se (r = 0.90; P < 0.01) concentrations. The correlation of hair Se to the Se concentration of loin, heart, and liver tissues was high (r > 0.90; P < 0.01). States in the west-central region of the United States and west of the Mississippi river had higher dietary Se and tissue Se concentrations than states in the eastern section of the Corn Belt, east of the Mississippi river, and along the East Coast. Generally, states did not differ greatly in their loin macro- and micromineral concentrations. The simple correlation of dietary minerals to their corresponding loin mineral concentration was generally non-significant, but most macrominerals had decreasing mineral concentrations when the dietary mineral level was higher. These results indicate that regional differences in tissue Se were influenced more by the indigenous Se content of the diet (grain) fed to the pigs than

  4. Response of early-weaned pigs to an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) challenge when fed diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma or pea protein isolate plus egg yolk antibody, zinc oxide, fumaric acid, or antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Asiedu, A; Nyachoti, C M; Marquardt, R R

    2003-07-01

    The effect of feeding diets containing either spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) or pea protein-isolate (PPI) supplemented with either egg yolk antibodies (EYA) from hens immunized with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (K88 and F18) antigens, ZnO, fumaric acid (FA), or carbadox (AB) on pig performance, incidence of scours, and gut morphology was studied in a 14-d experiment. Ninety 10-d-old weaned pigs were assigned to six dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to give five pens per treatment with three pigs per pen. The diets were SDPP without EYA (SDPP - EYA), PPI without EYA (PPI - EYA), PPI with EYA (PPI + EYA), PPI with ZnO (PPI + ZnO), PPI with FA (PPI + FA), or PPI with AB (PPI + AB). Diets were formulated to similar nutrient levels, with AB, EYA, FA, and ZnO at 0.25, 0.5, 2.0, and 0.4% of the diet, respectively. Pigs were weighed and bled on d 0, 7, and 14 to determine plasma urea N (PUN). Pigs were orally challenged with a 6-mL dose of 10(10) cfu/mL ETEC (K88) on d 7. On d 14, three pigs per treatment were killed to obtain sections of the small intestine for histological measurements. Weekly feed intake, BW changes, and gain:feed were determined. Incidence of scours and scour scores were monitored and fecal swabs were taken before and after ETEC challenge for PCR test to detect ETEC (K88). Feeding SDPP or supplementing PPI-based diets with EYA, ZnO, FA, or AB did not affect (P > 0.05) ADG, ADFI (as-fed basis), or gain:feed throughout the study. However, pigs fed PPI - EYA tended to have lower (P = 0.08) ADFI during wk 2 (137.9 g/d) and lower (P < 0.10) ADG from d 0 to 14 (100.1 g/d) than those fed the SDPP - EYA (156.6 g/d), PPI + EYA (151.2 g/d), PPI + ZnO (158.9 g/ d), PPI + FA (155.4 g/d), and PPI + AB (152.6 g/d) diets. Although scours was evident in all pigs 8 h after the ETEC challenge, it lasted only 3 to 5 d in pigs fed SDPP or PPI supplemented with EYA, ZnO, FA, or AB. Pigs fed PPI - EYA continued to have severe diarrhea

  5. A comparison of the effect of water-delivered direct fed microbials or organic acids with an in-feed antibiotic on weanling pig growth performance, intestinal morphology, gut microbiota and immune status following a...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs (n=88) weaned at 19 days of age were used in a 14-days experiment to compare the effects of water delivered direct fed microbials (DFM) or a propionic acid (PA) based blend with an in-feed antibiotic on growth performance, intestinal morphology, gut microbiota and immune status following a Salm...

  6. Exogenous and endogenous contributions to nitrogen fluxes in the digestive tract of pigs fed a casein diet. III. Recycling of endogenous nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Souffrant, W B; Rérat, A; Laplace, J P; Darcy-Vrillon, B; Köhler, R; Corring, T; Gebhardt, G

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the incorporation of infused 15N in blood fractions, urine, digesta, faeces and in the exocrine pancreatic and biliary secretions, in order to estimate the endogenous part of nitrogen in the ileal digesta and in the faeces of pigs fed a casein diet and to calculate the total endogenous nitrogen secretion as well as its recycling in the digestive tract. For 8 d 11 Large White female pigs (50.1 +/- 1.8 kg) received a continuous infusion of L-[15N]leucine via a catheter in the jugular vein. The 15N-enrichment was measured in several fractions. The 15N-level of the pancreatic juice was higher than that in the biliary secretion, TCA-blood fractions, and urine during the whole experimental period. Using the 15N-isotope dilution method it was found that casein was completely digested up to the terminal ileum and that all the nitrogen in the ileal digesta was of endogenous origin. The total endogenous secretion was estimated at approximately 11 g N/d. The reabsorption of endogenous nitrogen amounted to 79% up to the end of the small intestine and 88% over the whole digestive tract. PMID:8240681

  7. Nonprotein nitrogen is absorbed from the large intestine and increases nitrogen balance in growing pigs fed a valine-limiting diet.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Daniel A; Lapierre, Hélène; Htoo, John K; de Lange, Cornelis F M

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen absorption from the large intestine, largely as ammonia and possibly as amino acids (AAs), is generally thought to be of little nutritional value to nonruminant animals and humans. Ammonia-nitrogen absorbed from the large intestine, however, may be recycled into the small intestine as urea and incorporated into microbial AAs, which may then be used by the host. A cecal infusion study was performed to determine the form in which nitrogen is absorbed from the large intestine and the impact of large intestine nitrogen supply on nitrogen balance in growing pigs. Eighteen cecally cannulated barrows (initial body weight: 22.4 ± 1.2 kg) were used to determine the effect of supplying nitrogen into the large intestine from either casein or urea on whole-body nitrogen retention and urea kinetics. Treatments were cecal infusions of saline (control), casein, or urea with nitrogen infused at a rate of 40% of nitrogen intake. In a subsample of 9 pigs, (15)N(15)N-urea was infused via i.v. during the nitrogen-balance period to determine urea kinetics. All pigs were fed a valine-limiting cornstarch-soybean meal-based diet. More than 80% of infused nitrogen was apparently absorbed. Urea flux and urinary nitrogen excretion increased (P ≤ 0.05) by the same amount for both nitrogen sources, but this increase did not fully account for the increase in nitrogen absorption from the large intestine. Whole-body nitrogen retention improved with nitrogen infusions (129 vs. 114 g/d; P < 0.01) and did not differ (P > 0.05) between nitrogen sources. Absorption of nitrogen from the large intestine appears to be in the form of nonprotein nitrogen, which appears to be returned to the small intestine via urea and used there for microbial AA production and should therefore be considered when determining nitrogen and AA supply and requirements. PMID:24647394

  8. Apparent or Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids of Diets Containing Different Protein Feedstuffs Fed at Two Crude Protein Levels for Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Adebiyi, A. O.; Ragland, D.; Adeola, O.; Olukosi, O. A.

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined the apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids (AID or SID of AA) in growing pigs fed diets containing three protein feedstuffs with different fiber characteristics at two dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Twenty boars (Yorkshire×Landrace) with average initial body weight of 35 (±2.6) kg were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. These pigs were offered six diets containing soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM) or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) that were either adequate (19%) or marginal (15%) in CP using a triplicated 6×2 Youden Square Design. Except for Met, Trp, Cys, and Pro, AID of AA was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet. Apparent ileal digestibility for Gly and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the corn-DDGS diet. The AID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. Standardized ileal digestibility of AA was greater (p<0.05) in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet for all AA except Trp and Pro. The SID of Ile, Leu, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05) in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. It was concluded that protein feedstuff affects ileal AA digestibility and is closely related to dietary fiber characteristics, and a 4-percentage unit reduction in dietary CP had no effect on ileal AA digestibility in growing pigs. PMID:26194226

  9. Response of early-weaned pigs to an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) challenge when fed diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma or pea protein isolate plus egg yolk antibody.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Asiedu, A; Nyachoti, C M; Baidoo, S K; Marquardt, R R; Yang, X

    2003-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infection and resulting scours is a major problem for young pigs, especially when purified plant proteins are fed rather than spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP). The effect of supplementing a pea protein isolate (PPI)-based diet with egg yolk antibodies (EYA) from laying hens immunized with ETEC K88 antigen on piglet performance, incidence of scours, and gut histology was studied in a 14-d trial. Ninety-six 10-d-old weaned pigs were assigned to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design to give six replicate pens per treatment. The treatments were PPI without EYA (PPI-EYA), PPI with EYA (PPI+EYA), SDPP without EYA (SDPP-EYA), SDPP with EYA (SDPP+EYA), or a combination of PPI and SDPP (PPI+SDPP). Diets were formulated to similar nutrient levels and provided for ad libitum intake. Blood from all pigs was taken on d 0, 7, and 14 for determining plasma urea N (PUN). On d 7, pigs were orally challenged with 6 mL of 10(10) cfu/ mL ETEC K88. Piglets were weighed on d 7 and 14. On d 7, 8, and 14, four pigs per treatment were sacrificed to study the histology of the small intestine. Weekly feed intake, BW changes, and gain:feed were determined. Fecal swabs from 10 pigs per treatment were taken for a PCR test to detect K88 E. coli. Feed efficiency over the 14-d period was not affected (P > 0.78) by dietary treatment. Mean ADFI on an as-fed basis was lower (P < 0.002) in piglets fed PPI-EYA (64.3 g/d) compared with PPI+EYA (94.8 g/d) or SDPP (102 g/d) during wk 1. Piglets fed PPI-EYA tend to have a lower (P < 0.026) overall ADG (84 g/d) than those fed PPI+EYA (123 g/d) or SDPP (127 g/d) (P < 0.006)-based diets. Although scours was evident in all groups of pigs 6 h after the challenge, most of the piglets fed EYA- or SDPP-containing diets recovered 10 to 72 h postchallenge, whereas those fed PPI-EYA continued to have severe diarrhea, resulting in 33% mortality. The PCR results showed that a greater (P < 0.01) percentage of piglets

  10. Energy and Ileal Digestible Amino Acid Concentrations for Growing Pigs and Performance of Weanling Pigs Fed Fermented or Conventional Soybean Meal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Lu, W. Q.; Li, D. F.; Liu, X. T.; Wang, H. L.; Niu, S.; Piao, X. S.

    2014-01-01

    A new strategy of co-inoculating Bacillus subtilis MA139 with Streptococcus thermophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to produce fermented soybean meal (FSBM). Three experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) (Exp. 1), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) (Exp. 2), and feeding value (Exp. 3) of FSBM produced by this new strategy (NFSB) compared with soybean meal (SBM) and conventionally available FSBM (Suprotein). In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows (initial body weight [BW] of 32.2 ±1.7 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets with 6 replicates per diet. A corn basal diet and 3 diets based on a mixture of corn and 1 of 3 soybean products listed above were formulated and the DE and ME contents were determined by the difference method. The results showed that there were no differences in DE and ME between SBM and either FSBM product (p>0.05). In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 26.8±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulaes and used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three corn-starch-based diets were formulated using each of the 3 soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. The results showed that the SID of all AA except arginine and histidine was similar for NFSB and SBM (p>0.05), but Suprotein had greater (p<0.05) SID of most AA except lysine, aspartate, glycine and proline than NFSB. In Exp. 3, a total of 144 piglets (initial BW of 8.8±1.2 kg) were blocked by weight and fed 1 of 4 diets including a control diet with 24% SBM as well as diets containing 6% and 12% NFSB or 12% Suprotein added at the expense of SBM. During d 15 to 28, replacing SBM with 6% NFSB significantly improved average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) for nursery piglets. During the overall experiment, ADG of piglets fed diets containing

  11. Growth performance and pork fat quality as measured by three methods of pigs fed 20% DDGS and slaughtered using a standard industry split marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Shircliff, K E; Callahan, Z D; Wilmoth, T A; Ohman, C E; Johnson, R C; Wiegand, B R

    2015-10-01

    A total of 40 pens containing 22 crossbred barrows (initial BW = 43.07 ± 1.61 kg; PIC 1050 × PIC 337 genetics) were housed in a commercial wean to finish facility. Pens were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 0% or 20%) and chosen for 1 of 3 marketing cuts removing 4, 8, and 10 animals from each pen. Fat tissue samples were removed from the anterior tip of the jowl and posterior to the sternum on the belly edge 1d postmortem. Fatty acid composition was determined via the Folch method, and iodine values (IV) were calculated from chemical titrations, fatty acid profile (GC IV), and in-plant Bruker near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Pearson's correlation coefficients for IV determination methods were estimated. Inclusion of 20% DDGS did not change ( > 0.05) growth performance, whereas marketing cut affected performance, with the second cut producing the most efficient pigs ( < 0.01). Total SFA and MUFA concentrations were higher ( < 0.01) in belly and jowl fat from pigs fed 0% DDGS. Total PUFA and the PUFA:SFA in belly and jowl fat was higher ( < 0.01) when 20% DDGS was fed. Dried distillers grains with solubles inclusion increased IV in belly and jowl as determined by all 3 methods. Regardless of dietary treatment or fat depot, Pearson correlation coefficients between titration and GC IV, titration and NIR, and GC IV and NIR were 0.46 ( < 0.01), 0.68 ( < 0.01), and 0.43 ( < 0.01), respectively. These correlations suggest methods may rank samples equally but do not provide the same absolute IV. Belly fat had a lower IV ( < 0.01) than jowl fat using titration or GC IV methods, suggesting pigs have varied degrees of physiological maturity at specific fat depots when weight end points are used during the finishing phase. In conclusion, feeding 20% DDGS negatively affected fat quality but not growth performance, and marketing time changed growth performance. PMID:26523600

  12. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio required for 25- to 120-kilogram pigs fed low crude protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, X T; Ma, W F; Zeng, X F; Xie, C Y; Thacker, P A; Htoo, J K; Qiao, S Y

    2015-10-01

    Four 28-d experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) valine (Val) to lysine (Lys) ratio required for 26- to 46- (Exp. 1), 49- to 70- (Exp. 2), 71- to 92- (Exp. 3), and 94- to 119-kg (Exp. 4) pigs fed low CP diets supplemented with crystalline AA. The first 3 experiments utilized 150 pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White), while Exp. 4 utilized 90 finishing pigs. Pigs in all 4 experiments were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 diets with 6 pens per treatment (3 pens of barrows and 3 pens of gilts) and 5 pigs per pen for the first 3 experiments and 3 pigs per pen for Exp. 4. Diets for all experiments were formulated to contain SID Val to Lys ratios of 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, 0.70, or 0.75. In Exp. 1 (26 to 46 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.039; quadratic, = 0.042) with an increasing dietary Val:Lys ratio. The SID Val:Lys ratio to maximize ADG was 0.62 using a linear broken-line model and 0.71 using a quadratic model. In Exp. 2 (49 to 70 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.021; quadratic, = 0.042) as the SID Val:Lys ratio increased. G:F improved (linear, = 0.039) and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) decreased (linear, = 0.021; quadratic, = 0.024) with an increased SID Val:Lys ratio. The SID Val:Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.67 and 0.65, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 and 0.71, respectively, using a quadratic model. In Exp. 3 (71 to 92 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.007; quadratic, = 0.022) and SUN decreased (linear, = 0.011; quadratic, = 0.034) as the dietary SID Val:Lys ratio increased. The SID Val:Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.67 and 0.67, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 and 0.74, respectively, using a quadratic model. In Exp. 4 (94 to 119 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.041) and G:F was improved (linear, = 0.004; quadratic, = 0.005) as the dietary SID Val:Lys ratio increased. The SID Val:Lys ratio to maximize G:F was 0

  13. Effect on fecal output of various dietary nitrogen sources in pig-tailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) fed fiber-free, semisynthetic diets.

    PubMed

    Spiller, G A; Saperstein, S; Beigler, M A; Amen, R J

    1975-05-01

    Fiber-free liquid diets containing isonitrogenous amounts of various dietary nitrogen sources were fed to five adult male pig-tailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) with a mean weight of approximately 10 kg. All liquid diets supplied 3.0 g N/DAY PER MONKEY AND MAINTAINED THE ANIMALS IN A POSTIVE NITROGEN BALANCE. Initial baseline fecal output data were obtained by feeding the animals a commercial solid monkey chow. The dietary nitrogen sources fed were a) egg white protein, b) an enzymatic hydrolysate of fish protein supplemented with L-amino acids to simulate the egg albumin pattern, c) a mixture of pure L-amino acids simulating the egg pattern, d) a casein hydrolysate supplemented with amino acids, and e) an amino acid mixture with Rose's pattern. Total fecal matter, dry fecal matter, percent of moisture, fecal nitrogen, lipids and ash were determined for a 10-day period for each experimental diet. A very significant difference (P smaller than 0.001) was noted between each liquid diet and the solid chow, but no significant differences were found between the various fiber-free liquid diets, pointing to the effect of fiber as a major factor affecting fecal output. Monkeys fed liquid diets excreted fecal matter with a mean of 12.9 g/day, of which 4.7 g/day was dry feces (fecal dry matter 28.5%). Fecal nitrogen was found to be 0.25 g, fecal lipids were 0.19 g, and fecal ash was 0.59 g/day per monkey, respectively. PMID:1130309

  14. Influence of orally fed a select mixture of Bacillus probiotics on intestinal T-cell migration in weaned MUC4 resistant pigs following Escherichia coli challenge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui-Yan; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dong; Zhai, Cong-Cong; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient strategies for treating enteritis caused by F4(+) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)/verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)/enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in mucin 4 resistant (MUC4 RR; supposed to be F4ab/ac receptor-negative [F4ab/acR(-)]) pigs remain elusive. A low (3.9 × 10(8) CFU/day) or high (7.8 × 10(8) CFU/day) dose of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis spore mixture (BLS-mix) was orally administered to MUC4 RR piglets for 1 week before F4(+) ETEC/VTEC/EPEC challenge. Orally fed BLS-mix upregulated the expression of TLR4, NOD2, iNOS, IL-8, and IL-22 mRNAs in the small intestine of pigs challenged with E. coli. Expression of chemokine CCL28 and its receptor CCR10 mRNAs was upregulated in the jejunum of pigs pretreated with high-dose BLS-mix. Low-dose BLS-mix pretreatment induced an increase in the proportion of peripheral blood CD4(-)CD8(-) T-cell subpopulations and high-dose BLS-mix induced the expansion of CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells in the inflamed intestine. Immunostaining revealed that considerable IL-7Rα-expressing cells accumulated at the lamina propria of the inflamed intestines after E. coli challenge, even in pigs pretreated with either low- or high-dose BLS-mix, although Western blot analysis of IL-7Rα expression in the intestinal mucosa did not show any change. Our data indicate that oral administration of the probiotic BLS-mix partially ameliorates E. coli-induced enteritis through facilitating upregulation of intestinal IL-22 and IκBα expression, and preventing loss of intestinal epithelial barrier integrity via elevating ZO-1 expression. However, IL-22 also elicits an inflammatory response in inflamed intestines as a result of infection with enteropathogenic bacteria. PMID:27424033

  15. Preterm labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain during pregnancy Obesity Problems with the placenta, uterus, or cervix that can lead to preterm ... uterus is not normal Poor function of the placenta, placental abruption, and placenta previa

  16. Preterm Labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies ... you might be having preterm labor, contact your health care provider. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human ...

  17. Selection of Fecal Enterococci Exhibiting tcrB-Mediated Copper Resistance in Pigs Fed Diets Supplemented with Copper † ▿

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, R. G.; Shelton, N. W.; Shi, X.; Vinasco, J.; Dritz, S. S.; Tokach, M. D.; Nelssen, J. L.; Scott, H. M.; Nagaraja, T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Copper, as copper sulfate, is increasingly used as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics for growth promotion in weaned piglets. Acquired copper resistance, conferred by a plasmid-borne, transferable copper resistance (tcrB) gene, has been reported in Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis. A longitudinal field study was undertaken to determine the relationship between copper supplementation and the prevalence of tcrB-positive enterococci in piglets. The study was done with weaned piglets, housed in 10 pens with 6 piglets per pen, fed diets supplemented with a normal (16.5 ppm; control) or an elevated (125 ppm) level of copper. Fecal samples were randomly collected from three piglets per pen on days 0, 14, 28, and 42 and plated on M-Enterococcus agar, and three enterococcal isolates were obtained from each sample. The overall prevalence of tcrB-positive enterococci was 21.1% (38/180) in piglets fed elevated copper and 2.8% (5/180) in the control. Among the 43 tcrB-positive isolates, 35 were E. faecium and 8 were E. faecalis. The mean MICs of copper for tcrB-negative and tcrB-positive enterococci were 6.2 and 22.2 mM, respectively. The restriction digestion of the genomic DNA of E. faecium or E. faecalis with S1 nuclease yielded a band of ∼194-kbp size to which both tcrB and the erm(B) gene probes hybridized. A conjugation assay demonstrated cotransfer of tcrB and erm(B) genes between E. faecium and E. faecalis strains. The higher prevalence of tcrB-positive enterococci in piglets fed elevated copper compared to that in piglets fed normal copper suggests that supplementation of copper in swine diets selected for resistance. PMID:21705534

  18. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    PubMed

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P < 0.05) the ATTD of DM, CP, and GE compared with those fed nonsupplemented diets irrespective of canola meal type. Diets containing 25% canola meal had lower (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, CP, and GE regardless of canola meal type compared with the 20

  19. Preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to vary from 11% to 22%, depending on the age group of mothers studied, and is highest in teenage mothers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in women at high risk of preterm delivery? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome after preterm rupture of membranes? What are the effects of treatments to stop contractions in preterm labour? What are the effects of elective compared with selective caesarean delivery for women in preterm labour? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome in preterm delivery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes, antenatal corticosteroids, antibiotic treatment, bed rest, beta-mimetics, calcium channel blockers, elective caesarean, enhanced antenatal care programmes, magnesium sulphate, oxytocin receptor antagonists (atosiban), progesterone

  20. Parenteral and enteral feeding in preterm piglets differently affects extracellular matrix proteins, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Oste, Marijke; De Vos, Maartje; Van Haver, Els; Van Brantegem, Leen; Thymann, Thomas; Sangild, Per; Weyns, Andre; Van Ginneken, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The preterm intestine is immature and responds differently to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and enteral nutrition, compared with the term intestine. We hypothesised that in preterms, diet composition and feeding route affect mucosal morphology, enterocyte mitosis and apoptosis, and the distribution of laminin-1, fibronectin and collagen IV (extracellular matrix proteins (ECMP)). Preterm piglets (93.5 % of gestation) were delivered via caesarean section and birth weight-matched allocated to one of the four experimental groups: the piglets were either euthanised immediately after delivery, after 3 d of TPN or after 2 d enteral feeding with colostrum or milk formula, following 3 d of TPN. We combined immunohistochemistry, image analysis and stereological measurements to describe the intestinal mucosal layer. No significant changes occurred after 3 d of TPN. Feeding colostrum or milk replacer for 2 d after TPN was associated with an increased crypt depth. Only enteral feeding with colostrum resulted in an increased villus height and mitotic index. Neither TPN nor enteral feeding changed the distribution pattern of ECMP or the occurrence of bifid crypts. The immature distribution pattern of ECMP in TPN-fed piglets, coupled with unchanged enterocyte mitosis and apoptosis indices, illustrates that feeding preterm pigs 3 d TPN does not lead to mucosal atrophy. Despite the invariable distribution of ECMP, colostrum was associated with crypt hyperplasia resulting in an increased villus height. These data illustrate that some mechanisms regulating cell turnover are immature in preterms and may in part explain the abnormal gut responses to TPN and enteral feeding in prematurely born pigs. PMID:20887647

  1. Guar gum effects on plasma low-density lipoprotein and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in guinea pigs fed low- and high-cholesterol diets: a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M L; Sun, D M; Tosca, M; McNamara, D J

    1995-01-01

    Guinea pigs were fed semipurified diets containing either 0% or 12.5% guar gum (GG) with 0.04% cholesterol or increasing concentrations of GG (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 12.5%) with 0.25% cholesterol (by wt). Compared to the 0% GG diet with 0.04% cholesterol, intake of the 12.5% GG diet with 0.04% cholesterol lowered plasma low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations, the ratio of LDL cholesteryl ester to protein, hepatic cholesterol concentrations, and the activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), and increased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase activity and hepatic apo B/E receptor number (P < 0.01). Intake of GG by animals fed 0.25% cholesterol diets resulted in modest effects on hepatic cholesterol pools and plasma LDL concentrations; however, significant negative correlations were found between both plasma LDL cholesterol and hepatic free cholesterol concentrations with the amount of dietary GG (P < 0.05). Hepatic HMG-CoA reductase was suppressed by the 0.25% cholesterol intake, and GG did not reverse this suppression. In contrast, ACAT activity was negatively correlated with the amount of dietary GG (P < 0.05), and GG intake increased the number of hepatic apo B/E receptors at all intakes with the 0.25% cholesterol diets. These results demonstrate that intake of GG significantly alters endogenous cholesterol metabolism by decreasing hepatic cholesterol pools, altering hepatic cholesterol homeostasis, and reducing plasma LDL concentrations. PMID:7825524

  2. Effect of diet grinding and pelleting fed either dry or liquid feed on dry matter and pH in the stomach of pigs and the development of gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Mösseler, A; Wintermann, M; Sander, S J; Kamphues, J

    2012-12-01

    The physical form of diets has a marked impact on the development of gastric ulcers in pigs. Earlier studies showed effects of fine grinding and pelleting on the integrity of gastric mucosa as well as on local intragastric milieu. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dry or liquid feeding on intragastric milieu (DM and pH) in pigs. The 23 piglets were housed individually and fed with test diets and water ad lib for 6 wk. Both experimental diets [coarsely ground diet fed as mash (CM) vs. finely ground pelleted diet (FP)] were identical in ingredients (39.5% wheat, 34% barley, 20% soybean meal) and chemical composition and were either offered dry or in liquid (25% DM) form. At the end of the trial the animals were slaughtered; the stomach was removed and samples were taken from different localizations. Feeding diets dry or liquid had no effect on the pH (P > 0.05). The diet noticeably affected the gastric content. The FP diets resulted in a more liquid chyme (P < 0.05), and the intragastric pH did not differ between regions. Feeding CM caused marked effects of localization regarding pH (highest values: pars nonglandularis; lowest values: fundus). None of the pigs fed CM showed signs of gastric ulcers, but the score was markedly higher (P < 0.05) when pigs were fed FP. Therefore the predominant factor for development of gastric ulcers seems to be the structure (particle size) of the diet. PMID:23365374

  3. Serum and tissue thiocyanate concentrations in growing pigs fed cassava peel or corn based diets containing graded protein levels.

    PubMed

    Tewe, O O

    1984-11-01

    Thiocyanate concentrations of serum, liver, kidney, spleen and longissimus dorsi were determined in 64 growing Large White x Landrace pigs offered 8 experimental isocaloric diets containing different levels of cassava peel and crude protein. Cassava peel increased serum thiocyanate on day 60 (P less than 0.01) and day 90 (P less than 0.01) of the trial, while the crude protein level increased it (P less than 0.05) on days 30 and 90, respectively. Interaction of the two factors was significant on day 30 (P less than 0.05) and day 90 (P less than 0.05). There was a correlation between cyanide intake and serum thiocyanate level. Coefficient of determination revealed that cyanide alone accounted for 28.5; 60.6 and 48.8% variation in serum thiocyanate on days 30, 60 and 90, respectively. Liver, spleen and longissimus dorsi thiocyanate were affected by dietary protein intake (P less than 0.05). Thiocyanate concentration was higher (P less than 0.05) on cassava peel diet. Generally, crude protein at 5% reduced organ and muscle thiocyanate concentrations. A diet containing 112.2-117.3 mg/kg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) affected serum but not organ and muscle thiocyanate in protein-sufficient diets. PMID:6506092

  4. Physical meat quality and chemical composition of the Longissimus thoracis of entire and immunocastrated pigs fed varying dietary protein levels with and without ractopamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Needham, T; Hoffman, L C

    2015-12-01

    Physical and chemical attributes of the Longissimus thoracis (LT) of 96 PIC(©) entire (E) and immunocastrated (C) pigs were evaluated. The study followed a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design where three diets of low, medium and high proteins (7.50, 9.79 and 12.07 g digestible lysine/kg) were fed either with (10mg/kg) or without ractopamine (RAC) for the last 28 days of growth. Vaccination of C occurred at 16 and 20 weeks and slaughtering at 24 weeks of age. The LTs were analysed for moisture, protein, fat and ash contents as well as CIE L*, a*, b* colour, drip loss, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Various sex and protein interactions were observed for LT protein content, L* values and WBSF. Cooking loss was decreased in C and by the medium protein diet. Feeding RAC increased WBSF values, whilst decreasing a* and b* values. However, the differences observed are minor and might be considered negligible when evaluated by a consumer. PMID:26201695

  5. Differential molecular regulation of bile acid homeostasis by soy lipid induced phytosterolemia and fish oil lipid emulsions in TPN-fed preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged total parenteral nutrition (PN) may lead to cholestasis and liver disease (PNALD). The soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid) and its constituent phytosterols have been implicated in PNALD. Phytosterols may induce cholestasis by antagonism of the nuclear bile-acid receptor, FXR, lea...

  6. Limited effects of preterm birth and the first enteral nutrition on cerebellum morphology and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Andersen, Anders D; Pakkenberg, Bente; Rosenørn, Ann; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Thymann, Thomas; Greisen, Gorm O; Sanglid, Per T

    2016-07-01

    Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed in preterm pigs would be paralleled by both structural and molecular differences in the cerebellum relative to term born piglets. Cerebella were collected from term (n = 56) and preterm (90% gestation, n = 112) pigs at 0, 5, and 26 days after birth for stereological volume estimations, large-scale qPCR gene expression analyses (selected neurodevelopmental genes) and western blot protein expression analysis (Sonic Hedgehog pathway). Memory and learning was tested using a T-maze, documenting that preterm pigs showed delayed learning. Preterm pigs also showed reduced volume of both white and gray matter at all three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found, except consistently higher mRNA levels of Midkine, p75, and Neurotrophic factor 3 in the preterm cerebellum postnatally, probably reflecting an adaptive response to preterm birth. Pig cerebellar development appears more affected by postconceptional age than by environmental factors at birth or postnatally. Compensatory mechanisms following preterm birth may include faster white matter growth and increased expression of selected genes for neurotrophic factors and regulation of angiogenesis. While the pig cerebellum is immature in 90% gestation preterm pigs, it appears relatively mature and resilient toward environmental factors. PMID:27462071

  7. Xylanase increased the ileal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides and concentration of low molecular weight nondigestible carbohydrates in pigs fed high levels of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M B; Yu, S; Arent, S; Dalsgaard, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Lærke, H N

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of a commercially available xylanase (CAX), an experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP) on the degradation of nondigestible carbohydrates (NDC) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients in wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (wDDGS). The control and 3 enzyme diets contained 96% wDDGS supplemented with vitamins, minerals, L-lysine, and chromic oxide as a digestibility marker in addition to enzyme premix. Eight ileal cannulated pigs were fed 4 experimental diets containing 96% wDDGS-a control diet or 1 of 3 diets with CAX, EX, or EXP-in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental period lasted 7 d; adaptation lasted 4 d, and the ileal digesta were collected for 8 h on d 5 and 7, when spot samples of feces were also collected. Digesta samples were analyzed for NDC, total and soluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), low molecular weight (LMW) NDC, OM, CP, fat, starch, and marker. Compared with the control diet, addition of CAX, EX, and EXP increased the AID of arabinoxylan by 32 (P < 0.001), 28 (P = 0.001), and 24% (P = 0.004), respectively. In addition, EXP increased the AID of noncellulosic polysaccharide glucose by 21% compared with the control (P = 0.005). Compared with the control, addition of EX, EXP, and CAX decreased the concentration of soluble arabinoxylan in ileal digesta by 40 (P < 0.0001), 40 (P < 0.0001), and 21% (P = 0.022), respectively. Furthermore, addition of CAX, EXP, and EX increased the concentration of LMW arabinoxylan in ileal digesta by 40 (P = 0.0001), 36 (P = 0.0006), and 24% (P = 0.023), respectively, compared with the control. Addition of EX and EXP decreased the concentration of soluble NSP of ileal digesta by 25 (P = 0.001) and 26% (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with the control diet. Addition of CAX (P < 0.0001) and EXP (P = 0.013) increased the arabinose-to-xylose ratio in the insoluble arabinoxylan fraction in ileal digesta compared with

  8. Effects of distillers' dried grains with solubles and soybean oil on dietary lipid, fiber, and amino acid digestibility in corn-based diets fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Patience, J F

    2016-04-01

    The use of corn coproducts increases the concentration of fiber and, often, the use of supplemental lipids in swine diets, which may affect energy and nutrient digestibility. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reduced-oil distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean oil (SBO) on dietary AA, acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE), and NDF digestibility in corn-based diets fed to growing pigs. Eighteen growing pigs (33.8 ± 2.2 kg BW) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allocated to 1 of 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3-period incomplete Latin square design, with 9 observations per treatment. Six dietary treatments were obtained by adding 0, 20, and 40% DDGS to corn-casein diets formulated with 2 and 6% SBO. Ileal digesta and fecal samples were collected and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of AEE and NDF and the AID of AA were determined. Apparent values were corrected for endogenous losses of lipids, and true ileal (TID) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) values of lipids were calculated. Results showed that the AID of Lys decreased ( < 0.001) with the inclusion of DDGS but was not affected ( = 0.63) by the inclusion of SBO. An interaction between DDGS and SBO on the AID ( = 0.002) and ATTD ( = 0.009) of NDF was observed, where the AID and ATTD of NDF decreased with DDGS at 6% SBO but no effect was observed at 2% SBO. The AID of NDF increased with SBO at 0% DDGS, but no effect was observed at 20 or 40% DDGS. An interaction between DDGS and SBO on the AID ( = 0.011) and ATTD ( = 0.008) of AEE was observed, where the AID and ATTD of AEE increased with SBO. The AID and ATTD of AEE increased with DDGS at 2% SBO, but no effect was observed at 6% SBO. Correction by ileal and fecal endogenous loss of AEE (9.5 and 13.6 g/kg of DMI, respectively) showed that increasing dietary AEE had no effect on the TID and TTD of AEE ( > 0.05). In conclusion, the AID of

  9. Determining the optimal isoleucine:lysine ratio for ten- to twenty-two-kilogram and twenty-four- to thirty-nine-kilogram pigs fed diets containing nonexcess levels of leucine.

    PubMed

    Htoo, J K; Zhu, C L; Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Quant, A D; Kerr, B J; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D

    2014-08-01

    Three 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile:Lys ratio in 10- to 22-kg and 24- to 39-kg pigs. In Exp. 1, 144 Yorkshire pigs (initial BW = 10.2 kg) were assigned to 6 diets with 6 pens per treatment. Diets 1 to 5 were formulated to contain 5 graded SID Ile:Lys (44, 51, 57, 63, and 70%), 1.18% SID Leu, and 0.90% SID Lys (second limiting). Diet 6 (diet 5 with added Lys) was formulated (1.06% SID Lys) as a positive control. Pigs fed diet 6 had higher (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F and lower (P < 0.05) plasma urea N (PUN) than pigs fed diet 5 (P < 0.02), indicating that Lys was limiting in diets 1 to 5. Final BW, ADG, and ADFI increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) while G:F and PUN at d 21 were not affected (P > 0.10) by dietary Ile:Lys. Overall, ADG and ADFI were highest for pigs fed diet 2 (51% SID Ile:Lys). In Exp. 2, 216 Yorkshire pigs (initial BW = 9.6 kg) were assigned to 9 diets with 6 pens per treatment. Diets 1 to 4 contained 0.40, 0.47, 0.54, and 0.61% SID Ile, respectively, and 1.21% SID Lys; diets 5 to 8 contained 0.72, 0.84, 0.96, and 1.08% SID Lys, respectively, and 0.68% SID Ile. Diet 9 was high in both Ile and Lys (0.68% SID Ile and 1.21% SID Lys). All diets contained 1.21% SID Leu. The ADG and G:F increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as SID Ile:Lys increased (diets 1 to 4 and 9). The ADG and G:F increased (linear, P < 0.05) as SID Lys increased (diets 5 to 9). The PUN at d 21 decreased (linear, P < 0.05) by increasing dietary Ile:Lys. The SID Ile:Lys to optimize ADG was 46% by curvilinear plateau or exponential regression. For G:F, the optimal SID Ile:Lys was 47 and 51% by curvilinear plateau and exponential regressions, respectively. In Exp. 3, 80 pigs (PIC 327 × C23; initial BW = 24.0 kg) were allotted to 5 treatments with 4 pigs per pen. Diets 1 to 5 were formulated to contain 5 graded SID Ile:Lys (39, 46, 53, 61, and 68%), 1.17% SID Leu, and 0.91% SID Lys (second limiting). Final BW and

  10. Responses of dietary ileal amino acid digestibility to consumption of different cultivars of potatoes and conventional fibers in grower pigs fed a high-fat basal diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Yang, X; Leonard, S; Archbold, T; Sullivan, J A; Duncan, A M; Ma, W D L; Bizimungu, B; Murphy, A; Htoo, J K; Fan, M Z

    2012-12-01

    Whereas dietary fibers are well recognized for nutritional management of human health issues, fiber is also known to be one of the dietary factors potentially affecting digestive use of dietary proteins. As a staple food, potato (Solanum tuberosum) may be a significant dietary fiber source. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary supplementation of six potato cultivar-genotype samples that differ in soluble fiber content and two conventional fiber components (i.e., cellulose and guar gum) on the apparent ileal AA digestibility in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet. The basal diet was formulated as a zero-fiber negative control (NC) to contain 41.5% poultry meal, 4% casein, 15% animal fat-oil blend, 2.8% sucrose, 31% corn (Zea mays) starch, 0.50% salt, and 0.40% trace mineral-vitamin supplement with fat contributing to 47% of the dietary GE. The two fiber diets were formulated by respectively diluting the basal diet with 10% guar gum and 10% cellulose at the expense of corn starch. Six other test diets were formulated by including 8.5% guar gum and further diluting the basal diet with 25.1% one of the six cultivar-genotype samples of dehydrated potato tuber powder to contain about 10% total dietary fiber at the expense of corn starch. Eighty-one 25-kg barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed the diets according to a completely randomized block design with each block lasting 28 d. Compared with the NC, the ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, and Pro were decreased (P < 0.05) by 10% guar gum whereas the digestibility of Gly was reduced (P < 0.05) by 10% cellulose. The ileal digestibility of several AA was decreased (P < 0.05) by the test potatoes plus 8.5% guar gum compared with the NC. Our results suggest that dietary inclusion of fiber at 10% from guar gum and cellulose and contributed by potatoes may adversely affect digestive use of dietary protein. PMID:23365378

  11. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high-protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Berrocoso, J D; Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Shoulders, J; González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 2 sources of high-protein canola meal (CM-HP1 and CM-HP2), conventional canola meal (CM-CV), and soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 barrows (51.5 ± 4.0 kg initial BW) were housed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet (97.4% corn) and 4 diets that contained both corn and each of the 3 sources of canola meal or SBM were formulated. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME were 3,347 and 3,268 kcal/kg in corn, 3,312 and 2,893 kcal/kg in CM-HP1, 3,627 and 3,346 kcal/kg in CM-HP2, 2,798 and 2,492 kcal/kg in CM-CV, and 4,000 and 3,796 kcal/kg in SBM, respectively. Values for DE and ME were greater (P< 0.05) in SBM than in all other ingredients, but DE and ME were greater (P < 0.05) in corn and the 2 high-protein canola meals than in CM-CV. The DE and ME were also greater (P< 0.05) in CM-HP2 than in CM-HP1. In Exp. 2, 10 barrows (65.3 ± 10.4 kg initial BW) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 5 diets and 5 periods in each square. A N-free diet and 4 corn starch-based diets that contained CM-HP1, CM-HP2, CM-CV, or SBM as the sole source of AA were formulated. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The SID of CP and all AA except Pro were greater (P < 0.05) in SBM than in the 3 sources of canola meal. With the exception of His and Lys, no differences in SID of indispensable AA were observed among the 3 sources of canola meal. The SID of His and Lys were greater (P < 0.05) in CM-HP1 and CM-HP2 than in CM-CV and the SID of CP was greater (P < 0.05) in CM-HP2 than in CM-CV, but no differences in the SID of indispensable AA were observed between CM-HP1 and CM-HP2. In conclusion, the 2 high-protein canola

  12. Evaluation of Energy Digestibility and Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy from Chemical Composition of Different Cottonseed Meal Sources Fed to Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, J. T.; Li, D. F.; Zang, J. J.; Yang, W. J.; Zhang, W. J.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in growing pigs fed diets containing one of ten cottonseed meals (CSM) collected from different provinces of China and to develop in vitro prediction equations for DE and ME content from chemical composition of the CSM samples. Twelve growing barrows with an initial body weight of 35.2±1.7 kg were allotted to two 6×6 Latin square designs, with six barrows and six periods and six diets for each. A corn-dehulled soybean meal diet was used as the basal diet, and the other ten diets were formulated with corn, dehulled soybean meal and 19.20% CSM. The DE, ME and ATTD of gross energy among different CSM sources varied largely and ranged from 1,856 to 2,730 kcal/kg dry matter (DM), 1,778 to 2,534 kcal/kg DM, and 42.08 to 60.47%, respectively. Several chemical parameters were identified to predict the DE and ME values of CSM, and the accuracy of prediction models were also tested. The best fit equations were: DE, kcal/kg DM = 670.14+31.12 CP+659.15 EE with R2 = 0.82, RSD = 172.02, p<0.05; and ME, kcal/kg DM = 843.98+25.03 CP+673.97 EE with R2 = 0.84, RSD = 144.79, p<0.05. These results indicate that DE, ME values and ATTD of gross energy varied substantially among different CSM sources, and that some prediction equations can be applied to predict DE and ME in CSM with an acceptable accuracy. PMID:25049499

  13. Biogas Production from Protein-Rich Biomass: Fed-Batch Anaerobic Fermentation of Casein and of Pig Blood and Associated Changes in Microbial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Etelka; Wirth, Roland; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted as a fact in the biogas technology that protein-rich biomass substrates should be avoided due to inevitable process inhibition. Substrate compositions with a low C/N ratio are considered difficult to handle and may lead to process failure, though protein-rich industrial waste products have outstanding biogas generation potential. This common belief has been challenged by using protein-rich substrates, i.e. casein and precipitated pig blood protein in laboratory scale continuously stirred mesophilic fed-batch biogas fermenters. Both substrates proved suitable for sustained biogas production (0.447 L CH4/g protein oDM, i.e. organic total solids) in high yield without any additives, following a period of adaptation of the microbial community. The apparent key limiting factors in the anaerobic degradation of these proteinaceous materials were the accumulation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Changes in time in the composition of the microbiological community were determined by next-generation sequencing-based metagenomic analyses. Characteristic rearrangements of the biogas-producing community upon protein feeding and specific differences due to the individual protein substrates were recognized. The results clearly demonstrate that sustained biogas production is readily achievable, provided the system is well-characterized, understood and controlled. Biogas yields (0.45 L CH4/g oDM) significantly exceeding those of the commonly used agricultural substrates (0.25-0.28 L CH4/g oDM) were routinely obtained. The results amply reveal that these high-energy-content waste products can be converted to biogas, a renewable energy carrier with flexible uses that can replace fossil natural gas in its applications. Process control, with appropriate acclimation of the microbial community to the unusual substrate, is necessary. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community by next-generation sequencing allows a precise determination of the alterations in

  14. Recurrent Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Pineles, Beth L.; Gotsch, Francesca; Mittal, Pooja; Than, Nandor Gabor

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent preterm birth is frequently defined as two or more deliveries before 37 completed weeks of gestation. The recurrence rate varies as a function of the antecedent for preterm birth: spontaneous versus indicated. Spontaneous preterm birth is the result of either preterm labor with intact membranes or preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes. This article reviews the body of literature describing the risk of recurrence of spontaneous and indicated preterm birth. Also discussed are the factors which modify the risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth (a short sonographic cervical length and a positive cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin test). Patients with a history of an indicated preterm birth are at risk not only for recurrence of this subtype, but also for spontaneous preterm birth. Individuals of African-American origin have a higher rate of recurrent preterm birth. The potential roles of genetic and environmental factors in recurrent preterm birth are considered. PMID:17531896

  15. A comparison of faecal microbial populations of South African Windsnyer-type indigenous pigs (SAWIPs) and Large White × Landrace (LW × LR) crosses fed diets containing ensiled maize cobs.

    PubMed

    Kanengoni, Arnold T; Chimonyo, Michael; Tasara, Taurai; Cormican, Paul; Chapwanya, Aspinas; Ndimba, Bongani K; Dzama, Kennedy

    2015-07-01

    Faecal microbial communities in South African Windsnyer-type indigenous pigs (SAWIPs) and Large White × Landrace (LW × LR) crosses were investigated using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rDNA genes. The faecal microbial communities in LW × LR crosses and SAWIPs fed control (CON) and high maize cob (HMC) diets were evaluated through parallel sequencing of 16S rDNA genes. Butrivibrio, Faecalibacterium and Desulfovibrio, although present in LW × LR pigs, were absent from the SAWIP microbial community. Bacteroides, Succiniclasticum, Peptococcus and Akkermansia were found in SAWIPs but not in LW × LR crosses. The ratios of Bacteroidia to Clostridia on the CON and HMC diets were similar (0.37 versus 0.39) in SAWIPs but different (0.24 versus 0.1) in LW × LR crosses. The faecal microbial profiles determined were different between the LW × LR and SAWIP breeds but not between pigs fed the CON and HMC diets. The composition of faecal bacterial communities in SAWIPs was determined for the first time. The differences in microbial communities detected may explain the enhanced ability of SAWIPs to digest fibrous diets compared with the LW × LR crosses. PMID:26091682

  16. Determining the optimal isoleucine:lysine ratio for 10- to 22-kg and 24- to 39-kg pigs fed diets containing non-excess levels of leucine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three 21-day experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible (SID) isoleucine:lysine (Ile:Lys) ratio in 10 to 22 kg and 24 to 39 kg pigs. In Exp. 1, 144 pigs (initial body weight = 10.2 kg) were assigned to 6 diets with 6 pens per treatment. Diets 1 to 5 were formul...

  17. Quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium intakes and their retention and excretion in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Elsbernd, A J; Hansen, S L; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Patience, J F

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible P (STTD P) and total Ca intakes with their retention and excretion by growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Forty-eight crossbred barrows (BW = 22.7 ± 2.9 kg) were allotted to 1 of 8 diets, housed individually in pens for 3 wk, and then moved to metabolism crates and allowed 4 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and fecal samples. Eight corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for similar NE, fat, and AA concentrations but to increase the STTD P from 0.16 to 0.62% using monocalcium phosphate. Dietary treatments were formulated for a constant Ca:STTD P ratio (2.2:1). The STTD P intake increased (P < 0.001) from 64 to 242% of the daily requirement (4.59 g/d of STTD P). Fecal and total excretion of P and Ca were linearly associated with mineral intake (P < 0.001). Constant urinary P excretion of 0.03 g/d P was observed, but at 4.96 g/d of STTD P intake, the urinary P excretion increased (P < 0.001). In contrast, Ca excretion in urine decreased (P < 0.001) with Ca intake, but constant excretion of 0.40 g/d Ca was reached at 17.97 g/d of Ca intake. The daily intakes of STTD P and Ca moderately explained the variation in urinary excretion of P (R2= 0.41) and Ca (R2= 0.64). The absorption and retention of P increased linearly (P< 0.001) with dietary P intake, whereas absorption and retention of Ca showed a quadratic response (P < 0.001). Absorption and retention of P and Ca were highly predictable from the STTD P and Ca intakes, with of 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. The femur mineral content (FMC) increased by 2.71 g with STTD P intake (P < 0.001) but reached a plateau (29.54 g of FMC) at 8.84 g/d of STTD P intake. The FMC was highly predictable from the STTD P intake (R2 = 0.89). The FMC affected the urinary P excretion ( P< 0.01), but moderately (R2= 0.19) explained the variation in urinary P. In conclusion, constant excretion of P in urine

  18. Elimination and Concentration Correlations between Edible Tissues and Biological Fluids and Hair of Ractopamine in Pigs and Goats Fed with Ractopamine-Medicated Feed.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lingli; Shi, Jingfei; Pan, Yuanhu; Wang, Liye; Chen, Dongmei; Xie, Shuyu; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-03-01

    Ractopamine (RAC), a β-adrenergic leanness-enhancing agent, endangers the food safety of animal products because of overdosing and illegal use in food animals. Excretion and residue depletion of RAC in pigs and goats were investigated to determine a representative biological fluid or surface tissue for preslaughter monitoring. After a single oral gavage of RAC, 64-67% of the dose was excreted from the urine of pigs and goats within 12-24 h. RAC persisted the longest in the hair of pigs and goats but depleted rapidly in the plasma, muscle, and fat. Urine and hair were excellent for predicting RAC residues in edible tissues of pigs, whereas plasma and urine were satisfactory body fluids for the prediction of RAC concentrations in edible tissues of goats. These data provided a simple and economical preslaughter living monitoring method for the illegal use and violative residue of RAC in food animals. PMID:26883087

  19. GLP-2 delays the onset but does not prevent NEC in preterm piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most serious gastrointestinal disease in preterm infants. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) prior to enteral formula feeding increases the NEC incidence in preterm pigs (Bjornvad et al. Am J Physiol, 295:G1092). TPN reduces intestinal blood flow and leads t...

  20. Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Uptake in the Jejunum Is Post-Transcriptionally Regulated in Pigs Fed a Low-Phosphorus Diet and Is Independent of Dietary Calcium Concentration1

    PubMed Central

    Saddoris, Kari L.; Fleet, James C.; Radcliffe, John S.

    2010-01-01

    In rodents, severe dietary P restriction increases active phosphate absorption by the intestine. However, it remains unknown if moderate dietary P restriction has a similar effect. Weanling pigs (n = 32; body weight 7.4 ± 0.55 kg) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design and fed dietary available P (aP) concentrations of 0.23 or 0.40% and Ca concentrations of 0.58 or 1.00% for 14 d. Diets were formulated on an aP basis instead of a total P basis, because pigs are unable to absorb phytate-P present in corn and soybean meal. Jejunal segments were mounted in modified Ussing chambers for determination of Na+-dependent nutrient transport. Intestinal mucosal scrapings were taken for RNA isolation and brush border membrane (BBM) vesicle isolation. Na+-dependent phosphate uptake and gene expression of Na-phosphate cotransporter IIb (NaPi-IIb), SGLT-1 (sodium/glucose cotransporter-1), and calbindin D(9k) and protein expression of NaPi-IIb were evaluated. Na+-dependent phosphate transport increased (P < 0.05) 46% as dietary aP concentration was decreased. However, increased Na+-dependent phosphate uptake was not accompanied by increased NaPi-IIb mRNA expression. Expression of NaPi-IIb protein in the BBM increased (P < 0.01) 84% in pigs fed low-P diets compared with pigs fed adequate-P diets. No dietary Ca effects or aP × Ca interactions were detected for Na-dependent P uptake, mRNA or protein expression of NaPi-IIb, or mRNA expression of calbindin D(9k). These data suggest that restricting dietary aP concentration by only 43% stimulates Na+-dependent phosphate uptake and expression of the NaPi-IIb protein in the BBM of the small intestine and through a post-transcriptional mechanism. PMID:20164365

  1. Effects of dietary true digestible calcium to phosphorus ratio on growth performance and efficiency of calcium and phosphorus use in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine effects of dietary true fecal digestible Ca to true digestible P ratio on growth performance and efficiency of Ca and P use in growing pigs fed corn (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based diets. Experiment 1 was carried out to measure true fecal digestibility of Ca and P as well as the fecal endogenous outputs of these nutrients associated with a corn and SBM-based diet in 12 Yorkshire growing pigs with an average initial BW of 23.2 ± 0.6 kg by the substitution method. True fecal digestibility values (%; n = 6) of Ca (53.6 ± 12.7) and P (43.8 ± 16.7) as well as the fecal endogenous outputs (g/kg DMI; n = 12) of Ca (0.91 ± 0.20) and P (1.31 ± 0.15) associated with the diets were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted with 36 Yorkshire barrows of an average initial BW of 24.2 ± 0.6 kg and the pigs were fed 6 diets according to a completely randomized block design. The 6 diets were corn and SBM based with diet 1 containing 0.2% true digestible Ca and 0.3% true digestible P and were formulated to contain 6 total Ca to total P ratios based on analyzed dietary Ca and P contents (diet 1, 0.6:1; diet 2, 0.7:1; diet 3, 0.8:1; diet 4, 1.3:1; diet 5, 1.0:1; and diet 6, 1.3:1) by supplementing gradient levels of limestone with a constant dietary P content for meeting the recommended requirement. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG. No differences (P > 0.05) in ADFI were observed between the other diets except the lower ADFI (P < 0.05) in diet 3 compared with diet 2. However, G:F was higher (P < 0.05) in diet 2 compared with diets 5 and 6. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had consistent effects on true fecal P digestibility and retention with much lower values (P < 0.05) observed in diet 5 in comparison with the other diets. In summary, true fecal digestible Ca to P ratios of 0.9:1 to 1.0:1 were associated with optimal responses in both G:F as well as true fecal P

  2. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 81.9% (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); of neutral detergent fibre from 41.0% (control) to 57.8% (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 60.0% (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); (2) improved average daily gain from 786 g (control) to 829 g (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 846 g (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); and numerical increases in feed intake from 1.96 kg/pig/day (control) to 2.01 (Enzyme R) and 2.00 (p > 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); (3) there was a dose response but no significant differences were observed in enzyme efficacy between the two enzyme preparations. The present study demonstrated beneficial effects of applying xylanase-based enzymes to improve feeding values of pig diets based on corn, soya bean meal and DLRM. PMID:17615009

  3. Oral immunization of a live attenuated Escherichia coli strain expressing a holotoxin-structured adhesin-toxoid fusion (1FaeG-FedF-LTA₂:5LTB) protected young pigs against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infection.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-03-01

    ETEC strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and enterotoxins are the predominant cause of porcine post-weaning diarrhea (PWD). PWD continues causing significant economic losses to swine producers worldwide. Vaccines effectively protecting against PWD are needed. Our recent study revealed that a tripartite adhesin-toxin monomer (FaeG-FedF-LT(A2-B)) elicited protective antibodies. In this study, we constructed a new adhesin-toxoid fusion, expressed it as a 1A:5B holotoxin-structured antigen (1FaeG-FedF-LT(192A2):5LT(B)) in an avirulent Escherichia coli strain, and evaluated its vaccine potential in pig challenge studies. Piglets orally inoculated with this live strain showed no adverse effects but developed systemic and mucosal antibodies that neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence of K88 and F18 fimbriae in vitro. Moreover, the immunized piglets, when were challenged with ETEC strain 3030-2 (K88ac/LT/STb), had significant fewer bacteria colonized at small intestines and did not develop diarrhea; whereas the control piglets developed severe diarrhea and died. These results indicated the 1FaeG-FedF-LT(192A2):5LT(B) fusion antigen induced protective antiadhesin and antitoxin immunity in pigs, and suggested a live attenuated vaccine can be potentially developed against porcine ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, presenting antigens in a holotoxin structure to target host local mucosal immunity can be used in vaccine development against other enteric diseases. PMID:23375979

  4. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Ju, W S; Stein, H H

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of AA (Exp. 1) and the concentration of DE and ME (Exp. 2) in copra meal (CM), palm kernel expellers from Indonesia (PKE-IN), palm kernel expellers from Costa Rica (PKE-CR), palm kernel meal from Costa Rica (PKM), and soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, 6 barrows (BW = 34.0 ± 1.4 kg) were randomly allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. One diet contained 30% SBM and 4 diets were formulated with 20% SBM and 30% (as-fed basis) CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, or PKM. The last diet was an N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. The SID of CP and all indispensable AA except Met, Thr, and Trp was less (P < 0.05) in CM than in SBM, and the SID of CP and all indispensable AA except Trp was less (P < 0.05) in PKE-IN than in SBM. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the SID of CP and all indispensable AA between PKE-CR and SBM, but the SID of CP and all indispensable AA were less (P < 0.05) in PKM than in SBM. The SID of CP was less (P < 0.05) in PKM compared with CM and PKE-CR, but there were no differences (P > 0.05) in the SID of all indispensable AA among CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM. In Exp. 2, 48 barrows (BW = 35.2 ± 3.0 kg) were housed individually in metabolism cages and allotted to 6 diets in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets containing 70% of the corn diet and 30% of CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, or SBM were formulated, and the DE and ME in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM were calculated using the substitution procedure. The DE (3692, 3304, 2994, and 2905 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3496, 3184, 2883, and 2766 kcal/kg DM) in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM, respectively, were less (P < 0.05) than the DE and ME in SBM (4275 and 4062 kcal/kg DM, respectively). Copra meal had greater (P < 0.05) DE than PKE-IN, PKE-CR, and PKM and greater (P < 0.05) ME

  5. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Immunizations For Preterm Babies Page Content Some parents of ... full-term and preterm babies. The hepatitis B vaccine deserves special mention. In most circumstances, the AAP ...

  6. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preterm Labor and Birth: Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... links Share this: Page Content What is preterm labor and birth? In general, a normal human pregnancy ...

  7. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preterm Labor and Birth: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... start of the last menstrual period to childbirth. Labor that begins before 37 weeks is called preterm ...

  8. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different sources of phytase supplemented to the diet at graded levels to improve apparent P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca and 0.32% P (0.06% available P) was used in all experiments a...

  9. Quantification of short-chain fatty acids and energy production from hindgut fermentation in cannulated pigs fed graded levels of wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Iyayi, E A; Adeola, O

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the amount of energy available to growing pigs from fermentation of dietary fiber in the hindgut. Eighteen growing barrows, fitted with a simple T-shaped cannula at the terminal ileum, were allocated to 3 experimental diets in a completely randomized design. The 3 diets were a standard-fiber diet (SFD), which contained 75.1 g NDF/kg diet; a medium-fiber diet (MFD) of 105.7 g NDF/kg diet; and a high-fiber diet (HFD), which contained 146.9 g NDF/kg diet. Each diet had 6 replicate pigs. After a 5-d period of adjustment of the pigs to the cage environment, feces were collected on d 6 and 7 and ileal digesta on d 8 and 9 and subsequently freeze-dried. Fecal slurry from a pig was used to inoculate the ileal digesta from the same pig. The amount of energy available was calculated from the amount of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced from a 48-h in vitro fermentation of the ileal digesta. Increasing NDF enhanced ( < 0.01) the ileal DM flow and DM in feces. The energy available in the foregut was reduced ( < 0.05) from 3,360 to 2,974 kcal/kg feed DM and increased ( < 0.01) from 619 to 1,009 kcal/kg feed DM produced in the hindgut with increasing dietary NDF. The amount of SCFA increased ( < 0.01) with higher dietary NDF. Acetic acid was highest ( < 0.01) in the HFD whereas propionic and valeric acids were highest ( < 0.05) in the SFD. The amount of butyric acid was not affected by diet. The amount of energy contributed from SCFA fermentation to total tract digestible energy increased ( < 0.01) from 10.7 to 24.2% as dietary NDF level increased from 75 to 147 g/kg feed. The results of the study showed that increasing level of dietary NDF resulted in reduced energy digestibility in the foregut of growing pigs with a corresponding increase in the amount of energy from microbial fermentation in the hindgut. PMID:26523571

  10. A 90-day subchronic study of rats fed lean pork from genetically modified pigs with muscle-specific expression of recombinant follistatin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shiying; Tang, Min; He, Xiaoyun; Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Wentao; Liang, Zhihong; Huang, Kunlun

    2015-11-01

    Because cardiovascular disease incidence has rapidly increased in recent years, people are choosing relatively healthier diets with low animal fat. A transgenic pig with low fat and a high percentage of lean meat was created in 2011; this pig overexpresses the follistatin (FST) gene. To evaluate the safety of lean pork derived from genetically modified (GM) pigs, a subchronic oral toxicity study was conducted using Sprague-Dawley rats. GM pork and non-GM pork were incorporated into the diet at levels of 3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% (w/w), and the main nutrients of the various diets were subsequently balanced. The safety of GM pork was assessed by comparison of the toxicology response variables in Sprague-Dawley rats consuming diets containing GM pork with those consuming non-GM pork. No treatment-related adverse or toxic effects were observed based on an examination of the daily clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and organ weight or based on gross and histopathological examination. The results demonstrate that GM pork is as safe for consumption as conventional pork. PMID:26363208

  11. Determining the Optimum Dietary Tryptophan to Lysine Ratio in Growing Pigs Fed Diets Formulated with Hhigher Levels of Other Essential Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies on amino acid (AA) ratios require the first limiting AA (generally Lys) to be set below the requirement estimate. Graded levels of the AA being investigated are then fed to determine the required ratio. Essential AA (EAA) not under investigation are often set at their presumed requirement ra...

  12. Prematurity does not markedly affect intestinal sensitivity to endotoxins and feeding in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bering, Stine B; Bai, Shiping; Zhang, Keying; Sangild, Per T

    2012-08-01

    Preterm neonates show enhanced sensitivity to nutrient maldigestion and bacteria-mediated gut inflammatory disorders, such as necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesised that preterm birth increases the sensitivity of intestinal nutrient absorption to endotoxins and that feeding after birth reduces this response. Hence, we investigated the postnatal development of nutrient digestive and absorptive capacity in the preterm and term pig intestine, and its responsiveness to endotoxins. Pigs were delivered by caesarean section at preterm (n 20) or term (n 17) gestation, and the small intestine was collected at birth or after 2 d of colostrum feeding, followed by ex vivo stimulation with lipopolysaccharide endotoxins and mixed gut contents collected from pigs with NEC. Brush border enzyme activities were reduced in newborn preterm v. term pigs (39-45 % reduction, P < 0.05), but normalised after 2 d of feeding. Ex vivo leucine and glucose uptake increased with prenatal age. Bacterial stimulation reduced the nutrient uptake similarly at birth and after 2 d in preterm and term pigs (23-41 % reduction, P < 0.05), whereas IL-6 and TNF-α expression was stimulated only at birth. Toll-like receptor-4 expression increased markedly at day 2 for preterm and term pigs (22-33-fold, P < 0.05) but with much lower expression levels in newborn preterm pigs (approximately 95 %, P < 0.01). In conclusion, digestive and absorptive functions mature in the prenatal period, but are similarly affected by postnatal feeding and bacterial exposure in both preterm and term pigs. Nutrient maldigestion may contribute to NEC development, while a prematurity-related hyper-responsiveness to endotoxins could be less important, at least in pigs. PMID:22136806

  13. Mass Spectrometric Confirmation of γ-Linolenic Acid Ester-Linked Ceramide 1 in the Epidermis of Borage Oil Fed Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyong-Oh; Kim, Kunpyo; Jeon, Sanghun; Seo, Cho-Hee; Lee, Yong-Moon; Cho, Yunhi

    2015-10-01

    Ceramide 1 (Cer1), a Cer species with eicosasphingenine (d20:1) amide-linked to two different ω-hydroxy fatty acids (C30wh:0:C32wh:1), which are, in turn, ester-linked to linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n-6), plays a critical role in maintaining the structural integrity of the epidermal barrier. Prompted by the recovery of a disrupted epidermal barrier with dietary borage oil [BO: 36.5% LNA and 23.5% γ-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n-6)], in essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient guinea pigs, we further investigated the effects of BO on the substitution of ester-linked GLA for LNA in these two epidermal Cer1 species by LC-MS in positive and negative modes. Dietary supplementation of BO for 2 weeks in EFA-deficient guinea pigs increased LNA ester-linked to C32wh:1/d20:1 and C30wh:0/d20:1 of Cer1. Moreover, GLA ester-linked to C32wh:1/d20:1, but not to C30wh:0/d20:1, of Cer1 was detected, which was further confirmed by the product ions of m/z 277.2 for ester-linked GLA and m/z 802.3 for the deprotonated C32wh:1/d20:1. C20-Metabolized fatty acids of LNA or GLA were not ester-linked to these Cer1 species. Dietary BO induced GLA ester-linked to C32wh:1/d20:1 of epidermal Cer1. PMID:26233818

  14. The appropriate standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratio improves pig performance and regulates hormones and muscular amino acid transporters in late finishing gilts fed low-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Ma, W F; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, X T; Xie, C Y; Zhang, G J; Qiao, S Y

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of various standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp to Lys ratios on the performance and carcass characteristics of late finishing gilts receiving low-CP (9.6%) diets supplemented with crystalline AA. Ninety gilts (89.1 ± 5.1 kg) were used in a dose-response study conducted for 35 d. Crystalline Trp (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 g/kg) was added to a corn-wheat bran basal diet providing SID Trp to Lys ratios of 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, 0.21, or 0.24. Each diet was fed to 6 pens of pigs with 3 gilts per pen. At the end of the experiment, 30 gilts (1 pig per pen) were slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and meat quality (BW = 121 kg). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased ADG (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05) and also improved G:F (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). Serum urea nitrogen (SUN) decreased as the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased (linear and quadratic effects, < 0.05). A quadratic effect of L* light and marbling in the longissimus dorsi was observed as the dietary SID Trp to Lys ratio increased ( < 0.05). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased the level of serum GH (quadratic effect, < 0.05) and also increased the level of serum IGF-1 (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). Increasing the SID Trp to Lys ratio increased the protein abundance of the muscular AA transporter of sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) in the longissimus dorsi muscle (linear and quadratic effect, < 0.05). The optimum SID Trp to Lys ratios to maximize ADG and G:F as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.16, 0.17, and 0.16 using a linear-breakpoint model and 0.20, 0.20, and 0.20 using a quadratic model. Tryptophan could influence serum GH and IGF-1 secretion and protein abundance of the muscular AA transporter of SNAT2 in the longissimus dorsi muscle in late finishing gilts fed low-protein diets. PMID:26020882

  15. Prevention of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Flood, Karen; Malone, Fergal D

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem. PMID:21893439

  16. EFFECT OF MENHADEN FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE EXPOSURE ON NURSERY PIGS: II. EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE AXIS WHEN FED SIMPLE OR COMPLEX DIETS CONTAINING NO SPRAY-DRIED PLASMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial using 64 weanling pigs (TR4 x PIC C22) was conducted to determine the effects of menhaden fish-oil supplementation and diet complexity on performance and immune response of nursery pigs. Pigs (17 d and 6.27 +/- 1.16 kg) were weaned into a segregated early wean facility and given free access...

  17. Amino acid digestibility of corn distillers dried grains with solubles, liquid condensed solubles, pulse dried thin stillage, and syrup balls fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Soares, J A; Stein, H H; Singh, V; Shurson, G S; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-04-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has low and variable AA digestibility. The variability is often attributed to damage during the heating process, and it has been suggested that the damage happens to the soluble components of DDGS such as reducing sugars. Combining solubles and grains sometimes produces syrup balls (SB); their digestibility is unknown. The objective of this experiment was to identify potential sources of poor and variable AA digestibility in DDGS. Specifically, our objective was to determine whether the problems are associated with the solubles component or with SB. The ingredients evaluated were DDGS, intact SB, ground SB, liquid condensed solubles (LCS), and pulse dried thin stillage (PDTS) obtained from the same ethanol plant. The LCS is produced by evaporation of thin stillage. Each ingredient was used as the only source of AA in an experimental diet. In a duplicate 6 × 6 Latin square design with 7-d adaptation and collection periods, the 6 treatments consisted of an N-free diet and the 5 test ingredients. Pigs had 5 d of adaptation to each diet, and on d 6 and 7 ileal digesta were collected from an ileal cannula for 8 h each day. Both SB treatments had apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA that were similar or greater (P < 0.05) than those of DDGS. The AID and SID values of Lys and a few other AA were similar in LCS (SID Lys: 63.1%) and DDGS (SID Lys: 61.5%), but the digestibility values of most AA in LCS were less than in DDGS (P < 0.05). The low digestibility of AA in LCS was most pronounced for Met (SID: LCS, 41.9% vs. DDGS, 82.8%). The LCS had less (P < 0.05) AID and SID of CP (SID: 67.8%) than intact SB (SID: 85.2%) and ground SB (SID: 85.9%) as well as all AA. The PDTS generally had the least AID and SID and had less (P < 0.05) CP (SID: 55.3%) and several AA, including Lys, compared with LCS. In conclusion, the presence of SB does not decrease AA digestibility of DDGS, and the LCS

  18. Bacterial colonization and gut development in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Cilieborg, Malene S; Boye, Mette; Sangild, Per T

    2012-03-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) develops in 5-10% of preterm infants in association with enteral feeding and bacterial colonization. It remains unclear how diet and bacteria interact to protect or provoke the immature gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the factors that control bacterial colonization may provide the clue to prevent NEC, and studies in infants must be combined with animal models to understand the mechanisms of the microbiota-epithelium interactions. Analyses of infant fecal samples show that the density and distribution of bacterial species are highly variable with no consistent effects of gestational age, delivery mode, diet or probiotic administration, while low bacterial diversity and bacterial overgrowth are commonly associated with NEC. A series of recent studies in preterm pigs show that the mucosa-associated microbiota is affected by delivery method, prematurity and NEC progression and that diet has limited effects. Overgrowth of specific groups (e.g. Clostridia) appears to be a consequence of NEC, rather than the cause of NEC. Administration of probiotics either decreases or increases NEC sensitivity in preterm pigs, while in preterm infants probiotics have generally decreased NEC incidence and overall mortality. The optimal nature and amount of probiotic bacteria are unknown and host defense factors appear more important for NEC sensitivity than the nature of the gut microbiota. Host defense is improved by feeding the optimal amount of enteral diets, such as mother's colostrum or milk, that help the immature intestinal immune system to respond appropriately to the highly variable bacterial colonization. PMID:22284985

  19. The Effect of Inclusion Level of Soybean Oil and Palm Oil on Their Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content Determined with the Difference and Regression Method When Fed to Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongbo; She, Yue; Huang, Qiang; Shi, Chuanxin; Li, Zhongchao; Huang, Chengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Li, Defa

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of inclusion level of soybean oil (SO) and palm oil (PO) on their digestible and metabolism energy (DE and ME) contents when fed to growing pigs by difference and regression method. Sixty-six crossbred growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire and weighing 38.1±2.4 kg) were randomly allotted to a 2×5 factorial arrangement involving 2 lipid sources (SO and PO), and 5 levels of lipid (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) as well as a basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal. The barrows were housed in individual metabolism crates to facilitate separate collection of feces and urine, and were fed the assigned test diets at 4% of initial body weight per day. A 5-d total collection of feces and urine followed a 7-d diet adaptation period. The results showed that the DE and ME contents of SO and PO determined by the difference method were not affected by inclusion level. The DE and ME determined by the regression method for SO were greater compared with the corresponding respective values for PO (DE: 37.07, ME: 36.79 MJ/kg for SO; DE: 34.11, ME: 33.84 MJ/kg for PO, respectively). These values were close to the DE and ME values determined by the difference method at the 10% inclusion level (DE: 37.31, ME: 36.83 MJ/kg for SO; DE: 34.62, ME: 33.47 MJ/kg for PO, respectively). A similar response for the apparent total tract digestibility of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) in lipids was observed. The true total tract digestibility of AEE in SO was significantly (p<0.05) greater than that for PO (97.5% and 91.1%, respectively). In conclusion, the DE and ME contents of lipid was not affected by its inclusion level. The difference method can substitute the regression method to determine the DE and ME contents in lipids when the inclusion level is 10%. PMID:26580443

  20. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 7 years’ corrected age in preterm infants who were fed high-dose docosahexaenoic acid to term equivalent: a follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Robert A; Anderson, Peter J; McPhee, Andrew J; Sullivan, Thomas R; Gould, Jacqueline F; Ryan, Philip; Doyle, Lex W; Davis, Peter G; McMichael, Judy E; French, Noel P; Colditz, Paul B; Simmer, Karen; Morris, Scott A; Makrides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if improvements in cognitive outcome detected at 18 months’ corrected age (CA) in infants born <33 weeks’ gestation receiving a high-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared with standard-DHA diet were sustained in early childhood. Design Follow-up of a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Randomisation was stratified for sex, birth weight (<1250 vs ≥1250 g) and hospital. Setting Five Australian tertiary hospitals from 2008 to 2013. Participants 626 of the 657 participants randomised between 2001 and 2005 were eligible to participate. Interventions High-DHA (≈1% total fatty acids) enteral feeds compared with standard-DHA (≈0.3% total fatty acids) from age 2–4 days until term CA. Primary outcome Full Scale IQ of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) at 7 years CA. Prespecified subgroup analyses based on the randomisation strata (sex, birth weight) were conducted. Results 604 (92% of the 657 originally randomised) consented to participate (291 high-DHA, 313 standard-DHA). To address missing data in the 604 consenting participants (22 for primary outcome), multiple imputation was performed. The Full Scale IQ was not significantly different between groups (high-DHA 98.3, SD 14.0, standard-DHA 98.5, SD 14.9; mean difference adjusted for sex, birthweight strata and hospital −0.3, 95% CI −2.9 to 2.2; p=0.79). There were no significant differences in any secondary outcomes. In prespecified subgroup analyses, there was a significant sex by treatment interaction on measures of parent-reported executive function and behaviour. Scores were within the normal range but girls receiving the high-DHA diet scored significantly higher (poorer outcome) compared with girls receiving the standard-DHA diet. Conclusions Supplementing the diets of preterm infants with a DHA dose of approximately 1% total fatty acids from days 2–4 until term CA showed no evidence of benefit at 7 years’ CA. Trial registration number

  1. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Berger, R.; Söder, S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation. PMID:25650134

  2. Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs is limited. In order to investigate archaeal community structure, samples were taken from the cecum and proximal colon of finishing pigs (24) fed diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (CGM). Corn germ meal feeding began in w...

  3. Facultative to strict anaerobes ratio in the preterm infant microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing interest on the development of strategies for modulating the process of microbiota establishment in preterm infants. For successfully developing of such strategies, a detailed knowledge of the microbiota establishment process in these infants is needed. In a previous study we evidenced clear alterations in the process of microbiota establishment in preterm newborns when compared with a control group of full-term breast-fed infants. Here we have analyzed these data more in depth, corroborating a reduced proportion of strict anaerobes with respect to facultatives in the fecal microbiota of preterm infants. The potential benefits, as well as the side effects, of strategies aimed at counterbalancing this alteration in the facultative to strict anaerobes ratio are discussed in this addendum. PMID:22922559

  4. Hyperbilirubinemia in Preterm Neonates.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Vinod K; Wong, Ronald J; Stevenson, David K

    2016-06-01

    Preterm neonates with increased bilirubin production loads are more likely to sustain adverse outcomes due to either neurotoxicity or overtreatment with phototherapy and/or exchange transfusion. Clinicians should rely on expert consensus opinions to guide timely and effective interventions until there is better evidence to refine bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction or benefits of bilirubin. In this article, we review the evolving evidence for bilirubin-induced brain injury in preterm infants and highlight the clinical approaches that minimize the risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity. PMID:27235203

  5. Promoting growth for preterm infants following hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J A; Young, L; McCormick, F M; McGuire, W

    2012-07-01

    Preterm infants, especially very preterm infants, are usually growth-restricted at the time of hospital discharge. Proposed interventions to promote catch-up growth following hospital discharge include multinutrient fortification of expressed breast milk for breastfed infants and nutrient-enriched formula milk for formula-fed infants. The current evidence to support these strategies is limited. Fortification of expressed breast milk may increase weight gain and skeletal and head growth during infancy, but more research is needed to define which nutrients confer most benefit, and which population of infants is likely to receive most benefit. Trials that have assessed feeding preterm infants with commercially available nutrient-enriched formula milk ('preterm' or 'postdischarge' formulae) compared with standard formula milk have not found consistent evidence of an effect on growth parameters or development, probably because ad libitum fed infants reduce their intake relative to the calorie-density of the milk. Future studies should focus on the effect of formulae enriched with protein and minerals rather than energy and assess the effect on lean mass and skeletal growth. PMID:21406452

  6. A tripartite fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B, of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) elicits antibodies that neutralize cholera toxin, inhibit adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 fimbriae, and protect pigs against K88ac/heat-labile toxin infection.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT(192)) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT(192)A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

  7. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. PMID:26446984

  8. Preterm birth: Transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marilee C; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than their peers born fullterm. Compared to individuals born fullterm, more preterm survivors have major neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disability and need financial supports and societal resources. Neuroimaging studies of adolescents and adults born preterm report higher rates of brain injury, differences in regional brain structure, and different brain circuits than in those born fullterm. Making the transition to adulthood is more difficult for young adults who were born preterm than their peers born fullterm, in that fewer complete high school and higher education, find and keep meaningful employment, and live independently from their parents. As a group, they do not tend to be risk-takers, and they have lower rates of alcohol abuse, use of illicit drugs, and criminal offenses than do their peers. Despite their many challenges, the majority of adults born preterm function well, form personal relationships, integrate well into their community, and are as satisfied with their quality of life as are their peers. Concerns regarding current preterm infants, with more extremely preterm survivors, overwhelming our medical, educational, and societal resources should serve as an impetus for research on prevention of preterm births and brain injury, as well as how to support and promote their ongoing neuromaturation and recovery from injury. PMID:25708075

  9. Lack of correlation between fecal elastase-1 levels and fecal nitrogen excretion in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Corvaglia, Luigi; Paoletti, Vittoria; Battistini, Barbara; Simoni, Patrizia; Faldella, Giacomo

    2008-10-01

    We measured fecal elastase-1 (FE1) levels in 34 preterm newborns (15 small-for-gestational-age and 19 appropriate-for-gestational-age) during the first 2 months of life and evaluated whether they were correlated with nitrogen loss in stools. FE1 increased over time, and values were similar in both groups of newborns. Fecal nitrogen was significantly higher in small-for-gestational-age infants. There was no correlation between FE1 levels and fecal nitrogen excretion. Pancreatic proteolytic function was efficient at an early stage in enterally fed preterm newborns. Despite the similar FE1 values, fecal nitrogen loss was significantly higher in small-for-gestational-age preterm infants than in appropriate-for-gestational-age preterm infants. PMID:18852648

  10. Invulnerable High Risk Preterm Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, David R.; And Others

    In an effort to look at factors moderating the negative effects of preterm low birthweight and perinatal illness, the study followed up (at 7 and 12 months of age) 50 preterm infants whose cumulative morbidity score was greater than 100 and/or who had a life threatening complication. Home visits provided ratings of maternal sensitivity, the…

  11. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  12. Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the distribution of cognitive and motor scores in preterm children, and to establish the influence of brain lesions and decreasing gestational age thereon. Method: One hundred and six very preterm children (63 males, 43 females; gestational age 24.0-31.6wk; birthweight 480-2275g) were assessed for cognition and motor outcome at 6…

  13. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human...

  14. Understanding preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Challis, J R; Lye, S J; Gibb, W; Whittle, W; Patel, F; Alfaidy, N

    2001-09-01

    Increased uterine contractility at term and preterm results from activation and then stimulation of the myometrium. Activation can be provoked by mechanical stretch of the uterus and by an endocrine pathway resulting from increased activity of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In fetal sheep, increased cortisol output during pregnancy regulates prostaglandin H synthase type 2 (PGHS2) expression in the placenta in an estrogen-independent manner, resulting in increased levels of PGE2 in the fetal circulation. Later increases in maternal uterine expresssion of PGHS2 require elevations of estrogen and lead to increased concentrations of PGF2alpha in the maternal circulation. Thus, regulation of PGHS2 at term is differentially controlled in fetal (trophoblast) and maternal (uterine epithelium) tissue. This difference may reflect expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), but not estrogen receptor (ER), in placental trophoblast cells. In women, cortisol also contributes to increased PG production in fetal tissues through upregulation of PGHS2 (amnion and chorion) and downregulation of 15-OH PG dehydrogenase (chorion trophoblasts). The effect of cortisol on chorion expression of PGDH reverses a tonic stimulatory effect of progesterone, potentially through a paracrine or autocrine action. We have interpreted this interaction as a reflection of "progesterone withdrawal" in the primate, in relation to birth. Other agents, such as proinflammatory cytokines, similarly upregulate PGHS2 and decrease expression of PGDH, indicating the presence of several mechanisms by which labor at term or preterm may be initiated. These different mechanisms need to be considered in the development of strategies for the detection and management of the patient in preterm labor. PMID:11594542

  15. Cholestasis in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Satrom, Katie; Gourley, Glenn

    2016-06-01

    Cholestasis in preterm infants has a multifactorial etiology. Risk factors include degree of prematurity, lack of enteral feeding, intestinal injury, prolonged use of parenteral nutrition (PN), and sepsis. Soy-based parenteral lipid emulsions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of PN-associated liver injury. Inflammation plays an important role. Medical therapies are used; however, their effects have not consistently proven effective. Evaluation of cholestasis involves laboratory work; direct bilirubin levels are used for diagnosis and trending. Adverse outcomes include risk for hepatobiliary dysfunction, irreversible liver failure, and death. Early enteral feedings as tolerated is the best way to prevent and manage cholestasis. PMID:27235213

  16. Hemolysis in Preterm Neonates.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Robert D; Yaish, Hassan M

    2016-06-01

    Hemolysis can be an important cause of hyperbilirubinemia in premature and term neonates. It can result from genetic abnormalities intrinsic to or factors exogenous to normal to red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis can lead to a relatively rapid increase in total serum/plasma bilirubin, hyperbilirubinemia that is somewhat slow to fall with phototherapy, or hyperbilirubinemia that is likely to rebound after phototherapy. Laboratory methods for diagnosing hemolysis are more difficult to apply, or less conclusive, in preterm infants. Transfusion of donor RBCs can present a bilirubin load that must be metabolized. Genetic causes can be identified by next-generation sequencing panels. PMID:27235204

  17. Dietary PUFA for preterm and term infants: review of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Fleith, M; Clandinin, M T

    2005-01-01

    Human milk contains n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids), which are absent from many infant formulas. During neonatal life, there is a rapid accretion of AA (arachidonic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in infant brain, DHA in retina and of AA in the whole body. The DHA status of breast-fed infants is higher than that of formula-fed infants when formulas do not contain LCPUFA. Studies report that visual acuity of breast-fed infants is better than that of formula-fed infants, but other studies do not find a difference. Cognitive development of breast-fed infants is generally better, but many sociocultural confounding factors may also contribute to these differences. The effect of dietary LCPUFA on FA status, immune function, visual, cognitive, and motor functions has been evaluated in preterm and term infants. Plasma and RBC FA status of infants fed formulas supplemented with both n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA was closer to the status of breast-fed infants than to that of infants fed formulas containing no LCPUFA. Adding n-3 LCPUFA to preterm-infant formulas led to initial beneficial effects on visual acuity. Few data are available on cognitive function, but it seems that in preterm infants, feeding n-3 LCPUFA improved visual attention and cognitive development compared with infants receiving no LCPUFA. Term infants need an exogenous supply of AA and DHA to achieve similar accretion of fatty acid in plasma and RBC (red blood cell) in comparison to breast-fed infants. Fewer than half of all studies have found beneficial effects of LCPUFA on visual, mental, or psychomotor functions. Improved developmental scores at 18 mo of age have been reported for infants fed both AA and DHA. Growth, body weight, and anthropometrics of preterm and term infants fed formulas providing both n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA fatty acids is similar in most studies to that of infants fed formulas containing no LCPUFA. A larger double-blind multicenter randomized study has recently

  18. Microbial and metabolic signatures of necrotizing enterocolitis in formula-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) include premature birth, formula feeding, and microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. We previously showed that feeding formula composed of lactose vs corn syrup solids protects against NEC in preterm pigs, however the microbial an...

  19. Preterm (Premature) Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... with serious health problems. Some health problems, like cerebral palsy , can last a lifetime. Other problems, such as ... This medication may help reduce the risk of cerebral palsy that is associated with early preterm birth. What ...

  20. Controversies in preterm brain injury.

    PubMed

    Penn, Anna A; Gressens, Pierre; Fleiss, Bobbi; Back, Stephen A; Gallo, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    In this review, we highlight critical unresolved questions in the etiology and mechanisms causing preterm brain injury. Involvement of neurons, glia, endogenous factors and exogenous exposures is considered. The structural and functional correlates of interrupted development and injury in the premature brain are under active investigation, with the hope that the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying developmental abnormalities in the human preterm brain can be understood, prevented or repaired. PMID:26477300

  1. Smoking and Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Ion, Rachel; Bernal, Andrés López

    2015-08-01

    Premature birth is a significant global problem and the leading cause of newborn deaths. Tobacco smoking has been associated with premature birth for over 50 years. The mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effects on pregnancy outcomes remain unclear. In this review, we discuss rates of prematurity and smoking in pregnancy, the evidence of a causal relationship between tobacco and preterm birth, and proposed biochemical pathways through which the interaction is mediated. The suggested mechanisms include nicotine-induced vasoconstriction, carbon monoxide-induced fetal hypoxia, cadmium disruption of calcium signaling, altered steroid hormone production, disruption of prostaglandin synthesis, and changed responses to oxytocin. The relative importance of each of these pathways is yet to be ascertained. Further research is necessary to explore the mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effect on gestational length and the process of parturition. Moreover, the risks of nicotine replacement in pregnancy should be investigated further. PMID:25394641

  2. Salmonellas on pig farms and in abattoirs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. A.; Ghosh, A. C.; Mann, P. G.; Tee, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    Salmonella infection on two pig farms and its relation to infection in pigs at slaughter was studied. On the first farm feed ingredients were mixed on the farm, and these included fish meal which was found to be contaminated with salmonellas. The feed was pumped to pigs in liquid form. There was a high salmonella isolation rate at slaughter when the contaminated fish meal was fed in liquid feed, but it was significantly lower when no fish meal was fed to the pigs examined at slaughter. In some instances the same serotypes were found in fish meal and pig excreta on the farm and in caecal contents of the pigs at slaughter. No serotype was repeatedly isolated from any source and it appeared that the serotypes were not able to establish themselves in the pigs. It is concluded that infection found at slaughter originated on the farm where fish meal introduced and maintained infection. There was an opportunity for salmonellas to have multiplied in the liquid feed for several hours each day. On a second farm environmental conditions were similar, but feed was given in the form of ready-made pellets and nuts. Salmonellas were not isolated from the feed. At slaughter there was a significantly lower isolation rate than on the first farm. PMID:4501835

  3. Characterization of F107 fimbriae of Escherichia coli 107/86, which causes edema disease in pigs, and nucleotide sequence of the F107 major fimbrial subunit gene, fedA.

    PubMed Central

    Imberechts, H; De Greve, H; Schlicker, C; Bouchet, H; Pohl, P; Charlier, G; Bertschinger, H; Wild, P; Vandekerckhove, J; Van Damme, J

    1992-01-01

    F107 fimbriae were isolated and purified from edema disease strain 107/86 of Escherichia coli. Plasmid pIH120 was constructed, which contains the gene cluster that codes for adhesive F107 fimbriae. The major fimbrial subunit gene, fedA, was sequenced. An open reading frame that codes for a protein with 170 amino acids, including a 21-amino-acid signal peptide, was found. The protein without the signal sequence has a calculated molecular mass of 15,099 Da. Construction of a nonsense mutation in the open reading frame of fedA abolished both fimbrial expression and the capacity to adhere to isolated porcine intestinal villi. In a screening of 28 reference edema disease strains and isolates from clinically ill piglets, fedA was detected in 24 cases (85.7%). In 20 (83.3%) of these 24 strains, fedA was found in association with Shiga-like toxin II variant genes, coding for the toxin that is characteristic for edema disease strains of E. coli. The fimbrial subunit gene was not detected in enterotoxigenic E. coli strains. Because of the capacity of E. coli HB101(pIH120) transformants to adhere to isolated porcine intestinal villi, the high prevalence of fedA in edema disease strains, and the high correlation with the Shiga-like toxin II variant toxin-encoding genes, we suggest that F107 fimbriae are an important virulence factor in edema disease strains of E. coli. Images PMID:1348723

  4. Nutritional modulation of the gut microbiota and immune system in preterm neonates susceptible to necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Siggers, Richard H; Siggers, Jayda; Thymann, Thomas; Boye, Mette; Sangild, Per T

    2011-06-01

    The gastrointestinal inflammatory disorder, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), is among the most serious diseases for preterm neonates. Nutritional, microbiological and immunological dysfunctions all play a role in disease progression but the relationship among these determinants is not understood. The preterm gut is very sensitive to enteral feeding which may either promote gut adaptation and health, or induce gut dysfunction, bacterial overgrowth and inflammation. Uncontrolled inflammatory reactions may be initiated by maldigestion and impaired mucosal protection, leading to bacterial overgrowth and excessive nutrient fermentation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, toll-like receptors and heat-shock proteins are identified among the immunological components of the early mucosal dysfunction. It remains difficult, however, to distinguish the early initiators of NEC from the later consequences of the disease pathology. To elucidate the mechanisms and identify clinical interventions, animal models showing spontaneous NEC development after preterm birth coupled with different forms of feeding may help. In this review, we summarize the literature and some recent results from studies on preterm pigs on the nutritional, microbial and immunological interactions during the early feeding-induced mucosal dysfunction and later NEC development. We show that introduction of suboptimal enteral formula diets, coupled with parenteral nutrition, predispose to disease, while advancing amounts of mother's milk from birth (particularly colostrum) protects against disease. Hence, the transition from parenteral to enteral nutrition shortly after birth plays a pivotal role to secure gut growth, digestive maturation and an appropriate response to bacterial colonization in the sensitive gut of preterm neonates. PMID:21193301

  5. Effects of microbial xylanase on digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and energy and the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in rice coproducts fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, fiber, and GE by weanling pigs and the concentration of DE and ME in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, and broken rice is improved if microbial xylanase is added to the diet. Eighty pigs (13.6 ± 0.8 kg initial BW) were allotted to 10 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 40 pigs. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal and 4 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each of the 4 rice coproducts were formulated. The rice coproducts and corn and soybean meal were the only sources of energy in the diets. Five additional diets that were similar to the initial 5 diets with the exception that they also contained 16,000 units of xylanase (Econase XT-25; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK) were also formulated. All diets also contained 1,500 units of microbial phytase (Quantum Blue 5G; AB Vista). The DE and ME and the ATTD of DM, OM, fiber, and GE in diets and ingredients were calculated using the direct method and the difference method, respectively. Results indicated that the concentrations of DE and ME (DM basis) in FFRB and DFRB increased ( < 0.05) if xylanase was used. Broken rice had a greater ( < 0.05) concentration of DE and ME than FFRB and DFRB if no xylanase was added to the diets, but if xylanase was used, no differences in ME among FFRB, brown rice, and broken rice were observed. The ATTD of DM was greater ( < 0.05) in ingredients with xylanase than in ingredients without xylanase and there was a tendency ( = 0.067) for the ATTD of OM to be greater if xylanase was used. The ATTD of NDF in FFRB was greater ( < 0.05) when xylanase was added than if no xylanase was used, whereas the ATTD of NDF in DFRB was not affected by the addition of xylanase. In conclusion, if no xylanase was used, broken rice and brown rice have greater concentrations of DE and ME than FFRB

  6. Pre-Term Babies. Caring About Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Marilyn

    One of a series designed to help parents care for their children and themselves by promoting good mental health, this pamphlet provides information about preterm babies. In nine brief sections, readers find various information, including a description of the preterm infant, a discussion of causes of preterm birth and low-weight babies, and a…

  7. Preterm labor: role of the nurse practitioner.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Jennifer; Silber, Angela

    2015-03-12

    The nurse practitioner may play a pivotal role in diagnosing preterm labor through risk assessment and physical exam. While treatment and management of preterm labor are usually beyond the nurse practitioner's scope of practice, they can play an important role in preventing preterm birth through assessment, action, or advocacy. PMID:25585096

  8. The influence of dietary carbohydrates on experimental infection with Trichuris suis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, L E; Petkevicius, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Roepstorff, A

    2005-12-01

    Two experiments (Exps 1 and 2) were carried out to study the effect of dietary carbohydrates on the establishment of Trichuris suis in pigs. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with non-fermentable carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Exp. 1, thirty-two pigs were allocated randomly into 4 groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and 2 groups were fed Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs each and the other two groups were uninfected controls. All pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.). In Exp. 2, twenty-four pigs were allocated randomly into 2 groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively. All the pigs were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs. Six pigs from each group were slaughtered 8 weeks p.i. and the remaining 6 pigs from each group were slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. Infections were followed by faecal egg counts and worm burdens were assessed at necropsy. Pigs fed Diet 2 had lower egg counts in both experiments; in Exp. 2 the difference was significant (P<0.05). No differences were found in worm burdens 8 weeks p.i. in both experiments, however, worms from pigs on Diet 2 were significantly shorter (P<0.0001). Pigs fed Diet 2 and slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. had significantly lower worm counts (P<0.01) compared to pigs fed Diet 1. The results indicate that fermentable carbohydrates do not affect the establishment of T. suis in naïve pigs, but result in earlier expulsion and reduced growth of the established worms. Thus, diets with highly fermentable carbohydrates may be used in the control of T. suis. PMID:16336739

  9. Dietary marker effects on fecal microbial ecology, fecal VFA, nutrient digestibility coefficients, and growth performance in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Ziemer, C J

    2015-05-01

    Use of indigestible markers such as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and TiO2 are commonly used in animal studies to evaluate digesta rate of passage and nutrient digestibility. Yet, the potential impact of indigestible markers on fecal microbial ecology and subsequent VFA generation is not known. Two experiments utilizing a total of 72 individually fed finishing pigs were conducted to describe the impact of dietary markers on fecal microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, nutrient digestibility, and pig performance. All pigs were fed a common diet with no marker or with 0.5% Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2. In Exp. 1, after 33 d of feeding, fresh fecal samples were collected for evaluation of microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, and nutrient digestibility, along with measures of animal performance. No differences were noted in total microbes or bacterial counts in pig feces obtained from pigs fed the different dietary markers while Archaea counts were decreased (P = 0.07) in feces obtained from pigs fed the diet containing Fe2O 3compared to pigs fed the control diet. Feeding Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2 increased fecal bacterial richness (P = 0.03, 0.01, and 0.10; respectively) when compared to pigs fed diets containing no marker, but no dietary marker effects were noted on fecal microbial evenness or the Shannon-Wiener index. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gels did not reveal band pattern alterations due to inclusion of dietary markers in pig diets. There was no effect of dietary marker on fecal DM, ammonia, or VFA concentrations. Pigs fed diets containing Cr2O3 had greater Ca, Cu, Fe, and P (P ≤ 0.02), but lower Ti ( P= 0.08) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing Fe2O3 had greater Ca (P = 0.08) but lower Ti (P = 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing TiO2 had greater Fe and Zn (P ≤ 0.09), but lower Ti ( P= 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the

  10. Feeding biofuels co-products to pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and other co-products from the fuel ethanol industry may be included in diets fed to pigs in all phases of production. The concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in DDGS and corn germ is similar to corn, but high protein dis...

  11. Percutaneous absorption in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    West, D P; Halket, J M; Harvey, D R; Hadgraft, J; Solomon, L M; Harper, J I

    1987-11-01

    The skin of preterm infants varies considerably in its level of maturity. To understand skin absorption in premature infants better, we report a technique for the assessment of percutaneous absorption at various gestational and postnatal ages using stable, isotope-labeled (13C6) benzoic acid. Our results indicate that in the preterm infant, this method detects enhanced skin absorption in the first postnatal days, which declines over three weeks to that expected of a full-term infant. This approach also indicates an inverse relationship between gestational age and skin absorption, as well as postnatal age and skin absorption. The reported technique is a safe and noninvasive method using a model skin penetrant for the study of percutaneous absorption in preterm infants from which basic data may be derived to add to our understanding of skin barrier function. PMID:3422856

  12. Protective Effect of Two Yeast Based Feed Additives on Pigs Chronically Exposed to Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Alexandra C.; See, M. Todd; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON and 0.3 mg/kg feed ZEA); MT-YC (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall product); and MT-YF (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast fermentation product). After 42 days of feeding, pigs fed MT had reduced (p < 0.05) growth performance compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-YF had greater (p < 0.05) average daily gain and tended to have greater (p = 0.080) average daily feed intake than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YC did not differ from MT. Oxidative DNA damage increased (p < 0.05) in MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YF tended to have lower (p = 0.067) oxidative stress. Liver hydropic degeneration was increased (p < 0.05) in MT in contrast to CON and MT-YF, and tended to be greater (p = 0.079) than MT-YC. Collectively, feeding diets contaminated with mycotoxins significantly reduced growth performance and impacted pig health. The yeast additives had varied ability to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig growth and health, but may still play a beneficial role in reducing the overall impacts of a mycotoxin challenge on pigs. PMID:25533517

  13. Caffeine therapy in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Nasef, Nehad; Shabaan, Abd Elazeez; Nour, Islam

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used medication for treatment of apnea of prematurity. Its effect has been well established in reducing the frequency of apnea, intermittent hypoxemia, and extubation failure in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. Evidence for additional short-term benefits on reducing the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus has also been suggested. Controversies exist among various neonatal intensive care units in terms of drug efficacy compared to other methylxanthines, dosage regimen, time of initiation, duration of therapy, drug safety and value of therapeutic drug monitoring. In the current review, we will summarize the available evidence for the best practice in using caffeine therapy in preterm infants. PMID:26566480

  14. Caffeine therapy in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Nasef, Nehad; Shabaan, Abd Elazeez; Nour, Islam

    2015-11-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used medication for treatment of apnea of prematurity. Its effect has been well established in reducing the frequency of apnea, intermittent hypoxemia, and extubation failure in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. Evidence for additional short-term benefits on reducing the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus has also been suggested. Controversies exist among various neonatal intensive care units in terms of drug efficacy compared to other methylxanthines, dosage regimen, time of initiation, duration of therapy, drug safety and value of therapeutic drug monitoring. In the current review, we will summarize the available evidence for the best practice in using caffeine therapy in preterm infants. PMID:26566480

  15. Preterm human milk composition: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Catherine; Watson, Mistral; Lazidis, Grace; Reeve, Sarah; Dods, Kenneth; Simmer, Karen; McLeod, Gemma

    2016-09-01

    There are wide variations in the macronutrient values adopted by neonatal intensive care units and industry to fortify milk in efforts to achieve recommended intakes for preterm infants. Contributing to this is the variation in macronutrient composition of preterm milk between and within mothers and the variable quality of milk analyses used to determine the macronutrient content of milk. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using articles published in English between 1959 and 2013 that reported the concentrations of one or more macronutrients or energy content in human preterm milk, sampled over a representative 24-h period. Searched medical databases included Ovid Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Results are presented as mean values and ranges for each macronutrient during weeks 1-8 of lactation, and preferred mean values (g/100 ml) for colostrum (week 1) and mature milk (weeks 2-8; protein: 1·27, fat: 3·46, lactose: 6·15 and carbohydrate: 7·34), using data from studies employing the highest-quality analyses. Industry-directed fortification practices using these mean values fail to meet protein targets for infants weighing <1000 g when the fortified milk is fed <170-190 ml/kg per d, and the protein:energy ratio of the fortified milk is inadequate. This study aimed to provide additional information to industry in order to guide their future formulation of breast milk fortifiers. Quality macronutrient analyses of adequately sampled preterm breast milk would improve our understanding of the level of fortification needed to meet recommended protein and energy intakes and growth targets, as well as support standardised reporting of nutritional outcomes. PMID:27522863

  16. Respiratory consequences of late preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Pike, Katharine C; Lucas, Jane S A

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries most preterm births occur between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Deliveries during this 'late preterm' period are increasing and, since even mild prematurity is now recognised to be associated with adverse health outcomes, this presents healthcare challenges. Respiratory problems associated with late preterm birth include neonatal respiratory distress, severe RSV infection and childhood wheezing. Late preterm birth prematurely interrupts in utero lung development and is associated with maternal and early life factors which adversely affect the developing respiratory system. This review considers 1) mechanisms underlying the association between late preterm birth and impaired respiratory development, 2) respiratory morbidity associated with late preterm birth, particularly long-term outcomes, and 3) interventions which might protect respiratory development by addressing risk factors affecting the late preterm population, including maternal smoking, early life growth restriction and vulnerability to viral infection. PMID:25554628

  17. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P < 0.05) AID of DM, N, Ca, and P. Increasing phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) AID of P and Ca, respectively, with AID of Ca showing a tendency for a linear increase (P = 0.053). Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P < 0.05) AID of P from 46 to 62%. Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, N, Ca, P, Mg, K, and energy. Contrasts showed that phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P < 0.05) AID for 8 indispensable AA (Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val), 6 dispensable AA (Ala, Asp, Cys, Glu, Ser, and Tyr), as well as for total AA. Furthermore, phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P < 0.10) to increase ileal digestibility of Gly. Ileal digestibility of Met, Trp, and Pro were not affected by phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P < 0.05) in AID of 6

  18. The placental microbiome is altered among subjects with spontaneous preterm birth with and without chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Paranthaman S.; Alvarez, Manuel; Gisslen, Tate; Harris, R. Alan; Sweeney, Emma L.; Knox, Christine L.; Lambers, Donna S.; Jobe, Alan H.; Chougnet, Claire A.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.

    2016-01-01

    severity of histologic chorioamnionitis (permutational multivariate analysis of variance P = .005), there was no observable impact with either beta-methasone or antibiotic treatment. In preterm subjects with chorioamnionitis, we found a high abundance of both urogenital and oral commensal bacteria. These alterations in the microbiome were accompanied by significant variation (P < .05) in microbial metabolic pathways important in the glucose-fed pentose phosphate pathway (term subjects), or glycerophopholipid metabolism, and the biosynthesis of the siderophore group nonribosomal peptides (preterm subjects). CONCLUSION Consistent with ours and others previous findings, women who experienced spontaneous PTB harbor placental microbiota that further differed by severity of chorioamnionitis. Integrative meta-genomic analysis revealed significant variation in distinct bacterial metabolic pathways, which we speculate may contribute to risk of preterm birth with and without severe chorioamnionitis. PMID:26965447

  19. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  20. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Olson, David M.; Severson, Emily M.; Verstraeten, Barbara S. E.; Ng, Jane W. Y.; McCreary, J. Keiko; Metz, Gerlinde A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk. PMID:26694355

  1. Global Incidence of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Tielsch, James M

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the incidence of preterm birth depends on accurate assessment of gestational age and pregnancy outcomes. In many countries, such data are not routinely collected, making global estimates difficult. A recent systematic approach to this problem has estimated a worldwide incidence of 11.1 per 100 live births in 2010. Significant variation in rates by country and region of the world was noted, but this variation is smaller than observed for a number of other important reproductive outcomes. Rates range from approximately 5% in some northern European countries to over 15% in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Time trends suggest that preterm birth incidence is increasing, but much of this change may reflect changes in medically induced early delivery practices as improvements in survival of preterm infants has improved. Whether there have been major changes in spontaneous preterm birth is unknown. New approaches to classifying etiologic heterogeneity have been proposed and offer the promise of developing specific interventions to address the range of underlying causes of this important health problem. PMID:26111559

  2. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Olson, David M; Severson, Emily M; Verstraeten, Barbara S E; Ng, Jane W Y; McCreary, J Keiko; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk. PMID:26694355

  3. Preterm infants--odontological aspects.

    PubMed

    Rythén, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with medical complications and treatments postnatally and disturbances in growth and development. Primary and permanent teeth develop during this postnatal period. The overall aim of the present thesis was to elucidate the effects of preterm birth and postnatal complications on oral health and the dentoalveolar development during adolescence, and to study the effects of preterm birth on caries during childhood, in a well-defined group of preterm infants. In the same group, explore the development of the primary and permanent teeth and compare the results with a matched control group and control teeth. The subjects consisted of 40 (45) of 56 surviving infants, born < 29 weeks of gestational age (GA), and matched healthy children born at term. The material consisted of 44 teeth from 14 of the preterm adolescents and 36 control teeth from healthy children. Clinical examinations and dental cast analysis were performed during adolescence and morbidity was noted. Retrospective information from medical and dental records was obtained. Dental enamel was analyzed in a polarized light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Further, chemical analyses of enamel and dentin were performed with X-ray microanalysis. The results showed that during adolescence, more preterms had plaque and gingival inflammation, lower salivary secretion, more S. mutans and severe hypomineralization. Retrospectively, less caries was noted at six years of age, but more children had hypomineralization in the primary dentition. Angle Class II malocclusion, large over-bite and deep bite associated with medical diagnoses were frequent. Furthermore, smaller dental arch perimeters in girls, at 16 years of age, and smaller tooth size in the incisors, canines and first molars were found. The morphological findings were confirmed in the XRMA analyses. In postnatal enamel, varying degrees of porosities > 5% and incremental lines were seen. Lower values of Ca and Ca/C ratio and

  4. Protein Intake and Growth in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Emma L.; Collins, Carmel T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This review aimed to investigate the relationship between varying levels of enteral protein intake and growth in preterm infants, regardless of feeding method. Data Sources. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies, as were review articles, reference lists, and text books. Study Selection. Trials were included if they were randomized or quasirandomized, participants were <37 weeks gestation at birth, and protein intakes were intentionally or statistically different between study groups. Trials reporting weight, length, and head circumference gains in infants fed formula, human milk, or fortified human milk were included. Data Extraction. Studies were categorized by feeding-type and relevant data were extracted into summary tables by one reviewer and cross-checked by a second. Data Synthesis. A meta-analysis could not be conducted due to extensive variability among studies; thus, results were synthesized graphically and narratively. Twenty-four trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in a narrative synthesis and 19 in a graphical synthesis of study results. Conclusions. There was extensive variability in study design, participant characteristics, and study quality. Nonetheless, results are fairly consistent that higher protein intake results in increased growth with graphical representation indicating a potentially linear relationship. Additionally, intakes as high as 4.5 g/kg/day were shown to be safe in infants weighing >1000 g. PMID:27335914

  5. Effects of Adding Essential Oil to the Diet of Weaned Pigs on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Immune Response and Intestinal Health

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Han, Xu; Xue, Lingfeng; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs (8.37±1.58 kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet supplemented with 0.19% of an antibiotic mixture which provided 150 ppm chlortetracycline, 80 ppm colistin sulfate and 50 ppm kitasamycin (positive control, PC). Each treatment was provided to eight pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. Over the entire 35 d experiment, ADG and fecal score were improved (p<0.05) for pigs fed the PC and EOD compared with the NC. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility as well as lymphocyte proliferation for pigs fed the PC and EOD diets were increased significantly compared with NC (p<0.05). IGF-I levels in plasma were significantly increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC diet compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Interleukin-6 concentration was lower (p<0.05) and the tumor necrosis factor-α level was higher (p<0.05) in the plasma of pigs fed the EOD diet than the NC diet. Plasma total antioxidant capacity level increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with pigs fed the NC. Villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was greater (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets than the NC. The numbers of E. coli in the cecum, colon and rectum were reduced (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. In the colon, the ratio of Lactobacilli to E. coli was increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with NC diet. Total aerobe numbers in the rectum were decreased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. Collectively, these results indicate that blends of essential oils could be a

  6. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S

    2014-02-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the 'great obstetrical syndromes' and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can present as a clinically silent sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45% and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth <33 weeks of gestation, 11 patients with a short cervix would need to be treated (based on an individual patient meta-analysis). Vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix, both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  7. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth <33 weeks of gestation, 12 patients with a short cervix would need to be treated. Vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  8. Evaluation of conjugated linoleic acid and dietary antibiotics as growth promotants in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Weber, T E; Schinckel, A P; Houseknecht, K L; Richert, B T

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a growth promotant in weanling swine. Weanling pigs (n = 192; 7.6 kg and 29 d of age) were randomly assigned to four treatments that were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Concentrations of dietary CLA (0 or 0.6%) and antibiotics (+/-) constituted the main effect variables. Dietary CLA treatments consisted of a 1% addition of an oil containing 60% CLA isomers or 1% soybean oil, and dietary antibiotic treatments were antibiotics or no antibiotics. The experimental diets were fed for 9 wk in four phases (1, wk 1; 2, wk 2 and 3; 3, wk 4 through 6; and 4, wk 7 through 9), after which all pigs were fed identical medicated diets for the duration of the finishing phase. Live weights were recorded at wk 17 postweaning and at marketing to determine any residual effects of dietary treatments on finisher ADG and days to market. Medicated diets fed during phases 1 and 2 contained 55 mg carbadox/kg; during phase 3 contained 299 mg tilmicosin/kg; and during phase 4 contained 110 mg tylosin and 110 mg sulfamethazine/kg. Pigs fed medicated diets had higher overall ADG than pigs fed unmedicated diets for wk 0 through 9 (P < 0.03). Gain:feed (G:F) was greater for pigs fed medicated diets than for pigs fed unmedicated diets during phase 1 (P < 0.03) and for the duration of the nursery phase (P < 0.03). There were no effects of CLA on ADG, ADFI, or G:F. There were no residual effects of nursery CLA or antibiotics on finisher ADG and days to market. Blood samples collected from a subset of pigs (n = 72) at the completion of phases 2, 3, and 4 were assayed for serum IGF-I and antibody concentrations to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. There was a tendency for pigs fed medicated diets to have greater IGF-I concentrations than pigs fed unmedicated diets at the completion of phase 4 (P < 0.06). Pigs fed CLA had greater antibody titers (P

  9. The interactive effects of high-fat, high-fiber diets and ractopamine HCl on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality.

    PubMed

    Graham, A B; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nitikanchana, S

    2014-10-01

    A total of 576 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1,050; initial BW = 55.8 ± 5.5 kg) were used to determine the effects of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat middlings (midds) withdrawal 24 d before harvest in diets without or with ractopamine HCl (RAC) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. From d 0 to 49, pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet (CS) or a diet high in unsaturated fat and crude fiber provided by 30% DDGS and 19% wheat midds (HFF) and not balanced for energy. On d 49, pens of pigs previously fed CS diets remained on the CS diet. Half of the HFF-fed pigs were switched to the CS-based diets, which served as the withdrawal regimen. Finally, half of the HFF-fed pigs remained on the same HFF diet. All 3 regimens were fed without or with 10 mg/kg RAC. There were 12 pens per treatment with 8 pigs per pen. No significant diet regimen × RAC interactions were observed. From d 0 to 49, pigs fed the CS diet had increased (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F compared with pigs fed the HFF diet. Overall (d 0 to 73), pigs fed the CS diets throughout had greater (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F than those fed the HFF diets throughout. Pigs fed the withdrawal diets had greater (P = 0.014) ADG, but similar G:F to those fed the HFF diets throughout. Pigs fed the CS diets throughout had greater (P = 0.025) carcass yield compared with pigs fed the HFF diets throughout, with those fed the withdrawal diets intermediate. Pigs fed RAC had greater (P < 0.001) ADG, G:F, and carcass yield (P = 0.061 than pigs not fed RAC. Jowl, backfat, belly, and leaf fat iodine value (IV) were lowest (P < 0.001) for pigs fed the CS diets, highest (P < 0.015) for those fed HFF diets throughout, and intermediate for pigs fed the withdrawal diet. There were no differences in either full or rinsed intestine or organ weights between pigs that were fed CS diets throughout and pigs fed the withdrawal diet; however, pigs fed the HFF diets throughout the study had

  10. Prevention of preterm birth in modern obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Markham, Kara B; Klebanoff, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous preterm labor is a complex process characterized by the interplay of multiple different pathways. Prevention of preterm labor and delivery is also complicated. The most effective interventions for prevention of preterm birth (PTB) are progestin prophylaxis and lifestyle modifications, with cerclage placement also playing a role in selected populations. Interventions such as activity modification, home tocometry, and routine antibiotic use have fallen out of favor because of lack of effectiveness and possibility of harm. The solution to the problem of PTB remains elusive, and researchers and clinicians must collaborate to find a cure for preterm labor. PMID:25459773

  11. ARC syndrome in preterm baby.

    PubMed

    Elmeery, A; Lanka, K; Cummings, J

    2013-10-01

    A preterm female infant born of 32 weeks gestational age was presenting with musculoskeletal abnormalities, and cholestasis that later on resolved. Later on, she developed renal tubular acidosis (RTA), poor weight gain, unexplained intermittent fever and recurrent spontaneous bleeding episodes. ARC is an acronym that stands for arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction and cholestasis. ARC syndrome is a rare disorder that is difficult to diagnose and is associated with poor outcomes. We present a case of ARC syndrome in an infant with a history of failure to thrive, early cholestasis and RTA. There are many unique features about this case that should add to our understanding of this genetic condition. To our knowledge this is the first identified case of ARC syndrome in a preterm infant. Although the specific mutation found in our patient has not been reported previously, the type and location of this mutation is consistent with our genetic understanding of this disorder. PMID:24071963

  12. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878

  13. Effects of diet form and type on growth performance, carcass yield, and iodine value of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of pelleting, diet type (fat and fiber level), and withdrawal of dietary fiber and fat before marketing on growth performance, carcass yield, and carcass fat iodine value (IV) of finishing pigs. Each experiment used 288 pigs (initially 49.6 and 48.5 kg BW, respectively) with 6 dietary treatments arranged as 2 × 3 factorials. In Exp. 1, main effects were diet form (meal vs. pellet) and diet regimen. Diet regimens were 1) a low-fiber, low-fat (corn-soybean meal) diet from d 0 to 81, 2) a high-fiber, high-fat (30% dried distillers grains with solubles [DDGS] and 19% wheat middlings [midds]) diet from d 0 to 64 followed by the low-fiber, low-fat diet from d 64 to 81 (fiber and fat withdrawal), and 3) the high-fiber, high-fat diet fed from d 0 to 81. Pigs fed pelleted diets had increased ( < 0.05) ADG and G:F compared with those fed meal diets. Pigs fed pelleted diets had increased belly fat IV (2.9 mg/g) compared with those fed meal diets, with a greater increase when fed high-fiber, high-fat diets throughout the entire study (interaction, < 0.05). Pigs fed the low-fiber, low-fat diet throughout had increased ( < 0.001) G:F compared with pigs fed the other 2 treatments. Pigs fed low-fiber, low-fat diets throughout the study or pigs withdrawn from high-fiber, high-fat diets had increased ( < 0.001) carcass yield compared with pigs fed high-fiber, high-fat diets throughout. In Exp. 2, treatment main effects were diet form (meal vs. pellet) and diet type (corn-soybean meal-based control, the control with 30% DDGS and 19% midds, or the control diet with 3% corn oil). The diet containing corn oil was calculated to produce carcass fat IV similar to diets containing DDGS and midds. Overall, pigs fed pelleted diets had increased ( < 0.05) ADG, G:F, and belly fat IV (1.3 mg/g) compared with those fed meal diets. Pigs fed the diets containing DDGS and midds had decreased ( < 0.05) ADG, carcass yield, and HCW compared with

  14. Effect of micronized pea and enzyme supplementation on nutrient utilization and manure output in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Nyachoti, C M; Arntfield, S D; Guenter, W; Cenkowski, S; Opapeju, F O

    2006-08-01

    An experiment was done to determine manure output, N and P excretion, and apparent digestibilities of AA, CP, P, and DM in growing pigs fed barley-based diets containing micronized or raw peas with or without supplementation with enzyme containing primarily beta-glucanase and phytase (Biogal S+). Eight barrows (21.5 +/- 1.2 kg of initial BW) fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum were used in a 40-d trial and housed in metabolism cages. Pigs were assigned in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to 4 experimental diets: 1) barley-raw peas control (BRP), 2) barley-micronized peas (BMP), 3) BRP plus enzyme, and 4) BMP plus enzyme (BMP+E). Pigs received 2.6 times maintenance energy requirements based on BW at the beginning of each experimental period. During each experimental period, pigs were acclimatized to their respective diets for 5 d followed by a 3-d period of total fecal and urine collection and another 2-d period of ileal digesta collection. Samples were analyzed for DM, AA (diets and digesta only), N, and P. Wet fecal output of BRP plus enzyme-fed pigs tended to be lower (P = 0.07) than the amount produced by BMP-fed pigs. The amounts of dry feces and urine produced were not different among treatments (P > 0.10). Supplementing the BRP and BMP diet with enzyme increased (P = 0.002) the daily P retained per pig. Pigs fed the enzyme-supplemented diets tended to have lower (P = 0.06) fecal P excretion and greater urinary P excretion (P = 0.001) compared with pigs fed the nonsupplemented diets, but total P excretion was not influenced by diet (P > 0.10). Pigs fed the BMP+E diet retained more (P = 0.006) N per day than pigs fed the BMP diet. However, N excretion was not influenced by dietary treatment (P > 0.10), although BMP+E-fed pigs excreted 13.2% less N in the feces compared with those fed the nonenzyme supplemented controls. Inclusion of micronized peas with or without enzyme supplementation did not affect urinary or fecal N excretion (P > 0

  15. Environmental phthalate exposure and preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Meeker, John D.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal mortality with a variety of contributing causes and risk factors. Environmental exposures represent a group of understudied but potentially important factors. Phthalate diesters are used extensively in a variety of consumer products worldwide. Consequently, exposure in pregnant women is highly prevalent OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between phthalate exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth. DESIGN Nested case-control study. SETTING Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. PARTICIPANTS Women were recruited for a prospective observational cohort study from 2006–2008. Each provided demographic data, biological samples, and information about birth outcomes. Within this group we selected 130 cases of preterm birth and 352 randomly assigned controls, and analyzed urine samples from up to three time points during pregnancy for levels of phthalate metabolites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We examined associations between average levels of phthalate exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth, defined as <37 weeks completed gestation, as well as spontaneous preterm birth, defined as preterm preceded by spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes (N=57). RESULTS Geometric means of the di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites mono-(2-ethyl)-hexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), as well as mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. In adjusted models, MEHP, MECPP, and ∑DEHP metabolites were associated with significantly increased odds of preterm birth. When spontaneous preterm births were examined alone, MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), MECPP, ∑DEHP, MBP, and mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) metabolite levels were all associated with significantly elevated odds of prematurity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have significantly

  16. Dietary pharmacological or excess zinc and phytase effects on tissue mineral concentrations, metallothionein, and apparent mineral retention in the newly weaned pig.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M M; Link, J E; Hill, G M

    2005-01-01

    Feeding pharmacological zinc (Zn) to weaned pigs improves growth, and dietary phytase improves P and Zn availability. Metallothionein (MT) increases in the duodenum, kidney, and liver of pigs fed 1000 mg Zn/kg with phytase or 2000 mg Zn/kg with or without phytase when fed for 14 d postweaning. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of feeding pharmacological Zn and phytase on tissue minerals, MT, mineral excretion, and apparent retention. Twenty-four newly weaned pigs (20 d; 7.2 kg) were individually fed twice daily, a basal diet supplemented with 0, 1000, or 4000 mg Zn/kg as Zn oxide, without or with phytase (500 phytase units [FTU]/kg) for 14 d, followed by a basal diet (100 mg Zn/kg) without phytase for 7 d. Pigs fed 4000 mg Zn/kg without phytase had higher (p=0.01) plasma, hepatic, renal Zn, renal Cu, and hepatic, renal, and jejunal MT than pigs fed the basal diet or 1000 mg Zn/kg. Duodenal MT was higher (p=0.0001) in pigs fed 1000 and 4000 mg Zn/kg than in pigs fed the basal diet. In pigs fed 1000 and 4000 mg Zn/kg, Zn loading occurred during the first 11 d of supplementation; by d 14, excess Zn was being excreted in the feces. PMID:16034157

  17. Effects of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal on nutrient digestibility, growth performance and serum parameters in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Wang, Jianping; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influences of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs. A total of 72 growing pigs (body weight = 40.8 ± 2.1 kg) were used in feeding trials, lasting for up to 42 days, and were randomly allotted to one of three diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet as well as two experimental diets containing 10% unfermented rapeseed meal (RSM) or 10% FRSM. The results showed that average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of pigs fed FRSM were superior (P < 0.05) to that of pigs fed unfermented RSM and did not differ from the control. Pigs fed control diet had higher (P < 0.05) total tract apparent digestibility for dry matter, protein, calcium and phosphorus than pigs fed unfermented RSM diet and did not differ from the FRSM diet. Pigs fed FRSM had lower levels (P < 0.05) of serum aspartate transaminase compared to unfermented RSM. In conclusion, solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger may improve the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of RSM for pigs and FRSM is a promising alternative protein for pig production. PMID:26434567

  18. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Daniel A; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-Garcia, Adriana; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-09-15

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. Neonatal pigs (n = 14-16/diet, 5 days old, 1.8 ± 0.3 kg) were fed by gastric catheter a whey-based milk replacement diet with either a high protein (HP) or restricted protein (RP) content or RP supplemented with leucine to the same level as in the HP diet (RPL). Pigs were fed 40 ml·kg body wt(-1)·meal(-1) every 4 h for 21 days. Feeding the HP diet resulted in greater total body weight and lean body mass compared with RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Masses of the longissimus dorsi muscle, heart, and kidneys were greater in the HP- than RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Body weight, lean body mass, and masses of the longissimus dorsi, heart, and kidneys in pigs fed the RPL diet were intermediate to RP- and HP-fed pigs. Protein synthesis and mTOR signaling were increased in all muscles with feeding (P < 0.05); leucine supplementation increased mTOR signaling and protein synthesis rate in the longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on indices of protein degradation signaling in any tissue (P > 0.05). Thus, when protein intake is chronically restricted, the capacity for leucine supplementation to enhance muscle protein accretion in neonatal pigs that are meal-fed milk protein-based diets is limited. PMID:26374843

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid and visual functioning in preterm infants: a review.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Carly; Doyle, Lex W; Makrides, Maria; Anderson, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    Preterm children are at risk for a number of visual impairments which can be important for a range of other more complex visuocognitive tasks reliant on visual information. Despite the relatively high incidence of visual impairments in this group there are no good predictors that would allow early identification of those at risk for adverse outcomes. Several lines of evidence suggest that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation for preterm infants may improve outcomes in this area. For example, diets deficient in the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA have been shown to reduce its concentration in the cerebral cortex and retina, which interferes with physiological processes important for cognition and visual functioning. Further, various studies with pregnant and lactating women, as well as formula-fed infants, have demonstrated a general trend that supplementation with dietary DHA is associated with better childhood outcomes on tests of visual and cognitive development over the first year of life. However, research to date has several methodological limitations, including concentrations of DHA supplementation that have been too low to emulate the in utero accretion of DHA, using single measures of visual acuity to make generalised assumptions about the entire visual system, and little attempt to match what we know about inadequate DHA and structural ramifications with how specific functions may be affected. The objective of this review is to consider the role of DHA in the context of visual processing with a specific emphasis on preterm infants and to illustrate how future research may benefit from marrying what we know about structural consequences to inadequate DHA with functional outcomes that likely have far-reaching ramifications. Factors worth considering for clinical neuropsychological evaluation are also discussed. PMID:23065239

  20. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  1. Reduction of head flattening in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, P H; Rutter, N

    1988-01-01

    During the first few weeks of life many preterm infants develop flattened heads. We have shown that this deformity can be reduced by nursing preterm infants on soft, air filled mattresses of the type used for detecting apnoea. Images Fig 2 PMID:3415321

  2. Immune cells in term and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia

    2014-11-01

    Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221

  3. Phonotactic Acquisition in Healthy Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard…

  4. DIETARY PROTEIN AND LACTOSE INCREASE TRANSLATION INITIATION FACTOR ACTIVATION AND TISSUE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN NEONATAL PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein synthesis and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) activation are increased in muscle and liver of pigs parenterally infused with amino acids and insulin. To examine the effects of enteral protein and carbohydrate on protein synthesis, pigs (n = 42, 1.7 kg body wt) were fed isocaloric milk die...

  5. Modulation of protein synthesis by somatotropin and insulin in skeletal muscle of growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic treatment of pigs with porcine somatotropin (pST) for 7 days increases feed efficiency by both promoting whole body protein synthesis in the fed state and reducing whole body protein degradation during fasting. pST-treated pigs have higher plasma insulin levels than vehicle-treated controls....

  6. Effect of Sodium Butyrate on Growth Performance and Response to Lipopolysaccharide in Weanling Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to E. coli. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In the first 28 d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg d...

  7. Preterm Births: A Global Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jane Greene; Dogbey, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Globally, in 2012, there were 15 million babies born preterm. The majority of preterm births occur in resource-poor countries including India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo where many die due to lack of basic skilled nursing care. In September 2000, the United Nations signed the Millennium Development Declaration establishing eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These MDGs provide specific, measurable targets that are designed to provide equitable health to all, particularly the most vulnerable including preterm babies. On May 2, 2014, the World Health Organization specifically targeted the nursing workforce as a key stakeholder in strategies to reduce global prematurity and end preventable preterm newborn deaths. Specific strategies include primary care, screening for risk factors, kangaroo mother care, and early initiation of breastfeeding with exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life. By sharing our knowledge and skills, nurses can contribute to global actions being taken to end preventable preterm newborn deaths. PMID:26295506

  8. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  9. Maternal Commenting: Profiles during Preterm and Full-Term Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Shirley A.

    1995-01-01

    This observational study examined 60 mothers' comments during play with their 4- to 8-month-old infants who had been either full-term, preterm well, or preterm sick. Mothers of sick preterm babies engaged in the most overall talking, mothers of full-term babies made the most negative remarks, and mothers of healthy preterm babies made the fewest…

  10. Effects of resistant starch on behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, C; Haenen, D; Koopmans, S J; Hooiveld, G J E J; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Müller, M; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-09-01

    Resistant starch (RS) has been suggested to prolong satiety in adult pigs. The present study investigated RS-induced changes in behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in catheterized growing pigs to explore possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety. In a cross-over design with two 14-day periods, 10 pigs (initial BW: 58 kg) were assigned to two treatments comprising diets containing either 35% pregelatinized starch (PS) or 34% retrograded starch (RS). Diets were isoenergetic on gross energy. Pigs were fed at 2.8× maintenance. Postprandial plasma response of satiety-related hormones and metabolites was measured at the end of each period using frequent blood sampling. Faecal and urinary energy losses were measured at the end of each period. Behaviour was scored 24 h from video recordings using scan sampling. Energy digestibility and metabolizability were ~6% lower in RS compared with PS diet (P<0.001), and metabolizable energy (ME) intake was ~3% lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). RS-fed pigs showed less feeder-directed (P=0.001) and drinking (P=0.10) behaviours than PS-fed pigs throughout the day. Postprandial peripheral short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). Triglyceride levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.01), and non-esterified fatty acid levels did not differ between diets (P=0.90). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) levels did not differ between diets (P=0.90). Blood serotonin levels were lower (P<0.001), whereas monoamine oxidase activity (P<0.05) and tryptophan (P<0.01) levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs. Despite a lower ME intake, RS seemed to prolong satiety, based on behavioural observations. Possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety include

  11. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cho, J. H.; Zhang, S.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (p<0.05) ADFI, ADG and gain/feed ratio (G/F) than CON and DP groups. During wk 5 to 10, Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets indicated higher (p<0.05) ADG and ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. During the entire experimental period, a significant increase of ADG appeared in JH, HCT and LE (p<0.05). Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets got a higher (p<0.05) ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. Pigs fed diets with supplementations of herb additives revealled lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhea pigs during d 2 to d 6 compared with pigs fed CON diet. In Exp 2, 60 growing-finishing barrows and gilts (average BW = 54.10±1.20 kg, average age = 54±3 d) were allotted to three treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) YG, basal diet+1 g/kg yellow ginger and iii) HR, basal dietary+1 g/kg hoantchy root, respectively. From wk 0 to 5, Dietary supplementation of YG and HR enhanced (p<0.05) ADG. No difference was found between YG and HR treatments. During, wk 5 to 10, ADG also was observed higher in YG and HR treatments than CON group (p<0.05). Additional, YG had the highest ADG (p<0.05) among treatments. There was always an increase of ADG in YG and HR (p<0.05) through all periods. HR treatment showed a lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhoeal pigs on d 1and d 2 compared with CON treatment. Pigs fed YG and HR diets had a higher (p<0.05) longissimus muscle area (LMA) than pigs fed CON diet. In conclusion, anti-diarrhoeal herbs can

  12. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Cho, J H; Zhang, S; Kim, I H

    2012-11-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (p<0.05) ADFI, ADG and gain/feed ratio (G/F) than CON and DP groups. During wk 5 to 10, Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets indicated higher (p<0.05) ADG and ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. During the entire experimental period, a significant increase of ADG appeared in JH, HCT and LE (p<0.05). Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets got a higher (p<0.05) ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. Pigs fed diets with supplementations of herb additives revealled lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhea pigs during d 2 to d 6 compared with pigs fed CON diet. In Exp 2, 60 growing-finishing barrows and gilts (average BW = 54.10±1.20 kg, average age = 54±3 d) were allotted to three treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) YG, basal diet+1 g/kg yellow ginger and iii) HR, basal dietary+1 g/kg hoantchy root, respectively. From wk 0 to 5, Dietary supplementation of YG and HR enhanced (p<0.05) ADG. No difference was found between YG and HR treatments. During, wk 5 to 10, ADG also was observed higher in YG and HR treatments than CON group (p<0.05). Additional, YG had the highest ADG (p<0.05) among treatments. There was always an increase of ADG in YG and HR (p<0.05) through all periods. HR treatment showed a lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhoeal pigs on d 1and d 2 compared with CON treatment. Pigs fed YG and HR diets had a higher (p<0.05) longissimus muscle area (LMA) than pigs fed CON diet. In conclusion, anti-diarrhoeal herbs can

  13. Absence of Circadian Rhythms of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes and Preterm Placental Abruption

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Ananth, Cande V.; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Qiu, Chun-fang; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Data regarding circadian rhythm in the onset of spontaneous preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and placental abruption (PA) cases are conflicting. We modeled the time of onset of preterm PROM and PA cases and examined if the circadian profiles varied based on the gestational age at delivery. Methods We used parametric and nonparametric methods, including trigonometric regression in the framework of generalized linear models, to test the presence of circadian rhythms in the time of onset of preterm PROM and PA cases, among 395 women who delivered a singleton between 2009 and 2010 in Lima, Peru. Results We found a diurnal circadian pattern, with a morning peak at 07h:32’ (95%CI:05h:46’ – 09h:18’) among moderate preterm PROM cases (P-value<0.001), and some evidence of a diurnal circadian periodicity among PA cases in term infants (P-value=0.067). However, we did not find evidence of circadian rhythms in the time of onset of extremely or very preterm PROM (P-value=0.259) and preterm PA (P-value=0.224). Conclusions The circadian rhythms of the time of onset of preterm PROM and PA cases varied based on gestational weeks at delivery. While circadian rhythms were presented among moderate preterm PROM and term PA cases, there was no evidence of circadian rhythms among preterm PA and very or extremely preterm PROM cases, underlying other mechanisms associated with the time of onset. PMID:25453346

  14. Inflammatory Response in Preterm and Very Preterm Newborns with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Cervantes, Enrique; Mancilla-Ramírez, Javier; González-Canudas, Jorge; Alba, Erika; Santillán-Ballesteros, René; Morales-Barquet, Deneb; Sandoval-Plata, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    The response of the adaptive immune system is usually less intense in premature neonates than term neonates. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether immunological parameters vary between preterm (PT) neonates (≥32 weeks of gestational age) and very preterm (VPT) neonates (<32 weeks of gestational age). A cross-sectional study was designed to prospectively follow PT and VPT neonates at risk of developing sepsis. Plasma concentrations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 were detected using flow cytometry. C-reactive protein (C-RP) and the complex SC5b-9 were detected in the plasma using commercial kits. A total of 83 patients were included. The laboratory results and clinical histories showed that 26 patients had sepsis; 14 were VPT, and 12 were PT. The levels of C-RP, SC5b-9 (innate immune response mediators), and IL-10 or IL-4 (anti-inflammatory cytokines) were elevated during sepsis in both groups. IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6 (proinflammatory cytokines) were differentially elevated only in PT neonates. The VPT neonates with sepsis presented increases in C-RP, SC5b-9, and anti-inflammatory cytokines but not in proinflammatory cytokines, whereas PT neonates showed increases in all studied mediators of inflammation. PMID:27293317

  15. Inflammatory Response in Preterm and Very Preterm Newborns with Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Segura-Cervantes, Enrique; Mancilla-Ramírez, Javier; González-Canudas, Jorge; Alba, Erika; Santillán-Ballesteros, René; Morales-Barquet, Deneb; Sandoval-Plata, Gabriela; Galindo-Sevilla, Norma

    2016-01-01

    The response of the adaptive immune system is usually less intense in premature neonates than term neonates. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether immunological parameters vary between preterm (PT) neonates (≥32 weeks of gestational age) and very preterm (VPT) neonates (<32 weeks of gestational age). A cross-sectional study was designed to prospectively follow PT and VPT neonates at risk of developing sepsis. Plasma concentrations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 were detected using flow cytometry. C-reactive protein (C-RP) and the complex SC5b-9 were detected in the plasma using commercial kits. A total of 83 patients were included. The laboratory results and clinical histories showed that 26 patients had sepsis; 14 were VPT, and 12 were PT. The levels of C-RP, SC5b-9 (innate immune response mediators), and IL-10 or IL-4 (anti-inflammatory cytokines) were elevated during sepsis in both groups. IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6 (proinflammatory cytokines) were differentially elevated only in PT neonates. The VPT neonates with sepsis presented increases in C-RP, SC5b-9, and anti-inflammatory cytokines but not in proinflammatory cytokines, whereas PT neonates showed increases in all studied mediators of inflammation. PMID:27293317

  16. Effects of dietary beef tallow and soy oil on glucose and cholesterol homeostasis in normal and diabetic pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Woollett, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Toe valuate whether dietary fats of different degrees of unsaturation alter glucose and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-CH) homeostasis, normal and alloxan-diabetic pigs were fed diets containing either beef tallow or soy oil as the primary source of fat for 6 weeks. After intra-arterial and oral doses of glucose, pigs fed soy oil had similar glucose and greater insulin concentrations in plasma when compared with pigs fed beef tallow. Beef tallow-fed pigs additionally were 40% more glucose effective than were soy oil-fed pigs. Disappearance of injected autologous /sup 14/C-VLDL-CH was analyzed in pigs using a two-pool model. Diabetes resulted in a twofold increase in half-lives and a 60-fold increase in pool sizes of the primary and secondary components of VLDL-CH disappearance when compared with those of normal pigs. In normal pigs, feeding beef tallow resulted in longer half-lives of both components of VLDL-CH disappearance and no effect in pool size of both components of VLDL-CH disappearance than did feeding soy oil. In comparison, diabetic pigs fed beef tallow had a similar half-life of the primary component, a twofold shorter half-life of the secondary component, and threefold larger pool size of the primary component, and a similar pool size of the secondary component of VLDL-CH disappearance than did diabetic pigs fed soy oil. Thus, dietary fat seems to play an important role in regulation of glucose and VLDL-CH homeostasis in normal and diabetic animals.

  17. Early- and traditionally weaned nursery pigs benefit from phase-feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide: effect on metallothionein and mineral concentrations.

    PubMed

    Carlson, M S; Hill, G M; Link, J E

    1999-05-01

    Benefits of feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc (Zn) provided by Zn oxide (ZnO) to 21-d conventionally weaned pigs in the nursery have been documented; however, several management questions remain. We conducted two experiments to evaluate the effect on growth from feeding 3,000 ppm Zn as ZnO during different weeks of the nursery period. In Exp. 1 (n = 138, 11.5 d of age, 3.8 kg BW) and Exp. 2 (n = 246, 24.5 d of age, 7.2 kg BW), pigs were fed either basal diets containing 100 ppm supplemental Zn (adequate) or the same diet with an additional 3,000 ppm Zn (high) supplied as ZnO. Pigs were fed four or two dietary phases in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, that changed in dietary ingredients and nutrient content (lysine and crude protein) to meet the changing physiological needs of the pigs for the 28-d nursery period. Dietary Zn treatments were 1) adequate Zn fed wk 1 to 4, 2) high Zn fed wk 1, 3) high Zn fed wk 2, 4) high Zn fed wk 1 and 2, 5) high Zn fed wk 2 and 3, and 6) high Zn fed wk 1 to 4. In Exp. 1 and 2, pigs fed high Zn for wk 1 and 2 or the entire 28-d nursery period had the greatest (P < .05) ADG. During any week, pigs fed high Zn had greater concentrations of hepatic metallothionein and Zn in plasma, liver, and kidney than those pigs fed adequate Zn (P < .05). In summary, both early- and traditionally weaned pigs need to be fed pharmacological concentrations of Zn provided as ZnO for a minimum of 2 wk immediately after weaning to enhance growth. PMID:10340587

  18. Breast-feeding in preterm twins: Development of feeding behavior and milk intake during hospital stay and related caregiving practices.

    PubMed

    Nyqvist, Kerstin Hedberg

    2002-08-01

    In a prospective study of 13 preterm twins still in the hospital, 85% were breast-fed, of which 46% were breast-fed exclusively. Most mothers preferred simultaneous breast-feeding, using the football hold. Observations and maternal descriptions showed differences between the twins in their development of breast-feeding behavior, especially in sucking. The mothers' suggestions regarding special support for the breast-feeding mothers of preterm twins involved synchronizing feeding with the twins' behavioral states; twin cobedding; appropriate armchairs and breast-feeding pillows; experimenting with breast-feeding positions; information about breast milk production; nurses' spontaneous practical assistance, encouragement, and emotional support; the provision of privacy; the availability of parent rooms; and opportunities for fathers' presence in the hospital. PMID:12219324

  19. Effects of intermittent ractopamine hydocloride use on pig growth performance in late finishing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding, withdrawal, and refeeding 10 ppm ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on pig performance. In Exp. 1, the 4 treatments consisted of 1) a control diet fed for 56 d before marketing; 2) RAC fed for the first 21 d, and then the control diet ...

  20. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli †

    PubMed Central

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M.; Mansfield, Josephine P.; Pluske, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of three diets on diarrhoea, performance (weight change, feed intake and feed conversion ratio), selected bacterial populations and blood measures of weaner pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. The three diets were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds), base diet containing zinc oxide, and base diet containing a feed additive (blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex). Only feeding zinc oxide decreased diarrhoea, with zinc oxide-fed pigs performing better than base diet-fed pigs. Zinc oxide-fed pigs performed similarly to pigs fed the organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex. Significant interactions between treatment and day after weaning were found for some bacterial populations, although the implications of such findings require further examination. Abstract The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO (p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster (p = 0.013) and ate more (p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same (p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets (p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction (p

  1. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition.

  2. Effect of High Dietary Tryptophan on Intestinal Morphology and Tight Junction Protein of Weaned Pig

    PubMed Central

    Tossou, Myrlene Carine B.; Bai, Miaomiao; Chen, Shuai; Cai, Yinghua; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Liu, Hongbin; Adebowale, Tolulope O.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Long, Lina; Tarique, Hussain; Oso, Abimbola O.; Liu, Gang; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) plays an essential role in pig behavior and growth performances. However, little is known about Trp's effects on tight junction barrier and intestinal health in weaned pigs. In the present study, twenty-four (24) weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments with 8 piglets/treatments. The piglets were fed different amounts of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as follows: 0.0%, 0.15, and 0.75%, respectively, named zero Trp (ZTS), low Trp (LTS), and high Trp (HTS), respectively. No significant differences were observed in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain: feed (G/F) ratio between the groups. After 21 days of the feeding trial, results showed that dietary Trp significantly increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH/CD) in the jejunum of pig fed HTS. In addition, pig fed HTS had higher (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate. Furthermore, pig fed HTS significantly decreased mRNA expression of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 but not claudin-1 in the jejunum. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and goblet cells were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between the groups. Collectively, these data suggest that dietary Trp supplementation at a certain level (0.75%) may negatively affect the small intestinal structure in weaned pig. PMID:27366740

  3. A description of local pig feeding systems in village smallholder farms of Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Florence Kanini; Dewey, Catherine; Arimi, Samuel; Ogara, Wiliam; Levy, Mike; Schelling, Esther

    2012-08-01

    We used face-to-face interviews to gather data on pig feeding practices in rural Busia District, Kenya. We visited 164 pig farms three times in the course of the study period. The pigs were weighed in kilograms during the visits. Feeds offered to pigs were described during the interviews. The most frequently fed feedstuffs were; ground maize or "ugali" (88%), kitchen leftovers (83%) and dried fish locally called "omena" (78%). Farmers provided pigs with water separately from the feeds. Sweet potatoes, "ugali" and cassava were available and could serve as good sources of energy for pigs in the district. Fruits and vegetables were also available and could potentially act as good sources of vitamins. Sweet potato vines, "omena" fish and slaughter blood were available and could provide pigs with proteins. The average daily gain (ADG) for pigs ≤ 5 months of age, pigs of 5.1-9.9 months of age and pigs of ≥ 10 months old was 94.5 (± 43), 127 (± 49.8) and 99 (± 92) g, respectively (p = 0.000). This study has outlined the different local pig feeds available in Busia district. We recommend two things: first, additional research on nutrient composition for the identified local feeds, and second, developing and validating simple local feed combinations that would achieve balanced local pig rations. PMID:22219174

  4. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M; Mansfield, Josephine P; Pluske, John R

    2015-01-01

    The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO ( p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster ( p = 0.013) and ate more ( p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same ( p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets ( p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction ( p = 0.037), with more E. coli with F4 fimbriae found in pigs fed ZnO on d 11 ( p = 0.011) compared to base diet-fed pigs. Only significant time effects ( p < 0.05) occurred for blood measures. Under the conditions of this study, inclusion of OACP gave statistically similar production responses to pigs fed ZnO, however pigs fed ZnO had less PWD compared to OACP- and the base diet-fed pigs. PMID:26610577

  5. Similar efficacy of human banked milk and bovine colostrum to decrease incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael L; Sangild, Per T; Lykke, Mikkel; Schmidt, Mette; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Preterm birth and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants. As mother's milk is often absent following preterm delivery, infant formula (IF) and human donor milk (HM) are frequently used as alternatives. We have previously shown that porcine and bovine colostrum (BC) provide similar NEC protection in preterm piglets relative to IF. We hypothesized that HM exerts similar effects and that this effect is partly species-independent. Preterm piglets (n = 40) received 2 days of total parenteral nutrition, followed by a rapid transition to full enteral feeding (15 ml·kg(-1)·2 h(-1)) for 2 days using BC (n = 13), HM (n = 13), or IF (n = 14). Intestinal passage time and hexose absorption were tested in vivo. Body and organ weights were recorded on day 5, and macroscopic NEC lesions in the gastrointestinal tract were assessed. Intestinal samples were collected for determination of histomorphology, histopathology, tissue IL-6 and IL-8, organic acids, bacterial adherence by fluorescence in situ hybridization score, and digestive enzyme activities. Relative to IF, pigs from BC and HM showed longer intestinal passage time; higher weight gain, hexose absorptive capacity, mucosal proportion, and enzyme activities; lower NEC incidence, organic acid concentration, and IL-8 concentration; and reduced histopathology lesions. Tissue IL-6 concentration and bacterial adherence score were lower for HM, relative to both BC and IF groups. We conclude that BC and HM are both superior to IF in stimulating gut structure, function, and NEC resistance in preterm piglets. BC may be a relevant alternative to HM when mother's milk is unavailable during the first week after preterm birth. PMID:23657639

  6. Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi2 test. An I2 test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I2> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. Results Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide / Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD −0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD −0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0

  7. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A.; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05–0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother’s own breastmilk (MBM) had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion

  8. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  9. Antimicrobials for Preterm Birth Prevention: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Akila; Abramovici, Adi; Andrews, William W.; Tita, Alan T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Preterm birth (PTB) remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The association between PTB and infection is clear. The purpose of this report is to present a focused review of information on the use of antibiotics to prevent PTB. Methods. We performed a search of the PubMed database restricted to clinical trials or meta-analyses published in English from 1990 through May 2011 using keywords “antibiotics or antimicrobials” and “preterm.” Results. The search yielded 67 abstracts for review. We selected 31 clinical trials (n = 26) or meta-analysis (n = 5) for further full-text review. Discussion of each eligible clinical trial, its specific inclusion criteria, antibiotic regimen used, and study results are presented. Overall, trials evaluating antibiotic treatment to prevent preterm birth have yielded mixed results regarding any benefit. Conclusion. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for prevention of preterm birth. PMID:22505797

  10. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  11. Heat stress increases insulin sensitivity in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sanz Fernandez, M Victoria; Stoakes, Sara K; Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Seibert, Jacob T; Johnson, Jay S; Horst, Erin A; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H

    2015-01-01

    Proper insulin homeostasis appears critical for adapting to and surviving a heat load. Further, heat stress (HS) induces phenotypic changes in livestock that suggest an increase in insulin action. The current study objective was to evaluate the effects of HS on whole-body insulin sensitivity. Female pigs (57 ± 4 kg body weight) were subjected to two experimental periods. During period 1, all pigs remained in thermoneutral conditions (TN; 21°C) and were fed ad libitum. During period 2, pigs were exposed to: (i) constant HS conditions (32°C) and fed ad libitum (n = 6), or (ii) TN conditions and pair-fed (PFTN; n = 6) to eliminate the confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) was conducted on d3 of both periods; and skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies were collected prior to and after an insulin tolerance test (ITT) on d5 of period 2. During the HEC, insulin infusion increased circulating insulin and decreased plasma C-peptide and nonesterified fatty acids, similarly between treatments. From period 1 to 2, the rate of glucose infusion in response to the HEC remained similar in HS pigs while it decreased (36%) in PFTN controls. Prior to the ITT, HS increased (41%) skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate-1 protein abundance, but did not affect protein kinase B or their phosphorylated forms. In adipose tissue, HS did not alter any of the basal or stimulated measured insulin signaling markers. In summary, HS increases whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. PMID:26243213

  12. An ecologically relevant guinea pig model of fetal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bellinger, S. A.; Lucas, D.; Kleven, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, shares with humans many similarities during pregnancy and prenatal development, including precocial offspring and social dependence. These similarities suggest the guinea pig as a promising model of fetal behavioral development as well. Using innovative methods of behavioral acclimation, fetal offspring of female IAF hairless guinea pigs time mated to NIH multi-colored Hartley males were observed longitudinally without restraint using noninvasive ultrasound at weekly intervals across the 10 week gestation. To insure that the ultrasound procedure did not cause significant stress, salivary cortisol was collected both before and after each observation. Measures of fetal spontaneous movement and behavioral state were quantified from video recordings from week 3 through the last week before birth. Results from prenatal quantification of Interlimb Movement Synchrony and state organization reveal guinea pig fetal development to be strikingly similar to that previously reported for other rodents and preterm human infants. Salivary cortisol readings taken before and after sonography did not differ at any observation time point. These results suggest this model holds translational promise for studying the prenatal mechanisms of neurobehavioral development, including those that may result from adverse events. Because the guinea pig is a highly social mammal with a wide range of socially oriented vocalizations, this model may also have utility for studying the prenatal origins and trajectories of developmental disabilities with social-emotional components, such as autism. PMID:25655512

  13. Feeding the feeble: steps towards nourishing preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes historic steps in feeding techniques and knowledge on the nutritional needs of premature infants. Devices to overcome weak sucking and swallowing were developed from 1851 to 1920, including tube feeding by gavage, medicine droppers and pipettes, feeding bottles with an air inlet, and beaked spoons for nasal feeding. Indwelling nastrogastric tubes were in use from 1951. For alleged safety concerns in the 1950s, postnatal feeding was postponed until a week of starvation was reached, and studies showed an association with neurological handicaps. The premature infant's elevated need for energy, protein, and minerals has been established since 1919. However, these remained controversial, and nutritional practices continued to lag behind theoretical knowledge. Concentrated formula was developed in the 1940s, parenteral supplementation in the 1960s, and human milk fortifiers in the 1970s. In the 1990s, necrotizing enterocolitis was found to be more frequent in infants who were fed formula than in those who were fed human milk. Recently, probiotics were shown to reduce the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Nevertheless, compared with other aspects of neonatal medicine, there is still remarkably little evidence on how to feed preterm infants. PMID:24706425

  14. Preterm infants' manipulative exploration of objects.

    PubMed

    Ruff, H A; McCarton, C; Kurtzberg, D; Vaughan, H G

    1984-08-01

    Because manipulative exploration of objects may be important to the infant's perception and conceptualization of objects, this study compared full-term infants with preterm infants who are considered to be at risk for cognitive deficits. 30 preterms at 9 months, with age corrected for prematurity, and 20 9-month-old full-terms were videotaped while they explored novel objects; the videotapes were scored for behaviors such as looking, handling, mouthing, turning the object around, fingering, transferring from hand to hand, and banging. There were no differences between the preterms and the full-terms. A "low-risk" subgroup and a "high-risk" subgroup of preterms were then compared with each other as well as to the full-terms. The low-risk subgroup was essentially the same as the full-terms. The high-risk preterms, however, fingered, rotated, and transferred the objects less than either the full-terms or the low-risk preterms. There was a relationship between manipulative exploration at 9 months and later cognitive functioning, suggesting that lower levels of manipulation may be one way in which cognitive deficits originate or are maintained. PMID:6488951

  15. Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P < 0.05) than in the pigs fed white or yellow maize. Energy digestibility (P < 0.001) and metabolizability (P < 0.01) were higher in the pigs fed the white and yellow maize diets than in those fed the QPM diets. The AID of lysine was higher (P < 0.01) in the QPM diets than in the white and yellow maize. The AIDs of leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, and methionine were lower in the QPM diets than those of maize (white and yellow) (all P < 0.05). Maize (white and yellow) had greater SIDs of leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, tyrosine, and proline (P < 0.05). Conclusions Based on these results, it was concluded that QPM had a lower metabolizable energy content and a higher amount of digestible lysine than normal maize. PMID:25045520

  16. Evaluation of a rendered poultry mortality-soybean meal product as a supplemental protein source for pig diets.

    PubMed

    Myer, R O; Brendemuhl, J H; Leak, F W; Hess, J B

    2004-04-01

    Dehydrated/rendered broiler mortality-soybean meal products (DPS) were evaluated in two trials as high-protein feedstuffs for pig diets. Broiler mortalities, collected and frozen on-farm and transported to a central facility, were minced, blended with soybean meal, and dried with a final product temperature of 120 to 130 degrees C. The final DPS products used contained approximately 30 and 45% (DM basis) dried broiler mortality for the first and second trials, respectively (DPS1 and DPS2). The first trial involved 50 young, growing pigs (9 to 26 kg) and the second, 72 growing and finishing pigs (27 to 111 kg). The trials compared corn-based diets containing either soybean meal (SBM; 48%) or DPS products as the supplemental protein source. The DPS products averaged 50% CP and 2.9% total lysine; crude fat content of DPS used in the first trial was 8%, and for the second, 14.6% (as-fed basis). The ADG of pigs fed the DPS diets in either trial was similar to that of pigs fed the SBM control diets. In the second trial, pigs fed DPS2 had an overall average G:F ratio that was 9% better (P < 0.01) than that of pigs fed the SBM control diets. Carcass characteristics and pork quality from pigs of the growing-finishing trial were not affected by dietary treatment. Subjective carcass fat firmness scores indicated slightly softer fat (P < 0.05) from pigs fed DPS2. The mincing, blending with SBM, and dehydration of frozen stored on-farm broiler mortalities produced a safe and nutritious protein feedstuff for pigs, while also offering a viable disposal option. PMID:15080329

  17. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengbo; Yang, Xiaojian; Lackeyram, Dale; Rideout, Todd C; Wang, Zirong; Stoll, Barbara; Yin, Yulong; Burrin, Douglas G; Fan, Ming Z

    2016-06-01

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA co-transporter (B(0)AT1, encoded by the SLC6A19 gene) plays a dominant role for apical uptake of large neutral AA including L-Gln, we hypothesized that high apical Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity, and B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) in co-expression with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) were expressed along the entire small intestinal crypt-villus axis in young animals via unique control mechanisms. Kinetics of Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity in the apical membrane vesicles, prepared from epithelial cells sequentially isolated along the jejunal crypt-villus axis from liquid formula-fed young pigs, were measured with the membrane potential being clamped to zero using thiocyanate. Apical maximal Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity was much higher (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus (by 29 %) and the crypt (by 30 %) cells, whereas Na(+)-Gln co-transport affinity was lower (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus and the crypt cells. The B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) mRNA abundance was lower (p < 0.05) in the crypt (by 40-47 %) than in the villus cells. There were no significant differences in B(0)AT1 and ACE2 protein abundances on the apical membrane among the upper villus, the middle villus and the crypt cells. Our study suggests that piglet fast growth is associated with very high intestinal apical Na(+)-neutral AA uptake activities via abundantly co-expressing B(0)AT1 and ACE2 proteins in the apical membrane and by transcribing the B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) gene in the epithelia along the entire crypt-villus axis. PMID:26984322

  18. Further studies on the effects of diets containing dried coffee pulp: growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics of pigs.

    PubMed

    Okai, D B; Dabo, P

    1991-01-01

    4 groups of 5 pigs each were fed rations containing 0, 10, 20, or 30% of dried coffee pulp over a period of 10 weeks. The inclusion of these rations had no significant influence on the feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. There were no significant differences in the blood parameters either (glucose, protein, P, Ca, cholesterol) or in the slaughter weight. Pigs fed the coffee pulp had less backfat and higher liver weights. PMID:1793431

  19. Effects of a Chelated Copper as Growth Promoter on Performance and Carcass Traits in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J.; Allee, G.; Gerlemann, G.; Ma, L.; Gracia, M. I.; Parker, D.; Vazquez-Anon, M.; Harrell, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to investigate whether a chelated Cu can replace CuSO4 as a growth promoter in pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 240 piglets (Large White×Landrace, 7.36±0.10 kg) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments with 8 replicates and 10 piglets per pen. Treatments included a NRC control (CuSO4, 6 mg/kg), two Cu supplementations from either CuSO4 or Cu(HMTBa)2 at 170 mg/kg. Pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 were 6.0% heavier than pigs fed either the NRC control or 170 mg/kg CuSO4 (p = 0.03) at the end of the experiment. During the 42 days of experimental period, pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 gained 9.0% more (p = 0.01), tended to eat more feed (p = 0.09), and had better feed efficiency (p = 0.06) than those fed CuSO4. Compared with the 6 mg/kg CuSO4 NRC control, liver Cu was increased 2.7 times with 170 mg/kg CuSO4 supplementation, and was further increased with Cu(HMTBa)2 (4.5 times, p<0.05). In Exp. 2, a total of 616 crossbred piglets (PIC, 5.01±0.25 kg) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments with 7 replicates and 22 piglets per pen. Treatments included a NRC control (from CuSO4), and three pharmaceutical levels of Cu (150 mg/kg) supplemented either from CuSO4, tri-basic copper chloride (Cu2[OH]3Cl), or Cu(HMTBa)2. Pigs fed CuSO4 or Cu(HMTBa)2 had better feed efficiency (p = 0.01) and tended to gain more (p = 0.08) compared with those fed the NRC control. Pigs fed Cu2(OH)3Cl were intermediate. Pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 had the highest liver Cu, which was significantly higher than those fed (Cu2[OH]3Cl) or the negative control (p = 0.01). In Exp. 3, a total of 1,048 pigs (PIC, 32.36±0.29 kg) were allotted to 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 20 to 22 pigs per pen. The treatments included a NRC control with 4 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4, a positive control with 160 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4, and incremental levels of Cu(HMTBa)2 at 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg. During the overall experimental period of 100 days, no benefit from 160 mg/kg CuSO4 was observed. Pigs fed Cu

  20. Effect of salmon protein hydrolysate and spray-dried plasma protein on growth performance of weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Tucker, J L; Naranjo, V D; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments, each consisting of 2 trials, were conducted to determine the effect of salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) fed during the first week postweaning and their subsequent effect on the growth performance of weanling pigs. Pigs were fed in a 3-phase feeding program with durations of 7 d for phase 1 in both Exp. 1 and 2; 14 or 15 d for phase 2 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively; and 7 or 8 d for phase 3 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed only during phase 1, whereas the same diet was fed to all pigs in phases 2 and 3. Pigs were blocked by initial BW and sex, and littermates were balanced across treatments. Data from the 2 trials within each experiment were combined and analyzed together; no treatment × trial interactions (P > 0.10) were observed. In Exp. 1, a total of 324 weanling pigs (10 replications of 5 or 6 pigs per pen) with an average initial BW of 6.4 ± 1.3 kg were assigned to 1) a control diet with no SPH or SDPP, 2) 1.5% SPH, 3) 3.0% SPH, 4) 1.5% SDPP, 5) 3.0% SDPP, or 6) 1.5% SPH + 1.5% SDPP. Experiment 2 was similar to Exp. 1, but red blood cells were removed from all diets to reduce diet complexity. In Exp. 2, weanling pigs (n = 320, 14 replications of 5 or 6 pigs per pen) with an average initial BW of 5.4 ± 1.2 kg were assigned to 1) a control diet with no SPH or SDPP, 2) 1.5% SPH, 3) 1.5% SDPP, or 4) 1.5% SPH + 1.5% SDPP. Three batches of SPH were used, and each batch was analyzed for AA composition. In Exp. 1, the inclusion of SDPP or SPH during phase 1 did not affect (P > 0.10) ADG, ADFI, or G:F compared with those of pigs fed the control diet. No carryover effects on growth performance were observed in any of the subsequent phases. Overall, G:F was greater (P = 0.08) in pigs fed the 1.5% diets compared with those fed the 3.0% diets. In Exp. 2, no differences (P > 0.10) were observed in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among pigs fed the SPH or SDPP diets compared with those of pigs fed the

  1. Differences in Risk Factors for Recurrent Versus Incident Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Grantz, Katherine L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002–2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with multiplicative interactions between each preterm risk factor and prior preterm delivery status to explore whether risk factors varied between incident and recurrent preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Fewer second pregnancy factors were associated with recurrent preterm delivery, including alcohol, thyroid disease, and depression. Smoking was associated with increased risk for incident (relative risk (RR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.49) but not recurrent (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19) preterm delivery, whereas alcohol was associated with an increased risk for recurrent (RR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.71) but not incident (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.43; Pinteraction = 0.02 and <0.01) preterm delivery, respectively. Prior term delivery did not necessarily confer protection from known second pregnancy preterm delivery risk factors. In the setting of a prior preterm delivery, many risk factors did not persist. Prior preterm delivery history is important when assessing subsequent preterm delivery risk factors. PMID:26033931

  2. Differences in risk factors for recurrent versus incident preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Grantz, Katherine L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S

    2015-07-15

    Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002-2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with multiplicative interactions between each preterm risk factor and prior preterm delivery status to explore whether risk factors varied between incident and recurrent preterm delivery at <37 weeks. Fewer second pregnancy factors were associated with recurrent preterm delivery, including alcohol, thyroid disease, and depression. Smoking was associated with increased risk for incident (relative risk (RR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 2.49) but not recurrent (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.19) preterm delivery, whereas alcohol was associated with an increased risk for recurrent (RR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.71) but not incident (RR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.43; Pinteraction = 0.02 and <0.01) preterm delivery, respectively. Prior term delivery did not necessarily confer protection from known second pregnancy preterm delivery risk factors. In the setting of a prior preterm delivery, many risk factors did not persist. Prior preterm delivery history is important when assessing subsequent preterm delivery risk factors. PMID:26033931

  3. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  4. Effects of dietary L-carnitine and ractopamine HCl on the metabolic response to handling in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    James, B W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; Owen, K Q; Woodworth, J C; Sulabo, R C

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments (384 pigs; C22 × L326; PIC) were conducted to determine the interactive effect of dietary L-carnitine and ractopamine HCl (RAC) on the metabolic response of pigs to handling. Experiments were arranged as split-split plots with handling as the main plot and diets as subplots (4 pens per treatment). Dietary L-carnitine (0 or 50 mg/kg) was fed from 36.0 kg to the end of the experiments (118 kg), and RAC (0 or 20 mg/kg) was fed the last 4 wk of each experiment. At the end of each experiment, 4 pigs per pen were assigned to 1 of 2 handling treatments. Gently handled pigs were moved at a moderate walking pace 3 times through a 50-m course and up and down a 15° loading ramp. Aggressively handled pigs were moved as fast as possible 3 times through the same course, but up and down a 30° ramp, and shocked 3 times with an electrical prod. Blood was collected immediately before and after handling in Exp. 1 and immediately after and 1 h after handling in Exp. 2. Feeding RAC increased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F, but there was no effect (P > 0.10) of L-carnitine on growth performance. In Exp. 1 and 2, aggressive handling increased (P < 0.01) blood lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lactate, cortisol, and rectal temperature and decreased blood pH. In Exp. 1, there was a RAC × handling interaction (P < 0.06) for the difference in pre- and posthandling blood pH and rectal temperature. Aggressively handled pigs fed RAC had decreased blood pH and increased rectal temperature compared with gently handled pigs, demonstrating the validity of the handling model. Pigs fed RAC had increased (P < 0.01) LDH compared with pigs not fed RAC. Pigs fed L-carnitine had increased (P < 0.03) lactate compared with pigs not fed L-carnitine. In Exp. 2, pigs fed RAC had lower (P < 0.02) blood pH immediately after handling, but pH returned to control levels by 1 h posthandling. Lactate, LDH, cortisol, and rectal temperature changes from immediately posthandling to 1 h posthandling were not

  5. Effects of dietary soybean meal concentration on growth and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Alexander, L S; Rocha, G C; Van Alstine, W G; Boyd, R D; Pettigrew, J E; Dilger, R N

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM) concentration on the growth performance and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Four experimental treatments included a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of 2 dietary SBM concentrations, 17.5% (LSBM) or 29% (HSBM), and 2 levels of PRRSV infection, uninfected sham or PRRSV infected. Sixty-four weanling pigs of split sex (21 d of age, 7.14 ± 0.54 kg) were individually housed in disease containment chambers. Pigs were provided a common diet for 1 wk postweaning before being equalized for BW and sex and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 16 replicate pigs per group. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 1 wk before receiving either a sham inoculation (sterile PBS) or a 1 × 10 50% tissue culture infective dose of PRRSV at 35 d of age (0 d postinoculation, DPI). Pig BW and feed intake were recorded weekly, and rectal temperatures were measured daily beginning on 0 DPI. Blood was collected on 0, 3, 7, and 14 DPI for determination of serum PRRSV load, differential complete blood cell counts, and haptoglobin and cytokine concentrations. Infection with PRRSV increased (P < 0.01) rectal temperatures of pigs throughout the infection period, with no influence of dietary SBM concentration. Pigs in the PRRSV-infected group had lower (P < 0.01) ADFI and G:F from 0 to 14 DPI compared with uninfected pigs. In the PRRSV-infected group, pigs fed HSBM tended to have improved ADG (P = 0.06) compared with pigs fed LSBM, whereas there was no influence of SBM concentration on growth of pigs in the uninfected group. At 14 DPI, PRRSV-infected pigs fed HSBM had a lower serum PRRSV load (P < 0.05), a higher (P = 0.02) hematocrit value, and a tendency for greater hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.09) compared with pigs fed LSBM. Serum haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations of PRRSV-infected pigs were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed HSBM at 3

  6. Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Processed Sulfur on Meat Quality and Oxidative Stability in Longissimus dorsi of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ha-Young; Kim, Gyeom-Heon; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of processed sulfur in pigs according to the level provided during the fattening phase were examined. The pigs were divided into three groups: control (CON), non-sulfur fed pigs; T1, 0.1% processed sulfur fed pigs; T2, 0.3% processed sulfur fed pigs. Physicochemical and sensory properties, as well as meat quality and oxidative stability of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were investigated. The feeding of processed sulfur did not affect moisture and protein contents (p>0.05). However, the crude fat content of T2 was significantly decreased compared to CON (p<0.05), while the pH value of T2 was significantly higher than those of both CON and T1 (p<0.05). Cooking loss and expressible drip of T2 were also significantly lower than that of CON (p<0.05). The redness of meat from T1 was significantly higher than both CON and T2 (p<0.01). During storage, lipid oxidation of the meat from sulfur fed pigs (T1 and T2) was inhibited compared to CON. Examination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids revealed T2 to have significantly higher content than CON (p<0.05). In the sensory test, the juiciness and overall acceptability of T2 recorded higher scores than CON. This study demonstrated that meat from 0.3% processed sulfur fed pigs had improved nutrition and quality, with extended shelf-life. PMID:26761847

  7. Zinc-resistance gene czrC identified in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis

    PubMed Central

    Slifierz, Mackenzie J.; Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Weese, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus hyicus (MRSH) was investigated for czrC, a gene conferring zinc-resistance. The czrC gene was identified in 50% (14/28) of MRSH isolates, representing 14 pigs with exudative epidermitis from 8 farms. Newly weaned pigs, which are particularly susceptible to exudative epidermitis, are commonly fed high levels of zinc oxide. PMID:24790238

  8. Zinc-resistance gene CzrC identified in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis.

    PubMed

    Slifierz, Mackenzie J; Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M; Weese, J Scott

    2014-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus hyicus (MRSH) was investigated for czrC, a gene conferring zinc-resistance. The czrC gene was identified in 50% (14/28) of MRSH isolates, representing 14 pigs with exudative epidermitis from 8 farms. Newly weaned pigs, which are particularly susceptible to exudative epidermitis, are commonly fed high levels of zinc oxide. PMID:24790238

  9. Selenium elimination in pigs after an outbreak of selenium toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Davidson-York, D; Galey, F D; Blanchard, P; Gardner, I A

    1999-07-01

    In May 1996, 150 grower pigs in 5 California counties were exposed to selenium-contaminated feed distributed by a single feed company. Feed samples from 20 herds had a mean selenium concentration of 121.7 ppm dry weight (range, 22.1-531 ppm). In San Luis Obispo County, 52 pigs in 24 herds were exposed to the feed, and 8 pigs died with signs of paralysis. Bilateral symmetrical poliomyelomalacia involving the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar intumescence was evident on histologic examination of spinal cord from affected pigs. Of 44 surviving exposed pigs, 33 (75%) exhibited signs of selenosis, including anorexia, alopecia, and hoof lesions. Thirty-nine of 44 pigs (88.6%) had elevated (>1 ppm) blood selenium concentrations. Surviving exposed pigs were changed to a standard commercial ration containing approximately 0.5 ppm (dry weight) selenium. Blood selenium concentrations were determined weekly for 46 days following removal of the contaminated feed and were compared with values of 20 control pigs fed a standard commercial ration. Mean (+/-SD) blood selenium concentrations of exposed pigs were 3.2 +/- 2.6 ppm at the initial sampling and 0.4 +/- 0.1 ppm after 46 days. Mean blood selenium concentrations of < or = 0.3 ppm for control pigs at all samplings were significantly lower (P < 0.001) than concentrations for exposed pigs. Muscle and liver samples of 22 of the 44 exposed pigs were collected at slaughter approximately 72 days after withdrawal of the selenium-contaminated feed. Muscle samples had a mean selenium concentration of 0.36 ppm (wet weight). Liver samples had a mean selenium concentration of 1.26 ppm (wet weight). One liver sample had a selenium value in the toxic range for pigs (3.3 ppm wet weight; reference range, 0.4-1.2 ppm). A 1-compartment pharmacokinetic model of selenium elimination in exposed pigs was generated, and the geometric mean blood selenium elimination half-life was estimated to be 12 days. The 60-day withdrawal time recommended

  10. The immune consequences of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Melville, Jacqueline M.; Moss, Timothy J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth occurs in 11% of live births globally and accounts for 35% of all newborn deaths. Preterm newborns have immature immune systems, with reduced innate and adaptive immunity; their immune systems may be further compromised by various factors associated with preterm birth. The immune systems of preterm infants have a smaller pool of monocytes and neutrophils, impaired ability of these cells to kill pathogens, and lower production of cytokines which limits T cell activation and reduces the ability to fight bacteria and detect viruses in cells, compared to term infants. Intrauterine inflammation is a major contributor to preterm birth, and causes premature immune activation and cytokine production. This can induce immune tolerance leading to reduced newborn immune function. Intrauterine inflammation is associated with an increased risk of early-onset sepsis and likely has long-term adverse immune consequences. Requisite medical interventions further impact on immune development and function. Antenatal corticosteroid treatment to prevent newborn respiratory disease is routine but may be immunosuppressive, and has been associated with febrile responses, reductions in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, and increased risk of infection. Invasive medical procedures result in an increased risk of late-onset sepsis. Respiratory support can cause chronic inflammatory lung disease associated with increased risk of long-term morbidity. Colonization of the infant by microorganisms at birth is a significant contributor to the establishment of the microbiome. Caesarean section affects infant colonization, potentially contributing to lifelong immune function and well-being. Several factors associated with preterm birth alter immune function. A better understanding of perinatal modification of the preterm immune system will allow for the refinement of care to minimize lifelong adverse immune consequences. PMID:23734091

  11. Lactation feed disappearance and weaning to estrus interval for sows fed spray-dried plasma.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, J D; Boyd, R D; Campbell, J M; Russell, L E; Moser, R L; Wilson, M E

    2007-12-01

    Four experiments involving 265, 410, 894, and 554 sows (Exp. 1 to 4, respectively) were conducted to determine the effect of spray-dried plasma (SDP) at 0 or 0.25% (Exp. 1 and 2) and 0 or 0.50% (Exp. 3 and 4) in lactation diets on average daily feed disappearance (FD), sum of sow BW, fetal and placental loss from d 110 gestation to weaning (SWL), litter size at weaning, litter weight at weaning, and average days from weaning to first estrus (WEI). Experiments 1, 3, and 4 were conducted during summer months, and Exp. 2 was conducted during fall to winter months. Experiment 1 used only parity 1 and parity 2 sows and Exp. 4 used only mature (>2 parities) sows, whereas Exp. 2 and 3 used all parity groups. Sows fed SDP in Exp. 1 had increased (P < 0.01) FD and a tendency for reduced (P = 0.06) SWL and WEI (P = 0.06). Sows fed SDP in Exp. 2 had a tendency for increased (P = 0.09) sow BW at weaning and reduced (P = 0.09) SWL, whereas other variables were not different between diets. Parity 1 and 2 sows fed SDP in Exp. 3 had increased (P < 0.01) FD, but mature sows fed SDP had reduced (P = 0.02) FD. Pig survival and litter size at weaning for all parity groups was not different between diets. The WEI for parity 1 sows fed SDP was reduced (P = 0.02) and tended to be reduced (P = 0.10) for mature sows fed SDP, but was not different between diets for parity 2 sows. More parity 1 sows fed SDP were detected (P = 0.01) in estrus 4 to 6 d after weaning, and fewer were detected (P < 0.01) in estrus 6 d after weaning compared with control parity 1 sows. In Exp. 4, FD was reduced (P < 0.01) for mature sows fed SDP; however, litter weight and average pig BW at weaning was increased (P < 0.01) with more (P < 0.01) marketable pigs (pig BW > 3.6 kg) weaned per litter. Relatively low dietary levels of SDP (0.25 to 0.50%) fed to parity 1 sows farrowed during summer months increased lactation FD and reduced WEI. Mature sows fed SDP during summer months consumed less lactation feed without

  12. Avocado waste for finishing pigs: Impact on muscle composition and oxidative stability during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Silvia H; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier G; Lemus-Flores, Clemente; Grageola-Nuñez, Fernando; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    The utilization of agricultural waste materials for pig feeding may be an interesting option for reducing production costs and contributing to sustainability and environmental welfare. In the present study, a mixed diet enriched with avocado waste (TREATED) is used for finishing industrial genotype pigs. The muscle longissimus thoracis et lomborum (LTL) from TREATED pigs was analyzed for composition and oxidative and color stability and compared with muscles obtained from pigs fed a CONTROL diet. Dietary avocado had significant impact on the content and composition of intramuscular fat (IMF), reducing the lipid content in LTL muscles and increasing the degree of unsaturation. This did not increase the oxidative instability of samples. On the contrary, muscles from TREATED pigs had significantly lower lipid and protein oxidation rates during chilled storage. The color of the muscles from TREATED pigs was also preserved from oxidation. PMID:26894588

  13. Alterations in Ileal Mucosa Bacteria Related to Diet Complexity and Growth Performance in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Crystal L.; Hooda, Seema; Swanson, Kelly S.; de Lange, Kees

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the prolonged impact of weaning diet on ileal mucosa bacteria and during periods of reduced and improved growth was conducted using 454 pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings Weaned pigs were fed HIGH or LOW complexity diets, with or without antibiotics, for 6 weeks, followed by a common grower diet. Pigs were killed at 2 (n = 4 or 5) and 8 (n = 6) weeks post-weaning (periods of reduced and improved growth, respectively). Mucosal bacteria were removed; DNA was extracted and amplified using the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Mucosal bacteria clustered more closely by week post-weaning than diet but 44% of bacterial species did not change from week 2 to 8. There was no effect of diet complexity or antibiotic inclusion on indices of bacterial diversity. Firmicutes made up 91 and 96% of total reads at week 2 and 8, respectively. The proportion of Clostridium paraputrificum increased (P = 0.003) from week 2 to 8 in pigs fed LOW but didn’t change in pigs fed HIGH; whereas Clostridium leptum decreased (P = 0.02) from week 2 to 8 in pigs fed LOW but didn’t change in pigs fed HIGH. The proportion of Sarcina genus was 3-fold higher in pigs fed A+ compared to A− at week 2 and 5-fold higher at week 8 despite the lack of in-feed antibiotics at that time. Conclusions/Significance Shifts in mucosal bacteria populations may be related to dietary induced changes in growth performance during reduced and improved growth but further studies are required to confirm causative relationship. Weaning diet results in species specific prolonged alterations in mucosal bacteria, particularly where high levels of in-feed antibiotics are used. A considerable portion of ileal mucosal bacteria colonize early and remain stable over time despite changes in diet. PMID:25247930

  14. Optimising preterm nutrition: present and future.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Ann-Marie; Murphy, Brendan P; Kiely, Mairead E

    2016-05-01

    The goal of preterm nutrition in achieving growth and body composition approximating that of the fetus of the same postmenstrual age is difficult to achieve. Current nutrition recommendations depend largely on expert opinion, due to lack of evidence, and are primarily birth weight based, with no consideration given to gestational age and/or need for catch-up growth. Assessment of growth is based predominately on anthropometry, which gives insufficient attention to the quality of growth. The present paper provides a review of the current literature on the nutritional management and assessment of growth in preterm infants. It explores several approaches that may be required to optimise nutrient intakes in preterm infants, such as personalising nutritional support, collection of nutrient intake data in real-time, and measurement of body composition. In clinical practice, the response to inappropriate nutrient intakes is delayed as the effects of under- or overnutrition are not immediate, and there is limited nutritional feedback at the cot-side. The accurate and non-invasive measurement of infant body composition, assessed by means of air displacement plethysmography, has been shown to be useful in assessing quality of growth. The development and implementation of personalised, responsive nutritional management of preterm infants, utilising real-time nutrient intake data collection, with ongoing nutritional assessments that include measurement of body composition is required to help meet the individual needs of preterm infants. PMID:27032990

  15. Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nazakat M; Azzopardi, Denis V; Hawwa, Ahmed F; McElnay, James C; Middleton, Benita; Arendt, J; Arichi, Tomoki; Gressens, Pierre; Edwards, A David

    2013-01-01

    Aims Preterm infants are deprived of the normal intra-uterine exposure to maternal melatonin and may benefit from replacement therapy. We conducted a pharmacokinetic study to guide potential therapeutic trials. Methods Melatonin was administered to 18 preterm infants in doses ranging from 0.04–0.6 μg kg−1 over 0.5–6 h. Pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed individually and by population methods. Results Baseline melatonin was largely undetectable. Infants receiving melatonin at 0.1 μg kg−1 h−1 for 2 h showed a median half-life of 15.82 h and median maximum plasma concentration of 203.3 pg ml−1. On population pharmacokinetics, clearance was 0.045 l h−1, volume of distribution 1.098 l and elimination half-life 16.91 h with gender (P = 0.047) and race (P < 0.0001) as significant covariates. Conclusions A 2 h infusion of 0.1 μg kg−1 h−1 increased blood melatonin from undetectable to approximately peak adult concentrations. Slow clearance makes replacement of a typical maternal circadian rhythm problematic. The pharmacokinetic profile of melatonin in preterm infants differs from that of adults so dosage of melatonin for preterm infants cannot be extrapolated from adult studies. Data from this study can be used to guide therapeutic clinical trials of melatonin in preterm infants. PMID:23432339

  16. Race, genes and preterm delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    High rates of preterm delivery (PTD) among African Americans are the leading cause of excess infant mortality among African Americans. Failure to fully explain racial disparity in PTD has led to speculation that genetic factors might contribute to this disparity. Current evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute to PTD, but this does not imply that genetic factors contribute to racial disparity in PTD. Environmental factors clearly contribute to PTD. Many of these factors acting over a women's life prior to pregnancy disproportionately affect African Americans and contribute significantly to racial disparity in PTD. Thus, inferring genetic contribution to racial disparity in PTD by attempting to control for environmental factors measured at a single point in time is flawed. There is emerging evidence of gene-environment interactions for PTD, some of which disproportionately affect African Americans. There is also evidence of racial differences in the prevalence of polymorphisms potentially related to PTD. However, to date there is no direct evidence that these differences contribute significantly to racial disparity in PTD. Given the complexity of polygenic conditions such as PTD, the possibility of any single gene contributing substantially to racial disparity in PTD seems remote. PMID:16334498

  17. Evidence for independent evolution of functional progesterone withdrawal in primates and guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Nnamani, Mauris C.; Plaza, Silvia; Romero, Roberto; Wagner, Günter P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Cervix remodeling (CRM) is a critical process in preparation for parturition. Early cervix shortening is a powerful clinical predictor of preterm birth, and thus understanding how CRM is regulated is important for the prevention of prematurity. Humans and other primates differ from most other mammals by the maintenance of high levels of systemic progesterone concentrations. Humans have been hypothesized to perform functional progesterone withdrawal (FPW). Guinea pigs are similar to humans in maintaining high-progesterone concentrations through parturition, thus making them a prime model for studying CRM. Here, we analyze the phylogenetic history of FPW and document gene expression in the guinea pig uterine cervix. Methodology: Data on progesterone withdrawal were collected from the literature, and character evolution was analyzed. Uterine cervix samples were collected from non-pregnant, mid-pregnant and late pregnant guinea pigs. RNA was extracted and sequenced. Relative transcript levels were estimated and compared among sample groups. Results: The phylogenetic analysis shows that FPW evolved independently in primates and guinea pigs. The transcriptome data confirms that guinea pigs down-regulate progesterone receptor toward parturition, in contrast to humans. Some of the similarities between human and guinea pig are: down-regulation of estrogen receptor, up-regulation of VCAN and IGFBP4 as well as likely involvement of prostaglandins. Conclusions and implications: (i) FPW in guinea pigs evolved independently from that in primates. (ii) A small set of conserved gene regulatory changes has been detected. PMID:24481205

  18. Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kipin, P.

    1985-02-04

    The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig is able to traverse a one-cut miter.

  19. Cocoa husks in diets of Italian heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G; Rosi, F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cocoa husks feeding on liver composition of the Italian heavy pig. Cocoa husks are by-products derived from chocolate production and have a high content of proteins, lipids, and NDF. Cocoa husks are also rich in antioxidants, polyphenols in particular. Eight finishing pigs were divided into 2 groups: control group fed a traditional diet, based on cereals, and treatment group fed a diet obtained by substitution of 10% of the control diet with coarsely ground cocoa husks. The trial was conducted during the hot season and lasted 6 wk, at the end of which all the pigs were slaughtered. Cocoa husks diet reduced dry matter intake (P < 0.01) and energy intake (P < 0.01) but neither body weight nor backfat thickness was affected by cocoa husks diet. Treatment did not influence carcass weight and hot dressing percentage but reduced liver weight (P < 0.05), liver dry matter percentage (P < 0.01), DNA (P = 0.01), and glycogen content (P = 0.01). By contrast, cocoa husks increased liver ether extract (P = 0.05) without affecting cholesterol content. Liver weight loss, reduction of protein synthesis, and a shift toward glycogen use instead of fat oxidation are considered metabolic strategies to reduce heat production under hot conditions. It is possible, therefore, that cocoa husks feeding promoted the process of acclimation because pigs needed less feeding to reach similar body and carcass weight as control pigs. PMID:23365339

  20. Future directions in preterm birth research.

    PubMed

    Jain, Joses; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    The problem of preterm birth continues to pose one of the most significant research challenges that we face due to its immense scope and complexity. With evidence that 95% of cases of spontaneous preterm birth are intractable to current interventions, our best hope in resolving this problem may lie in new, innovative ideas. Novel approaches to researching preterm birth are currently underway, building upon our prior discoveries and probing into the unknown on multiple fronts. Here we discuss some of the major focuses of future investigation that provide a promising outlook for discovery, including advanced techniques to evaluate the cervix, new strategies to identify the role of the microbiome, and advances in molecular and epigenetic-based research. PMID:26640166

  1. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  2. Effects of feeding fiber-fermenting bacteria to pigs on nutrient digestion, fecal output, and plasma energy metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ziemer, C J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Arcidiacono, S; Morrison, M; Ragauskas, A

    2012-11-01

    Inclusion of feedstuffs with higher plant cell wall (fiber) content in swine diets has increased in recent years due to greater availability and lower cost, especially coproduct feeds, such as corn distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS). Limitations of feeding higher fiber diets include increased fecal output, which can exceed manure storage volumes, and decreased energy density, which can decrease growth performance; dietary treatments that ameliorate these limitations would benefit pork producers. Grower pigs (n = 48; 61.1 kg initial BW) were used to establish the effects of supplementation of fiber-fermenting bacteria in a 2 × 4 factorial, consisting of 2 diets (standard and high fiber) and 4 bacterial treatments (A, no bacteria; and B, C, and D bacterial supplements). Increased fiber came from inclusion of soybean hulls (10%) and corn DDGS (20%) in the diet. The 3 bacterial supplements (all Bacteroides strains) were isolated from fecal enrichment cultures and selected for their fiber-fermenting capacity. The high fiber diet increased fecal output, blood cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations, and digestibility of NDF, ADF, and S; CP digestibility decreased (P ≤ 0.10). The improved fiber digestibility and altered energy status of pigs fed the high fiber diet was primarily due to fermentation of soybean hulls, resulting in increased short-chain fatty acid production and absorption, and decreased dietary starch content. Overall, pigs fed the bacterial treatments had only increased blood cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.10). When individual bacterial treatments were compared, pigs fed Bacteria B had decreased fecal output (P ≤ 0.10) and both blood glucose and cholesterol concentrations were increased (P ≤ 0.10) compared with the other 3 treatments, indicating an improved energy status. Pigs fed Bacteria B increased both CP and ADF (P ≤ 0.10), and tended (P = 0.16) to have increased NDF digestibilities compared with pigs fed no bacteria

  3. Effects of dried distillers grains with solubles on growing and finishing pig performance in a commercial environment.

    PubMed

    Linneen, S K; Derouchey, J M; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L

    2008-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the optimal level of dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) from a common ethanol manufacturing facility and to determine the potential interactions between dietary DDGS and added fat on performance and carcass characteristics of growing and finishing pigs. All experiments were conducted at the same commercial facility and used DDGS from the same ethanol manufacturing facility. In Exp. 1, a total of 1,050 pigs (average initial BW 47.6 kg), with 24 to 26 pigs per pen and 7 pens per treatment, were fed diets containing 0 or 15% DDGS and 0, 3, or 6% added choice white grease in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement in a 28-d growth study. Overall, there were no DDGS x added fat interactions (P >/= 0.14). There was an improvement (linear, P < 0.01) in ADG and G:F as the percentage of added fat increased. There was no difference (P = 0.74) in growth performance between pigs fed 0 or 15% DDGS. In Exp. 2, a total of 1,038 pigs (average initial BW 46.3 kg), with 24 to 26 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment, were fed diets containing 0, 10, 20, or 30% DDGS in a 56-d growth study. Pigs fed diets containing DDGS had a tendency for decreased ADG and ADFI (both linear, P = 0.09 and 0.05, respectively), but the greatest reduction seemed to occur between pigs fed 10 and 20% DDGS. In Exp. 3, a total of 1,112 pigs (average initial BW 49.7 kg), with 25 to 28 pigs per pen and 9 pens per treatment, were used in a 78-d growth study to evaluate the effects of increasing DDGS (0, 5, 10, 15, or 20%) in the diet on pig growth performance and carcass characteristics. From d 0 to 78, ADG and ADFI decreased linearly (P pigs fed 15 and 20% DDGS. Efficiency of gain tended to improve (P = 0.06) when DDGS were included in the diet. There was no effect of DDGS (P = 0.22) on loin depth. Carcass weight and percentage yield decreased (linear, P

  4. Effects of gender and gonadectomy on growth and plasma cholesterol levels in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Young; Kim, Kyu-Il

    2009-01-01

    We conducted two studies to determine the effect of gender, gonadectomy (GDX) on growth and plasma cholesterol levels in pigs. In experiment 1, five sham-operated and five GDX female Landrace pigs (26 kg) were allowed to have free access to water and feed up to market weight (approximately 100 kg). Body weight and feed consumption were recorded biweekly, and daily body weight gain, daily feed intake and feed efficiency (gain/feed) were calculated during the feeding period. In experiment 2, 10 male (26 kg) and 10 female (26 kg) Landrace pigs were used; five male and five female pigs were assigned to sham-operated or GDX. Pigs were allowed to have free access to water and a diet without added cholesterol (Table 1) until they were 6 months old (male 104 and female 98 kg) and thereafter they were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (Table 1) containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% cholate for 10 days. GDX of female pigs increased average daily gain (P<0.05), compared with their sham-operated counterparts during the growing-finishing period, but had no effect (P>0.05) on feed efficiency. Plasma cholesterol levels in pigs fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for 10 days were much higher (P<0.05) in females than in males (161 vs 104 mg/100 mL plasma), and were increased by GDX only in male pigs. HDL-cholesterol/LDL+VLDL-cholesterol ratio appeared to be higher in males than in females, and was not influenced by GDX in either sex. Results suggested that the lower growth rate of female pigs than their male counterparts is attributable to the ovarian activity, and the lower plasma cholesterol level in male than in female pigs fed a hypercholesterolemic diet is due to the testicular activity. PMID:20016700

  5. The Special Needs of Preterm Children - An Oral Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Annetta Kit Lam

    2016-07-01

    Preterm births are defined as those before 37 weeks of gestation. With advances in fertility medicine and neonatal medicine, the numbers of preterm children in the community have significantly increased. Developmental delays and complications among preterm children are well recognized. Much less consideration is given to the dental complications of preterm children. Manifestations include palatal deformations, enamel defects, tooth size variations and tooth shape deformities, malocclusions, and increased risks of early childhood caries and tooth wear. This article explores orodental risks and orodental needs of preterm children and suggests preventive and management strategies for optimizing the oral health of special needs children. PMID:27264860

  6. Mechanisms of term and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Gibb, W; Challis, J R G

    2002-11-01

    Labour at term and preterm results from activation and then stimulation of the myometrium. Activation can occur through mechanical stretch of the uterus, and by endocrine pathways resulting from increased activity of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In women and in experimental animals, cortisol likely contributes to increased prostaglandin production in fetal tissues through up-regulation of the type 2 prostaglandin H2, synthase-2 (PGHS-2) and down-regulation of 15-OH prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Cortisol increases expression of prostaglandin dehydrogenase in the chorion by reversing the stimulatory effect of progesterone, and may represent "progesterone withdrawal" in the primate. By competing with progesterone inhibition, cortisol also increases expression of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone. Other agents, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, similarly up-regulate PGHS-2 and decrease expression of prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Oxytocin, produced locally within the intrauterine tissues, is also thought to be involved in parturition, and there is a marked increase in oxytocin receptor expression at term. There are thus several mechanisms by which labour at term or preterm may be initiated. These different mechanisms need to be considered in the development of strategies for the detection and management of women in preterm labour. Ongoing studies are investigating the use of oxytocin receptor antagonists, PGHS-2 inhibitors, and nitric oxide to prevent or regulate preterm labour. The presence of fibronectin in vaginal secretions, and elevated maternal serum levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone, estrogens, and cytokines have been examined as possible markers of preterm labour. However, at the present time, we do not have the ability to accurately predict or diagnose preterm labour, nor do we have specific or efficient methods to inhibit labour once it has started. PMID:12417902

  7. [Tocolysis in preterm labour--current recommendations].

    PubMed

    Wielgoś, Mirosław; Bomba-Opoń, Dorota A

    2014-05-01

    Common use of tocolytic drugs in preterm labor has not been shown to reduce the rate of neonatal mortality and morbidity Currently tocolytics should be administered in the course of a 48-h administration of antepartum glucocorticoids and/or transfer of the gravida to a center with neonatal intensive care unit. Only oxytocin receptor antagonist--atosiban and short-acting beta-agonists--fenoterol are licensed to reduce preterm uterine activity Owing to its safety and efficacy atosiban should be the first-choice tocolytic, especially in women with other diseases or multiple gestations. PMID:25011212

  8. Copper-carbohydrate interaction in the growing pig

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, N.; Richards, M.; Darcey, S.; Fields, Smith, J.; Reiser, S.

    1986-03-01

    Weanling pigs (6/trt), 21 days of age, were fed a dried skim milk diet providing 20% crude protein and 20% of calories as added glucose monohydrate (GL) or crystalline fructose (FR). Diets were supplemented with vehicle (-; 1.5 ppm Cu) or 40 ppm copper (+) and deionized water was provided during the 10 week study. Results indicate the pig is a sensitive animal model, particularly with reference to cardiac hypertrophy, for the study of copper carbohydrate interactions as relevant to the human population.

  9. Odor and Odorous Compound Emissions from Manure of Swine Fed Standard and Dried Distillers Grains with Soluble Supplemented Diets.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian; Scoggin, Kenwood

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a diet containing 35% DDGS over a 42-d feeding trial. Their waste was collected and transferred to individual manure storage containers. Manure from pigs fed diets containing DDGS had significantly lower odorant emissions expressed in animal units for hydrogen sulfide (HS) and ammonia (NH) ( < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the CSBM diet, but emissions of volatile fatty acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher ( < 0.05) for manures from animals fed the DDGS diet. There was no significant difference for indole compound emissions due to the dietary treatment applied. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from manure accounted for less than 0.1% of carbon consumed for either diet. There were no significant differences in odor emissions for either diet as quantified with human panels or measured as the sum total of the odor activity value. Manure odors from pigs fed the CSBM diet were dominated by HS, whereas animals fed the diet containing DDGS were dominated by VOCs. PMID:27136158

  10. Fecal phosphorus excretion and characterization from swine fed diets containing a variety of cereal grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of cereal grain phosphorus (P) source on faecal P composition, twenty crossbred barrows, weighing 35.8 plus or minus 3.09 kg, were fed one of five diets with four pigs assigned to each of the diets. The diets contained corn, wheat, high fat-low lignin oat, normal barley or l...

  11. Determination and depletion of residues of carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle of pigs in feeding experiments.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, M G; Lund, C; Jacobsen, M

    1988-01-01

    The results of residue determinations of the growth promotors carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle from pigs in feeding experiments are described as well as the analytical methods used. Residues of the carbadox metabolite quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid were found in liver from pigs fed 20 mg/kg in the diet with a withdrawal time of 30 days. No residues were detected in muscle with zero withdrawal time. The limit of determination was 0.01 mg/kg for both tissues. No residues of virginiamycin and tylosin were found in pigs fed 50 and 40 mg/kg, respectively, in the diet, even with zero withdrawal time. Residues of tylosin of 0.06 mg/kg and below were detected in liver and kidney from pigs fed 200 or 400 mg/kg and slaughtered within 3 h after the last feeding. PMID:3148611

  12. Glycemic index of starch affects nitrogen retention in grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Drew, M D; Schafer, T C; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-04-01

    Three studies were performed to examine the effect of starch and protein digestion rates on N retention in grower pigs. In Exp. 1, the glycemic index (GI) of corn, a malting barley, and a slow-rumen-degradable barley (SRD-barley) were measured using 6 barrows (BW = 18.0 ± 0.5 kg). The GI of malting barley was greater (P < 0.05) than that of SRD-barley (71.1 vs. 49.4), and the GI of both barley cultivars was less (P < 0.05) than that of corn (104.8). In Exp. 2, the standardized ileal digestibility of AA and DE content of the 3 ingredients were determined using 5 ileal-cannulated barrows (BW = 20.7 ± 2.3). The apparent total-tract energy digestibility values of corn (86.1%) and malting barley (85.7%) were greater (P < 0.05) than that of SRD-barley (82.3%). The standardized ileal digestibility of Lys was 94.0, 92.6, and 92.4% for corn, malting barley, and SRD-barley, respectively, and did not differ among grains. In Exp. 3, 6 diets were formulated to equal DE (3.40 Mcal/kg), standardized ileal digestibility of Lys (8.6 g/kg), starch (424.9 g/kg), and digestible CP (180.0 g/kg) using the values obtained in Exp. 2. Three GI [high (corn), medium (malting barley), and low (SRD-barley)] and 2 rates of protein digestion [rapid (soy protein hydrolysate) and slow (soy protein isolate)] were tested in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with 36 barrows (BW = 32.2 ± 2.5 kg). Pigs were fed 3.0 times the maintenance energy requirement daily in 2 meals for 2 wk and were housed in metabolic crates to collect feces and urine separately. At the end of the study, intestinal contents were collected from 4 equal-length segments of the small intestine. The percentage of unabsorbed CP in segment 1 relative to dietary CP was greater (P < 0.05) for the soy protein isolate diet than for the soy protein hydrolysate diet (170.3 vs. 116.5%). The percentages of unabsorbed starch in segments 1 and 2 were greater (P < 0.05) for the SRD-barley diet than for the malting barley or corn diet. Nitrogen

  13. Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Furtado, Andre; Lepore, Natasha; Paquette, Lisa; Bluml, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    For typically developing infants, the last trimester of fetal development extending into the first post-natal months is a period of rapid brain development. Infants who are born premature face significant risk of brain injury (e.g., intraventricular or germinal matrix hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia) from complications in the perinatal period and also potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities because these early injuries can interrupt normal brain maturation. Neuroimaging has played an important role in the diagnosis and management of the preterm infant. Both cranial US and conventional MRI techniques are useful in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of preterm brain development and injury. Cranial US is highly sensitive for intraventricular hemorrhage IVH and provides prognostic information regarding cerebral palsy. Data are limited regarding the utility of MRI as a routine screening instrument for brain injury for all preterm infants. However, MRI might provide diagnostic or prognostic information regarding PVL and other types of preterm brain injury in the setting of specific clinical indications and risk factors. Further development of advanced MR techniques like volumetric MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, metabolic imaging (MR spectroscopy) and functional connectivity are necessary to provide additional insight into the molecular, cellular and systems processes that underlie brain development and outcome in the preterm infant. The adult concept of the “connectome” is also relevant in understanding brain networks that underlie the preterm brain. Knowledge of the preterm connectome will provide a framework for understanding preterm brain function and dysfunction, and potentially even a roadmap for brain plasticity. By combining conventional imaging techniques with more advanced techniques, neuroimaging findings will likely be used not only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but also as biomarkers for long-term neurodevelopmental

  14. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

  15. A high amylose (amylomaize) starch raises proximal large bowel starch and increases colon length in pigs.

    PubMed

    Topping, D L; Gooden, J M; Brown, I L; Biebrick, D A; McGrath, L; Trimble, R P; Choct, M; Illman, R J

    1997-04-01

    Young male pigs consumed a diet of fatty minced beef, safflower oil, skim milk powder, sucrose, cornstarch and wheat bran. Starch provided 50% of total daily energy either as low amylose cornstarch, high amylose (amylomaize) cornstarch or as a 50/50 mixture of corn and high amylose starch. Neither feed intake nor body weight gain as affected by dietary starch. Final plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher than initial values in pigs fed the 50/50 mixture of corn and high amylose starch. Biliary concentrations of lithocholate and deoxycholate were lower in pigs fed high amylose starch. Large bowel length correlated positively with the dietary content of high amylose starch. Concentrations of butyrate in portal venous plasma were significantly lower in pigs fed high amylose starch than in those fed cornstarch. Neither large bowel digesta mass nor the concentrations of total or individual volatile fatty acids were affected by diet. However, the pool of propionate in the proximal colon and the concentration of propionate in feces were higher in pigs fed amylose starch. Concentrations of starch were uniformly low along the large bowel and were unaffected by starch type. In pigs with cecal cannula, digesta starch concentrations were higher with high amylose starch than with cornstarch. Electron micrographic examination of high amylose starch granules from these animals showed etching patterns similar to those of granules obtained from human ileostomy effluent. It appears that high amylose starch contributes to large bowel bacterial fermentation in the pig but that its utilization may be relatively rapid. PMID:9109613

  16. Effects of dietary fibers with different physicochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carol Souza; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2012-09-10

    The satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of fibers with varying physicochemical properties (bulkiness, viscosity and fermentability) on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets: lignocellulose (LC), pectin (PEC), resistant starch (RS), and control (C) without fiber, in four periods in a Latin square design. Each fiber was fed at a low (L) followed by a high (H) inclusion level (7 days each). At 1h, 3h, and 7h after the morning meal, feeding motivation was assessed in an operant test, where turning a wheel yielded multiple food rewards, and in a runway test, where walking a fixed U-shaped track yielded one food reward. Pigs were observed in their home pen for 6h, using 90-s instantaneous scan sampling. In the operant test, throughout the day feeding motivation was higher for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on LC. In the runway, feeding motivation increased particularly at 1h after the meal for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on RS. Also at 7h, feeding motivation tended to decrease for pigs on RS compared with pigs fed other diets. In their home pen, pigs on PEC showed more feeder-directed behavior compared with pigs on RS. In conclusion, PEC was the least satiating fiber. LC and RS, despite a lower supply of available energy, were the most satiating fibers, possibly due to their bulky and fermentation properties, respectively. PMID:22796465

  17. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given. PMID:18393899

  18. Tail biting in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  19. Influence of dietary fat source and feeding duration on finishing pig growth performance, carcass composition, and fat quality.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, E W; Vaughn, M A; Burnett, D D; Paulk, C B; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Woodworth, J C; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-07-01

    A total of 160 finishing pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 45.6 kg) were used in an 84-d experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary fat source and feeding duration on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. There were 2 pigs per pen with 8 pens per treatment. The 10 dietary treatments were a corn-soybean meal control diet with no added fat and a 3 × 3 factorial with main effects of fat source (4% tallow, 4% soybean oil, or a blend of 2% tallow and 2% soybean oil) and feeding duration (d 0 to 42, 42 to 84, or 0 to 84). The control corn-soybean meal diet was fed in place of added fat diets when needed for duration treatment purposes. On d 0, 1 pig was identified in each pen and fat biopsy samples of the back, belly, and jowl were collected on d 0, 41, and 81 for fatty acid analysis. At the conclusion of the study, all pigs were harvested, carcass characteristics were determined, and back, belly, and jowl fat samples were collected for analysis. Overall (d 0 to 84), there were no differences among pigs fed the different fat sources for growth and carcass characteristics; however, pigs fed diets with added fat for the entire study had improved ( = 0.036) G:F compared with pigs fed the control diet without added fat. Pigs fed supplemental fat throughout the entire study also had improved ( < 0.05) ADG and G:F as well as heavier d-84 BW ( = 0.006) compared with pigs fed additional fat during only 1 period. Adding fat for the entire study increased ( = 0.032) backfat and tended to reduce ( = 0.079) the fat free lean index compared with pigs fed the control diet without added fat. Added fat also increased ( < 0.05) the iodine value (IV) when compared with pigs fed the control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of soybean oil lowered MUFA and increased PUFA concentrations for all fat depots, whereas these values remained relatively unchanged by the addition of tallow (duration × fat source interactions, < 0.05). Our study failed to show

  20. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio in 13- to 32-kilogram pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible Val to Lys (SID Val:Lys) ratio for 13 to 32 kg pigs. In Exp. 1, a Val deficient basal diet containing 0.60% L-Lys•HCl, 1.21% SID Lys, and 0.68% SID Val was developed (0.56 SID Val:Lys). Performance of pigs fed th...

  1. Consuming Transgenic Goats' Milk Containing the Antimicrobial Protein Lysozyme Helps Resolve Diarrhea in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Caitlin A.; Garas Klobas, Lydia C.; Maga, Elizabeth A.; Murray, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is a significant problem in many developing countries and E. coli is a main causative agent of diarrhea in young children. Lysozyme is an antimicrobial protein highly expressed in human milk, but not ruminant milk, and is thought to help protect breastfeeding children against diarrheal diseases. We hypothesized that consumption of milk from transgenic goats which produce human lysozyme (hLZ-milk) in their milk would accelerate recovery from bacterial-induced diarrhea. Young pigs were used as a model for children and infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Once clinical signs of diarrhea developed, pigs were fed hLZ-milk or non-transgenic control goat milk three times a day for two days. Clinical observations and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed. Animals were euthanized and samples collected to assess differences in histology, cytokine expression and bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph node. Pigs consuming hLZ-milk recovered from clinical signs of infection faster than pigs consuming control milk, with significantly improved fecal consistency (p = 0.0190) and activity level (p = 0.0350). The CBC analysis showed circulating monocytes (p = 0.0413), neutrophils (p = 0.0219), and lymphocytes (p = 0.0222) returned faster to pre-infection proportions in hLZ-milk fed pigs, while control-fed pigs had significantly higher hematocrit (p = 0.027), indicating continuing dehydration. In the ileum, pigs fed hLZ-milk had significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 (p = 0.0271), longer intestinal villi (p<0.0001), deeper crypts (p = 0.0053), and a thinner lamina propria (p = 0.0004). These data demonstrate that consumption of hLZ-milk helped pigs recover from infection faster, making hLZ-milk an effective treatment of E. coli-induced diarrhea. PMID:23516474

  2. Association of preterm birth with brain malformations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the rate of preterm birth in babies with congenital brain defects. Autopsy case reports of congenital brain anomalies were obtained from the literature. The control cases were from a large registry, a published report from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program. From 428 publications, 1168 cases were abstracted that had autopsy studies of congenital brain defects and information on the gestational age at birth. The control data from Atlanta included 7738 infants with significant birth defects of any kind and 264,392 infants without birth defects. In the autopsy cases with brain defects, the mean gestational age was 36.6 weeks, whereas the Atlanta data showed a mean gestational age of 39.3 weeks for infants with no defects and a significantly shorter gestation of 38.1 weeks (p < 0.0001) for infants with defects. In the Atlanta data, the rate of preterm birth was 9.3 % for those with no defects compared to 21.5 % (p < 0.0001) for those with defects. In the autopsy cases with brain defects, the rate of preterm birth was even greater (33.1%, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, these data show an association of brain defects with preterm births. PMID:19218881

  3. Nutrition of Preterm Infants After Hospital Discharge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth failure in preterm infants remains extremely common despite advances in neonatal care. Many, or even a majority, leave the hospital with weights below the 10th centile for age. Because of this, the possibility of nutritional interventions to improve postdischarge growth has been considered. A...

  4. Karaya gum electrocardiographic electrodes for preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, P H; Rutter, N

    1987-01-01

    Changes in transepidermal water loss were used to measure skin damage caused by removal of electrocardiograph electrodes in 20 preterm infants. Electrodes secured by conventional adhesive damaged the skin, leading to a potentially dangerous increase in skin permeability. In contrast, those secured by karaya gum caused no skin damage. PMID:3435167

  5. Preterm infant massage therapy research: a review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, preterm infant massage therapy studies are reviewed. Massage therapy has led to weight gain in preterm infants when moderate pressure massage was provided. In studies on passive movement of the limbs, preterm infants also gained significantly more weight, and their bone density also increased. Research on ways of delivering the massage is also explored including using mothers versus therapists and the added effects of using oils. The use of mothers as therapists was effective in at least one study. The use of oils including coconut oil and safflower oil enhanced the average weight gain, and the transcutaneous absorption of oil also increased triglycerides. In addition, the use of synthetic oil increased vagal activity, which may indirectly contribute to weight gain. The weight gain was associated with shorter hospital stays and, thereby, significant hospital cost savings. Despite these benefits, preterm infant massage is only practiced in 38% of neonatal intensive care units. This may relate to the underlying mechanisms not being well understood. The increases noted in vagal activity, gastric motility, insulin and IGF-1 levels following moderate pressure massage are potential underlying mechanisms. However, those variables combined do not explain all of the variance in weight gain, highlighting the need for additional mechanism studies. PMID:20137814

  6. [Consequences preterm birth for the family].

    PubMed

    Garel, Micheline

    2014-01-01

    Current intensive care techniques enable more and more very preterm babies to survive. It is important to be aware of the nature and extent of the specific difficulties which the parents and any siblings may encounter following this birth, both in the long and medium-term. This understanding will also enable measures for improving the support of families to be offered. PMID:24779173

  7. Recurrent wheezing in very preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Elder, D. E.; Hagan, R.; Evans, S. F.; Benninger, H. R.; French, N. P.

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To document the prevalence of, and identify risk factors for, recurrent wheezing treated with bronchodilators in the first year of life. METHODS: Parental history and neonatal data were collected prospectively in a regional cohort of very preterm infants (< 33 weeks). Data on maternal smoking, siblings at home, breast feeding, respiratory symptoms, and hospital re-admissions were documented at 12 months. RESULTS: Outcome data were available for 525/560 (95%) of survivors. The incidence of recurrent wheeze was 76/525 (14.5%) in very preterm infants and 20/657 (3%) in a cohort of term newborns. Significant risk factors for recurrent wheeze in very preterm infants were parental history of asthma, maternal smoking, siblings at home, neonatal oxygen supplementation at 28 days, 36, and 40 weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Wheezing respiratory illnesses are common in very preterm infants. The factors involved are similar to those in more mature infants, with the addition of immaturity and neonatal lung injury. PMID:8777678

  8. Acute neonatal appendicitis in a preterm.

    PubMed

    Mammou, Sihem; Ayadi, Imen; Ben Hamida, Emira; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Acute neonatal appendicitis is very rare in the neonatal period. It is usually associated with comorbidity including prematurity. Symptoms are non-specific. The prognosis is marked by high risk of mortality and morbidity. Here, we report a case of preterm new born who presented with sepsis, apnoea, and digestive signs. The laparotomy revealed perforated appendicitis complicated with peritonitis. PMID:26712299

  9. Advancing Evidence in Preterm Neonatal Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Pamela K.; Robinson, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Few interventions and treatments for premature infants have undergone the rigors of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the cornerstone of evidence-based healthcare. Multiple barriers in establishing a quality evidence base for the care of preterm infants are examined including the systematic exclusion of children from drug trials, vulnerability…

  10. Primary Cutaneous Aspergillosis in a Preterm Infant.

    PubMed

    Frick, Marie Antoinette; Boix, Hector; Camba Longueira, Fátima; Martin-Gomez, M Teresa; Rodrigo-Pendás, José Ángel; Soler-Palacin, Pere

    2016-06-01

    Primary cutaneous aspergillosis is rare in premature infants. It requires combined medical and surgical strategies. Liposomal amphotericin B is recommended as first-line therapy, but salvage regimens with others antifungal agents, such as voriconazole, have been reported. Voriconazole's pharmacodynamics is unknown in this population. We report a case of severe toxicity to voriconazole in a preterm patient with primary cutaneous aspergillosis. PMID:26974892

  11. Acute neonatal appendicitis in a preterm

    PubMed Central

    Mammou, Sihem; Ayadi, Imen; Hamida, Emira Ben; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Acute neonatal appendicitis is very rare in the neonatal period. It is usually associated with comorbidity including prematurity. Symptoms are non-specific. The prognosis is marked by high risk of mortality and morbidity. Here, we report a case of preterm new born who presented with sepsis, apnoea, and digestive signs. The laparotomy revealed perforated appendicitis complicated with peritonitis. PMID:26712299

  12. Composition and quality characteristics of carcasses from pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake on high- or low-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Arkfeld, E K; Young, J M; Johnson, R C; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K; Patience, J F; Dekkers, J C M; Gabler, N K; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine the extent to which feeding low-energy, high-fiber (LEHF) and high-energy, low-fiber (HELF) diets impacts meat quality and carcass composition of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Two experiments were conducted in the divergently selected Iowa State University RFI lines: Exp. 1 evaluated carcasses of generation (G) 8 pigs fed on commercial feeders; Exp. 2 evaluated composition, pork quality, sensory, and postmortem proteolysis of pigs fed on electronic single-space feeders in G 8 and 9. Pigs (N = 177) in Exp. 1 were randomly assigned a pen (mixed sex and line; N = 8). Groups (n = 3) of pigs were slaughtered at a mean BW of 121.5 kg. Pigs in Exp. 2 (G8: n = 158; G9: n = 157) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 pens of each diet per G. Pigs from G8 were slaughtered at a mean BW of 122.5 kg and G9 at a mean of 128.4 kg. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS. Fixed effects were line, diet, sex, and all appropriate interactions. Random effects were group, pen, litter, and sire and covariate of off-test BW. For Exp. 2, G was added as a fixed effect and sensory day was added as a random effect when applicable. In Exp. 1, carcasses from low RFI (LRFI) pigs were leaner and had less fat depth (P < 0.01). Carcasses from pigs fed the LEHF diet had a lighter HCW and greater estimated percent lean than pigs fed HELF diet (P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, LRFI pigs on the HELF diet had the greatest loin depth (P < 0.01). Chops from HRFI pigs had greater drip loss, color scores, lean tissue a*, and percent lipid and lesser percent moisture than LRFI ( P< 0.05). Chops from pigs on the LEHF diet had lesser muscle L* values and greater percent moisture than chops from pigs fed the HELF diet (P < 0.05). Chops from LRFI pigs were juicer than those from HRFI pigs (P < 0.05). Protein extracted at d 2 postmortem from LRFI pigs on the LEHF diet had a greater 38 kDa desmin degradation product than protein from LRFI pigs fed the HELF

  13. Influence of dietary zinc and copper on digestive enzyme activity and intestinal morphology in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, M S; Jensen, B B; Poulsen, H D

    2006-12-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of high dietary concentrations of Zn as zinc oxide and Cu as copper sulfate on the activity of digestive enzymes in the pancreas and the intestinal mucosa, intestinal morphology, and mucin histochemistry in pigs after weaning. Thirty-two pigs were weaned at 4 wk of age. The pigs were fed standard weaning diets supplemented with Zn (100 or 2,500 ppm) and Cu (0 or 175 ppm) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments for a 14-d period. In pancreatic tissue, the activity of amylase, carboxypeptidase A, chymotrypsin, trypsin, and lipase increased (P < 0.01) in pigs fed 2,500 ppm of Zn, whereas the activity of carboxypeptidase B and carboxylester hydrolase was unaffected. Copper had no effect on the activity of pancreatic enzymes. In small intestinal contents, the total activity of amylase and carboxypeptidase A was greater in pigs fed 100 ppm of Zn (P < 0.05), whereas feeding 2,500 ppm of Zn increased the chymotrypsin activity (P < 0.001). The remaining enzymes were unaffected by dietary Zn concentration. The villi were longer in the cranial small intestine (P < 0.001) in pigs fed 100 ppm of Zn than in pigs fed 2,500 ppm of Zn, but otherwise there were no clear effects of Zn and Cu supplementation on intestinal morphology. In the cranial small intestine, the activity of maltase (P < 0.001), sucrase (P < 0.001), and lactase was greater in pigs fed 100 ppm of Zn, even though there was a Zn x Cu interaction (P < 0.05) in lactase activity. In the middle and caudal small intestine, no clear differences between dietary treatments were observed. The activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in the intestinal mucosa was not affected by dietary Zn or Cu. In pigs fed 100 ppm of Zn, the activity of aminopeptidase N was greater in the caudal small intestine, but dietary Zn or Cu had no effect on aminopeptidase N in the cranial and middle small intestine. No effect of dietary Zn or Cu supplementation was found on

  14. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers. PMID:26906339

  15. Practice Bulletin No. 159: Management of Preterm Labor.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and the most common reason for antenatal hospitalization . In the United States, approximately 12% of all live births occur before term, and preterm labor preceded approximately 50% of these preterm births . Although the causes of preterm labor are not well understood, the burden of preterm births is clear-preterm births account for approximately 70% of neonatal deaths and 36% of infant deaths as well as 25-50% of cases of long-term neurologic impairment in children . A 2006 report from the Institute of Medicine estimated the annual cost of preterm birth in the United States to be $26.2 billion or more than $51,000 per premature infant . However, identifying women who will give birth preterm is an inexact process. The purpose of this document is to present the various methods proposed to manage preterm labor and to review the evidence for the roles of these methods in clinical practice. Identification and management of risk factors for preterm labor are not addressed in this document. PMID:26695585

  16. Practice Bulletin No. 159 Summary: Management of Preterm Labor.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and the most common reason for antenatal hospitalization (1-4). In the United States, approximately 12% of all live births occur before term, and preterm labor preceded approximately 50% of these preterm births (5, 6). Although the causes of preterm labor are not well understood, the burden of preterm births is clear-preterm births account for approximately 70% of neonatal deaths and 36% of infant deaths as well as 25-50% of cases of long-term neurologic impairment in children (7-9). A 2006 report from the Institute of Medicine estimated the annual cost of preterm birth in the United States to be $26.2 billion or more than $51,000 per premature infant (10). However, identifying women who will give birth preterm is an inexact process. The purpose of this document is to present the various methods proposed to manage preterm labor and to review the evidence for the roles of these methods in clinical practice. Identification and management of risk factors for preterm labor are not addressed in this document. PMID:26695580

  17. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth. PMID:27120474

  18. Disconnect Between Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction in Ossabaw Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Lee, Sewon; Bayless, David S.; Scroggins, Rebecca J.; Welly, Rebecca J.; Fleming, Nicholas J.; Smith, Thomas N.; Meers, Grace M.; Hill, Michael A.; Rector, R. Scott; Padilla, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Ossabaw pig is emerging as an attractive model of human cardiometabolic disease due to its size and susceptibility to atherosclerosis, among other characteristics. Here we investigated the relationship between adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in this model. Methods Young female Ossabaw pigs were fed a western-style high-fat diet (HFD) (n=4) or control low-fat diet (LFD) (n=4) for a period of 9 months and compared for cardiometabolic outcomes and adipose tissue inflammation. Results The HFD-fed “OBESE” pigs were 2.5 times heavier (p<0.001) than LFD-fed “LEAN” pigs and developed severe obesity. HFD-feeding caused pronounced dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance (systemic and adipose) as well as induction of inflammatory genes, impairments in vasomotor reactivity to insulin and atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries. Remarkably, visceral, subcutaneous and perivascular adipose tissue inflammation (via FACS analysis and RT-PCR) was not increased in OBESE pigs, nor were circulating inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions These findings reveal a disconnect between adipose tissue inflammation and cardiometabolic dysfunction induced by western diet feeding in the Ossabaw pig model. PMID:26524201

  19. Use of pet food-grade poultry by-product meal as an alternate protein source in weanling pig diets.

    PubMed

    Zier, C E; Jones, R D; Azain, M J

    2004-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate pet food-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a replacement protein source for fish meal (FM), blood meal (BM), and spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) in weanling pig diets. In the first study, 200 crossbred pigs (initial BW = 6.5 kg) were weaned (21 d) and randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments, which included a control and three test diets where PBM was substituted for FM, blood products, or both. Experimental diets were fed during Phase I (d 0 to 5 postweaning) and Phase II (d 5 to 19), and a common Phase III diet was fed from d 19 to 26. Overall (d 0 to 26), there was no difference in performance of pigs fed PBM in place of the other ingredients. However, during Phase I, BW (P < 0.05), ADG (P < 0.02), and intake (P < 0.001) in pigs fed diets containing SDPP were greater than those fed diets with PBM. In Exp. 2, the performance of pigs (n = 100, initial BW = 6.5 kg) fed diets containing 20% PBM (as-fed basis, replacing SDPP, BM, FM, and a portion of the soybean meal) in all phases of the nursery diet was compared with a group fed conventional diets without PBM. There were no differences in overall performance (d 0 to 26); however, ADG (P < 0.10) and feed intake were higher (P < 0.01) for pigs fed the conventional diet than for pigs fed the 20% PBM diet during Phase I (d 0 to 5). Experiment 3 was a slope-ratio assay to determine the ability of PBM to replace SDPP. A total of 320 pigs (initial BW = 7.32 kg) was weaned (21 d) and allotted to five treatment groups in three trials in a blocked design with product (SDPP or PBM) as the first factor, and lysine level (1.08, 1.28, 1.49%; as-fed basis) as the second factor. Growth rate increased with increasing lysine (P < 0.05), regardless of the source. These results indicate that PBM can be used in nursery diets in place of blood meal and fish meal without affecting performance. Furthermore, although feeding PBM in Phase I diets was not equivalent to SDPP

  20. Progestogens to Prevent Preterm Birth: A Review of the Research about Progestogens for Women at Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Summary – Sept. 21, 2012 Progestogens To Prevent Preterm Birth: A Review of the Research About Progestogens for ... cfm . Understanding Your Condition What is spontaneous preterm birth? A preterm birth is when birth happens before ...

  1. A low-fat liquid diet decreases AMPK and increases mTOR phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of 10-day-old pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research shows that neonatal pigs respond to decreases in energy density of liquid diets with increased feed intake, resulting in similar performance to pigs fed a more energy-dense diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine if a high- (25%, HF) or low-fat (2%, LF) liquid diet ...

  2. A Low-fat Liquid Diet Increases Protein Accretion and Alters Cellular Signaling for Protein Synthesis in 10-day-old Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research shows that neonatal pigs respond to decreases in energy density of liquid diets with increased feed intake, resulting in similar performance to pigs fed a more energy dense diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine if a high-(25%, HF) or low-fat (2%, LF) liquid diet ...

  3. Salinomycin residues and their ionophoricity in pig tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Dimenna, G.P.; Lyon, F.S.; Creegan, J.A. ); Wright, G.J. ); Wilkes, L.C. ); Johnson, D.E.; Szymanski, T. )

    1990-04-01

    The effect of pretreatment with medicated feed on ({sup 14}C) salinomycin residue levels in pig tissues was studied. Pigs were fed unmedicated feed or feed medicated with salinomycin at 41 ppm in the diet for 29 days and then dosed with ({sup 14}C)salinomycin for 8 days. Total drug residue levels were below quantifiable limits of detection of kidney, fat, and muscle but at the tolerance limit of 1,800 ppb for liver. In liver, pretreatment tended to lower total residue levels, and unchanged ({sup 14}C)salinomycin accounted for <1% of the total drug residue. Approximately 15-20% of the total drug residue in liver was bound. Ionophoric activity in extracts of livers from the treated pigs was minimal, and only 2 of the 12 treated samples had ionophoric activity more than twice that obtained from the controls.

  4. Studies on gastrointestinal parasites of pigs in Shimoga region of Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Ananda, K J; Adeppa, J; Satheesha, M G

    2016-09-01

    The study was conducted to ascertain the actual status of gastro-intestinal parasites in pigs maintained under different rearing systems in Shimoga region, Karnataka state. A total of 150 Pigs fecal samples were examined, which includes 50 from organized piggery farm, Veterinary College Shimoga, 50 from private piggery farm of Shimoga and 50 from free range desi pigs of Shimoga city. The fecal samples were processed and examined by direct and sedimentation method. Out of 50 fecal samples examined from organized piggery farm, 19 were found positive for different parasitic eggs, Out of 50 fecal samples screened form private farm, 28 harbored different parasites, whereas from 50 free range desi pigs fecal samples examined, all showed one and other parasitic eggs/ova. The percent prevalence of parasitic infection is more in free range desi pigs compared to Yorkshire breeds maintained under stall fed condition. PMID:27605803

  5. The spread of pathogens through trade in pig meat: overview and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Pharo, H; Cobb, S P

    2011-04-01

    A number of animal diseases can be transmitted to pigs via meat if the animals are fed scraps of meat imported from infected countries. For this reason, garbage feeding of pigs is regulated in many countries. The major porcine diseases recognised as being significant for this transmission pathway are foot and mouth disease, African swine fever, classical swine fever and swine vesicular disease. The World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code (the Terrestrial Code) offers risk management recommendations for meat from countries where these diseases are present. However, there is no Terrestrial Code chapter on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a relatively new viral disease of pigs which, since its recognition in the 1990s, has become endemic in most pig-producing countries. This paper assesses the risk of spread of PRRS virus through trade in pig meat, and concludes that the likelihood of its transmission by this pathway is negligible. PMID:21809760

  6. The effect of dietary carbohydrates and Trichuris suis infection on pig large intestine tissue structure, epithelial cell proliferation and mucin characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, L E; Knudsen, K E Bach; Hedemann, M S; Roepstorff, A

    2006-11-30

    Two experiments (Exps. 1 and 2) were performed to study the influence of Trichuris suis infection and type of dietary carbohydrates on large intestine morphology, epithelial cell proliferation and mucin characteristics. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with resistant carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Experiment 1, 32 pigs were allocated randomly into four groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and two groups Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs and the other two groups remained uninfected controls. In Experiment 2, 12 pigs were allocated randomly into two groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively, and inoculated with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs. All the pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post inoculation (p.i.). The worm counts were lower in pigs fed Diet 2 in both experiments, but not significantly so. Both diet and infection status significantly influenced the tissue weight of the large intestine. In both experiments, pigs fed Diet 2 had heavier large intestines than pigs fed Diet 1 and in Experiment1 the infected pigs of both diets had heavier large intestines than their respective control groups. Diet and infection also significantly affected the morphological architecture and mucin production in both experiments. Pigs fed Diet 1 had larger crypts both in terms of area and height than pigs fed Diet 2 and T. suis infected pigs on both diets in Experiment 1 had larger crypts than their respective control groups. The area of the mucin granules in the crypts constituted 22-53% of the total crypt area and was greatest in the T. suis infected pigs fed Diet 1. Epithelial cell proliferation was affected neither by diet nor infection in any of the experiments. The study showed that both T. suis infection and dietary carbohydrates significantly

  7. Impact of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth, efficiency, and carcass traits of finishing pigs in a three-phase marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Gerlemann, G D; Allee, G L; Rincker, P J; Ritter, M J; Boler, D D; Carr, S N

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in a 3-phase marketing strategy. One thousand seven hundred forty pigs were used in 80 single-sex pens in 2 blocks. Each pen housed approximately 22 pigs. Sixteen percent of the total population of pigs was sold during the first marketing period, 18% was sold during the second marketing period, and the remaining 66% was sold during the third marketing period. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design of 2 treatments. Pigs in the second marketing group had greater growth performance indicators than pigs in the first marketing group. Over the entire feeding period, pigs fed RAC were 2.73 kg heavier (P < 0.0001), had 0.11 kg/d greater (P < 0.0001) ADG, and had 0.04 greater (P < 0.0001) G:F than pigs not fed RAC. Hot carcass weights were 3.3% greater (P < 0.0001), carcass yields were 0.68 (% units) greater (P < 0.0001), fat depth was 7.2% less (P < 0.0001), loin depth was 5.6% greater (P < 0.0001), and estimated carcass lean was 0.97% units greater (P < 0.0001) in RAC-fed pigs when compared with pigs not fed RAC. By the end of the first marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (89.73 kg) were 2.1% heavier (P = 0.04) and gained 0.19 kg/d more (P = 0.03) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (87.89 kg). By the end of the second marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (99.00 kg) were 3.1% heavier (P < 0.001) and gained 0.14 kg/d more (P < 0.001) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (96.02 kg). By the end of the third marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (102.75 kg) were 3.7% heavier (P < 0.0001) and gained 0.10 kg/d more (P < 0.0001) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (99.06 kg). Although carcass gain per day decreased with extended RAC feeding duration, HCW advantages continued to increase as feeding duration was increased from 7 d to 35 d. Growth benefits were evident during the initial marketing period, but as

  8. Preterm Birth and Adult Wealth: Mathematics Skills Count.

    PubMed

    Basten, Maartje; Jaekel, Julia; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Each year, 15 million babies worldwide are born preterm. Preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes across the life span. Recent registry-based studies suggest that preterm birth is associated with decreased wealth in adulthood, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated whether the relationship between preterm birth and low adult wealth is mediated by poor academic abilities and educational qualifications. Participants were members of two British population-based birth cohorts born in 1958 and 1970, respectively. Results showed that preterm birth was associated with decreased wealth at 42 years of age. This association was mediated by decreased intelligence, reading, and, in particular, mathematics attainment in middle childhood, as well as decreased educational qualifications in young adulthood. Findings were similar in both cohorts, which suggests that these mechanisms may be time invariant. Special educational support in childhood may prevent preterm children from becoming less wealthy as adults. PMID:26324513

  9. Recent advances in the prevention and management of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Min Yi

    2015-01-01

    The management of preterm birth has seen major transformations in the last few decades with increasing interest worldwide, due to the impact of preterm birth on neonatal morbidity and mortality. The prevention strategies currently available for asymptomatic women at risk of preterm birth include progesterone, cervical cerclage and cervical pessary. Each approach has varying effects depending on the patient's prior history of preterm birth, cervical length and the presence of multiple gestations. There is a shift in the focus of antenatal treatment, with the use of prenatal magnesium sulphate and corticosteroids, to reduce neonatal intensive care admissions and longer-term disabilities associated with preterm birth, consequently relieving emotional and economical burden. This article provides an update on the recent advances in prevention and management approaches available for women at risk of preterm birth. PMID:26097713

  10. Passive Smoking and Preterm Birth in Urban China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jie; He, Xiaochun; Cui, Hongmei; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Honghong; Dang, Yun; Han, Xudong; Chen, Ya; Tang, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Hanru; Bai, Haiya; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhu, Daling; Lin, Xiaojuan; Lv, Ling; Xu, Xiaoying; Lin, Ru; Yao, Tingting; Su, Jie; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Wendi; Wang, Yueyuan; Ma, Bin; Liu, Sufen; Huang, Huang; Lerro, Catherine; Zhao, Nan; Liang, Jiaxin; Ma, Shuangge; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between maternal passive smoking and the risk of preterm birth have reached inconsistent conclusions. A birth cohort study that included 10,095 nonsmoking women who delivered a singleton live birth was carried out in Lanzhou, China, between 2010 and 2012. Exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth (<32 completed weeks of gestation; odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 2.76) but not moderate preterm birth (32–36 completed weeks of gestation; odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.81, 1.19). Risk of very preterm birth increased with the duration of exposure (P for trend = 0.0014). There was no variability in exposures by trimester. The associations were consistent for both medically indicated and spontaneous preterm births. Overall, our findings support a positive association between passive smoking and the risk of very preterm birth. PMID:24838804

  11. Responses of weanling pigs to dietary supplementation with vitamin C or carbadox.

    PubMed

    Yen, J T; Pond, W G

    1984-01-01

    A 2 X 2 factorial arrangement with two levels (0, 660 ppm) of vitamin C and two levels (0, 55 ppm) of carbadox supplementation was used in two experiments with 112 crossbred pigs weaned between 4 and 5 wk of age. An 18% protein corn-soybean meal-oats-dried whey starter diet was used as the basal diet. Each diet was fed ad libitum for a 4-wk period to three replicates of four pigs in Exp. 1 and to four replicates of four pigs in Exp. 2. Vitamin C supplementation produced a significantly higher plasma vitamin C concentration in weanling pigs, but, contrary to results of our previous study, failed to improve average daily gain of the pigs. Daily gain was, however, improved significantly by carbadox supplementation. Carbadox also produced a significantly higher plasma vitamin C concentration in pigs after a 7-d lag period. Plasma Fe concentration of pigs was not affected by supplemental vitamin C, but was significantly higher in those fed carbadox-supplemented diets. Plasma ceruloplasmin concentration increased significantly in all treatment groups from the initial sampling period (d 0) to subsequent periods. No interactions between supplemental vitamin C and carbadox were observed in daily gain, feed efficiency and the measured plasma constituents. PMID:6698894

  12. Targeted Disruption of LDLR Causes Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Yucatan Miniature Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rohret, Judy A.; Struzynski, Jason T.; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Rohret, Frank A.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Rogers, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in engineering the genomes of large animals has spurred increased interest in developing better animal models for diseases where current options are inadequate. Here, we report the creation of Yucatan miniature pigs with targeted disruptions of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene in an effort to provide an improved large animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Yucatan miniature pigs are well established as translational research models because of similarities to humans in physiology, anatomy, genetics, and size. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer, male and female LDLR+/− pigs were generated. Subsequent breeding of heterozygotes produced LDLR−/− pigs. When fed a standard swine diet (low fat, no cholesterol), LDLR+/− pigs exhibited a moderate, but consistent increase in total and LDL cholesterol, while LDLR−/− pigs had considerably elevated levels. This severe hypercholesterolemia in homozygote animals resulted in atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta that resemble human atherosclerosis. These phenotypes were more severe and developed over a shorter time when fed a diet containing natural sources of fat and cholesterol. LDLR-targeted Yucatan miniature pigs offer several advantages over existing large animal models including size, consistency, availability, and versatility. This new model of cardiovascular disease could be an important resource for developing and testing novel detection and treatment strategies for coronary and aortic atherosclerosis and its complications. PMID:24691380

  13. Effects of the interrelationship between zinc oxide and copper sulfate on growth performance of early-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Smith, J W; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Richert, B T

    1997-07-01

    We conducted four experiments to examine the effects of adding zinc oxide (ZnO) and(or) copper sulfate (CuSO4) to diets for weanling pigs. In Exp. 1 and 2, weanling pigs (initially 5.3 kg and 19 +/- 2 d of age) were fed diets containing 250 ppm of added Cu (CuSO4) and either 110 or 3,110 ppm of added. Zn (ZnO). No differences (P > .10) were observed in either experiment for ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (G:F). In Exp. 3,240 pigs (initially 4.45 kg and 15 +/- 2 d of age) were used to determine the interactive effects of added dietary ZnO and(or) CuSO4. Dietary treatments were in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement; Zn (165 or 3,000 ppm) and Cu (16.5 or 250 ppm) were the main effects. Pigs were fed a high nutrient dense diet from d 0 to 14 after weaning and a less complex diet from d 14 to 28 after weaning, both containing the same mineral fortifications. From d 0 to 14, pigs fed 3,000 ppm Zn, with or without 250 ppm Cu, had improved ADG (P < .01) compared with pigs fed the control (16.5 ppm Cu and 165 ppm Zn) or diets with only added Cu. From d 14 to 28, pigs fed the diet containing 3,000 ppm added Zn, without 250 ppm Cu, had greater ADG than pigs fed the other diets (Zn x Cu interaction, P < .01). In Exp. 4, 264 pigs (initially 4.17 kg and 12 +/- 3 d of age) were fed a high nutrient dense diet supplemented with 3,000 ppm of Zn (ZnO) from d 0 to 14 after weaning. On d 14, pigs were switched to the diets containing experimental mineral levels identical to those of Exp. 3. From d 14 to 28 after weaning, added Zn improved ADG but not when the diet contained 250 ppm Cu (Zn x Cu interaction, P < .05). Feeding 3,000 ppm of Zn from ZnO is a viable means of improving nursery pig performance, but additive responses to growth-promotant levels of CuSO4 (250 ppm Cu) were not observed. PMID:9222843

  14. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Materials and Methods: A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. Results: C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Conclusion: Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips.

  15. Restriction of dietary protein does not promote hepatic lipogenesis in lean or fatty pigs.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta S; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Pinto, Rui M A; Prates, José A M

    2016-04-01

    The influence of genotype (lean v. fatty) and dietary protein level (normal v. reduced) on plasma metabolites, hepatic fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of lipid-sensitive factors is reported for the first time, using the pig as an experimental model. The experiment was conducted on forty entire male pigs (twenty lean pigs of Large White×Landrace×Pietrain cross-breed and twenty fatty pigs of Alentejana purebreed) from 60 to 93 kg of live weight. Each pig genotype was divided into two subgroups, which were fed the following diets: a normal protein diet (NPD) equilibrated for lysine (17·5 % crude protein and 0·7 % lysine) and a reduced protein diet (RPD) not equilibrated for lysine (13·1 % crude protein and 0·4 % lysine). The majority of plasma metabolites were affected by genotype, with lean pigs having higher contents of lipids, whereas fatty pigs presented higher insulin, leptin and urea levels. RPD increased plasma TAG, free fatty acids and VLDL-cholesterol compared with NPD. Hepatic total lipids were higher in fatty pigs than in the lean genotype. RPD affected hepatic fatty acid composition but had a slight influence on gene expression levels in the liver. Sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1 was down-regulated by RPD, and fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were affected by the interaction between genotype and diet. In pigs fed RPD, FADS1 was up-regulated in the lean genotype, whereas FABP4 increased in the fatty genotype. Although there is a genotype-specific effect of dietary protein restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism, lipogenesis is not promoted in the liver of lean or fatty pigs. PMID:26927728

  16. Zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infection through consumption of pig or poultry viscera.

    PubMed

    Taira, K; Saeed, I; Permin, A; Kapel, C M O

    2004-05-01

    The potential zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infections from consumption of swine or poultry viscera containing larvae was assessed using a pig model. Two groups of six pigs were fed either fresh swine viscera (group FS) or poultry viscera (FP) containing around 3500 Toxocara larvae. Another two groups of six pigs were fed swine viscera (PS) or poultry viscera (PP) preserved at 4 degrees C for 1 week. All pigs were necropsied 14 days after the exposure. Liver white spots were counted and T. canis specific IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. Larval burdens were assessed in the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, lungs, brain, tongue, and eyes. All recipient pigs exhibited several white spots on the liver surface and detectable antibody levels. Larvae were recovered predominantly from the lungs, but also from the mesenteric lymph nodes and the liver, a few larvae were found in the brain and tongue of the pigs. Two larvae were found in the eyes of two pigs in group FS. Mean percentages of total larval recoveries in groups FS, FP, PS, and PP were 75.3, 63.6, 42.6, and 18.8%, respectively. Significantly higher numbers of larvae were recovered from pigs given swine viscera than pigs given poultry viscera. The preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week caused a significant reduction in the larval infectivity overall, nevertheless, the recoveries remained substantial. The fact that larvae migrating in swine or poultry organs and tissues have high infectivity in pigs even after preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week, suggests that human infection with T. canis might easily occur following consumption of raw or undercooked dishes, either fresh or refrigerated, prepared from swine or poultry organs and tissues harbouring T. canis larvae. PMID:15110409

  17. Pig production in the Solomon Islands. I. Village pig production.

    PubMed

    de Fredrick, D F

    1977-05-01

    In 181 villages in the Solomon Islands the pig: human ratio was 1:5-8 and the annual per capita pork consumption was 4-2 kg. Some communities did not keep pigs or eat pig meat. Sows weaned an average of 5-5 piglets per year and mean liveweight at 12 months of age was 28-4 kg. Most pigs were kept on the ground but some were housed in pens over the sea and very few lived in their owner's houses. Pigs were important in the social life of the people but proportionally fewer pigs were raised than in neighbouring Pacific countries. PMID:906090

  18. Bacterial Hyaluronidase Promotes Ascending GBS Infection and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Vornhagen, Jay; Quach, Phoenicia; Boldenow, Erica; Merillat, Sean; Whidbey, Christopher; Ngo, Lisa Y.; Adams Waldorf, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preterm birth increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. A significant cause of preterm birth is in utero infection with vaginal microorganisms. These vaginal microorganisms are often recovered from the amniotic fluid of preterm birth cases. A vaginal microorganism frequently associated with preterm birth is group B streptococcus (GBS), or Streptococcus agalactiae. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GBS ascension are poorly understood. Here, we describe the role of the GBS hyaluronidase in ascending infection and preterm birth. We show that clinical GBS strains associated with preterm labor or neonatal infections have increased hyaluronidase activity compared to commensal strains obtained from rectovaginal swabs of healthy women. Using a murine model of ascending infection, we show that hyaluronidase activity was associated with increased ascending GBS infection, preterm birth, and fetal demise. Interestingly, hyaluronidase activity reduced uterine inflammation but did not impact placental or fetal inflammation. Our study shows that hyaluronidase activity enables GBS to subvert uterine immune responses, leading to increased rates of ascending infection and preterm birth. These findings have important implications for the development of therapies to prevent in utero infection and preterm birth. PMID:27353757

  19. Bilirubin-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Preterm Neonate.

    PubMed

    Watchko, Jon F

    2016-06-01

    Bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in preterm neonates remains a clinical concern. Multiple cellular and molecular cascades likely underlie bilirubin-induced neuronal injury, including plasma membrane perturbations, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and cell cycle arrest. Preterm newborns are particularly vulnerable secondary to central nervous system immaturity and concurrent adverse clinical conditions that may potentiate bilirubin toxicity. Acute bilirubin encephalopathy in preterm neonates may be subtle and manifest primarily as recurrent symptomatic apneic events. Low-bilirubin kernicterus continues to be reported in preterm neonates, and although multifactorial in nature, is often associated with marked hypoalbuminemia. PMID:27235209

  20. Predicting Preterm Labour: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Harry M.; Di Quinzio, Megan K. W.; Permezel, Michael; Brennecke, Shaun P.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm labour and birth are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Despite modern advances in obstetric and neonatal management, the rate of preterm birth in the developed world is increasing. Yet even though numerous risk factors associated with preterm birth have been identified, the ability to accurately predict when labour will occur remains elusive, whether it is at a term or preterm gestation. In the latter case, this is likely due to the multifactorial aetiology of preterm labour wherein women may display different clinical presentations that lead to preterm birth. The discovery of novel biomarkers that could reliably identify women who will subsequently deliver preterm may allow for timely medical intervention and targeted therapeutic treatments aimed at improving maternal and fetal outcomes. Various body fluids including amniotic fluid, urine, saliva, blood (serum/plasma), and cervicovaginal fluid all provide a rich protein source of putative biochemical markers that may be causative or reflective of the various pathophysiological disorders of pregnancy, including preterm labour. This short review will highlight recent advances in the field of biomarker discovery and the utility of single and multiple biomarkers for the prediction of preterm birth in the absence of intra-amniotic infection. PMID:26160993

  1. Pharmacological zinc and phytase supplementation enhance metallothionein mRNA abundance and protein concentration in newly weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Michelle M; Hill, Gretchen M; Link, Jane E; Raney, Nancy E; Tempelman, Robert J; Ernst, Catherine W

    2004-03-01

    The swine industry feeds pharmacological zinc (Zn) to newly weaned pigs to improve health. Because most swine diets are plant-based with a high phytic acid content, we hypothesized that adding phytase to diets could reduce the amount of Zn required to obtain beneficial responses. The role of metallothionein (MT) in Zn homeostasis could be important in this positive response. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary Zn and phytase on relative MT mRNA abundance and protein concentration in newly weaned pigs. Diets containing adequate (150 mg Zn/kg) or pharmacological concentrations of Zn (1000 or 2000 mg Zn/kg), as zinc oxide, with or without phytase [0, 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg, Natuphos, BASF] were fed in a 3 x 2 factorial design. Plasma and tissue minerals were measured in pigs killed after 14 d of dietary intervention. Hepatic and renal relative MT mRNA abundance and protein were greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed 1000 mg Zn/kg with phytase, or 2000 mg Zn/kg with or without phytase vs. the remaining treatments. Intestinal mucosa MT mRNA abundance and protein were greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed 2000 mg Zn/kg with phytase than in pigs fed 2000 mg Zn/kg alone or 1000 mg Zn/kg with phytase. Pigs fed 1000 mg Zn/kg plus phytase or 2000 mg Zn/kg with or without phytase had higher plasma, hepatic, and renal Zn than those fed the adequate Zn diets or 1000 mg Zn/kg. We conclude that feeding 1000 mg Zn/kg with phytase enhances MT mRNA abundance and protein and Zn absorption to the same degree as 2000 mg Zn/kg with and without phytase. PMID:14988443

  2. Effect of heat stress and feeding phosphorus levels on pig electron transport chain gene expression.

    PubMed

    Weller, M M D C A; Alebrante, L; Campos, P H R F; Saraiva, A; Silva, B A N; Donzele, J L; Oliveira, R F M; Silva, F F; Gasparino, E; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature and different levels of available phosphorus (aP) on the expression of nine genes encoding electron transport chain proteins in the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of pigs. Two trials were carried out using 48 high-lean growth pigs from two different growth phases: from 15 to 30 kg (phase 1) and from 30 to 60 kg (phase 2). Pigs from growth phase 1 were fed with three different levels of dietary aP (0.107%, 0.321% or 0.535%) and submitted either to a thermoneutral (24°C and RH at 76%) or to a heat stress (34°C and RH at 70%) environment. Pigs from growth phase 2 were fed with three different levels of dietary aP (0.116%, 0.306% or 0.496%) and submitted either to a thermoneutral (22ºC and RH at 77%) or to a heat stress (32ºC and RH at 73%) environment. Heat stress decreased (P<0.001) average daily feed intake at both growth phases. At 24°C, pigs in phase 1 fed the 0.321% aP diet had greater average daily gain and feed conversion (P<0.05) than those fed the 0.107% or 0.535% while, at 34°C pigs fed the 0.535% aP had the best performance (P<0.05). Pigs from phase 2 fed the 0.306% aP had best performance in both thermal environments. Gene expression profile was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Irrespective of growing phase, the expression of six genes was lower (P<0.05) at high temperature than at thermoneutrality. The lower expression of these genes under high temperatures evidences the effects of heat stress by decreasing oxidative metabolism, through adaptive physiological mechanisms in order to reduce heat production. In pigs from phase 1, six genes were differentially expressed across aP levels (P<0.05) in the thermoneutral and one gene in the heat stress. In pigs from phase 2, two genes were differentially expressed across aP levels (P<0.05) in both thermal environments. These data revealed strong evidence that phosphorus and thermal environments are key factors to

  3. Effect of dietary vitamin C addition on performance, plasma vitamin C and hematic iron status in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Yen, J T; Pond, W G

    1981-11-01

    Each of 64 pigs weaned between 4 and 5 weeks of age was fed ad libitum one of four diets: (1) a basal 18% crude protein, corn-soybean meal-oats-dried whey starter diet or (2,3,4) the basal diet supplemented with 330, 660 or 990 ppm L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The pigs were kept in groups of four and housed in an environmentally regulated nursery with a raised, expanded metal floor. The room temperature was maintained at 21 C and floor allowance was .54 m2/pig. After 28 days, dietary vitamin C supplementation had improved daily weight gain and daily feed intake of pigs without altering gain to feed ratio. Plasma vitamin C concentration decreased during the 4 weeks period after weaning in pigs not fed supplemental vitamin C but not in those fed supplemental vitamin C. Plasma Fe was reduced at day 28 in pigs given supplemental vitamin C. Simple correlation indicated a positive (P less than .05) relationship between plasma vitamin C concentration and weight gain and a negative (P less than .05) relationship between plasma vitamin C and plasma Fe concentration. Results obtained suggest that, under the experimental conditions, young pigs weaned between 4 and 5 weeks of age require dietary vitamin C supplementation for maximum weight gain and that the benefit of vitamin C addition may be related to Fe metabolism. PMID:7319970

  4. Development of large intestinal attaching and effacing lesions in pigs in association with the feeding of a particular diet.

    PubMed Central

    Neef, N A; McOrist, S; Lysons, R J; Bland, A P; Miller, B G

    1994-01-01

    Hysterotomy-derived piglets were kept in gnotobiotic isolators and artificially colonized at 7 days of age with an adult bovine enteric microflora. At 3 weeks of age, the pigs were transferred to conventional experimental accommodation and weaned, either onto a solid diet that had been associated with field cases of typhlocolitis in pigs or onto a solid control diet. At necropsy at 5 weeks of age, groups of pigs fed the diet associated with field cases of typhlocolitis were found to have developed typhlocolitis. This was absent from the groups fed the control diet. The typhlocolitis was characterized by attaching and effacing lesions typical of those described following experimental inoculation of various species with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. A nonverocytotoxic, eae probe-positive E. coli serotype O116 was isolated from pigs on the colitis-associated diet but not from any of the pigs on the control diet. Coliform bacteria attached to the colonic lesions reacted with polyclonal antiserum to E. coli O116 in an immunoperoxidase assay of histological sections of affected tissue. No reaction with this antiserum was observed in corresponding tissue sections taken from pigs on the control diet. No colon lesions were observed in germfree pigs fed either of the diets. It is postulated that proliferation and possibly expression of pathogenicity of the attaching and effacing E. coli responsible for the lesions are strongly influenced by diet. Images PMID:7927691

  5. Microglia toxicity in preterm brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Baburamani, Ana A.; Supramaniam, Veena G.; Hagberg, Henrik; Mallard, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are the resident phagocytic cells of the central nervous system. During brain development they are also imperative for apoptosis of excessive neurons, synaptic pruning, phagocytosis of debris and maintaining brain homeostasis. Brain damage results in a fast and dynamic microglia reaction, which can influence the extent and distribution of subsequent neuronal dysfunction. As a consequence, microglia responses can promote tissue protection and repair following brain injury, or become detrimental for the tissue integrity and functionality. In this review, we will describe microglia responses in the human developing brain in association with injury, with particular focus on the preterm infant. We also explore microglia responses and mechanisms of microglia toxicity in animal models of preterm white matter injury and in vitro primary microglia cell culture experiments. PMID:24768662

  6. Maternal microbiome - A pathway to preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Vinturache, Angela E; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Hwang, Joseph; Mysorekar, Indira U; Jacobsson, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Despite great medical advances in preventing maternal and infant mortality in the past century, one issue remains unresolved: why do so many women give birth prematurely? A major new field of human microbiome studies has begun to shed light on the impact of microbes (of both the commensal and pathogen varieties) on pregnancy outcomes. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and metagenomic analysis have revealed that maternal microbiomes at a variety of niches including the oral, vaginal, gut, cervical, and even the placenta itself govern pregnancy outcomes. In this review, we describe how alterations in the microbial biomasses impact preterm birth and we discuss the major research questions concerning the cause and/or interdependent relationships between microbiome, infection, and preterm delivery. PMID:26936188

  7. Parents as practitioners in preterm care.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Siyuan; Warre, Ruth; Qiu, Xiangming; O'Brien, Karel; Lee, Shoo K

    2014-11-01

    The very preterm birth of an infant is physiologically traumatic for the infant and physiologically and psychologically traumatic for the parents. The manner of care delivery in the first few days and weeks of the infant's life plays a large role in determining the impact of that trauma. For optimal outcomes parents need to be integrated into the care process as the primary practitioners of their infant's care in the neonatal intensive care unit. Supporting and enabling parents to be central to the care process establishes a consistent care environment where parents are in control and able to support their infant's physiological and psychological needs, thereby improving infant outcomes and reducing parent stress and anxiety. This article reviews the role of parents in the optimal development of preterm neonates, and discusses the elements crucial to promoting parent involvement in the neonatal intensive care unit and supporting parents following discharge. PMID:25246323

  8. [Association between Mycoplasma genitalium and preterm labor].

    PubMed

    Kovachev, E; Popova, A; Protopopov, F; Minkov, R; Tsvetkova, S

    2002-01-01

    M. genitalium was identified by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The samples were obtained from the posterior vaginal fornix between 21-25 gestation weeks and investigated for PH, Gram Stain for bacterial vaginosis; Chlamidia trachomartis; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Trichomonas vaginalis. Of 102 pregnant women, only five had a PCR-positive for M. genitalium. The occurrence of M. genitalium in posterior vaginal fornix at midtrimester is infrequent in pregnant women and unlikely to be a contributing factor for spontaneous preterm birth. PMID:12577501

  9. Preterm EEG: a multimodal neurophysiological protocol.

    PubMed

    Stjerna, Susanna; Voipio, Juha; Metsäranta, Marjo; Kaila, Kai; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2012-01-01

    Since its introduction in early 1950s, electroencephalography (EEG) has been widely used in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for assessment and monitoring of brain function in preterm and term babies. Most common indications are the diagnosis of epileptic seizures, assessment of brain maturity, and recovery from hypoxic-ischemic events. EEG recording techniques and the understanding of neonatal EEG signals have dramatically improved, but these advances have been slow to penetrate through the clinical traditions. The aim of this presentation is to bring theory and practice of advanced EEG recording available for neonatal units. In the theoretical part, we will present animations to illustrate how a preterm brain gives rise to spontaneous and evoked EEG activities, both of which are unique to this developmental phase, as well as crucial for a proper brain maturation. Recent animal work has shown that the structural brain development is clearly reflected in early EEG activity. Most important structures in this regard are the growing long range connections and the transient cortical structure, subplate. Sensory stimuli in a preterm baby will generate responses that are seen at a single trial level, and they have underpinnings in the subplate-cortex interaction. This brings neonatal EEG readily into a multimodal study, where EEG is not only recording cortical function, but it also tests subplate function via different sensory modalities. Finally, introduction of clinically suitable dense array EEG caps, as well as amplifiers capable of recording low frequencies, have disclosed multitude of brain activities that have as yet been overlooked. In the practical part of this video, we show how a multimodal, dense array EEG study is performed in neonatal intensive care unit from a preterm baby in the incubator. The video demonstrates preparation of the baby and incubator, application of the EEG cap, and performance of the sensory stimulations. PMID:22371054

  10. Indicated preterm birth for fetal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Craigo, Sabrina D

    2011-10-01

    Between 2% and 3% of pregnancies are complicated by fetal anomalies. For most anomalies, there is no advantage to late preterm or early-term delivery. The risks of maternal or fetal complication are specific for each anomaly. Very few anomalies pose potential maternal risk. Some anomalies carry ongoing risks to the fetus, such as an increased risk of fetal death, hemorrhage, or organ damage. In a limited number of select cases, the advantages of late preterm or early-term birth may include avoiding an ongoing risk of fetal death related to the anomaly, allowing delivery in a controlled setting with availability of subspecialists and allowing direct care for the neonate with organ injury. The optimal gestational age for delivery cannot be determined for all pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. For most pregnancies complicated by anomalies, there is no change to obstetrical management regarding timing of delivery. For those that may benefit from late preterm or early-term delivery, variability exists such that each management plan should be individualized. PMID:21962626

  11. Unexpected behavioural consequences of preterm newborns' clothing.

    PubMed

    Durier, Virginie; Henry, Séverine; Martin, Emmanuelle; Dollion, Nicolas; Hausberger, Martine; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Restrictions of preterm newborns' movements could have consequences ranging from stress enhancement to impairment of their motor development. Therefore, ability to freely express motor activities appears crucial for their behavioural and physiological development. Our aim was to evaluate behavioural issues of two types of clothing used in NICU. We observed 18 healthy 34-37 post-conception week-old preterm newborns, during resting periods, when they were undisturbed by any interventions. Newborns wore either light clothing (bodysuit and a light wrapping) or heavy clothing (pyjamas, cardigan and sleep-sack). The percentages of time each subject spent in different postures were compared between clothing situations. Arm and hand postures differed in relation to clothing: babies bent their arms more and held their hands nearer their heads when in bodysuits than when in sleepwear. Consequently, babies in bodysuits spent more time touching their body or their environment whereas the others generally were touching nothing. Self-touch is an important way to comfort one's self. Heavy clothing may impair self-soothing behaviours of preterm newborn babies that already lack other forms of contact. Results suggest that more attention should be paid to apparently routine and marginal decisions such as choice of clothes. PMID:25776252

  12. Unexpected behavioural consequences of preterm newborns' clothing

    PubMed Central

    Durier, Virginie; Henry, Séverine; Martin, Emmanuelle; Dollion, Nicolas; Hausberger, Martine; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Restrictions of preterm newborns' movements could have consequences ranging from stress enhancement to impairment of their motor development. Therefore, ability to freely express motor activities appears crucial for their behavioural and physiological development. Our aim was to evaluate behavioural issues of two types of clothing used in NICU. We observed 18 healthy 34–37 post-conception week-old preterm newborns, during resting periods, when they were undisturbed by any interventions. Newborns wore either light clothing (bodysuit and a light wrapping) or heavy clothing (pyjamas, cardigan and sleep-sack). The percentages of time each subject spent in different postures were compared between clothing situations. Arm and hand postures differed in relation to clothing: babies bent their arms more and held their hands nearer their heads when in bodysuits than when in sleepwear. Consequently, babies in bodysuits spent more time touching their body or their environment whereas the others generally were touching nothing. Self-touch is an important way to comfort one's self. Heavy clothing may impair self-soothing behaviours of preterm newborn babies that already lack other forms of contact. Results suggest that more attention should be paid to apparently routine and marginal decisions such as choice of clothes. PMID:25776252

  13. Effects of heat stress on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Victoria Sanz Fernandez, M; Johnson, Jay S; Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Stoakes, Sara K; Seibert, Jacob T; Cox, Lindsay; Kahl, Stanislaw; Elsasser, Theodore H; Ross, Jason W; Clay Isom, S; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes human and animal health and reduces animal agriculture productivity; however, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Study objectives were to evaluate the direct effects of HS on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Female pigs (57 ± 5 kg body weight) were subjected to two experimental periods. During period 1, all pigs remained in thermoneutral conditions (TN; 20°C) and were ad libitum fed. During period 2, pigs were exposed to: (1) constant HS conditions (32°C) and fed ad libitum (n = 7), or (2) TN conditions and pair-fed (PFTN; n = 10) to minimize the confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. All pigs received an intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT) and an epinephrine challenge (EC) in period 1, and during the early and late phases of period 2. After 8 days of environmental exposure, all pigs were killed and tissue samples were collected. Despite a similar reduction in feed intake (39%), HS pigs tended to have decreased circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA; 20%) and a blunted NEFA response (71%) to the EC compared to PFTN pigs. During early exposure, HS increased basal circulating C-peptide (55%) and decreased the insulinogenic index (45%) in response to the GTT. Heat-stressed pigs had a reduced T3 to T4 ratio (56%) and hepatic 5′-deiodinase activity (58%). After 8 days, HS decreased or tended to decrease the expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation in liver and skeletal muscle, and ATGL in adipose tissue. In summary, HS markedly alters both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism independently of nutrient intake. PMID:25716927

  14. Effects of exogenous enzyme supplementation to corn- and soybean meal-based or complex diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood metabolites in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Jo, J K; Ingale, S L; Kim, J S; Kim, Y W; Kim, K H; Lohakare, J D; Lee, J H; Chae, B J

    2012-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of exogenous enzymes on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients, blood metabolites, fecal VFA, and fecal ammonia-N in growing pigs (Sus scrofa) fed a corn (Zea mays L.)- and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal (SBM)-based diet. In Exp. 1, 240 growing barrows (initial BW: 55.6 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW. There were 4 replicates in each treatment with 12 pigs per replicate. The 5 treatments consisted of a corn-SBM-based control diet and 4 additional diets were similar to the control diet, with the exception that 0.05% β-mannanase (M), α-amylase + β-mannanase (AM), β-mannanase + protease (MPr), or α-amylase + β-mannanase + protease (AMP) was added to the diets, which were fed for 28 d. Pigs fed the AM, MPr, or AMP diet had greater (P < 0.05) ADG than pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed the AMP diet also had greater (P < 0.05) ADG than pigs fed the M, AM, or MPr diet. Pigs fed the AMP diet had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than pigs fed the control diet. The G:F of the pigs fed the M, AM, or MPr diet were not different (P > 0.05) from the G:F in pigs fed the AMP or control diet. The ADFI, ATTD of nutrients, blood metabolites, and fecal VFA and ammonia-N concentrations were not different among treatments. In Exp. 2, 192 growing barrows (initial BW: 56.9 ± 1.0 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments. There were 4 replicates in each treatment with 12 pigs per replicate. Pigs were fed a corn-SBM-based diet (CSD) or a complex diet (CD) that contained corn, SBM, 3% rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) meal, 3% copra (Cocos nucifera L.) meal, and 3% palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) kernel meal. Each diet was prepared without exogenous enzymes or with 0.05% AMP and all diets were fed for 28 d. The ADG and G:F of pigs fed the CSD were greater (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the CD. However, the type of diet had no effect on the

  15. Effect of supplementing zinc oxide and biotin with or without carbadox on nursery pig performance.

    PubMed

    Wilt, H D; Carlson, M S

    2009-10-01

    A 28-d nursery experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing zinc oxide and biotin with or without a feed-grade antimicrobial agent (carbadox) on nursery pig performance, and plasma and fecal Zn concentrations. One hundred ninety-two crossbred pigs (initial BW = 5.94 +/- 0.03 kg; age = 17 +/- 2 d) were weaned and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments based on BW, sex, and ancestry in a randomized complete block design (3 pigs/pen and 8 replications). Dietary treatments consisted of supplementation of ZnO at 0 or 3,000 mg/kg, d-biotin at 0 or 440 microg/kg, and carbadox at 0 or 55 mg/kg of diets in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Phase 1 (d 0 to 14) and phase 2 (d 14 to 28) nursery diets were fed in meal form. Fecal samples were collected weekly, and blood samples were collected at d 0, 14, and 28 to determine fecal and plasma Zn concentrations, respectively. The basal diet contained 165 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO(4) and 220 microg/kg biotin as d-biotin. Pigs supplemented with 440 microg/kg of d-biotin, independent of antibiotic and ZnO additions, had greater overall ADG (P = 0.02) than pigs fed no supplemental d-biotin postweaning. Overall ADG, ADFI, and G:F were not affected when pigs were supplemented with 3,000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO or 55 mg/kg of carbadox. When pigs were fed 55 mg/kg of carbadox without supplemental biotin, plasma Zn concentration was less, whereas when biotin and carbadox were supplemented to nursery pig diets, plasma Zn concentrations did not decrease as with feeding carbadox alone (biotin x carbadox, P < 0.001). During wk 2, pigs fed 3,000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO and 440 microg/kg of d-biotin had greater fecal Zn concentrations than pigs fed diets with only 3,000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO (Zn x biotin, P = 0.04). In addition, pigs supplemented with 3,000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO in combination with carbadox and d-biotin had greater fecal Zn concentrations compared with pigs fed diets containing no additional Zn during wk 2 (Zn x

  16. Dynamic changes in digestive capability may contribute to compensatory growth following a nutritional insult in newly weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Levesque, C L; Skinner, L; Zhu, J; de Lange, C F M

    2012-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that feeding low complexity diets (LOW) compromises growth performance of pigs during the first 3 wk after weaning and induces compensatory growth and improved feed efficiency thereafter. A study was undertaken to explore physiological mechanisms involved in compensatory growth following a nutritional insult. Fifty-six pigs were weaned at 21 ± 2 d of age and fed high complexity diets (HIGH) for 6 wk. All pigs received the same grower diet thereafter. Pigs were killed at weeks 2, 4, and 8 after weaning and proximal jejunum and distal ileum were sampled for evaluation of histology and enzyme activity. In the proximal jejunum, villus height was lower (P = 0.03) at week 2 in pigs on LOW than HIGH but not different at week 4. There was no effect of diet on crypt depth; villus height:crypt depth ratio increased (P = 0.02) from week 2 to week 4 in pigs on LOW but was not changed in pigs on HIGH. Diet did not impact gut morphology at the distal ileum. Enzyme activity was lowest (P < 0.05) at week 2 for sucrase and aminopeptidase N (APN) and lowest (P < 0.06) at week 8 for lactase. Sucrase activity was numerically higher at week 4 in pigs fed LOW but numerically higher at week 8 in pigs fed HIGH. Lactase and APN activity were not affected by diet. Compensatory growth observed in pigs following a nutritional insult after weaning may be due in part to improved digestive capability. PMID:23365341

  17. Hypervitaminosis D in Guinea Pigs with α-Mannosidosis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, JanLee A; Brice, Angela K; Bagel, Jessica H; Mexas, Angela M; Yoon, Sea Young; Wolfe, John H

    2013-01-01

    A colony of guinea pigs (n = 9) with α-mannosidosis was fed a pelleted commercial laboratory guinea pig diet. Over 2 mo, all 9 guinea pigs unexpectedly showed anorexia and weight loss (11.7% to 30.0% of baseline weight), and 3 animals demonstrated transient polyuria and polydipsia. Blood chemistry panels in these 3 guinea pigs revealed high-normal total calcium, high-normal phosphate, and high ALP. Urine specific gravity was dilute (1.003, 1.009, 1.013) in the 3 animals tested. Postmortem examination of 7 animals that were euthanized after failing to respond to supportive care revealed renal interstitial fibrosis with tubular mineralization, soft tissue mineralization in multiple organs, hepatic lipidosis, and pneumonia. Analysis of the pelleted diet revealed that it had been formulated with a vitamin D3 content of more than 150 times the normal concentration. Ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D values were both high in serum saved from 2 euthanized animals, confirming the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D. This report discusses the clinical signs, blood chemistry results, and gross and histologic findings of hypervitaminosis D in a colony of guinea pigs. When unexpected signs occur colony-wide, dietary differentials should be investigated at an early time point. PMID:23582422

  18. Nutrient requirements of term and preterm infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth of the healthy breast-fed term infant is the most widely accepted standard for growth from birth through 4-6 months of age. Thus, it is logical to assume that the amounts of each nutrient ingested by the breast-fed term infant during this period are adequate and the most recent dietary refer...

  19. Impact of parenteral lipid emulsions on metabolomic phenotype in preterm TPN-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids in parenteral nutrition provide essential fatty acids and are a major source of energy for hospitalized neonates. Intralipid (IL) is the only approved lipid emulsion in the US, but new generation emulsions include Omegaven (OV) and SMOFlipid (SL). There are no studies describing the metabolit...

  20. Impact of parenteral lipid emulsions on the metabolomic phenotype in preterm TPN-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids in parenteral nutrition provide essential fatty acids and are a major source of energy for hospitalized neonates. Intralipid (IL) is the only approved lipid emulsion in the U.S, but new generation emulsions include Omegaven (OV) and SMOFlipid (SL). There are no studies describing the metaboli...

  1. A fermented formula in pre-term infants: clinical tolerance, gut microbiota, down-regulation of faecal calprotectin and up-regulation of faecal secretory IgA.

    PubMed

    Campeotto, Florence; Suau, Antonia; Kapel, Nathalie; Magne, Fabien; Viallon, Vivian; Ferraris, Laurent; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith; Soulaines, Pascale; Leroux, Bernard; Kalach, Nicolas; Dupont, Christophe; Butel, Marie-José

    2011-06-28

    Intestinal bacterial colonisation in pre-term infants is delayed compared with full-term infants, leading to an increased risk of gastrointestinal disease. Modulation of colonisation through dietary supplementation with probiotics or prebiotics could decrease such a risk. The present study evaluated clinical tolerance, the effects on gut microbiota, and inflammatory and immunological mucosal responses to an infant formula adapted for pre-term infants that included in its manufacturing process a fermentation step with two probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium breve C50 and Streptococcus thermophilus 065, inactivated by heat at the end of the process. A total of fifty-eight infants (gestational age: 30-35 weeks), fed either the fermented pre-term formula or a standard pre-term formula, were followed up during their hospital stay. Clinical tolerance, faecal microbiota using a culture and a culture-independent method (temporal temperature gel electrophoresis), faecal calprotectin and secretory IgA were analysed weekly. No difference was observed regarding anthropometric data and digestive tolerance, except for abdominal distension, the incidence of which was lower in infants fed the fermented formula for 2 weeks. Bacterial colonisation was not modified by the type of feeding, particularly for bifidobacteria. Faecal calprotectin was significantly lower in infants fed the fermented formula for 2 weeks, and secretory IgA increased with both mother's milk and the fermented formula. The fermented formula was well tolerated and did not significantly modulate the bacterial colonisation but had benefits on inflammatory and immune markers, which might be related to some features of gastrointestinal tolerance. PMID:21426607

  2. Field trial to determine the impact of providing additional care to litters on weaning weight of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, Catherine E.; Gomes, Tara; Richardson, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this field trial was to determine if maximal care of pigs from birth until 16 d of age would result in a significant alteration in the survivorship and growth performance of the pigs compared with control pigs born in the same time period. Sows were randomly assigned to treatment group prior to farrowing. Control pigs received the standard, commercial farm care. In maximal care litters, pigs were dried off at farrowing, given a rubber mat in the creep area, and given electrolytes, chilled pigs were warmed and given colostrum or glucose, surgical instruments used for processing were dipped into an antiseptic between pigs, the castration wounds were sprayed with iodine, and sows were fed 3 times rather than twice a day. Pigs that received the maximal care weighed 170 g (+/− 80 g) more at 16 d of age than standard care pigs. Factors that reduced weight at 16 d included having a low birth weight, nursing a gilt or a parity 5–6 sow, nursing in a large litter, being clinically ill or being lame after 3 d of age, being cross-fostered and nursing an ill sow. In general, maximal care did not reduce mortality. Providing maximal care did improve weaning weights and enabled small birth weight pigs to reach 3.7 kg at 16 d of age. PMID:19086370

  3. Plasma Proteome Profiles Associated with Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome and the Early Onset of Metabolic Syndrome in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    te Pas, Marinus F. W.; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Kruijt, Leo; Calus, Mario P. L.; Smits, Mari A.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and related diabetes are important health threatening multifactorial metabolic diseases and it has been suggested that 25% of all diabetic patients are unaware of their patho-physiological condition. Biomarkers for monitoring and control are available, but early stage predictive biomarkers enabling prevention of these diseases are still lacking. We used the pig as a model to study metabolic disease because humans and pigs share a multitude of metabolic similarities. Diabetes was chemically induced and control and diabetic pigs were either fed a high unsaturated fat (Mediterranean) diet or a high saturated fat/cholesterol/sugar (cafeteria) diet. Physiological parameters related to fat metabolism and diabetes were measured. Diabetic pigs' plasma proteome profiles differed more between the two diets than control pigs plasma proteome profiles. The expression levels of several proteins correlated well with (patho)physiological parameters related to the fat metabolism (cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, NEFA) and diabetes (Glucose) and to the diet fed to the animals. Studying only the control pigs as a model for metabolic syndrome when fed the two diets showed correlations to the same parameters but now more focused on insulin, glucose and abdominal fat depot parameters. We conclude that proteomic profiles can be used as a biomarker to identify pigs with developing metabolic syndrome (prediabetes) and diabetes when fed a cafeteria diet. It could be developed into a potential biomarkers for the early recognition of metabolic diseases. PMID:24086269

  4. A review of postpartum depression, preterm birth, and culture.

    PubMed

    Gulamani, Salima S; Premji, Shahirose Sadrudin; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Azam, Syed Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) varies worldwide and is considered a serious issue because of its devastating effects on mothers, families, and infants or children. Preterm birth may be a risk factor for PPD. In 2005, the global incidence of preterm birth was estimated to be 9.6%, and of these births, 85% occurred in Africa and Asia. Among Asian countries, Pakistan has a preterm birth rate of 15.7% and the highest prevalence rate of PPD (63.3%). A literature review was therefore undertaken to better understand the potential contribution of preterm birth to PPD and to identify gaps in the scientific literature. Limited studies compare prevalence rates of PPD in mothers of full-term infants and mothers of preterm infants. Furthermore, meta-analyses examining predictors of PPD have not included preterm birth as a variable. The interrelationship between preterm birth and PPD may be explained by early parental stress and mother-infant interaction among mothers of preterm infants. Culture plays an important role in shaping communication between mothers and their infants and defines social support rituals that may or may not mediate PPD. More research is needed to provide evidence for practice. PMID:23360942

  5. Polyamines in human breast milk for preterm and term infants.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Zamora, J; Sabater-Molina, M; Rodríguez-Palmero, M; Rivero, M; Bosch, V; Nadal, J M; Zamora, S; Larqué, E

    2013-08-28

    Maternal milk is the first source of exogenous polyamines for the newborn. Polyamines modulate gut maturation in neonates, but no studies are available on polyamine concentration in human milk of preterm babies, even though they could be important for their immature gut. The present study aimed to determine polyamine concentration in human breast milk of mothers with preterm or term infants during the first month of lactation. Human milk samples were obtained during the first month of lactation from twenty-seven mothers with preterm babies and twelve mothers with babies born at term. The polyamine concentration in human milk was quantified by HPLC. During the first month of lactation, the total polyamine concentration was significantly higher in preterm milk than in term milk samples (7590 (SD 4990) v. 4660 (SD 4830) nmol/l, respectively (P ¼ 0·034)), as well as individual polyamine concentrations. Polyamine concentration in mature milk for preterm babies was significantly higher than that in mature milk for babies at term, and a similar trend was observed in colostrum and transition human milk. The spermidine/spermine ratio was higher in transition milk in preterm v. term samples, while in mature milk, the ratio was significantly lower in preterm than in term babies. In conclusion, the polyamine concentration was significantly higher in human milk for preterm than for term infants. This and the different spermidine/spermine ratios could influence the gut development of premature babies. PMID:23286699

  6. Maternal Adjustment Following Preterm Birth: Contributions of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Laurie A.; Heffner, Michelle; Poe, Susannah; Ritchie, Susan; Polak, Mark; Lynch, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    The birth of a preterm infant has been linked with parental distress and adjustment difficulties, yet little is known about the psychosocial factors contributing to this association. Using a cross-sectional design, we therefore examined maternal adjustment following preterm birth, with an emphasis on the potential role of experiential avoidance.…

  7. Epithelial modulation of preterm airway smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Panitch, H B; Wolfson, M R; Shaffer, T H

    1993-03-01

    To determine if epithelium from immature airways can modulate the responsiveness of smooth muscle, we studied paired trachealis muscle strips from preterm sheep. The epithelium was removed from one strip and left undisturbed in the other. Concentration-effect (CE) curves to acetylcholine (ACh), KCl, and isoproterenol were obtained. To evaluate maturational effects, responses to ACh and isoproterenol were studied in trachealis strips from adult airways. Maximal stress (Po) to ACh increased after epithelium removal in preterm (P < 0.05) but not adult strips. Epithelium removal caused a leftward shift of the ACh CE curves in both preterm and adult strips (P < 0.001) and a decrease in the dose required to achieve a one-half maximal response (ED50) in both preterm (P < 0.005) and adult strips (P < 0.05). The magnitude of the change in Po as well as in the ED50 for ACh between preterms and adults was similar. Epithelium removal did not alter either the Po or the CE curves of preterm strips stimulated by KCl. Response to isoproterenol in precontracted strips was enhanced in the presence of an intact epithelium in both groups (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that preterm airway epithelium is able to modulate the responsiveness of smooth muscle. Additionally, the magnitude of the effect is unchanged with maturation. We speculate that damage of airway epithelium from mechanical ventilation may contribute to the increased incidence of airway hyperreactivity observed in preterm infants. PMID:8482688

  8. Relationships between Preterm Infants and Their Parents: Disruption and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Ayelet; Harmon, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    The birth and hospitalization of a preterm infant have powerful effects on the emerging parent-infant relationship. Characteristics of parents, infant factors, and factors in the hospital and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) environments--in addition to the circumstances surrounding preterm birth--may disrupt parent-infant relationships.…

  9. First-pass metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of enteral alpha-ketoglutarate in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our results in a previous study indicated that the portal absorption of intragastrically fed alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) was limited in young pigs. Our aim was to quantify the net portal absorption, first-pass metabolism, and whole-body flux of enterally infused AKG. In study 1, we quantified the net ...

  10. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. ...

  11. Response to Dietary Phosphate Deficiency is Affected by Genetic Background in Growing Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern over the environmental impact of phosphate (P) excretion from pig production has led to reduced dietary P supplementation. To examine how genetics influence P utilization, 94 gilts sired by 2 genetic lines (PIC337 and PIC280) were fed either a P adequate diet (PA) or a 20% P deficient diet ...

  12. Evaluation of Elevated Dietary Corn Fiber from Corn Germ Meal in Growing Female Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects of high dietary corn fiber on growth and metabolic measures, female pigs (n= 48; initial body weight of 30.8 kg) were fed diets containing 0 to 38.6% solvent-extracted corn germ meal for 28 days. Increasing the level of dietary corn fiber had no impact on average daily gain o...

  13. Metabolic Effects of Diets High in Corn Fiber in Growing Female Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects of high dietary corn fiber on growth and metabolic measures, growing female pigs (n= 48; BW 30.8 kg) were fed diets containing 0 to 38.6% solvent-extracted corn germ meal for 28 days. Corn germ meal is relatively high in neutral detergent fiber (53%) and hemicellulose content...

  14. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young Adults Who Were Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Hovi, Petteri; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sundvall, Jouko; Pouta, Anneli; Eriksson, Johan G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero

    2015-01-01

    Adults who were born preterm with a very low birth weight have higher blood pressure and impaired glucose regulation later in life compared with those born at term. We investigated cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were born at any degree of prematurity in the Preterm Birth and Early Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease (ESTER) Study, a population-based cohort study of individuals born in 1985–1989 in Northern Finland. In 2009–2011, 3 groups underwent clinical examination: 134 participants born at less than 34 gestational weeks (early preterm), 242 born at 34–36 weeks (late preterm), and 344 born at 37 weeks or later (controls). Compared with controls, adults who were born preterm had higher body fat percentages (after adjustment for sex, age, and cohort (1985–1986 or 1987–1989), for those born early preterm, difference = 6.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 13.2; for those born late preterm, difference = 8.0%, 95% CI: 2.4, 13.8), waist circumferences, blood pressure (for those born early preterm, difference = 3.0 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.9, 5.1; for those born late preterm, difference = 1.7, 95% CI: −0.1, 3.4), plasma uric acid levels (for those born early preterm, difference = 20.1%, 95% CI: 7.9, 32.3; for those born late preterm, difference = 20.2%, 95% CI: 10.7, 30.5), alanine aminotransferase levels, and aspartate transaminase levels. They were also more likely to have metabolic syndrome (for those born early preterm, odds ratio = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.2; for those born late preterm, odds ratio = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 5.3). Elevated levels of conventional and emerging risk factors suggest a higher risk of cardiometabolic disease later in life. These risk factors are also present in the large group of adults born late preterm. PMID:25947956

  15. Necrotising enterocolitis and mortality in preterm infants after introduction of probiotics: a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Noor; van de Graaf, Rob; Been, Jasper V.; de Jonge, Rogier C. J.; Hanff, Lidwien M.; Wijnen, René M. H.; Kornelisse, René F.; Reiss, Irwin K. M.; Vermeulen, Marijn J.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the clinical effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants is conflicting and cohort studies lacked adjustment for time trend and feeding type. This study investigated the association between the introduction of routine probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum; Infloran®) on the primary outcome ‘NEC or death’. Preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight <1500 gram) admitted before (Jan 2008–Sep 2012; n = 1288) and after (Oct 2012–Dec 2014; n = 673) introduction of probiotics were compared. Interrupted time series logistic regression models were adjusted for confounders, effect modification by feeding type, seasonality and underlying temporal trends. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed no difference in ‘NEC or death’ between the two periods. The overall incidence of NEC declined from 7.8% to 5.1% (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, p = 0.02), which was not statistically significant in the adjusted models. Introduction of probiotics was associated with a reduced adjusted odds for ‘NEC or sepsis or death’ in exclusively breastmilk-fed infants (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21–0.93, p = 0.03) only. We conclude that introduction of probiotics was not associated with a reduction in ‘NEC or death’ and that type of feeding seems to modify the effects of probiotics. PMID:27545195

  16. Necrotising enterocolitis and mortality in preterm infants after introduction of probiotics: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Noor; van de Graaf, Rob; Been, Jasper V; de Jonge, Rogier C J; Hanff, Lidwien M; Wijnen, René M H; Kornelisse, René F; Reiss, Irwin K M; Vermeulen, Marijn J

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the clinical effectiveness of probiotics in the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants is conflicting and cohort studies lacked adjustment for time trend and feeding type. This study investigated the association between the introduction of routine probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum; Infloran(®)) on the primary outcome 'NEC or death'. Preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight <1500 gram) admitted before (Jan 2008-Sep 2012; n = 1288) and after (Oct 2012-Dec 2014; n = 673) introduction of probiotics were compared. Interrupted time series logistic regression models were adjusted for confounders, effect modification by feeding type, seasonality and underlying temporal trends. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed no difference in 'NEC or death' between the two periods. The overall incidence of NEC declined from 7.8% to 5.1% (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.93, p = 0.02), which was not statistically significant in the adjusted models. Introduction of probiotics was associated with a reduced adjusted odds for 'NEC or sepsis or death' in exclusively breastmilk-fed infants (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.93, p = 0.03) only. We conclude that introduction of probiotics was not associated with a reduction in 'NEC or death' and that type of feeding seems to modify the effects of probiotics. PMID:27545195

  17. Effects of Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata extract and glucocorticoid on lung maturation in preterm rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, C M; Wang, L F; Cheng, K T; Hsu, H H; Gau, B; Su, B

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the effects of maternal administration of Anoectochilus formosanus extract and dexamethasone on lung maturation in preterm rats. A. formosanus group mothers were tube-fed A. formosanus extract (300 mg/kg body wt./day) for 7 days from days 12-18 of gestation. Dexamethasone group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg body wt.) in saline on day 18 of gestation. Control group mothers were similarly injected with saline alone. On day 19 of gestation, fetuses were delivered by cesarean section. A. formosanus treatment significantly increased the fetal lung/body weight ratio, as compared to dexamethasone treatment. Saturated phosphatidylcholine levels in fetal lung tissue and growth hormone levels in maternal serum were significantly increased in the A. formosanus- and dexamethasone-treated groups as compared to controls. The histological appearance of preterm rat lungs revealed extensive branching of intermediate airways, denser mesenchyme, and more epithelial tubules in the dexamethasone and A. formosanus groups as compared with the control group. These results suggest that antenatal A. formosanus treatment may play a role in accelerating fetal rat lung maturation. PMID:15500262

  18. Nutrition, growth, and allergic diseases among very preterm infants after hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Zachariassen, Gitte

    2013-02-01

    The aims of this PhD thesis were: 1. Primarily to investigate the effect, of adding human milk fortifier to mother's milk while breastfeeding very preterm infants after hospital discharge, on growth until 1 year corrected age (CA) 2. Secondarily to describe breastfeeding rate and factors associated with breastfeeding among very preterm infants at hospital discharge. 3. To describe possible feeding-problems during the intervention-period, and allergic diseases during the first year of life, among very preterm infants related to their nutrition after hospital discharge. 4. To describe the content of macronutrients in human milk from mothers delivering very preterm. This PhD thesis is based on a prospective, randomized, and controlled interventional birth cohort study. A total of 633 very preterm infants with a gestational age (GA) ≤ 32 + 0 weeks were recruited consecutively from July 2004 until August 2008 of whom 157 were excluded due to diseases or circumstances influencing nutrition. Further 156 refused participation in the interventional part of the study, but data on breastfeeding, weight, and some epidemiological data until discharge were available. Results on breastfeeding rate at discharge were therefore based on data from 478 infants, and parents of 320 infants accepted participation in the intervention study. Of these 320 infants, 207 were exclusively breastfed and they were shortly before hospital discharge randomized to either breastfeeding without (group A) or with fortification (group B) until 4 months CA. Infants (n = 113) who were bottle-fed at discharge (group C) were given a preterm formula (PF) until 4 months CA. Infants were examined at the outpatient clinics at term, and at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months CA, where parameters on growth, allergic diseases, possible feeding problems, blood-samples, and milk samples were obtained. Data on duration of exclusively breastfeeding and time of introduction to formula and/or complementary food were also recorded

  19. Resuscitation of extremely preterm infants - controversies and current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pooja N; Banerjee, Jayanta; Godambe, Sunit V

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advances in perinatal medicine, the management of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room remains a challenge. There is an increasing evidence for improved outcomes regarding the resuscitation and stabilisation of extremely preterm infants but there is a lack of evidence in the periviable (gestational age 23-25 wk) preterm subgroup. Presence of an experienced team during the delivery of extremely preterm infant to improve outcome is reviewed. Adaptation from foetal to neonatal cardiorespiratory haemodynamics is dependent on establishing an optimal functional residual capacity in the extremely preterm infants, thus enabling adequate gas exchange. There is sufficient evidence for a gentle approach to stabilisation of these fragile infants in the delivery room. Evidence for antenatal steroids especially in the periviable infants, delayed cord clamping, strategies to establish optimal functional residual capacity, importance of temperature control and oxygenation in delivery room in extremely premature infants is reviewed in this article. PMID:27170925

  20. The epidemiology, etiology, and costs of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Frey, Heather A; Klebanoff, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    After decades of rising preterm birth rates in the USA and other countries, recent prematurity rates seem to be on the decline. Despite this optimistic trend, preterm birth rates remain higher in the USA, where nearly one in every eight infants is born early, compared to other developed countries. The prevention of preterm birth is considered a public health priority because of the potential to reduce infant and childhood morbidity and mortality related to this condition. Unfortunately, progress has been modest. One of the greatest challenges in studying this outcome is that preterm birth is a complex condition resulting from multiple etiologic pathways. Recently, experts have developed innovative frameworks for classifying and studying preterm birth based on phenotype. These proposed classification systems have only recently been adopted, but a different perspective on a longstanding problem has the potential to lead to new discoveries. PMID:26794420

  1. A critical role of interleukin-1 in preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Nadeau-Vallée, Mathieu; Obari, Dima; Quiniou, Christiane; Lubell, William D; Olson, David M; Girard, Sylvie; Chemtob, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and represents a heavy economic and social burden. Despite its broad etiology, PTB has been firmly linked to inflammatory processes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced in gestational tissues in response to stressors and can prematurely induce uterine activation, which precedes the onset of preterm labor. Of all cytokines implicated, interleukin (IL)-1 has been largely studied, revealing a central role in preterm labor. However, currently approved IL-1-targeting therapies have failed to show expected efficacy in pre-clinical studies of preterm labor. Herein, we (a) summarize animal and human studies in which IL-1 or IL-1-targeting therapeutics are implicated with preterm labor, (b) focus on novel IL-1-targeting therapies and diagnostic tests, and (c) develop the case for commercialization and translation means to hasten their development. PMID:26684042

  2. Prevention of preterm birth based on a short cervix: cerclage.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Melissa S; Owen, John

    2009-10-01

    In an attempt to prevent preterm birth, clinicians have recommended cerclage for women with shortened cervical length and other worrisome sonographic cervical features in the mid-trimester, although randomized trials have not supported this practice. Emerging data suggest that preterm birth is a complex and poorly understood syndrome comprising several anatomic and functional components. As a result, preventive efforts have been mostly empiric and generally ineffective. Plausibly, effective preterm birth therapies exist, but matching the effective treatment with the correct patient has been problematic. Mid-trimester cervical changes visualized with vaginal sonography likely represent a pathologic process of premature cervical ripening and not real mechanical disability which has been traditionally treated with suture support. Cerclage may effectively reduce preterm birth in carefully selected women who have experienced a prior early preterm birth and who have shortened mid-trimester cervical length. PMID:19796730

  3. Infection-induced Inflammation and Cerebral Injury in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Strunk, Tobias; Inder, Terrie; Wang, Xiaoyang; Burgner, David; Mallard, Carina; Levy, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth and infectious diseases are the most common causes of neonatal and early childhood deaths worldwide. The rates of preterm birth have increased over recent decades and currently account for 11% of all births globally. Preterm infants are at significant risk of severe infection in early life and throughout childhood. Bacteraemia and/or inflammation during the neonatal period in preterm infants is associated with adverse outcomes, including death, chronic lung disease and neurodevelopmental impairment. Recent studies suggest that bacteraemia may trigger cerebral injury even without penetration of viable bacteria into the central nervous system. Here we review available evidence that supports the concept of a strong association between bacteraemia, inflammation and cerebral injury in preterm infants, with an emphasis on the underlying biological mechanisms, clinical correlates and translational opportunities. PMID:24877996

  4. Resuscitation of extremely preterm infants - controversies and current evidence.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pooja N; Banerjee, Jayanta; Godambe, Sunit V

    2016-05-01

    Despite significant advances in perinatal medicine, the management of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room remains a challenge. There is an increasing evidence for improved outcomes regarding the resuscitation and stabilisation of extremely preterm infants but there is a lack of evidence in the periviable (gestational age 23-25 wk) preterm subgroup. Presence of an experienced team during the delivery of extremely preterm infant to improve outcome is reviewed. Adaptation from foetal to neonatal cardiorespiratory haemodynamics is dependent on establishing an optimal functional residual capacity in the extremely preterm infants, thus enabling adequate gas exchange. There is sufficient evidence for a gentle approach to stabilisation of these fragile infants in the delivery room. Evidence for antenatal steroids especially in the periviable infants, delayed cord clamping, strategies to establish optimal functional residual capacity, importance of temperature control and oxygenation in delivery room in extremely premature infants is reviewed in this article. PMID:27170925

  5. The Fed's Year of Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Niederjohn, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to: (1) Examine the historical development of the Federal Reserve System; (2) Provide background on Ben Bernanke, the new Fed chairman; (3) Explain the basic tools of monetary policy used by the Fed; (4) Examine the causes of the Great Depression, a topic of special interest to Bernanke; and (5) Provide some key…

  6. Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Konold, Timm; Spiropoulos, John; Chaplin, Melanie J; Thorne, Leigh; Spencer, Yvonne I; Wells, Gerald AH; Hawkins, Steve AC

    2009-01-01

    Background Histopathological examinations of brains from healthy pigs have revealed localised vacuolar changes, predominantly in the rostral colliculus, that are similar to the neuropil vacuolation featured in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and have been described in pigs challenged parenterally with the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Feedstuff containing BSE-contaminated meat and bone meal (MBM) may have been fed to pigs prior to the ban of mammalian MBM in feed of farmed livestock in the United Kingdom in 1996, but there is no evidence of the natural occurrence of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in the domestic pig. Furthermore, experimental transmission of BSE to pigs by the oral route has been unsuccessful. A study was conducted to investigate whether the localised vacuolar changes in the porcine brain were associated with a transmissible aetiology and therefore biologically significant. Two groups of ten pigs were inoculated parenterally with vacuolated rostral colliculus from healthy pigs either born before 1996 or born after 1996. Controls included ten pigs similarly inoculated with rostral colliculus from New Zealand-derived pigs and nine pigs inoculated with a bovine BSE brain homogenate. Results None of the pigs inoculated with rostral colliculus developed a TSE-like neurological disease up to five years post inoculation when the study was terminated, and disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, was not detected in the brains of these pigs. By contrast, eight of nine BSE-inoculated pigs developed neurological signs, two of which had detectable PrPd by postmortem tests. No significant histopathological changes were detected to account for the clinical signs in the PrPd-negative, BSE-inoculated pigs. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that vacuolation in the porcine rostral colliculus is not caused by a transmissible agent and is probably a clinically insignificant change. The presence of

  7. Effects of immune challenge on concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I and growth performance in pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Hevener, W; Routh, P A; Almond, G W

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the long-term effects of repeated endotoxin treatment or immunization against human serum albumin on concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and other indicators of growth performance in growing pigs. Thirty gilts (38.5 +/- 0.9 kg) were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups (n = 6 animals/group): 1) lipopolysaccharide injections, 2) lipopolysaccharide pair-fed, 3) human serum albumin immunization, 4) human serum albumin pair-fed, and 5) control. Pigs in the lipopolysaccharide group were treated intramuscularly with lipopolysaccharide on Days 0-3. The pigs in the human serum albumin group were immunized with human serum albumin emulsified in Freund's adjuvant on Day 0 and administered a booster on Day 28. The lipopolysaccharide pair-fed pigs were matched by body weight and pair-wise fed with pigs treated with lipopolysaccharide. Similarly, human serum albumin pair-fed pigs were matched to human serum albumin immunized pigs. Serum IGF-I concentrations did not differ between or within groups. There was no difference in feed disappearance between groups prior to the initiation of treatments. The lipopolysaccharide group had a decrease (P = 0.013) in feed disappearance on Day 0 compared with control and human serum albumin groups. On Day 1, both lipopolysaccharide and human serum albumin groups differed (P < 0.05) from control. Average daily gain and total weight gain did not differ between groups; however, feed efficiency differed (P < 0.05) between lipopolysaccharide and control groups. Long-term effects of repeated endotoxin challenge or immunization on IGF-I concentrations and growth were not evident in the present study. This failure presumably was due to the development of endotoxin tolerance and a relatively innocuous vaccination against human serum albumin. PMID:10563236

  8. Ultraviolet Light (UV) Inactivation of Porcine Parvovirus in Liquid Plasma and Effect of UV Irradiated Spray Dried Porcine Plasma on Performance of Weaned Pigs.

    PubMed

    Polo, Javier; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Russell, Louis E; Campbell, Joy M; Crenshaw, Joe D; Torrallardona, David; Pujols, Joan

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultraviolet light irradiation (UV-C, 254 nm) process was designed as an additional safety feature for manufacturing of spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP). In Exp. 1, three 10-L batches of bovine plasma were inoculated with 10(5.2 ± 0.12) tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) per mL of plasma and subjected to UV-C ranging from 0 to 9180 J/L. No viable PPV was detected in bovine plasma by micro-titer assay in SK6 cell culture after UV-C at 2295 J/L. In Exp. 2, porcine plasma was subjected to UV-C (3672 J/L), then spray dried and mixed in complete mash diets. Diets were a control without SDPP (Control), UV-C SDPP either at 3% (UVSDPP3) or 6% (UVSDPP6) and non-UV-C SDPP at 3% (SDPP3) or 6% (SDPP6). Diets were fed ad libitum to 320 weaned pigs (26 d of age; 16 pens/diet; 4 pigs/pen) for 14 d after weaning and a common diet was fed d 15 to 28. During d 0 to 14, pigs fed UVSDPP3, UVSDPP6, or SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control. During d 0 to 28, pigs fed UVSDPP3 and UVSDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control and SDPP3, and SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake than control. Also, pigs fed UVSDPP had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain than pigs fed SDPP. In conclusion, UV-C inactivated PPV in liquid plasma and UVSDPP used in pig feed had no detrimental effects on pig performance. PMID:26171968

  9. Ultraviolet Light (UV) Inactivation of Porcine Parvovirus in Liquid Plasma and Effect of UV Irradiated Spray Dried Porcine Plasma on Performance of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Polo, Javier; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Russell, Louis E.; Campbell, Joy M.; Crenshaw, Joe D.; Torrallardona, David; Pujols, Joan

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultraviolet light irradiation (UV-C, 254 nm) process was designed as an additional safety feature for manufacturing of spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP). In Exp. 1, three 10-L batches of bovine plasma were inoculated with 105.2±0.12 tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) per mL of plasma and subjected to UV-C ranging from 0 to 9180 J/L. No viable PPV was detected in bovine plasma by micro-titer assay in SK6 cell culture after UV-C at 2295 J/L. In Exp. 2, porcine plasma was subjected to UV-C (3672 J/L), then spray dried and mixed in complete mash diets. Diets were a control without SDPP (Control), UV-C SDPP either at 3% (UVSDPP3) or 6% (UVSDPP6) and non-UV-C SDPP at 3% (SDPP3) or 6% (SDPP6). Diets were fed ad libitum to 320 weaned pigs (26 d of age; 16 pens/diet; 4 pigs/pen) for 14 d after weaning and a common diet was fed d 15 to 28. During d 0 to 14, pigs fed UVSDPP3, UVSDPP6, or SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control. During d 0 to 28, pigs fed UVSDPP3 and UVSDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control and SDPP3, and SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake than control. Also, pigs fed UVSDPP had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain than pigs fed SDPP. In conclusion, UV-C inactivated PPV in liquid plasma and UVSDPP used in pig feed had no detrimental effects on pig performance. PMID:26171968

  10. Improving growth in preterm infants during initial hospital stay: principles into practice.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    Despite recent innovations in nutritional care, postnatal growth failure between birth and hospital discharge remains a significant problem in preterm infants. Whether or not it is entirely preventable is unclear. What is clear is that feeding practices and growth outcomes vary widely between neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This partly reflects lack of data in key areas but it also reflects inconsistent translation of principles into practice and limitations in the way infants are fed and growth monitored in the NICU. These issues will be reviewed, in the process underline the key roles that audit, standardised feeding protocol, individualised nutritional care and a nutritional support team play in improving outcome in these high-risk infants. PMID:26867763

  11. The use of porcine digestible peptides and their continuity effect in nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, J; Solà-Oriol, D; Guzmán-Pino, S A; Chetrit, C; Borda, E; Pérez, J F

    2016-04-01

    A total of 552 entire male and female nursery pigs were selected to be used in 2 different experiments that aimed to study if milk ingredients can be replaced by highly preferred protein sources (Exp. 1) and if pre- and postnatal exposure of those protein ingredients through the maternal diet may increase pig performance (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, 240 pigs were separated after weaning (28 d) into 2 groups depending on the presence of lactose in their diets. Pigs ( =120) fed diets with the precence of lactose (lactose +) were given prestarter (0-14 d) and starter (15-33 d) diets with 142 and 50 g/kg of sweet milk whey, respectively; the lactose-free group ( = 120) was offered an isoenergetic diet with 20 g/kg of porcine-digestible peptides (PDP; Palbio 62SP; Bioibérica S.A., Palafolls, Spain) and wheat replacing sweet milk whey. Choice and 1-feeder tests were performed in another group of animals ( = 72) to evaluate the preference and acceptance for both diets. Pigs preferred ( = 0.039) the lactose+ over the lactose-free diet after a 30-min choice test and consumed more ( = 0.001) lactose+ than lactose-free diet in a 1-feeder test. However, no difference ( > 0.467) in performance was observed between groups for the entire nursery period. In Exp. 2, 120 animals were obtained from sows that, during late gestation (14 d) and lactation (28 d), were fed diets containing 20 g/kg of PDP and another 120 animals were obtained from sows fed an isoenergetic diet without PDP inclusion. Placenta samples were collected at farrowing to assess the volatile compounds present in the placental fluid of sows. After weaning, all pigs received a feed containing 20 g/kg of PDP in the prestarter and starter diets. A principal components analysis of the total volatile compounds showed the exclusive presence of sulfur-containing compounds and a higher presence of terpene compounds in the placental fluid of PDP-supplemented sows. In addition, pigs coming from sows fed diets supplemented with PDP

  12. Development of Emotional and Behavioral Regulation in Children Born Extremely Preterm and Very Preterm: Biological and Social Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Caron A. C.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Moor, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the development of emotional and behavioral regulation in a regional cohort of children born extremely preterm (less than 28 weeks gestational age, n = 39), very preterm (less than 34 weeks gestational age, n = 56), and full term (n = 103). At 2 and 4 years, children born at younger gestational ages demonstrated poorer…

  13. Role of Notch signaling during lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Varkha; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Pamarthy, Sahithi; Katara, Gajendra K; Kulshrestha, Arpita; Gilman-Sachs, Alice; Hirsch, Emmet; Beaman, Kenneth D

    2016-08-01

    Notch signaling pathways exert effects throughout pregnancy and are activated in response to TLR ligands. To investigate the role of Notch signaling in preterm labor, Notch receptors (Notch1-4), its ligand Delta-like protein-1, transcriptional repressor hairy and enhancer of split-1, and Notch deregulator Numb were assessed. Preterm labor was initiated on gestation d 14.5 by 1 of 2 methods: 1) inflammation-induced preterm labor: intrauterine injection of LPS (a TLR4 agonist) and 2) hormonally induced preterm labor: subcutaneous injection of mifepristone. Delta-like protein-1, Notch1, and hairy and enhancer of split-1 were elevated significantly, and Numb was decreased in the uterus and placenta of inflammation-induced preterm labor mice but remained unchanged in hormonally induced preterm labor compared with their respective controls. F4/80(+) macrophage polarization was skewed in the uterus of inflammation-induced preterm labor toward M1-positive (CD11c(+)) and double-positive [CD11c(+) (M1) and CD206(+) (M2)] cells. This process is dependent on activation of Notch signaling, as shown by suppression of M1 and M2 macrophage-associated cytokines in decidual macrophages in response to γ-secretase inhibitor (an inhibitor of Notch receptor processing) treatment ex vivo. γ-Secretase inhibitor treatment also diminished the LPS-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in decidual and placental cells cultured ex vivo. Furthermore, treatment with recombinant Delta-like protein-1 ligand enhanced the LPS-induced proinflammatory response. Notch ligands (Jagged 1 and 2 and Delta-like protein-4) and vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor involved in angiogenesis were reduced significantly in the uterus and placenta during inflammation-induced preterm labor. These results suggest that up-regulation of Notch-related inflammation and down-regulation of angiogenesis factors may be associated with inflammation-induced preterm labor but not with

  14. Could Cord Blood Cell Therapy Reduce Preterm Brain Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingang; McDonald, Courtney A.; Fahey, Michael C.; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Major advances in neonatal care have led to significant improvements in survival rates for preterm infants, but this occurs at a cost, with a strong causal link between preterm birth and neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy (CP). Indeed, in high-income countries, up to 50% of children with CP were born preterm. The pathways that link preterm birth and brain injury are complex and multifactorial, but it is clear that preterm birth is strongly associated with damage to the white matter of the developing brain. Nearly 90% of preterm infants who later develop spastic CP have evidence of periventricular white matter injury. There are currently no treatments targeted at protecting the immature preterm brain. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains a diverse mix of stem and progenitor cells, and is a particularly promising source of cells for clinical applications, due to ethical and practical advantages over other potential therapeutic cell types. Recent studies have documented the potential benefits of UCB cells in reducing brain injury, particularly in rodent models of term neonatal hypoxia–ischemia. These studies indicate that UCB cells act via anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects, and release neurotrophic growth factors to support the damaged and surrounding brain tissue. The etiology of brain injury in preterm-born infants is less well understood than in term infants, but likely results from episodes of hypoperfusion, hypoxia–ischemia, and/or inflammation over a developmental period of white matter vulnerability. This review will explore current knowledge about the neuroprotective actions of UCB cells and their potential to ameliorate preterm brain injury through neonatal cell administration. We will also discuss the characteristics of UCB-derived from preterm and term infants for use in clinical applications. PMID:25346720

  15. [Preterm delivery: detection of risks and preventive treatment].

    PubMed

    Althabe, F; Carroli, G; Lede, R; Belizán, J M; Althabe, O H

    1999-06-01

    Every year around the world some 13 million premature children are born. Most of these children are born in developing countries, and they account for the largest share of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This review study analyzed scientifically validated data on interventions to prevent at least some portion of these preterm deliveries and to lessen their impact on neonatal health. The Cochrane and MEDLINE bibliographic databases were consulted. Fifty review pieces and research articles were studied, relating to the following aspects of preterm delivery: risk factors and early detection of the risk of preterm delivery; preventing the risk of preterm delivery; treating preterm delivery once it has begun; and preventing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. There were few successful approaches to the prediction, prevention, or early detection of the threat of preterm delivery. The only measures that can be recommended for all pregnant women are screening for and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria as a part of prenatal check-ups. Screening for bacterial vaginosis and treating it reduce the incidence of preterm births in pregnant women with a history of premature delivery. In addition, prophylactic cerclage decreases the incidence of premature births in pregnant women who have had more than three preterm births. To treat a delivery that starts early, with or without premature membrane rupture, the interventions that have proved to be effective are administering betamimetics to the parturient woman in order to delay delivery for 48 hours, and using indomethacin for the same purpose, as the second-choice drug. The prenatal administration of corticosteroids to the pregnant woman can induce lung maturation in the fetus and reduce respiratory distress syndrome and ventricular hemorrhage, thus decreasing neonatal mortality. There is a need to continue and support basic and epidemiological research in order to develop new knowledge on the causes and mechanisms of preterm

  16. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p < 0.05). Similarly, when compared to extremely preterm neonates without exposure to prenatal stress, extremely preterm neonates with exposure to prenatal stress show significantly less connectivity between the left amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p < 0.05). Exploratory analysis of the combined cohorts suggests additive effects of prenatal stress on alterations in amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these

  17. Impact of dietary betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on insulin sensitivity, protein and fat metabolism of obese pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Lachica, M; Martín, A; Nieto, R; González-Valero, L; Rodríguez-López, J M; Aguilera, J F

    2012-07-01

    To determine possible mechanisms of action that might explain the nutrient partitioning effect of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Iberian pigs and to address potential adverse effects, twenty gilts were restrictively fed from 20 to 50 kg BW Control, 0.5% betaine, 1% CLA or 0.5% betaine + 1% CLA diets. Serum hormones and metabolites profile were determined at 30 kg BW and an oral glucose test was performed before slaughter. Pigs were slaughtered at 50 kg BW and livers were obtained for chemical and histological analysis. Decreased serum urea in pigs fed betaine and betaine + CLA diets (11%; P = 0.0001) indicated a more efficient N utilization. The increase in serum triacylglycerol (58% and 28%, respectively; P = 0.0098) indicated that CLA and betaine + CLA could have reduced adipose tissue triacylglycerol synthesis from preformed fatty acids. Serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were unaffected. CLA and betaine + CLA altered serum lipids profile, although liver of pigs fed CLA diet presented no histopathological changes and triglyceride content was not different from Control pigs. Compared with controls, serum growth hormone decreased (20% to 23%; P = 0.0209) for all treatments. Although serum insulin increased in CLA, and especially in betaine + CLA pigs (28% and 83%; P = 0.0001), indices of insulin resistance were unaffected. In conclusion, CLA, and especially betaine + CLA, induced changes in biochemical parameters and hormones that may partially explain a nutrient partitioning effect in young pigs. Nevertheless, they exhibited weak, although detrimental, effects on blood lipids. Moreover, although livers were chemically and histologically normal, pigs fed CLA diet challenged with a glucose load had higher serum glucose than controls. PMID:23031465

  18. Ghrelin and feeding behaviour in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Savino, Francesco; Lupica, Maria Maddalena; Liguori, Stefania Alfonsina; Fissore, Maria Francesca; Silvestro, Leandra

    2012-03-01

    The importance of early life events in the development of metabolic diseases is well recognized. Early postnatal environment, including nutrition, is key to future health, and this is particularly true for preterm infants. It is important that these infants receive sufficient nutrients to prevent growth restriction and promote neurodevelopment, while minimizing predisposition to metabolic diseases later in life. Feeding habits are the fundamental elements of nutrition and are influenced by many factors, including personal and familial habits, socioeconomic status, and cultural environment. In the last decades, there has been an important scientific interest toward the comprehension of the molecular and neural mechanisms regulating appetite. In these networks, act many peptide hormones produced in brain or gut, among which ghrelin is important because of its action in the short-term regulation of food intake and the long-term regulation of body weight. Ghrelin stimulates appetite and plays a role in regulating feeding behaviour. Ghrelin levels vary from fetal life through to early adulthood, with the highest levels observed in the very early years. Cord ghrelin levels have been evaluated in term and preterm newborns and high ghrelin levels have been observed in small-for-gestational age newborns and in newborns with intrauterine growth restriction. Moreover, ghrelin has been detected in term and preterm human breast milk, suggesting that it may play a role in the development of neuroendocrine pathways regulating appetite and energy homeostasis in early life. However, more research is required to better define ghrelin's role in breast milk and on feeding behaviour. PMID:22285781

  19. Acute Heat Stress and Reduced Nutrient Intake Alter Intestinal Proteomic Profile and Gene Expression in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Sarah C.; Lonergan, Steven M.; Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth; Baumgard, Lance H.; Gabler, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress and reduced feed intake negatively affect intestinal integrity and barrier function. Our objective was to compare ileum protein profiles of pigs subjected to 12 hours of HS, thermal neutral ad libitum feed intake, or pair-fed to heat stress feed intake under thermal neutral conditions (pair-fed thermal neutral). 2D-Differential In Gel Electrophoresis and gene expression were performed. Relative abundance of 281 and 138 spots differed due to heat stress, compared to thermal neutral and pair-fed thermal neutral pigs, respectively. However, only 20 proteins were different due to feed intake (thermal neutral versus pair-fed thermal neutral). Heat stress increased mRNA expression of heat shock proteins and protein abundance of heat shock proteins 27, 70, 90-α and β were also increased. Heat stress reduced ileum abundance of several metabolic enzymes, many of which are involved in the glycolytic or TCA pathways, indicating a change in metabolic priorities. Stress response enzymes peroxiredoxin-1 and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A were decreased in pair-fed thermal neutral and thermal neutral pigs compared to heat stress. Heat stress increased mRNA abundance markers of ileum hypoxia. Altogether, these data show that heat stress directly alters intestinal protein and mRNA profiles largely independent of reduced feed intake. These changes may be related to the reduced intestinal integrity associated with heat stress. PMID:26575181

  20. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (P<0.05). Diet C increased pH45min (P<0.05) and decreased drip loss (P<0.05) in LL muscles compared with diet A. Meat from pigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (P<0.05). Greater mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-I and IIa and lesser expression of MyHC-IIx and IIb (P<0.05) in LL muscles were found in pigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (P<0.05), associated with conserved changes of their corresponding targets. These findings indicated that diets containing low starch and high fibre were beneficial in reducing muscle glycolysis, improving meat quality of finishing pigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated

  1. Neurosonography of the pre-term neonate

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a description of our present understanding of the premature brain as seen through the eyes of the sonogram. Neurosonography of the Pre-Term Neonate ties the pathophysiology, anatomy and the all important clinical follow-up data to the sonogram. The book is divided into five sections: Scanning Techniques and Normal Anatomy, Pathophysiology of Germinal Matrix Related Hemorrhage and Ischemia, Neurosonography - Germinal Matrix Related Hemorrhage - Periventricular Leukomalacia, Incidence and Outcome - Germinal Matrix Related Hemorrhage - Periventricular Leukomalacia and Comparison of Two Modalities: Ultrasound versus Computed Tomography.

  2. Effect of feeding organic and inorganic sources of additional zinc on growth performance and zinc balance in nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Case, C L; Carlson, M S

    2002-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc (Zn), from organic and inorganic sources, on growth performance, plasma and tissue Zn accumulation, and Zn excretion of nursery pigs. Blood from all pigs was collected for plasma Zn determination on d 14 in Exp. 1, d 7 and 28 in Exp. 2, and d 15 in Exp. 3. In Exp. 1, 2, and 3, 90, 100, and 15 crossbred (GenetiPorc USA, LLC, Morris, MN) pigs were weaned at 24+/-0.5, 18, and 17 d of age (6.45, 5.47, and 5.3 kg avg initial BW), respectively, and allotted to dietary treatment based on initial weight, sex, and litter. A Phase 1 nursery diet was fed as crumbles from d 0 to 14 in Exp. 1, 2, and 3, and a Phase 2 nursery diet was fed as pellets from d 15 to 28 in Exp. 1 and 2. The Phase 1 and Phase 2 basal diets were supplemented with 100 ppm Zn as ZnSO4. Both dietary phases contained the same five dietary treatments: 150 ppm additional Zn as zinc oxide (ZnO), 500 ppm added Zn as ZnO, 500 ppm added Zn as a Zn-amino acid complex (Availa-Zn 100), 500 ppm added Zn as a Zn-polysaccharide complex (SQM-Zn), and 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO. Overall in Exp. 1, pigs fed 500 ppm added Zn as SQM-Zn or 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO had greater ADG (P < 0.05) than pigs fed 150 ppm, 500 ppm added Zn as ZnO, or 500 ppm added Zn as Availa-Zn 100 (0.44 and 0.46 kg/d vs 0.35, 0.38, and 0.33 kg/d respectively). Overall in Exp. 2, pigs fed 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI than pigs fed any other dietary treatment. On d 14 of Exp. 1 and d 28 of Exp. 2, pigs fed 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO had higher (P < 0.05) plasma Zn concentrations than pigs on any other treatment. In Exp. 3, fecal, urinary, and liver Zn concentrations were greatest (P < 0.05) in pigs fed 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO. On d 10 to 15 of Exp. 3, pigs fed 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO had the most negative Zn balance (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the other four dietary Zn treatments. In conclusion, feeding

  3. Growth performance and enzyme development in weanling pigs injected with dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Gómez, S; Angeles, M L; Cuarón, J A

    1997-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on growth performance and on selected digestive enzyme activities in weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 pigs (6.7 kg BW and 27 d) were used in a 3 x 2 factorial combination of three DEX frequencies (no injection; 1 mg DEX/kg BW 3 d before weaning; and 1 mg DEX/kg BW 6 and 3 d before weaning) and two feeding regimens: a simple diet fed throughout the 28-d trial, or a semicomplex diet fed during the first 14 d postweaning, followed by the simple diet. Growth performance was not affected (P > .10) by hormonal treatment. Pigs fed the simple diet had a greater ADF1 after d 15 postweaning (P < .10) and higher ADG from 15 to 21 d postweaning (P < .01). In Exp. 2, 80 pigs (7.2 kg BW and 26 d) were assigned 3 d before weaning to four dosages of DEX (0, .33, .66, and .99 mg/kg BW). Growth performance was similar regardless of DEX dosing. In Exp. 3, 24 pigs (6.4 kg BW and 21 d) were injected with DEX (1 mg/kg BW) or saline solution on d 3 before weaning. Four pigs per treatment were slaughtered at weaning, or on d 3 and d 6 postweaning. Dexamethasone resulted in greater (P < .10) pancreas weight and increased (P < .01) total activity of amylase and sucrase, but lactase was lowered (P < .10). Dexamethasone injection enhanced digestive enzyme activity but failed to improve performance, presumably because of the reduced feed intake of pigs at weaning. PMID:9110212

  4. Effect of dietary copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite on ureolytic bacteria found in the pig large intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Varel, V H; Robinson, I M; Pond, W G

    1987-01-01

    The predominant ureolytic bacteria in the pig large intestine were determined while growing pigs were fed a basal diet or basal diet plus copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite. Fecal samples were collected from four pigs fed each diet at 3, 9, and 14 weeks and analyzed for total colony counts and percent ureolytic bacteria. Fecal urease activity, ammonia nitrogen, and identity of the ureolytic bacteria were determined at 14 weeks. Copper sulfate and Aureo SP250 reduced the number of ureolytic organisms, with a marked decrease occurring in the Streptococcus spp., which made up 74% of the ureolytic isolates from the pigs on the basal diet. Other ureolytic species detected at lower concentrations were Staphylococcus spp., Selenomonas ruminantium, Bacteroides multiacidus, and Eubacterium limosum. Copper sulfate also reduced fecal urease activity (P less than 0.10). Fecal ammonia concentrations were not different between pigs fed the various diets. These data suggest that the streptococci are the most numerous ureolytic species in the pig intestinal tract and are significantly reduced by copper sulfate and Aureo SP250; however, only copper sulfate reduced intestinal urease activity. PMID:2823707

  5. Effect of dietary copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite on ureolytic bacteria found in the pig large intestine.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Robinson, I M; Pond, W G

    1987-09-01

    The predominant ureolytic bacteria in the pig large intestine were determined while growing pigs were fed a basal diet or basal diet plus copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite. Fecal samples were collected from four pigs fed each diet at 3, 9, and 14 weeks and analyzed for total colony counts and percent ureolytic bacteria. Fecal urease activity, ammonia nitrogen, and identity of the ureolytic bacteria were determined at 14 weeks. Copper sulfate and Aureo SP250 reduced the number of ureolytic organisms, with a marked decrease occurring in the Streptococcus spp., which made up 74% of the ureolytic isolates from the pigs on the basal diet. Other ureolytic species detected at lower concentrations were Staphylococcus spp., Selenomonas ruminantium, Bacteroides multiacidus, and Eubacterium limosum. Copper sulfate also reduced fecal urease activity (P less than 0.10). Fecal ammonia concentrations were not different between pigs fed the various diets. These data suggest that the streptococci are the most numerous ureolytic species in the pig intestinal tract and are significantly reduced by copper sulfate and Aureo SP250; however, only copper sulfate reduced intestinal urease activity. PMID:2823707

  6. Heat stress in pigs is accompanied by adipose tissue-specific responses that favor increased triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Qu, H; Yan, H; Lu, H; Donkin, S S; Ajuwon, K M

    2016-05-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects all aspects of performance in pigs. Although certain tissue-specific responses in the liver, skeletal muscle, and intestine are known, there is paucity of information on responses within the adipose tissue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to delineate adipose tissue responses during HS in pigs. Thirty crossbred (Ossabaw × Duroc × Landrace) pigs were assigned to 3 treatments for 7 d. Treatments were 1) control and libitum fed (CON) with room temperature set at 20°C ± 1°C, 2) pair fed (PF) with room temperature as the CON treatment but pair fed to HS pigs, and 3) HS with room temperature 35°C ± 1°C and ad libitum access to feed. Compared with CON pigs, HS pigs had decreased feed intake and elevated skin temperature and respiration rate ( < 0.01). Blood urea nitrogen was higher ( = 0.01) in HS pigs compared with CON pigs only in males. In both subcutaneous and mesenteric adipose tissue, mRNA abundance of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) was more elevated ( < 0.01) in HS groups compared with the CON and PF groups. Heat stress also caused increased heat shock protein 70 (HSP70; = 0.067) and CCAT/enhancer-binding homologous protein (CHOP) content ( < 0.05) in the mesenteric fat compared with the CON treatment. In conclusion, induction of PCK1 expression in adipose tissue by HS suggests elevated glyceroneogenesis might be involved in the increased fat storage in pigs under HS. PMID:27285686

  7. Safety Evaluation of Neo Transgenic Pigs by Studying Changes in Gut Microbiota Using High-Throughput Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shengwang; Cai, Chunbo; Ma, Dezun; Gao, Pengfei; Li, Hegang; Jiang, Ke; Tang, Maoxue; Hou, Jian; Liu, Jie; Cui, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The neo (neomycin phosphotransferase) gene is widely used as a selection marker in the production of genetically engineered animals and plants. Recent attention has been focused on safety concerns regarding neo transgene expression. In this study, neo transgenic and non-transgenic piglets were randomly assigned into Group A and Group B to evaluate effects of neo transgene by studying changes in gut microbiota using high-throughput sequencing. Group A pigs were fed a standard diet supplemented with antibiotic neomycin; Group B pigs were fed a standard diet. We examined horizontal transfer of exogenous neo gene using multiplex PCR; and investigated if the presence of secreted NPT II (neo expression product) in the intestine could lead to some protection against neomycin in transgenic pigs by monitoring different patterns of changes in gut microbiota in Group A animals. The unintended effects of neo transgene on gut microbiota were studied in Group B animals. Horizontal gene transfer was not detected in gut microbiota of any transgenic pigs. In Group A, a significant difference was observed between transgenic pigs and non-transgenic pigs in pattern of changes in Proteobacteria populations in fecal samples during and post neomycin feeding. In Group B, there were significant differences in the relative abundance of phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, and genera Lactobacillus and Escherichia-Shigella-Hafnia between transgenic pigs and non-transgenic pigs. We speculate that the secretion of NPT II from transgenic tissues/cells into gut microbiota results in the inhibition of neomycin activity and the different patterns of changes in bacterial populations. Furthermore, the neo gene also leads to unintended effects on gut microbiota in transgenic pigs that were fed with basic diet (not supplemented with neomycin). Thus, our data in this study caution that wide use of the neo transgene in genetically engineered animals should be carefully considered and fully

  8. Synergistic effects of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on the growth and carcass composition of growing Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Conde-Aguilera, J A; Nieto, R; Lachica, M; Aguilera, J F

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of dietary betaine, CLA, or both as growth promotants and carcass modifiers in growing Iberian pigs. Twenty gilts (20 kg of BW) were individually penned and fed barley- and soybean meal-based diets (12% CP, 0.81% Lys, and 14.8 MJ of ME/kg of DM) containing either no added betaine or CLA (control), 0.5% betaine, 1% CLA, or 0.5% betaine + 1% CLA, at 95% of ad libitum energy intake. An additional group of 5 pigs was slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to obtain the initial body composition. At 30 kg of BW, a balance experiment was conducted. At 50 kg of BW, pigs were slaughtered and viscera was removed and weighed. Betaine or CLA alone did not affect growth performance. However, betaine + CLA increased ADG (601 vs. 558 g, P = 0.03) and gain relative to ME intake (25.4 vs. 22.2 g/MJ, P = 0.03) compared with control pigs. Digestibility of nutrients and metabolizability of energy did not differ among diets (P = 0.46 to 0.75). Carcass protein, water, and lean deposition (g/d) increased (19.8, 24.2, and 23.4%, respectively, P < 0.01) in pigs fed betaine + CLA compared with control pigs. Similarly, protein deposition relative to ME intake increased by 28% in betaine + CLA-supplemented pigs (P < 0.05). Fat and mineral deposition did not differ among treatments. Carcass protein, water, and lean content (g/kg of carcass) of pigs fed betaine + CLA-supplemented diets tended to increase (P = 0.07 to 0.09) and carcass fat content tended to decrease (P = 0.09). Similarly, estimated composition of carcass gain was affected, such that water and lean content tended to increase (P = 0.06 to 0.08), whereas fat tended to decrease (P = 0.08) in pigs fed betaine + CLA-supplemented diets. Longissimus muscle area was not altered by treatments (P = 0.49). The liver of pigs fed betaine + CLA diets had increased weight (19%, P < 0.05) compared with control pigs. Overall, dietary supplementation of betaine + CLA increased ADG

  9. Improvement of Expressed Breast Milk in Mothers of Preterm Infants by Recording Breast Milk Pumping Diaries in a Neonatal Center in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Zheng, Jinxia; Zhou, Ming; Xi, Xiaohong; Wang, Qin; Hua, Jing; Hu, Xuefeng; Liu, Jiang-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Because inadequate expression of human milk (EBM) in mothers of hospitalized infants were noticed in a neonatal center of our hospital, family education program was carried out to increase the EBM. Methods A breast milk pumping diary was introduced to the mothers with preterm infant(s) admitted in the NICU. The ratios of EBM (days of EBM to NICU/hospitalized days), breast milk feeding (BMF) (days of infants fed with exclusive human milk/hospitalized days), mixed feeding (MF) (days of infants fed with partial breast milk and partial formula/hospitalized days), and formula feeding (FF) (days of infants fed with preterm formula/hospitalized days) were evaluated. Results During January to April, 2014, the ratios of EBM to the NICU, BMF, MF and FF were 28.11%, 6.6%, 32.8% and 60.6%, respectively. After the introduction of breast milk pumping diary to the mothers from May 2014, the ratio of EBM to the NICU increased significantly to 53.3% (p<0.01) within the following eight months. Both the ratios of BMF and MF also rose to 23.8% and MF 55.3%, respectively. Consequently, the ratio of FF was reduced to 20.9%. Exclusive breast milk feeding also significantly reduce the duration of nil per oral (NPO) of the very low birth weight infants during hospital stay as compared to those fed with mixed feeding and formula feeding. Conclusion The introduction of a breast milk pumping diary was associated with a significant increase in the intake of EBM of the hospitalized preterm newborns. PMID:26637118

  10. Purification and crystallization of yeast glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase subunit PIG-S (PIG-S71–467)

    PubMed Central

    Kamariah, Neelagandan; Eisenhaber, Frank; Adhikari, Sharmila; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Grüber, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors onto eukaryotic proteins is catalyzed by the transamidase complex, which is composed of at least five subunits (PIG-K, PIG-S, PIG-T, PIG-U and GPAA1). Here, the recombinant protein PIG-S71–467 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including residues 71–467 of the entire 534-residue protein, was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The monodisperse protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set was collected to 3.2 Å resolution with 91.6% completeness. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.72, b = 59.33, c = 124.3 Å, β = 114.19°, and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:21821889

  11. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  12. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  13. The relationship between maternal serum magnesium level and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Khani, S; Shokrzadeh, M; Karamoddini, P K; Shahmohammadi, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal serum magnesium levels and preterm birth. This Nested case-control study carried out on 20 with preterm birth and 20 women at term birth at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Sari/Iran in 2008. The women with singleton gestation and intact fetal membrane suspected to preterm labor (case group), 10 cc blood samples were drawn into syringes and sent to laboratory of the hospital immediately. Sampling for control group was same as the case group. These samples recognized as control group just as birth occurring after week 37. Finally, serum magnesium level measured. Data analyzed using chi2, t-test and OR (Odd's Ratio). There was a relationship between the number of prenatal visits (p = 0.008) and stressful events associated with preterm birth (p < 0.02). Serum magnesium level was associated with preterm birth OR = 4.75, CI 95% = (0.48-46.91), Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of serum magnesium for preterm birth was 95, 50, 66.5 and 83.33%, respectively. Although, there was a correlation between serum magnesium levels and preterm birth, due to methodology of the study, a cohort study with the same cut off point and supplementation of magnesium in RTC studies is recommended. PMID:20836289

  14. CDC Grand Rounds: Public Health Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Barfield, Wanda D; Henderson, Zsakeba; James, Arthur; Howse, Jennifer L; Iskander, John; Thorpe, Phoebe G

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 weeks and 0/7 days of gestation) is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States. In 2013, 11.4% of the nearly 4 million U.S. live births were preterm; however, 36% of the 8,470 infant deaths were attributed to preterm birth (1). Infants born at earlier gestational ages, especially <32 0/7 weeks, have the highest mortality (Figure) and morbidity rates. Morbidity associated with preterm birth includes respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage; longer-term consequences include developmental delay and decreased school performance. Risk factors for preterm delivery include social, behavioral, clinical, and biologic characteristics (Box). Despite advances in medical care, racial and ethnic disparities associated with preterm birth persist. Reducing preterm birth, a national public health priority (2), can be accomplished by implementing and monitoring strategies that target modifiable risk factors and populations at highest risk, and by providing improved quality and access to preconception, prenatal, and interconception care through implementation of strategies with potentially high impact. PMID:27536925

  15. Racial disparities in preterm births. The role of urogenital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urogenital infections on the racial gap between black and white women in preterm birth rates. METHODS: A computer-assisted search of the medical literature was conducted through MEDLINE aided by a manual bibliographic search of published articles and relevant books. Estimates of the relative risk for preterm birth were extracted from published studies for the following infections: N. gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Group B streptococcal vaginal colonization, asymptomatic bacteriuria, genital mycoplasmas, and bacterial vaginosis. Estimates of the prevalence among black and white women by race for each of these infections were extracted from published studies. The attributable risk for preterm birth for selected infections was then calculated for the black and white populations and the impact on the racial gap in preterm births was estimated. RESULTS: Only bacterial vaginosis and bacteriuria appear to be established risk factors for preter