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Sample records for pretreatment prevents disruption

  1. Plasma membrane disruption: repair, prevention, adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeil, Paul L.; Steinhardt, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Many metazoan cells inhabit mechanically stressful environments and, consequently, their plasma membranes are frequently disrupted. Survival requires that the cell rapidly repair or reseal the disruption. Rapid resealing is an active and complex structural modification that employs endomembrane as its primary building block, and cytoskeletal and membrane fusion proteins as its catalysts. Endomembrane is delivered to the damaged plasma membrane through exocytosis, a ubiquitous Ca2+-triggered response to disruption. Tissue and cell level architecture prevent disruptions from occurring, either by shielding cells from damaging levels of force, or, when this is not possible, by promoting safe force transmission through the plasma membrane via protein-based cables and linkages. Prevention of disruption also can be a dynamic cell or tissue level adaptation triggered when a damaging level of mechanical stress is imposed. Disease results from failure of either the preventive or resealing mechanisms.

  2. Disruptive Innovation Can Prevent the Next Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Affan T.; Ferland, Lisa; Hood-Cree, Robert; Shaffer, Loren; McNabb, Scott J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Public health surveillance (PHS) is at a tipping point, where the application of novel processes, technologies, and tools promise to vastly improve efficiency and effectiveness. Yet twentieth century, entrenched ideology and lack of training results in slow uptake and resistance to change. The term disruptive innovation – used to describe advances in technology and processes that change existing markets – is useful to describe the transformation of PHS. Past disruptive innovations used in PHS, such as distance learning, the smart phone, and field-based laboratory testing have outpaced older services, practices, and technologies used in the traditional classroom, governmental offices, and personal communication, respectively. Arguably, the greatest of these is the Internet – an infrastructural innovation that continues to enable exponential benefits in seemingly limitless ways. Considering the Global Health Security Agenda and facing emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats, evolving environmental and behavioral risks, and ever changing epidemiologic trends, PHS must transform. Embracing disruptive innovation in the structures and processes of PHS can be unpredictable. However, it is necessary to strengthen and unlock the potential to prevent, detect, and respond. PMID:26442242

  3. Disruptive Innovation Can Prevent the Next Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Affan T; Ferland, Lisa; Hood-Cree, Robert; Shaffer, Loren; McNabb, Scott J N

    2015-01-01

    Public health surveillance (PHS) is at a tipping point, where the application of novel processes, technologies, and tools promise to vastly improve efficiency and effectiveness. Yet twentieth century, entrenched ideology and lack of training results in slow uptake and resistance to change. The term disruptive innovation - used to describe advances in technology and processes that change existing markets - is useful to describe the transformation of PHS. Past disruptive innovations used in PHS, such as distance learning, the smart phone, and field-based laboratory testing have outpaced older services, practices, and technologies used in the traditional classroom, governmental offices, and personal communication, respectively. Arguably, the greatest of these is the Internet - an infrastructural innovation that continues to enable exponential benefits in seemingly limitless ways. Considering the Global Health Security Agenda and facing emerging and reemerging infectious disease threats, evolving environmental and behavioral risks, and ever changing epidemiologic trends, PHS must transform. Embracing disruptive innovation in the structures and processes of PHS can be unpredictable. However, it is necessary to strengthen and unlock the potential to prevent, detect, and respond. PMID:26442242

  4. CO.sub.2 Pretreatment prevents calcium carbonate formation

    DOEpatents

    Neavel, Richard C.; Brunson, Roy J.; Chaback, Joseph J.

    1980-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 14 to about 68 atmospheres and a carbon dioxide partial pressure within the range from about 14 to about 34 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 100.degree. to about 200.degree. C.

  5. Hydrothermal pretreatment to prevent scale during liquefaction of certain solid carbonaceous materials

    DOEpatents

    Stone, John B.; Floyd, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by hydrothermal pretreatment. The said pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The said pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1000 to about 4400 psia. Temperature during said pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 500.degree. to about 700.degree. F.

  6. Pretreatment of solid carbonaceous material with dicarboxylic aromatic acids to prevent scale formation

    DOEpatents

    Brunson, Roy J.

    1982-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with a pretreating agent selected from the group consisting of phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, pyromellitic acid and pyromellitic anhydride. The pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding phthalate and/or pyromellitate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1 to about 2 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 5.degree. to about 80.degree. C.

  7. Fingolimod Prevents Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Induced by the Sera from Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Hideaki; Shimizu, Fumitaka; Sano, Yasuteru; Takeshita, Yukio; Maeda, Toshihiko; Abe, Masaaki; Koga, Michiaki; Kanda, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Effect of fingolimod in multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to involve the prevention of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues, thereby reducing autoaggressive lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system across blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) represent a possible additional target for fingolimod in MS patients by directly repairing the function of BBB, as S1P receptors are also expressed by BMECs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fingolimod on BMECs and clarified whether fingolimod-phosphate restores the BBB function after exposure to MS sera. Methods Changes in tight junction proteins, adhesion molecules and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) in BMECs were evaluated following incubation in conditioned medium with or without fingolimod/fingolimod-phosphate. In addition, the effects of sera derived from MS patients, including those in the relapse phase of relapse-remitting (RR) MS, stable phase of RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS), on the function of BBB in the presence of fingolimod-phosphate were assessed. Results Incubation with fingolimod-phosphate increased the claudin-5 protein levels and TEER values in BMECs, although it did not change the amount of occludin, ICAM-1 or MelCAM proteins. Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate restored the changes in the claudin-5 and VCAM-1 protein/mRNA levels and TEER values in BMECs after exposure to MS sera. Conclusions Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate prevents BBB disruption caused by both RRMS and SPMS sera via the upregulation of claudin-5 and downregulation of VCAM-1 in BMECs, suggesting that fingolimod-phosphate is capable of directly modifying the BBB. BMECs represent a possible therapeutic target for fingolimod in MS patients. PMID:25774903

  8. Elastin Calcification and its Prevention with Aluminum Chloride Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Vyavahare, Narendra; Ogle, Matthew; Schoen, Frederick J.; Levy, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Elastin, an abundant structural protein present in the arterial wall, is prone to calcification in a number of disease processes including porcine bioprosthetic heart valve calcification and atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of elastin calcification are not completely elucidated. In the present work, we demonstrated calcification of purified elastin in rat subdermal implants (Ca2+ = 89.73 ± 9.84 μg/mg after 21 days versus control, unimplanted Ca2+ = 0.16 ± 0.04 μg/mg). X-ray diffraction analysis along with resolution enhanced FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated the mineral phase to be a poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite. We investigated the time course of calcification, the effect of glutaraldehyde crosslinking on calcification, and mechanisms of inhibition of elastin calcification by pretreatment with aluminum chloride (AlCl3). Glutaraldehyde pretreatment did not affect calcification (Ca2+ = 89.06 ± 17.93 μg/mg for glutaraldehyde crosslinked elastin versus Ca2+ = 89.73 ± 9.84 μg/mg for uncrosslinked elastin). This may be explained by radioactive (3H) glutaraldehyde studies showing very low reactivity between glutaraldehyde and elastin. Our results further demonstrated that AlCl3 pretreatment of elastin led to complete inhibition of elastin calcification using 21-day rat subdermal implants, irrespective of glutaraldehyde crosslinking (Ca2+ = 0.73–2.15 μg/mg for AlCl3 pretreated elastin versus 89.73 ± 9.84 for untreated elastin). The AlCl3 pretreatment caused irreversible binding of aluminum ions to elastin, as assessed by atomic emission spectroscopy. Moreover, aluminum ion binding altered the spatial configuration of elastin as shown by circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies, suggesting a net structural change including a reduction in the extent of β sheet structures and an increase in coil-turn conformations. Thus, it is concluded that purified elastin calcifies in rat

  9. Influence of Risk Factors for Child Disruptive Behavior on Parent Attendance at a Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…

  10. Pretreatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid prevents cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shumin; Kong, Wei; Zhang, Shufeng; Chen, Meng; Zheng, Xiaoying; Kong, Xiangyu

    2013-01-01

    Pretreatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid has protective effects against ischemia and attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, rats were given scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid intragastrically at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg per day for 7 days before focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury models were established using the suture method. We then determined the protective effects of scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid pretreatment on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Results showed that neurological deficit scores increased, infarct volumes enlarged, apoptosis increased and Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression were upregulated at 24 hours after reperfusion. Pretreatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid at any dose lowered the neurological deficit scores, reduced the infarct volume, prevented apoptosis in hippocampal cells, attenuated neuronal and blood-brain barrier damage and upregulated Bcl-2 protein expression but inhibited Bax protein expression. Doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg were the most efficacious. Our findings indicate that pretreatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid at 100 and 200 mg/kg can improve the neurological functions and have preventive and protective roles after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25206639

  11. Carbon monoxide pretreatment prevents respiratory derangement and ameliorates hyperacute endotoxic shock in pigs.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, S; Forni, M; Albertini, M; Bacci, M L; Zannoni, A; Gentilini, F; Lavitrano, M; Bach, F H; Otterbein, L E; Clement, M G

    2005-12-01

    Endotoxic shock, one of the most prominent causes of mortality in intensive care units, is characterized by pulmonary hypertension, systemic hypotension, heart failure, widespread endothelial activation/injury, and clotting culminating in disseminated intravascular coagulation and multi-organ system failure. In the last few years, studies in rodents have shown that administration of low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) exerts potent therapeutic effects in a variety of diseases/disorders. In this study, we have administered CO (one our pretreatment at 250 ppm) in a clinically relevant, well-characterized model of LPS-induced acute lung injury in pigs. Pretreatment only with inhaled CO significantly ameliorated several of the acute pathological changes induced by endotoxic shock. In terms of lung physiology, CO pretreatment corrected the LPS-induced changes in resistance and compliance and improved the derangement in pulmonary gas exchange. In terms of coagulation and inflammation, CO reduced the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation and completely suppressed serum levels of the proinflammatory IL-1beta in response to LPS, while augmenting the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Moreover, the effects of CO blunted the deterioration of kidney and liver function, suggesting a beneficial effect in terms of end organ damage associated with endotoxic shock. Lastly, CO pretreatment prevents LPS-induced ICAM expression on lung endothelium and inhibits leukocyte marginalization on lung parenchyma. PMID:16223783

  12. Magnolol pretreatment prevents sepsis-induced intestinal dysmotility by maintaining functional interstitial cells of Cajal.

    PubMed

    Miao, Bin; Zhang, Shuwen; Wang, Hong; Yang, Tiecheng; Zhou, Deshan; Wang, Bao-en

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which magnolol treatment prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic dysmotility in mice. Sepsis was induced by intravenous tail vein injection of LPS (4 mg/kg body weight). Animals were divided into three groups: the magnolol-treated septic group, the placebo-treated septic group, and the control group. Intestinal transit and circular smooth muscle contraction were measured 12 h after LPS injection, and immunocytochemisty was performed to study the morphology of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Stem cell factor (SCF) expression and c-kit phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis, and the mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were determined by RT-PCR. Nitric oxide (NO) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were detected using commercial kits. Intestinal transit and muscular contractility were significantly lower in the LPS-treated group than in the control group. Immunocytochemical experiments showed that the total number of ICCs, and the total and average lengths of the ICC processes were significantly decreased in the LPS-treated group compared with those in the control group. In LPS-treated animals, magnolol pretreatment significantly accelerated intestinal transit, increased circular muscle contraction, and prevented ICC morphology changes. Phosphorylation of c-kit and expression of SCF were significantly downregulated in LPS-treated animals compared with control animals. Magnolol pretreatment prevented sepsis-induced decreases in c-kit phosphorylation and SCF expression in LPS-treated animals. Magnolol pretreatment prevented the sepsis-induced increase in NO concentration, iNOS expression, and MDA concentration, and decrease in SOD activity in LPS-treated animals. Our results suggest that magnolol treatment prevents sepsis-induced intestinal dysmotility by regulating SCF/c-kit and NO signaling to maintain functional ICCs

  13. Chemical and biological assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals in a full scale dairy manure anaerobic digester with thermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Noguera-Oviedo, Katia; Aga, Diana S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrated animal feeding operations are important sources of estrogens and their conjugates, which are introduced into the environment through manure land application. In this study, concentrations of estrogens were measured in an anaerobic co-digestion system with thermal pasteurization pretreatment. Free estrogens (estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (E2α), 17β-estradiol (E2β), estriol (E3)) were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and conjugated estrogens (sulfate- and glucuronide-conjugates) were analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Additionally, yeast estrogen screen assay was used to determine the estrogenic potential of the manure. The total hormone concentrations (mainly E1, E2α, E2β, and sulfated estrogens) were observed at concentrations up to a total of 7100ng/L in the liquid fraction, while free estrogen levels were 630ng/kg in the solid fraction of the untreated manure. The total hormone concentration did not decrease significantly during digestion, however, the relative composition of the estrogens changed from E2α (65%) being the predominant species before digestion to mostly E1 (72%) after digestion. This conversion process has important implications because E1 is more estrogenic than E2α. Total E2 equivalents associated with E1, E2α and E2β concentrations as determined by GC/MS indicate that E1 is the most important contributor to the endocrine-disruption activity of the treated manure. PMID:26849346

  14. Pretreatment with memantine prevents Alzheimer-like alterations induced by intrahippocampal okadaic acid administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Kalinine, Eduardo; Haas, Clarissa Branco; Torrez, Vitor Rocco; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Portela, Luis Valmor

    2012-12-01

    Cerebral okadaic acid (OA) administration induces Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like phenotype in rats. Alterations in glutamate levels associated with hyperactivation of cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) signaling pathway downstream Tau phosphorylation may participate in the genesis of this pathological phenotype. Here, we examined the efficacy of memantine (MN) pretreatment on reducing OA-induced AD-like phenotypes in rats. Wistar rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of MN for 3 days and then given an intrahippocampal infusion of OA. Animals were divided into four groups: control (CO), MN, OA and MN/OA. Spontaneous locomotion and spatial memory performance were assessed by open field and Morris water maze respectively. Additionally, we measured glutamate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the immunocontent of Cdk5, p35, p25 and phosphorylated Tau (pTauSer199/202) in the hippocampus. Spontaneous locomotion did not differ between groups. The OA group showed a significant decrease in spatial memory performance compared to all groups. The OA infusion also increased CSF glutamate levels and the immunocontents of Cdk5, p25 and pTauSer199/202 in the hippocampus. Conversely, pretreatment with MN prevented OA-induced spatial memory deficits and the increment of CSF glutamate level; which paralleled with normal immunocontents of Cdk5, p25 and pTau- Ser199/202 proteins. There were positive correlations between spatial memory performance and the neurochemical parameters. In summary, pretreatment with MN prevents spatial memory deficits induced by intrahippocampal OA administration in rats. The prevention of increase CSF glutamate levels, along with the reduced hippocampal phosphorylation of TauSer199/202 by Cdk5/p25 signaling pathway, are the mechanisms proposed to participate in the prophylactic effects of MN in this AD-like model. PMID:22515493

  15. Prevention of fatal hemorrhagic shock in dog by pretreatment with chronic high-salt diet.

    PubMed

    Rocchini, A P; Gallagher, K P; Botham, M J; Lemmer, J H; Szpunar, C A; Behrendt, D

    1985-09-01

    The ability of a chronic high-salt diet to prevent fatal hemorrhagic shock was examined in 36 mongrel dogs. Twenty-one dogs received a dietary supplement of 9 g sodium chloride/day for 6 wk, and 15 dogs received the same basic diet for 6 wk but without the sodium chloride supplement. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in all dogs by bleeding into an overhanging sealed reservoir. After 3 h of shock, salt-pretreated dogs had a lower systemic vascular resistance of 0.70 +/- 0.02 versus 1.44 +/- 0.04 mmHg X ml-1 X min X kg (P less than 0.01) and a higher cardiac output of 53 +/- 3 versus 26 +/- 3 ml X min-1 X kg-1 (P less than 0.01) than was observed in controls. At 2.5 h of shock, the salt-pretreated dogs also experienced an increase in gastrointestinal (P less than 0.01), hepatic arterial, (P less than 0.05), kidney (P less than 0.05), brain (P less than 0.01), and heart blood flows (P less than 0.001) compared with 0.5 h of shock, whereas the control dogs experienced no increased flow during this same period. We also observed that after 3 h of hypotension there was a significantly smaller increase in plasma renin activity in the salt-pretreated dogs. Administration of 0.1 U X kg-1 X min-1 of hog renin eliminated the differences in systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and survival in five salt-pretreated dogs. PMID:3929625

  16. Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 1: chemical and physical substrate analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    enzyme accessibility. Pretreatment reactors using physical force to disrupt cell walls increase the effectiveness of the pretreatment process. PMID:24713111

  17. Disruption of TGF-β signaling in smooth muscle cell prevents flow-induced vascular remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fu; Chambon, Pierre; Tellides, George; Kong, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Wei

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • TGF-β signaling in SMC contributes to the flow-induced vascular remodeling. • Disruption of TGF-β signaling in SMC can prevent this process. • Targeting SM-specific Tgfbr2 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular remodeling. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling has been prominently implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling, especially the initiation and progression of flow-induced vascular remodeling. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the principal resident cells in arterial wall and are critical for arterial remodeling. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in SMC for flow-induced vascular remodeling remains unknown. Therefore, the goal of our study was to determine the effect of TGF-β pathway in SMC for vascular remodeling, by using a genetical smooth muscle-specific (SM-specific) TGF-β type II receptor (Tgfbr2) deletion mice model. Mice deficient in the expression of Tgfbr2 (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup f/f}) and their corresponding wild-type background mice (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup WT/WT}) underwent partial ligation of left common carotid artery for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Then the carotid arteries were harvested and indicated that the disruption of Tgfbr2 in SMC provided prominent inhibition of vascular remodeling. And the thickening of carotid media, proliferation of SMC, infiltration of macrophage, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) were all significantly attenuated in Tgfbr2 disruption mice. Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the TGF-β signaling in SMC plays an essential role in flow-induced vascular remodeling and disruption can prevent this process.

  18. Disruption of Alcohol-Related Memories by mTORC1 Inhibition Prevents Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Segev; Liu, Feng; Hamida, Sami Ben; Yowell, Quinn V.; Neasta, Jeremie; Kharazia, Viktor; Janak, Patricia H.; Ron, Dorit

    2013-01-01

    Relapse to alcohol abuse is a critical clinical issue, frequently caused by cue-induced drug craving. Therefore, disruption of the memory for the cue-alcohol association is expected to prevent relapse. It is increasingly accepted that memories become labile and erasable soon after their reactivation through retrieval, during a memory reconsolidation process that depends on protein synthesis. Here, we show that reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories triggered by the sensory properties of alcohol itself (odor and taste) activates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in select amygdalar and cortical regions in rats, resulting in increased levels of several synaptic proteins. Furthermore, systemic or central amygdalar (CeA) inhibition of mTORC1 during reconsolidation disrupts alcohol-cue associated memories, leading to a long-lasting suppression of relapse. Our findings provide evidence that the mTORC1 pathway and its downstream substrates play a crucial role in alcohol-related memory reconsolidation, and highlight this pathway as a therapeutic target to prevent relapse. PMID:23792945

  19. Long-term aspirin pretreatment in the prevention of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Akyazi, Ibrahim; Eraslan, Evren; Gülçubuk, Ahmet; Ekiz, Elif Ergül; Çırakli, Zeynep L; Haktanir, Damla; Bala, Deniz Aktaran; Özkurt, Mete; Matur, Erdal; Özcan, Mukaddes

    2013-01-01

    reduced the increase in the aforementioned parameters to a certain degree and partially improved the histopathological alterations caused by cerulein. No evidence of side effects related to chronic ASA administration (e.g., inflammation or bleeding) was observed in the gastrointestinal tract in macroscopic and histopathological examination. CONCLUSION: Long term ASA pretreatment could prevent and/or ameliorate certain hematological, serological and histological alterations caused by cerulein-induced AP. PMID:23704822

  20. Pathways Explaining the Reduction of Adult Criminal Behaviour by a Randomized Preventive Intervention for Disruptive Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify the pathways through which a preventive intervention targeting young low-SES disruptive boys could result in lower crime involvement during adulthood. Method: The preventive intervention was implemented when the children were between 7 and 9 years and included three components (i.e. social skills, parental…

  1. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 prevents toluene diisocyanate-induced airway epithelial barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjia; Dong, Hangming; Zhao, Haijin; Song, Jiafu; Tang, Haixiong; Yao, Lihong; Liu, Laiyu; Tong, Wancheng; Zou, Mengchen; Zou, Fei; Cai, Shaoxi

    2015-07-01

    The loss of airway epithelial integrity contributes significantly to asthma pathogenesis. Evidence suggests that vitamin D plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of asthma. However, its role in airway epithelial barrier function remains uncertain. We have previously demonstrated impaired epithelial junctions in a model of toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced asthma. In the present study, we hypothesized that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] may prevent TDI-induced epithelial barrier disruption. Male BALB/c mice were dermally sensitized and then challenged with TDI. The mice were then administered 1,25(OH)2D3 intraperitoneally prior to challenge with TDI. For in vitro experiments, 16HBE bronchial epithelial cells were cultured and stimulated with TDI-human serum albumin (HSA). The results revealed that the mice treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 displayed decreased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), suppressed neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration into the airways, as well as an increased E-cadherin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) expression at the cell-cell contact sites. In vitro, exposure of the cells to TDI-HSA induced a rapid decline in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and an increase in cell permeability, followed by a decrease in occludin expression and the redistribution of E-cadherin, accompanied by a significant upregulation in the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. These effects were all partly reversed by treatment with either 1,25(OH)2D3 or an ERK1/2 inhibitor. In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 prevents TDI-induced epithelial barrier disruption, and that the ERK1/2 pathway may play a role in this process. PMID:25998793

  2. Pre-treatment with LCZ696, an orally active angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, prevents ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hui-Yu; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Kukida, Masayoshi; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Yamauchi, Toshifumi; Higaki, Akinori; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are known to prevent ischemic brain damage after stroke. Natriuretic peptides, which are increased by a neprilysin inhibitor, are also reported to protect against brain damage. Therefore, we investigated the possible protective effect of valsartan (VAL) compared with LCZ696 (VAL+ neprilysin inhibitor; 1:1) after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with VAL (3mg/kg per day) or LCZ696 (6mg/kg per day) for 2 weeks before MCA occlusion. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured by telemetry. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Ischemic area was evaluated by triphenytetrasodium chloride staining, and oxidative stress was determined by dihydroethidium staining. Blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly different before and after treatment. Pre-treatment with LCZ696 or VAL reduced the ischemic area, and this effect of LCZ696 was more marked than that of VAL pre-treatment. The decrease in CBF in the peripheral region of the ischemic area was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with LCZ696 or VAL, without any significant effect on CBF in the core region. VAL or LCZ696 pre-treatment significantly decreased the increase of superoxide anion production in the cortex on the ischemic side. However, no significant difference in CBF and superoxide anion production was observed between VAL and LCZ696 pre-treatment. The preventive effect of LCZ696 on ischemic brain damage after stroke was more marked than that of VAL. LCZ696 could be used as a new approach to prevent brain damage after stroke. (246 words). PMID:26057694

  3. Comparative Study of Atropine Combined with Sodium Nitroprusside Pretreatment to Prevent Trigemino Cardiac Reflex after Trigeminal Ganglion Compression

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhan-Ying; Cai, Chang-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Rong-Wei; Pang, Qing-Gui; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    the same group were observed between T1 and T2, to the group A, B and D, means of HR (p>0.05 vs. T1) indicated significant differences, however, there was no significant difference in group C (p>0.05). Furthermore, the incidence of post-compression tachycardia was observed in each group. Conclusion By comparison, it seemed that 0.004mg/kg atropine pretreatment before PCTG was more reasonable for preventing significant haemodynamic changes. PMID:27134974

  4. Eugenia jambolana pretreatment prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage in rats: evidence from biochemical, molecular, and histopathological studies.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Santosh Kumar; Sharma, Suman Bala; Singh, Usha Rani; Ahmad, Sayeed; Maheshwari, Ankur; Misro, Manmohan; Dwivedi, Shridhar

    2014-02-01

    Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana (HEEJ) on isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial damage in rats were evaluated. Rats were pre-treated with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. ISP (85 mg/kg bw) was administered on the 28th and 29th days at an interval of 24 h. Ischemic control group exhibited significant increases in oxidative stress parameters, markers of inflammation, cardiac damage markers, and apoptotic markers. Oral pre-treatment with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw) provided cardioprotective activity by decreasing levels of malondialdehyde, cardiac markers (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, cardiac troponin I), and markers of inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor alpha); and increased levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. HEEJ (400 mg/kg bw) was found to exert significantly greater effects in comparison to HEEJ (100 and 200 mg/kg bw). Apoptotic marker Bcl-2 was increased, while Bax was decreased in pre-treated rats, which was further confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The present study provides evidence that pre-treatment with HEEJ attenuates oxidative stress, apoptosis and improves cardiac architecture in ISP-induced rats and, hence, is cardioprotective. PMID:24325453

  5. Eugenia jambolana Pretreatment Prevents Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Damage in Rats: Evidence from Biochemical, Molecular, and Histopathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Usha Rani; Ahmad, Sayeed; Maheshwari, Ankur; Misro, Manmohan; Dwivedi, Shridhar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana (HEEJ) on isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial damage in rats were evaluated. Rats were pre-treated with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. ISP (85 mg/kg bw) was administered on the 28th and 29th days at an interval of 24 h. Ischemic control group exhibited significant increases in oxidative stress parameters, markers of inflammation, cardiac damage markers, and apoptotic markers. Oral pre-treatment with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw) provided cardioprotective activity by decreasing levels of malondialdehyde, cardiac markers (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, cardiac troponin I), and markers of inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor alpha); and increased levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. HEEJ (400 mg/kg bw) was found to exert significantly greater effects in comparison to HEEJ (100 and 200 mg/kg bw). Apoptotic marker Bcl-2 was increased, while Bax was decreased in pre-treated rats, which was further confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The present study provides evidence that pre-treatment with HEEJ attenuates oxidative stress, apoptosis and improves cardiac architecture in ISP-induced rats and, hence, is cardioprotective. PMID:24325453

  6. Estrogens prevent metabolic dysfunctions induced by circadian disruptions in female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circadian disruption has become a significant factor contributing to the epidemics of obesity and insulin resistance. However, interventions to treat metabolic dysfunctions induced by circadian disruptions are limited. The ovarian hormone, estrogen, produces important antiobesity and antidiabetic ef...

  7. Iron supplement prevents lead-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier during rat development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Qiang; Luo Wenjing; Zheng Wei; Liu Yiping; Xu Hui; Zheng Gang; Dai Zhongming; Zhang Wenbin; Chen Yaoming; Chen Jingyuan . E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2007-02-15

    Children are known to be venerable to lead (Pb) toxicity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) in immature brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb insults. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Pb exposure damaged the integrity of the BBB in young animals and iron (Fe) supplement may prevent against Pb-induced BBB disruption. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Three groups of rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water containing 342 {mu}g Pb/mL as Pb acetate, among which two groups were concurrently administered by oral gavage once every other day with 7 mg Fe/kg and 14 mg Fe/kg as FeSO{sub 4} solution as the low and high Fe treatment group, respectively, for 6 weeks. The control group received sodium acetate in drinking water. Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in blood by 6.6-folds (p < 0.05) and brain tissues by 1.5-2.0-folds (p < 0.05) as compared to controls. Under the electron microscope, Pb exposure in young animals caused an extensive extravascular staining of lanthanum nitrate in brain parenchyma, suggesting a leakage of cerebral vasculature. Western blot showed that Pb treatment led to 29-68% reduction (p < 0.05) in the expression of occludin as compared to the controls. Fe supplement among Pb-exposed rats maintained the normal ultra-structure of the BBB and restored the expression of occludin to normal levels. Moreover, the low dose Fe supplement significantly reduced Pb levels in blood and brain tissues. These data suggest that Pb exposure disrupts the structure of the BBB in young animals. The increased BBB permeability may facilitate the accumulation of Pb. Fe supplement appears to protect the integrity of the BBB against Pb insults, a beneficial effect that may have significant clinical implications.

  8. Protection of Rhesus monkeys against Soman and prevention of performance decrement by pretreatment with acetylcholinesterase. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.M.; Castro, C.A.; De La Hoz, D.M.; Gentry, M.K.; Gold, M.B.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of acetylcholinesterase from fetal bovine serum (FBS AChE) to protect against soman, a highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compound, was tested in rhesus monkeys. Intravenous administration of FBS AChE produced a minimal behavioral effect on the serial probe recognition task, a sensitive test of cognitive function and short-term memory. Pharmacokinetic studies of injected FBS AChE indicated a plasma half-life of 40 hr for FBS AChE in monkeys. Both in vitro and in vivo titration of FBS AChE with soman produced a 1:1 stoichiometry between organophosphate-inhibited FBS AChE and the cumulative dose of the toxic stereoisomers of soman. Administration of FBS AChE protected monkeys against the lethal effects of up to 2.7 LD50 of soman and prevented any signs of organophosphate intoxication, e.g., excessive secretions, respiratory depression, muscle fasciculations, or convulsions. In addition, monkeys pretreated with FBS AChE were devoid of any behavioral incapacitation after soman challenge, as measured by the serial probe recognition task. Compared to the current multicomponent drug treatment against soman, which does not prevent the signs or the behavioral deficits resulting from OP intoxication, use of FBS AChE as a single pretreatment drug provides significantly effective protection against both the lethal and the behavioral effects of soman. Acetylcholinesterase; protection; non-human primates; soman; pretreatment.

  9. Protection of rhesus monkeys against Soman and prevention of performance decrement by pretreatment with acetylcholinesterase. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.M.; Castro, C.A.; De La Hoz, D.M.; Gentry, M.K.; Gold, M.B.

    1992-12-31

    The ability of acetylcholinesterase from fetal bovine serum (FBS AChE) to protect against soman, a highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compound, was tested in rhesus monkeys. Intravenous administration of FBS AChE produced a minimal behavioral effect on the serial probe recognition task, a sensitive test of cognitive function and short-term memory. Pharmacokinetic studies of injected FBS AChE indicated a plasma half-life of 40 hr for FBS AChE in monkeys. Both in vitro and in vivo titration of FBS AChE with soman produced a 1:1 stoichiometry between organophosphate-inhibited FBS AChE and the cumulative dose of the toxic stereoisomers of soman. Administration of FBS AChE protected monkeys against the lethal effects of up to 2.7 LD50 of soman and prevented any signs of organophosphate intoxication, e.g., excessive secretions, respiratory depression, muscle fasciculations, or convulsions. In addition, monkeys pretreated with FBS AChE were devoid of any behavioral incapacitation after soman challenge, as measured by the serial probe recognition task. Compared to the current multicomponent drug treatment against soman, which does not prevent the signs or the behavioral deficits resulting from OP intoxication, use of FBS AChE as a single pretreatment drug provides significantly effective protection against both the lethal and the behavioral effects of soman.... Pretreatment, Nonhuman primate, Performance decrements, Acetylcholinesterase, Soman, Nerve agents.

  10. Preventive Effects of Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Middle Childhood on Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…

  11. Neuregulin 1 Prevents Phencyclidine-Induced Behavioral Impairments and Disruptions to GABAergic Signaling in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Snikeris, Peta; Jenner, Andrew; Karl, Tim; Huang, Xu-Feng; Frank, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substantial evidence from human post-mortem and genetic studies has linked the neurotrophic factor neuregulin 1 (NRG1) to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Genetic animal models and in vitro experiments have suggested that altered NRG1 signaling, rather than protein changes, contributes to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the effect of NRG1 on schizophrenia-relevant behavior and neurotransmission (particularly GABAergic and glutamatergic) in adult animals. Method: To address this question, we treated adult mice with the extracellular signaling domain of NRG1 and assessed spontaneous locomotor activity and acoustic startle response, as well as extracellular GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus via microdialysis. Furthermore, we asked whether the effect of NRG1 would differ under schizophrenia-relevant impairments in mice and therefore co-treated mice with NRG1 and phencyclidine (PCP) (3mg/kg). Results: Acute intraventricularly- or systemically-injected NRG1 did not affect spontaneous behavior, but prevented PCP induced hyperlocomotion and deficits of prepulse inhibition. NRG1 retrodialysis (10nM) reduced extracellular glutamate and glycine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and prevented PCP-induced increase in extracellular GABA levels in the hippocampus. Conclusion: With these results, we provide the first compelling in vivo evidence for the involvement of NRG1 signaling in schizophrenia-relevant behavior and neurotransmission in the adult nervous system, which highlight its treatment potential. Furthermore, the ability of NRG1 treatment to alter GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the presence of PCP also suggests that NRG1 signaling has the potential to alter disrupted neurotransmission in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26478928

  12. Prevention of skin tumorigenesis and impairment of epidermal cell proliferation by targeted aquaporin-3 gene disruption.

    PubMed

    Hara-Chikuma, Mariko; Verkman, A S

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a water/glycerol-transporting protein expressed strongly at the plasma membranes of basal epidermal cells in skin. We found that human skin squamous cell carcinoma strongly overexpresses AQP3. A novel role for AQP3 in skin tumorigenesis was discovered using mice with targeted AQP3 gene disruption. We found that AQP3-null mice were remarkably resistant to the development of skin tumors following exposure to a tumor initiator and phorbol ester promoter. Though tumor initiator challenge produced comparable apoptotic responses in wild-type and AQP3-null mice, promoter-induced cell proliferation was greatly impaired in the AQP3-null epidermis. Reductions of epidermal cell glycerol, its metabolite glycerol-3-phosphate, and ATP were found in AQP3 deficiency without impairment of mitochondrial function. Glycerol supplementation corrected the reduced proliferation and ATP content in AQP3 deficiency, with cellular glycerol, ATP, and proliferative ability being closely correlated. Our data suggest involvement of AQP3-facilitated glycerol transport in epidermal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by a novel mechanism implicating cellular glycerol as a key determinant of cellular ATP energy. AQP3 may thus be an important determinant in skin tumorigenesis and hence a novel target for tumor prevention and therapy. PMID:17967887

  13. Bromobenzene-induced lethal toxicity in mouse is prevented by pretreatment with zinc sulfate.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Hiroki; Fukaya, Shiori; Fukuishi, Nobuyuki; Nagatsu, Akito; Nonogaki, Tsunemasa; Onosaka, Satomi

    2016-07-25

    In the current study, we evaluated the protective effect of zinc (Zn) against bromobenzene (BB) -induced lethal toxicity. We used Zn because this element is known to be an inducer of metallothionein (MT), which is in turn known to serve as an endogenous scavenger of free radicals. We administered Zn (as ZnSO4) at 50 mg/kg subcutaneously once-daily for 3 successive days prior to a single intraperitoneal administration of 1.2 g/kg BB in male ddY mice. Our results showed that pretreatment with Zn completely abolished the BB-induced mortality of mice until 48 h. We also found that pretreatment of mice with Zn significantly decreased the functional marker levels and reduced the histological damage both in liver and kidney as assessed at 18 h post-BB. We also showed that pretreatment with Zn enhanced antioxidative activity, resulting in decreased lipid peroxidation in both liver and kidney. Moreover, BB-induced calcium levels were downregulated by pretreatment with Zn. In addition, Zn-induced MT was decreased in Zn + BB-treated animals, implying that MT was consumed by BB-induced radicals. These findings suggest that prophylaxis with Zn protects mice from BB-induced lethal toxicity by decreasing oxidative stress in liver and kidney, presumably by induction of MT, which scavenges radicals induced by BB exposure. PMID:27270452

  14. Severe anaphylactic shock due to ethylene oxide in a patient with myelomeningocele: successful exposure prevention and pretreatment with omalizumab.

    PubMed

    Listyo, Adrian; Hofmeier, Kathrin Scherer; Bandschapp, Oliver; Erb, Thomas; Hasler, Carol-Claudius; Bircher, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is a highly reactive gas widely used for sterilization of medical devices, for example, plastic materials and ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Allergic reactions to EO are rare and have been observed mainly in patients during hemodialysis and myelomeningocele patients. We describe severe anaphylaxis to EO in a patient with myelomeningocele during general anesthesia. A detailed description is provided about the prevention measures aimed at reducing exposure to EO including a novel approach by resterilization with plasma. Also, pretreatment with omalizumab was implemented for the first time in such a case. With these measures, further surgeries in our patient were uneventful. PMID:25612258

  15. Guilt and Effortful Control: Two Mechanisms that Prevent Disruptive Developmental Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A.; Jimenez, Natasha B.; Hollatz, Amanda L.; Woodard, Jarilyn

    2009-01-01

    Children's guilt associated with transgressions and their capacity for effortful control are both powerful forces that inhibit disruptive conduct. We examined how guilt and effortful control, repeatedly observed from toddler to preschool age, jointly predict children's disruptive outcomes in two multi-method multi-trait longitudinal studies (N's 57 and 99). Disruptive outcomes were rated by mothers at 73 months (Study 1) and mothers, fathers, and teachers at 52 and 67 months (Study 2). In both studies, guilt moderated effects of effortful control: For highly guilt-prone children, variations in effortful control were unrelated to future disruptive outcomes, but for children who were less guilt prone, effortful control predicted such outcomes. Guilt may inhibit transgressions through an automatic response due to negative arousal triggered by memories of past wrongdoing, regardless of child capacity for deliberate inhibition. Effortful control that engages a deliberate restraint may offset risk for disruptive conduct conferred by low guilt. PMID:19634978

  16. Simultaneous detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals including conjugates in municipal wastewater and sludge with enhanced sample pretreatment and UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Ben, Weiwei; Yuan, Xiangjuan; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Qiang, Zhimin

    2015-08-01

    The co-existence of free and conjugated estrogens and the interference from complex matrices often lead to largely variable detected concentrations and sometimes even negative removal efficiencies of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, a highly selective and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous extraction, elution, and detection of 12 EDCs (i.e., 4 free estrogens, 6 conjugated estrogens, and 2 phenolic compounds) in municipal wastewater and sludge. Sample pretreatment and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection were optimized to improve the detection selectivity and sensitivity. The results indicate that the additional purification process was highly effective in reducing the matrix interference, and the limits of quantification reached as low as 0.04-2.2 ng L(-1) in wastewater and 0.05-4.9 ng g(-1) in sludge for all target EDCs. The developed method was successfully applied to explore the behavior of target EDCs in a local WWTP. The conjugates occupied a considerable portion (4.3-76.9% in molar ratio) of each related estrogen in the influent. Most of the target EDCs could not be completely removed in WWTPs, thus posing a potential threat to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26161687

  17. NFkB disrupts tissue polarity in 3D by preventing integration of microenvironmental signals.

    PubMed

    Becker-Weimann, Sabine; Xiong, Gaofeng; Furuta, Saori; Han, Ju; Kuhn, Irene; Akavia, Uri-David; Pe'er, Dana; Bissell, Mina J; Xu, Ren

    2013-11-01

    The microenvironment of cells controls their phenotype, and thereby the architecture of the emerging multicellular structure or tissue. We have reported more than a dozen microenvironmental factors whose signaling must be integrated in order to effect an organized, functional tissue morphology. However, the factors that prevent integration of signaling pathways that merge form and function are still largely unknown. We have identified nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) as a transcriptional regulator that disrupts important microenvironmental cues necessary for tissue organization. We compared the gene expression of organized and disorganized epithelial cells of the HMT-3522 breast cancer progression series: the non-malignant S1 cells that form polarized spheres ('acini'), the malignant T4-2 cells that form large tumor-like clusters, and the 'phenotypically reverted' T4-2 cells that polarize as a result of correction of the microenvironmental signaling. We identified 180 genes that display an increased expression in disorganized compared to polarized structures. Network, GSEA and transcription factor binding site analyses suggested that NFkB is a common activator for the 180 genes. NFkB was found to be activated in disorganized breast cancer cells, and inhibition of microenvironmental signaling via EGFR, beta1 integrin, MMPs, or their downstream signals suppressed its activation. The postulated role of NFkB was experimentally verified: Blocking the NFkB pathway with a specific chemical inhibitor or shRNA induced polarization and inhibited invasion of breast cancer cells in 3D cultures. These results may explain why NFkB holds promise as a target for therapeutic intervention: Its inhibition can reverse the oncogenic signaling involved in breast cancer progression and integrate the essential microenvironmental control of tissue architecture. PMID:24243820

  18. The Role of Friends’ Disruptive Behavior in the Development of Children’s Tobacco Experimentation: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Huizink, Anja; Vuijk, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends’ disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children’s tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52% males) were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG) intervention, a universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior, and facilitating positive prosocial peer interactions. Friends’ disruptive behavior was assessed from age 7–10 years. Participants’ experimentation with tobacco was assessed annually from age 10–13. Reduced rates in tobacco experimentation and friends’ disruptive behavior were found among GBG children, as compared to controls. Support for friends’ disruptive behavior as a mediator in the link between intervention status and tobacco experimentation was found. These results remained after controlling for friends’ and parental smoking status, and child ADHD symptoms. The results support the role of friends’ disruptive behavior in preadolescents’ tobacco experimentation. PMID:20694577

  19. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  20. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1995-01-10

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  1. Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    PubMed

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J

    2000-03-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029

  2. Combining School and Family Interventions for the Prevention and Early Intervention of Disruptive Behavior Problems in Children: A Public Health Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Splett, Joni D.; Robeson, Elise N.; Offutt, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevention or reduction of early aggressive and disruptive behavior has important educational and mental health implications. Disruptive behavior problems contribute to loss of instruction time in the classroom, frustration for children and families, and considerable societal burden associated with antisocial acts, including delinquency and…

  3. Preventing intensive care unit delirium: a patient-centered approach to reducing sleep disruption.

    PubMed

    Stuck, Amy; Clark, Mary Jo; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2011-01-01

    Delirium in the intensive care unit is a disorder with multifactorial causes and is associated with poor outcomes. Sleep-wake disturbance is a common experience for patients with delirium. Care processes that disrupt sleep can lead to sleep deprivation, contributing to delirium. Patient-centered care is a concept that considers what is best for each individual. How can clinicians use a patient-centered approach to alter processes to decrease patient disruptions and improve sleep and rest? Could timing of blood draws and soothing music work to promote sleep? PMID:21983504

  4. Lipopolysaccharide induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice are prevented by chronic pre-treatment of esculetin.

    PubMed

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Keshavlal, Gohil Pratik; Bezbaruah, Babul B; Dwivedi, Shubham; Gurjar, Satendra Singh; Munde, Nitin; Jangra, Ashok; Lahkar, Mangala; Gogoi, Ranadeep

    2016-01-12

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. Esculetin (ESC), a coumarin derived potent antioxidant, also possessing anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activity. This study investigated the effect of ESC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice. ESC (25 and 50mg/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 14 days, and challenged with saline or LPS (0.83mg/kg; i.p.) on the 15th day. Behavioural paradigms such as elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were employed to assess anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice post-LPS injection. Hippocampal cytokines, MDA and GSH level, and plasma corticosterone (CORT) were measured. ESC pre-treatment significantly (P<0.05) attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behaviour by modulating EPM and OFT parameters. Moreover, LPS-induced increase in immobility time in FST and TST were also prevented significantly (P<0.05) by ESC (50mg/kg). ESC pre-treatment ameliorated LPS-induced neuroinflammation by attenuating brain IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α level, and oxidative stress as well as plasma CORT level. In conclusion, the results suggest that ESC prevented LPS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour which may be governed by inhibition of cytokine production, oxidative stress and plasma CORT level. The results support the potential usefulness of ESC in the treatment of psychiatric disorders associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:26620836

  5. The Use of Group Contingencies for Preventing and Managing Disruptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulac, David M.; Benson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors requiring intervention occur across multiple school systems, including individual students and classrooms. Such behaviors, including talking aloud in class, getting out of one's seat, or more serious behaviors, can be frustrating for other students as well as teachers, who are trying to help students meet ever-increasing…

  6. Effect of pretreatment with an Er:YAG laser and fluoride on the prevention of dental enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    dos Reis Derceli, Juliana; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana Jendiroba; Azevedo, Danielle Torres; Wang, Linda; Bataglion, César; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Er:YAG laser and its association with fluoride (1.23% acidulate phosphate fluoride gel) on the prevention of enamel erosion. Sixty specimens were obtained from bovine enamel (4 × 4 mm), which were ground flat, polished, and randomly divided into five groups according to the preventive treatments: control-fluoride application; L--Er:YAG laser; L+F--laser + fluoride; F+L--fluoride + laser; L/F--laser/fluoride simultaneously. Half of the enamel surface was covered with nail varnish (control area), and the other half was pretreated with one of the preventive strategies to subsequently be submitted to erosive challenge. When the laser was applied, it was irradiated for 10 s with a focal length of 4 mm and 60 mJ/2 Hz. Fluoride gel was applied for 4 min. Each specimen was individually exposed to regular Coca-Cola® for 1 min, four times/day, for 5 days. Wear analysis was performed with a profilometer, and demineralization was assessed with an optical microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (wear)/Dunn test and ANOVA/Fisher's exact tests. The group L/F was similar to control group. The other groups showed higher wear, which did not present differences among them. In the demineralization assessment, the groups F+L and L/F showed lower demineralization in relation to the other groups. It can be concluded that none preventive method was able to inhibit dental wear. The treatments L/F and F+L showed lower enamel demineralization. PMID:24149579

  7. Pretreatment with enteral cholestyramine prevents suppression of the cellular immune system after partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Van Leeuwen, P A; Boermeester, M A; Houdijk, A P; Meyer, S; Cuesta, M A; Wesdorp, R I; Rodrick, M L; Wilmore, D W

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors tested the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of the endotoxin-binding agent cholestyramine on the postoperative course in rats that had undergone a partial hepatectomy was the result of improvement of cellular immune functions. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Major liver resection is associated with severe postoperative complications and a high incidence of systemic infections. Gut-derived endotoxins previously were shown to be involved in the pathogenic processes after partial hepatectomy in rats. In addition, enteral cholestyramine improved postoperative survival, but how its beneficial effects are mediated is not clear. METHODS: Rats that were force-fed for 7 days with either cholestyramine (150 mg/day) or 0.9% saline (equal volume) were randomized to undergo a partial hepatectomy or a sham operation. After 24 hours, the rats were killed and splenic mononuclear cells were tested in vitro for mitogenic responses and cytokine production. RESULTS: Proliferative responses of splenic B and T lymphocytes and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 by splenocytes were lower in rats after partial hepatectomy than in sham-operated animals. An increased concanavalin A-stimulated production of interleukin-2 also was found after partial hepatectomy compared with sham levels. Pretreatment with enteral cholestyramine preserved cellular proliferative responsiveness of both B and T cells, and restored cytokine production by splenocytes to sham levels. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic treatment with enteral cholestyramine preserved cellular immune functions after partial hepatectomy in the rat, which may explain its beneficial effects on the postoperative course. Furthermore, the authors' results are consistent with the hypothesis that endotoxemia is involved in the pathogenesis of the cellular immune derangements after partial hepatectomy. PMID:7717782

  8. Chronic pre-treatment with memantine prevents amyloid-beta protein-mediated long-term potentiation disruption.

    PubMed

    Li, Fushun; Chen, Xiaowei; Wang, Feiming; Xu, Shujun; Chang, Lan; Anwyl, Roger; Wang, Qinwen

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that memantine, a low-affinity N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, exerted acute protective effects against amyloid-β protein-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, the chronic effects and mechanisms of memantine were investigated further using electrophysiological methods. The results showed that 7-day intraperitoneal application of memantine, at doses of 5 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg, did not alter hippocampal long-term potentiation induction in rats, while 40 mg/kg memantine presented potent long-term potentiation inhibition. Then further in vitro studys were carried out in 5 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg memantine treated rats. We found that 20 mg/kg memantine attenuated the potent long-term potentiation inhibition caused by exposure to amyloid-β protein in the dentate gyrus in vitro. These findings are the first to demonstrate the antagonizing effect of long-term systematic treatment of memantine against amyloid-β protein triggered long-term potentiation inhibition to improve synaptic plasticity. PMID:25206371

  9. Phenylbutyrate prevents disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Ye, Libing; Zheng, Binbin; Zhu, Sipin; Shi, Hongxue; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and the effect of phenylbutyrate (PBA) on BSCB disruption after SCI. After a moderate contusion injury at the T9 level of spinal cord with a vascular clip, PBA was immediately administered into injured rat via intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) and then further treated once a day for 2 weeks for behavior test. Spinal cord was collected at 1 day post-injury for evaluation of the effects of ER stress and PBA on BSCB disruption after SCI. PBA significantly attenuated BSCB permeability and degradation of tight junction molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 at 1 day after injury and improved functional recovery in the rat model of trauma. The BSCB protective effect of PBA is related to the inhibition of ER stress induced by SCI. In addition, PBA significantly inhibited the increase of ER stress markers and prevents loss of tight junction and adherens junction proteins in TG-treated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Taken together, our data demonstrate that therapeutic strategies targeting ER stress may be suitable for the therapy of preserving BSCB integrity after SCI. PBA may be a new candidate as a therapeutic agent for protecting SCI by a compromised BSCB. PMID:27186310

  10. NP04634 prevents cell damage caused by calcium overload and mitochondrial disruption in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Valero, Teresa; del Barrio, Laura; Egea, Javier; Cañas, Noelia; Martínez, Ana; García, Antonio G; Villarroya, Mercedes; López, Manuela G

    2009-04-01

    Marine sponges are becoming a rich source of potential new medicines. NP04634 is a synthetic derivative of 11,19 dideoxyfistularin, a natural product of the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina cavernicola. We report the cytoprotective effects of this new compound in isolated bovine chromaffin cells exposed to cytotoxic stimuli that have been related to neuronal cell death, i.e. Ca(2+) overload and mitochondrial dysfunction. Cell death was achieved by: (i) causing Ca(2+) overload through voltage-dependent calcium channels by exposing the cells to 30 mM K(+), 5 mM Ca(2+) plus 0.3 microM FPL64176 (an L-type Ca(2+)-channel activator); (ii) incubating the cells with veratridine, causing cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) oscillations and mitochondrial disruption; and (iii) blocking mitochondrial complexes I and V using a combination of 30 microM rotenone and 10 microM oligomycin. At 10 microM, NP04634 caused significant protection against 30K(+)/5Ca(2+)/FPL-induced toxicity. NP04634 caused a concentration-dependent reduction in [Ca(2+)](c) induced by 70 mM K(+) in cells loaded with Fluo-4; maximum blockade was 67% at 30 microM. Veratridine caused continuous [Ca(2+)](c) oscillations that translated into 43.4+/-2% cell death. In this model, NP04634 caused 42% and 67% protection at 3 and 10 microM, respectively. NP04634 reduced [Ca(2+)](c) oscillations and mitochondrial depolarization caused by veratridine. NP04634 at 10 microM also protected against mitochondrial disruption caused by rotenone plus oligomycin. In conclusion, NP04634 is a novel compound of marine origin with cytoprotective properties that might have potential therapeutic implications under pathological circumstances involving Ca(2+) overload and mitochondrial disruption, such as in certain neurodegenerative diseases and/or stroke. PMID:19233161

  11. Disrupting neural activity related to awake-state sharp wave-ripple complexes prevents hippocampal learning.

    PubMed

    Nokia, Miriam S; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Penttonen, Markku; Wikgren, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Oscillations in hippocampal local-field potentials (LFPs) reflect the crucial involvement of the hippocampus in memory trace formation: theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations and ripples (~200 Hz) occurring during sharp waves are thought to mediate encoding and consolidation, respectively. During sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs), hippocampal cell firing closely follows the pattern that took place during the initial experience, most likely reflecting replay of that event. Disrupting hippocampal ripples using electrical stimulation either during training in awake animals or during sleep after training retards spatial learning. Here, adult rabbits were trained in trace eyeblink conditioning, a hippocampus-dependent associative learning task. A bright light was presented to the animals during the inter-trial interval (ITI), when awake, either during SPW-Rs or irrespective of their neural state. Learning was particularly poor when the light was presented following SPW-Rs. While the light did not disrupt the ripple itself, it elicited a theta-band oscillation, a state that does not usually coincide with SPW-Rs. Thus, it seems that consolidation depends on neuronal activity within and beyond the hippocampus taking place immediately after, but by no means limited to, hippocampal SPW-Rs. PMID:23316148

  12. Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 2: morphological and structural substrate analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable, naturally mass-produced form of stored solar energy. Thermochemical pretreatment processes have been developed to address the challenge of biomass recalcitrance, however the optimization, cost reduction, and scalability of these processes remain as obstacles to the adoption of biofuel production processes at the industrial scale. In this study, we demonstrate that the type of reactor in which pretreatment is carried out can profoundly alter the micro- and nanostructure of the pretreated materials and dramatically affect the subsequent efficiency, and thus cost, of enzymatic conversion of cellulose. Results Multi-scale microscopy and quantitative image analysis was used to investigate the impact of different biomass pretreatment reactor configurations on plant cell wall structure. We identify correlations between enzymatic digestibility and geometric descriptors derived from the image data. Corn stover feedstock was pretreated under the same nominal conditions for dilute acid pretreatment (2.0 wt% H2SO4, 160°C, 5 min) using three representative types of reactors: ZipperClave® (ZC), steam gun (SG), and horizontal screw (HS) reactors. After 96 h of enzymatic digestion, biomass treated in the SG and HS reactors achieved much higher cellulose conversions, 88% and 95%, respectively, compared to the conversion obtained using the ZC reactor (68%). Imaging at the micro- and nanoscales revealed that the superior performance of the SG and HS reactors could be explained by reduced particle size, cellular dislocation, increased surface roughness, delamination, and nanofibrillation generated within the biomass particles during pretreatment. Conclusions Increased cellular dislocation, surface roughness, delamination, and nanofibrillation revealed by direct observation of the micro- and nanoscale change in accessibility explains the superior performance of reactors that augment pretreatment with physical energy. PMID:24690534

  13. Prevention of calcification of glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium through controlled release polymeric implants: studies of Fe3+, Al3+, protamine sulphate and levamisole.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Y V; Boyd, J; Levy, R J; Schoen, F J

    1990-11-01

    Calcification is the principal cause of the clinical failure of bioprosthetic heart valves fabricated from glutaraldehyde pretreated porcine aortic valves or bovine pericardium. The present study investigated controlled-release implants for prevention of the calcification of glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium in a rat subdermal model. Either Al3+ and Fe3+ (inhibitors of the growth and dissolution rate of hydroxyapatite crystals), levamisole (alkaline phosphatase inhibitor) or protamine sulphate (charge modifier) were individually incorporated into various polymeric carriers (either silicone rubber, polyurethane or silicone rubber-polyurethane copolymer). Polymeric implants were evaluated for in vitro release kinetics, which revealed that sustained drug release was obtained from 21 d to more than 90 d from various drug matrices. In vivo efficacy was studied by co-implanting the polymeric delivery systems with glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium for 21 d using a subdermal rat model; glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium calcium levels were quantitated by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the explanted tissues. Fe3+ and Al3+ polymeric implants were the most effective for inhibiting deposition of calcium mineral. Al3+ demonstrated 82% inhibition of calcification compared to controls and Fe3+ resulted in 80% inhibition of calcification. Specific histologic staining methods showed that Fe3+ and Al3+ were localized within the devitalized cells of the explanted glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium. No adverse effects on somatic growth or recipient bone morphology were noted following controlled-release drug administration. Controlled release of protamine sulphate or levamisole did not significantly inhibit glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium calcification. It is concluded that regional controlled release of Fe3+ or Al3+ inhibits glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium calcification in the rat subdermal model without adverse

  14. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  15. GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptor antagonists prevent Abeta-mediated synaptic plasticity disruption in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hu, Neng-Wei; Klyubin, Igor; Anwyl, Roger; Anwy, Roger; Rowan, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    Currently, treatment with the relatively low-affinity NMDA receptor antagonist memantine provides limited benefit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). One probable dose-limiting factor in the use of memantine is the inhibition of NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity mechanisms believed to underlie certain forms of memory. Moreover, amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) oligomers that are implicated in causing the cognitive deficits of AD potently inhibit this form of plasticity. Here we examined if subtype-preferring NMDA receptor antagonists could preferentially protect against the inhibition of NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity of excitatory synaptic transmission by Abeta in the hippocampus in vivo. Using doses that did not affect control plasticity, antagonists selective for NMDA receptors containing GluN2B but not other GluN2 subunits prevented Abeta(1-42) -mediated inhibition of plasticity. Evidence that the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha mediates this deleterious action of Ass was provided by the ability of TNFalpha antagonists to prevent Abeta(1-42) inhibition of plasticity and the abrogation of a similar disruptive effect of TNFalpha using a GluN2B-selective antagonist. Moreover, at nearby synapses that were resistant to the inhibitory effect of TNFalpha, Abeta(1-42) did not significantly affect plasticity. These findings suggest that preferentially targeting GluN2B subunit-containing NMDARs may provide an effective means of preventing cognitive deficits in early Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19918059

  16. Retinoic Acid Prevents Disruption of Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier by Inducing Autophagic Flux After Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yulong; Zheng, Binbin; Ye, Libing; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhu, Sipin; Zheng, Xiaomeng; Xia, Qinghai; He, Zili; Wang, Qingqing; Xiao, Jian; Xu, Huazi

    2016-04-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces the disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), which leads to infiltration of blood cells, inflammatory responses and neuronal cell death, with subsequent development of spinal cord secondary damage. Recent reports pointed to an important role of retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of the vitamin A, in the induction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during human and mouse development, however, it is unknown whether RA plays a role in maintaining BSCB integrity under the pathological conditions such as SCI. In this study, we investigated the BSCB protective role of RA both in vivo and in vitro and demonstrated that autophagy are involved in the BSCB protective effect of RA. Our data show that RA attenuated BSCB permeability and also attenuated the loss of tight junction molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 after injury in vivo as well as in brain microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, RA administration improved functional recovery of the rat model of trauma. We also found that RA could significantly increase the expression of LC3-II and decrease the expression of p62 both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, combining RA with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) partially abolished its protective effect on the BSCB and exacerbated the loss of tight junctions. Together, our studies indicate that RA improved functional recovery in part by the prevention of BSCB disruption via the activation of autophagic flux after SCI. PMID:26582233

  17. School Outcomes of Aggressive-Disruptive Children: Prediction From Kindergarten Risk Factors and Impact of the Fast Track Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John; Dodge, Kenneth; Greenberg, Mark; Lochman, John; McMohan, Robert; Pinderhughes, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A multi-gate screening process identified 891 children with aggressive-disruptive behavior problems at school entry. Fast Track provided a multi-component preventive intervention in the context of a randomized-controlled design. In addition to psychosocial support and skill training for parents and children, the intervention included intensive reading tutoring in first grade, behavioral management consultation with teachers, and the provision of homework support (as needed) through tenth grade. This study examined the impact of the intervention, as well as the impact of the child's initial aggressive-disruptive behaviors and associated school readiness skills (cognitive ability, reading readiness, attention problems) on academic progress and educational placements during elementary school (Grades 1–4) and during the secondary school years (Grades 7–10), as well as high school graduation. Child behavior problems and skills at school entry predicted school difficulties (low grades, grade retention, placement in a self-contained classroom, behavior disorder classification, and failure to graduate). Disappointingly, intervention did not significantly improve these long-term school outcomes. PMID:23386568

  18. Lipoxin A4 prevents tight junction disruption and delays the colonization of cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Gerard; Fustero Torre, Coral; Tyrrell, Jean; McNally, Paul; Harvey, Brian J; Urbach, Valerie

    2016-06-01

    The specialized proresolution lipid mediator lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is abnormally produced in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. LXA4 increases the CF airway surface liquid height and stimulates airway epithelial repair and tight junction formation. We report here a protective effect of LXA4 (1 nM) against tight junction disruption caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial challenge together with a delaying action against bacterial invasion in CF airway epithelial cells from patients with CF and immortalized cell lines. Bacterial invasion and tight junction integrity were measured by gentamicin exclusion assays and confocal fluorescence microscopy in non-CF (NuLi-1) and CF (CuFi-1) bronchial epithelial cell lines and in primary CF cultures, grown under an air/liquid interface, exposed to either a clinical or laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa LXA4 delayed P. aeruginosa invasion and transepithelial migration in CF and normal bronchial epithelial cell cultures. These protective effects of LXA4 were inhibited by the ALX/FPR2 lipoxin receptor antagonist BOC-2. LXA4 prevented the reduction in mRNA biosynthesis and protein abundance of the tight junction protein ZO-1 and reduced tight junction disruption induced by P. aeruginsosa inoculation. In conclusion, LXA4 plays a protective role in bronchial epithelium by stimulating tight junction repair and by delaying and reducing the invasion of CF bronchial epithelial cells by P. aeruginsosa. PMID:27084849

  19. Pretreatment methods for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaoyang; Huang, Fang

    2014-09-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, agricultural, and forest residues, are potential resources for the production of bioethanol. The current biochemical process of converting biomass to bioethanol typically consists of three main steps: pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation. For this process, pretreatment is probably the most crucial step since it has a large impact on the efficiency of the overall bioconversion. The aim of pretreatment is to disrupt recalcitrant structures of cellulosic biomass to make cellulose more accessible to the enzymes that convert carbohydrate polymers into fermentable sugars. This paper reviews several leading acidic, neutral, and alkaline pretreatments technologies. Different pretreatment methods, including dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), steam explosion pretreatment (SEP), organosolv, liquid hot water (LHW), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), sodium hydroxide/lime pretreatments, and ozonolysis are intensively introduced and discussed. In this minireview, the key points are focused on the structural changes primarily in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin during the above leading pretreatment technologies. PMID:24972651

  20. Preventing Disruptive Behavior via Classroom Management: Validating the Color Wheel System in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tiffany L; Skinner, Christopher H; Skinner, Amy L; Cazzell, Samantha; Aspiranti, Kathleen B; Moore, Tara; Coleman, MariBeth

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that installing a classroom management system known as the Color Wheel reduced inappropriate behaviors and increased on-task behavior in second- and fourth-grade classrooms; however, no systematic studies of the Color Wheel had been disseminated targeting pre-school or kindergarten participants. To enhance our understanding of the Color Wheel System (CWS) as a prevention system, a multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel on inappropriate vocalizations (IVs) in three general education kindergarten classrooms. Partial-interval time-sampling was used to record classwide IVs, which were operationally defined as any comment or vocal noise that was not solicited by the teacher. Time series graphs and effect size calculations suggest that the CWS caused immediate, large, and sustained decreases in IVs across the three classrooms. Teacher acceptability and interview data also supported the CWS. Implications related to prevention are discussed and directions for future research are provided. PMID:26802118

  1. Exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases can be utilized to disrupt and prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Perrin; Hill, Preston J.; Snarr, Brendan D.; Alnabelseya, Noor; Pestrak, Matthew J.; Lee, Mark J.; Jennings, Laura K.; Tam, John; Melnyk, Roman A.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms present a significant medical challenge because they are recalcitrant to current therapeutic regimes. A key component of biofilm formation in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl, which are involved in the formation and maintenance of the structural biofilm scaffold and protection against antimicrobials and host defenses. Given that the glycoside hydrolases PelAh and PslGh encoded in the pel and psl biosynthetic operons, respectively, are utilized for in vivo exopolysaccharide processing, we reasoned that these would provide specificity to target P. aeruginosa biofilms. Evaluating these enzymes as potential therapeutics, we demonstrate that these glycoside hydrolases selectively target and degrade the exopolysaccharide component of the biofilm matrix. PelAh and PslGh inhibit biofilm formation over a 24-hour period with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 69.3 ± 1.2 and 4.1 ± 1.1 nM, respectively, and are capable of disrupting preexisting biofilms in 1 hour with EC50 of 35.7 ± 1.1 and 12.9 ± 1.1 nM, respectively. This treatment was effective against clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates and reduced biofilm biomass by 58 to 94%. These noncytotoxic enzymes potentiated antibiotics because the addition of either enzyme to a sublethal concentration of colistin reduced viable bacterial counts by 2.5 orders of magnitude when used either prophylactically or on established 24-hour biofilms. In addition, PelAh was able to increase neutrophil killing by ~50%. This work illustrates the feasibility and benefits of using bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic glycoside hydrolases to develop novel antibiofilm therapeutics. PMID:27386527

  2. Prevention of lethal graft vs Host disease following bone marrow transplantation (pretreatment of the inoculum with purine metabolic enzyme inhibitors)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A correlation between lymphocyte function and enzymes of the purine metabolic pathway has been shown. Abnormal levels of three of these enzymes - adenosine deaminase (ADA), 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) - have been associated with defective lymphoid functions. Selective inhibition of one or more of these enzymes may result in elimination of specific lymphocyte populations from a bone marrow (BM) graft and thus prevent graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). To test this hypothesis, BM and spleen cells were pretreated with inhibitors of ADA or PNP before transplant to histoincompatible recipients. Germfree (GF) mice approximately 11 weeks of age were lethally X-irradiated with 1000 Rads. At 24 hours post irradiation the mice received 5 x 10/sup 6/ BM cells and 5 x 10/sup 6/ BM cells and 5 x 10/sup 6/ spleen cells i.v. from syngeneic donors or allogeneic donors. Prior to injection the mice were divided into 5 groups: (1) the inoculum was treated with a final concentration of 10 ..mu..M deoxycoformycin (dCF), and ADA inhibitor, and 100 ..mu..M deoxyadenosine (dAdo); (2) the inoculum was treated with a final concentration of 100 ..mu..M 8-aminoguanosine (8AGuo), an inhibitor of PNP, and 100 ..mu..M 2'-deoxyguanosine (2'dGuo); (3) allogenic controls; (4) syngeneic controls; and (5) radiation controls. In vitro experiments utilizing human peripheral blood and bone marrow demonstrated a severe immunosuppressive effect by the combination of 2'dCF and dAdo which was quick acting and not easily washed away. Treatment with 8A Guo + 2'dGuo also was immunosuppressive, but not as effective as the dCF and dAdo treatment. Both groups of drugs deserve further investigation for possible clinical application to BM transplantation.

  3. Disruption of the Colonization Resistance Syndrome in Humans in Altered Habitats and Its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ilyin, V. K.; Kiryukhina, N. V.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of human subjects to environments with modified parameters is associated with reduced colonization resistance of the intestine and epithelial tissue, which leads to dysbiotic changes. Probiotics – preparations based on protective microflora – are used to correct dysbacteriosis of different etiologies and localizations. However, the effectiveness of probiotics largely depends on the adhesive ability of a probiotic strain and lack of competitive relations with the indigenous microflora, which can be achieved by individual selection of a preparation. We propose to use autochtonous microflora as a probiotic drug to optimize the prevention and treatment results. A personalized approach to probiotic selection will improve therapy efficiency and reduce the risk of adverse effects in each individual patient. PMID:25093106

  4. Disruption of the MacMARCKS gene prevents cranial neural tube closure and results in anencephaly.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Chang, S; Duncan, S A; Okano, H J; Fishell, G; Aderem, A

    1996-01-01

    MacMARCKS is a member of the MARCKS family of protein kinase C (PKC) substrates. Biochemical evidence demonstrates that these proteins integrate calcium and PKC-dependent signals to regulate actin structure at the membrane. We report here that deletion of the MacMARCKS gene prevents cranial neural tube closure in the developing brain, resulting in anencephaly. This suggests a central role for MacMARCKS and the PKC signal transduction pathway in the folding of the anterior neural plate during the early phases of brain formation, and supports the hypothesis that actin-based motility directs cranial neural tube closure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8692805

  5. Disruption of NF-κB1 prevents bone loss caused by mechanical unloading.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hitomi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Wataru; Alles, Neil; Nagano, Kenichi; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Osawa, Kenji; Yasuda, Hisataka; Nakamura, Ichiro; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Ohya, Keiichi; Maki, Kenshi; Jimi, Eijiro

    2013-06-01

    Mechanical unloading, such as in a microgravity environment in space or during bed rest (for patients who require prolonged bed rest), leads to a decrease in bone mass because of the suppression of bone formation and the stimulation of bone resorption. To address the challenges presented by a prolonged stay in space and the forthcoming era of a super-aged society, it will be important to prevent the bone loss caused by prolonged mechanical unloading. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factors are activated by mechanical loading and inflammatory cytokines. Our objective was to elucidate the role of NF-κB pathways in bone loss that are caused by mechanical unloading. Eight-week-old wild-type (WT) and NF-κB1-deficient mice were randomly assigned to a control or mechanically unloaded with tail suspension group. After 2 weeks, a radiographic analysis indicated a decrease in bone mass in the tibias and femurs of the unloaded WT mice but not in the NF-κB1-deficient mice. An NF-κB1 deficiency suppressed the unloading-induced reduction in bone formation by maintaining the proportion and/or potential of osteoprogenitors or immature osteoblasts, and by suppression of bone resorption through the inhibition of intracellular signaling through the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteoclast precursors. Thus, NF-κB1 is involved in two aspects of rapid reduction in bone mass that are induced by disuse osteoporosis in space or bed rest. PMID:23322687

  6. Deferoxamine pretreatment prevents Cr(VI)-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidant stress: role of Cr(VI) chelation.

    PubMed

    Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Zarco-Márquez, Guillermo; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Zataraín-Barrón, Zyanya Lucía; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Pinzón, Enrique; Zavaleta, Rosa Marina; Tapia, Edilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2012-01-27

    Deferoxamine (DFO) is a recognized iron chelator which has been shown to exert nephroprotection in models of toxic nephropathies. In the present work the potential protective effects of DFO against Cr(VI)-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidant stress were evaluated. Rats were injected with a single injection (15mg/kg, s.c.) of potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)). DFO was given as a single i.p. injection 30min before K(2)Cr(2)O(7) administration at three different doses (100, 200 and 400mg/kg). It was found that DFO pretreatment attenuated, in a dose-dependent way, K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-induced renal dysfunction and structural alterations evaluated by serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, proteinuria, plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and histological analyses. Furthermore, DFO prevented the K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-induced renal oxidant stress and the decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase. Finally it was found that DFO, at 400mg/kg, decreases renal Cr(VI) content which prompted us to evaluate the potential Cr(VI) chelating properties of this compound. Indeed was found in an in vitro assay that DFO was an effective Cr(VI) chelator with an IC(50) of 800μg. In additional groups of rats was found that DFO posttreatment was ineffective to attenuate K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-induced nephrotoxicity and renal oxidant stress. Furthermore, DFO was unable to modify urinary excretion of total chromium. The nephroprotective effect of DFO against Cr(VI)-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidant stress may be explained, at least partially, by the ability of DFO to chelate Cr(VI) and to attenuate renal Cr(VI) content. However, it cannot be excluded that the ability of DFO to chelate iron may also be involved in the protection observed in our study. PMID:22115772

  7. The Role of Friends' Disruptive Behavior in the Development of Children's Tobacco Experimentation: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lier, Pol A. C.; Huizink, Anja; Vuijk, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52% males) were randomly assigned to the Good…

  8. Curcumin Pretreatment Prevents Potassium Dichromate-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, Decreased Respiratory Complex I Activity, and Membrane Permeability Transition Pore Opening

    PubMed Central

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Tapia, Edilia; Zazueta, Cecilia; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya Lucía; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Vega-García, Claudia Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from turmeric with recognized antioxidant properties. Hexavalent chromium is an environmental toxic and carcinogen compound that induces oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of curcumin on the hepatic damage generated by potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) in rats. Animals were pretreated daily by 9-10 days with curcumin (400 mg/kg b.w.) before the injection of a single intraperitoneal of K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.). Groups of animals were sacrificed 24 and 48 h later. K2Cr2O7-induced damage to the liver was evident by histological alterations and increase in the liver weight and in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma. In addition, K2Cr2O7 induced oxidative damage in liver and isolated mitochondria, which was evident by the increase in the content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl and decrease in the glutathione content and in the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, K2Cr2O7 induced decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, in the activity of respiratory complex I, and permeability transition pore opening. All the above-mentioned alterations were prevented by curcumin pretreatment. The beneficial effects of curcumin against K2Cr2O7-induced liver oxidative damage were associated with prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23956771

  9. Biomass pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  10. Retinoic Acid Induced-Autophagic Flux Inhibits ER-Stress Dependent Apoptosis and Prevents Disruption of Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Zhang, Hongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Ye, Libing; Zhu, Sipin; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Cao, Guodong; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces the disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) which leads to infiltration of blood cells, an inflammatory response, and neuronal cell death, resulting spinal cord secondary damage. Retinoic acid (RA) has a neuroprotective effect in both ischemic brain injury and SCI, however the relationship between BSCB disruption and RA in SCI is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy and ER stress are involved in the protective effect of RA on the BSCB. RA attenuated BSCB permeability and decreased the loss of tight junction (TJ) molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 after injury in vivo as well as in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (BMECs). Moreover, RA administration improved functional recovery in the rat model of SCI. RA inhibited the expression of CHOP and caspase-12 by induction of autophagic flux. However, RA had no significant effect on protein expression of GRP78 and PDI. Furthermore, combining RA with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) partially abolished its protective effect on the BSCB via exacerbated ER stress and subsequent loss of tight junctions. Taken together, the neuroprotective role of RA in recovery from SCI is related to prevention of of BSCB disruption via the activation of autophagic flux and the inhibition of ER stress-induced cell apoptosis. These findings lay the groundwork for future translational studies of RA for CNS diseases, especially those related to BSCB disruption. PMID:26722220

  11. Ebselen pretreatment attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury and prevents hyperglycemia by improving hepatic insulin signaling and β-cell survival in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Park, S; Kang, S; Kim, D S; Shin, B K; Moon, N R; Daily, J W

    2014-08-01

    Transient carotid artery occlusion causes ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury resulting in neuron and pancreatic β-cell death with consequential post-stroke hyperglycemia, which can lead to diabetes and may accelerate the development of Alzheimer's disease. Antioxidants have been shown to protect against the I/R injury and destruction of neurons. However, it is unknown whether the protection against I/R injury extends to the pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, we investigated whether treatment with ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase mimic, prevents neuronal and β-cell death following I/R in gerbils susceptible to stroke. After 28 days post artery occlusion, there was widespread neuronal cell death in the CA1 of the hippocampus and elevated IL-1β and TNF-α levels. Pretreatment with ebselen prevented the death by 56% and attenuated neurological damage (abnormal eyelid drooping, hair bristling, muscle tone, flexor reflex, posture, and walking patterns). Ischemic gerbils also exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity which induced post-stroke hyperglycemia associated with decreased β-cell mass due to increased β-cell apoptosis. Ebselen prevented the increased β-cell apoptosis, possibly by decreasing IL-1β and TNF-α in islets. Ischemia also attenuated hepatic insulin signaling, and expression of GLUT2 and glucokinase, whereas ebselen prevented the attenuation and suppressed gluconeogenesis by decreasing PEPCK expression. In conclusion, antioxidant protection by ebselen attenuated I/R injury of neurons and pancreatic β-cells and prevented subsequent impairment of glucose regulation that could lead to diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24807533

  12. Pretreatment with Resveratrol Prevents Neuronal Injury and Cognitive Deficits Induced by Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Olatz; Revuelta, Miren; Urigüen, Leyre; Álvarez, Antonia; Montalvo, Haizea; Hilario, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in neonatal care, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is still a serious clinical problem, which is responsible for many cases of perinatal mortality, cerebral palsy, motor impairment and cognitive deficits. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with important anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is present in grapevines, peanuts and pomegranates. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of resveratrol when administered before or immediately after a hypoxic-ischemic brain event in neonatal rats by analyzing brain damage, the mitochondrial status and long-term cognitive impairment. Our results indicate that pretreatment with resveratrol protects against brain damage, reducing infarct volume, preserving myelination and minimizing the astroglial reactive response. Moreover its neuroprotective effect was found to be long lasting, as behavioral outcomes were significantly improved at adulthood. We speculate that one of the mechanisms for this neuroprotection may be related to the maintenance of the mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and potential, and to the reduction of reactive oxygen species. Curiously, none of these protective features was observed when resveratrol was administered immediately after hypoxia-ischemia. PMID:26544861

  13. Lecithin-Bound Iodine Prevents Disruption of Tight Junctions of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells under Hypoxic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Masahiko; Kondo, Mineo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We investigated whether lecithin-bound iodine (LBI) can protect the integrity of tight junctions of retinal pigment epithelial cells from hypoxia. Method. Cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells were pretreated with LBI. To mimic hypoxic conditions, cells were incubated with CoCl2. We compared the integrity of the tight junctions (TJs) of control to cells with either LBI alone, CoCl2 alone, or LBI + CoCl2. The levels of cytokines in the conditioned media were also determined. Results. Significant decrease in the zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) intensity in the CoCl2 group compared to the control (5787.7 ± 4126.4 in CoCl2 group versus 29244.6 ± 2981.2 in control; average ± standard deviation). But the decrease was not significant in the LBI + CoCl2 (27189.0 ± 11231.1). The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 11 (CCL-11) were significantly higher in the CoCl2 than in the control (340.8 ± 43.3 versus 279.7 ± 68.3 pg/mL for MCP-1, and 15.2 ± 12.9 versus 12.5 ± 6.1 pg/mL for CCL-11. With LBI pretreatment, the levels of both cytokines were decreased to 182.6 ± 23.8 (MCP-1) and 5.46 ± 1.9 pg/mL for CCL-11). Blockade of MCP-1 or CCL-11 also shows similar result representing TJ protection from hypoxic stress. Conclusions. LBI results in a protective action from hypoxia. PMID:27340563

  14. Bifidobacteria Prevent Tunicamycin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Subsequent Barrier Disruption in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takuya; Oishi, Kenji; Wullaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER, thereby compromising its vital cellular functions in protein production and secretion. Genome wide association studies in humans as well as experimental animal models linked ER stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms linking the outcomes of ER stress in IECs to intestinal disease have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ER stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function using human colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 monolayers. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, concomitant with loss of cellular plasma membrane integrity. Epithelial barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells after ER stress was not caused by caspase- or RIPK1-dependent cell death but was accompanied by lysosomal rupture and up-regulation of the ER stress markers Grp78, sXBP1 and Chop. Interestingly, several bifidobacteria species inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and thereby diminished barrier disruption in Caco-2 monolayers. Together, these results showed that ER stress compromises the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers and demonstrate beneficial impacts of bifidobacteria on ER stress in IECs. Our results identify epithelial barrier loss as a potential link between ER stress and intestinal disease development, and suggest that bifidobacteria could exert beneficial effects on this phenomenon. PMID:27611782

  15. Pulsed focused ultrasound pretreatment improves mesenchymal stem cell efficacy in preventing and rescuing established acute kidney injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Scott R.; Nguyen, Ben A.; Tebebi, Pamela A.; Kim, Saejeong J.; Bresler, Michele N.; Ziadloo, Ali; Street, Jonathan M.; Yuen, Peter S. T.; Star, Robert A.; Frank, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) infusions improve acute kidney injury (AKI) outcomes when administered early after ischemic/reperfusion injury or within 24hr after cisplatin administration. These findings have spurred several human clinical trials to prevent AKI. However, no specific therapy effectively treats clinically obvious AKI or rescues renal function once advanced injury is established. We investigated if noninvasive image-guided pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) could alter the kidney microenvironment to enhance homing of subsequently infused MSC. To examine the efficacy of pFUS-enhanced cell homing in disease, we targeted pFUS to kidneys to enhance MSC homing after cisplatin-induced AKI. We found that pFUS enhanced MSC homing at 1 day post-cisplatin, prior to renal functional deficits, and that enhanced homing improved outcomes of renal function, tubular cell death, and regeneration at 5 days post-cisplatin compared to MSC alone. We then investigated whether pFUS+MSC therapy could rescue established AKI. MSC alone at 3 days post-cisplatin, after renal functional deficits were obvious, significantly improved 7-day survival of animals. Survival was further improved using pFUS+MSC. MSC, alone or with pFUS, changed kidney macrophage phenotypes from M1 to M2. This study shows pFUS is a neoadjuvant approach to improve MSC homing to diseased organs. pFUS with MSC better prevents AKI than MSC alone and allows rescue therapy in established AKI, which currently has no meaningful therapeutic options. PMID:25640064

  16. Mechanism of Breast Cancer Preventive Action of Pomegranate: Disruption of Estrogen Receptor and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Animesh; Bishayee, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    A pomegranate emulsion (PE), containing various bioactive phytochemicals, has recently been found to exert substantial chemopreventive effect against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats via antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of action are not completely understood. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of PE treatment on intratumor expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-β,β-catenin and cyclin D1 during DMBA rat mammary carcinogenesis. Mammary tumor sections were harvested from a chemopreventive study in which PE (0.2, 1.0 and 5.0 g/kg) exhibited inhibition of mammary tumorigenesis in a dose-response manner. The expressions of ER-α, ER-β, β-catenin and cyclin D1 were analyzed by immunohistochemical techniques. PE downregulated the expression of intratumor ER-α and ER-β and lowered ER-α:ER-β ratio. PE also decreased the expression, cytoplasmic accumulation, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, an essential transcriptional cofactor for Wnt signaling. Moreover, PE suppressed the expression of cell growth regulatory protein cyclin D1, which is a downstream target for both ER and Wnt signaling. Our current results in conjunction with our previous findings indicate that concurrent disruption of ER and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways possibly contributes to antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects involved in PE-mediated chemoprevention of DMBA-inflicted rat mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:26703530

  17. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1998-07-28

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

  18. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1998-01-01

    A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

  19. Pretreatment of rats with the irreversible mu-receptor antagonist, beta-FNA, fails to prevent naltrexone-induced upregulation of mu-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Rothman, R B; Long, J B; Bykov, V; Jacobson, A E; Rice, K C; Holaday, J W

    1990-09-01

    This study examined the effect of beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA), an irreversible mu-receptor antagonist, on naltrexone-induced upregulation of mu-(mu cx + mu nex) and delta nex-opioid receptors. [The subscripts 'cx' and 'nex' denote binding sites 'in' (cx) and 'not in' (nex) the opioid receptor complex.] Rats were treated according to the following protocol. Two naltrexone or two placebo pellets were implanted subcutaneously in a nylon mesh on day 1. and were removed intact on day 8. Rats were given either saline or 20 nmol of beta-FNA in 10 microliters of saline (i.c.v.) on days 1, 3, 5 and 6, 60 min prior to implantation of the pellet. On day 9 frozen lysed-P2 membranes were prepared for assay of mu binding sites. In other experiments, membranes were depleted of mu-receptors by pretreatment with the site-directed acylating agent 2-(4-ethoxybenzyl)-l-diethylaminoethyl-5-isothiocyanatobenzimid azole.HCl (BIT) for assay of delta nex binding sites, using [3H] [D-ala2, D-leu5]enkephalin. The results demonstrated that beta-FNA did not upregulate the mu binding sites and also did not prevent naltrexone-induced upregulation of mu binding sites. Both beta-FNA and naltrexone increased the Bmax of delta nex binding sites and their effects were additive. These data suggest that the mechanism(s) responsible for antagonist-induced upregulation of opioid receptors are more complex than previously appreciated. PMID:1963479

  20. The developmental impact of two first grade preventive interventions on aggressive/disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence: an application of latent transition growth mixture modeling.

    PubMed

    Petras, Hanno; Masyn, Katherine; Ialongo, Nick

    2011-09-01

    We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1-3 and 6-12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1-3 and 6-12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6-12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1-3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1-3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1-3 to a low class in grades 6-12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance. PMID:21519860

  1. The Developmental Impact of Two First Grade Preventive Interventions on Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence: An Application of Latent Transition Growth Mixture Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Petras, Hanno; Masyn, Katherine; Ialongo, Nick

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1–3 and 6–12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1–3 and 6–12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6–12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1–3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1–3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1–3 to a low class in grades 6–12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance. PMID:21519860

  2. School Disruptions: Tips for Educators and Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Community Relations Service.

    This brochure briefly outlines a few basic steps for school and police officials to take in developing a joint approach to problems of school disruption. Section 1, "Preventing Disruptions," consists of three parts that focus in turn on conducting a needs assessment, develping joint preventive measures, and planning for a disruption. Section 2,…

  3. Glucocorticoid receptor-dependent disruption of a specific nucleosome on the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter is prevented by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed Central

    Bresnick, E H; John, S; Berard, D S; LeFebvre, P; Hager, G L

    1990-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously developed cell lines derived from mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and C127 mammary tumor cells that stably express mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat fusion genes in bovine papillomavirus-based episomes. Glucocorticoid hormone strongly activates transcription from episomes and induces the disruption of a single nucleosome in an array of phased nucleosomes on the MMTV promoter. Sodium butyrate inhibits the glucocorticoid hormone-dependent development of a nuclease-hypersensitive site that is due to the displacement of this nucleosome, and inhibits induction of RNA transcripts from episomes. Saturation binding studies show that butyrate treatment does not significantly affect the amount or the hormone-binding affinity of the glucocorticoid receptor. In a transient transfection assay, glucocorticoid hormone can activate transcription from a MMTV long terminal repeat-driven luciferase gene construct equivalently in untreated and butyrate-treated cells, indicating that the soluble factors necessary for transactivation of the MMTV promoter are unaffected by butyrate. The differential effect of butyrate on the induction of stable chromatin templates and transiently expressed plasmids suggests that butyrate prevents nucleosome displacement and represses transcription by inducing a modification of chromatin. Images PMID:2160080

  4. Disruption model

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.G.; Bronner, G.

    1982-07-01

    Calculations of disruption time and energy dissipation have been obtained by simulating the plasma as an electrical conducting loop that varies in resistivity, current density, major radius. The calculations provide results which are in good agreement with experimental observations. It is believed that this approach allows engineering designs for disruptions to be completed in large tokamaks such as INTOR or FED.

  5. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  6. Disruptive Behavior: Prevention and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bernard; Thomson, Scott

    1976-01-01

    Delinquency and vandalism are serious problems in secondary schools today. These problems, coupled with the fear of retaliation and the complications of the present legal system, are examined for causes and possible solutions in this newsletter article. Some causes of this delinquency are listed as: (1) alienation from society due to economic…

  7. High-Content Positional Biosensor Screening Assay for Compounds to Prevent or Disrupt Androgen Receptor and Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2 Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Strock, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The androgen receptor–transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (AR-TIF2) positional protein–protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay described herein combines physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information of AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences and fluorescent reporters. Expression of the AR-red fluorescent protein (RFP) “prey” and TIF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) “bait” components of the biosensor was directed by recombinant adenovirus constructs that expressed the ligand binding and activation function 2 surface domains of AR fused to RFP with nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences, and three α-helical LXXLL motifs from TIF2 fused to GFP and an HIV Rev nucleolar targeting sequence. In unstimulated cells, AR-RFP was localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP was localized to nucleoli. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment induced AR-RFP translocation into the nucleus where the PPIs between AR and TIF2 resulted in the colocalization of both biosensors within the nucleolus. We adapted the translocation enhanced image analysis module to quantify the colocalization of the AR-RFP and TIF2-GFP biosensors in images acquired on the ImageXpress platform. DHT induced a concentration-dependent AR-TIF2 colocalization and produced a characteristic condensed punctate AR-RFP PPI nucleolar distribution pattern. The heat-shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and antiandrogens flutamide and bicalutamide inhibited DHT-induced AR-TIF2 PPI formation with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50s) of 88.5±12.5 nM, 7.6±2.4 μM, and 1.6±0.4 μM, respectively. Images of the AR-RFP distribution phenotype allowed us to distinguish between 17-AAG and flutamide, which prevented AR translocation, and bicalutamide, which blocked AR-TIF2 PPIs. We screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active

  8. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  9. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  10. Family Disruptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Returns Do you or your spouse frequently travel on business? These can be disruptive times for your child and for the family as ... these out-of-town trips. Spend as much time as it takes to explain where you are ... before and during your travels. You need to acknowledge and accept her feelings: " ...

  11. Does Pre-Treatment with High Dose Atorvastatin Prevent Microvascular Dysfunction after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bong-Ki; Nam, Chang-Wook; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Chung, Woo-Young; Cho, Byung-Ryul; Fearon, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives There is controversy surrounding whether or not high dose statin administration before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) decreases peri-procedural microvascular injury. We performed a prospective randomized study to investigate the mechanisms and effects of pre-treatment high dose atorvastatin on myocardial damage in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) undergoing PCI. Subjects and Methods Seventy seven patients with NSTE-ACS were randomly assigned to either the high dose group (atorvastatin 80 mg loading 12 to 24 h before PCI with a further 40 mg loading 2 h before PCI, n=39) or low dose group (atorvastatin 10 mg administration 12 to 24 h before PCI, n=38). Index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) was measured after stent implantation. Creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured before and after PCI. Results The baseline characteristics were not different between the two patient groups. Compared to the low dose group, the high dose group had lower post PCI IMR (14.1±5.0 vs. 19.2±9.3 U, p=0.003). Post PCI CK-MB was also lower in the high dose group (median: 1.40 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR: 0.75 to 3.45] vs. 4.00 [IQR: 1.70 to 7.37], p=0.002) as was the post-PCI CRP level (0.09 mg/dL [IQR: 0.04 to 0.16] vs. 0.22 [IQR: 0.08 to 0.60], p=0.001). Conclusion Pre-treatment with high dose atorvastatin reduces peri-PCI microvascular dysfunction verified by post-PCI IMR and exerts an immediate anti-inflammatory effect in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:27482255

  12. Curcumin Pretreatment Induces Nrf2 and an Antioxidant Response and Prevents Hemin-Induced Toxicity in Primary Cultures of Cerebellar Granule Neurons of Rats

    PubMed Central

    González-Reyes, Susana; Guzmán-Beltrán, Silvia; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is a bifunctional antioxidant derived from Curcuma longa. This study identifies curcumin as a neuroprotectant against hemin-induced damage in primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) of rats. Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, is a highly reactive compound that induces cellular injury. Pretreatment of CGNs with 5–30 μM curcumin effectively increased by 2.3–4.9 fold heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and by 5.6–14.3-fold glutathione (GSH) levels. Moreover, 15 μM curcumin attenuated by 55% the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, by 94% the reduction of GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, and by 49% the cell death induced by hemin. The inhibition of heme oxygenase system or GSH synthesis with tin mesoporphyrin and buthionine sulfoximine, respectively, suppressed the protective effect of curcumin against hemin-induced toxicity. These data strongly suggest that HO-1 and GSH play a major role in the protective effect of curcumin. Furthermore, it was found that 24 h of incubation with curcumin increases by 1.4-, 2.3-, and 5.2-fold the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase, respectively. Additionally, it was found that curcumin was capable of inducing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) translocation into the nucleus. These data suggest that the pretreatment with curcumin induces Nrf2 and an antioxidant response that may play an important role in the protective effect of this antioxidant against hemin-induced neuronal death. PMID:24454990

  13. Cellulosic biomass pretreatment and sugar yields as a function of biomass particle size.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Michael J; Tran, Huu M; Stavila, Vitalie; Knierim, Bernhard; George, Anthe; Auer, Manfred; Adams, Paul D; Hadi, Masood Z

    2014-01-01

    Three lignocellulosic pretreatment techniques (ammonia fiber expansion, dilute acid and ionic liquid) are compared with respect to saccharification efficiency, particle size and biomass composition. In particular, the effects of switchgrass particle size (32-200) on each pretreatment regime are examined. Physical properties of untreated and pretreated samples are characterized using crystallinity, surface accessibility measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. At every particle size tested, ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment results in greater cell wall disruption, reduced crystallinity, increased accessible surface area, and higher saccharification efficiencies compared with dilute acid and AFEX pretreatments. The advantages of using IL pretreatment are greatest at larger particle sizes (>75 µm). PMID:24971883

  14. Cellulosic Biomass Pretreatment and Sugar Yields as a Function of Biomass Particle Size

    PubMed Central

    Stavila, Vitalie; Knierim, Bernhard; George, Anthe; Auer, Manfred; Adams, Paul D.; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2014-01-01

    Three lignocellulosic pretreatment techniques (ammonia fiber expansion, dilute acid and ionic liquid) are compared with respect to saccharification efficiency, particle size and biomass composition. In particular, the effects of switchgrass particle size (32–200) on each pretreatment regime are examined. Physical properties of untreated and pretreated samples are characterized using crystallinity, surface accessibility measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. At every particle size tested, ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment results in greater cell wall disruption, reduced crystallinity, increased accessible surface area, and higher saccharification efficiencies compared with dilute acid and AFEX pretreatments. The advantages of using IL pretreatment are greatest at larger particle sizes (>75 µm). PMID:24971883

  15. Intrapartum Pubic Symphysis Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Pires, RES; Labronici, PJ; Giordano, V; Kojima, KE; Kfuri, M; Barbisan, M; Wajnsztejn, A; de Andrade, MAP

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, high progesterone and relaxin levels produce physiological ligament relaxation on the pelvis. Therefore, moderate pubic symphysis and sacroiliac joints relaxing provide birth canal widening, thereby facilitating vaginal delivery. Sometimes, functional pain or pelvic instability may occur during pregnancy or puerperium, which is defined as symptomatic pelvic girdle relaxation. In rare cases, a pubic symphysis disruption can occur during the labor, causing severe pain and functional limitations. The early recognition of this injury is crucial to prevent complications and improve clinical and functional outcomes. This study reports an acute symphyseal disruption resulting from childbirth in a primiparous patient who underwent open reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws. After a 6 months follow-up, the patient presented no pain and satisfactory functional recovery. PMID:27057391

  16. Electroacupuncture pretreatment prevents cognitive impairment induced by limb ischemia-reperfusion via inhibition of microglial activation and attenuation of oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Zhou, Jun; Li, Jun; Yang, Shi-Bin; Mo, Li-Qun; Hu, Jie-Hui; Yuan, Wan-Li

    2012-01-13

    Limb ischemia-reperfusion (LI/R) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, critical trauma survivors can present cognitive impairment. Cognitive function, survival rate, oxidative stress and neuronal health were examined to elucidate (1) the magnitude of cognitive effects of prolonged reperfusion, (2) potential players in the mechanistic pathway mediating such effects, and (3) possible benefits of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment at Baihui (GV20), Yanglingquan (GB34), Taichong (LR3), Zusanli (ST36) and Xuehai (SP10) acupoints. LI/R was induced in rats by placing a rubber tourniquet on each hind limb for 3h, and the animals were evaluated periodically for 7d after LI/R. Rats subjected to LI/R had significantly lower survival rates, and displayed evidence of brain injury and cognitive dysfunction (as determined by the Morris water maze test) 1d and 3d after reperfusion compared to sham-operated controls. LI/R also resulted in higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), microglial activation, and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity within Cornu Ammonis area 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus. Depressed survival rates, microglial activation, oxidative damage, and histological changes, as well as cognitive dysfunction were partially or fully attenuated in rats that received 14d of EA prior to LI/R. These findings indicate that LI/R can result in cognitive dysfunction related to activated microglia and elevated oxidative stress, and that EA has neuroprotective potential mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of microglial activation and attenuation of oxidative stress. PMID:22129788

  17. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  18. Disruption of Early Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling Prevents Classical Activation of Dendritic Cells in Lung-Associated Lymph Nodes and Development of Protective Immunity against Cryptococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jintao; Eastman, Alison J.; Flaczyk, Adam; Neal, Lori M.; Zhao, Guolei; Carolan, Jacob; Malachowski, Antoni N.; Stolberg, Valerie R.; Yosri, Mohammed; Chensue, Stephen W.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Osterholzer, John J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) therapies have been increasingly used to treat inflammatory diseases and are associated with increased risk of invasive fungal infections, including Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Using a mouse model of cryptococcal infection, we investigated the mechanism by which disruption of early TNF-α signaling results in the development of nonprotective immunity against C. neoformans. We found that transient depletion of TNF-α inhibited pulmonary fungal clearance and enhanced extrapulmonary dissemination of C. neoformans during the adaptive phase of the immune response. Higher fungal burdens in TNF-α-depleted mice were accompanied by markedly impaired Th1 and Th17 responses in the infected lungs. Furthermore, early TNF-α depletion also resulted in disrupted transcriptional initiation of the Th17 polarization program and subsequent upregulation of Th1 genes in CD4+ T cells in the lung-associated lymph nodes (LALN) of C. neoformans-infected mice. These defects in LALN T cell responses were preceded by a dramatic shift from a classical toward an alternative activation of dendritic cells (DC) in the LALN of TNF-α-depleted mice. Taken together, our results indicate that early TNF-α signaling is required for optimal DC activation, and the initial Th17 response followed by Th1 transcriptional prepolarization of T cells in the LALN, which further drives the development of protective immunity against cryptococcal infection in the lungs. Thus, administration of anti-TNF-α may introduce a particularly greater risk for newly acquired fungal infections that require generation of protective Th1/Th17 responses for their containment and clearance. PMID:27406560

  19. Diverse animal models to examine potential role(s) and mechanism of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the tumor progression and prevention: Do they have tumorigenic or anti-tumorigenic property?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Ah; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2011-01-01

    Acting as hormone mimics or antagonists in the interaction with hormone receptors, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have the potentials of disturbing the endocrine system in sex steroid hormone-controlled organs and tissues. These effects may lead to the disruption of major regulatory mechanisms, the onset of developmental disorders, and carcinogenesis. Especially, among diverse EDCs, xenoestrogens such as bisphenol A, dioxins, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, have been shown to activate estrogen receptors (ERs) and to modulate cellular functions induced by ERs. Furthermore, they appear to be closely related with carcinogenicity in estrogen-dependant cancers, including breast, ovary, and prostate cancers. In in vivo animal models, prenatal exposure to xenoestrogens changed the development of the mouse reproductive organs and increased the susceptibility to further carcinogenic exposure and tumor occurence in adults. Unlike EDCs, which are chemically synthesized, several phytoestrogens such as genistein and resveratrol showed chemopreventive effects on specific cancers by contending with ER binding and regulating normal ER action in target tissues of mice. These results support the notion that a diet containing high levels of phytoestrogens can have protective effects on estrogen-related diseases. In spite of the diverse evidences of EDCs and phytoestrogens on causation and prevention of estrogen-dependant cancers provided in this article, there are still disputable questions about the dose-response effect of EDCs or chemopreventive potentials of phytoestrogens. As a wide range of EDCs including phytoestrogens have been remarkably increasing in the environment with the rapid growth in our industrial society and more closely affecting human and wildlife, the potential risks of EDCs in endocrine disruption and carcinogenesis are important issues and needed to be verified in detail. PMID:22232634

  20. Vitamin E pretreatment prevents the immunotoxicity of dithiocarbamate pesticide mancozeb in vitro: A comparative age-related assessment in mice and chick.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Bano, Farhad; Mohanty, Banalata

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides used for crop protection cause life-threatening diseases affecting the immune system of non-target organisms including birds and mammals. Functionality of immune system is age-dependent; early- as well as old-life stages are more susceptible to toxic exposures because of less competent immune system. Vitamins are so far known to reduce toxic effect of several pesticides and/or xenobiotics. The present in vitro study elucidated immunotoxicity of fungicide mancozeb through comparable stages of immune system maturation in mice (1, 3, and 12months) and chicks (4, 8, and 11weeks). In vitro splenocytes viability on exposure to mancozeb was quantitatively assessed by MTT assay and qualitatively by acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) double fluorescence staining. Mancozeb exposure dose dependently (250, 500, 1000, 2500, 5000 and 10,000ng/ml) decreased the splenocytes viability. The in vitro preventive effect of Vitamin E has also been explored on toxicity induced by mancozeb. The increased susceptibility observed both in early and aged groups was due to less/decline competence of the immune system. PMID:26778438

  1. Method and apparatus for gasifying with a fluidized bed gasifier having integrated pretreating facilities

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Louis F.

    1981-01-01

    An integral gasifier including a pretreater section and a gasifier section separated by a distribution grid is defined by a single vessel. The pretreater section pretreats coal or other carbon-containing material to be gasified to prevent caking and agglomeration of the coal in the gasifier. The level of the coal bed of the pretreater section and thus the holding or residence time in said bed is selectively regulated by the amount of pretreated coal which is lifted up a lift pipe into the gasifier section. Thus, the holding time in the pretreater section can be varied according to the amount of pretreat necessary for the particular coal to be gasified.

  2. Perinatal Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Blockade Prevents Peripheral Nerve Disruption in a Mouse Model Reminiscent of Benign World Health Organization Grade I Neurofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianqiang; Crimmins, Jason T.; Monk, Kelly R.; Williams, Jon P.; Fitzgerald, Maureen E.; Tedesco, Susan; Ratner, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Benign peripheral nerve tumors called neurofibromas are a major source of morbidity for patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. Some neurofibroma Schwann cells aberrantly express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In a mouse model in which the CNPase promoter drives expression of human EGFR in Schwann cells, nerves develop hypertrophy, mast cell accumulation, collagen deposition, disruption of axon-glial interactions, characteristics of neurofibroma and are hypoalgesic. Administration of the EGFR antagonist cetuximab (IMC-C225) for 2 weeks beginning at birth in CNPase-hEGFR mice normalized all pathologies at 3 months of age as evaluated by hotplate testing or histology and by electron microscopy. Mast cell chemoattractants brain-derived neurotrophic factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and transforming growth factor-β1, which may account for mast cell accumulation and fibrosis, were reduced by cetuximab. Later treatment was much less effective. A birth to 2-week pulse of cetuximab blocked hEGFR phosphorylation and Schwann cell proliferation in perinatal mutant nerve, so CNPase-hEGFR Schwann cell numbers correlate with the cetuximab effect. A >250-fold enlarged population of EGFR+/p75+ cells was detected in newborn Nf1+/− mouse nerves. These results suggest the existence of an EGFR+ cell enriched in the perinatal period capable of driving complex changes characteristic of neurofibroma formation. PMID:16651634

  3. Enzyme affinity to cell types in wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) before and after hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat straw used for bioethanol production varies in enzymatic digestibility according to chemical structure and composition of cell walls and tissues. In this work, the two biologically different wheat straw organs, leaves and stems, are described together with the effects of hydrothermal pretreatment on chemical composition, tissue structure, enzyme adhesion and digestion. To highlight the importance of inherent cell wall characteristics and the diverse effects of mechanical disruption and biochemical degradation, separate leaves and stems were pretreated on lab-scale and their tissue structures maintained mostly intact for image analysis. Finally, samples were enzymatically hydrolysed to correlate digestibility to chemical composition, removal of polymers, tissue composition and disruption, particle size and enzyme adhesion as a result of pretreatment and wax removal. For comparison, industrially pretreated wheat straw from Inbicon A/S was included in all the experiments. Results Within the same range of pretreatment severities, industrial pretreatment resulted in most hemicellulose and epicuticular wax/cutin removal compared to lab-scale pretreated leaves and stems but also in most re-deposition of lignin on the surface. Tissues were furthermore degraded from tissues into individual cells while lab-scale pretreated samples were structurally almost intact. In both raw leaves and stems, endoglucanase and exoglucanase adhered most to parenchyma cells; after pretreatment, to epidermal cells in all the samples. Despite heavy tissue disruption, industrially pretreated samples were not as susceptible to enzymatic digestion as lab-scale pretreated leaves while lab-scale pretreated stems were the least digestible. Conclusions Despite preferential enzyme adhesion to epidermal cells after hydrothermal pretreatment, our results suggest that the single most important factor determining wheat straw digestibility is the fraction of parenchyma cells rather than

  4. Maternal and littermate deprivation disrupts maternal behavior and social-learning of food preference in adulthood: tactile stimulation, nest odor, and social rearing prevent these effects.

    PubMed

    Melo, Angel I; Lovic, Vedran; Gonzalez, Andrea; Madden, Melissa; Sinopoli, Katia; Fleming, Alison S

    2006-04-01

    Maternal and littermate (social) separation, through artificial rearing (AR), disrupts the development of subsequent maternal behavior and social learning in rats. The addition of maternal-licking-like stimulation during AR, partially reverses some of these effects. However, little is know about the role of social stimuli from littermates and nest odors during the preweaning period, in the development of the adult maternal behavior and social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer- and peer-and-odor rearing on the development of maternal behavior and social learning in rats. Female pups were reared with mothers (mother reared-MR) or without mothers (AR) from postnatal day (PND) 3. AR rats received three different treatments: (1) AR-CONTROL group received minimal tactile stimulation, (2) AR-ODOR females received exposure to maternal nest material inside the AR-isolation-cup environment, (3) AR-SOCIAL group was reared in the cup with maternal nest material and a conspecific of the same-age and same-sex and received additional tactile stimulation. MR females were reared by their mothers in the nest and with conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were tested for maternal behavior towards their own pups and in a social learning task. Results confirm our previous report that AR impairs performance of maternal behavior and the development of a social food preference. Furthermore, social cues from a littermate, in combination with tactile stimulation and the nest odor, reversed the negative effects of complete isolation (AR-CONTROL) on some of the above behaviors. Exposure to the odor alone also had effects on some of these olfactory-mediated behaviors. These studies indicate that social stimulation from littermates during the preweaning period, in combination with odor from the nest and tactile stimulation, contributes to the development of affiliative behaviors. PMID:16568415

  5. Disruption of the ECM33 gene in Candida albicans prevents biofilm formation, engineered human oral mucosa tissue damage and gingival cell necrosis/apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Chmielewski, Witold; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida. PMID:22665950

  6. Vitamin D prevents hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced blood-brain barrier disruption via vitamin D receptor-mediated NF-kB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Won, Soonmi; Sayeed, Iqbal; Peterson, Bethany L; Wali, Bushra; Kahn, Jared S; Stein, Donald G

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity and minimizing neuronal injury are critical components of any therapeutic intervention following ischemic stroke. However, a low level of vitamin D hormone is a risk factor for many vascular diseases including stroke. The neuroprotective effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 (vitamin D) after ischemic stroke have been studied, but it is not known whether it prevents ischemic injury to brain endothelial cells, a key component of the neurovascular unit. We analyzed the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on brain endothelial cell barrier integrity and tight junction proteins after hypoxia/reoxygenation in a mouse brain endothelial cell culture model that closely mimics many of the features of the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Following hypoxic injury in bEnd.3 cells, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment prevented the decrease in barrier function as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance and permeability of FITC-dextran (40 kDa), the decrease in the expression of the tight junction proteins zonula occludin-1, claudin-5, and occludin, the activation of NF-kB, and the increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. These responses were blocked when the interaction of 1,25(OH) )2D3 with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) was inhibited by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate treatment. Our findings show a direct, VDR-mediated, protective effect of 1,25(OH) )2D3 against ischemic injury-induced blood-brain barrier dysfunction in cerebral endothelial cells. PMID:25815722

  7. Early increasing-intensity treadmill exercise reduces neuropathic pain by preventing nociceptor collateral sprouting and disruption of chloride cotransporters homeostasis after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    López-Álvarez, Víctor M; Modol, Laura; Navarro, Xavier; Cobianchi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Activity treatments, such as treadmill exercise, are used to improve functional recovery after nerve injury, parallel to an increase in neurotrophin levels. However, despite their role in neuronal survival and regeneration, neurotrophins may cause neuronal hyperexcitability that triggers neuropathic pain. In this work, we demonstrate that an early increasing-intensity treadmill exercise (iTR), performed during the first week (iTR1) or during the first 2 weeks (iTR2) after section and suture repair of the rat sciatic nerve, significantly reduced the hyperalgesia developing rapidly in the saphenous nerve territory and later in the sciatic nerve territory after regeneration. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in sensory neurons and spinal cord was reduced in parallel. iTR prevented the extension of collateral sprouts of saphenous nociceptive calcitonin gene-related peptide fibers within the adjacent denervated skin and reduced NGF expression in the same skin and in the L3 dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Injury also induced Na⁺-K⁺-2Cl⁻ cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) upregulation in DRG, and K⁺-Cl⁻ cotransporter 2 (KCC2) downregulation in lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn. iTR normalized NKCC1 and boosted KCC2 expression, together with a significant reduction of microgliosis in L3-L5 dorsal horn, and a reduction of BDNF expression in microglia at 1 to 2 weeks postinjury. These data demonstrate that specific activity protocols, such as iTR, can modulate neurotrophins expression after peripheral nerve injury and prevent neuropathic pain by blocking early mechanisms of sensitization such as collateral sprouting and NKCC1/KCC2 disregulation. PMID:26090759

  8. Vitamin D Prevents Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption via Vitamin D Receptor-Mediated NF-kB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Won, Soonmi; Sayeed, Iqbal; Peterson, Bethany L.; Wali, Bushra; Kahn, Jared S.; Stein, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity and minimizing neuronal injury are critical components of any therapeutic intervention following ischemic stroke. However, a low level of vitamin D hormone is a risk factor for many vascular diseases including stroke. The neuroprotective effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 (vitamin D) after ischemic stroke have been studied, but it is not known whether it prevents ischemic injury to brain endothelial cells, a key component of the neurovascular unit. We analyzed the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on brain endothelial cell barrier integrity and tight junction proteins after hypoxia/reoxygenation in a mouse brain endothelial cell culture model that closely mimics many of the features of the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Following hypoxic injury in bEnd.3 cells, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment prevented the decrease in barrier function as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance and permeability of FITC-dextran (40 kDa), the decrease in the expression of the tight junction proteins zonula occludin-1, claudin-5, and occludin, the activation of NF—kB, and the increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. These responses were blocked when the interaction of 1,25(OH) )2D3 with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) was inhibited by pyridoxal 5’-phosphate treatment. Our findings show a direct, VDR-mediated, protective effect of 1,25(OH) )2D3 against ischemic injury-induced blood-brain barrier dysfunction in cerebral endothelial cells. PMID:25815722

  9. GREET Pretreatment Module

    SciTech Connect

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. This report documents the material and energy flows that occur when fermentable sugars from four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar) are produced via dilute acid pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion. These flows are documented for inclusion in the pretreatment module of the Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. Process simulations of each pretreatment technology were developed in Aspen Plus. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in the GREET pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  10. Endocrine disrupters as obesogens

    PubMed Central

    Grün, Felix; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in obesity rates is an alarming global health trend that consumes an ever increasing portion of health care budgets in Western countries. The root cause of obesity is thought to be a prolonged positive energy balance. Hence, the major focus of preventative programs for obesity has been to target overeating and inadequate physical exercise. Recent research implicates environmental risk factors, including nutrient quality, stress, fetal environment and pharmaceutical or chemical exposure as relevant contributing influences. Evidence points to endocrine disrupting chemicals that interfere with the body's adipose tissue biology, endocrine hormone systems or central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as suspects in derailing the homeostatic mechanisms important to weight control. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms of action for these compounds and areas of future research needed to evaluate the significance of their contribution to obesity. PMID:19433244

  11. Disruption of intermolecular disulfide bonds in PDGF-BB dimers by N-acetyl-L-cysteine does not prevent PDGF signaling in cultured hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Meurer, Steffen K.; Gressner, Axel M.; Weiskirchen, Ralf . E-mail: rweiskirchen@ukaachen.de

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative stress is important in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis through its induction of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation and enhancement of collagen synthesis. Reactive oxygen species have been found to be essential second messengers in the signaling of both major fibrotic growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}), in cultured HSC and liver fibrosis. The non-toxic aminothiol N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibits cellular activation and attenuates experimental fibrosis in liver. Prior reports show that NAC is capable of reducing the effects of TGF-{beta} in biological systems, in cultured endothelial cells, and HSC through its direct reducing activity upon TGF-{beta} molecules. We here analyzed the effects of NAC on PDGF integrity, receptor binding, and downstream signaling in culture-activated HSC. We found that NAC dose-dependently induces disintegration of PDGF in vitro. However, even high doses (>20 mM) were not sufficient to prevent the phosphorylation of the PDGF receptor type {beta}, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, or protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). Therefore, we conclude that the PDGF monomer is still active. The described antifibrotic effects are therefore mainly attributable to the structural impairment of TGF-{beta} signaling components reported previously.

  12. Fuel ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated corn stover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover (CS) has the potential to serve as an abundant low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Due to heterogeneous complexity and recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks, pretreatment is required to break the lignin seal and/or disrupt the structure of crystalline cellulose to in...

  13. Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Olive Tree Pruning Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Cristóbal; Romero, Inmaculada; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Sáez, Felicia; Castro, Eulogio

    Olive tree pruning generates an abundant, renewable lignocellulose residue, which is usually burnt on fields to prevent propagation of vegetal diseases, causing economic costs and environmental concerns. As a first step in an alternative use to produce fuel ethanol, this work is aimed to study the pretreatment of olive tree pruning residues by liquid hot water. Pretreatment was carried out at seven temperature levels in the range 170-230°C for 10 or 60 min. Sugar recoveries in both solid and liquid fractions resulting from pretreatment as well as enzymatic hydrolysis yield of the solid were used to evaluate pretreatment performance. Results show that the enzyme accessibility of cellulose in the pretreated solid fraction increased with pretreatment time and temperature, although sugar degradation in the liquid fraction was concomitantly higher.

  14. Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Activities in this project are aimed at overcoming barriers associated with high capital and operating costs and sub-optimal sugar yields resulting from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass.

  15. Pretreatment of microalgae to improve biogas production: a review.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Uggetti, Enrica; Carrère, Hélène; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae have been intensively studied as a source of biomass for replacing conventional fossil fuels in the last decade. The optimization of biomass production, harvesting and downstream processing is necessary for enabling its full-scale application. Regarding biofuels, biogas production is limited by the characteristics of microalgae, in particular the complex cell wall structure of most algae species. Therefore, pretreatment methods have been investigated for microalgae cell wall disruption and biomass solubilization before undergoing anaerobic digestion. This paper summarises the state of the art of different pretreatment techniques used for improving microalgae anaerobic biodegradability. Pretreatments were divided into 4 categories: (i) thermal; (ii) mechanical; (iii) chemical and (iv) biological methods. According to experimental results, all of them are effective at increasing biomass solubilization and methane yield, pretreatment effect being species dependent. Pilot-scale research is still missing and would help evaluating the feasibility of full-scale implementation. PMID:25257071

  16. Disruptive camouflage impairs object recognition.

    PubMed

    Webster, Richard J; Hassall, Christopher; Herdman, Chris M; Godin, Jean-Guy J; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    Whether hiding from predators, or avoiding battlefield casualties, camouflage is widely employed to prevent detection. Disruptive coloration is a seemingly well-known camouflage mechanism proposed to function by breaking up an object's salient features (for example their characteristic outline), rendering objects more difficult to recognize. However, while a wide range of animals are thought to evade detection using disruptive patterns, there is no direct experimental evidence that disruptive coloration impairs recognition. Using humans searching for computer-generated moth targets, we demonstrate that the number of edge-intersecting patches on a target reduces the likelihood of it being detected, even at the expense of reduced background matching. Crucially, eye-tracking data show that targets with more edge-intersecting patches were looked at for longer periods prior to attack, and passed-over more frequently during search tasks. We therefore show directly that edge patches enhance survivorship by impairing recognition, confirming that disruptive coloration is a distinct camouflage strategy, not simply an artefact of background matching. PMID:24152693

  17. The anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin protects the genital mucosal epithelial barrier from disruption and blocks replication of HIV-1 and HSV-2.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Victor H; Nazli, Aisha; Dizzell, Sara E; Mueller, Kristen; Kaushic, Charu

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a known mechanism that facilitates HIV acquisition and the spread of infection. In this study, we evaluated whether curcumin, a potent and safe anti-inflammatory compound, could be used to abrogate inflammatory processes that facilitate HIV-1 acquisition in the female genital tract (FGT) and contribute to HIV amplification. Primary, human genital epithelial cells (GECs) were pretreated with curcumin and exposed to HIV-1 or HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120), both of which have been shown to disrupt epithelial tight junction proteins, including ZO-1 and occludin. Pre-treatment with curcumin prevented disruption of the mucosal barrier by maintaining ZO-1 and occludin expression and maintained trans-epithelial electric resistance across the genital epithelium. Curcumin pre-treatment also abrogated the gp120-mediated upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, which mediate barrier disruption, as well as the chemokines IL-8, RANTES and interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10), which are capable of recruiting HIV target cells to the FGT. GECs treated with curcumin and exposed to the sexually transmitted co-infecting microbes HSV-1, HSV-2 and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were unable to elicit innate inflammatory responses that indirectly induced activation of the HIV promoter and curcumin blocked Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated induction of HIV replication in chronically infected T-cells. Finally, curcumin treatment resulted in significantly decreased HIV-1 and HSV-2 replication in chronically infected T-cells and primary GECs, respectively. All together, our results suggest that the use of anti-inflammatory compounds such as curcumin may offer a viable alternative for the prevention and/or control of HIV replication in the FGT. PMID:25856395

  18. Effects of cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 on blood-brain barrier disruption in focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Chi, Oak Z; Barsoum, Sylviana; Grayson, Jeremy; Hunter, Christine; Liu, Xia; Weiss, Harvey R

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether WIN 55,212-2 (WIN), a cannabinoid receptor agonist, could attenuate blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in focal cerebral ischemia in rats and whether the CB 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant could prevent this attenuation. A total of 0.3 or 1 mg/kg of WIN was injected intravenously before and after permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Some animals were pretreated with rimonabant 2 mg/kg i.p. before receiving 0.3 mg/kg of WIN. At 1 h after MCA occlusion, BBB permeability was determined by measuring the transfer coefficient (K(i)) of (14)C-α-aminoisobutyric acid and the volume of dextran distribution. With MCA occlusion, K(i) increased in the ischemic cortex (IC) in all of the experimental groups. However, the K(i) of the IC of the WIN 0.3 and 1 mg/kg groups was lower (–46 and –42%, respectively, p < 0.05) than that of the control group. With rimonabant pretreatment, the K(i) of the IC became higher ((+)88%, p < 0.05) than with WIN 0.3 mg/kg alone and similar to that of the control rats. The difference in the volume of dextran distribution between the IC and the contralateral cortex was significant in the control but not in the WIN-treated rats. With rimonabant pretreatment, however, the difference became significant. Our data demonstrated that WIN could attenuate BBB disruption in focal cerebral ischemia and this attenuation could be prevented with rimonabant. Our data suggest an involvement of CB(1) receptors in the regulation of BBB disruption in the early stage of stroke. PMID:22678129

  19. PRETREATING THORIUM FOR ELECTROPLATING

    DOEpatents

    Beach, J.G.; Schaer, G.R.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for pretreating a thorium surface prior to electroplating the surface. The pretreatment steps of the invention comprise cleaning by vapor blasting the surface, anodically pickling in a 5 to 15% by volume aqueous hydrochloric acid bath with a current of 125 to 250 amp/sq ft for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, chemically pickling the surface in a 5 to 15% by volume of aqueous sulfuric acid for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, and rinsing the surface with water.

  20. Influence of physico-chemical changes on enzymatic digestibility of ionic liquid and AFEX pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenlin; Cheng, Gang; Balan, Venkatesh; Kent, Michael S; Ong, Markus; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Sousa, Leonardo daCosta; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Dale, Bruce E; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema

    2011-07-01

    Ionic liquid (IL) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatments were studied to develop the first direct side-by-side comparative assessment on their respective impacts on biomass structure, composition, process mass balance, and enzymatic saccharification efficiency. AFEX pretreatment completely preserves plant carbohydrates, whereas IL pretreatment extracts 76% of hemicellulose. In contrast to AFEX, the native crystal structure of the recovered corn stover from IL pretreatment was significantly disrupted. For both techniques, more than 70% of the theoretical sugar yield was attained after 48 h of hydrolysis using commercial enzyme cocktails. IL pretreatment requires less enzyme loading and a shorter hydrolysis time to reach 90% yields. Hemicellulase addition led to significant improvements in the yields of glucose and xylose for AFEX pretreated corn stover, but not for IL pretreated stover. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of IL and AFEX pretreatment, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:21531133

  1. Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility of Ionic Liquid and AFEX pretreated Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chenlin; Cheng, Gang; Kent, Michael S; Ong, Markus; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E.; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Simmons, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquid (IL) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatments were studied to develop the first direct side-by-side comparative assessment on their respective impacts on biomass structure, composition, process mass balance, and enzymatic saccharification efficiency. AFEX pretreatment completely preserves plant carbohydrates, whereas IL pretreatment extracts 76% of hemicellulose. In contrast to AFEX, the native crystal structure of the recovered corn stover from IL pretreatment was significantly disrupted. For both techniques, more than 70% of the theoretical sugar yield was attained after 48 h of hydrolysis using commercial enzyme cocktails. IL pretreatment requires less enzyme loading and a shorter hydrolysis time to reach 90% yields. Hemicellulase addition led to significant improvements in the yields of glucose and xylose for AFEX pretreated corn stover, but not for IL pretreated stover. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of IL and AFEX pretreatment, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.

  2. Effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate pretreatment of eucalyptus wood for enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    Ground eucalyptus wood was pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc)-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions with different mixing ratios under various conditions. The changes in the composition and structure of the biomass were investigated; and the enzymatic hydrolysis performance of the pretreated biomass was evaluated. [EMIM]OAc-DMSO pretreatment had a relatively mild effect on the composition of the biomass, but excessively high pretreatment temperatures led to massive loss of xylan after pretreatment. The enzymatic digestibility of the biomass was significantly improved with increased pretreatment temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the disruption of cellulose crystal structure by [EMIM]OAc at a sufficiently high temperature was primarily responsible for the remarkable improvement in the digestibility. Appropriate addition of DMSO could help minimize the consumption of [EMIM]OAc without impairing the performance of the ionic liquid, and contribute to the improvement in pretreatment efficiency due to the viscosity reduction effect on the pretreatment liquor. PMID:23685645

  3. Comparison of Ultrasonic and CO2 Laser Pretreatment Methods on Enzyme Digestibility of Corn Stover

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Zi-Luan; Zuo, Li-Li

    2012-01-01

    To decrease the cost of bioethanol production, biomass recalcitrance needs to be overcome so that the conversion of biomass to bioethanol becomes more efficient. CO2 laser irradiation can disrupt the lignocellulosic physical structure and reduce the average size of fiber. Analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area, and the microstructure of corn stover were used to elucidate the enhancement mechanism of the pretreatment process by CO2 laser irradiation. The present work demonstrated that the CO2 laser had potential to enhance the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulosic waste to renewable bioethanol. The saccharification rate of the CO2 laser pretreatment was significantly higher than ultrasonic pretreatment, and reached 27.75% which was 1.34-fold of that of ultrasonic pretreatment. The results showed the impact of CO2 laser pretreatment on corn stover to be more effective than ultrasonic pretreatment. PMID:22605970

  4. Comparison of ultrasonic and CO₂laser pretreatment methods on enzyme digestibility of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Zi-Luan; Zuo, Li-Li

    2012-01-01

    To decrease the cost of bioethanol production, biomass recalcitrance needs to be overcome so that the conversion of biomass to bioethanol becomes more efficient. CO(2) laser irradiation can disrupt the lignocellulosic physical structure and reduce the average size of fiber. Analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area, and the microstructure of corn stover were used to elucidate the enhancement mechanism of the pretreatment process by CO(2) laser irradiation. The present work demonstrated that the CO(2) laser had potential to enhance the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulosic waste to renewable bioethanol. The saccharification rate of the CO(2) laser pretreatment was significantly higher than ultrasonic pretreatment, and reached 27.75% which was 1.34-fold of that of ultrasonic pretreatment. The results showed the impact of CO(2) laser pretreatment on corn stover to be more effective than ultrasonic pretreatment. PMID:22605970

  5. Sequential acid-/alkali-pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch fiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2012-04-01

    Pretreatment processes are key technologies for generating fermentable sugars based on lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we developed a novel method for empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) using sequential pretreatment with dilute acid and then alkali. Dilute sulfuric acid was used in the first step, which removed 90% of the hemicellulose and 32% of the lignin, but left most of the cellulose under the optimum pretreatment condition. Sodium hydroxide was then applied in the second step, which extracted lignin effectively with a 70% delignification yield, partially disrupting the ordered fibrils of the EPFBF and thus enhancing the enzyme digestibility of the cellulose. The sequentially pretreated biomass consisted of 82% cellulose, less than 1% hemicellulose, and 30% lignin content afterward. The pretreated biomasses morphologically revealed rough, porous, and irregularly ordered surfaces for enhancing enzyme digestibility. These results indicate that the sequentially acid/alkali-pretreated EPFBF could be broadly useful as a novel biomass. PMID:22306078

  6. Pretreatment combining ultrasound and sodium percarbonate under mild conditions for efficient degradation of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Ebi, Yuuki; Kubo, Masaki; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) can be used to disrupt microcrystalline cellulose to give nanofibers via ultrasonic cavitation. Sodium percarbonate (SP), consisting of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, generates highly reactive radicals, which cause oxidative delignification. Here, we describe a novel pretreatment technique using a combination of US and SP (US-SP) for the efficient saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic corn stover. Although US-SP pretreatment was conducted under mild condition (i.e., at room temperature and atmospheric pressure), the pretreatment greatly increased lignin removal and cellulose digestibility. We also determined the optimum US-SP treatment conditions, such as ultrasonic power output, pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature, and SP concentration for an efficient cellulose saccharification. Moreover, xylose could be effectively recovered from US-SP pretreated biomass without the formation of microbial inhibitor furfural. PMID:26547502

  7. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Head Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...

  8. Client Perceptions of Pretreatment Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindsvatter, Aaron; Osborn, Cynthia J.; Bubenzer, Donald; Duba, Jill D.

    2010-01-01

    The authors suggest that when counselors have a rich understanding of pretreatment changes, they are better able to assist clients in capitalizing on such changes. The current study examined client perceptions of pretreatment changes. Thirty-six clients completed Q-sorts pertaining to pretreatment changes they experienced. Four factors pertaining…

  9. Disruption of cytoplasmic microtubules by ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, G.B.; Perrino, B.A.; Chou, I.N. )

    1991-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of cultured human skin fibroblasts causes the disassembly of their microtubules. Using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, we have now investigated whether damage to the microtubule precursor pool may contribute to the disruption of microtubules. Exposure to polychromatic UV radiation inhibits the reassembly of microtubules during cellular recovery from cold treatment. In addition, the ability of taxol to promote microtubule polymerization and bundling is inhibited in UV-irradiated cells. However, UV irradiation of taxol-pretreated cells or in situ detergent-extracted microtubules fails to disrupt the microtubule network. These data suggest that damage to dimeric tubulin, or another soluble factor(s) required for polymerization, contributes to the disassembly of microtubules in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts.

  10. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOEpatents

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  11. Interception and disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Solem, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    Given sufficient warning we might try to avert a collision with a comet or asteroid by using beamed energy or by using the kinetic energy of an interceptor rocket. If motivated by the opportunity to convert the object into a space asset, perhaps a microgravity mine for construction materials or spacecraft fuels, we might try a rendezvous to implant a propulsion system of some sort. But the most cost-effective means of disruption is a nuclear explosive. In this paper, I discuss optimal tactics for terminal intercept, which can be extended to remote-interdiction scenarios as well. I show that the optimal mass ratio of an interceptor rock carrying a nuclear explosive depends mainly on the ratio of the exhaust velocity to the assailant-object closing velocity. I compare the effectiveness of stand-off detonation, surface burst, and penetration, for both deflection and pulverization, concluding that a penetrator has no clear advantage over a surface-burst device for deflection, but is a distinctly more capable pulverizer. The advantage of a stand-off device is to distribute the impulse more evenly over the surface of the object and to prevent fracture, an event which would greatly complicate the intercept problem. Finally, I present some results of a model for gravitationally bound objects and obtain the maximum non-fracturing deflection speed for a variety of object sizes and structures. For a single engagement, I conclude that the non-fracturing deflection speed obtainable with a stand-off device is about four times the speed obtainable with a surface-burst device. Furthermore, the non-fracturing deflection speed is somewhat dependent on the number of competent components of the object, the speed for a 13 component object being about twice that for a 135 component object.

  12. Pretreatment procedures for characterization of arsenic and selenium species in complex samples utilizing coupled techniques with mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Katarzyna; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Caruso, Joseph A

    2005-01-01

    Research interest in analyzing arsenic and selenium is dictated by their species-dependent behavior in the environment and in living organisms. Different analytical methodologies for known species in relatively simple chemical systems are well established, yet the analysis of complex samples is still a challenge. Owing to the complex matrix and low concentrations of target species that may be chemically labile, suitable pretreatment of the sample becomes a critical step in any speciation procedure. In this paper, the pretreatment procedures used for arsenic and selenium speciation are reviewed with the emphasis on the link between the analytical protocol applied and the biologically-significant information provided by the results obtained. In the first approach, the aim of pretreatment is to convert the original sample into a form that can be analyzed by a coupled (hyphenated) technique, preventing possible losses and/or species interconversion. Common techniques include different leaching and extraction modes, enzymatic hydrolysis, species volatilization, and so on, with or without species preconcentration. On the other hand, if the speciation analysis is performed for elucidation of elemental pathways and specific functions in a living system, more conscious pretreatment and/or fractionation is needed. The macroscopic separation of organs and tissues, isolation of certain types of cells, cell disruption and separation of sub-cellular fractions, as well as isolation of a specific biomolecules become important. Furthermore, to understand molecular mechanisms, the identification of intermediate-often highly instable--metabolites is necessary. Real life applications are reviewed in this work for aquatic samples, soils and sediments, plants, yeast, and urine. PMID:15662512

  13. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  14. Disrupting Vestibular Activity Disrupts Body Ownership.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Adria E N; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive at detecting asynchrony between a self-generated movement and visual feedback concerning that movement when the movement is viewed from a first-person perspective. We call this the 'self-advantage' and interpret it as an objective measure of self. Here we ask if disruption of the vestibular system in healthy individuals affects the self-advantage. Participants performed finger movements while viewing their hand in a first-person ('self') or third-person ('other') perspective and indicated which of two periods (one with minimum delay and the other with an added delay of 33-264 ms) was delayed. Their sensitivity to the delay was calculated from the psychometric functions obtained. During the testing, disruptive galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was applied in five-minute blocks interleaved with five minutes of no stimulation for a total of 40 min. We confirmed the self-advantage under no stimulation (31 ms). In the presence of disruptive GVS this advantage disappeared and there was no longer a difference in performance between perspectives. The threshold delay for the 'other' perspective was not affected by the GVS. These results suggest that an intact vestibular signal is required to distinguish 'self' from 'other' and to maintain a sense of body ownership. PMID:26595957

  15. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  16. Disrupted Sleep: From Molecules to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cirelli, Chiara; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Van Cauter, Eve; Schwartz, Sophie; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Although the functions of sleep remain to be fully elucidated, it is clear that there are far-reaching effects of its disruption, whether by curtailment for a single night, by a few hours each night over a long period, or by disruption in sleep continuity. Epidemiological and experimental studies of these different forms of sleep disruption show deranged physiology from subcellular levels to complex affective behavior. In keeping with the multifaceted influence of sleep on health and well-being, we illustrate how the duration of sleep, its timing, and continuity can affect cellular ultrastructure, gene expression, metabolic and hormone regulation, mood, and vigilance. Recent brain imaging studies provide some clues on mechanisms underlying the most common cause of disrupted sleep (insomnia). These insights should ultimately result in adequate interventions to prevent and treat sleep disruption because of their high relevance to our most prevalent health problems. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Disruption of the duration, timing, and continuity of sleep affects cellular ultrastructure, gene expression, appetite regulation, hormone production, vigilance, and reward functions. PMID:26468189

  17. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  18. Alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment for fermentable sugar production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inevitable depletion of fossil fuels has resulted in an increasing worldwide interest in exploring alternative and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulose, which is the most abundant biomass on earth, is widely regarded as a promising raw material to produce fuel ethanol. Pretreatment is an essential step to disrupt the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic matrix for enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production. This paper established an ATSE (alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment) process using a specially designed twin-screw extruder in the presence of alkaline solution to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover for the production of fermentable sugars. Results The ATSE pretreatment was conducted with a biomass/liquid ratio of 1/2 (w/w) at a temperature of 99°C without heating equipment. The results indicated that ATSE pretreatment is effective in improving the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover. Sodium hydroxide loading is more influential factor affecting both sugar yield and lignin degradation than heat preservation time. After ATSE pretreatment under the proper conditions (NaOH loading of 0.06 g/g biomass during ATSE and 1 hour heat preservation after extrusion), 71% lignin removal was achieved and the conversions of glucan and xylan in the pretreated biomass can reach to 83% and 89% respectively via subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g-biomass and substrate consistency of 2%). About 78% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars. Conclusions With the physicochemical functions in extrusion, the ATSE method can effectively overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover. This process can be considered as a promising pretreatment method due to its relatively low temperature (99°C), high biomass/liquid ratio (1/2) and satisfied total sugar yield (78%), despite further study is needed for process

  19. Control of Disruptive Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, S. A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. In tokamak devices, at critical values of discharge parameters (n_ e, q(a), beta) the plasma can suddenly be terminated. The process is called a disruption. It is a major limitation in the operation of tokamaks, not only because of the limitation it imposes on the operation parameter space, but also due to the severe thermal and electromechanical loadings on the vessel. These difficulties and implications for fusion reactors have attracted increasing attention and a variety of approaches in the attempt to avoid, reduce or overcome the problem have been investigated. The growth of a magnetic perturbation is believed to be responsible for the disruptive process, and previous experiments have examined the effect on this perturbation of magnetic feedback. In DITE experiments have been done to extend this work by using a more sophisticated feedback loop. The detector-coils and feedback saddle-coils (configured to treat the m = 21, n = 1 structure which is dominant in disruption precursors) were mounted inside the vacuum vessel and fast programmable loop-gain and loop-phase controllers were used. Open-loop experiments contained studies of mode locking and plasma response to applied (2,1) fields. The feedback work explored the effect on disruption precursors over a large area in parameter space and was the first to address in detail the effect of feedback on disruptions. Both open-loop and feedback experiments were conducted on Ohmic discharges and discharges with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD). The experiments have demonstrated disruption precursor control in both types of discharge. Disruptions were studied in Ohmic plasmas. They were postponed and the density limit was extended.

  20. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  1. Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Suvi

    2013-12-01

    The majority of supermassive black holes in the Universe lie dormant and starved of fuel. These hidden beasts can be temporarily illuminated when an unlucky star passes close enough to be tidally disrupted and consumed by the black hole. Theorists first proposed in 1975 that tidal disruption events should be an inevitable consequence of supermassive black holes in galaxy nuclei and later argued that the resulting flare of radiation from the accretion of the stellar debris could be a unique signpost for the presence of a dormant black hole in the center of a normal galaxy. It was not until over two decades later that the first convincing tidal disruption event candidates emerged in the X-rays by the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Since then, over a dozen total candidates have now emerged from searches across the electromagnetic spectrum, including the X-rays, the ultraviolet, and the optical. In the last couple of years, we have also witnessed a paradigm shift with the discovery of relativistic beamed emission associated with tidal disruption events. I review the census of observational candidates to date and discuss the exciting prospects for using large samples of tidal disruption events discovered with the next-generation of ground-based and space-based synoptic surveys to probe accretion disk and/or jet formation and black hole demographics.

  2. Foster Placement Disruptions Associated with Problem Behavior: Mitigating a Threshold Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Philip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Mannering, Anne M.; Takahashi, Aiko; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Placement disruptions have adverse effects on foster children. Identifying reliable predictors of placement disruptions might assist in the allocation of services to prevent disruptions. There were two objectives in this study: (a) to replicate a prior finding that the number of daily child problem behaviors at entry into a new foster…

  3. Malaysian Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Disruptive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaria, Norzila; Reupert, Andrea; Sharma, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate Malaysian primary pre-service teachers' perceptions of students' disruptive behaviour and their self-reported strategies to prevent and to manage such behaviours. Results indicate that Malaysian pre-service teachers understand disruptive behaviours to be those that disrupt the learning and…

  4. The disruption management model.

    PubMed

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context. PMID:22130341

  5. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. PMID:25867225

  6. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  7. Coping with Campus Disruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crookston, Burns B.

    Following a short introduction about the current status of student unrest and campus disruption, this paper discusses the contributing factors: (1) the unique aspects of the present generation gap; (2) confusion on the role of the university in contemporary society; (3) the inability, on the basis of their organizational structure, of universities…

  8. Citrus Leafminer Mating Disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating disruption targets a specific pest and has no negative impact on natural enemies, the environment, or agricultural workers. A flowable wax dispenser was tested for releasing the female sex pheromone of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella. These dispensers are biodegradable, inexpens...

  9. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. PMID:26282766

  10. Centralized industrial waste pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, L.H.; Cunningham, D.P.

    1991-11-01

    Four years ago, the Sanitary District of Washington County, Maryland asked the Economic Development Commission and the elected officials what if' the district researched the potential for a centralized industrial waste treatment facility for the county. The reason: about a dozen privately and publicly owned industrial parks cover almost 809 ha (2,000 ac) of Washington County. Most of them opened during the 1980s and all of them are within minutes of two superhighways. The county, which has 120,000 residents, is also home to 20 trucking companies and the main lines of CSX, Conrail, and Norfolk Southern, the largest railroads east of the Mississippi River. The county is home to Mack Trucks Engine and Transmissions facility, Rohr Industries (formally Fairchild Industries), Citicorp Credit Services, Rust-Oleum, Certain-teed PVC products, and many more. Because the county has a strong economic base, reasonable property taxes, and an exceptionally clean environment, the idea for an industrial pretreatment facility was met with enthusiasm from both parties and, therefore, the idea became a concept for planning in winter 1987-88. Plans for serving targeted industries and for isolating and controlling individual wastes discharges are discussed.

  11. Pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis by carbon dioxide explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.; Lin, H.M.; Tsao, G.T.

    1998-11-01

    Cellulosic materials were treated with supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the reactivity of cellulose, thereby to enhance the rate and the extent of cellulose hydrolysis. In this pretreatment process, the cellulosic materials such as Avicel, recycled paper mix, sugarcane bagasse and the repulping waste of recycled paper are placed in a reactor under pressurized carbon dioxide at 35 C for a controlled time period. Upon an explosive release of the carbon dioxide pressure, the disruption of the cellulosic structure increases the accessible surface area of the cellulosic substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicate that supercritical carbon dioxide is effective for pretreatment of cellulose. An increase in pressure facilitates the faster penetration of carbon dioxide molecules into the crystalline structures, thus more glucose is produced from cellulosic materials after the explosion as compared to those without the pretreatment. This explosion pretreatment enhances the rate of cellulosic material hydrolysis as well as increases glucose yield by as much as 50%. Results from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation tests also show the increase in the available carbon source from the cellulosic materials for fermentation to produce ethanol. As an alternative method, this supercritical carbon dioxide explosion has a possibility to reduce expense compared with ammonia explosion, and since it is operated at the low temperature, it will not cause degradation of sugars such as those treated with steam explosion due to the high-temperature involved.

  12. Biomass pretreatment: fundamentals toward application.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Valery B; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Berlin, Alex; Levin, David B

    2011-01-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but the biomass must be subjected to pretreatment processes to liberate the sugars needed for fermentation. Production of value-added co-products along-side biofuels through integrated biorefinery processes creates the need for selectivity during pretreatment. This paper presents a survey of biomass pretreatment technologies with emphasis on concepts, mechanism of action and practicability. The advantages and disadvantages, and the potential for industrial applications of different pretreatment technologies are the highlights of this paper. PMID:21624451

  13. Production without environmental disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    Coal mining at the Butterwell site in the U.K. is discussed. The operation is owned by the National Coal Board and has caused special planning to keep from disrupting the environment. The close proximity of villages has caused the need for air and noise pollution control, and protection of the land. A discussion of the methods of removing the overburden, processing the coal, and reclaiming the area is included.

  14. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  15. Coincident disruptive coloration

    PubMed Central

    Cuthill, Innes C.; Székely, Aron

    2008-01-01

    Even if an animal matches its surroundings perfectly in colour and texture, any mismatch between the spatial phase of its pattern and that of the background, or shadow created by its three-dimensional relief, is potentially revealing. Nevertheless, for camouflage to be fully broken, the shape must be recognizable. Disruptive coloration acts against object recognition by the use of high-contrast internal colour boundaries to break up shape and form. As well as the general outline, characteristic features such as eyes and limbs must also be concealed; this can be achieved by having the colour patterns on different, but adjacent, body parts aligned to match each other (i.e. in phase). Such ‘coincident disruptive coloration’ ensures that there is no phase disjunction where body parts meet, and causes different sections of the body to blend perceptually. We tested this theory using field experiments with predation by wild birds on artificial moth-like targets, whose wings and (edible pastry) bodies had colour patterns that were variously coincident or not. We also carried out an experiment with humans searching for analogous targets on a computer screen. Both experiments show that coincident disruptive coloration is an effective mechanism for concealing an otherwise revealing body form. PMID:18990668

  16. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Bonnie HY; Wan, Hin T; Law, Alice YS

    2011-01-01

    In the past 200 years, an enormous number of synthetic chemicals with diverse structural features have been produced for industrial, medical and domestic purposes. These chemicals, originally thought to have little or no biological toxicity, are widely used in our daily lives as well as are commonly present in foods. It was not until the first World Wildlife Federation Wingspread Conference held in 1994 were concerns about the endocrine disrupting (ED) effects of these chemicals articulated. The potential hazardous effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on human health and ecological well-being are one of the global concerns that affect the health and propagation of human beings. Considerable numbers of studies indicated that endocrine disruption is linked to “the developmental basis of adult disease,” highlighting the significant effects of EDC exposure on a developing organism, leading to the propensity of an individual to develop a disease or dysfunction in later life. In this review, we intend to provide environmental, epidemiological and experimental data to associate pollutant exposure with reproductive disorders, in particular on the development and function of the male reproductive system. Possible effects of pollutant exposure on the processes of embryonic development, like sex determination and masculinization are described. In addition, the effects of pollutant exposure on hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, testicular signaling, steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis are also discussed. PMID:22319671

  17. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanenko, Olga

    The objectives of this work are to test the application of steam pretreatment to direct coal liquefaction, to investigate the reaction of model compounds with water, and to explore the use of zeolites in these processes. Previous work demonstrated the effectiveness of steam pretreatment in a subsequent flash pyrolysis. Apparently, subcritical steam ruptures nearly all of the ether cross links, leaving a partially depolymerized structure. It was postulated that very rapid heating of the pretreated coal to liquefaction conditions would be required to preserve the effects of such treatment. Accordingly, a method was adopted in which coal slurry is injected into a hot autoclave containing solvent. Since oxygen is capable of destroying the pretreatment effect, precautions were taken for its rigorous exclusion. Tests were conducted with Illinois No. 6 coal steam treated at 340sp°C, 750 psia for 15 minutes. Both raw and pretreated samples were liquified in deoxygenated tetralin at high severity (400sp°C, 30 min.) and low severity (a: 350sp°C, 30 min., and b: 385sp°C, 15 min.) conditions under 1500 psia hydrogen. Substantial improvement in liquid product quality was obtained and the need for rapid heating and oxygen exclusion demonstrated. Under low severity conditions, the oil yield was more than doubled, going from 12.5 to 29 wt%. Also chemistry of the pretreatment process was studied using aromatic ethers as model compounds. alpha-Benzylnaphthyl ether (alpha-BNE), alpha-naphthylmethyl phenyl (alpha-NMPE), and 9-phenoxyphenanthrene were exposed to steam and inert gas at pretreatment conditions and in some cases to liquid water at 315sp°C. alpha-BNE and alpha-NMPE showed little difference in conversion in inert gas and in steam. Hence, these compounds are poor models for coal in steam pretreatment. Thermally stable 9-phenoxyphenanthrene, however, was completely converted in one hour by liquid water at 315sp°C. At pretreatment conditions mostly rearranged starting

  18. Biological pretreatment enhances biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin Yunqin; Wang Dehan; Wang Lishang

    2010-09-01

    High efficient resource recovery from pulp and paper sludge (PPS) has been the focus of attention. The objective of this research was to develop a bio-pretreatment process prior to anaerobic digestion of PPS to improve the methane productivity. Active and inactive mushroom compost extracts (MCE) were used for pretreating PPS, followed by anaerobic digestion with monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed bioreactors, 1-L capacity with 700 ml useful capacity. Optimal amount of active MCE for organics' solubilization in the step of pretreatment was 250 A.U./gVS( sludge). Under this condition, the PPS floc structure was well disrupted, resulting in void rate and fibre size diminishment after pretreatment. In addition, SCOD and VS removal were found to be 56% and 43.6%, respectively, after anaerobic digestion, being the peak value of VFA concentration determined as 1198 mg acetic acid L(-1). The anaerobic digestion efficiency of PPS with and without pretreatment was evaluated. The highest methane yield under optimal pretreatment conditions was 0.23 m(3) CH4/kgVS(add), being 134.2% of the control. The results indicated that MCE bio-pretreatment could be a cost-effective and environmentally sound method for producing methane from PPS. PMID:20147578

  19. Alkali pretreatment enhances biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunqin; Wang, Dehan; Wu, Shaoquan; Wang, Chunmin

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this research was to develop an alkali pretreatment process prior to anaerobic digestion (AD) of pulp and paper sludge (PPS) to improve the methane productivity. Different concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution were used to pretreat PPS, and then followed by AD of PPS and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed bioreactors, 1L capacity with 700 mL worked. Optimal amount of sodium hydroxide for organics solubilization in the step of pretreatment was 8 g NaOH/100g TS(sludge). Under this condition, the PPS flocs structure was well disrupted resulting in the void rate and fiber size decreased after pretreatment, and SCOD increased up to 83% as well as the peak value of VFA concentration attained 1040 mg acetic acid/L during AD. The AD efficiency of PPS with and without pretreatment was evaluated. The highest methane yield under optimal pretreatment condition was 0.32 m(3) CH(4)/kg VS(removal), 183.5% of the control. The results indicated that alkali/NaOH pretreatment could be an effective method for improving methane yield with PPS. PMID:19464792

  20. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Jan B; Thygesen, Lisbeth G; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning; Elder, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of the pretreatment on the straw cell-wall matrix and its components are characterised microscopically (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopically (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) in order to understand this increase in digestibility. Results The hydrothermal pretreatment does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes profound lignin re-localisation. Results from the current work indicate that wax has been removed and hemicellulose has been partially removed. Similar changes were found in wheat straw pretreated by steam explosion. Conclusion Results indicate that hydrothermal pretreatment increases the digestibility by increasing the accessibility of the cellulose through a re-localisation of lignin and a partial removal of hemicellulose, rather than by disruption of the cell wall. PMID:18471316

  1. Hydrophilic bile acids protect human blood-brain barrier endothelial cells from disruption by unconjugated bilirubin: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Palmela, Inês; Correia, Leonor; Silva, Rui F. M.; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kim, Kwang S.; Brites, Dora; Brito, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid and its main conjugate glycoursodeoxycholic acid are bile acids with neuroprotective properties. Our previous studies demonstrated their anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties in neural cells exposed to elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) as in severe jaundice. In a simplified model of the blood-brain barrier, formed by confluent monolayers of a cell line of human brain microvascular endothelial cells, UCB has shown to induce caspase-3 activation and cell death, as well as interleukin-6 release and a loss of blood-brain barrier integrity. Here, we tested the preventive and restorative effects of these bile acids regarding the disruption of blood-brain barrier properties by UCB in in vitro conditions mimicking severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and using the same experimental blood-brain barrier model. Both bile acids reduced the apoptotic cell death induced by UCB, but only glycoursodeoxycholic acid significantly counteracted caspase-3 activation. Bile acids also prevented the upregulation of interleukin-6 mRNA, whereas only ursodeoxycholic acid abrogated cytokine release. Regarding barrier integrity, only ursodeoxycholic acid abrogated UCB-induced barrier permeability. Better protective effects were obtained by bile acid pre-treatment, but a strong efficacy was still observed by their addition after UCB treatment. Finally, both bile acids showed ability to cross confluent monolayers of human brain microvascular endothelial cells in a time-dependent manner. Collectively, data disclose a therapeutic time-window for preventive and restorative effects of ursodeoxycholic acid and glycoursodeoxycholic acid against UCB-induced blood-brain barrier disruption and damage to human brain microvascular endothelial cells. PMID:25821432

  2. Manuel's asteroid disruption technique

    PubMed Central

    John, Manuel; Ipe, Abraham; Jacob, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    A seventy-year-old male presented with dense asteroid hyalosis in both eyes. He had undergone cataract extraction in one eye 3 years ago, and the other eye had immature cataract. Both the autorefractor and dilated streak retinoscopy did not give readings and subjective visual improvement could not be achieved. Immediately following YAG posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitreous asteroid disruption, the vision improved to 20/20 with recordable auto refractor and streak retinoscopy values. Our initial experience indicates that the treatment is simple, safe and effective but needs controlled and prospective studies to confirm its long-term safety. PMID:23571244

  3. [Children's disruptive behavior].

    PubMed

    Aronen, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    During normal development, a child learns to regulate her/his aggressions and follow the social norms of her/his community.This learning takes place in interaction with the environment. Risk factors associated with the child, parenthood and environment underlie the disruptive behavior. If a child of preschool/school age exhibits age group deviant difficulties in the management of aggression, defiant, rule-breaking behavior or difficulties in social relationships, there is every reason to get worried and to evaluate the child's symptoms and situation. The earlier the support and therapy is provided, the better are the possibilities to influence the prognosis of conduct disorders. PMID:27382832

  4. White-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biohydrogen production: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Zelun; Wang, Hui

    2014-07-01

    This paper demonstrates biohydrogen production was enhanced by white-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw (WS) through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Wheat straw was pretreated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium at 30 °C under solid state fermentation for 12 days, and lignin was removed about 28.5 ± 1.3 %. Microscopic structure observation combined thermal gravity and differential thermal gravity analysis further showed that the lignocellulose structure obviously disrupted after fungal pretreatment. Subsequently, the pretreated WS and crude cellulases prepared from Trichoderma atroviride were applied in SSF for hydrogen production using Clostridium perfringens. The maximum hydrogen yield was obtained to be 78.5 ± 3.4 ml g(-1)-pretreated WS, which was about 1.8-fold than the unpretreated group. Furthermore, the modified Gompertz model was applied study the progress of cumulative H(2) production. This work developed a novel bio-approach to improve fermentative H(2) yield from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:24429553

  5. Enhancing enzymolysis and fermentation efficiency of sugarcane bagasse by synergistic pretreatment of Fenton reaction and sodium hydroxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A study on the synergistic pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using Fenton reaction and NaOH extraction was conducted. The optimized process conditions for Fenton pretreatment were 10% (w/w) of H2O2, 20mM of Fe(2+), pH 2.5, pretreatment time 6h, and pretreatment temperature 55°C. Sequential pretreatments were performed in combination with NaOH extraction (NaOH 1% (w/w), 80°C, 5% of solid loading, 1h). Among all the pretreatments, Fenton pretreatment followed by NaOH extraction had the highest efficiency of 64.7% and 108.3% for enzymolysis and simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) with an ethanol concentration of 17.44g/L. The analyses by the scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that Fenton pretreatment disrupts the structure of SCB to facilitate the degradation of lignin by NaOH. The overall data suggest that this combinatorial strategy is a promising process for SCB pretreatment. PMID:27213578

  6. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like) galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s-1 at peak), rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds) and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ˜ 2 - 5), created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  7. Disruptions in the TFTR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Janos, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Batha, S.H.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Budny, R.; Bush, C.E.; Efthimion, P.C.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Levinton, F.; Mansfield, D.; Meade, D.; Medley, S.S.; Monticello, D.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Post, D.E.; Schivell, J.; Strachan, J.D.; Taylor, G.; Ulrickson, M.; von Goeler, S.; Wilfrid, E.; Wong, K.L.; Yamada, M.; Young, K.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J.; Drake, J.F.; Kleva, R.G.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1993-03-01

    For a successful reactor, it will be useful to predict the occurrence of disruptions and to understand disruption effects including how a plasma disrupts onto the wall and how reproducibly it does so. Studies of disruptions on TFTR at both high-{beta}{sub pol} and high-density have shown that, in both types, a fast growing m/n=1/1 mode plays an important role. In highdensity disruptions, a newly observed fast m/n = 1/1 mode occurs early in the thermal decay phase. For the first time in TFTR q-profile measurements just prior to disruptions have been made. Experimental studies of heat deposition patterns on the first wall of TFTR due to disruptions have provided information on MHD phenomena prior to or during the disruption, how the energy is released to the wall, and the reproducibility of the heat loads from disruptions. This information is important in the design of future devices such as ITER. Several new processes of runaway electron generation are theoretically suggested and their application to TFTR and ITER is considered, together with a preliminary assessment of x-ray data from runaways generated during disruptions.

  8. Disruptions in the TFTR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Janos, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Batha, S.H.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Budny, R.; Bush, C.E.; Efthimion, P.C.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Levinton, F.; Mansfield, D.; Meade, D.; Medley, S.S.; Monticello, D.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Post, D.E.; Schivell, J.; Strachan, J.D.; Taylor, G.; Ulrickson, M.; von Goeler, S.; Wilfrid, E.; Wong, K.L.; Yamad

    1993-03-01

    For a successful reactor, it will be useful to predict the occurrence of disruptions and to understand disruption effects including how a plasma disrupts onto the wall and how reproducibly it does so. Studies of disruptions on TFTR at both high-[beta][sub pol] and high-density have shown that, in both types, a fast growing m/n=1/1 mode plays an important role. In highdensity disruptions, a newly observed fast m/n = 1/1 mode occurs early in the thermal decay phase. For the first time in TFTR q-profile measurements just prior to disruptions have been made. Experimental studies of heat deposition patterns on the first wall of TFTR due to disruptions have provided information on MHD phenomena prior to or during the disruption, how the energy is released to the wall, and the reproducibility of the heat loads from disruptions. This information is important in the design of future devices such as ITER. Several new processes of runaway electron generation are theoretically suggested and their application to TFTR and ITER is considered, together with a preliminary assessment of x-ray data from runaways generated during disruptions.

  9. Enhancement of pigment extraction from B. braunii pretreated using CO2 rapid depressurization.

    PubMed

    Uquiche, Edgar; Antilaf, Ivette; Millao, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Extraction of compounds from microalgae requires cell disruption as a pretreatment to increase extraction yield. Botryococcus braunii is a microalga with a significant content of carotenoids and other antioxidant compounds, such as chlorophylls. Cell disruption of B. braunii using CO2 rapid depressurization was studied as a pretreatment for the extraction of carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments. We studied the effect of temperature (21-49°C) and pressure (6-13MPa) during static compression on pigment recovery with supercritical CO2 at 40°C, 30MPa and solvent flow of 4.7LNPT/min. Within the experimental region, the extraction yield of carotenoids and chlorophylls increased by 2.4- and 2.2-fold respectively. Static compression conditions of high pressure and low temperature increased the extraction of carotenoids and especially chlorophylls. We selected 21°C and 13MPa as the cell disruption condition, which produced 1.91g/kg d.s. of carotenoids and 14.03mg/kg d.s. of chlorophylls. Pretreated microalga gave a 10-fold higher chlorophyll extraction yield compared to the untreated sample. While for carotenoids and tocopherols were 1.25 and 1.14-fold higher, respectively. Additionally, antioxidant activity of pretreated microalga (33.22mmol TE/kg oil) was significantly higher than the value for the untreated samples (29.11mmol TE/kg oil) (p≤0.05). Confocal microscopy images showed morphological differences between micro-colonies with and without disruption treatment, suggesting that partial cell disruption by rapid depressurization improved the extraction of microalga compounds. PMID:26991281

  10. Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Günerken, E; D'Hondt, E; Eppink, M H M; Garcia-Gonzalez, L; Elst, K; Wijffels, R H

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are a potential source for various valuable chemicals for commercial applications ranging from nutraceuticals to fuels. Objective in a biorefinery is to utilize biomass ingredients efficiently similarly to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of products with higher value. Downstream processes in microalgae biorefineries consist of different steps whereof cell disruption is the most crucial part. To maintain the functionality of algae biochemicals during cell disruption while obtaining high disruption yields is an important challenge. Despite this need, studies on mild disruption of microalgae cells are limited. This review article focuses on the evaluation of conventional and emerging cell disruption technologies, and a comparison thereof with respect to their potential for the future microalgae biorefineries. The discussed techniques are bead milling, high pressure homogenization, high speed homogenization, ultrasonication, microwave treatment, pulsed electric field treatment, non-mechanical cell disruption and some emerging technologies. PMID:25656098

  11. Effect of lime pre-treatment on the synergistic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by hemicellulases.

    PubMed

    Beukes, Natasha; Pletschke, Brett I

    2010-06-01

    Agricultural crop wastes are typically lignocellulosic in composition and thus partially recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation. The recalcitrant nature of plant biomass and the inability to obtain complete enzymatic hydrolysis has led to the establishment of various pre-treatment strategies. Alkaline pre-treatments increase the accessibility of the exposed surface to enzymatic hydrolysis through the removal of acetyl and uronic acid substituents on hemicelluloses. Unlike the use of steam and acid pre-treatments, alkaline pre-treatments (e.g. lime) solubilise lignin and a small percentage of the hemicelluloses. The most common alkaline pre-treatments that are employed make use of sodium hydroxide and lime. This study compared the synergistic degradation of un-treated and lime pre-treated sugarcane bagasse using cellulosomal and non-cellulosomal hemicellulases as free enzymes. The enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA and 62.5% ManA produced the highest amount of reducing sugar of 91.834 micromol/min for the degradation of un-treated bagasse. This enzyme combination produced a degree of synergy of 1.87. The free enzymes displayed an approximately 6-fold increase in the enzyme activity, i.e. the total amount of reducing sugar released (593.65 micromol/min) with the enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA, 25% ManA and 37.5% XynA for the lime pre-treated substrate and a degree of synergy of 2.14. To conclude, this study indicated that pre-treating the sugarcane bagasse is essential, in order to increase the efficiency of lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis by disruption of the lignin sheath, that the lime pre-treatment did not have any dramatic effect on the synergistic relationship between the free enzymes, and that time may play an important role in the establishment of synergistic relationships between enzymes. PMID:20156678

  12. Elucidation of the effect of ionic liquid pretreatment on rice husk via structural analyses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the present study, three ionic liquids, namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate ([EMIM]DEP), were used to partially dissolve rice husk, after which the cellulose were regenerated by the addition of water. The aim of the investigation is to examine the implications of the ionic liquid pretreatments on rice husk composition and structure. Results From the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results, the regenerated cellulose were more amorphous, less crystalline, and possessed higher structural disruption compared with untreated rice husk. The major component of regenerated cellulose from [BMIM]Cl and [EMIM]DEP pretreatments was cellulose-rich material, while cellulose regenerated from [EMIM]OAc was a matrix of cellulose and lignin. Cellulose regenerated from ionic pretreatments could be saccharified via enzymatic hydrolysis, and resulted in relatively high reducing sugars yields, whereas enzymatic hydrolysis of untreated rice husk did not yield reducing sugars. Rice husk residues generated from the ionic liquid pretreatments had similar chemical composition and amorphousity to that of untreated rice husk, but with varying extent of surface disruption and swelling. Conclusions The structural architecture of the regenerated cellulose and rice husk residues showed that they could be used for subsequent fermentation or derivation of cellulosic compounds. Therefore, ionic liquid pretreatment is an alternative in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in addition to the conventional chemical pretreatments. PMID:22958710

  13. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  14. Evaluation of microalgae cell disruption by ultrasonic treatment.

    PubMed

    Gerde, Jose A; Montalbo-Lomboy, Melissa; Yao, Linxing; Grewell, David; Wang, Tong

    2012-12-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuels because of their capability to produce lipids. Cell disruption is necessary to maximize lipid extraction. Sonication conditions were evaluated for breaking heterotrophic (Schizochytrium limacinum) and autotrophic (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) microalgae cells. Cell disruption was estimated by Nile red-lipids fluorescence quantification in S. limacinum and by the release of intracellular chlorophyll and carotenoids in green microalga C. reinhardtii. In both species, approximately 800 J/10 mL was the energy input necessary to maximize cell disruption, regardless of the cell concentrations studied. Increasing sonication time produced increasing amount of free radicals, quantified by the formation of hydroxyterephthalate. Sonication energy beyond the level needed for cell disruption induced oxidation of arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid typically found in marine lipids. Careful control of sonication conditions is necessary to maximize oil extraction at the lowest operational cost and to prevent oil from free radical-induced degradation. PMID:23026331

  15. Repartnering after First Union Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zheng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the 1995 General Social Survey (N= 2,639), this study examines two competing repartnering choices made by Canadians after first union disruption: marriage or cohabitation. About 42% of women and 54% of men form a second union 5 years after union disruption, with cohabitation being the most prevalent choice. The timing of second…

  16. Adrenocortical endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal has been neglected in endocrine disruption regulatory testing strategy. The adrenal is a vital organ, adrenocortical insufficiency is recognised in life threatening "adrenal crises" and Addison's disease, and the consequences of off-target toxicological inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenesis is well recognised in clinical medicine, where drugs such as aminoglutethimide and etomidate killed patients via unrecognised inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenic enzymes (e.g. CYP11B1) along the cortisol and aldosterone pathways. The consequences of adrenocortical dysfunction during early development are also recognised in the congenital salt wasting and adrenogenital syndromes presenting neonatally, yet despite a remit to focus on developmental and reproductive toxicity mechanisms of endocrine disruption by many regulatory agencies (USEPA EDSTAC; REACH) the assessment of adrenocortical function has largely been ignored. Further, every step in the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathway (ACTH receptor, StAR, CYP's 11A1, 17, 21, 11B1, 11B2, and 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Δ4,5 isomerase) is known to be a potential target with multiple examples of chemicals inhibiting these targets. Many of these chemicals have been detected in human and wildlife tissues. This raises the question of whether exposure to low level environmental chemicals may be affecting adrenocortical function. This review examines the omission of adrenocortical testing in the current regulatory frameworks; the characteristics that make the adrenal cortex particularly vulnerable to toxic insult; chemicals and their toxicological targets within the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathways; the typical manifestations of adrenocortical toxicity (e.g. human iatrogenically induced pharmacotoxicological adrenal insufficiency, manifestations in typical mammalian regulatory general toxicology studies, manifestations in wildlife) and models of adrenocortical functional assessment. The utility of the

  17. Lime pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shushien

    Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis is constrained due to its structural features, so pretreatment is essential to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Of the chemicals used as pretreatment agents, it has been reported that alkalis improve biomass digestibility significantly. In comparison with other alkalis such as NaOH and ammonia, lime (calcium hydroxide) has many advantages; it is very inexpensive, is safe, and can be recovered by carbonating wash water. The effects of lime pretreatment were explored on switchgrass and poplar wood, representing herbaceous and woody biomass, respectively. The effects of pretreatment conditions (time, temperature, lime loading, water loading, particle size, and oxygen pressure) have been systematically studies. Lime alone enhances the digestibility of switchgrass significantly; under the recommended conditions, the 3-d total sugar (glucose + xylose) yields of lime-treated switchgrass were 7 times that of untreated sample. When treating poplar wood, lime must be combined with oxygen to achieve high digestibility; oxidative lime pretreatment increased the 3-d total sugar yield of poplar wood to 12 times that of untreated sample. In a fundamental study, to determine why lime pretreatment is effective, the effects of three structural features on enzymatic digestibility were studied: lignin content, acetyl content, and crystallinity index (CrI). Poplar wood was treated with peracetic acid, potassium hydroxide, and ball milling to produce model lignocelluloses with a broad spectrum of lignin contents, acetyl contents, and CrI, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed on the model lignocelluloses to determine the digestibility. Correlations between lignin/carbohydrate ratio, acetyl/carbohydrate ratio, CrI and digestibility were developed. The 95% prediction intervals show that the correlations predict the 1-h and 3-d total sugar conversions of

  18. Comparison of Four Strong Acids on the Precipitation Potential of Gypsum in Brines During Distillation of Pretreated, Augmented Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Two batches of nominally pretreated and augmented urine were prepared with the baseline pretreatment formulation of sulfuric acid and chromium trioxide. The urine was augmented with inorganic salts and organic compounds in order to simulate a urinary ionic concentrations representing the upper 95 percentile on orbit. Three strong mineral acids: phosphoric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid, were substituted for the sulfuric acid for comparison to the baseline sulfuric acid pretreatment formulation. Three concentrations of oxidizer in the pretreatment formulation were also tested. Pretreated urine was distilled to 85% water recovery to determine the effect of each acid and its conjugate base on the precipitation of minerals during distillation. The brines were analyzed for calcium and sulfate ion, total, volatile, and fixed suspended solids. Test results verified that substitution of phosphoric, hydrochloric, or nitric acids for sulfuric acid would prevent the precipitation of gypsum up to 85% recovery from pretreated urine representing the upper 95 percentile calcium concentration on orbit.

  19. School Counselors Serving Students with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    School counselors are in a prime position to collaborate with school and community stakeholders to both prevent and respond to the challenges experienced and exhibited by students with one or more disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In this article, the DBDs discussed include conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive…

  20. School Violence and Disruption: Rhetoric, Reality, and Reasonable Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, Peter E.; Mayer, Matthew J.; Malmgren, Kimber; Meisel, Sheri M.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines issues related to school violence and disruption. It discusses the sociocultural context within which school violence occurs, balancing educational rights within an orderly school environment, and the role of students with disabilities in school suspensions. Violence prevention initiatives and guidelines for parents and…

  1. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C., Weber, C.F., Hunt, R.D., Dillow, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues.

  2. Pretreatment of CO oxidation catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannorman, John D.

    1988-01-01

    CO oxidation catalysts with high activity in the range of 25 C to 100 C are important for long-life, closed-cycle operation of pulsed carbon dioxide 2 lasers. A reductive pretreatment with either CO or H sub 2 was shown to significantly enhance the activity of a commerically-available platinum on tin (IV) oxide (Pt/SnO2) catalyst relative to an oxidative or inert pretreatment or no pretreatment. Pretreatment at temperatures of 175 C and above caused an initial dip in observed CO or O sub 2 loss or CO sub 2 formation in a test gas mixture of 1 percent CO and 0.5 percent O sub 2 in a He gas matrix before a steady-state yield was obtained. This dip was found to be caused by dehydration of the surface of the catalyst and was readily eliminated by humidifying the catalyst or the test gas mixture. It was also found that too much moisture resulted in a lower overall yield of CO sub 2. Under similar conditions, it is hypothesized that the effect of the humidification is to increase the concentration of OH groups on the surface of the catalyst. The effect of having high concentration of CO sub 2 in the test gas mixture upon the loss of CO and O sub 2 as well as the effect of periods of relaxation of the catalyst under non-test gas conditions was studied. The purpose of these studies was to gain an insight into the mechanism of CO oxidation on this type of catalyst.

  3. Antimicrobial peptide Cathelicidin-BF prevents intestinal barrier dysfunction in a mouse model of endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Song, Deguang; Zong, Xin; Zhang, Haiwen; Wang, Tenghao; Yi, Hongbo; Luan, Chao; Wang, Yizhen

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal barrier functions are altered during the development of sepsis. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides, such as LL-37 and mCRAMP, can protect animals against intestinal barrier dysfunction. Cathelicidin-BF (C-BF), a new cathelicidin peptide purified from the venom of the snake Bungarus fasciatus, has been shown to have both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated whether C-BF pretreatment could protect the intestinal barrier against dysfunction in a mouse model of endotoxemia, induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10mg/kg). Mice were treated with low or high dose C-BF before treatment with LPS, and samples were collected 5h after LPS treatment. C-BF reduced LPS induced intestinal histological damage and gut permeability to 4 KD Fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran. Pretreatment with C-BF prevented LPS induced intestinal tight junction disruption and epithelial cell apoptosis. Moreover, C-BF down regulated the expression and secretion of TNF-α, a process involving the NF-κB signaling pathway. C-BF also reduced LPS induced TNF-α expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. These findings indicate that C-BF can prevent gut barrier dysfunction induced by LPS, suggesting that C-BF may be used to develop a prophylactic agent for intestinal injury in endotoxemia. PMID:25639228

  4. Child Disruptive Behavior and Parenting Efficacy: A Comparison of the Effects of Two Models of Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems…

  5. Dilute acid and autohydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    Exposure of cellulosic biomass to temperatures of about 120-210 degrees C can remove most of the hemicellulose and produce cellulose-rich solids from which high glucose yields are possible with cellulase enzymes. Furthermore, the use of dilute sulfuric acid in this pretreatment operation can increase recovery of hemicellulose sugars substantially to about 85-95% of the maximum possible versus only about 65% if no acid is employed. The use of small-diameter tubes makes it possible to employ high solids concentrations similar to those preferred for commercial operations, with rapid heat-up, good temperature control, and accurate closure of material balances. Mixed reactors can be employed to pretreat larger amounts of biomass than possible in such small-diameter tubes, but solids concentrations are limited to about 15% or less to provide uniform temperatures. Pretreatment of large amounts of biomass at high solids concentrations is best carried out using direct steam injection and rapid pressure release, but closure of material balances in such "steam gun" devices is more difficult. Although flow of water alone or containing dilute acid is not practical commercially, such flow-through configurations provide valuable insight into biomass deconstruction kinetics not possible in the batch tubes, mixed reactors, or steam gun systems. PMID:19768619

  6. Comminution employing liquid nitrogen pretreatments

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, S.C. . Dept. of Civil Engineering and Mechanics); Hippo, E.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes)

    1990-11-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a methodology that will lead to the establishment of an effective, efficient technique for ultrafine grinding of coal. We believe that the key to successful coal grinding is strongly dependent upon the change of the brittleness of coal under a freezing temperature pretreatment. Furthermore, a cryogenic grinding process may provide the basis for the development of advanced technologies involving the separation of the pyritic minerals from coal. Specific objectives of the program are to: determine the effect of low temperature pretreatments on the microfracture development along the coal/pyrite interface and on the fracture resistance (brittleness) of coal. Specifically, we intend to examine the effect of direct contact of coal with liquid nitrogen, dry ice, and dry-iced acetone. Also, we intend to study pyrite liberation as a result of these treatments; determine the fracture resistance of coal under different low temperature pretreatments; determine the relationships between the fracture resistance of coal and the effectiveness of a grinding process; determine the effect of the frozen coal grinding on the pyrite liberation; evaluate factors which might effect process design, scale-up, and economics; and make a first pass economic assessment of the process. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Preventing stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... Clinical Cardiology; Council on Functional Genomics and ... Council on Hypertension. Guidelines for the primary prevention ...

  8. AIDS and economic disruption.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G S

    1996-10-01

    Child and adult mortality increases in Cameroon due to AIDS will cause life expectancy to fall by as many as 8 years, from just over 50 to just over 40 years. The social consequences of AIDS include grieving, stigmatizing, and the large-scale disruption of family and community structures. Widows and widowers due to AIDS mortality are affected differently from each other, with the widows of men who have died from AIDS facing potential sociocultural and economic hardship. The economic consequences of AIDS in Bamenda and elsewhere in Cameroon will occur mainly through the epidemic's impact upon the size and quality of the labor force. By killing a significant number of male and female workers aged 15-60 years, AIDS will reduce the size and growth rate of the labor force. Despite, rapid population growth, labor is a relatively scarce factor of agricultural production in Cameroon. The spread of HIV in rural areas, combined with the intensity and scarcity of agricultural labor, suggests that AIDS will have an impact upon production and per capita incomes, and increase the already high rates of hunger and absolute poverty. In the context of HIV/AIDS, young people must be empowered to make informed decisions about sex. Adolescents are most at risk because they tend to experiment more than married couples and have many sex partners. Sexual activity begins as early as age 8 years and penetrative sex at age 13 or earlier. The author considers the factors which encourage adolescents to engage in sexual activities. PMID:12293251

  9. Tidal disruption event demographics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-09-01

    We survey the properties of stars destroyed in tidal disruption events (TDEs) as a function of black hole (BH) mass, stellar mass and evolutionary state, star formation history and redshift. For M_{BH} ≲ 10^7 M_{⊙}, the typical TDE is due to a M* ˜ 0.3 M⊙ M-dwarf, although the mass function is relatively flat for M_{ast } ≲ M_{⊙}. The contribution from older main-sequence stars and sub-giants is small but not negligible. From MBH ≃ 107.5-108.5 M⊙, the balance rapidly shifts to higher mass stars and a larger contribution from evolved stars, and is ultimately dominated by evolved stars at higher BH masses. The star formation history has little effect until the rates are dominated by evolved stars. TDE rates should decline very rapidly towards higher redshifts. The volumetric rate of TDEs is very high because the BH mass function diverges for low masses. However, any emission mechanism which is largely Eddington-limited for low BH masses suppresses this divergence in any observed sample and leads to TDE samples dominated by MBH ≃ 106.0-107.5 M⊙ BHs with roughly Eddington peak accretion rates. The typical fall-back time is relatively long, with 16 per cent having tfb < 10-1 yr (37 d), and 84 per cent having longer time-scales. Many residual rate discrepancies can be explained if surveys are biased against TDEs with these longer tfb, which seems very plausible if tfb has any relation to the transient rise time. For almost any BH mass function, systematic searches for fainter, faster time-scale TDEs in smaller galaxies, and longer time-scale TDEs in more massive galaxies are likely to be rewarded.

  10. When Disruptive Approaches Meet Disruptive Technologies: Learning at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chere Campbell

    2000-01-01

    Reviews research on constructivism in learning and selection of learning strategies. Suggests linking constructivism with instructional technologies for continuing medical education in order to "disrupt" reactive, habitual ways of learning and encourage active engagement. (SK)

  11. Endocrine Effects of Circadian Disruption.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Nelson, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms, provoked by artificial lighting at night, inconsistent sleep-wake schedules, and transmeridian air travel, is increasingly prevalent in modern society. Desynchrony of biological rhythms from environmental light cycles has dramatic consequences for human health. In particular, disrupting homeostatic oscillations in endocrine tissues and the hormones that these tissues regulate can have cascading effects on physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic disruption of circadian organization of endocrine function may lead to metabolic, reproductive, sleep, and mood disorders. This review discusses circadian control of endocrine systems and the consequences of distorting rhythmicity of these systems. PMID:26208951

  12. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields.

    PubMed

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes. PMID:26342336

  13. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  14. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  15. Ultrasonic disruption of algae cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. M.; Nowotarski, K.; Joyce, E. M.; Mason, T. J.

    2012-05-01

    During last decade there has been increasing interest in the production of sustainable fuels from microalgae (R.H. Wijffels and M.J. Barbosa, 2010; Singh et al 2011; D.H. Lee 2011). The aim of this project was to determine if algal cells can be ultrasonically disrupted to release lipids for biofuel production. Ultrasonic disruption of two unicellular algal species: Dunnaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata was investigated using a 20 kHz probe. Haemocytometer, optical density, UV-Vis, fluoro-spectrophotometer and confocal microscopy results demonstrated complete cell destruction of Dunaliella salina within 16 minutes of sonication. Results obtained for Nannochloropsis oculata differed in that ultrasound dispersed clumped cells with little or no cell disruption, as observed by haemocytometer and confocal microscopy analysis. However, UV-Visible and fluoro-spectrophotometer analysis indicated chlorophyll release following sonication, suggesting some cell disruption had occurred.

  16. Causes of major tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Monticello, D.A.

    1980-07-01

    The nonlinear saturation theory of the tearing mode is used to examine the necessary conditions for the occurrence of a major tokamak disruption. The results are compared with full three-dimensional numerical simulations, and with experimental data.

  17. Plasma disruption modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.

    1994-07-01

    Disruptions in tokamak reactors are considered a limiting factor to successful operation and a reliable design. The behavior of plasma-facing components during a disruption is critical to the overall integrity of the reactor. Erosion of plasma facing-material (PFM) surfaces due to thermal energy dump during the disruption can severely limit the lifetime of these components and thus diminish the economic feasibility of the reactor.Initially, the incident plasma particles will deposit their energy directly on the PFM surface, heating it to a very high temperature where ablation occurs. Models for plasma-material interactions have been developed and used to predict material thermal evolution during the disruption. Within a few microseconds after the start of the disruption, enough material is vaporized to intercept most of the incoming plasma particles. Models for plasma-vapor interactions are necessary to predict vapor cloud expansion and hydrodynamics. Continuous heating of the vapor cloud above the material surface by the incident plasma particles will excite, ionize, and cause vapor atoms to emit thermal radiation. Accurate models for radiation transport in the vapor are essential for calculating the net radiated flux to the material surface which determines the final erosion thickness and consequently component lifetime. A comprehensive model that takes into account various stages of plasma-material interaction has been developed and used to predict erosion rates during reactor disruption, as well during induced disruption in laboratory experiments. Differences between various simulation experiments and reactor conditions are discussed. A two-dimensional radiation transport model has been developed to particularly simulate the effect of small test samples used in laboratory disruption experiments.

  18. Feedback control of major disruptions in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, A. K.

    2011-08-15

    It is argued that major disruptions in ITER can be avoided by the feedback control of the causative MHD precursors. The sensors will be 2D-arrays of ECE detectors and the suppressors will be modulated ECH beams injected radially to produce non-thermal radial pressures to counter the radial dynamics of MHD modes. The appropriate amplitude and phase of this signal can stabilize the relevant MHD modes and prevent their evolution to a major disruption. For multimode MHD precursors, an optimal feedback scheme with a Kalman filter is discussed.

  19. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  20. Optimization of cell disruption methods for efficient recovery of bioactive metabolites via NMR of three freshwater microalgae (chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Ma, Nyuk Ling; Teh, Kit Yinn; Lam, Su Shiung; Kaben, Anne Marie; Cha, Thye San

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates the use of NMR techniques coupled with chemometric analysis as a high throughput data mining method to identify and examine the efficiency of different disruption techniques tested on microalgae (Chlorella variabilis, Scenedesmus regularis and Ankistrodesmus gracilis). The yield and chemical diversity from the disruptions together with the effects of pre-oven and pre-freeze drying prior to disruption techniques were discussed. HCl extraction showed the highest recovery of oil compounds from the disrupted microalgae (up to 90%). In contrast, NMR analysis showed the highest intensity of bioactive metabolites obtained for homogenized extracts pre-treated with freeze-drying, indicating that homogenizing is a more favorable approach to recover bioactive substances from the disrupted microalgae. The results show the potential of NMR as a useful metabolic fingerprinting tool for assessing compound diversity in complex microalgae extracts. PMID:25812996

  1. Enhancement of biomass conversion in catalytic fast pyrolysis by microwave-assisted formic acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Li, Guangyu; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Ning; Xiao, Bo; Li, Jian; Wang, Yujue

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated microwave-assisted formic acid (MW-FA) pretreatment as a possible way to improve aromatic production from catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignocellulosic biomass. Results showed that short duration of MW-FA pretreatment (5-10min) could effectively disrupt the recalcitrant structure of beech wood and selectively remove its hemicellulose and lignin components. This increased the accessibility of cellulose component of biomass to subsequent thermal conversion in CFP. Consequently, the MW-FA pretreated beech wood produced 14.0-28.3% higher yields (26.4-29.8C%) for valuable aromatic products in CFP than the untreated control (23.2C%). In addition, the yields of undesired solid residue (char/coke) decreased from 33.1C% for the untreated control to 28.6-29.8C% for the MW-FA pretreated samples. These results demonstrate that MW-FA pretreatment can provide an effective way to improve the product distribution from CFP of lignocellulose. PMID:27176672

  2. Structural Variation of Bamboo Lignin before and after Ethanol Organosolv Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-01-01

    In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 180 °C for 2 h. Lignin fractions were isolated from the hydrolysate by centrifugation and then precipitated as ethanol organosolv lignin. Two types of milled wood lignins (MWLs) were isolated from the raw bamboo and the organosolv pretreated residue separately. After the pretreatment, a decrease of lignin (preferentially guaiacyl unit), hemicelluloses and less ordered cellulose was detected in the bamboo material. It was confirmed that the bamboo MWL is of HGS type (p-hydroxyphenyl (H), vanillin (G), syringaldehyde (S)) associated with a considerable amount of p-coumarate and ferulic esters of lignin. The ethanol organosolv treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin and hemicelluloses without strongly affecting lignin primary structure and its lignin functional groups. PMID:24169436

  3. Structural variation of bamboo lignin before and after ethanol organosolv pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-01-01

    In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 180 °C for 2 h. Lignin fractions were isolated from the hydrolysate by centrifugation and then precipitated as ethanol organosolv lignin. Two types of milled wood lignins (MWLs) were isolated from the raw bamboo and the organosolv pretreated residue separately. After the pretreatment, a decrease of lignin (preferentially guaiacyl unit), hemicelluloses and less ordered cellulose was detected in the bamboo material. It was confirmed that the bamboo MWL is of HGS type (p-hydroxyphenyl (H), vanillin (G), syringaldehyde (S)) associated with a considerable amount of p-coumarate and ferulic esters of lignin. The ethanol organosolv treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin and hemicelluloses without strongly affecting lignin primary structure and its lignin functional groups. PMID:24169436

  4. Girls’ Disruptive Behavior and its Relationship to Family Functioning: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kroneman, Leoniek M.; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E.; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in disruptive behavior and parental socialization exist, we extend this literature by addressing the question of differential development among girls and by placing both disruptive behavior and parenting behavior in a developmental framework. Clarifying the heterogeneity of development in girls is important for developing and optimizing gender-specific prevention and treatment programs. In the current review, we describe the unique aspects of the development of disruptive behavior in girls and explore how the gender-specific development of disruptive behavior can be explained by family linked risk and protective processes. Based on this review, we formulate a gender-specific reciprocal model of the influence of social factors on the development of disruptive behavior in girls in order to steer further research and better inform prevention and treatment programs. PMID:20161077

  5. A Dark Year for Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2015-08-01

    Main-sequence disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes result in the production of an extended, geometrically thin debris stream winding repeatedly around the black hole. In the absence of black hole spin, in-plane relativistic precession causes this stream to intersect with itself after a single winding. In this paper we show that relativistic precessions arising from black hole spin can induce deflections out of the original orbital plane that prevent the stream from self-intersecting even after many windings. This naturally leads to a “dark period” in which the flare is not observable for some time, persisting for up to a dozen orbital periods of the most bound material, which translates to years for disruptions around black holes with masses ˜ {10}7{M}⊙ . When the stream eventually self-intersects, the distance from the black hole and the angle at which this collision occurs determine the rate of energy dissipation. We find that more-massive black holes ({M}{{h}}≳ {10}7{M}⊙ ) tend to have more violent stream self-intersections, resulting in prompt accretion. For these tidal disruption events (TDEs), the accretion rate onto the black hole should still closely follow the original fallback rate after a fixed delay time {t}{delay}, {\\dot{M}}{acc}(t+{t}{delay})={\\dot{M}}{fb}(t). For lower black hole masses ({M}{{h}}≲ {10}6), we find that flares are typically slowed down by about an order of magnitude, resulting in the majority of TDEs being sub-Eddington at peak. This also implies that current searches for TDEs are biased toward prompt flares, with slowed flares likely having been unidentified.

  6. Improvement of acute cadmium toxicity by pretreatment with copper salt

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Katakura, M.; Sugawara, N.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of Cd compounds has been thoroughly reviewed. Furthermore, modification of the toxicity by other metals is well known. For example, pre-treatment with Zn significantly decreases the lethality of Cd. Testicular injuries induced by Cd are improved by simultaneous injection of Zn or Se. Thus, such preventive action might be expected as a result of prior or simultaneous injection of Cu salts. Hill et al (1963) reported that supplementation of the basal diet (1 ppm Cu) with 40 ppm copper sulphate markedly reduced Cd-induced lethality. Gunn and Gould (1970) reported that Cu affords protection against testicular injuries caused by Cd. Recently, Kaji et al (1992) found that Cu could prevent Cd cytotoxicity in cultured vascular endothelial cells. On the other hand, Irons and Smith (1976) reported previously that injection of Cu along with Cd decreases the binding of Cd to hepatic metallothionein (MT) and increases the toxicity of the Cd. An interactive increase in toxicity caused by a similar mechanism was observed in embryonic chick bone treated with both Cd and Cu in a culture system. Accordingly, we should accumulate further data to understand the preventive effect of Cu against Cd toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Cu pretreatment on the acute toxicity of Cd in mice. We focused on two organs, the liver and testis. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Can disruptive boys be helped to become competent?

    PubMed

    Tremblay, R E; McCord, J; Boileau, H; Charlebois, P; Gagnon, C; Le Blanc, M; Larivée, S

    1991-05-01

    The Montréal Longitudinal Study of Disruptive Boys, an experimental study, was designed to understand boys who were considered disruptive in kindergarten. One part of the study involved assessing effects of a preventive treatment program carried out during the boys' early years in primary school. This paper reports on the outcome of the randomized treatment experiment 3 years after treatments ended. Disruptive boys were randomly allocated to a treated group and two nontreated groups. Treatment consisted of parent training and training of boys for social skills, fantasy play and television viewing. Results suggest that the treatment program had some positive effects. Some of the improvements were not evident immediately after treatment ended. PMID:1852848

  8. Online Education Cast as "Disruptive Innovation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Technology-based forces of "disruptive innovation" are gathering around public education and will overhaul the way K-12 students learn--with potentially dramatic consequences for established public schools, according to an upcoming book that draws parallels to disruptions in other industries. In his "Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation…

  9. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen; Liu, Junxia; Chu, Huaqiang; Dong, Bingzhi

    2013-01-01

    The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration) has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM). This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW) and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation) and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.). Perspectives of further research are also discussed. PMID:24956947

  10. Lipopolysaccharide Pretreatment Protects from Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heemann, Uwe; Szabo, Attila; Hamar, Peter; Müller, Veronika; Witzke, Oliver; Lutz, Jens; Philipp, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    In vivo administration of low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rodents can protect these animals from subsequently administrated, usually lethal doses of endotoxin or LPS. In this study we tested the effects of LPS pretreatment on ischemia/reperfusion injury in the kidney. Male C57/B1 mice were pretreated with different doses of LPS or phosphate-buffered saline on days −4 and −3. The right kidney was removed, and the vessels of the left kidney were clamped for 30 or 45 minutes on day 0. Creatinine levels and survival of animals were monitored. To test the involvement of cytokines, additional animals were harvested before (“time 0”) and 15 minutes, 1, 2, 8, and 16 hours after reperfusion for histology, immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling assay, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis (including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and interferon (IFN)-γ messenger RNA (mRNA)). In controls, renal ischemia of 30 minutes was nonlethal, whereas 73% of the animals died within 48 ± 18 hours, after 45 minutes of ischemia. All different doses of LPS protected the animals from lethal renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Starting at similar levels, serum creatinine increased significantly in controls but not in LPS-pretreated animals over time. As early as 2 hours after reperfusion, tubular cell damage was significantly more pronounced in controls than in LPS-treated mice. In controls, tubules deteriorated progressively until 8 hours of reperfusion. At this time, more than 50% of tubular cells were destroyed. This destruction was accompanied by a pronounced leukocytic infiltration, predominantly by macrophages. In contrast, LPS pretreatment prevented the destruction of kidney tissue and infiltration by leukocytes. The terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling assay revealed significantly more apoptotic cells in

  11. Microwave Pretreatment For Hydrolysis Of Cellulose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; George, Clifford E.; Lightsey, George R.

    1993-01-01

    Microwave pretreatment enhances enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes into soluble saccharides used as feedstocks for foods, fuels, and other products. Low consumption of energy, high yield, and low risk of proposed hydrolysis process incorporating microwave pretreatment makes process viable alternative to composting.

  12. Initial study of coal pretreatment and coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Vaillancourt, M.; Turner, T.F.; Fahy, L.J.

    1991-09-01

    This document describes research performed in accordance with task 3.3.1 in the 1989--1990 annual research plan under cooperative agreement number DE-FC21-86MC11076. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for enhancing liquid yields by integrating coal pretreatment and coprocessing technologies. The process tested involved pretreatment of coal to a very low moisture content and partial decarboxylation in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor by contact with hot C0{sub 2} or a C0{sub 2} and superheated steam mixture. The pretreated coal was then coprocessed with a heavy, coal-derived oil in a 2-inch screw pyrolysis reactor to produce dried coal with a higher calorific value and an upgraded oil. Six pretreatment tests and seven coprocessing tests were conducted independently with two separate systems being utilized: one system for the pretreatment tests and the other system for the coprocessing tests. The test program included evaluating alternative pretreatment gases, temperatures, and residence times in combination with different coprocessing temperatures and residence times. Pretreatment and coprocessing studies were performed on Herrin Results of the integrated pretreatment and coprocessing operations were evaluated and compared with the coprocessing of raw coal. The results indicate that a solid product is formed with a higher calorific content than the starting coal and that an upgraded oil is generated.

  13. Initial study of coal pretreatment and coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Vaillancourt, M.; Turner, T.F.; Fahy, L.J.

    1991-09-01

    This document describes research performed in accordance with task 3.3.1 in the 1989--1990 annual research plan under cooperative agreement number DE-FC21-86MC11076. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for enhancing liquid yields by integrating coal pretreatment and coprocessing technologies. The process tested involved pretreatment of coal to a very low moisture content and partial decarboxylation in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor by contact with hot C0[sub 2] or a C0[sub 2] and superheated steam mixture. The pretreated coal was then coprocessed with a heavy, coal-derived oil in a 2-inch screw pyrolysis reactor to produce dried coal with a higher calorific value and an upgraded oil. Six pretreatment tests and seven coprocessing tests were conducted independently with two separate systems being utilized: one system for the pretreatment tests and the other system for the coprocessing tests. The test program included evaluating alternative pretreatment gases, temperatures, and residence times in combination with different coprocessing temperatures and residence times. Pretreatment and coprocessing studies were performed on Herrin Results of the integrated pretreatment and coprocessing operations were evaluated and compared with the coprocessing of raw coal. The results indicate that a solid product is formed with a higher calorific content than the starting coal and that an upgraded oil is generated.

  14. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  15. Sex Offender Situational Competency Test (SOSCT) Pretreatment and Posttreatment Effects for Inpatient Sex Offenders in Hypothetical High-Risk Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddon, John R.; Takacs, Shelly; Hogan, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate relapse prevention skill acquisition within the context of a comprehensive treatment program involving group psychotherapy, relapse prevention programming, and other essential psychoeducational components. The Sex Offender Situational Competency Test (SOSCT) was administered pretreatment and posttreatment…

  16. Tidal disruption of viscous bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, S.; Tremaine, S.

    1992-01-01

    Tidal disruptions are investigated in viscous-fluid planetesimals whose radius is small relative to the distance of closest (parabolic-orbit) approach to a planet. The planetesimal surface is in these conditions always ellipsoidal, facilitating treatment by coupled ODEs which are solvable with high accuracy. While the disrupted planetesimals evolve into needlelike ellipsoids, their density does not decrease. The validity of viscous fluid treatment holds for solid (ice or rock) planetesimals in cases where tidal stresses are greater than material strength, but integrity is maintained by self-gravity.

  17. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    PubMed

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. PMID:26080028

  18. Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Cellulosic Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngmi; Hendrickson, Rick; Mosier, Nathan S.; Ladisch, Michael R.

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for fuel ethanol production. However, the lignocellulose is recalcitrant to enzymatic hydrolysis because of its structural complexity. Controlled-pH liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of cellulosic feedstock improves its enzymatic digestibility by removing hemicellulose and making the cellulose more accessible to cellulase enzymes. The removed hemicellulose is solubilized in the liquid phase of the pretreated feedstock as oligosaccharides. Formation of monomeric sugars during the LHW pretreatment is minimal. The LHW pretreatment is carried out by cooking the feedstock in process water at temperatures between 160 and 190°C and at a pH of 4-7. No additional chemicals are needed. This chapter presents the detailed procedure of the LHW pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

  19. Effect of L-ascorbic acid pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in the male Fischer (F344/NCr) rat.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, N; Uno, H; Waalkes, M P

    1993-12-31

    Some studies have indicated that cadmium-induced lethality and selective injurious effects to specific tissues, such as testes or liver, can be prevented by pretreatment with the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid). However, the basis of this tolerance is unclear. We examined the effects of ascorbic acid pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in male Fischer (F344/NCr) rats. Cadmium treatment alone (25 mumol CdCl2/kg, s.c.) proved lethal, causing a 93% mortality within 72 h, but in rats pretreated with ascorbic acid (2 g/kg, s.c. 24, 12 and 1 h) cadmium-induced lethality was nearly prevented. Hepatic lesions, including hepatocellular necrosis, induced by cadmium were at least partially ameliorated by ascorbic acid pretreatment. Ascorbic acid pretreatment had no effect on cadmium-induced testicular lesions nor on cadmium content in testes, liver, kidney and urine. Ascorbic acid alone modestly increased hepatic metallothionein (MT), but not renal MT and had no effect on induction of hepatic or renal MT by cadmium. In contrast to liver and kidney, testicular cadmium-binding protein (TCBP) in rats exposed to cadmium alone decreased markedly. Moreover, the level of TCBP decreased unexpectedly in ascorbic acid pretreated rats as compared with control. These results indicate that ascorbic acid pretreatment decreases the toxicity of cadmium in the rat without markedly modifying its toxicokinetics or markedly stimulating MT synthesis. PMID:8303714

  20. Alternative Programs for Disruptive Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Angele, Ed.; And Others

    The book addresses issues in meeting the educational needs of disruptive students. In the introduction, R. Sarri examines the rise of alternative schools and discusses common elements in their design and operation. D. Sabatino follows with "Issues and Concerns: Problems with Alternative Schools," in which he examines the particular difficulties…

  1. The Convergence of Environmental Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Marshall I.

    1970-01-01

    Considers reasons for water, air, and land pollution in the Soviet Union, incentives to pollute under socialism and the advantages socialism has for environmental management. Concludes that industrialization, not private enterprise, causes environmental disruption, and that strongly centralized planned economics do not necessarily avoid…

  2. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and…

  3. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    SciTech Connect

    Eum, Sung Yong Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  4. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better understand how lignin is altered, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides wood samples and cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) isolated from P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides were subjected to batch and flowthrough pretreatments. The residual solids and liquid hydrolysate were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR, compositional analysis, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Changes in the structure of the solids recovered after the pretreatment of CEL and the production of aromatic monomers point strongly to depolymerization and condensation being primary mechanisms for lignin extraction and redeposition. The differences in lignin removal and phenolic compound production from native P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides and CEL suggested that lignin-carbohydrate interactions increased lignin extraction and the extractability of syringyl groups relative to guaiacyl groups. Conclusions These insights into delignification during hydrothermal pretreatment point to desirable pretreatment strategies and plant modifications. Because depolymerization followed by repolymerization appears to be the dominant mode of lignin modification, limiting the residence time of depolymerized lignin moieties in the bulk liquid phase should reduce lignin content in pretreated biomass. In addition, the increase in lignin removal in the presence of polysaccharides suggests that increasing lignin-carbohydrate cross-links in biomass would increase delignification during pretreatment. PMID:23902789

  5. Significantly improving enzymatic saccharification of high crystallinity index's corn stover by combining ionic liquid [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water media with dilute NaOH pretreatment.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Feng; Gong, Lei; Zhu, Zheng-Zhong; Ding, Yun; Wang, Cheng; Xue, Yu-Feng; Rui, Huan; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a pretreatment by combining acidified aqueous ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL [Bmim]Cl) solution with dilute NaOH extraction was employed to pretreat high crystallinity index (CrI) of corn stover before its enzymatic saccharification. After NaOH extraction, [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water (78.8:1.2:20, w/w/w) media was used for further pretreatment at 130 °C for 30 min. After being enzymatically hydrolyzed for 48 h, corn stover pretreated could be biotransformed into reducing sugars in the yield of 95.1%. Furthermore, SEM, XRD and FTIR analyses of untreated and pretreated corn stovers were examined. It was found that the intact structure was disrupted by combination pretreatment and resulted in a porous and amorphous regenerated cellulosic material that greatly improved enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stovers could be fermented into ethanol efficiently. In conclusion, the combination pretreatment shows high potential application in future. PMID:25921785

  6. Pretreatment imaging of peripheral vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joshua B; Cogswell, Petrice M; McKusick, Michael A; Binkovitz, Larry A; Riederer, Stephen J; Young, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral vascular malformations (VMs) are complex and diverse vascular lesions which require individualized pretreatment planning. Pretreatment imaging using various modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging and time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography, is a valuable tool for classifying peripheral VMs to allow proper diagnosis, demonstrate complete extent, identify the nidus, and distinguish between low-flow and high-flow dynamics that determines the treatment approach. We discuss pretreatment imaging findings in four patients with peripheral VMs and how diagnostic imaging helped guide management. PMID:25625123

  7. Integrated analysis of hydrothermal flow through pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of hydrothermal flowthrough (FT) pretreatment severity on pretreatment and solubilization performance metrics was evaluated for three milled feedstocks (corn stover, bagasse, and poplar) and two conversion systems (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using yeast and fungal cellulase, and fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum). Results Compared to batch pretreatment, FT pretreatment consistently resulted in higher XMG recovery, higher removal of non-carbohydrate carbon and higher glucan solubilization by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). XMG recovery was above 90% for FT pretreatment below 4.1 severity but decreased at higher severities, particularly for bagasse. Removal of non-carbohydrate carbon during FT pretreatment increased from 65% at low severity to 80% at high severity for corn stover, and from 40% to 70% for bagasse and poplar. Solids obtained by FT pretreatment were amenable to high conversion for all of the feedstocks and conversion systems examined. The optimal time and temperature for FT pretreatment on poplar were found to be 16 min and 210°C. At these conditions, SSF glucan conversion was about 85%, 94% of the XMG was removed, and 62% of the non carbohydrate mass was solubilized. Solubilization of FT-pretreated poplar was compared for C. thermocellum fermentation (10% inoculum), and for yeast-fungal cellulase SSF (5% inoculum, cellulase loading of 5 and 10 FPU/g glucan supplemented with β-glucosidase at 15 and 30 U/g glucan). Under the conditions tested, which featured low solids concentration, C. thermocellum fermentation achieved faster rates and more complete conversion of FT-pretreated poplar than did SSF. Compared to SSF, solubilization by C. thermocellum was 30% higher after 4 days, and was over twice as fast on ball-milled FT-pretreated poplar. Conclusions XMG removal trends were similar between feedstocks whereas glucan conversion trends were significantly different, suggesting that

  8. Tolerance to lead-induced porphyrin metabolic disorders following lead pretreatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Tomokuni, K; Ichiba, M

    1990-12-01

    The protective effect of pretreatment with lead on lead-induced toxicity was investigated in mice, using some biological parameters such as urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin, accumulation of erythrocyte protoporphyrin and inhibition of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase; these are useful indicators for evaluating the effects on health of lead. It was demonstrated that pretreatment with a single intraperitoneal dose of 2 mg Pb/kg, 7 days prior to the challenge dose, prevents in part the increasing excretion of urinary ALA induced by a challenge exposure to lead (200 ppm) in the drinking water for 7 days. PMID:2260119

  9. Powerful peracetic acid-ionic liquid pretreatment process for the efficient chemical hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Uju; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to design a new method for the efficient saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass (LB) using a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) pretreatment with ionic liquid (IL)-HCl hydrolysis. The pretreatment of LBs with PAA disrupted the lignin fractions, enhanced the dissolution of LB and led to a significant increase in the initial rate of the IL-HCl hydrolysis. The pretreatment of Bagasse with PAA prior to its 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl])-HCl hydrolysis, led to an improvement in the cellulose conversion from 20% to 70% in 1.5h. Interestingly, the 1-buthyl-3-methylpyridium chloride ([Bmpy][Cl])-HCl hydrolysis of Bagasse gave a cellulose conversion greater than 80%, with or without the PAA pretreatment. For LB derived from seaweed waste, the cellulose conversion reached 98% in 1h. The strong hydrolysis power of [Bmpy][Cl] was attributed to its ability to transform cellulose I to II, and lowering the degree of polymerization of cellulose. PMID:27174616

  10. Diagnosis and therapy for the disruptive physician.

    PubMed

    Kissoon, Niranjan; Lapenta, Susan; Armstrong, George

    2002-01-01

    A disruptive physician can alienate staff, drive away patients, and even land your organization in a lawsuit. Consider some practical advice on how to identify and deal with disruptive physicians. PMID:11806231

  11. Density limit disruptions in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleva, Robert G.; Drake, J. F.

    1991-02-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented which reproduce the rapid drop in the central temperature observed during density limit disruptions in tokamaks. The loss of central confinement is triggered by edge radiation which destabilizes a q=1 kink mode. A bubble of cold plasma is injected from the edge into the center by the q=1 kink. This bubble bears a striking resemblance to the cold plasma that is observed to move from the edge into the center during density limit disruptions on the JET tokamak [Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1986 (IAEA, Vienna, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 433], initiating the loss of central confinement. The bubble profile produced by the q=1 kink is unstable to a broad spectrum of modes which progressively reduce the magnetic shear between the q=2 surface and the center. The q=2 mode then grows across the center, broadening the current and throwing the hot plasma to the wall.

  12. CHILD DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR AND PARENTING EFFICACY: A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF TWO MODELS OF INSIGHTS

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Erin; Rodriguez, Eileen; Cappella, Elise; Morris, Jordan; McClowry, Sandee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of INSIGHTS into Children’s Temperament (INSIGHTS), a temperament-based preventive intervention, in reducing the disruptive behavior problems of young children from low-income, urban families. Results indicate that children enrolled in INSIGHTS evidenced a decrease in disruptive behavior problems over the course of the intervention, with children with high maintenance temperaments evidencing the most rapid rates of decline. In addition, children in a collaborative version of the program with joint parent and teacher sessions demonstrated more rapid decreases in disruptive behavior than children in a parallel version with separate parent and teacher sessions. Furthermore, high maintenance children in the collaborative intervention evidenced lower levels of disruptive behaviors at the end of the intervention than their peers in the parallel version. Increases in parenting efficacy appeared to be the mechanism through which INSIGHTS reduced child disruptive behavior. PMID:22822277

  13. Predictive methodology for supply disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, M.; D'Acierno, J.

    1982-04-01

    Energy supply disruptions do not suddenly arise in a full-blown fashion. Lags in the energy system provide a time horizon which allows for the prediction of a possible supply problem. A simple model is described which can be used to provide a set of indicators for the possible onset of an energy emergency. The methodology was tested on the gasoline shortage of 1979, and the results are presented.

  14. Thermal Pretreatment For TRU Waste Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Aoyama, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2008-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted a study on thermal treatment of TRU waste to develop a removal technology for materials that are forbidden for disposal. The thermal pretreatment in which hot nitrogen and/or air is introduced to the waste is a process of removing combustibles, liquids, and low melting point metals from PVC wrapped TRU waste. In this study, thermal pretreatment of simulated waste was conducted using a desktop thermal treatment vessel and a laboratory scale thermal pretreatment system. Combustibles and low melting point metals are effectively separated from wastes by choosing appropriate temperature of flowing gases. Combustibles such as papers, PVC, oil, etc. were removed and low melting point metals such as zinc, lead, and aluminum were separated from the simulated waste by the thermal pretreatment. (authors)

  15. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  16. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Rehmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic) hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs. PMID:25334065

  17. Pharmacological disruption of maladaptive memory.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jane R; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by intrusive, distracting, and disturbing memories that either perpetuate the illness or hinder successful treatment. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves such strong reemergence of memories associated with a traumatic event that the individual feels like the event is happening again. Furthermore, drug addiction is characterized by compulsive use and repeated relapse that is often driven by internal memories of drug use and/or by exposure to external stimuli that were associated with drug use. Therefore, identifying pharmacological methods to weaken the strength of maladaptive memories is a major goal of research efforts aimed at finding new treatments for these disorders. The primary mechanism by which memories could be pharmacologically disrupted or altered is through manipulation of memory reconsolidation. Reconsolidation occurs when an established memory is remembered or reactivated, reentering a labile state before again being consolidated into long-term memory storage. Memories are subject to disruption during this labile state. In this chapter we will discuss the preclinical and clinical studies identifying potential pharmacological methods for disrupting the integrity of maladaptive memory to treat mental illness. PMID:25977090

  18. Engineering analysis of TFTR disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.G.; Rothe, K.E.; Bronner, G.

    1984-09-01

    This report covers an engineering approach quantifying the currents, forces, and times, as well as plasma position, for the worst-case disruption based on engineerign circuit assumptions for the plasma. As the plasma moves toward the wall during the current-decay phase of disruption, the wall currents affect the rate of movement and, hence, the decay time. The calculated structure-induced currents differ considerably from those calculated using a presently available criterion, which specifies that the plasma remains stationary in the center of the torus while decaying in 10 ms. This report outlines the method and basis for the engineering calculation used to determine the current and forces as a function of the circuit characteristics. It provides specific calculations for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with variations in parameters such as the thermal decay time, the torus resistance, and plasma temperature during the current decay. The study reviews possible ways to reduce the disruption damage of TFTR by reducing the magnitude of the plasma external field energy that is absorbed by the plasma during the current decay.

  19. Vascular disrupting activity of combretastatin analogues.

    PubMed

    Porcù, Elena; Salvador, Alessia; Primac, Irina; Mitola, Stefania; Ronca, Roberto; Ravelli, Cosetta; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Vedaldi, Daniela; Romagnoli, Romeo; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2016-08-01

    Tubulin binding agents (TBAs) are drugs commonly used in cancer therapy as antimitotics. In the last years it has been described that TBAs, like combretastatin A-4 (CA-4), present also vascular disrupting activity and among its derivatives we identified three analogues endowed with potent microtubule depolymerizing activity, higher than that of the lead compound. In this paper we have investigated the anti-vascular activity of these derivatives. We tested the anti-angiogenic effects in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in vivo in chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM), and in a syngeneic tumor mouse model. The three molecules, compound 1: 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole; compound 2: (1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-1H-tetrazole, compound-3 (4-amino-2-p-tolylaminothiazol-5-yl)-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-methanone) showed a moderate effect on the growth of HUVEC cells at concentrations below 200nM. At lower concentrations (5-20nM), in particular compound 2, they induced inhibition of capillary tube formation, inhibition of endothelial cell migration and affected endothelial cell morphology as demonstrated by the alteration of the microfilaments network. Moreover, they also increased permeability of HUVEC cells in a time dependent manner. In addition, compounds 1 and 3, as well as the reference compound CA-4, inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and in addition compound 3 prevented the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of FAK. In CAM assay, both compounds 2 and 3 efficiently counteracted the strong angiogenic response induced by bFGF, even at the lowest concentration used (1pmol/egg). Moreover in a syngenic mouse model, compounds 1-3 after a single i.p. injection (30mg/kg), showed a stronger reduction of microvascular density. Altogether our results identified these derivatives as potential new vascular disrupting agents candidates. PMID:27235861

  20. Fundamental studies of water pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1990-01-01

    The goals of this project are to gain understanding of the chemistry of water or steam coal pretreatments and to assess the importance of such pretreatments on subsequent coal liquefaction. For the achievement of these goals, coals, modified coals and model-polymers will be treated with water or stream. This study will include three coals, five modifications (dried, demineralized, ion-exchanged, Ca-loaded, Ba-loaded), three polymers and two polymer modifications (e.g. acid chlorides, amides). Experiments will be performed to investigate both conventional steam pretreatment and the possibility of using the CO/H{sub 2}O system of Ross and coworkers as a pretreatment method. The main experimental variables will be sample type and temperature. Detailed characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products from the pretreatment stage will be done. This will include analysis of gases of GC or FT-IR, liquids by capillary GC, FT-IR and FIMS, and residues by solvent swelling, solvent extraction, and elemental analysis. Selected residues will also be evaluated by a standard liquefaction test. Analysis of the raw coals and pretreatment samples will be performed using the above techniques to study changes in the crosslinking, donatable hydrogen, heteroatom composition, evolved gases, functional group composition, extraction yields, molecular weight distributions, etc. Standard tubing bomb liquefaction tests will be used to determine the effect of pretreatment on coal reactivity toward coal liquefaction. A previously developed model for coal liquefaction, the FG-DVC liquefaction model, will be used (after appropriate modifications) to model the physics and chemistry of water pretreatment. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Fundamental studies of water pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1990-01-01

    The goals of this project are to gain understanding of the chemistry of water or steam coal pretreatments and to assess the importance of such pretreatments on subsequent coal liquefaction. Coals, modified coals and model-polymers will be treated with water or steam. This study will include three coals, five modifications (dried, demineralized, ion-exchanged, Ca-loaded, Ba-loaded), three polymers and two polymer modifications (e.g. acid chlorides, amides). Experiments will be performed to investigate both conventional steam pretreatment and the possibility of using the CO/H{sub 2}O system of Ross and coworkers as a pretreatment method. The main experimental variables will be sample type and temperature. Detailed characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products from the pretreatment stage will be done. This will include analysis of gases by GC or FT-IR, liquids by capillary GC, FT-IR and FIMS, and residues by solvent swelling, solvent extraction, and elemental analysis. Selected residues will also be evaluated by a standard liquefaction test. Analysis of the raw coals and pretreatment samples will be performed using the above techniques to study changes in the crosslinking, donatable hydrogen, heteroatom composition, evolved gases, functional group composition, extraction yields, molecular weight distributions, etc. Standard tubing bomb liquefaction tests will be used to determine the effect of pretreatment on coal reactivity toward coal liquefaction. A previously developed model for coal liquefaction, the FG-DVC liquefaction model, will be used (after appropriate modifications) to model the physics and chemistry of water pretreatment. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Fundamental studies of water pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Kroo, E.; Solomon, P.R.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of this project are to gain an understanding of the chemistry of water or steam coal pretreatments and to assess the importance of such pretreatments on subsequent coal liquefaction. For the achievement of these goals, coals, modified coals and model-polymers will be treated with water or steam. This study will include three coals, five modifications (dried, demineralized, ion-exchanged, Ca-loaded, Ba-loaded), three polymers and two polymer modifications (e.g., acid chlorides, amides). Experiments will be performed to investigate both conventional steam pretreatment and the possibility of using the CO/H{sub 2}O system of Ross and coworkers as a pretreatment method. The main experimental variables will be sample type and temperature. Detailed characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products from the pretreatment stage will be done. This will include analysis of gases by GC or FT-IR, liquids by capillary GC, FT-IR and FIMS, and residues by solvent swelling, solvent extraction, and elemental analysis. Selected residues will also be evaluated by a standard liquefaction test. Analysis of the raw coals and pretreatment samples will be performed using the above techniques to study changes in the crosslinking, donatable hydrogen, heteroatom composition, evolved gases, functional group composition, extraction yields, molecular weight distributions, etc. Standard tubing bomb liquefaction tests will be used to determine the effect of pretreatment on coal reactivity toward coal liquefaction. A previously developed model for coal liquefaction, the FG-DVC liquefaction model, will be used (after appropriate modifications) to model the physics and chemistry of water pretreatment.

  3. Probiotics Prevent Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Acute Pancreatitis in Rats via Induction of Ileal Mucosal Glutathione Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lutgendorff, Femke; Nijmeijer, Rian M.; Sandström, Per A.; Trulsson, Lena M.; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Timmerman, Harro M.; van Minnen, L. Paul; Rijkers, Ger T.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Söderholm, Johan D.

    2009-01-01

    Background During acute pancreatitis (AP), oxidative stress contributes to intestinal barrier failure. We studied actions of multispecies probiotics on barrier dysfunction and oxidative stress in experimental AP. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifty-three male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: 1) controls, non-operated, 2) sham-operated, 3) AP, 4) AP and probiotics and 5) AP and placebo. AP was induced by intraductal glycodeoxycholate infusion and intravenous cerulein (6 h). Daily probiotics or placebo were administered intragastrically, starting five days prior to AP. After cerulein infusion, ileal mucosa was collected for measurements of E. coli K12 and 51Cr-EDTA passage in Ussing chambers. Tight junction proteins were investigated by confocal immunofluorescence imaging. Ileal mucosal apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels were determined and glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity and expression were quantified. AP-induced barrier dysfunction was characterized by epithelial cell apoptosis and alterations of tight junction proteins (i.e. disruption of occludin and claudin-1 and up-regulation of claudin-2) and correlated with lipid peroxidation (r>0.8). Probiotic pre-treatment diminished the AP-induced increase in E. coli passage (probiotics 57.4±33.5 vs. placebo 223.7±93.7 a.u.; P<0.001), 51Cr-EDTA flux (16.7±10.1 vs. 32.1±10.0 cm/s10−6; P<0.005), apoptosis, lipid peroxidation (0.42±0.13 vs. 1.62±0.53 pmol MDA/mg protein; P<0.001), and prevented tight junction protein disruption. AP-induced decline in glutathione was not only prevented (14.33±1.47 vs. 8.82±1.30 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001), but probiotics even increased mucosal glutathione compared with sham rats (14.33±1.47 vs. 10.70±1.74 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001). Glutamate-cysteine-ligase activity, which is rate-limiting in glutathione biosynthesis, was enhanced in probiotic pre-treated animals (probiotics 2.88±1.21 vs. placebo 1.94±0.55 nmol/min/mg protein; P<0

  4. Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

  5. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. PMID:23587728

  6. Environmental disruption or environmental improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    Paul Ehrich's concern for environmental disruption (Social Sci. Quarterly, 62, No. 1, 1981) are challenged here by Simon as unsubstantiated scare rhetoric. The refutation focuses on whether Ehrlich disregards history and oversimplifies the relationship between ecology and the social sciences. Simon notes that although historical data is shown to contradict Ehrlich's past predictions, his style of using soft data and identifying with the lay reader finds a receptive audience among those seeking understandable and value-free answers. 24 references, 6 figures, 3 tables. (DCK)

  7. Circadian Disruption in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie G; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence suggests that abnormalities in circadian rhythms might prove causally or pathophysiologically significant in psychiatric illness. The circadian regulation of hormonal and behavioral timekeeping processes is often altered in patients with major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, and a susceptibility to rhythm instability may contribute to the functional impairment. For some patients, interventions that stabilize or resynchronize circadian rhythms prove therapeutically effective. Circadian disruption in the clinical profiles of most psychiatric illnesses and the treatment efficacy of chronobiological interventions suggest that attention to circadian phenotypes in a range of psychiatric disorders may help to uncover shared pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:26568124

  8. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, Jacob I.

    2012-09-06

    We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

  9. Silences and moral narratives: infanticide as reproductive disruption.

    PubMed

    Aengst, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Infanticide is a widespread practice, yet few ethnographic and theoretical works examine this. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in the Indian Himalayas, I argue that infanticide is a form of reproductive disruption that elicits both public moral judgments and private silences. In this Himalayan context, the stigmas of abortion and premarital sex prevent community acknowledgement of infanticide and baby abandonment. Unmarried women hide their pregnancies, deliver and abandon their babies, and later are rushed to the hospital with postdelivery complications. While biomedical doctors deal with the debris of infanticide (postpartum hemorrhage), there is no formal accounting of the practice. I argue that by regarding infanticide as a form of reproductive disruption, we can open up women's narratives of pain and suffering that are silenced because of moral repugnance. PMID:24321033

  10. Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

  11. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  12. Transgenerational neuroendocrine disruption of reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deena M.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is associated with dysfunctions of metabolism, energy balance, thyroid function and reproduction, and an increased risk of endocrine cancers. These multifactorial disorders can be ‘programmed’ through molecular epigenetic changes induced by exposure to EDCs early in life, the expression of which may not manifest until adulthood. In some cases, EDCs have detrimental effects on subsequent generations, which indicates that traits for disease predisposition may be passed to future generations by nongenomic inheritance. This Review discusses current understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms that underlie sexual differentiation of reproductive neuroendocrine systems in mammals and summarizes the literature on transgenerational epigenetic effects of representative EDCs: vinclozolin, diethylstilbesterol, bisphenol A and polychlorinated biphenyls. The article differentiates between context-dependent epigenetic transgenerational changes—namely, those that require environmental exposure, either via the EDC itself or through behavioral or physiological differences in parents—and germline-dependent epigenetic mechanisms. These processes, albeit discrete, are not mutually exclusive and can involve similar molecular mechanisms including DNA methylation and histone modifications and may predispose exposed individuals to transgenerational disruption of reproductive processes. New insights stress the crucial need to develop a clear understanding of how EDCs may program the epigenome of exposed individuals and their descendants. PMID:21263448

  13. Primary realignment of the disrupted prostatomembranous urethra.

    PubMed

    Devine, C J; Jordan, G H; Devine, P C

    1989-05-01

    Urethral scarring resulting in stricture formation can be avoided or minimized by proper treatment after injury. On presentation of the trauma patient, the possibility of such injury must be suspected and the urethra evaluated prior to any attempts at catheter placement. Diversion in all cases of posterior urethral injury should be by a suprapubic tube, with any urinary extravasation drained at the site of the injury. If the patient's general condition allows it, the disrupted urethra should be realigned by a catheter after the puboprostatic ligaments have been divided. These measures allow the prostate to return to the urogenital diaphragm without tension and in line with the distal urethra. Until the prostate is released, no amount of traction will reapproximate the urethra, and after it is released, traction is not necessary. The suprapubic catheter provides diversion, preventing further complications caused by urinary extravasation; urethral alignment minimizes subsequent stricture formation. When the stricture develops, if it is urodynamically significant, it can be repaired in 4 to 6 months. If one is fortunate, the stricture will be short and amenable to internal urethrotomy. If not, open reconstruction will be greatly facilitated by the attempts to guide the distracted ends of the urethra together. PMID:2711547

  14. Chronic cocaine disrupts mesocortical learning mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Buchta, William C.; Riegel, Arthur C.

    2016-01-01

    The addictive power of drugs of abuse such as cocaine comes from their ability to hijack natural reward and plasticity mechanisms mediated by dopamine signaling in the brain. Reward learning involves burst firing of midbrain dopamine neurons in response to rewards and cues predictive of reward. The resulting release of dopamine in terminal regions is thought to act as a teaching signaling to areas such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum. In this review, we posit that a pool of extrasynaptic dopaminergic D1-like receptors activated in response to dopamine neuron burst firing serve to enable synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex in response to rewards and their cues. We propose that disruptions in these mechanisms following chronic cocaine use contribute to addiction pathology, in part due to the unique architecture of the mesocortical pathway. By blocking dopamine reuptake in the cortex, cocaine elevates dopamine signaling at these extra-synaptic receptors, prolonging D1-receptor activation and the subsequent activation of intracellular signaling cascades, and thus inducing long-lasting maladaptive plasticity. These cellular adaptations may account for many of the changes in cortical function observed in drug addicts, including an enduring vulnerability to relapse. Therefore, understanding and targeting these neuroadaptations may provide cognitive benefits and help prevent relapse in human drug addicts. PMID:25704202

  15. Chronic cocaine disrupts mesocortical learning mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Buchta, William C; Riegel, Arthur C

    2015-12-01

    The addictive power of drugs of abuse such as cocaine comes from their ability to hijack natural reward and plasticity mechanisms mediated by dopamine signaling in the brain. Reward learning involves burst firing of midbrain dopamine neurons in response to rewards and cues predictive of reward. The resulting release of dopamine in terminal regions is thought to act as a teaching signaling to areas such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum. In this review, we posit that a pool of extrasynaptic dopaminergic D1-like receptors activated in response to dopamine neuron burst firing serve to enable synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex in response to rewards and their cues. We propose that disruptions in these mechanisms following chronic cocaine use contribute to addiction pathology, in part due to the unique architecture of the mesocortical pathway. By blocking dopamine reuptake in the cortex, cocaine elevates dopamine signaling at these extrasynaptic receptors, prolonging D1-receptor activation and the subsequent activation of intracellular signaling cascades, and thus inducing long-lasting maladaptive plasticity. These cellular adaptations may account for many of the changes in cortical function observed in drug addicts, including an enduring vulnerability to relapse. Therefore, understanding and targeting these neuroadaptations may provide cognitive benefits and help prevent relapse in human drug addicts. PMID:25704202

  16. Evaluation of hydrotropic pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Devendra, Leena P; Kiran Kumar, M; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol from biomass is considered as a promising alternative to fossil fuels, providing a sustainable option for fuels production in an environmentally compatible manner. The presence of lignin poses a significant challenge for obtaining biofuels and bioproducts from biomass. Part of that problem involves understanding fundamental aspects of lignin structure which can provide a pathway for the development of improved technologies for biomass conversion. Hydrotropic pretreatment has several attractive features that make it an attractive alternative for biofuel production. This review highlights the recent developments on hydrotropic pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic biomass on a molecular structure basis for recalcitrance, with emphasis on lignin concerning chemical structure, transformation and recalcitrance. The review also evaluates the hydrotropic delignification in comparison to alkaline delignification on lignin reduction and surface coverage by lignin. The effect of hydrotrope pretreatment on enzymatic saccharification has also been discussed. PMID:27013188

  17. Enzymatic pretreatment for preparing starch nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    LeCorre, Déborah; Vahanian, Elina; Dufresne, Alain; Bras, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Starch nanocrystals (SNCs) are crystalline platelets resulting from the acid hydrolysis of starch. A limiting factor for their more widespread use is their preparation duration. Therefore, this study investigates the possibility of developing an enzymatic pretreatment of starch to reduce the acid hydrolysis duration. A screening of three types of enzymes, namely, α-amylase, β-amylase, and glucoamylase, is proposed, and the latter was selected for a pretreatment. Compared with the regular kinetics of hydrolysis for preparing SNC, that of pretreated starch was much faster. The extent of hydrolysis normally reached in 24 h was obtained after only 6 h, and the regular final yield (15% after 5 days) was reached in 45 h. AFM and X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that the obtained nanoparticles were indeed SNC. PMID:22133316

  18. Pretreatment standards: categorical regulations on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Casaday, J E

    1991-10-01

    As Congress writes aggressive wastewater laws and EPA tightens its regulatory grip, the question of whether to fight or compromise becomes even more pressing for the textile rental industry. As Congress moves forward on the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act, EPA's authority to issue pretreatment standards could be greatly strengthened. Categorical pretreatment standards would set national limits on the concentrations of various pollutants that are being discharged to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). As EPA lays out its recommendations to Congress, perhaps it's time for the textile rental industry to reevaluate its position on categorical standards. PMID:10115028

  19. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product Pretreatment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  20. Current Concepts in Neuroendocrine Disruption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, it has become clear that a wide variety of environmental contaminants have specific effects on neuroendocrine systems in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. While it is beyond the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive examination of all of these neuroendocrine disruptors, we will focus on select representative examples. Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulate in neuroendocrine areas of the brain that directly regulate GnRH neurons, thereby altering the expression of genes downstream of GnRH signaling. Organochlorine pesticides can also agonize or antagonize hormone receptors, adversely affecting crosstalk between neurotransmitter systems. The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls are varied and in many cases subtle. This is particularly true for neuroedocrine and behavioral effects of exposure. These effects impact sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and other neuroendocrine systems regulating the thyroid, metabolic, and stress axes and their physiological responses. Weakly estrogenic and anti-androgenic pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, phytochemicals, and the fungicide vinclozolin can lead to severe and widespread neuroendocrine disruptions in discrete brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, resulting in behavioral changes in a wide range of species. Behavioral features that have been shown to be affected by one or more these chemicals include cognitive deficits, heightened anxiety or anxiety-like, sociosexual, locomotor, and appetitive behaviors. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals are now widely detected in aquatic environments and water supplies through the release of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The antidepressant fluoxetine is one such pharmaceutical neuroendocrine disruptor. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that can affect multiple neuroendocrine pathways and behavioral circuits, including disruptive effects on reproduction and

  1. Pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance is strongly associated with virologic failure in HIV-infected patients receiving partly active antiretroviral regimens

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Urvi M; Mellors, John W

    2016-01-01

    The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa has significantly reduced mortality from AIDS. Hamers et al. explores the impact of pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance on virologic failure, immunologic response, and acquisition of drug resistance after 1 year of first-line antiretroviral therapy by longitudinally evaluating 2579 participants with pretreatment drug resistance results from the PharmAccess African Studies to Evaluate Resistance Monitoring (PASER-M) cohort. Participants with pretreatment drug resistance who were given a treatment regimen with reduced activity to at least one prescribed drug had a significantly greater risk of virologic failure and acquired drug resistance compared with both participants without pretreatment drug resistance, and participants with pretreatment drug resistance who were prescribed fully active regimens. This paper by Hamers et al. validates the need for at least three fully active antiretroviral drugs to prevent the acquisition of drug resistance and to optimize treatment success in resource limited settings. PMID:22913352

  2. An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoyan, Natella; Kamyshny, Alexey; Halevy, Itay

    2014-05-01

    An improved pyrite pretreatment protocol for kinetic and isotopic studies Natella Mirzoyan1, Alexey Kamyshny Jr.2, Itay Halevy1 1Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel Pyrite is one of the most abundant and widespread of the sulfide minerals with a central role in biogeochemical cycles of iron and sulfur. Due to its diverse roles in the natural and anthropogenic sulfur cycle, pyrite has been extensively studied in various experimental investigations of the kinetics of its dissolution and oxidation, the isotopic fractionations associated with these reactions, and the microbiological processes involved. Pretreatment of pyrite for removal of oxidation impurities to prevent experimental artifacts and inaccuracies is often practiced. While numerous pyrite-cleaning methods have been used in experiments, a common pyrite pretreatment method, often used to investigate pyrite chemistry by the isotopic fractionations associated with it, includes several rinses by HCl, acetone and deionized water. Elemental sulfur (S0) is a common product of incomplete pyrite oxidation. Removal of S0 is desirable to avoid experimental biases associated with its participation in pyrite transformations, but is more complicated than the removal of sulfate. Although rinsing with an organic solvent is in part aimed at removing S0, to the best of our knowledge, the extraction efficiency of S0 in existing protocols has not been assessed. We have developed and tested a new protocol for elemental sulfur removal from the surface of pyrite by ultrasonication with warm acetone. Our data demonstrate the presence of large fractions of S0 on untreated pyrite particle surfaces, of which only approximately 60% was removed by the commonly used pretreatment method. The new protocol described here was found to be more efficient at S0 removal than the commonly used method

  3. ITER Disruption Mitigation System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, David; Lyttle, M. S.; Baylor, L. R.; Carmichael, J. R.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Combs, S. K.; Ericson, N. M.; Bull-Ezell, N. D.; Fehling, D. T.; Fisher, P. W.; Foust, C. R.; Ha, T.; Meitner, S. J.; Nycz, A.; Shoulders, J. M.; Smith, S. F.; Warmack, R. J.; Coburn, J. D.; Gebhart, T. E.; Fisher, J. T.; Reed, J. R.; Younkin, T. R.

    2015-11-01

    The disruption mitigation system for ITER is under design and will require injection of up to 10 kPa-m3 of deuterium, helium, neon, or argon material for thermal mitigation and up to 100 kPa-m3 of material for suppression of runaway electrons. A hybrid unit compatible with the ITER nuclear, thermal and magnetic field environment is being developed. The unit incorporates a fast gas valve for massive gas injection (MGI) and a shattered pellet injector (SPI) to inject a massive spray of small particles, and can be operated as an SPI with a frozen pellet or an MGI without a pellet. Three ITER upper port locations will have three SPI/MGI units with a common delivery tube. One equatorial port location has space for sixteen similar SPI/MGI units. Supported by US DOE under DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  4. Catastrophic disruption experiments: Recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martelli, G.; Ryan, E. V.; Nakamura, A. M.; Giblin, I.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the progress in the field of catastrophic disruption experiments over the past 4 years, since the publication of the review paper by Fujiwara et al. (1989). We describe the development of new techniques to produce shattering impacts relevant to the study of the collisional evolution of the asteroids, and summarize the results from numerous experiments which have been performed to date, using a variety of materials for both the impactor and the targets. Some of these, such as ice-on-ice, loose aggregates and pressurized targets, are quite new and have provided novel and exciting results. Some of the gaps existing previously in the data on fragment ejection-angle distributions, as well as translational and rotational velocity fields (including fine fragments) have been filled, and these new results will be surveyed.

  5. RESISTANCE TO DISRUPTION IN A CLASSROOM SETTING

    PubMed Central

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E; Neal, Carrie M; Ahearn, William H; Wheeler, Emily E; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B; Dube, William V

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple variable-interval (VI) 7-s VI 30-s schedule for 6 participants with developmental disabilities. Resistance to disruption was measured by presenting a distracting item. Response rates in the disruption components were compared to within-session response rates in prior baseline components. Results were consistent with the predictions of behavioral momentum theory for 5 of 6 participants. PMID:21709794

  6. Tumor vascular disruption using various radiation types

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of disrupting a tumor’s vascular structure with various radiation types and radionuclides is investigated. Calculated absorbed dose profiles for photons and 4He ions suggest that low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides can deposit sufficient absorbed dose to disrupt a tumor’s vascular structure while minimizing the dose outside the blood vessel. Candidate radionuclides uniformly distributed in microspheres are theoretically investigated with respect to their vascular disruption potential and to offer an alternative to 90Y microsphere therapy. Requisite activities of candidate low-energy beta-gamma and alpha emitting radionuclides to facilitate vascular disruption are calculated. PMID:24749005

  7. Traffic disruption and recovery in road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lele; de Gier, Jan; Garoni, Timothy M.

    2014-05-01

    We study the impact of disruptions on road networks, and the recovery process after the disruption is removed from the system. Such disruptions could be caused by vehicle breakdown or illegal parking. We analyze the transient behavior using domain wall theory, and compare these predictions with simulations of a stochastic cellular automaton model. We find that the domain wall model can reproduce the time evolution of flow and density during the disruption and the recovery processes, for both one-dimensional systems and two-dimensional networks.

  8. Automatic location of disruption times in JET.

    PubMed

    Moreno, R; Vega, J; Murari, A

    2014-11-01

    The loss of stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas can induce critical events known as disruptions. Disruptions produce strong electromagnetic forces and thermal loads which can damage fundamental components of the devices. Determining the disruption time is extremely important for various disruption studies: theoretical models, physics-driven models, or disruption predictors. In JET, during the experimental campaigns with the JET-C (Carbon Fiber Composite) wall, a common criterion to determine the disruption time consisted of locating the time of the thermal quench. However, with the metallic ITER-like wall (JET-ILW), this criterion is usually not valid. Several thermal quenches may occur previous to the current quench but the temperature recovers. Therefore, a new criterion has to be defined. A possibility is to use the start of the current quench as disruption time. This work describes the implementation of an automatic data processing method to estimate the disruption time according to this new definition. This automatic determination allows both reducing human efforts to locate the disruption times and standardizing the estimates (with the benefit of being less vulnerable to human errors). PMID:25430239

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen pretreatment and preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Camporesi, Enrico M; Bosco, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) before a crucial event, with the plan to create a preventing therapeutic situation, has been defined "preconditioning" and is emerging as a useful adjunct both in diving medicine as well before ischemic or inflammatory events. Oxygen pre-breathing before diving has been extensively documented in recreational, technical, commercial and military diving for tissue denitrogenation, resulting in reduced post-diving bubble loads, reduced decompression requirements and more rapid return to normal platelet function after a decompression. Preoxygenation at high atmospheric pressure has also been used in patients before exposure to clinical situations with beneficial effects, but the mechanisms of action have not yet been ascertained. During the reperfusion of ischemic tissue, oxygenated blood increases numbers and activities of oxidants generated in tissues. Previous reports showed that HBO2 preconditioning caused the activation of antioxidative enzymes and related genes in the central nervous system, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase-1. Despite the increasing number of basic science publications on this issue, studies describing HBO2 preconditioning in the clinical practice remain scarce. To date, only a few studies have investigated the preconditioning effects of HBO2 in relation to the human brain and myocardium with robust and promising results. PMID:24984322

  10. DNA profiling of bloodstains on linen pretreated with remedies used for cleaning and maintaining clothes.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, R; Weisser, H J

    1991-01-01

    Linen was pretreated with 20 remedies for cleaning and maintaining clothes and 20 microliters blood was applied on each sample and dried. Restriction enzyme digest of bloodstain DNA was irregularly inhibited by highly concentrated residues of 2 detergents and a stain-remover and colour-brightener. An additional dialysis step to purify DNA (Gill 1987) reliably prevented disturbance. High molecular DNA was obtained in every case and bandshifts were not observed. PMID:1664233

  11. CHOLINE PARTIALLY PREVENTS THE IMPACT OF ETHANOL ON THE LIPID RAFT DEPENDENT FUNCTIONS OF L1 CELL ADHESION MOLECULE

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ningfeng; Bamford, Penny; Jones, Jace; He, Min; Kane, Maureen A.; Mooney, Sandra M.; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, the leading known cause of mental retardation, is caused by alcohol exposure during pregnancy. One mechanism of ethanol teratogenicity is the disruption of the function of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1). These functions include enhancement of neurite outgrowth, trafficking through lipid rafts, and signal transduction. Recent data have shown that choline supplementation of rat pups reduces the effects of ethanol on neurobehavior. We sought to determine if choline could prevent the effect of ethanol on L1 function using a simple experimental system. Methods Cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) from postnatal day 6 rat pups were cultured with and without supplemental choline, and the effects on L1 signaling, lipid raft distribution and neurite outgrowth were measured in the presence or absence of ethanol. Results Choline significantly reduced the effect of ethanol on L1 signaling, the distribution of L1 in lipid rafts and L1 mediated neurite outgrowth. However, choline supplemented ethanol exposed cultures remained significantly different than controls. Conclusions Choline pretreatment of CGN significantly reduces the disruption of L1 function by ethanol, but does not completely return L1 function to baseline. This experimental system will enable discovery of the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of choline. PMID:25421509

  12. Lignocellulose pretreatment severity - relating pH to biomatrix opening.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mads; Meyer, Anne S

    2010-12-31

    In cellulose-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic feedstock is a crucial prerequisite for increasing the amenability of the cellulose to enzymatic attack. Currently published pretreatment strategies span over a wide range of reaction conditions involving different pH values, temperatures, types of catalysts and holding times. The consequences of the pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass are described with special emphasis on the chemical alterations of the biomass during pretreatment, especially highlighting the significance of the pretreatment pH. We present a new illustration of the pretreatment effects encompassing the differential responses to the pH and temperature. A detailed evaluation of the use of severity factor calculations for pretreatment comparisons signifies that the multiple effects of different pretreatment factors on the subsequent monosaccharide yields after enzymatic hydrolysis cannot be reliably compared by a one-dimensional severity factor, even within the same type of pretreatment strategy. However, a quantitative comparison of published data for wheat straw pretreatment illustrates that there is some correlation between the hydrolysis yields (glucose and xylose) and the pretreatment pH, but no correlation with the pretreatment temperature (90-200°C). A better recognition and understanding of the factors affecting biomatrix opening, and use of more standardized evaluation protocols, will allow for the identification of new pretreatment strategies that improve biomass utilization and permit rational enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose. PMID:20460178

  13. Effect of disruption of actin filaments by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin on insulin secretion in HIT-T15 cells and pancreatic islets.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G; Rungger-Brändle, E; Just, I; Jonas, J C; Aktories, K; Wollheim, C B

    1994-01-01

    To examine their role in insulin secretion, actin filaments (AFs) were disrupted by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin that ADP-ribosylates G-actin. Ribosylation also prevents polymerization of G-actin to F-actin and inhibits AF assembly by capping the fast-growing end of F-actin. Pretreatment of HIT-T15 cells with the toxin inhibited stimulated insulin secretion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The toxin did not affect cellular insulin content or nonstimulated secretion. In static incubation, toxin treatment caused 45-50% inhibition of secretion induced by nutrients alone (10 mM glucose + 5 mM glutamine + 5 mM leucine) or combined with bombesin (phospholipase C-activator) and 20% reduction of that potentiated by forskolin (stimulator of adenylyl cyclase). In perifusion, the stimulated secretion during the first phase was marginally diminished, whereas the second phase was inhibited by approximately 80%. Pretreatment of HIT cells with wartmannin, a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, caused a similar pattern of inhibition of the biphasic insulin release as C2 toxin. Nutrient metabolism and bombesin-evoked rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ were not affected by C2 toxin, indicating that nutrient recognition and the coupling between receptor activation and second messenger generation was not changed. In the toxin-treated cells, the AF web beneath the plasma membrane and the diffuse cytoplasmic F-actin fibers disappeared, as shown both by staining with an antibody against G- and F-actin and by staining F-actin with fluorescent phallacidin. C2 toxin dose-dependently reduced cellular F-actin content. Stimulation of insulin secretion was not associated with changes in F-actin content and organization. Treatment of cells with cytochalasin E and B, which shorten AFs, inhibited the stimulated insulin release by 30-50% although differing in their effects on F-actin content. In contrast to HIT-T15 cells, insulin secretion was potentiated in isolated rat islets after disruption of

  14. Preventing Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... The top three methods used in suicides include firearms (49.9%), suffocation (26.7%), and poisoning (15. ... Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention Page maintained by: Office ...

  15. Drowning Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drowning Prevention: Information for Parents Page Content Article Body Drowning ... in very cold water for lengthy periods. Drowning Prevention: Know the Warning Signs These signs may signal ...

  16. New drugs for pretreatment of organophosphonate intoxication. Midterm report, 15 November 1987-14 November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, D.W.; Dodge, L.; Petesch, M.

    1989-03-25

    The limited efficacy of available antidotes against the toxic effects of soman (GD; 3,3-dimethyl-2-butyl methylphosphonofluoridate) has stimulated interest in pretreatment drugs that can prevent the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by GD. To date, most attention has focused on carbamates, which prevent irreversible AChE phosphonylation by virtue of their slowly reversible carbamoylation of the AChE active site serine hydroxyl. However, limitations of the carbamates, including toxicity and unfavorable interaction with oximes, have made effective alternatives desirable. The objective of this work is to prepare and characterize compounds that provide prophylactic protection against poisoning by toxic organophosphonates, specifically GD. We hypothesize that compounds that can interact with AChE to slow or prevent its phosphonylation by GD will be effective as pretreatments to GD poisoning. Compounds that can slow the aging of GD-inhibited AChE may also be valuable in providing time for conventional reactivator therapy to work. Sufficient quantities of synthesized compounds are delivered to MRDC for in vivo evaluation as pretreatment antidotes for GD poisoning in the mouse model.

  17. Preventing Chaos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineda, Ernest M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ways to help resolve the Y2K problem and avoid disruptions in school security and safety. Discusses computer software testing and validation to determine its functionality after year's end, and explores system remediation of non-compliant fire and security systems. (GR)

  18. Solvent pretreatment of feed coal for briquetting

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.M.; Miller, M.R.

    1980-11-25

    Solvent pretreating of coal fines prior to briquetting results in coal briquettes which have no added binder and which will withstand weathering conditions better than binder containing briquettes. The solvents are generally described as organic Lewis base solvents which are capable of electron donor action, and include among others, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and ethylene diamine.

  19. Fundamental studies of water pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-10-25

    During the seventh quarter, water pretreatment experiments were done at lower pressures (1000 psig), with early H{sub 2}O injection or continuous H{sub 2}O injection, and with demineralized coals. In addition, a set of blank experiments was done with all four coals in helium at the following conditions: 350{degrees}C; 4000 psig; 20 minutes. An additional experiment was done with the Zap lignite at atmospheric pressure. Helium was used instead of nitrogen since it can be obtained in highly pure grades. The purpose of the blank experiments is to determine how much of the water pretreatment process is a thermal and/or pressure effort. The residues from the standard water pretreatment experiments with Illinois and Pittsburgh coals were subjected to analysis by TG-FTIR, solvent extraction, solvent swelling, oxygen reactivity index and donor solvent liquefaction. The pyridine extractables were analyzed. With regard to liquefaction behavior, improvements in the yields of oils and toluene solubles are observed for selected Illinois and Pittsburgh coals at longer pretreatment times ({ge} 60 minutes).

  20. Electrolytic pretreatment unit gaseous effluent conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    The electrolytic pretreatment of urine is an advanced process that eliminates the need for handling and storing the highly corrosive chemicals that are normally used in water reclamation systems. The electrolytic pretreatment process also converts the organic materials in urine to gases (N2 and O2) that can be used to replenish those lost to space by leakage, venting, and air lock operations. The electrolytic process is more than a pretreatment, since it decreases the urine solids content by approximately one third, thus reducing the load and eventual solids storage requirements of the urine processing system. The evolved gases from the pretreatment step cannot, however, be returned directly to the atmosphere of a spacecraft without first removing several impurities including hydrogen, chlorine, and certain organic compounds. A treatment concept was developed that would decrease the impurities in the gas stream that emanates from an electrolysis unit to levels sufficiently low to allow the conditioned gas stream to be safely discharged to a spacecraft atmosphere. Two methods were experimentally demonstrated that can accomplish the desired cleanup. The bases of the two methods are, repectively: (1) raw urine scrubbing and (2) silica gel sorption.

  1. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using Fenton chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in “biomass to biofuel conversion” due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass. White-rot fungi utilize peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide (in vivo Fenton chemistry) to degrade lignin. In an attempt to mimic this process, solution phase Fenton chemistry ...

  2. [Study on the advanced pre-treatments of reclaimed water used for groundwater recharge].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Tuan; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Xuan; Zhao, Gang

    2012-03-01

    To prevent groundwater contamination, pretreatments of reclaimed water are needed before the groundwater recharge. In this study, five treatments, including ultrafiltration (UF), ozonation, magnetic ion exchange (MIEX), UF coupled with ozonation and MIEX coupled with ozonation, were evaluated for their purification efficiencies of the reclaimed water and their influences on the following soil aquifer treatments. For organic matters in the secondary effluents, identified as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), 20% DOC and 10% SUVA are removed by MIEX treatment with dose of 5 mL x L(-1), while only 10% DOC and no SUVA are removed by UF, but neither of these two pretreatments enhance the purification of soil aquifer treatments. Differently, SUVA of the secondary effluents are removed by 60%-79% by ozonation alone or coupled with UF/MIEX, increasing the biodegradability of the reclaimed water. These pretreatments significantly enhance the removal of organic matters by the following soil aquifer with DOC in the final effluents reducing to 1-2 mg x L(-1). For nitrogen, MIEX can remove 25% NO3(-) -N, and ozonation can remove 72% NH4(+) -N. The soil aquifer treatment could efficiently remove NH4(+) -N to below 0.5 mg x L(-1), while no obvious removal is detected for NO3(-) -N. In conclusion, more attentions should be paid to the organic matters and NO3(-) -N during the pretreatments of reclaimed water. Among all the pretreatments tested here, ozonation coupled with MIEX is capable of increasing the biodegradability of the reclaimed water and removing NO3(-) -N, which is a good choice for the pretreatment of groundwater recharge. PMID:22624368

  3. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  4. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  5. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  6. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  7. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  8. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  9. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  10. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  11. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  12. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  13. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  14. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  15. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  16. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  17. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  18. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  19. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  20. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  1. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  2. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  3. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  4. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  5. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  6. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  7. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  8. 40 CFR 417.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  9. 40 CFR 417.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  10. 40 CFR 417.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  11. 40 CFR 417.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  12. 40 CFR 417.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  13. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  14. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  15. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  16. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  17. 40 CFR 443.26 - Pretreatment standard for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.26 Pretreatment standard for new sources....

  18. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  19. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  20. 40 CFR 427.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  1. 40 CFR 408.164 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.164 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  2. 40 CFR 408.196 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.196 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  3. 40 CFR 408.174 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.174 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  4. 40 CFR 408.166 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.166 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  5. 40 CFR 408.174 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.174 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  6. 40 CFR 408.174 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.174 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  7. 40 CFR 408.166 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.166 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  8. 40 CFR 408.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  9. 40 CFR 408.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  10. 40 CFR 408.176 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.176 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  11. 40 CFR 408.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  12. 40 CFR 408.196 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.196 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  13. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  14. 40 CFR 408.196 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.196 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  15. 40 CFR 408.184 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.184 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  16. 40 CFR 408.184 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.184 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  17. 40 CFR 408.176 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.176 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  18. 40 CFR 408.174 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.174 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  19. 40 CFR 408.184 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.184 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  20. 40 CFR 408.176 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.176 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  1. 40 CFR 408.174 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.174 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  2. 40 CFR 408.184 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.184 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  3. 40 CFR 408.176 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.176 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  4. 40 CFR 408.166 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.166 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  5. 40 CFR 408.196 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.196 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  6. 40 CFR 408.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  7. 40 CFR 408.164 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.164 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  8. 40 CFR 408.164 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.164 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  9. 40 CFR 408.196 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.196 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  10. 40 CFR 408.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  11. 40 CFR 408.176 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.176 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  12. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  13. 40 CFR 408.184 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.184 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  14. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  15. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  16. 40 CFR 408.194 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.194 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  17. 40 CFR 408.166 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.166 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  18. 40 CFR 408.164 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.164 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  19. 40 CFR 405.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  20. 40 CFR 405.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  1. 40 CFR 405.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  2. 40 CFR 405.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  3. 40 CFR 405.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  4. 40 CFR 408.274 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.274 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  5. 40 CFR 408.256 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.256 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  6. 40 CFR 408.254 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.254 Pretreatment standards for existing...

  7. 40 CFR 408.274 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.274 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  8. 40 CFR 408.266 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.266 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  9. 40 CFR 408.256 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.256 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  10. 40 CFR 408.276 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.276 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  11. 40 CFR 408.266 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.266 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  12. 40 CFR 408.254 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.254 Pretreatment standards for existing...

  13. 40 CFR 408.256 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.256 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  14. 40 CFR 408.276 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.276 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  15. 40 CFR 408.256 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.256 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  16. 40 CFR 408.256 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the...-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.256 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  17. 40 CFR 408.266 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.266 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  18. 40 CFR 408.274 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.274 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  19. 40 CFR 408.274 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.274 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  20. 40 CFR 408.266 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.266 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  1. 40 CFR 408.276 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.276 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  2. 40 CFR 408.254 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.254 Pretreatment standards for existing...

  3. 40 CFR 408.254 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.254 Pretreatment standards for existing...

  4. 40 CFR 408.254 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.254 Pretreatment standards for existing...

  5. 40 CFR 408.266 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.266 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  6. 40 CFR 408.276 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.276 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  7. 40 CFR 408.274 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.274 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  8. 40 CFR 408.276 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.276 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject...

  9. 40 CFR 407.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  10. 40 CFR 407.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  11. 40 CFR 407.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  12. 40 CFR 407.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  13. 40 CFR 407.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  14. 40 CFR 407.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  15. 40 CFR 407.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  16. 40 CFR 407.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  17. 40 CFR 407.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Frozen Potato Products Subcategory § 407.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  18. 40 CFR 407.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Dehydrated Potato Products Subcategory § 407.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  19. 40 CFR 443.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.16 Pretreatment standards for new sources....

  20. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Distillation Subcategory § 417.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject...

  1. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Distillation Subcategory § 417.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject...

  2. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Distillation Subcategory § 417.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject...

  3. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Distillation Subcategory § 417.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject...

  4. 40 CFR 417.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or... Distillation Subcategory § 417.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject...

  5. 40 CFR 408.164 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.164 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  6. 40 CFR 407.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  7. 40 CFR 407.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  8. 40 CFR 407.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  9. 40 CFR 407.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  10. 40 CFR 407.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Citrus Products Subcategory § 407.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  11. 40 CFR 408.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  12. 40 CFR 408.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  13. 40 CFR 408.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  14. 40 CFR 408.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  15. 40 CFR 408.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  16. 40 CFR 408.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment...

  17. 40 CFR 408.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  18. 40 CFR 408.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  19. 40 CFR 408.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  20. 40 CFR 408.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Conventional Blue Crab Processing Subcategory § 408.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  1. 40 CFR 417.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  2. 40 CFR 417.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  3. 40 CFR 408.314 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.314 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  4. 40 CFR 408.324 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.324 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  5. 40 CFR 408.314 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.314 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  6. 40 CFR 408.314 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.314 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  7. 40 CFR 408.324 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.324 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  8. 40 CFR 408.324 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.324 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  9. 40 CFR 408.324 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.324 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  10. 40 CFR 408.314 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.314 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  11. 40 CFR 408.314 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.314 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  12. 40 CFR 408.324 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Herring Fillet Processing Subcategory § 408.324 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  13. 40 CFR 408.134 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.134 Pretreatment standards for...

  14. 40 CFR 408.134 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.134 Pretreatment standards for...

  15. 40 CFR 408.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.114 Pretreatment standards for...

  16. 40 CFR 408.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.114 Pretreatment standards for...

  17. 40 CFR 408.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.104 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  18. 40 CFR 408.134 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.134 Pretreatment standards for...

  19. 40 CFR 408.134 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.134 Pretreatment standards for...

  20. 40 CFR 408.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.104 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  1. 40 CFR 408.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.114 Pretreatment standards for...

  2. 40 CFR 408.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.94 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  3. 40 CFR 408.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.104 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  4. 40 CFR 408.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.104 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  5. 40 CFR 408.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.94 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  6. 40 CFR 408.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.94 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  7. 40 CFR 408.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.104 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  8. 40 CFR 408.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.94 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  9. 40 CFR 408.94 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.94 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  10. 40 CFR 408.134 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.134 Pretreatment standards for...

  11. 40 CFR 408.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.114 Pretreatment standards for...

  12. 40 CFR 408.114 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.114 Pretreatment standards for...

  13. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  14. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  15. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  16. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  17. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  18. 40 CFR 405.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  19. 40 CFR 405.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  20. 40 CFR 405.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  1. 40 CFR 405.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  2. 40 CFR 408.234 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.234 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  3. 40 CFR 408.244 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.244 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  4. 40 CFR 408.244 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.244 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  5. 40 CFR 408.234 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.234 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  6. 40 CFR 408.244 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.244 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  7. 40 CFR 408.234 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.234 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  8. 40 CFR 408.234 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.234 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  9. 40 CFR 408.234 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard...-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.234 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  10. 40 CFR 408.244 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.244 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  11. 40 CFR 408.244 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.244 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  12. 40 CFR 407.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  13. 40 CFR 407.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  14. 40 CFR 407.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  15. 40 CFR 407.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  16. 40 CFR 407.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  17. 40 CFR 407.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  18. 40 CFR 407.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  19. 40 CFR 407.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  20. 40 CFR 407.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  1. 40 CFR 407.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.24 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any...

  2. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  3. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for high total sugar recovery in pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Huang, Meizi; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue

    2015-12-01

    Oxalic acid was evaluated as an alternative reagent to mineral inorganic acid in pretreatment of corncob to achieve high xylose yield in addition to highly digestible solid residue. A quadratic polynomial model of xylose formation was developed for optimization of pretreatment process by the response surface methodology based on the impact factors of pretreatment temperature, reaction time, acid concentration, and solid-to-liquid ratio. The highest xylose yield was 94.3 % that was obtained under the pretreatment condition of 140 °C for 40 min with 0.5 wt% oxalic acid at a solid loading of 7.5 %. Under these conditions, the xylose yield results of verification experiments were very close to the model prediction, which indicated that the model was applicable. The solid residue generated under this condition also demonstrated a satisfactory enzymatic digestibility and fermentability. PMID:26494137

  4. Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2014-10-15

    Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 μm in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 μm) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils. PMID:25089687

  5. Use of cholinesterases as pretreatment drugs for the protection of rhesus monkeys against soman toxicity. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.D.; Blick, D.W.; Murphy, M.R.; Miller, S.A.; Gentry, M.K.

    1992-12-31

    Purified fetal bovine serum acetylcholinesterase (FBS AChE) and horse serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were successfully used as single pretreatment drugs for the prevention of pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (soman) toxicity in nonhuman primates. Eight rhesus monkeys, trained to perform Primate Equilibrium Platform (PEP) tasks, were pretreated with FBS AChE or BChE and challenged with a cumulative level of five median lethal doses (LD 50) of soman. All ChE-pretreated monkeys survived the soman challenge and showed no symptoms of soman toxicity. A quantitative linear relation was observed between the soman dose and the neutralization of blood ChE. None of the four AChE-pretreated animals showed PEP task decrements, even though administration of soman irreversibly inhibited nearly all of the exogenously administered AChE. In two of four BChE pretreated animals, a small transient PEP performance decrement occurred when the cumulative soman dose exceeded 4 LD 50. Performance decrements observed under BCh E protection mete modest by the usual standards of organophosphorus compound toxicity. No residual or delayed performance decrements or other untoward effects were observed during 6 weeks of postexposure testing with either ChE.... Cholinesterases, Pretreatment, Soman, AChE, BChE, Toxicity.

  6. Rurality and Patterns of Social Disruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Kenneth P.

    1984-01-01

    Argues that structural cleavages provoke social disruptions where opportunities are conducive. Thus, combinations of rurality with particular structural cleavages predict specific disruption patterns. Data from northeastern United States indicate that rurality, combined with other population characteristics (provocation, ascriptive inequality,…

  7. Resistance to Disruption in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E.; Neal, Carrie M.; Ahearn, William H.; Wheeler, Emily E.; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B.; Dube, William V.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple…

  8. Disrupting Reconsolidation: Pharmacological and Behavioral Manipulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited modifications. At the same time, the fear-erasing effects…

  9. Developmental Pathways in Boys' Disruptive Delinquent Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Barbara Tatem; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate; DeLamatre, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Boys may follow various developmental pathways that lead to increasingly disruptive and delinquent behavior. To most parents, teachers, youth workers, mental health professionals, and juvenile justice practitioners, the development of disruptive and delinquent behavior in boys may appear erratic and unpredictable. This bulletin summarizes…

  10. Disruptive event analysis: Volcanism and igneous intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, B. M.

    1980-08-01

    An evaluation was made of the disruptive effects of volcanic activity with respect to long term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major questions were considered. First, what is the range of disruption effects of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity. Second, is it possible, by selective siting of a repository to reduce the risk of disruption by future volcanic activity. And third, can the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity be quantified. The main variables involved in the evaluation of the consequences of repository disruption by volcanic activity were the geometry of the magma repository intersection (partly controlled by depth of burial) and the nature of volcanism. Simplified probability calculations were attempted for areas of past volcanic activity.

  11. Changes in Adult Behavior to Decrease Disruption from Students in Nonclassroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohanon, Hank

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing classroom disruptions that result from hallway-related behavior in high school settings can be very challenging for high school staff. This article presents a case example of preventing problem behavior related to hallway settings in a high school with over 1,200 students. The interventions are described, and the results of the plan are…

  12. 40 CFR 408.216 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.216 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new... subpart: Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil...

  13. 40 CFR 408.224 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.224 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil...

  14. 40 CFR 408.226 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.226 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source...: Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do....

  15. 40 CFR 408.224 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.224 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil...

  16. 40 CFR 408.214 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.214 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil...

  17. 40 CFR 408.216 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.216 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new... subpart: Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil...

  18. 40 CFR 408.214 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.214 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil...

  19. 40 CFR 408.224 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Mechanized Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.224 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil...

  20. 40 CFR 408.214 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.214 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil...