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Sample records for preventing dental decay

  1. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find Data by Topic > Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Main Content Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...

  2. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  3. Weaker Dental Enamel Explains Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is “weaker” while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  4. Prevention and dental health services.

    PubMed

    Widstrm, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    There has been, and still is a firm belief that regular use of dental services is beneficial for all. Thus governments in most European countries have shown some interest in training oral health care professionals, distributing the dental workforce and cost sharing. Constantly evolving treatment options and the introduction of new methods make dental clinicians feel uncertain as to which treatments are most useful, who would benefit from them, and which treatments will achieve cost-effective health gain. Although there is a considerable quantity of scientific literature showing that most available preventive measures are effective, and the number of sensible best-practice guidelines in prevention is growing, there are few studies on cost-efficiency of different methods and, secondly, the prevention and treatment guidelines are poorly known among general practitioners. In the eyes of the public, it is obvious that preventive methods practised by patients at home have been eclipsed by clinical procedures performed in dental clinics. Reliance on an increasingly individualistic approach to health care leads to the medicalisation of issues that are not originally health or medical problems. It is important to move general oral disease prevention back to the people who must integrate this in their daily routines. Prevention primarily based on healthy lifestyles, highlighted in the new public health strategy of the European Union (EU), is the key to future health policy. PMID:15646582

  5. The demand for preventive and restorative dental services.

    PubMed

    Meyerhoefer, Chad D; Zuvekas, Samuel H; Manski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tooth decay is the most common chronic condition in the United States among children ages 5-17 and also affects a large percentage of adults. Oral health conditions are preventable, but less than half of the US population uses dental services annually. We seek to examine the extent to which limited dental coverage and high out-of-pocket costs reduce dental service use by the nonelderly privately insured and uninsured. Using data from the 2001-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and an American Dental Association survey of dental procedure prices, we jointly estimate the probability of using preventive and both basic and major restorative services through a correlated random effects specification that controls for endogeneity. We found that dental coverage increased the probability of preventive care use by 19% and the use of restorative services 11% to 16%. Both conditional and unconditional on dental coverage, the use of dental services was not sensitive to out-of-pocket costs. We conclude that dental coverage is an important determinant of preventive dental service use, but other nonprice factors related to consumer preferences, especially education, are equal if not stronger determinants. PMID:23349123

  6. The Importance of Tooth Decay Prevention in Children under Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen; Chi, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Tooth decay and tooth loss was once the norm but public health interventions have led to major improvements for most people. Nevertheless, not all children have benefited. Dental disease in young children is unacceptably high. Tooth decay is preventable. Early childhood educators are often the first to notice the problem. Professional…

  7. Reasons preventing regular dental care.

    PubMed

    Syrjl, A M; Knuuttila, M L; Syrjl, L K

    1992-02-01

    The aim was to determine what reasons restrict people's daily cleaning of their teeth and yearly attendance for a dental check-up, using as a theoretical background the ideas of Eichholz & Rogers on the rejection of innovation. The series consisted of young and middle-aged persons, 207 women and 183 men, who filled in a questionnaire on the above topics. The questions were phrased so as to cover different reasons for rejecting innovations. Factors analysis revealed the following factors: reasons preventing daily brushing, practical reasons, unpleasant experiences of dental care, laziness, and lack of appreciation. The reliability of the questionnaire was found to be good. Sex showed a significant correlation with reasons preventing daily brushing. Those for whom a long time had elapsed since the last visit to a dentist had more barriers relating to daily brushing, unpleasant experiences and laziness. The more educated the participants were, the fewer barriers they had in relation to the factors appreciation, unpleasant experiences, and daily brushing. PMID:1547605

  8. The dentist and preventive dental health information.

    PubMed

    Hellman, S

    1976-01-01

    Patients receive differing amounts of preventive dental health information from their dentist. What factors affect the amount of preventive information a patient receives? Many possible reasons which have been advanced for this difference are discussed in this paper. Using the clues presented in the literature, and results of a presurvey, some factors thought to influence the amount of preventive dental health information the patient receives were investigated. Specifically, the research problem was, "What is the relationship between the amount of preventive dental health information a patient receives from the dentist in his private office and the following factors: patient's appearance, interest-responsiveness, nervousness, need for dental care, request for service, orientation to dentistry, and dentist's liking for the patient?" The hypothesized relationships of amount of preventive dental information delivered to dentist's perception of patient's characteristics were not upheld. The paper tentatively concludes that the characteristics of the dentist and his dental practice affect the preventive information delivered more significantly than patient characteristics. PMID:977352

  9. The relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience in antenatal mothers.

    PubMed

    Esa, Rashidah; Savithri, Vengadasalam; Humphris, Gerry; Freeman, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience among antenatal mothers attending Maternal and Child Health clinics in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a consecutive sample of 407 antenatal mothers in Seremban, Malaysia. The questionnaire consisted of participants' demographic profile and the Dental Fear Survey. The D(3cv)MFS was employed as the outcome measure and was assessed by a single examiner (intraclass correlation = 0.98). A structural equation model was designed to inspect the relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience. The mean Dental Fear Survey score for all participants was 35.1 [95% confidence interval (34.0, 36.3)]. The mean D(3cv)MFS score was 10.8 [95% confidence interval (9.5, 12.1)]. Participants from low socio-economic status groups had significantly higher D(3cv)MFS counts than those from high socio-economic status groups. The path model with dental anxiety and socio-economic status as predictors of D(3cv)MFS showed satisfactory fit. The correlation between dental anxiety and dental decay experience was 0.30 (standardized estimate), indicating a positive association. Socio-economic status was also statistically significantly associated with the D(3cv)MFS count (beta = 0.19). This study presented robust evidence for the significant relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience in antenatal mothers. PMID:20156266

  10. Preventive dentistry for the general dental practitioner.

    PubMed

    Walsh, L J

    2000-06-01

    Although the prevalence of dental caries has decreased gradually in the past three decades in the Australian population, dental caries remains the primary reason for tooth loss in Australia. At the community level, total health expenditure on the treatment of dental caries (and its consequences) is substantial. Accordingly, caries prevention is an important focus at both the individual and community levels. This paper outlines the principles upon which modern caries prevention is based and stresses the importance of manipulating the oral environment (in terms of salivary parameters, ions, pH and the oral flora) as a major strategy for effective long-term caries prevention. Practical advice is provided on the correct home use of preventive agents, including chewing gums, chlorhexidine, fluorides, bicarbonate rinses and phosphopeptides. PMID:10925501

  11. Modern management of dental decay in children and adolescents - a review

    PubMed Central

    MUNTEAN, ALEXANDRINA; MESAROS, ANCA STEFANIA; FESTILA, DANA; MESAROS, MICHAELA

    2015-01-01

    Health is a right that requires responsible individual actions. Oral health corresponds to an important part of general health, even if for a large majority of people healthy teeth are equal with beautiful teeth. For children and adolescents „having an attractive smile” is synonymous with social acceptance and success. Dental decay has a high incidence in children in our country and progress in decay prevention, diagnosis and treatment is not reflected in children and adolescents’ oral health. It is established by studies conducted by dentists and psychologists that dental decay can affect the quality of life by engendering specific eating behaviors, particular ways of speech or smile and unfortunately pain. The aim of this article is to emphasize the modern approach of dental decay in line with principles of non-invasive strategies. An important element to be considered - prophylactic methods - must be included in every treatment plan, in order to control individual caries risk. The time invested in prevention during childhood represents a real benefit for the future adult’s oral health. Many a dental problems can be avoided if dental decay management relies on the link between medical science and every day practice. PMID:26528061

  12. Near-IR imaging of occlusal dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, Christopher M.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near-IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains and pigmentation. Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  13. INSIGHTS INTO PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR DENTAL EROSION

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wiegand, Annette; Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    Dental erosion is defined as the loss of tooth substance by acid exposure not involving bacteria. The etiology of erosion is related to different behavioral, biological and chemical factors. Based on an overview of the current literature, this paper presents a summary of the preventive strategies relevant for patients suffering from dental erosion. Behavioral factors, such as special drinking habits, unhealthy lifestyle factors or occupational acid exposure, might modify the extent of dental erosion. Thus, preventive strategies have to include measures to reduce the frequency and duration of acid exposure as well as adequate oral hygiene measures, as it is known that eroded surfaces are more susceptible to abrasion. Biological factors, such as saliva or acquired pellicle, act protectively against erosive demineralization. Therefore, the production of saliva should be enhanced, especially in patients with hyposalivation or xerostomia. With regard to chemical factors, the modification of acidic solutions with ions, especially calcium, was shown to reduce the demineralization, but the efficacy depends on the other chemical factors, such as the type of acid. To enhance the remineralization of eroded surfaces and to prevent further progression of dental wear, high-concentrated fluoride applications are recommended. Currently, little information is available about the efficacy of other preventive strategies, such as calcium and laser application, as well as the use of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. Further studies considering these factors are required. In conclusion, preventive strategies for patients suffering from erosion are mainly obtained from in vitro and in situ studies and include dietary counseling, stimulation of salivary flow, optimization of fluoride regimens, modification of erosive beverages and adequate oral hygiene measures. PMID:19274390

  14. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Prevention of Dental Caries in Children From Birth Through Age Five Years. ... Children’ s Oral Health ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Tooth Decay — Early Childhood ( MedlinePlus) May 2014 Task Force FINAL ...

  15. Application of a novel confocal imaging technique for early the detection of dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Christel; Girkin, John M.; Vaidya, Shilpa; Hall, Andrew F.; Whitters, C. J.; Creanor, Steve L.

    2002-06-01

    In order to stop or prevent the progression of dental disease, early detection and quantification of decay are crucially important. Dental decay (caries) detection methods have traditionally involved clinical examination by eye, using probes and dental radiography, but up to 60% of lesions are missed. What the dentist requires is a cheap, reliable method of detection of early disease, ideally with information on the depth and rate of growth or healing. Conventional commercial scanning confocal microscopes are unsuitable for use on dental patients. We report on a fibre optic based confocal microscope designed for in vivo examination of caries lesions. The system utilizes a common fibre both as the source and to detect the reflected confocal signal. The initial system has been optimized using dielectric mirrors and the thickness of the stack has been measured with high precision. Dental samples have been examined and the system has been demonstrated to provide information on the depth and mineral loss of a lesion. Fibre optic microscopy (FOCM) demonstrates a practical route to developing an in vivo caries profiler. In this paper, the FOCM and its applications in caries detection are described and the potential of this scheme as a practical dental probe is discussed.

  16. Prevention of surgical skill decay.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ray S; Skinner, Anna; Weyhrauch, Peter; Niehaus, James; Lathan, Corinna; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Cao, Caroline G L

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. military medical community spends a great deal of time and resources training its personnel to provide them with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform life-saving tasks, both on the battlefield and at home. However, personnel may fail to retain specialized knowledge and skills if they are not applied during the typical periods of nonuse within the military deployment cycle, and retention of critical knowledge and skills is crucial to the successful care of warfighters. For example, we researched the skill and knowledge loss associated with specialized surgical skills such as those required to perform laparoscopic surgery (LS) procedures. These skills are subject to decay when military surgeons perform combat casualty care during their deployment instead of LS. This article describes our preliminary research identifying critical LS skills, as well as their acquisition and decay rates. It introduces models that identify critical skills related to laparoscopy, and proposes objective metrics for measuring these critical skills. This research will provide insight into best practices for (1) training skills that are durable and resistant to skill decay, (2) assessing these skills over time, and (3) introducing effective refresher training at appropriate intervals to maintain skill proficiency. PMID:24084308

  17. [Dental caries and its prevention in French Polynesia].

    PubMed

    Barnaud, J

    1982-01-01

    For some years, a global program for prevention of dental caries is carried on in french Polynesia. Polynesian populations were, more than a century ago, almost totally free of dental caries. This disorder suddenly appeared and reached, in a couple of decennia, a frequency and an intensity rarely observed in other countries. Ten years ago, with support of WHO, the Public health department of the territory organized a dental hygiene service for school children; positive results can already be observed. PMID:7154904

  18. A dental public health approach based on computational mathematics: Monte Carlo simulation of childhood dental decay.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie

    2013-02-01

    This study developed a Monte Carlo simulation approach to examining the prevalence and incidence of dental decay using Australian children as a test environment. Monte Carlo simulation has been used for a half a century in particle physics (and elsewhere); put simply, it is the probability for various population-level outcomes seeded randomly to drive the production of individual level data. A total of five runs of the simulation model for all 275,000 12-year-olds in Australia were completed based on 2005-2006 data. Measured on average decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT) and DMFT of highest 10% of sample (Sic10) the runs did not differ from each other by more than 2% and the outcome was within 5% of the reported sampled population data. The simulations rested on the population probabilities that are known to be strongly linked to dental decay, namely, socio-economic status and Indigenous heritage. Testing the simulated population found DMFT of all cases where DMFT<>0 was 2.3 (n = 128,609) and DMFT for Indigenous cases only was 1.9 (n = 13,749). In the simulation population the Sic25 was 3.3 (n = 68,750). Monte Carlo simulations were created in particle physics as a computational mathematical approach to unknown individual-level effects by resting a simulation on known population-level probabilities. In this study a Monte Carlo simulation approach to childhood dental decay was built, tested and validated. PMID:23410020

  19. Receipt of preventive dental care among special-needs children enrolled in Medicaid: a crisis in need of attention.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jean M; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2008-10-01

    Although not widely recognized, tooth decay is the most common childhood chronic disease among children ages five to seventeen. Despite higher rates of dental caries and greater needs, low-income minority children enrolled in Medicaid are more likely to go untreated relative to their higher income counterparts. No research has examined this issue for children with special needs. We analyzed Medicaid enrollment and claims data for special-needs children enrolled in the District of Columbia Medicaid program to evaluate receipt of recommended preventive dental care. Use of preventive dental care is abysmally low and has declined over time. Enrollment in managed care rather than fee for service improves the likelihood that special-needs children receive recommended preventive dental services, whereas residing farther from the Metro is an impediment to receipt of dental care. PMID:18818426

  20. Utilization of Preventive Dental Practices by Graduates of One U.S. Dental School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripa, Louis W.; Johnson, Robin M.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 113 graduates of the State University of New York at Stony Brook dental school now in general practice found a high rate of self-reported use of preventive practices (oral hygiene instruction, pit-and-fissure sealants, fluorides, and diet analysis) included in the dental school's curriculum. (MSE)

  1. Challenges of Iranian Adolescents for Preventing Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Arezoo; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Malekafzali, Beheshteh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral health plays a vital role in people’s general health and well-being. With regard to the costly treatments of oral diseases, preventive programs need to be designed for dental caries based on children’s perspectives. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe and explore challenges for caring dental health based on children’s perspectives. Patients and Methods: A qualitative design with content analysis approach was applied to collect and analyze the perspectives of students about factors influencing oral and dental care. Eighteen Iranian students in 8 guidance schools were chosen through the purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were held for data gathering. In order to support the validity and rigor of the data, different criteria such as acceptability, confirmability, and transferability were utilized. Results: During data analysis, four main themes developed: “barriers to dental health,” “maintaining dental health,” “uncertainty in decision-making” and “supportive factors”. “Uncertainty in decision-making” and “barriers to dental health” were the main challenges for preventing dental caries among adolescents. Conclusions: “Certainty in decision-making” to maintain dental health depends on overcoming the barriers of dental health. Further research is needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:25593720

  2. Obesity and Dental Decay: Inference on the Role of Dietary Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, J. Max; Tavares, Mary; Wang, Xiaoshan; Niederman, Richard; Cugini, Maryann; Hasturk, Hatice; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship of children’s obesity and dental decay. Methods We measured parameters related to obesity and dental decay in 8,275 4th and 5th grade Kuwaiti children (average age = 11.36 years) in a cross-sectional study. First to determine body weight, height, age for computation of BMI . Second, to determine numbers of teeth, numbers of fillings and numbers of untreated decayed teeth to determine extent and severity of dental disease. From these measurements, we computed measures of dental decay in children from four body weight categories; obese, overweight, normal healthy weight and underweight children. Results The percentage of children with decayed or filled teeth varied inversely with the body weight category. The percentage of decayed or filled teeth decreased from 15.61% (n=193) in underweight children, to 13.03% (n=4,094) in normal healthy weight children, to 9.73% (n=1,786) in overweight children to 7.87% (n=2,202) in obese children. Differences between all groups were statistically significant. Male children in this population had more dental decay than female children but the reduction of tooth decay as a function of BMI was greater in male children. Conclusions The finding of an inverse obesity-dental decay relationship contradicts the obesity-sugar and the obesity-dental decay relationship hypotheses. Sugar is well recognized as necessary and sufficient for dental decay. Sugar is also hypothesized to be a leading co-factor in obesity. If the later hypothesis is true, one would expect dental decay to increase with obesity. This was not found. The reasons for this inverse relationship are not currently clear. PMID:24130667

  3. Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... cavity. Your dentist calls it tooth decay or dental caries. They're all names for a hole ... or abscess. To help prevent cavities Brush your teeth every day with a fluoride toothpaste Clean between ...

  4. Fluoride Programs in the School Setting: Preventive Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebich, Theodore, Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two types of school-based programs that increase students' use of fluoride for preventive dental health are described. In fluoride mouthrinse programs, teachers give their students a fluoride solution once a week in a paper cup. In areas where the level of fluoride in the water supply is insufficient, the flouride tablet program is used. (JN)

  5. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Nutrition Education--1973. Part 6--Phosphate Research and Dental Decay. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., April 16, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate include testimony on the subject of research into the use of phosphates to prevent dental decay. The purpose of the hearing was to explore certain dental health questions raised during the committee's recent hearings on the Television Advertising of…

  6. Periodic health examination, 1995 update: 2. Prevention of dental caries. The Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D W; Ismail, A I

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To make recommendations, based on current evidence, for practising physicians and dentists on interventions for the prevention of dental caries in their patients. OPTIONS: Systemic fluoride administration, professionally administered fluoride, use of fluoride mouth rinses, fissure sealants, oral-hygiene practices, dietary practices, identification of groups at a high risk of dental caries, and early diagnosis and treatment. OUTCOMES: Reduced prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis, longer retention of teeth and lower treatment costs. EVIDENCE: Several MEDLINE searches were conducted for articles published from January 1980 to December 1992, including relevant review articles. VALUES: Relevant clinical findings were evaluated and categorized with the use of the evidence-based methods and values of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Recommendations were developed for each method of caries prevention, with reduced incidence of dental caries and improved prevalence of caries-free teeth given high values. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The potential benefits of these measures in the long-term are a lower incidence of tooth decay, longer retention of teeth and prevention of fluorosis. The cost saving can be considerable for patients and insurers; however, implementation of some recommendations will be difficult, since the traditional preventive practices of dentists and dental hygienists are not easily changed. RECOMMENDATIONS: There is good evidence that the following manoeuvres are effective in preventing dental caries: use of dentifrices containing fluoride, fluoridation of drinking water, fluoride supplements for patients in areas where there is a low level (0.3 ppm or less) of fluoride in the drinking water, professionally applied topical fluoride and the use of fluoride mouth rinses for patients with very active decay or at a high risk of dental caries and selective use of professionally applied fissure sealants on permanent molar teeth. There is poor evidence that the following manoeuvres are effective in preventing dental caries: professionally applied topical fluoride and the use of fluoride mouth rinses for patients with a low risk of caries, toothbrushing (without a dentifrice containing fluoride) and flossing, cleaning of teeth by a dentist or dental hygienist before topical application of fluoride or at a dental visit and dietary counselling for the general population. There is good evidence to recommend against the use of over-the-counter fluoride mouth rinses by the general population. VALIDATION: These guidelines are compatible with those of the US Preventive Services Task Force. SPONSOR: These guidelines were developed and endorsed by the task force, which is funded by Health Canada. Major funding was provided by the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Toronto, Toronto and the Faculty of Dentistry of Dalhousie University, Halifax. PMID:7697577

  7. Preventative measures for bulimic patients with dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, G; Bartlett, D

    2001-03-01

    The preventative techniques suggested to bulimic patients are frequently undervalued and ignored in favour of restorative treatment, possibly because the dentist may not be aware of the eating disorder. Educating bulimic patients about fluoride application, the use of brushing techniques, antacids, cheese, xylitol chewing gum and the possible use of mouth guards may minimise the effect of acids. Together with attempts at improving patient compliance they can be a valuable adjunct to treatment of bulimic patients with dental problems. Monitoring the wear on teeth by comparing study casts is a good way to maintain control but there are circumstances when restorations are indicated, perhaps when further delay may result in the prognosis of the teeth being compromised. Following a brief introduction to causes of bulimia and the consequences to the dentition, this paper, based on a literature review, considers patient-orientated techniques for prevention and provisional management of erosion of dental hard tissues for patients with bulimia nervosa. PMID:11695131

  8. Prevention and Control of Dental Disease through Improved Access to Comprehensive Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL.

    Prevention of dental disease is the key to improving the nation's oral health. The American Dental Association (ADA) program of prevention and control of dental disease through improved access to comprehensive care concentrates on those who have special difficulties in receiving care: the poor, the elderly, the handicapped, the institutionalized

  9. A Review of Probiotic Therapy in Preventive Dental Practice.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Mark L

    2011-06-01

    Probiotics have been widely publicized in the general press and the consumer media. Knowledge of the existence of "probiotics" is commonplace, and the effectiveness of probiotic therapy has been well reported in the medical literature. However, even though most published dental studies have reported positive results, the dental profession has not yet accepted the use of probiotic therapy as an adjunct for preventive dental care. This review article discusses published and current research into the applications of probiotics along with diagnostic testing of the oral biofilm. Probiotic therapy appears to be generally safe and effective in modifying with beneficial bacteria the oral biofilm and thereby reducing the effects of pathogenic oral bacteria. In this review, some examples of current oral probiotic research are discussed along with reference to the potential application of diagnostic testing of the oral biofilm for the presence of oral pathogens as a precursor to initiation of specific probiotic therapy. Dental professionals should be actively investigating this potentially very useful therapeutic measure for the benefit of their patients. PMID:26781571

  10. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  11. [Problems of fluoride dosing to infants for dental fluorosis prevention].

    PubMed

    Davydov, B N; Borinskaia, E Iu; Kushnir, S M; Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Beliaev, V V

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride content in drinking water, breast milk, cow milk, additional food for newborns prepared with water containing different amount of fluoride was determined. Fluoride excretion in urine since the first days of birth and up to 4 months of postnatal development was investigated in breast and artificially fed infants. When a neonate was fed with breast milk, fluoride was received in the amount no more than 20 mkg/day. The additional food contained fluoride which water mainly had. Water with high level of fluorine increased its content in the additional food up to the values not comparable to those in breast milk that presented danger of dental fluorosis development. Data on fluorine content in drinking water were absolutely necessary to calculate daily fluorides consumption by infants and to prevent dental fluorosis. PMID:21378727

  12. Dental Decay in Southern Illinois Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: An Analysis of Clinical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukes, Sherri M.; Simon, Bret

    2005-01-01

    Context: Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are a population at risk for oral health problems. Data on the oral health conditions of migrant and seasonal farmworkers' permanent teeth are particularly lacking. Purpose: To document the relative rates of treated and untreated dental decay in a sample of southern Illinois migrant and seasonal…

  13. Dental Decay in Southern Illinois Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: An Analysis of Clinical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukes, Sherri M.; Simon, Bret

    2005-01-01

    Context: Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are a population at risk for oral health problems. Data on the oral health conditions of migrant and seasonal farmworkers? permanent teeth are particularly lacking. Purpose: To document the relative rates of treated and untreated dental decay in a sample of southern Illinois migrant and seasonal…

  14. Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-12-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder-associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75(A161T) and KRT75(E337K), are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75(A161T) variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries. PMID:25347471

  15. Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R.; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L.; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder–associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75A161T and KRT75E337K, are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75A161T variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries. PMID:25347471

  16. Dental injuries in inline skating - level of information and prevention.

    PubMed

    Fasciglione, Daniele; Persic, Robert; Pohl, Yango; Filippi, Andreas

    2007-06-01

    Inline skating belongs like ice hockey, rugby, and boxing to sporting activities with high-risk of suffering tooth accidents. Because of high velocity and loss of balance, especially on uneven ground, the injury potential in inline skating is higher. The objective of this work was to conduct a comparative study between Switzerland and Germany. The questions focussed on the frequency of tooth accidents, their prevention by mouthguard and the level of information about emergency measures after dental trauma and the resulting consequences for athletes. Using a standardized questionnaire totally 612 individuals, 324 men and 288 women, in two countries belonging to three different divisions (fun, fitness and speed) were surveyed. Fifty-six (9.2%) of these 612 interviewees have already experienced a tooth injury while inline skating. More than half of all interviewed players (68.3%) were aware of the possibility of replanting avulsed teeth. Only 32.4% were familiar with the tooth rescue kit. Just 65.4% knew mouthguard and only 1.9% of those athletes (n = 12) wore a mouthguard while inline skating. The results show that the area of inline skating requires more information about preventing dental trauma through sports associations and dentists. PMID:17511835

  17. Developing an Acceptability Assessment of Preventive Dental Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Susan; Gansky, Stuart A.; Gonzalez-Vargas, Maria J.; Husting, Sheila R.; Cheng, Nancy F.; Millstein, Susan G.; Adams, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Early childhood caries (ECC) is very prevalent among young Hispanic children. ECC is amenable to a variety of preventive procedures, yet many Hispanic families underutilize dental services. Acceptability research may assist in health care planning and resource allocation by identifying patient preferences among efficacious treatments with the goal of improving their utilization. The purposes of this study were (a) to develop a culturally competent acceptability assessment instrument, directed toward the caregivers of young Hispanic children, for five preventive dental treatments for ECC and (b) to test the instrument's reliability and validity. Methods An instrument of five standard treatments known to prevent ECC was developed, translated, reviewed by focus groups, and pilot tested, then tested for reliability. The instrument included illustrated cards, brief video clips, and samples of the treatments and was culturally appropriate for low-income Hispanic caregivers. In addition to determining the acceptability of the five treatments individually, the treatments were also presented as paired comparisons. Results Focus groups and debriefing interviews following the pilot tests established that the instrument has good face validity. The illustrated cards, product samples, and video demonstrations of the five treatments resulted in an instrument possessing good content validity. The instrument has good to excellent testretest reliability, with identical time 1time 2 responses for each of the five treatments 92 percent of the time (range 87 to 97 percent), and the same treatment of the paired comparisons preferred 75 percent of the time (range 61 to 90 percent). Conclusions The acceptability instrument described is reliable and valid and may be useful in program planning efforts to identify and increase the utilization of preferred ECC preventive treatments for target populations. PMID:18662256

  18. Prevalence of dental caries in dentistry students.

    PubMed

    Pavleova, G; Vesela, S; Stanko, P

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates dental caries prevalence in dentistry students. They represent a sample of individuals with good dental status, socio-economical level and access to dental care. The values of teeth number with decay and filling and values of surfaces of teeth with decay and filling indices in group with lower caries incidence give the information as to what could be achieved by systemic care and prevention of dental caries in whole population (Tab. 4. Ref. 25). PMID:25665473

  19. Dental neglect: definition and prevention in the Louisiana Developmental Centers for patients with MRDD.

    PubMed

    Connick, C M; Barsley, R E

    1999-01-01

    When dental services and appropriate use of restraints are used for persons who are severely and profoundly mentally retarded and developmentally disabled (MRDD), oral health is enhanced and dental neglect is controlled or even reduced. This paper defines dental neglect and examines the consequences to persons who are MRDD when appropriate restraints and preventive dental home care are not used. Oral health outcome assessment data of this MRDD population indicate the presence or absence of dental neglect. The outcome assessment measures the level of oral health within the developmental center. The Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals (DHH) operates nine developmental centers, where approximately 2000 individuals with severe to profound mental handicaps reside. Two-thirds (66%) of this population are resistive to the delivery of clinical and preventive dental services. The responsibilities and roles of dental health professionals, long-term-care facility administrators, and direct service staff are discussed to help reduce dental neglect in these centers. For these individuals to receive quality and comprehensive dental care, appropriate use of restraint/physical hold is necessary. The Dental Health Resource Program (DHRP) developed guidelines for delivering preventive and clinical dental services to reduce confusion and misinterpretation of the definition and use of restraint in the Louisiana Developmental Centers (LADCs). PMID:10860076

  20. Innovative interventions to promote positive dental health behaviors and prevent dental caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy self-care behaviors (diet and oral hygiene). The conventional (health) education (CE), focusing on disseminating information and giving normative advice, often fails to achieve sustained behavioral changes. This study incorporates two innovative elements into CE: (i) motivational interviewing (MI), a client-centered counseling for changing behaviors, and (ii) an interactive caries risk assessment (RA) tool, which is devised to facilitate dental counseling and may enhance MI in several ways. Through a randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial, three intervention schemes (CE, CE + MI, and CE + MI + RA) will be compared for their effectiveness in eliciting dentally healthy behaviors and preventing caries in preschool children. Methods/Design This study targets 3-year-old children who are at a critical stage for embedding health habits. Children with unfavorable dental behaviors (insufficient toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) and their parents will be recruited from 12 participating kindergartens. Parent-child dyads (n = 690) will be randomly assigned into three groups. In the first group (CE), oral health information and advice will be delivered to parents through pamphlets. In the second group (CE + MI), in addition to the pamphlets, individual MI counseling with each parent will be performed by one of two trained dental hygienists. In the third group (CE + MI + RA), besides pamphlets and MI, interactive RA will be integrated into MI to motivate parents and facilitate their informed decision making and goal planning. At baseline and after 12 and 24 months, parents will complete a questionnaire and children will undergo a dental examination. The effectiveness of the intervention schemes will be compared over 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome will be caries increment in children and proportion of caries-free children. Secondary outcomes will be changes in parental efficacy for protecting children’s oral health and changes in children’s dental behaviors. Discussion Motivating and empowering parents to cultivate dentally healthy habits of young children presents both promises and challenges. With careful methodological considerations, this study is expected to provide scientific evidence for public health workers, dentists, and dental auxiliaries (nurses and hygienists) to choose appropriate interventions to advance children’s oral health. Trial registration HKCTR-1455 PMID:23782918

  1. “Hepatitis” – Prevention and management in dental practice

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Sharma, Varun; Kaur, Saravpreet

    2015-01-01

    Today, viral hepatitis has become a silent epidemic worldwide. It is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. In a dental office, infections can be expedited through several routes, including direct or indirect contact with blood, oral fluids, droplet splatter, aerosols, etc. The aim of the present review is to increase the awareness among dental practitioners, so as to reduce the burden of hepatitis in their community. Electronic databases like PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, etc. were searched using the keywords hepatitis, dentist, liver disease, and infection control. Manual search of various journals and books was also carried out. Only highly relevant articles from English literature were considered for the present review. The results revealed that the dentists were among the high-risk groups for hepatitis, and they have little information on the factors associated with adherence to hepatitis B vaccination. A dentist can play a major role in the prevention of hepatitis by considering each and every patient as a potential carrier of hepatitis. Proper infection control, sterilization, and prophylactic vaccination protocols should be followed in order to reduce the risk of hepatitis. PMID:26097847

  2. Perceived competency towards preventive dentistry among dental graduates: the need for curriculum change

    PubMed Central

    Arheiam, Arheiam; Bankia, Ibtesam; Ingafou, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. Objective To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early management of dental caries. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among internship students attending the Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry in Faculty of Dentistry, Benghazi, Libya. The participants were asked to provide demographic information, to respond to statements about their attitudes towards preventive dentistry, and to answer questions regarding their perceived competence in applying preventive dentistry procedures. Results Data from 108 Libyan dental graduates were analysed for this study, of which 64% of them were females and 42.1% of them passed their final year with grade: acceptable. The most acknowledged aspects of preventive dentistry were being useful and essential to the community (95.4 and 90.8%, respectively). The percentage of participants expressing a proficiency in providing oral hygiene instructions was the highest (95.4%). There were differences between study subgroups in their perceived competence of preventive dental practices by gender and academic performance (p≤0.05). Conclusion This study highlighted that the currently implemented undergraduate education programme in Benghazi dental school does not provide dentists with the required attitude and skills to fulfil their role in providing preventive-oriented health services. PMID:25556523

  3. Camellia sinensis (Tea): Implications and role in preventing dental decay

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Karun, Vinayak; Nigam, Anant G.; Dutta, Samir; Marwah, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages with bioactive compounds like polyphenols-flavonoids-catechins, which are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to the tea. These compounds have multi-dimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase and inhibition of acid production. This article outlines the possible role of these compounds coupled with the presence of high fluoride content in tea to exhibit an anticariogenic effect. PMID:24347923

  4. Dental Sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data & Statistics > Find Data by Topic > Dental Sealants Dental Sealants Main Content Dental sealants are thin plastic coatings that protect the chewing surfaces of children’s back teeth from tooth decay. Overall, the prevalence of sealants ...

  5. An Evaluation of the School-Based Dental Disease Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Office of the Legislative Analyst.

    This report analyzes the effect of the California Dental Disease Prevention Program (DDPP). The program includes education about dental health and nutrition, daily toothbrushing and flossing, and weekly application of a fluoride mouthrinse. The DDPP serves approximately 350,000 elementary school children. The implementation of the DDPP is

  6. An Evaluation of the School-Based Dental Disease Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Office of the Legislative Analyst.

    This report analyzes the effect of the California Dental Disease Prevention Program (DDPP). The program includes education about dental health and nutrition, daily toothbrushing and flossing, and weekly application of a fluoride mouthrinse. The DDPP serves approximately 350,000 elementary school children. The implementation of the DDPP is…

  7. Prevalence of Streptococcus mutans and dental decay in schoolchildren living in Genoa (Italy).

    PubMed

    De Leo, C; Coppola, R C; Blasi, G; Eftimiadi, C; Salvarani, M; Molina, A M

    1990-06-01

    In this study population (105 schoolchildren aged 5.5-11.5 yrs), dental decay was detected in 75.2% and S. mutans in 55.2% of the subjects. The presence of S. mutans was assessed - using the selective GSTB medium - in unstimulated saliva and in pooled occlusal and pooled buccal plaques from the four most posterior teeth. All three samples showed association between S. mutans presence and caries prevalence. Of the two types of plaque, the occlusal not only had a higher frequency of isolation but also a significantly higher proportion of S. mutans. The presence of S. mutans was significantly associated with both caries prevalence and extent of caries experience. Both S. mutans prevalence and S. mutans proportion in plaque increased with the number of decayed teeth present among those sampled. Sucrose consumption between meals appeared to be more correlated with the degree of caries experience rather than with caries or S. mutans prevalence. A second clinical examination was scheduled six months after the first for S. mutans-positive children who either were free of active carious lesions, or were caries-active but without signs of dental decay in the sampled teeth. Caries-active subjects proved to be more prone to new carious lesions than caries-free subjects, who tended to remain caries-free even when they had a high proportion of S. mutans in plaque, thus indicating the basic importance of the host factor in the caries process. PMID:2361542

  8. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Practice Management and for Preventive Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. The guidelines were developed by the Sections on Community and Preventive Dentistry and Practice Administration. (MLW)

  9. Canada-wide standards: a pollution prevention program for dental amalgam waste.

    PubMed

    Trip, L

    2001-05-01

    Dentistry and society have long recognized the benefits of using silver-based amalgams to restore and maintain the dental health of patients. However, recent studies by health and environment experts have shown that mercury is of great concern when it enters the biosphere as a contaminant. A rational approach to pollution prevention is mandatory. This article explains the relationship between mercury, particularly dental amalgam waste, and the environment and describes a new pollution prevention initiative intended to ensure that the dental community becomes part of the solution to this serious environmental health problem. PMID:11398390

  10. Pediatric Dental Care: Prevention and Management Protocols Based on Caries Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infant oral care programs among clinicians and early establishment of dental homes for young children. PMID:21162350

  11. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  12. [Dental insurance systems in light of present-day prevention potentials].

    PubMed

    Marthaler, T; Zollinger, E

    1979-05-01

    The situation of public dental insurance systems of several countries in Western Europe was examined in the light of the fact that caries and periodontitis may be prevented. Available epidemiological data were discussed as to their relevance. In Switzerland, dental insurance systems are of minor importance. In voluntary insurance plans for adults, prevention is scarcely included. On the other hand, the communities provide subsidies for dental care of schoolchildren, and prevention is an integral part of this system. In the German Federal Republic, dental insurance costs have quadrupled during the period 1970-1977. Preventive measures are not subsidized, and in recent years, more than half of the insurance payments were used for prosthetic dentistry. The few dental statistics available show that dental treatment of children is unsatisfactory. In Sweden, preventive measures are refunded at 75%. Since the introduction of the public insurance system in 1974 prosthetic dental work has increased at the expense of conservative treatment. In France, the social security system pays for about three quarters of conservative and simple prosthetic work. Prevention has so far not been included. Despite liberal refunding of restorative work markedly higher prevalence of tooth loss was found in lower social levels as compared to higher levels. In Great Britain, the National Health Service was introduced in 1948. As in France, tooth loss is most frequent in lower social levels. The findings are discussed with respect to cost developments and oral health prospects in Switzerland. Attention is focused upon the observation that the insurance systems were conceived at a time when realistic preventive programs were unavailable and their success had not yet been demonstrated in large groups. PMID:293044

  13. The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program assessed the cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved 20,052 first, second, and fifth graders from five fluoridated and five non-fluoridated communities. These children were examined at baseline and

  14. The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures were assessed in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program, a four-year study involving more than 20,000 students, from ten schools nationwide. Communal water fluoridation was reaffirmed as the most cost-effective means of…

  15. The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program assessed the cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved 20,052 first, second, and fifth graders from five fluoridated and five non-fluoridated communities. These children were examined at baseline and…

  16. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  17. State Medicaid Eligibility Criteria and Unmet Preventive Dental Care Need for CSHCN.

    PubMed

    McManus, Beth M; Chi, Donald; Carle, Adam

    2016-02-01

    Objective To determine if Medicaid eligibility is associated with unmet preventive dental care need for Medicaid-enrolled CSHCN. Methods We analyzed the 2009-2010 National Survey of CSHCN and focused on Medicaid-enrolled children ages 3-17. The outcome measure was parent-reported unmet need for preventive dental care. The predictor variable was state Medicaid eligibility criteria, categorized as broad [>250 % Federal Poverty Level (FPL)], moderate (200-249 % FPL), and narrow (<200 % FPL). Multiple variable multilevel logistic regression models estimated the association between state-level eligibility criteria and variability in unmet need. Results The multilevel models indicated no significant association between Medicaid eligibility criteria and unmet preventive dental care need. CSHCN with more severe chronic health conditions had significantly greater odds of unmet need (OR 1.52; 95 % CI 1.28, 1.82) and CSHCN with a medical home had significantly lower odds (OR 0.61; 95 % CI 0.50, 0.75). Conclusions for practice There is significant state variability in unmet need for preventive dental care for Medicaid-enrolled CSHCN. Broadening Medicaid eligibility criteria alone is not likely to address the preventive dental care needs of CSHCN, which has policy implications for improving oral health disparities for publicly-insured CSHCN. PMID:26520157

  18. Dental Care for Medicaid and CHIP Enrollees

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Medicaid and CHIP that received a preventive dental service during the reporting year. Yet, tooth decay remains one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. To support continued progress, in 2010 CMS launched ...

  19. Kids get care: integrating preventive dental and medical care using a public health case management model.

    PubMed

    Wysen, Kirsten H; Hennessy, Patricia M; Lieberman, Martin I; Garland, Tracy E; Johnson, Susan M

    2004-05-01

    Kids Get Care is a public health-based program in the Seattle area designed to ensure that low-income children, regardless of insurance status, receive early integrated preventive medical, dental, and developmental health services through attachment to medical and dental homes (the usual sources of medical or dental care). The oral health component of the program focuses on cross-training medical and dental providers, providing partner medical clinics with a case manager, and educating staff in nearby community-based organizations about how to identify incipient dental disease and possible early childhood developmental delays. The program identifies a local, well-respected dentist to champion the delivery of oral health screening within a medical clinic and to provide oral health training to medical clinic staff. The program works with community agencies to educate families on the importance of healthy baby teeth, routine dental care beginning at age one, and general prevention. In its first year, the program trained 355 community staff and 184 primary care providers on how to conduct an oral health assessment. These staff and providers screened more than 5,500 children for oral health problems. One medical clinic more than doubled the number of fluoride varnishes it provided, increasing from 80 to 167 during a nine-month pilot phase. Other outcome studies are in progress. PMID:15186069

  20. A new curriculum framework for clinical prevention and population health, with a review of clinical caries prevention teaching in U.S. and Canadian dental schools.

    PubMed

    Brown, John P

    2007-05-01

    To fulfill the Healthy People 2010 Objective 1.7, "Increase the proportion of . . . health professional training schools whose basic curriculum for health care providers includes the core competencies in health promotion and disease prevention," the Healthy People Curriculum Task Force has developed a curriculum framework for clinical prevention and population health for all the health professions. This framework has four components: 1) evidence base for practice; 2) clinical preventive services, including health promotion; 3) health systems and health policy; and 4) community aspects of practice. Within these four common components are nineteen domains, for which each health profession is identifying its own educational objectives. An inventory of knowledge and skills is being developed. A prerequisite to promoting change in the teaching of dental prevention and population oral health is to better understand the current status. Sixty-six of sixty-eight U.S. and Canadian dental schools provided input on the teaching of one important aspect of this wider topic--dental caries prevention--before a December 2002 Clinical Preventive Dentistry Leadership Conference in Cincinnati, OH. In clinical teaching, 68 percent of dental schools included caries risk assessment and also reevaluated preventive outcomes, but while 65 percent included remineralization procedures, only 38 percent specifically reevaluated this outcome. Faculty members have commonalities in attitudes about the advantages and problems in improving teaching in clinical prevention, yet dental schools act individually in curricular design and implementation. The conference introduced a method of conceptualizing change, so that dental schools might address organizational barriers in clinical curriculum development. Even with the new common curriculum framework, other barriers to improved dental prevention and population oral health exist: these include organizational change in dental schools, dental practices, and dental clinics; reimbursement issues and incentives; and lack of accepted and explicit standards in dental care. PMID:17493965

  1. 76 FR 2383 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention..., DDS, MPH, Division of Dermatology and Dental Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research,...

  2. Novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries: a patent survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu; Wang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field: Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood diseases; people are susceptible to this ailment throughout their lifetime. In the United States, 90% of late adolescents and young adults have dental caries, while 94% of all dentate adults had evidence of treated or untreated coronal caries. Dental caries is often not self-limiting and without proper care, caries can progress until the tooth is destroyed. Areas covered in this review: In this paper, the etiology of dental caries was briefly introduced. It was followed by a thorough review of patents and literatures on the recent development of various novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. What the reader will gain: Recent advances in anti-plaque agents, including chemoprophylactic agents, antimicrobial peptides, vaccines, probiotics/replacement therapy and sugar substitutes, and remineralization agents including fluorides and casein phosphopeptides are analyzed. Take home massage: Both the discovery of new anti-caries agents and the development of dentotropic delivery systems will be the future focus of this research field. PMID:20230309

  3. Dental hygienists and oral cancer prevention: knowledge, attitudes and behaviors in Italy.

    PubMed

    Nicotera, Gaetano; Gnisci, Francesca; Bianco, Aida; Angelillo, Italo F

    2004-07-01

    This study explored knowledge of risk factors and diagnostic procedures for oral cancer, attitudes and behavior among dental hygienists in Italy. A random sample of 500 dental hygienists received by mail a questionnaire focusing on demographics and practice characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding oral cancer assessment practices. Almost all dental hygienists correctly indicated tobacco usage and having a prior oral cancer lesion as risk factors. Although 88.8% knew that the tongue is one of the two most common sites of oral cancer, only 13.5% identified the floor of the mouth. Less than half (42.8%) recognized that an early oral lesion usually is a small, painless and red area and only 4.2% knew the examination procedures of the tongue. Results of the multiple logistic regression showed that those dental hygienists who worked a higher number of hours and treated a lower number of patients in a week were more likely to indicate tobacco and alcohol use as risk factors for oral cancer. Higher number of years in practice, scientific journals and associations as sources of information about oral cancer, and knowledge that ventral lateral border of tongue is the most common site for oral cancer, significantly predicted compliance with oral cancer examination. Dental hygienists' sex, age, and years in practice were associated with a positive attitude towards oral cancer prevention. Further educational interventions in order to early detect and prevent oral cancer are strongly needed. PMID:15063393

  4. Factors That Drive Dentists towards or Away from Dental Caries Preventive Measures: Systematic Review and Metasummary

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; Fujimaki, Mitsue; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Vissoci, João Ricardo N.; Rodrigues, Clarissa G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a serious public health concern. The high cost of dental treatment can be avoided by effective preventive measures, which are dependent on dentists’ adherence. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that drive dentists towards or away from dental caries preventive measures. Methods and Findings This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42012002235). Several databases as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines, yielding 18,276 titles and abstracts, which were assessed to determine study eligibility. Seven qualitative studies and 41 surveys (36,501 participants) remained after data extraction and interpretation. A total of 43 findings were abstracted from the reports and were grouped together into 6 categories that were judged to be topically similar: education and training, personal beliefs, work conditions, remuneration, gender, place of residence and patients. The main findings for adherence based on their calculated frequency effect sizes (ES) were teamwork (21%) and post-graduation (12%), while for non-adherence were biologicism (27%), and remuneration for preventive procedures (25%). Intensity ES were also calculated and demonstrated low prevalence of the findings. Quality assessment of the studies demonstrated that the methodological quality, particularly of surveys, varied widely among studies. Conclusions Despite the questionable quality of the included reports, the evidence that emerged seems to indicate that further education and training coupled with a fairer pay scheme would be a reasonable approach to change the balance in favor of the provision of dental caries preventive measures by dentists. The results of this review could be of value in the planning and decision making processes aimed at encouraging changes in professional dental practice that could result in the improvement of the oral health care provided to the population in general. PMID:25296335

  5. [A survey on dental offices: risk assessment and practicable preventive and protective measures].

    PubMed

    Latocca, R; Arduca, A; Riva, M A; Rodella, C; Andreoni, M; D'Orso, M; De Vito, G; Cesana, G

    2012-01-01

    The survey was aimed at developing a method and providing valuable tools to be used for risk assessment in dental practices and for the implementation of preventive and protective measures. For these purposes general (inspection card for the definition of risk level for health and safety) and specific tools (check-lists) were used. In each dental office chemical and physical hazards (noise and hand-arm vibration) were assessed. Adequate levels of security were achieved, even if workers' training was evidenced as a critical element. In the 90% of cases, rooms for specific use were available and suitable according the law. The risk of work-related stress was acceptable in almost all the analyzed dental offices. Chemical and specific physical hazards appeared to be below the action level. Biological risk doesn't seem to be a critical element, even though its control could be further improved. PMID:23405644

  6. [DYNAMICS OF DENTAL CARIES' INDEXES IN CHILDREN WITH DENTOALVEOLAR ANOMALIES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES].

    PubMed

    Kaskova, L F; Marchenko, K V; Berezhnaja, E E; Amosova, L I

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dentition anomalies in children and adolescents according to different authors, ranging from rising 50.8 to 81%. Anomalies of dental systems lead to aesthetic and functional disturbances affecting the child's psyche, and often lead to the development of dental caries and periodontal diseases. So, the purpose of our study was to investigate the dynamics of dental caries' indexes in children with dentoalveolar anomalies under the influence of preventive measures. We observed 50 children aged 12, who were divided into four groups. The most effective prophylactic complex in terms of reduction of growth of caries (59.4%) was the one that involved the use of "Tooth Mousse" (applying to the surface of the teeth 5 minutes after eating one time a day, in the morning after brushing teeth), "Osteovit" (one tablet three times a day), "Pektodent--dentifrice? (dental cleaning powder twice a day--in the morning and evening). This complex creates conditions for increasing the resistance of hard dental tissues, resulting in low levels of intensity of caries in children. PMID:26118030

  7. [Dental care in cross-cultural networks-- case management--approaches in group prevention].

    PubMed

    Robke, F J

    2000-01-01

    Oral epidemiology studies of previous years have shown an increasing difference in caries cases in respect of different social strata. Thus, frequency of caries cases is related to social status. High rates of caries prevalence are found especially among children from typical areas of welfare problems. Already, today every fifth child is born into a family of immigrants. In areas of typical social deprivation their share is about 40% and more. Since the previous educational campaigns for social fringe groups have hardly shown any positive effect on dental health, new strategies are necessary. In a community of Hanover with low socio-economic status and a generally high caries level, the treatment strategies of dental care for the young have centred on the case-management approaches of social welfare programmes since the early 90s. Beside the expanded basic preventive programme, which includes application of a fluoride varnish for children, social compensatory measures with intercultural networks are also being taken. This concept shows very clearly that the dental health of children living in areas of social disorganisation can be effectively improved by means of these strategies. For the future, dental care for these children requires more intercultural competence and more knowledge of social welfare work by adolescent dental care providers. PMID:11037670

  8. Dental student perception and assessment of their clinical knowledge in educating patients about preventive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Metz, M J; Miller, C J; Lin, W S; Abdel-Azim, T; Zandinejad, A; Crim, G A

    2015-05-01

    In today's dental school curricula, an increasing amount of time is dedicated to technological advances, and preventive dentistry topics may not be adequately addressed. Freshman (D1) students participated in a new Introduction to Preventive Dentistry course, which consisted of didactic lectures, active learning breakout sessions and case-based studies. The goal of this study was to determine if D1 dental students completing the course had a better knowledge and comfort level with basic preventive dentistry concepts and caries risk assessment than the upcoming graduating senior dental students. Following the completion of the course, D1 students were administered a survey that assessed their comfort level describing preventive dentistry topics to patients. This was immediately followed by an unannounced examination over the same topics. Senior (D4) students, who had not taken a formal course, reported statistically significant higher comfort levels than D1 students. However, the D4s scored significantly lower in all of the examination areas than the D1 students. Higher scores in D1s may have been due to recent exposure to the course material. However, the basic nature of the content-specific questions should be easily answered by novice practitioners educating their patients on oral disease prevention. As the current data shows lower content-specific scores of basic preventive dentistry knowledge amongst graduating D4 students, this may indicate a need for more guidance and education of students during the patient care. This study showed that implementation of a formalised course for D1 students can successfully ameliorate deficiencies in knowledge of preventive dentistry topics. PMID:25040313

  9. Skill-mix in preventive dental practice - will it help address need in the future?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Population health needs are changing. The levels of dental caries and periodontal disease across the population as a whole is falling. The proportion of adults with a functional dentition in many developed countries has increased substantially and edentulous rates have dropped to some of their lowest levels. Despite this, a pronounced social gradient still exists, many adults do not attend dental services regularly and disease in young children remains intransigent amongst the poorest. New challenges are emerging too as the growing number of older people, above sixty-five years of age, retain their teeth. Methods Ensuring “the right number of people with the right skills are in the right place at the right time to provide the right services to the right people” is critical for future dental service provision, both to meet the new challenges ahead and to ensure future services are cost-effective, efficient and reduce health-inequalities. Greater use of “skill-mix” models could have a substantial role in the future, as dentistry moves from a “cure” to a “care” culture. Discussion The provision of dental services in many countries currently adopts a “one-size-fits-all”, where the dentist is the main care-giver and the emphasis is on intervention. As needs change in the future, the whole of the dental team should be utilised to deliver primary, secondary and tertiary prevention in an integrated model. Growing evidence suggests that other members of the dental team are effective in providing care, but introducing this paradigm shift is not without its challenges. The provision of incentives within funding systems and social acceptability are amongst the key determinants in producing a service that is responsive to need, improves access and delivers equity. PMID:26391730

  10. Preventive Dental Practices Motivational Model for Elementary Teachers in Training Institutions; Dental Health Instruction Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Darwin

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of instruction upon the dental health behavior of university students. The experimental group of 68 subjects, all elementary education majors, were exposed to a three--stage dental health motivational model: Dental Health Skills Instruction (four hours of laboratory instruction), Cognitive…

  11. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will be obtained from parental questionnaires. Discussion This is a pragmatic trial conducted in general dental practice. It tests a composite caries prevention intervention, which represents an evidence based approach advocated by current guidance from the English Department of Health which is feasible to deliver to all low risk (caries free) children in general dental practice. The trial will provide valuable information to policy makers and clinicians on the costs and effects of caries prevention delivered to young children in general dental practice. Trial registration EudraCT No: 2009 - 010725 - 39 ISRCTN: ISRCTN36180119 Ethics Reference No: 09/H1008/93: PMID:21985746

  12. Comparative Efficacies of Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, and Moxifloxacin in Prevention of Bacteremia following Dental Extractions

    PubMed Central

    Diz Dios, P.; Tomás Carmona, I.; Limeres Posse, J.; Medina Henríquez, J.; Fernández Feijoo, J.; Álvarez Fernández, M.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacies of oral prophylactic treatment with amoxicillin (AMX), clindamycin (CLI), and moxifloxacin (MXF) in the prevention of bacteremia following dental extractions (BDE). Two hundred twenty-one adults who required dental extractions under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to a control group, an AMX group, a CLI group, and an MXF group (the individuals in the drug treatment groups received 2 g, 600 mg, and 400 mg, respectively, 1 to 2 h before anesthesia induction). Venous blood samples were collected from each patient at the baseline and 30 s, 15 min, and 1 h after the dental extractions. The samples were inoculated into BACTEC Plus aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles and were processed in a BACTEC 9240 instrument. Subculture and the further identification of the isolated bacteria were performed by conventional microbiological techniques. The prevalences of BDE in the control group, AMX group, CLI group, and MXF group were 96, 46, 85, and 57%, respectively, at 30 s; 64, 11, 70, and 24%, respectively, at 15 min; and 20, 4, 22, and 7%, respectively, at 1 h. Streptococcus spp. were the most frequently identified bacteria in all groups (44 to 68%), with the lowest percentage being detected in the AMX group (44%). AMX and MXF prophylaxis showed high efficacies in reducing the prevalence and duration of BDE, but CLI prophylaxis was noneffective. As a consequence, MXF prophylaxis is a promising antibiotic alternative for the prevention of BDE when beta-lactams are not indicated. PMID:16940094

  13. A holistic food labelling strategy for preventing obesity and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H

    2009-05-01

    Obesity and dental caries in childhood are among the major public health concerns described as a global pandemic because of their global distribution and severe consequences. A consensus has developed as to a recently emerging and alarming common risk factor that leads to the double burden of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy food can be one initial cornerstone for successful application of the common risk factor approach in prevention of obesity and dental caries, as also suggested by World Health Organization. Labelling healthy food with a 'health-friendly' logo, illustrating that the teeth and the heart are both parts of the whole body (standing side by side supporting each other as close friends), both happy and protected because of consumption of healthy food for the whole body, can promote the foods that are friendly to health of the whole body, implementing the common risk factor approach under a single theme. Labelling healthy food as 'health-friendly' based on an international consensus will provide a clear and uniform picture of what is healthy to eat and result in an international integrated programme for prevention of obesity and caries. PMID:19207877

  14. Perception of tobacco use prevention and cessation among faculty members in Latin American and Caribbean dental schools

    PubMed Central

    Tamí-Maury, Irene; Aigner, Carrie J.; Hong, Judy; Strom, Sara; Chambers, Mark S.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of tobacco use are increasing in regions of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Unfortunately, tobacco cessation education is not a standard component of dental curriculum in LAC dental schools. The objective of this study was to identify the perceptions of LAC dental faculty members regarding the tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) competencies that should be addressed in dental curricula. Dental deans and faculty completed a web-based questionnaire in Spanish, Portuguese, French, or English. The questionnaire contained 32 competencies grouped into the 5A’s (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) of tobacco cessation and 6 supplementary questions for identifying barriers to providing TUPAC education to dental students. Respondents indicated the degree to which they believed each competency should be incorporated into dental curricula using a 5-point Likert scale (“1”= strongly disagree to “5”=strongly agree). Responses were obtained from 390 faculty members (66% South America, 18% Mexico/Central America, 16% the Caribbean). Two%, 12%, and 83% of respondents reported that smoking was allowed in clinical environments, other indoor environments, and outdoor environments of their dental schools, respectively. Mean importance ratings for each of the competencies were as follows: Ask (4.71), Advise (4.54), Assess (4.41), Assist (4.07), and Arrange (4.01). Overall, LAC dental educators agree that TUPAC training should be incorporated in dental curricula. Assist and Arrange competencies were rated lower, relative to other competencies. Tobacco use among dental educators and high rates of on-campus smoking could potentially pose barriers to promoting cessation interventions in the LAC dental schools. PMID:24385339

  15. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In view of the widespread lack of knowledge of first aid procedures in cases of dental trauma, this article describes the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for education of those likely to witness or be victims of dental trauma while practising sports. Dental and oral injuries, the commonest type of orofacial injuries, are often sustained by athletes playing contact sports; indeed, they represent the most frequent type of sporting injury. Studies of a large group of children and adults have shown that as many as 31% of all orofacial injuries are caused by sporting activities. Furthermore, current literature on the subject emphasizes that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory. Delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should we know and, more importantly, what should we do? Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If replantation is impossible, milk is the preferred transport medium for the avulsed tooth. There is a general low level of awareness about the need for prompt triage of traumatic dental injuries sustained in sports, despite their relative frequency. When a cohort of Swiss basketball players was interviewed, only half were aware that an avulsed tooth could be replanted. Cheap, commercially available tooth storage devices containing an isotonic transport medium (so-called 'Save-a-Tooth boxes'), can maintain the viability of an avulsed tooth for up to 72 hours, prior to replantation. More readily available storage media such as milk, sterile saline or even saliva may be used, but knowledge of this information is rare among sports participants. For example, just 6.6% of the Swiss basketball players interviewed were aware of the 'Tooth Rescue box' products. Sporting organizations seem to offer very little information about sports-related risks or preventive strategies for orodental trauma. Having an attending dentist at sports events - amateur or professional - is clearly a luxury that is neither practical nor affordable. The solution must lie in extending the knowledge of management of orodental trauma beyond the dental profession. Educational posters, when displayed prominently in sports clubs, gym halls and dressing rooms of swimming pools, are a clear, accessible and low cost method of presenting the appropriate procedures to follow after orodental injury. When the potentially avoidable financial burden and discomfort of protracted restorative or cosmetic dentistry are taken into account, rarely can such significant morbidity be so easily prevented. PMID:20433209

  16. Dental plaque, preventive care, and tooth brushing associated with dental caries in primary teeth in schoolchildren ages 6–9 years of Leon, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    del Socorro Herrera, Miriam; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft index) were performed by 2 trained and standardized examiners. Socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. Multivariate negative binomial regression (NBR) analysis was used. Results Mean age was 7.49±1.12 years. Boys accounted for 50.1% of the sample. Mean dmft was 3.54±3.13 and caries prevalence (dmft >0) was 77.6%. In the NBR multivariate model (p<0.05), for each year of age, the expected mean dmft decreased by 7.5%. Brushing teeth at least once a day and having received preventive dental care in the last year before data collection were associated with declines in the expected mean dmft by 19.5% and 69.6%, respectively. Presence of dental plaque increased the expected mean dmft by 395.5%. Conclusions The proportion of students with caries in this sample was high. We found associations between dental caries in the primary dentition and dental plaque, brushing teeth at least once a day, and having received preventive dental care. To improve oral health, school programs and/or age-appropriate interventions need to be developed based on the specific profile of caries experience and the associated risk indicators. PMID:24247119

  17. A comprehensive 30-month preventive dental health program in a pre-adolescent population with Down's syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shapira, J; Stabholz, A

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive systematic preventive dental health program was implemented in a young population with Down's Syndrome during a 30-month period. Twenty children (nine boys and 11 girls), ages 8-13 (mean age, 11), participated in the study, which took place in three hostel-like apartments. The main goals of this program were to achieve good plaque control and subsequently prevent periodontal disease as well as to apply fissure sealants and fluorides in an attempt to prevent dental caries. The mean plaque and gingival indices as well as the percentage of bleeding sites decreased significantly (P < 0.01) following the administration of our oral health program. Caries experience, as indicated by DMFS, decreased from 1-35 to 1-05 surfaces per child, and the use of fissure sealants to prevent occlusal caries was proved to be 100% effective. It is concluded that if the children's efforts are integrated with those of a motivated dentist, dental hygienist, and staff, a well-planned preventive dental health program can lead to a high degree of success in the prevention of dental diseases in young populations with Down's Syndrome. PMID:9084333

  18. Prevention and management of synechia in pediatric endoscopic sinus surgery using dental wax plates.

    PubMed

    Nayak, D R; Balakrishnan, R; Hazarika, P

    1998-12-15

    Synechia formation is a very common complication of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Inspite of meticulous post-operative care, synechia do form in quite a large number of patients. Moreover, frequent post-operative cleaning may not be possible without general anesthesia in non-compliant patients, especially children. This study compares the incidence of synechia following pediatric ESS with or without spacer/tamponade in the operated cavity. The authors have found dental wax plates to be equally effective and more economical spacers compared to Merocel tamponade, in prevention and management of synechia in the pediatric age group. PMID:10190587

  19. Assessing implementation difficulties in tobacco use prevention and cessation counselling among dental providers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco use adversely affects oral health. Clinical guidelines recommend that dental providers promote tobacco abstinence and provide patients who use tobacco with brief tobacco use cessation counselling. Research shows that these guidelines are seldom implemented, however. To improve guideline adherence and to develop effective interventions, it is essential to understand provider behaviour and challenges to implementation. This study aimed to develop a theoretically informed measure for assessing among dental providers implementation difficulties related to tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) counselling guidelines, to evaluate those difficulties among a sample of dental providers, and to investigate a possible underlying structure of applied theoretical domains. Methods A 35-item questionnaire was developed based on key theoretical domains relevant to the implementation behaviours of healthcare providers. Specific items were drawn mostly from the literature on TUPAC counselling studies of healthcare providers. The data were collected from dentists (n = 73) and dental hygienists (n = 22) in 36 dental clinics in Finland using a web-based survey. Of 95 providers, 73 participated (76.8%). We used Cronbach's alpha to ascertain the internal consistency of the questionnaire. Mean domain scores were calculated to assess different aspects of implementation difficulties and exploratory factor analysis to assess the theoretical domain structure. The authors agreed on the labels assigned to the factors on the basis of their component domains and the broader behavioural and theoretical literature. Results Internal consistency values for theoretical domains varied from 0.50 ('emotion') to 0.71 ('environmental context and resources'). The domain environmental context and resources had the lowest mean score (21.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 17.2 to 25.4) and was identified as a potential implementation difficulty. The domain emotion provided the highest mean score (60%; 95% CI, 55.0 to 65.0). Three factors were extracted that explain 70.8% of the variance: motivation (47.6% of variance, α = 0.86), capability (13.3% of variance, α = 0.83), and opportunity (10.0% of variance, α = 0.71). Conclusions This study demonstrated a theoretically informed approach to identifying possible implementation difficulties in TUPAC counselling among dental providers. This approach provides a method for moving from diagnosing implementation difficulties to designing and evaluating interventions. PMID:21615948

  20. Falling towards Forgetfulness: Synaptic Decay Prevents Spontaneous Recovery of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Stone, James V.; Jupp, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Long after a new language has been learned and forgotten, relearning a few words seems to trigger the recall of other words. This “free-lunch learning” (FLL) effect has been demonstrated both in humans and in neural network models. Specifically, previous work proved that linear networks that learn a set of associations, then partially forget them all, and finally relearn some of the associations, show improved performance on the remaining (i.e., nonrelearned) associations. Here, we prove that relearning forgotten associations decreases performance on nonrelearned associations; an effect we call negative free-lunch learning. The difference between free-lunch learning and the negative free-lunch learning presented here is due to the particular method used to induce forgetting. Specifically, if forgetting is induced by isotropic drifting of weight vectors (i.e., by adding isotropic noise), then free-lunch learning is observed. However, as proved here, if forgetting is induced by weight values that simply decay or fall towards zero, then negative free-lunch learning is observed. From a biological perspective, and assuming that nervous systems are analogous to the networks used here, this suggests that evolution may have selected physiological mechanisms that involve forgetting using a form of synaptic drift rather than synaptic decay, because synaptic drift, but not synaptic decay, yields free-lunch learning. PMID:18725945

  1. Advances in the prevention of oral disease; the role of the International Association for Dental Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Since its foundation in 1920, prevention of oral disease has been a priority for the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) and the commitment of the organisation to the subject area is clearly expressed in its mission to improve oral health worldwide. The IADR has a current global membership of almost 11,000 people who share an interest in oral and craniofacial research. Contribution of IADR This paper provides an overview of the contribution of IADR to supporting research and associated activities in disease prevention, in disseminating knowledge and in advocating for better oral health for all citizens of the world. It looks back over time and summarises current supports. Two more recent initiatives in disease prevention are described in more detail, the Global Oral Health Inequalities Research Agenda (GOHIRA) and the proceedings at the 2013 World Conference on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD, 2013), a joint initiative between IADR and WHO. Through organisational structure, meetings, publications, scientific groups and networks and external relations, IADR has been at the forefront of advancing research for the prevention of oral diseases. Conclusions IADR is committed to ensuring research advances get disseminated and implemented and at the same time encourages and advocates for basic, clinical and translational research across disciplines so that we may uncover the major breakthrough in prevention of oral disease. PMID:26391001

  2. Xylitol pediatric topical oral syrup to prevent dental caries: a double blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter; Ly, Kiet A.; Tut, Ohnmar K.; Mancl, Lloyd; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Briand, Kennar; Gancio, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a xylitol pediatric topical oral syrup to reduce the incidence of dental caries of very young children. Design Randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. Setting Communities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Participants 108 children aged 9 to 15 months were screened and 100 were enrolled. Intervention Children were randomized and parents administered topical oral xylitol syrup two times (Xyl-2X, two xylitol 4.00 g/dose + one sorbitol dose) or three times (Xyl-3X, three xylitol 2.67 g/dose) per day (total 8 g) or control (one xylitol 2.67 g/dose + two sorbitol dose). Outcome Measures The outcome end-point of the study was the number of decayed primary teeth. Results Ninety-four of 100 children (mean±SD age, 15.0±2.7 months at randomization) with at least one follow-up exam were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The mean±SD follow-up period was 10.5±2.2 months. Nearly 52% of children in the control condition had tooth decay compared to 40.6% among Xyl-3X and 24.2% among Xyl-2X conditions. The mean±SD number of decayed teeth was 1.9±2.4 for control, 1.0±1.4 for Xyl-3X, and 0.6±1.1 for Xyl-2X condition. Compared to controls, there was significantly fewer decayed teeth in the Xyl-2X (relative risk [RR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13, 0.66; P=.003) and Xyl-3X (RR, 0.50; 95% CI 0.26, 0.96; P=0.037) conditions. There was no statistical difference between the two xylitol treatment conditions (P=0.22). Conclusion Oral xylitol syrup administered topically two or three times each day at a total dose of 8 g was effective in preventing Early Childhood Caries. PMID:19581542

  3. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Cadore, Peterson; Gallon, Andrea; Imanishi, Soraia Almeida Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the crosscontamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Methods: Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Results: Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tested and the presence of invisible and remnant blood was identified in 28 (58.3%) items. Conclusions: We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting. PMID:25400895

  4. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  5. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended

  6. Screening preharvest/postharvest strategies to prevent fruit rot decay.

    PubMed

    Vorstermans, B; Creemers, P

    2007-01-01

    In fruit growing preharvest sprayings in the orchard are mainly applied to protect fruit from decaying. Next to multisite fungicides (captan, thiram, tolylfluanid) the most commonly used products recognized for the Belgium market are Bellis (pyraclostrobin & boscalid) and the combination of Topsin M (thiophanate-methyl) and Frugico (diethofencarb). In general the spraying schedule varies depending on weather conditions (infection risk), preharvest interval of available fungicides, fruitgrower and cultivar of pome fruit (apple/pear). Facing the climatological conditions before picking the residue loading on the fruit surface can differ enormously. Also wet (pre)grading is considered to decrease the product residue resulting to fruits which are less protected before entering the cold storage room. In this context a partially replacement of the preharvest treatments by one postharvest application could offer a reliable alternative to the PPP reduction program (Plant Protection Products) in the orchard. A standardized application method by dipping or drenching will cover the fruits homogenically resulting in a rationalized fungicide use compared to the preharvest sprayings in the orchard. For the Belgium market Philabuster (imazalil & pyrimethanil) is registered for postharvest treatments since for this product a proper solution for the waste water of postharvest uses was developed to protect surface waters (Funds technology). Philabuster provides an advanced mould control towards fruit rot pathogens Gloeosporium spp., Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium spp. In this context several trials were set up to evaluate the biological efficacy of Philabuster alone or in combination with preharvest sprayings in the orchard. In concrete different preharvest spraying schedules were applied in the last six weeks before harvest on apple and pear facing parameters as rational fungicide use, antifungal effectiveness and cost price. The purpose was to select the optimal combination in use of preharvest fungicides with Philabuster as postharvest treatment, which offer full protection towards all key pathogens in apple and pear. PMID:18396828

  7. Triclosan-loaded Tooth-binding Micelles for Prevention and Treatment of Dental Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu; Rice, Kelly C.; Liu, Xin-Ming; Reinhardt, Richard A.; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Wang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop tooth-binding micelle formulations and evaluate their ability to both inhibit initial biofilm formation as well as decrease the viability of preformed biofilm using an in vitro dental biofilm model. Alendronate (ALN, a bisphosphonate) was covalently attached to the ends of different Pluronic copolymers to confer tooth-binding ability to the micelles, and triclosan was used as a model drug. Based on different micelle preparation methods, Pluronic copolymers and ALN-terminated Pluronic copolymers were used to prepare triclosan-loaded tooth-binding micelles. The formulation was optimized for triclosan solubility, particle size, hydroxyapatite (HA) binding capacity and kinetics, and in vitro drug release behavior. In vitro biofilm treatment studies demonstrated that the triclosan-loaded tooth-binding micelles were able to inhibit initial biofilm growth of Streptococcus mutans UA159 by 6-log CFU/HA disc compared to the untreated control. These tooth-binding micelles were also capable of reducing the viability of preformed biofilm by 4-log CFU/HA disc compared to untreated control biofilm. In summary, triclosan-loaded tooth-binding micelles have been successfully developed and optimized in this study. These micelles demonstrated promising anti-biofilm capabilities that have the potential for use in the future treatment and prevention of dental diseases. PMID:20387099

  8. Computer laser system for prevention and treatment of dental diseases: new methods and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyai, S. G.; Prochonchukov, Alexander A.; Zhizhina, Nina A.; Metelnikov, Michael A.

    1995-05-01

    We report results of clinical application of the new computer-laser system. The system includes hardware and software means, which are applied for new efficient methods of prevention and treatment of main dental diseases. The hardware includes a laser physiotherapeutic device (LPD) `Optodan' and a fiberoptic laser delivery system with special endodontic rigging. The semiconductor AG-AL-AG laser diode with wavelengths in the spectral range of 850 - 950 nm (produced by Scientific-Industrial Concern `Reflector') is used as a basic unit. The LPD `Optodan' and methods of treatment are covered by Russian patent No 2014107 and certified by the Russian Ministry of Health. The automated computer system allows us to examine patients quickly and to input differential diagnosis, to determine indications (and contraindications), parameters and regimen of laser therapy, to control treatment efficacy (for carious -- through clinical indexes of enamel solubles, velocity of demineralization and other tests; for periodontal diseases trough complex of the periodontal indexes with automated registry and calculation). We present last results of application of the new technique and methods in treatment of dental diseases in Russian clinics.

  9. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS): A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v) dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983) were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions) from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877 PMID:20923557

  10. Critique of the review of 'Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries' published by the Cochrane Collaboration in 2015.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, A J; Spencer, A J; Whelton, H P; Jones, C; Beal, J F; Castle, P; Cooney, P V; Johnson, J; Kelly, M P; Lennon, M A; McGinley, J; O'Mullane, D; Sgan-Cohen, H D; Sharma, P P; Thomson, W M; Woodward, S M; Zusman, S P

    2016-04-01

    The Cochrane Review on water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries was published in 2015 and attracted considerable interest and comment, especially in countries with extensive water fluoridation programmes. The Review had two objectives: (i) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. The authors concluded, inter alia, that there was very little contemporary evidence, meeting the Review's inclusion criteria, that evaluated the effectiveness of water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. The purpose of this critique is to examine the conduct of the above Review, and to put it into context in the wider body of evidence regarding the effectiveness of water fluoridation. While the overall conclusion that water fluoridation is effective in caries prevention agrees with previous reviews, many important public health questions could not be answered by the Review because of the restrictive criteria used to judge adequacy of study design and risk of bias. The potential benefits of using wider criteria in order to achieve a fuller understanding of the effectiveness of water fluoridation are discussed. PMID:27056513

  11. The Outcome of a Preventive Dental Care Programme on the Prevalence of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis in Down's Syndrome Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmond, Maora; Stabholz, A.; Shapira, J.; Bachrach, G.; Chaushu, G.; Becker, A.; Yefenof, E.; Merrick, J.; Chaushu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease in Down's syndrome (DS) individuals develops earlier and is more rapid and extensive than in age-matched normal individuals. The present study evaluated a group of DS patients, who had been participating in a 10-year preventive dental programme, for the impact of the programme on their periodontal status. Methods:

  12. The Outcome of a Preventive Dental Care Programme on the Prevalence of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis in Down's Syndrome Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigmond, Maora; Stabholz, A.; Shapira, J.; Bachrach, G.; Chaushu, G.; Becker, A.; Yefenof, E.; Merrick, J.; Chaushu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease in Down's syndrome (DS) individuals develops earlier and is more rapid and extensive than in age-matched normal individuals. The present study evaluated a group of DS patients, who had been participating in a 10-year preventive dental programme, for the impact of the programme on their periodontal status. Methods:…

  13. Dental anxiety, utilisation of dental services, and DMFS status in Norwegian military recruits.

    PubMed

    Wisløff, T F; Vassend, O; Asmyhr, O

    1995-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the association between dental anxiety, oral health (evaluated by clinical and radiographic examinations), and utilisation of dental services. Results from correlation and regression analyses confirmed the generally held expectation that high dental anxiety would be associated with poorer oral health measured as numbers of decayed or filled surfaces. Significant, but weak, relationships were found between dental anxiety and utilisation measures, i.e. number of dental visits during the last year and time since last dental visit. Taken together, the data indicated that dental anxiety was a facet of more general negative oral health/preventive oral health related behaviour. Thus, high scores on this dimension were characterised by high dental anxiety, more oral health problems, inadequate dental attendance, slightly less frequent toothbrushing and larger intake of sweet soft drinks. However, the study also demonstrated that non-selected dentally anxious individuals as a group did not exhibit the almost complete avoidance pattern typical of patients seeking special treatment for dental fear. Even in the subgroup with particularly high dental anxiety, several individuals reported having been to the dentist during the last one or two years. PMID:7648408

  14. Preventing Tooth Decay: A Guide for Implementing Self-Applied Fluoride in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Dental Research (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This guidebook was developed to assist citizens in initiating programs to prevent tooth decay in young children through the use of fluoridation. It contains outlines for determining the needs of the school and community for fluoride in drinking water, and presents the various steps and activities that are necessary for developing and implementing…

  15. Preventing Tooth Decay: A Guide for Implementing Self-Applied Fluoride in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Dental Research (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This guidebook was developed to assist citizens in initiating programs to prevent tooth decay in young children through the use of fluoridation. It contains outlines for determining the needs of the school and community for fluoride in drinking water, and presents the various steps and activities that are necessary for developing and implementing

  16. Dietary factors in the prevention of dental caries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lingström, Peter; Holm, Anna-Karin; Mejàre, Ingegerd; Twetman, Svante; Söder, Birgitta; Norlund, Anders; Axelsson, Susanna; Lagerlöf, Folke; Nordenram, Gunilla; Petersson, Lars G; Dahlgren, Helena; Källestål, Carina

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was, systematically, to evaluate the effect of dietary changes in the prevention of dental caries. A search and analysis strategy was followed, as suggested by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The search strategy for articles published in 1966-2003 was performed using electronic databases and reference lists of articles and selected textbooks. Out of 714 articles originally identified, 18 met the inclusion criteria for a randomized or controlled clinical trial--at least 2 years' follow-up and caries increment as a primary endpoint. This included the total or partial substitution of sucrose with sugar substitutes or the addition of protective foods to chewing gum. No study was found evaluating the effect of information designed to reduce sugar intake/frequency as a single preventive measure. It is suggested that the evidence for the use of sorbitol or xylitol in chewing gum, or for the use of invert sugar, is inconclusive. No caries-preventive effect was found from adding calcium phosphate or dicalcium phosphate dihydrate to chewing gums. The review dearly demonstrates the need for well-designed randomized clinical studies with adequate control groups and high compliance. PMID:14960004

  17. Tackling stress management, addiction, and suicide prevention in a predoctoral dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Mario A; Ramanula, Dhorea; Pattanaporn, Komkhamn

    2014-09-01

    Health care professionals, particularly dentists, are subject to high levels of stress. Without proper stress management, problems related to mental health and addiction and, to a lesser extent, deliberate self-harm such as suicide may arise. There is a lack of information on teaching methodologies employed to discuss stress management and suicide prevention in dental education. The purpose of this article is to describe a University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry module designed to address stress management and suicide prevention, using students' personal reflections to illustrate the impact of the pedagogies used. The module enrolls more than 200 students per year and has sessions tailored to the discussion of stress management and suicide prevention. The pedagogies include standardized patients, invited guest lectures, in-class activities, video presentation, and self-reflections. More than 500 students' self-reflections collected over the past five years illustrate the seriousness of the issues discussed and the level of discomfort students experience when pondering such issues. The instructors hope to have increased students' awareness of the stressors in their profession. Further studies are needed to unravel the extent to which such pedagogy influences a balanced practice of dentistry. PMID:25179925

  18. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  19. Near-infrared image-guided laser ablation of dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Image-guided laser ablation systems are now feasible for dentistry with the recent development of nondestructive high-contrast imaging modalities such as near-IR (NIR) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that are capable of discriminating between sound and demineralized dental enamel at the early stages of development. Our objective is to demonstrate that images of demineralized tooth surfaces have sufficient contrast to be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural and artificial caries lesions. NIR imaging and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) operating at 1310-nm are used to acquire images of natural lesions on extracted human teeth and highly patterned artificial lesions produced on bovine enamel. NIR and PS-OCT images are analyzed and converted to binary maps designating the areas on the samples to be removed by a CO2 laser to selectively remove the lesions. Postablation NIR and PS-OCT images confirmed preferential removal of demineralized areas with minimal damage to sound enamel areas. These promising results suggest that NIR and PS-OCT imaging systems can be integrated with a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of dental caries.

  20. Near-infrared image-guided laser ablation of dental decay

    PubMed Central

    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Image-guided laser ablation systems are now feasible for dentistry with the recent development of nondestructive high-contrast imaging modalities such as near-IR (NIR) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that are capable of discriminating between sound and demineralized dental enamel at the early stages of development. Our objective is to demonstrate that images of demineralized tooth surfaces have sufficient contrast to be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural and artificial caries lesions. NIR imaging and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) operating at 1310-nm are used to acquire images of natural lesions on extracted human teeth and highly patterned artificial lesions produced on bovine enamel. NIR and PS-OCT images are analyzed and converted to binary maps designating the areas on the samples to be removed by a CO2 laser to selectively remove the lesions. Postablation NIR and PS-OCT images confirmed preferential removal of demineralized areas with minimal damage to sound enamel areas. These promising results suggest that NIR and PS-OCT imaging systems can be integrated with a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of dental caries. PMID:19895146

  1. Application of chimeric glucanase comprising mutanase and dextranase for prevention of dental biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Ryoko; Imai, Susumu; Murata, Takatoshi; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Tsumori, Hideaki; Kakuta, Erika; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Momoi, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) produced by mutans streptococci, an important cariogenic pathogen, plays an important role in the formation of dental biofilm and adhesion of biofilm to tooth surfaces. Glucanohydrolases, such as mutanase (α-1,3-glucanase) and dextranase (α-1,6-glucanase), are able to hydrolyze WIG. The purposes of this study were to construct bi-functional chimeric glucanase, composed of mutanase and dextranase, and to examine the effects of this chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm. The mutanase gene from Paenibacillus humicus NA1123 and the dextranase gene from Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were cloned and ligated into a pE-SUMOstar Amp plasmid vector. The resultant his-tagged fusion chimeric glucanase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and partially purified. The effects of chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm formed on a glass surface by Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 glucosyltransferases were then examined. This biofilm was fractionated into firmly adherent, loosely adherent, and non-adherent WIG fractions. Amounts of WIG in each fraction were determined by a phenol-sulfuric acid method, and reducing sugars were quantified by the Somogyi-Nelson method. Chimeric glucanase reduced the formation of the total amount of WIG in a dose-dependent manner, and significant reductions of WIG in the adherent fraction were observed. Moreover, the chimeric glucanase was able to decompose biofilm, being 4.1 times more effective at glucan inhibition of biofilm formation than a mixture of dextranase and mutanase. These results suggest that the chimeric glucanase is useful for prevention of dental biofilm formation. PMID:25411090

  2. Characterization of a marine-derived dextranase and its application to the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yu-Liang; Wang, Shu-Jun; Lv, Ming-Sheng; Jiao, Bing-Hua; Li, Wei-Juan; Fang, Yao-Wei; Liu, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The dextranase added in current commercial dextranase-containing mouthwashes is largely from fungi. However, fungal dextranase has shown much higher optimum temperature than bacterial dextranase and relatively low activity when used in human oral cavities. Bacterial dextranase has been considered to be more effective and suitable for dental caries prevention. In this study, a dextranase (Dex410) from marine Arthrobacter sp. was purified and characterized. Dex410 is a 64-kDa endoglycosidase. The specific activity of Dex410 was 11.9 U/mg at optimum pH 5.5 and 45 °C. The main end-product of Dex410 was isomaltotriose, isomaltoteraose, and isomaltopentaose by hydrolyzing dextran T2000. In vitro studies showed that Dex410 effectively inhibited the Streptococcus mutans biofilm growth in coverage, biomass, and water-soluble glucan (WSG) by more than 80, 90, and 95 %, respectively. The animal experiment revealed that for short-term use (1.5 months), both Dex410 and the commercial mouthwash Biotene (Laclede Professional Products, Gardena, CA, USA) had a significant inhibitory effect on caries (p = 0.0008 and 0.0001, respectively), while for long-term use (3 months), only Dex410 showed significant inhibitory effect on dental caries (p = 0.005). The dextranase Dex410 from a marine-derived Arthrobacter sp. strain possessed the enzyme properties suitable to human oral environment and applicable to oral hygiene products. PMID:24197466

  3. Access to Dental Care for Children in Rhode Island. Rhode Island Kids Count Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Linda; Fontes, Janice; Ross, Maureen; Lawrence, Robin; Andrews, John; Kernan, Sharon; Leddy, Tricia; O'Bara, Joan; Young, John

    Dental disease restricts activities in school, work, and home, and often significantly diminishes the quality of life for many children and adults, especially those who are low income or uninsured. Noting that dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common preventable chronic childhood disease, this Kids Count issue brief considers the extent to…

  4. Effects of common dental materials used in preventive or operative dentistry on dentin permeability and remineralization.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Thompson, Ian; Watson, Timothy F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentin remineralization induced by bioactive substances contained in common dental materials used in preventive and operative dentistry. Several materials were applied on human dentin segments. Dentin permeability was quantified using a fluid filtration system working at 20 cm H(2)O. Micro-Raman, SEM-EDX, and microhardness calculation were used to evaluate changes in the mineralization of dentin. Dentin treated with the prophylactic materials showed different dentin permeability values, in particular subsequent to immersion in remineralizing solutions (RSS). The bioactive glass (Sylc) was the only substance able to reduce dentin permeability after immersion in remineralizing solution and to show hydroxyapatite precipitation as a sign of dentin remineralization. The reduction in dentin permeability obtained after the application of the other prophylactic materials used in this study was due to the presence of the remnant material in the dentinal tubules, with no remineralization effect after storage in remineralizing solution. In conclusion, the results indicated that bioactive glass prophy powder may induce immediate remineralization of dentin. PMID:21777102

  5. Community-oriented administration of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries: a summary of the current situation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E; Baez, R J; Lennon, M A

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease affecting human populations around the world. It is recognized that fluoride plays a significant role in dental caries reduction. Meanwhile, several low- and middle-income countries of Asia have not yet implemented systematic fluoride programs; contributing factors relate to misconceptions about the mechanisms of fluoride, low priority given to oral health in national health policy and strategic plans, and lack of interest among public health administrators. A workshop on the effective use of fluoride in Asia took place in Phang-Nga, Thailand, in 2011. A series of country presentations addressed some of the topics mentioned above; in addition, speakers from countries of the region provided examples of successful fluoride interventions and discussed program limitations, barriers encountered, and solutions, as well as possibilities for expanding coverage. Participants acknowledged that automatic fluoridation through water, salt, and milk is the most effective and equitable strategy for the prevention of dental caries. Concerns were expressed that government-subsidized community fluoride prevention programs may face privatization. In addition, the use of affordable fluoride-containing toothpastes should be encouraged. The workshop identified: strengths and weaknesses of ongoing community-based fluoride programs, as well as the interest of countries in a particular method; the requirement for World Health Organization (WHO) technical assistance on various aspects, including fluoridation process, feasibility studies, and implementation of effective epidemiological surveillance of the program; exchange of information; and the need for inter-country collaboration. It was acknowledged that program process and evaluation at the local and country levels need further dissemination. The meeting was co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, the International Association for Dental Research, and the World Dental Federation. PMID:22261256

  6. Quality of Reporting in Economic Evaluations of Interventions to Prevent Dental Caries Needs Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Susan O.; Jones, Kari

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Selection Criteria The authors searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EconLit, ISI, Cochrane Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED), Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, EMBASE, LILACS and Scielo) for full economic evaluations written in English, Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian that were published between January 1975 and April 2012. Bibliographies of all retrieved articles were hand-searched and additional studies known to the authors were also included. Key Study Factors Among the economic evaluations included, 30 were cost-effectiveness analyses, 22 were cost-benefit analyses, 5 included both cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses, 2 were cost-minimization analyses, and 4 were cost-utility analyses. Main Outcome Measure The major outcomes considered were frequency of study characteristics, percentage of studies meeting each individual quality criterion, and mean scores for groups of quality criteria. Quality criteria came from a 35-item checklist developed by Drummond et al.1 Each checklist item fell into one of three groups – study design (7 items), data collection (13 items), or analysis and interpretation of results (15 items). Main Results Of the 206 publications located in the search, 63 unique evaluations were included in this review. The majority of studies were published after 2000. The most frequently occurring interventions in economic evaluations were dental sealants (n = 13) and community water fluoridation (n = 12). Quality elements most commonly omitted from the economic analyses were information on adjustments for discounting and sensitivity analyses. The mean score across economic evaluations for study design was 4.9 (SD 1.4) out of a maximum score of 7, for data collection was 6.4 (SD 2.7) out of 13, and for analysis and interpretation of results was 8.7 (SD 3.0) out of 15. The total average score for all 3 sections was 19.9 (SD 6) out of 35. No study scored 35 points and only 6 studies scored 30 or higher. Conclusions The authors conclude that the quality of reporting in economic evaluations of interventions to prevent dental caries needs to be improved. PMID:23407213

  7. Effect of honey in preventing gingivitis and dental caries in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Atwa, AL-Dany A.; AbuShahba, Ramadan Y.; Mostafa, Marwa; Hashem, Mohamed I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the following: (1) the effects of chewing honey on plaque formation in orthodontic patients, (2) the effect of chewing honey on dental plaque bacterial counts, (3) determine if honey possesses antibacterial effects on bacteria recovered from plaques. Methods Female orthodontic patients (n = 20, 12–18 years of age) participated in this randomized controlled study. The effects of honey were compared to treatment with either 10% sucrose or 10% sorbitol that served as positive and negative controls, respectively. The pH of plaque was measured using a digital pH meter prior to baseline and at 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min after chewing honey or rinsing with control solutions and the numbers of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, and Prophymonas gingivalis in respective plaques were determined. The antibacterial activity of honey was tested against commonly used antibiotics using the disk diffusion method. Results Significant differences in pH were observed in the honey and sucrose groups compared to the pH observed in the sorbitol group (p ⩽ 0.001). The maximum pH drop occurred at 5 min in both the honey and sucrose groups; however the pH in the honey group rapidly recovered 10–20 min after exposure and did not drop below the critical decalcification pH of 5.5. On the other hand, the pH following sucrose exposure fell <5.5 and was associated with a 30 min recovery time. The pH observed for the sorbitol group did not change over time. Bacterial counts were significantly reduced in the honey group compared to the other treatment groups (p ⩽ 0.001) and honey significantly inhibited the growth of all studied strains compared to inhibition observed with antibiotics (p ⩽ 0.001). Conclusions Honey can be used as an alternative to traditional remedies for the prevention of dental caries and gingivitis following orthodontic treatment. PMID:25057231

  8. Republic of the Marshall Islands: planning and implementation of a dental caries prevention program for an island nation.

    PubMed

    Tut, Ohnmar K; Greer, Mark H K; Milgrom, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The Republic of Marshall Islands (R.M.I.) is an island state in eastern Micronesia with a landmass of 70 square miles scattered across 750,000 square miles of the western Pacific Ocean with a national population of approximately 51,000. In a 2002 children's oral health survey, 85 percent of six year old children in the R.M.I. capital of Majuro were found to have had at least one carious tooth and 65 percent had 5 or more affected teeth. The mean caries prevalence among primary (or baby) teeth was 5.79 decayed or filled teeth (dft), a caries prevalence rate close to three times the U.S. national mean. While 12.3 percent were caries-free, 65.0 percent had experienced 5 or more affected teeth (rampant caries). Of these, less than 1 percent had received any form of dental treatment. Comparably remarkable early childhood dental disease rates were also observed on other populated islands and atolls. In response to the rampant dental disease shown to be affecting young children, the R.M.I. Ministry of Health has proposed the implementation of a strategy targeting the pre-natal / pen-natal environment, young parents, pre-school and elementary school children. PMID:18181475

  9. Conclusion and review of the Michigan Xylitol Programme (1986-1995) for the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mkinen, K K; Mkinen, P L; Pape, H R; Peldyak, J; Hujoel, P; Isotupa, K P; Soderling, E; Isokangas, P J; Allen, P; Bennett, C

    1996-02-01

    The major results of the Michigan Xylitol Programme (1986-1995) are summarised. The Programme consisted of several clinical trials and laboratory investigations designed to study the usage of xylitol-containing saliva stimulants in the prevention of dental caries. The trials patients included young (initially 6 year olds) and adult or geriatric subjects who were given saliva stimulants (mostly chewing gum) for periods of two weeks to 56 months. A special rationale behind these studies was the need to further test the validity of the 'pentitol-hexitol theory' in the prevention of caries. This theory has maintained that pentitols (sugar alcohols with five hydroxyl groups, such as xylitol) may be cariologically more effective than hexitols (sugar alcohols with six hydroxyl groups, such as sorbitol). The accumulated clinical, sialochemical and microbiologic evidence suggests that xylitol, a natural carbohydrate sweetener of the pentitol type, is more effective in preventing dental caries than sorbitol, and cariologically safer than sorbitol, a natural carbohydrate of the hexitol type. Sorbitol was found to be significantly less cariogenic than sucrose. The Programme's results shed additional light on the cariologic and oral biologic effects of natural, dietary polyols, and suggest that the usage of xylitol chewing gum (and in some cases xylitol drages) can be considered a valuable additional tool in caries prevention and in stabilisation of caries in all age groups. PMID:8744914

  10. Going, going, gone? Proactive control prevents the congruency sequence effect from rapid decay.

    PubMed

    Duthoo, W; Abrahamse, E L; Braem, S; Notebaert, W

    2014-07-01

    The congruency sequence effect, the finding of a reduced congruency effect following incongruent trials in conflict tasks, has received considerable attention in the research on cognitive control over the last two decades. This effect can reflect either the expectancy-guided, preparatory biasing of attention in anticipation of the upcoming stimulus (i.e. proactive control), or the phasic enhancement of the attentional set in response to conflict on the previous trial (i.e. reactive control). A recent study by Egner et al. in Front Psychol 1 (2010) set out to contrast these two alternatives, by exploring the congruency sequence effect across a wide range of inter-trial intervals. It was found that congruency sequence effects were subject to rapid decay over time. This decay fits well with the notion of reactive control, while at the same time speaking against the involvement of proactive regulation—which should also (and even mainly) be evident at longer intervals. In the present study, we first replicate the reduction of the congruency sequence effect with increasing inter-trial interval in a face-word Stroop task. In a second experiment, we show that congruency sequence effects are observed at longer intervals, too, when the proportion of trials with the longest inter-trial interval is increased. Our findings indicate that proactive control can prevent the congruency sequence effect from decaying rapidly. PMID:24077774

  11. (1→3)-α-D-Glucan hydrolases in dental biofilm prevention and control: A review.

    PubMed

    Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Wiater, Adrian; Janczarek, Monika; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2015-08-01

    Dental plaque is a highly diverse biofilm, which has an important function in maintenance of oral and systemic health but in some conditions becomes a cause of oral diseases. In addition to mechanical plaque removal, current methods of dental plaque control involve the use of chemical agents against biofilm pathogens, which however, given the complexity of the oral microbiome, is not sufficiently effective. Hence, there is a need for development of new anti-biofilm approaches. Polysaccharides, especially (1→3),(1→6)-α-D-glucans, which are key structural and functional constituents of the biofilm matrix, seem to be a good target for future therapeutic strategies. In this review, we have focused on (1→3)-α-glucanases, which can limit the cariogenic properties of the dental plaque extracellular polysaccharides. These enzymes are not widely known and have not been exhaustively described in literature. PMID:26047901

  12. Use of Preventive Dental Care Among Medicaid-Enrolled, School-Aged US Children in Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Families: Trends in Pennsylvania From 2005 Through 2010

    PubMed Central

    Chesnokova, Arina; Shults, Justine; Pinto, Andres; Rubin, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We describe trends in receipt of preventive dental care among Medicaid-enrolled children in Pennsylvania between 2005 and 2010, comparing the US children of immigrants with their co-ethnic peers in nonimmigrant families. Methods. We analyzed Pennsylvania Medicaid claims, birth records, and census data for children born in Pennsylvania and enrolled in Medicaid for 10 or more months during any of the calendar years assessed. Results. Receipt of preventive dental care was more likely among Latino children in immigrant families than among their peers in nonimmigrant families; also, it was more likely among White children in immigrant families than among their peers in nonimmigrant families. Rates of preventive dental care use among African American and Asian children in immigrant and nonimmigrant families were comparable. From 2005 to 2010, the percentage of Latino children in nonimmigrant families who received preventive dental care increased from 33% to 61%. Changes in other groups were significant but less dramatic. Conclusions. Receipt of preventive dental care has increased among Medicaid-enrolled children in Pennsylvania, with marked gains among Latino children. Within each racial/ethnic group, the children of immigrants were either more likely than or equally likely as children in nonimmigrant families to receive care. PMID:25322290

  13. Caries Risk Assessment for Determination of Focus and Intensity of Prevention in a Dental School Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Michael W. J.; Suddick, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    A study at the University of Texas, San Antonio's dental school resulted in development of a system of caries risk assessment, applied to all undergraduate clinic patients. The rationale, structure, elements, and application of the system are outlined, and course content supporting the system is noted. Need for validation and other improvements is

  14. 76 FR 10899 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... extending the comment period for a proposed recommendation that community water systems adjust the amount of fluoride in drinking water to 0.7 mg/L to provide the best of balance of protection from dental caries... HUMAN SERVICES Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for...

  15. Recruiting College Students as Patients via a Pre-paid Preventive Dental Health Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinghofer, Ilsa Peta; Marchese, Ann Marie

    1990-01-01

    The New York University College of Dentistry provides oral health care services for a low annual fee. The program meets its objective of providing additional operative procedures to fulfill dental students' educational requirements and accommodates students' oral health care needs at reasonable cost. Some members patronize the clinic after…

  16. Caries Risk Assessment for Determination of Focus and Intensity of Prevention in a Dental School Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Michael W. J.; Suddick, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    A study at the University of Texas, San Antonio's dental school resulted in development of a system of caries risk assessment, applied to all undergraduate clinic patients. The rationale, structure, elements, and application of the system are outlined, and course content supporting the system is noted. Need for validation and other improvements is…

  17. Drug resistance of bacterial dental biofilm and the potential use of natural compounds as alternative for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Al Qurashi, Yasir Mohammed A; Chaieb, Kamel

    2015-03-01

    Oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease are directly linked with the ability of bacteria to form biofilm. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria colonizing the supragingival biofilm (Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria forming a subgingival plaque (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Cells embedded in biofilm are up to 1000-fold more resistant to antibiotics compared to their planctonic ones. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain biofilms drug resistance. Given the increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics currently used in dentistry, a great importance is given to natural compounds for the prevention of oral bacterial growth, adhesion and colonization. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. It has been well documented that medicinal plants and natural compounds confer considerable antibacterial activity against various microorganisms including cariogenic and periodontal pathogens. This paper provides a review of the literature focusing on the studies on (i) biofilm in the oral cavity, (ii) drug resistance of bacterial biofilm and (iii) the potential use of plant extracts, essential oils and natural compounds as biofilm preventive agents in dentistry, involving their origin and their mechanism of biofilm inhibition. PMID:25708507

  18. N-Acetyl Cysteine Depletes Reactive Oxygen Species and Prevents Dental Monomer-Induced Intrinsic Mitochondrial Apoptosis In Vitro in Human Dental Pulp Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Liu, Qian; Liu, Ying; Song, Qian; Yu, Fan; Yu, Haohan; Liu, Huan; Huang, Li; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the involvement of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis in dental monomer-induced cytotoxicity and the influences of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on this process. Methods Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) were exposed to several dental monomers in the absence or presence of NAC, and cell viability, intracellular redox balance, morphology and function of mitochondria and key indicators of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis were evaluated using various commercial kits. Results Dental monomers exerted dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on hDPCs. Concomitant to the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of glutathione (GSH), differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were detected. Apoptosis, as indicated by positive Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining and activation of caspase-3, was observed after dental monomer treatment. Dental monomers impaired the morphology and function of mitochondria, and induced intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis in hDPCs via up-regulation of p53, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. NAC restored cell viability, relieved oxidative stress and blocked the apoptotic effects of dental monomers. Conclusions Dental monomers induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis in hDPCs. NAC could reduce the oxidative stress and thus protect hDPCs against dental monomer-induced apoptosis. PMID:26808507

  19. Optical coherence tomography guided dental drill

    DOEpatents

    DaSilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A dental drill that has one or multiple single mode fibers that can be used to image in the vicinity of the drill tip. It is valuable to image below the surface being drilled to minimize damage to vital or normal tissue. Identifying the boundary between decayed and normal enamel (or dentine) would reduce the removal of viable tissue, and identifying the nerve before getting too close with the drill could prevent nerve damage. By surrounding a drill with several optical fibers that can be used by an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) to image several millimeters ahead of the ablation surface will lead to a new and improved dental treatment device.

  20. Improving Dental Health in Underserved Communities | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to build partnerships among dentists, physicians, nurses, dental hygienists, public health practitioners, and early childhood educators in the prevention and early detection of oral disease in pregnant women, infants, and toddlers. "Tooth decay is preventable but it can progress rapidly when ...

  1. Status of occupational hazards and their prevention among dental professionals in Chandigarh, India: A comprehensive questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Abhishek; Gupta, Mohit; Upadhyaya, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the status of occupational hazards and their prevention among the practicing dentists in Chandigarh city, India. Materials and Methods: A closed-ended questionnaire was prepared to record demographic status, types of occupational hazards encountered, and status of measures used for their prevention. A total 113 out of 130 dentists completed the questionnaire and the response rate was 86.9%. Frequency tables were prepared and coefficient of correlation was computed to check correlation between different variables. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The most common occupational hazard reported was injury from “sharps” (77%), out of which needle prick injury was the most frequent. Of the other occupational problems job related stress (43.3%), musculoskeletal problems (39.8%), and allergies (23.8%) from things used in dental clinics were most common. A reasonably high percentage of dentists were immunized against hepatitis-B virus (88.4%) and were following proper infection control measures and hospital waste disposal methods. Very few dentists were following the correct method of disposal of excess amalgam (11%) and measurement of radiation exposure (27.5%) within their clinic. Most of them (90.2%) were satisfied with their current working hours and job. Conclusion: Prevalence of occupational hazards among the studied group was high and certain preventive measures were not being followed properly. Therefore, there is a need to improve the knowledge of dentists regarding these hazards and their prevention. PMID:24130578

  2. Caries prevention--a survey of parental views.

    PubMed

    Kay, E J; Blinkhorn, A S

    1989-03-01

    Three hundred and fifteen parents of pre-school children from socially deprived areas in the Forth Valley region of Scotland were interviewed to assess their preferred methods of controlling dental decay in their children's mouths. Thirty-five percent of the parents believed that dental disease in their children would be most satisfactorily controlled by the dental profession, whilst 35% felt that their children were unlikely to suffer from disease, even without any specific preventive actions being taken. Controlling sucrose intake was less popular than a hypothetical anti-caries vaccine as a means of preventing dental decay, with fluoridation of water supplies being preferred by only 5% of the sample. This study shows that parents of some socially deprived children in Central Scotland prefer to retain the ability to determine their child's dental future, in collaboration with their family dentist, rather than accept public health measures. PMID:2807893

  3. Dental Amalgam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a discussion with your dentist. More in Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Alternatives to Dental Amalgam Related Resources ...

  4. Disinfection protocols to prevent cross-contamination between dental offices and prosthetic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Salvia, Ana Carolina Rodrigues Danzi; Matilde, Fernanda Dos Santos; Rosa, Francine Cristina Silva; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Balducci, Ivan; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2013-10-01

    Control of cross-contamination between dental offices and prosthetic laboratories is of utmost importance to maintain the health of patients and dental office staff. The purpose of this study was to evaluate disinfection protocols, considering antimicrobial effectiveness and damage to the structures of prostheses. Solutions of 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, 50% vinegar and sodium perborate were evaluated. Specimens were contaminated in vitro with standardized suspensions of Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis spores. Disinfection by immersion for 10 min was performed. Final counts of microorganisms were obtained using the plating method. Results were statistically compared by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's test. The surface roughness of 40 specimens was analyzed before and after 10 disinfection cycles, and results were compared statistically using Student's t test. The solution of 50% vinegar was as effective as 1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine against C. albicans, E. coli and S. mutans. The sodium perborate solution showed the lowest antimicrobial effectiveness. Superficial roughness increased after cycles in 1% sodium hypochlorite (p=0.02). Solutions of 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine and 50% vinegar were effective for the disinfection of heat-polymerized acrylic specimens. Sodium hypochlorite increased the superficial roughness. PMID:23999338

  5. [Dental plaque as a biofilm - a risk in oral cavity and methods to prevent].

    PubMed

    Chałas, Renata; Wójcik-Chęcińska, Ilona; Woźniak, Michał J; Grzonka, Justyna; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of the root canal or at the top of the root on an outer wall leads to complications and failure in endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to present the latest information on the occurrence, development and the role of biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of oral diseases and its control. Based on the literature analyzed, it can be concluded that the biofilm, due to its complex structure and numerous mechanisms of bacteria adaptation, is an effective barrier against the traditional agents with antibacterial properties. There are now great hopes for nanotechnology as an innovative method for obtaining new structures of nanometric size and different properties than source materials. The use of antibacterial properties of nano-silver used in dentistry significantly reduces the metabolic activity and the number of colony forming bacteria and lactic acid production in the biofilm. PMID:26561840

  6. Are we ready to move from operative to non-operative/preventive treatment of dental caries in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on the clinical interactions between patients and the dental team, not on caries prevention at a public health level. Many dentists no longer take a narrow surgical view seeking to apply interventive treatment as a one-off event at a certain trigger point of disease severity and the evidence that caries is an initially reversible, chronic disease with a known multi-factorial aetiology is being appreciated more widely. The caries process should be managed over time in an individualized way for each patient. Very few individuals can be considered to be truly 'caries free' when initial lesions as well as more advanced dentine lesions are considered. It is now very clear that, by itself, restorative treatment of the disease does not 'cure' caries. The caries process needs to be managed, in partnership with patients, over the changing challenges of a lifetime. The answer to the question posed in the title should be, in many cases, that we are ready to move to non-operative/preventive care (if we have not done so already). However, this should be for appropriate stages of lesion extent and in patients who respond to advice on recall frequency and preventive behaviours. PMID:15153703

  7. Glossary of Dental Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... More print this article enlarge text Glossary of Dental Terms Oral Health Defined Amalgam silver/mercury alloy used to fill cavities | More Bleaching cosmetic whitening of teeth using peroxide | More Caries cavities, tooth decay | More ...

  8. Effect of pretreatment with an Er:YAG laser and fluoride on the prevention of dental enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    dos Reis Derceli, Juliana; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana Jendiroba; Azevedo, Danielle Torres; Wang, Linda; Bataglion, César; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Er:YAG laser and its association with fluoride (1.23% acidulate phosphate fluoride gel) on the prevention of enamel erosion. Sixty specimens were obtained from bovine enamel (4 × 4 mm), which were ground flat, polished, and randomly divided into five groups according to the preventive treatments: control-fluoride application; L--Er:YAG laser; L+F--laser + fluoride; F+L--fluoride + laser; L/F--laser/fluoride simultaneously. Half of the enamel surface was covered with nail varnish (control area), and the other half was pretreated with one of the preventive strategies to subsequently be submitted to erosive challenge. When the laser was applied, it was irradiated for 10 s with a focal length of 4 mm and 60 mJ/2 Hz. Fluoride gel was applied for 4 min. Each specimen was individually exposed to regular Coca-Cola® for 1 min, four times/day, for 5 days. Wear analysis was performed with a profilometer, and demineralization was assessed with an optical microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (wear)/Dunn test and ANOVA/Fisher's exact tests. The group L/F was similar to control group. The other groups showed higher wear, which did not present differences among them. In the demineralization assessment, the groups F+L and L/F showed lower demineralization in relation to the other groups. It can be concluded that none preventive method was able to inhibit dental wear. The treatments L/F and F+L showed lower enamel demineralization. PMID:24149579

  9. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits.

    PubMed

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth T; Kuthy, Raymond A; Carter, Knute D; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended parallel process model was used as a theoretical framework for this research. This model suggests that people will act if the perceived threat (severity and susceptibility) is high enough and if efficacy levels (self-efficacy and response efficacy) are likewise high. Following Witte's method of categorizing people's perceptions and emotions into one of four categories based on levels of threat and efficacy, this article describes four groups (high threat/high efficacy, high threat/low efficacy, low threat/high efficacy, and low threat/low efficacy) of parents and how they compare to each other. Using logistic regression to model if a child had a preventive visit, results indicate that parents with low threat/high efficacy and parents with high threat/high efficacy had approximately 2.5 times the odds of having a child with a preventive oral health visit compared to parents with low threat/low efficacy, when controlling for perceived oral health status, health literacy, and child's age. The importance of efficacy needs to be incorporated in interventions aimed at increasing preventive dental visits for young children. PMID:25862302

  10. Bioinspired amphiphilic phosphate block copolymers as non-fluoride materials to prevent dental erosion

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yanda; Wang, Tongxin; Mitchell, James W.; Zaidel, Lynette; Qiu, Jianhong; Kilpatrick-Liverman, LaTonya

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the fact that certain natural proteins, e.g. casein phosphopeptide or amelogenin, are able to prevent tooth erosion (mineral loss) and to enhance tooth remineralization, a synthetic amphiphilic diblock copolymer, containing a hydrophilic methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate block (MOEP) and a hydrophobic methyl methacrylate block (MMA), was designed as a novel non-fluoride agent to prevent tooth erosion under acidic conditions. The structure of the polymer, synthesized by reversible addition-fragment transfer (RAFT) polymerization, was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). While the hydrophilic PMOEP block within the amphiphilic block copolymer strongly binds to the enamel surface, the PMMA block forms a hydrophobic shell to prevent acid attack on tooth enamel, thus preventing/reducing acid erosion. The polymer treatment not only effectively decreased the mineral loss of hydroxyapatite (HAP) by 36–46% compared to the untreated control, but also protected the surface morphology of the enamel specimen following exposure to acid. Additionally, experimental results confirmed that low pH values and high polymer concentrations facilitate polymer binding. Thus, the preliminary data suggests that this new amphiphilic diblock copolymer has the potential to be used as a non-fluoride ingredient for mouth-rinse or toothpaste to prevent/reduce tooth erosion. PMID:25419457

  11. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease

    PubMed Central

    Terai, Tomohiko; Okumura, Takekazu; Imai, Susumu; Nakao, Masumi; Yamaji, Kazuaki; Ito, Masahiko; Nagata, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okada, Ayako; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health. PMID:26053410

  12. Screening of Probiotic Candidates in Human Oral Bacteria for the Prevention of Dental Disease.

    PubMed

    Terai, Tomohiko; Okumura, Takekazu; Imai, Susumu; Nakao, Masumi; Yamaji, Kazuaki; Ito, Masahiko; Nagata, Tsuyoshi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Miyazaki, Kouji; Okada, Ayako; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity in healthy subjects has a well-balanced microbiota that consists of more than 700 species. However, a disturbance of this balance, with an increase of harmful microbes and a decrease of beneficial microbes, causes oral disorders such as periodontal disease or dental caries. Nowadays, probiotics are expected to confer oral health benefits by modulating the oral microbiota. This study screened new probiotic candidates with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects on the oral cavity. We screened 14 lactobacillus strains and 36 streptococcus strains out of 896 oral isolates derived from healthy subjects. These bacteria did not produce volatile sulfur compounds or water-insoluble glucan, had higher antibacterial activity against periodontal bacteria, and had higher adherence activity to oral epithelial cells or salivary-coated hydroxyapatite in vitro. We then evaluated the risk of primary cariogenicity and infective endocarditis of the selected oral isolates. As a result, Lactobacillus crispatus YIT 12319, Lactobacillus fermentum YIT 12320, Lactobacillus gasseri YIT 12321, and Streptococcus mitis YIT 12322 were selected because they showed no cariogenic potential in an artificial mouth system and a lower risk of experimental infective endocarditis in a rat model. These candidates are expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no adverse effects on general health. PMID:26053410

  13. Can early exposure to probiotics in children prevent dental caries? A current perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Garima; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Neelisha

    2012-01-01

    Background Probiotics are supplements or foods that contain viable microorganisms which cause alterations of the microflora of the host. Probiotics have already been established in the treatment and prevention of various gastrointestinal system. Recently, role of probiotics has become an important issue for research in dentistry in the era of increased antibiotic resistance. Materials and methods The basis of the paper is the clinical studies and research done in relation to probiotics on oral health using PUBMED search database. Results and conclusions Although many clinical studies have demonstrated positive outcome in preventing caries and periodontal diseases, the data is still scarce in recommending probiotics for the oral health. Moreover, since initial colonization of oral cavity of the newborn is very important for developing immunity and prevention of future diseases. Hence, measures should be directed towards its preventive use in infants and children. The formulations produced for oral cavity should also be within reach of common man especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. This review endeavors to compile the research of probiotics on oral cavity and throws a light on its evolving status in developing countries. It also evaluates its use in children for a long-term benefit. PMID:25737845

  14. Employment of Dental Hygienists as Dental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Cynthia; Odrich, Johanna

    1987-01-01

    A study of the use of dental hygienists to teach periodontics, preventive dentistry, community dentistry, and public health courses looked at employment patterns and practices and the qualifications of the teachers. (MSE)

  15. Chemico-therapeutic approach to prevention of dental caries. [using stannous fluoride gel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, I. L.

    1975-01-01

    The program of chemical preventive dentistry is based primarily upon the development of a procedure for stabilizing stannous fluoride in solution by forcing it into glycerin. New topical fluoride treatment concentrates, fluoride containing gels and prophylaxis pastes, as well as a completely stable stannous fluoride dentifrice are made possible by the development of a rather complicated heat application method to force stannous fluoride into solution in glycerin. That the stannous fluoride is clinically effective in such a preparation is demonstrated briefly on orthodontic patients.

  16. John G.C. Adams: father of Dental Public Health in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kenny, David J; Dale, Anne C; Wencer, David G

    2014-01-01

    John Gennings Curtis Adams (1839-1922), Canada's first resident dental missionary, was the father of Dental Public Health in Canada. He established, personally funded and operated the first free dental hospital in North America for poor children and their mothers in Toronto from 1872, three years before the founding of The Hospital for Sick Children; he later became their first dentist of record. He was a visionary zealot for prevention of decay, dental education, and treatment over extraction. Dr. Adams understood that neither parents (rich or poor) nor physicians were aware of the extent of pathosis present in children's mouths. He petitioned individuals, lobbied politicians and unions and pressured dental organizations on the importance of twice-annual school inspections to demonstrate disease so that parents would seek care for their children. He wanted government-funded dental hospitals like his own to treat those who could not afford care. He realized his objectives and his reforms to prevent suffering, as Toronto school inspections began in 1911 and Toronto's first publicly-funded free dental clinic opened in 1913. He was Canada's first dental philanthropist and a visionary for preventive dentistry. PMID:25549402

  17. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. Methods/Design This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0–3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI. Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the gingival margin; oral hygiene self-efficacy and net benefits. Discussion IQuaD will provide evidence for the most clinically-effective and cost-effective approach to managing periodontal disease in dentate adults in Primary Care. This will support general dental practitioners and patients in treatment decision making. Trial registration Protocol ID: ISRCTN56465715 PMID:24160246

  18. Referrals for Dental Care During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kloetzel, Megan K.; Huebner, Colleen E.; Milgrom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Oral health is essential to overall health in the prenatal period. Pregnancy is not a time to delay dental care. Several studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and poor pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth. Interventions to provide periodontal treatment to pregnant women yield inconsistent results regarding preterm birth but have established the safety of periodontal therapy during pregnancy. Postpartum, women in poor dental health readily transmit the tooth decay pathogen Streptococcus mutans from their saliva to their infants resulting in increased risk of early childhood caries. Preventive services and treatment for acute problems should be recommended, fears allayed, and women referred. Dental x-rays may be performed safely with the use of appropriate shielding. Non-emergent interventions are best provided between 14 and 20 weeks of gestation for comfort and optimal fetal safety. Most gravid women do not seek dental care. Increased interprofessional communication to encourage dentists to treat pregnant women will reduce the number of women without care. In states where it is available, Medicaid coverage of dental services for pregnant women is typically allowed during pregnancy and for two months postpartum. Women’s health providers should understand the importance of protecting oral health during pregnancy and educate their patients accordingly. PMID:21429074

  19. Prevention of hemorrhagic complications after dental extractions into open heart surgery patients under anticoagulant therapy: the use of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin.

    PubMed

    Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Carile, Francesco; Tia, Mariano; Bucci, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) is a biomaterial commonly used in periodontology and implant dentistry to improve healing and tissue regeneration, particularly as filling material in alveolar sockets to regenerate bone for optimal dental implant placement. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of L-PRF as a safe filling and hemostatic material after dental extractions (or avulsions) for the prevention of hemorrhagic complications in heart surgery patients without modification of the anticoagulant oral therapy. Fifty heart surgery patients under oral anticoagulant therapy who needed dental extractions were selected for the study. Patients were treated with L-PRF clots placed into 168 postextraction sockets without modification of anticoagulant therapy (mean international normalized ratio  =  3.16 ± 0.39). Only 2 patients reported hemorrhagic complications (4%), all of which resolved a few hours after the surgery by compression and hemostatic topical agents. Ten patients (20%) showed mild bleeding, which spontaneously resolved or was resolved by minimal compression less than 2 hours after surgery. No case of delayed bleeding was reported. The remaining 38 patients (76%) showed an adequate hemostasis after the dental extractions. In all cases, no alveolitis or painful events were reported, soft tissue healing was quick, and wound closure was always complete at the time of suture removal one week after surgery. The proposed protocol is a reliable therapeutic option to avoid significant bleeding after dental extractions without the suspension of the continuous oral anticoagulant therapy in heart surgery patients. Other applications of the hemostatic and healing properties of L-PRF should be investigated in oral implantology. PMID:21718187

  20. Dental Assisting Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard dental assisting curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level dental assistants, and includes job skills in the technical areas of preventive dentistry; four-handed dentistry; chairside assisting with emphasis in diagnostics,…

  1. Clinical leadership and prevention in practice: is a needs led preventive approach to the delivery of care to improve quality, outcomes and value in primary dental care practice a realistic concept?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a need to improve access to, and the quality of, service delivery in NHS primary dental care. Building public health thinking and leadership capacity in clinicians from primary care teams was seen as an underpinning component to achieving this goal. Clinical teams contributed to service redesign concepts and were contractually supported to embrace a preventive approach. Methods Improvement in quality and preventive focus of dental practice care delivery was explored through determining the impact of several projects, to share how evidence, skill mix and clinical leadership could be utilised in design, implementation and measurement of care outcomes in general dental practice in order to champion and advocate change, during a period of substantial change within the NHS system. The projects were: 1. A needs-led, evidence informed preventive care pathway approach to primary dental care delivery with a focus on quality and outcomes. 2. Building clinical leadership to influence and advocate for improved quality of care; and spread of learning through local professional networks. This comprised two separate projects: improved access for very young children called “Baby Teeth DO Matter” and the production of a clinically led, evidence-based guidance for periodontyal treatment in primary care called “Healthy Gums DO Matter”. Results What worked and what hindered progress, is described. The projects developed understanding of how working with ‘local majorities’ of clinicians influenced, adoption and spread of learning, and the impact in prompting wider policy and contract reform in England. Conclusions The projects identified issues that required change to meet population need. Clinicians were allowed to innovate in an evironment working together with commissioners, patients and public health colleagues. Communication and the development of clinical leadership led to the development of an infrastructure to define care pathways and decision points in the patient's journey. PMID:26392019

  2. Head Start Combats Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Among Native American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Margaret G.; Stubbs, Phyllis E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents current developments concerning nursing bottle caries--"baby bottle tooth decay"--and spotlights a program funded by Head Start to reduce the prevalence of these painful and disfiguring, but preventable, children's dental diseases among American Indians and Alaska Native families. (Author/BB)

  3. Dental onlay bridge-like prosthesis in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): the use of Premise trimodal composite to prevent interproximal Eucalyptus spp. retention and infection.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sean M; Pye, Geoffrey W; Fagan, David A

    2014-06-01

    Three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) presented with moderate to severe interproximal space accumulation with Eucalyptus spp. at the San Diego Zoo. Premise trimodal composite was used to create dental onlay bridge-like prostheses to eliminate open, enlarged interproximal spaces. The prostheses prevented further leaf material accumulation within the interproximal spaces and consequently reduced periodontal disease. Aesthetically, the prosthesis replicates normal tooth coloration and appearance and wears at a similar rate to surrounding teeth. Prosthetic repair or replacement may be required, so periodic examination every 3-6 mo is recommended. PMID:25000719

  4. Dental Health: The Basic Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... teeth, or damaged fillings n Checking for gum disease n X-raying your teeth for signs of decay or damage n Inspecting your bite n Checking any dental appliances you might have (bridge, night guard, bite ...

  5. Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health > Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Healthy Living Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Page Content Article Body As you might guess, the number-one dental problem among preschoolers is tooth decay . One out of 10 two- year-olds already ...

  6. Biological control of postharvest decays of apple can prevent growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple wounds.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, W J; Conway, W S; Leverentz, B

    1999-12-01

    Fresh cells of the antagonist Pseudomonas syringae at 2.4 x 10(8) CFU/ml inoculated into wounds of 'Golden Delicious' apple prevented Escherichia coli O157:H7 (concentrations ranging from 2.4 x 10(5) to 2.4 x 10(7) CFU/ml) from growing in the wounds. This occurred when the two microorganisms were co-inoculated or inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 was conducted 1 or 2 days after inoculation with the antagonist. In similar tests, application of the commercial formulation of this antagonist prevented the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in wounds when inoculated 1 or 2 days after application of the antagonist. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 in wounds treated with water (control) before inoculation with this pathogen increased approximately 2 log units during the first 48 h after inoculation. These results indicate that biocontrol agents developed for controlling storage decays of fruits may have the additional benefit of preventing the growth of foodborne pathogens in freshly wounded tissue of intact and fresh-cut fruits. PMID:10606139

  7. Oral and dental health in Huntington‘s disease - an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Only a few case reports and case series dealing with oral and dental health care are available in literature until now. The aim of the present pilot study was to determine the status of dental health in comparison to matched controls and to heighten the neurologists’ and dentists’ awareness of the oral aspects of the disease. Methods 42 Huntington’s disease (HD) participants were scored according to the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale. The dental status was assessed by using the well established score for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and the dental plaque score (Silness-Loe plaque index). Results Compared to controls HD participants showed significantly more decayed teeth and more plaques in both plaque indices. A higher motor impairment and a lower functional status of the patients lead to a worsening in dental status. Conclusion Possible reasons for our findings are discussed. Apart from local oral complications general complications may also occur. Thus, as a consequence, we would encourage patients, caregivers, neurologists, and the dentists to ensure regular preventive dental examinations and dental treatments of individuals with Huntington’s disease even in the premanifest stage of this disease. PMID:24138900

  8. Review of Spaceflight Dental Emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Anil

    2012-01-01

    All exploration class missions--extending beyond earth's orbit--differ from existing orbital missions by being of longer duration and often not having a means of evacuation. If an exploration mission extends beyond a year, then there will be a greater lapse since the crewmembers last terrestrial dental exams, which routinely occur each year. This increased time since professional dental care could increase the chance of a dental emergency such as intractable pain, dental decay requiring a temporary filling, crown replacement, exposed pulp, abscess, tooth avulsion, or toothache. Additionally, any dental emergency will have to be treated in-flight with available resources and personnel who may not have extensive training in dental care. Thus, dental emergencies are an important risk to assess in preparation for exploration missions.

  9. Dental demineralization and caries in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Jackson, Leanne; Epstein, Joel B; Migliorati, Cesar A; Murphy, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Concurrent chemoradiation (CCR) therapy is a standard treatment for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). It is well documented that CCR causes profound acute and late toxicities. Xerostomia (the symptom of dry mouth) and hyposalivation (decreased salivary flow) are among the most common treatment side effects in this cohort of patients during and following treatment. They are the result of radiation-induced damage to the salivary glands. Patients with chronic hyposalivation are at risk for demineralization and dental cavitation (dental caries), often presenting as a severe form of rapidly developing decay that results in loss of dentition. Usual post-radiation oral care which includes the use of fluoride, may decrease, but does not eliminate dental caries associated with radiation-induced hyposalivation. The authors conducted a narrative literature review regarding dental caries in HNC population based on MEDLINE, PubMed, CLNAHL, Cochrane database, EMBASE, and PsycINFO from 1985 to 2014. Primary search terms included head and/or neck cancer, dental caries, dental decay, risk factor, physical symptom, physical sequellea, body image, quality of life, measurement, assessment, cost, prevention, and treatment. The authors also reviewed information from National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), American Dental Association (ADA), and other related healthcare professional association web sites. This literature review focuses on critical issues related to dental caries in patients with HNC: potential mechanisms and contributing factors, clinical assessment, physical sequellea, negative impact on body image and quality of life, potential preventative strategies, and recommendations for practice and research in this area. PMID:26198979

  10. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Duijster, Denise; van Loveren, Cor; Dusseldorp, Elise; Verrips, Gijsbert H W

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) scores were extracted from dental records. A validated parental questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and oral hygiene behaviours. Data on neighbourhood quality were obtained from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics. Structural equation modelling indicated that the model was valid after applying a few modifications. In the revised model, lower maternal education level was related to poorer family organization, lower levels of social support, lower dental self-efficacy, and an external dental health locus of control. These, in turn, were associated with poorer oral hygiene behaviours, which were linked to higher levels of childhood dental caries. In addition, lower maternal education level and poorer neighbourhood quality were directly associated with higher caries levels in children. This model advances our understanding of determinants of childhood dental caries and the pathways in which they operate. Conception of these pathways is essential for guiding the development of caries-preventive programmes for children. Clues for further development of the model are suggested. PMID:24524246

  11. Survey and analysis of dental caries in students at a deaf-mute high school.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence of dental caries was 55.9%, Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index in deaf students was 1.40±1.89; in healthy students was 13.8% and 1.36±1.72, respectively. Relatively lower proportion of awareness on dental health knowledge and lower proper practice of dental health behavior have been observed among deaf students compared with the control group. Multiple logistic regressions showed that the risk factors of dental caries in deaf students involved high frequency of consuming dessert and carbonated beverage. Poor oral health, lack of oral health knowledge and proper oral health practice could be found in deaf students. The dental treatment for the two groups was urgently needed. The dental health education concerning dietary behavior and prevention program to the deaf students and their parents should be reinforced; the supervision of oral health behavior for deaf and healthy students needs to be strengthened. PMID:22502855

  12. Application of Stem Cell Technology in Dental Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ruoxue; Lengner, Chistopher

    2013-01-01

    Significance In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the isolation and characterization of dental tissue-derived stem cells and address the potential of these cell types for use in regenerative cell transplantation therapy. Recent Advances Looking forward, platforms for the delivery of stem cells via scaffolds and the use of growth factors and cytokines for enhancing dental stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are discussed. Critical Issues We aim to understand the developmental origins of dental tissues in an effort to elucidate the molecular pathways governing the genesis of somatic dental stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of several dental stem cells are discussed, including the developmental stage and specific locations from which these cells can be purified. In particular, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth may act as a very practical and easily accessibly reservoir for autologous stem cells and hold the most value in stem cell therapy. Dental pulp stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells should also be considered for their triple lineage differentiation ability and relative ease of isolation. Further, we address the potentials and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cells as a cell source in dental regenerative. Future Directions From an economical and a practical standpoint, dental stem cell therapy would be most easily applied in the prevention of periodontal ligament detachment and bone atrophy, as well as in the regeneration of dentin-pulp complex. In contrast, cell-based tooth replacement due to decay or other oral pathology seems, at the current time, an untenable approach. PMID:24527351

  13. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Amid L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

  14. Minority Participation in a School-Based Randomized Clinical Trial of Tooth Decay Prevention in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the strategies--based on the social triad concept of a partnership of researchers, school personnel and community-- employed to recruit low-income, minority parent/caregivers of kindergarten children into a school-based tooth decay prevention trial in the United States. Methods The study site was an urban school district with five elementary schools. Recruitment was carried out once each year for three years. Recruitment involved strategies at the school district, school, classroom, and student-parent level. A coalition of researchers, school personnel and community individuals was established for communication and recruitment. Outreach workers from the community were hired to promote, recruit, and disseminate oral health information. Study promotion included both print materials (logos, flyers, pictorial story boards) and presentations at school and community events. Results The School District Superintendent and administrators approved the study, and all five school principals and kindergarten teachers participated. All children within the classrooms were eligible: the overall participation rate of was 86% (580/672). Community outreach workers actively facilitated the recruitment and participants were recruited at open house for parent-teacher meeting (37% of all participants), sending letters and consent forms home (31%), at a prearranged convenient time during drop off and pick up of the child at their respective schools (30%), curriculum nights and health fairs (2%). Conclusion Utilizing the social triad concept led to success in planning and carrying out the recruitment of predominantly minority school children with high participation rates. PMID:21986390

  15. Medicaid: Extent of Dental Disease in Children Has Not Decreased, and Millions Are Estimated to Have Untreated Tooth Decay. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-08-1121

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgrove, James C.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of dental care for low-income children. Attention to this subject became more acute due to the widely publicized case of Deamonte Driver, a 12-year-old boy who died as a result of an untreated infected tooth that led to a fatal brain infection. Deamonte had health coverage through…

  16. Dental exarticulation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S; Sisodia, N; Jha, V; Yadav, M

    2015-01-01

    Tooth exarticulation or avulsion refers to the complete displacement of the tooth out of its socket. It is a complex injury, requiring immediate intervention for optimal results. Literature indicates that prolonged dry time and improper handling may be associated with increased risk of failure. Immediate replantation of the tooth allows for immediate restoration of esthetics and phonetics. This case report presents the management of an avulsed mature tooth in a young boy, with a two-year follow-up, which had been preserved in milk after around 15-20 minutes of injury and transplanted after two hours at a dental hospital. Timely modified endodontic therapy prevented subsequent inflammatory root resorption. PMID:25772931

  17. Saliva and dental erosion

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; HANNAS, Angélicas Reis; KATO, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods A search was undertaken on MEDLINE website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects. PMID:23138733

  18. 42 CFR 440.100 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dental services. 440.100 Section 440.100 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.100 Dental services. (a) “Dental services” means diagnostic, preventive, or corrective procedures provided by or under...

  19. 42 CFR 440.100 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dental services. 440.100 Section 440.100 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.100 Dental services. (a) “Dental services” means diagnostic, preventive, or corrective procedures provided by or under...

  20. 42 CFR 440.100 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dental services. 440.100 Section 440.100 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions 440.100 Dental services. (a) Dental services means diagnostic, preventive, or corrective procedures provided by or under...

  1. 42 CFR 440.100 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dental services. 440.100 Section 440.100 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions 440.100 Dental services. (a) Dental services means diagnostic, preventive, or corrective procedures provided by or under...

  2. 42 CFR 440.100 - Dental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dental services. 440.100 Section 440.100 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions 440.100 Dental services. (a) Dental services means diagnostic, preventive, or corrective procedures provided by or under...

  3. Seal Out Tooth Decay: A Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Seal Out Tooth Decay A Fact Sheet for Parents What are dental sealants? Sealants are thin, plastic coatings painted on the chewing surfaces of ...

  4. Dental Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... helpful facts so you can make an informed decision as to whether dental implants are right for your situation. Dental Implants and Roots The key benefit of dental implants over other tooth replacement systems is that an implant connects directly to the ...

  5. IMPACT OF FLUORIDE ON DENTAL HEALTH QUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Medjedovic, Eida; Medjedovic, Senad; Deljo, Dervis; Sukalo, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoride is natural element that strengthens teeth and prevents their decay. Experts believe that the best way to prevent cavities is the use of fluoride from multiple sources. Studies even show that in some cases, fluoride can stop already started damage of the teeth. In children younger than 6 years fluoride is incorporated into the enamel of permanent teeth, making the teeth more resistant to the action of bacterial and acids in food. Goal: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of improving the health status of teeth after six months treatment with the use of topical fluoridation 0.5% NaF, and the level and quality of the impact of treatment with chemical 0.5% NaF on the dental health of children at age from 8 to 15 years, in relation to gender and chronological age. This study included school children aged 8 to 15 years who visited health and dental services dependent in Mostar. Results: It is obvious that after the implementation of treatment with 5% NaF by the method of topical fluoridation, health status of subjects from the experimental group significantly improved, so that at the final review 89.71% or 61 subjects of the experimental group had healthy (cured teeth), tooth with dental caries only 5.88% or 4 respondents tooth with dental caries and filling 4.41% or 3 respondents, extracted baby tooth 14.71% or 10 respondents, while for 13.24% of respondents was identified state with still unerupted teeth. Our findings are indirectly confirmed that the six-month treatment of fluoridation with 5% NaF, contributed to statistically significant improvement in overall oral health of the experimental group compared to the control group which was not treated by any dental treatment. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is a statistically significant difference in the evaluated parameters of oral health of children in the control group compared to the studied parameters of oral health the experimental group of children at the final dental examination. PMID:26889098

  6. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  7. The Impact of Stannous, Fluoride Ions and Its Combination on Enamel Pellicle Proteome and Dental Erosion Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, A. A.; Mussi, M. C. M.; Moffa, E. B.; Lippert, F.; Zero, D. T.; Siqueira, W. L.; Hara, A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of stannous (Sn) and fluoride (F) ions and their combination on acquired enamel pellicle (AEP) protein composition (proteome experiment), and protection against dental erosion (functional experiment). Methods In the proteome experiment, bovine enamel specimens were incubated in whole saliva supernatant for 24h for AEP formation. They were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10), according to the rinse treatment: Sn (800ppm/6.7mM, SnCl2), F (225ppm/13mM, NaF), Sn and F combination (Sn+F) and deionized water (DIW, negative control). The specimens were immersed 3× in the test rinses for 2min, 2h apart. Pellicles were collected, digested, and analyzed for protein content using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In the functional experiment, bovine enamel specimens (n=10) were similarly treated for pellicle formation. Then, they were subjected to a five-day erosion cycling model, consisting of 5min erosive challenges (15.6 mM citric acid, pH 2.6, 6×/d) and 2min treatment with the rinses containing Sn, F or Sn+F (3×/d). Between the treatments, all specimens were incubated in whole saliva supernatant. Surface loss was determined by profilometry. Results Our proteome approach on bovine enamel identified 72 proteins that were common to all groups. AEP of enamel treated with Sn+F demonstrated higher abundance for most of the identified proteins than the other groups. The functional experiment showed reduction of enamel surface loss for Sn+F (89%), Sn (67%) and F (42%) compared to DIW (all significantly different, p<0.05). Conclusion This study highlighted that anti-erosion rinses (e.g. Sn+F) can modify quantitatively and qualitatively the AEP formed on bovine enamel. Moreover, our study demonstrated a combinatory effect that amplified the anti-erosive protection on tooth surface. PMID:26030135

  8. Melatonin promotes hepatic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells: clinical implications for the prevention of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Ah; Noh, Kwantae; Jue, Seong-Suk; Lee, So-Youn; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin's effect on hepatic differentiation of stem cells remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the action of melatonin on hepatic differentiation as well as its related signaling pathways of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and to examine the therapeutic effects of a combination of melatonin and hDPSC transplantation on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver fibrosis in mice. In vitro hepatic differentiation was assessed by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and mRNA expression for hepatocyte markers. Liver fibrosis model was established by injecting 0.5mL/kg CCl4 followed by treatment with melatonin (5mg/kg, twice a week) and hDPSCs. In vivo therapeutic effects were evaluated by histopathology and by means of liver function tests including measurement of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and ammonia levels. Melatonin promoted hepatic differentiation based on mRNA expression of differentiation markers and PAS-stained glycogen-laden cells. In addition, melatonin increased bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 expression and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, which was blocked by the BMP antagonist noggin. Furthermore, melatonin activated p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in hDPSCs. Melatonin-induced hepatic differentiation was attenuated by inhibitors of BMP, p38, ERK, and NF-?B. Compared to treatment of CCl4 -injured mice with either melatonin or hDPSC transplantation alone, the combination of melatonin and hDPSC significantly suppressed liver fibrosis and restored ALT, AST, and ammonia levels. For the first time, this study demonstrates that melatonin promotes hepatic differentiation of hDPSCs by modulating the BMP, p38, ERK, and NF-?B pathway. Combined treatment of grafted hDPSCs and melatonin could be a viable approach for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. PMID:25431168

  9. Wireless sensor networks evaluation for heritage monitoring; in the development of decay detecting techniques for a preventive conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inmaculada Martínez Garrido, María; Fort, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring systems using sensor techniques are widely used in the field of cultural heritage. In recent decades, the use of monitoring techniques involving sensors has been evolving in a wide way, because of the increasing importance they have in the observation of decay phenomena in order to establish predictive strategies to promote a preventive conservation. Wireless sensor networks, formed by a group of sensors nodes or monitoring points which have wireless communication, allow us a great number of nonexistent advantages until now since they have an easier way of installation, maintenance and fault detection versus wired networks previously used, with the costs reduction and the increase of reliability in measurement systems that this fact entails. To assess the suitability of wireless sensor networks it is necessary to take into account many factors since heritage is a very demanding field. This paper evaluates the quality of communications in various deployments of heritage interest, both architectural and natural heritage, of a competitive wireless sensor networks platform which has been subjected to different conditions of range in demanding monitoring environments. To measure the communication quality, multiple parameters for the characterization of the received signal and the links were taken into account, such as the RSSI, which measures the power level of the received signal and the percentage of correctly received messages, among others. Additionally, it will be also of relevance to achieve a long-term and low energy monitoring, since measured parameters do not undergo significant variations in short periods of study, so that the evaluation includes energy and consumption aspects of wireless sensor networks systems, establishing a final assessment methodology for this type of technology applied to the heritage monitoring field. Furthermore some design software / hardware aspects are evaluated for an appropriate validation of the system from the point of view of the end user. Research funded by Geomateriales (S2009/MAT-16), projects CGL2010-19554 and CGL2011-27902. M.I. Martínez-Garrido has been supported by a PICATA predoctoral fellowship of the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence (UPM-UCM, CSIC).

  10. The Chemistry of Modern Dental Filling Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, John W.; Anstice, H. Mary

    1999-01-01

    Discusses materials used by dentists to restore teeth after decay has been removed. Shows how dental-material science is an interdisciplinary field in which chemistry plays a major part. Reviews the many developments polymer chemistry has contributed to the field of dental fillings. (CCM)

  11. Developing core dental public health competencies for predoctoral dental and dental hygiene students.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Ana Karina; Atchison, Kathryn Ann

    2015-09-01

    Dental professionals are an "underutilized" workforce, when it comes to advocating for prevention and wellness in populations. The goal of this HRSA-funded project is to develop dental public health (DPH) competencies and curriculum for US predoctoral dental and dental hygiene programs. These competencies and accompanying curriculum are designed to better prepare the oral health workforce to meet the needs of the entire population, including the chronically underserved, those challenged by poor health literacy, or communities encountering barriers to accessing oral health care. By increasing the DPH competency of all graduating dental providers, in population-based approaches to preventing oral diseases rather than the existing exclusive focus on treatment, the number of providers who can respond to a population or the public's unmet needs and challenges, both in private practices and publicly supported clinics, will increase. This paper describes the competency development process and the eight competencies that were identified. PMID:26630639

  12. Anti-Streptococcal activity of Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest plant extracts presents potential for preventive strategies against dental caries

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Juliana Paola Corrêa; de CASTILHO, Adriana Lígia; SARACENI, Cíntia Helena Couri; DÍAZ, Ingrit Elida Collantes; PACIÊNCIA, Mateus Luís Barradas; SUFFREDINI, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Caries is a global public health problem, whose control requires the introduction of low-cost treatments, such as strong prevention strategies, minimally invasive techniques and chemical prevention agents. Nature plays an important role as a source of new antibacterial substances that can be used in the prevention of caries, and Brazil is the richest country in terms of biodiversity. Objective In this study, the disk diffusion method (DDM) was used to screen over 2,000 Brazilian Amazon plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods Seventeen active plant extracts were identified and fractionated. Extracts and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid partition, were tested in the DDM assay and in the microdilution broth assay (MBA) to determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). The extracts were also subjected to antioxidant analysis by thin layer chromatography. Results EB271, obtained from Casearia spruceana, showed significant activity against the bacterium in the DDM assay (20.67±0.52 mm), as did EB1129, obtained from Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae) (15.04±2.29 mm). EB1493, obtained from Ipomoea alba, was the only extract to show strong activity against Streptococcus mutans (0.08 mg/mLprevention strategies to treat caries. PMID:24676578

  13. Absorption and thermal study of dental enamel when irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the aim of caries prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boari, H. G. D.; Ana, P. A.; Eduardo, C. P.; Powell, G. L.; Zezell, D. M.

    2009-07-01

    It is widely recognized that Nd:YAG can increase enamel resistance to demineralization; however, the safe parameters and conditions that enable the application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in vivo are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine a dye as a photoabsorber for Nd:YAG laser and to verify in vitro a safe condition of Nd:YAG irradiation for caries prevention. Fifty-eight human teeth were selected. In a first morphological study, four dyes (waterproof India ink., iron oxide, caries indicator and coal paste) were tested before Nd:YAG laser irradiation, under two different irradiation conditions: 60 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (84.9 J/cm2); 80 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (113.1 J/cm2). In a second study, the enamel surface and pulp chamber temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiations. All dyes produced enamel surface melting, with the exception of the caries indicator, and coal paste was the only dye that could be completely removed. All irradiation conditions produced temperature increases of up to 615.08°C on the enamel surface. Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 60 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and 84.9 J/cm2 promoted no harmful temperature increase in the pulp chamber (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Among all dyes tested, the coal paste was an efficient photoabsorber for Nd:YAG irradiation, considered feasible for clinical practice. Nd:YAG laser at 84.9 J/cm2 can be indicated as a safe parameter for use in caries prevention.

  14. Assessment of awareness amongst school teachers regarding prevention and emergency management of dentoalveolar traumatic injuries in school children in Pune City, before and 3 months after dental educational program.

    PubMed

    Karande, Namrata; Shah, Preetam; Bhatia, Mitali; Lakade, Laxmi; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Arora, Nitin; Bhalla, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Children have boundless energy, so, they are continuously engaged in some or the other physical activity. It is seen that when child reaches school age, accidents in the school environment in the form of falls, injuries due to contact sports, fights, abuse, etc. are very common and the main cause of traumatic dental injuries. Trauma may vary from minor enamel chipping or avulsion to extensive maxillofacial damage, more serious neck and brain injury, which may cause pain, disfigurement and mental agony, having immediate and long lasting effects. In such cases, a school teacher is in the right position to handle such an emergency and refer the child to the concerned dental surgeon or a pedodontist for further needful care. The main reason for delayed treatment of dental trauma is that people present at the site of injury are unaware of protocol of rapid and appropriate management leading to improper first aid treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the awareness of a group of school teachers from different schools about the prevention and emergency management of dental trauma in school children, by means of a questionnaire. Then educating them and reassessing their knowledge after a period of 3 months. Unfortunately, the public is unaware of the risks and does not have enough information about first aid emergency treatment or to avoid traumatic injuries. PMID:23404018

  15. The use of sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation in prevention of dental caries during orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brulat, Nathalie; Milia, Giulia; Rockl, Andrea; Rocca, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This « in-vitro » study had two specific aims: the first, to test using a universal testing machine whether sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation prior to acid etching is effective in orthodontic bracket bonding and secondly using micro-hardness measurements and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations to investigate the effectiveness of de-mineralization reduction in enamel treated with sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation followed by fluoride varnish application. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty bovine permanent maxillary incisors were selected for shear bond strength testing and microhardness measurements. Sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation was set at a power density of 2.5 J/cm2, a frequency of 7 Hz and air/water spray. Brackets were bonded with an auto-curing resin paste. The shear bond strength was measured comparing laser irradiated and non-irradiated enamel surface, followed by SEM observation of the bracket-resin-enamel interface. Microhardness measurements were made on enamel samples before treatment, after samples preparation, and after demineralization. Results: While the adhesion of orthodontic brackets to bovine enamel after sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation and acid etching is comparable to that obtained after conventional acid etching, the effect of laser irradiation associated with topical application of fluoride varnish increases the microhardness of enamel. Conclusion: Sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation before the acid etching doesn't reduce the shear bond whereas when associated with fluoride application it may play a role in caries prevention. Further studies will be necessary to establish the mechanism by which the protective laser activated fluoride effect is achieved. PMID:25368443

  16. Dental Hygienist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  17. Methodological considerations concerning the development of oral dental erosion indexes: literature survey, validity and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Kutschmann, Marcus; Bardehle, Doris

    2008-01-01

    Within the context of preventing non-communicable diseases, the World Health Report (2002) and the WHO Global Oral Health Program (2003) put forward a new strategy of disease prevention and health promotion. Greater emphasis is placed on developing global policies in oral health promotion and oral disease prevention. The Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index does not meet new challenges in the field of oral health. Dental erosion seems to be a growing problem, and in some countries, an increase in erosion of teeth is associated with an increase in the consumption of beverages containing acids. Therefore, within a revision of the WHO Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods, new oral disease patterns, e.g. dental erosion, have to be taken into account. Within the last 20 years, many studies on dental erosion have been carried out and published. There has been a rapid growth in the number of indexes quantifying dental erosion process in different age groups. However, these indexes are not comparable. This article discusses quality criteria which an index intended for assessing tooth erosion should possess. PMID:18228060

  18. Utilization of dental care: An Indian outlook.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Brar, Prabhleen; Singh, Gurminder; Sofat, Anjali; Kakar, Heena

    2013-07-01

    Oral health has a significant impact on the quality of life, appearance, and self-esteem of the people. Preventive dental visits help in the early detection and treatment of oral diseases. Dental care utilization can be defined as the percentage of the population who access dental services over a specified period of time. There are reports that dental patients only visit the dentist when in pain and never bother to return for follow-up in most cases. To improve oral health outcomes an adequate knowledge of the way the individuals use health services and the factors predictive of this behavior is essential. The interest in developing models explaining the utilization of dental services has increased; issues like dental anxiety, price, income, the distance a person had to travel to get care, and preference for preservation of teeth are treated as barriers in regular dental care. Published materials which pertain to the use of dental services by Indian population have been reviewed and analyzed in depth in the present study. Dental surgeons and dental health workers have to play an adequate role in facilitating public enlightenment that people may appreciate the need for regular dental care and make adequate and proper use of the available dental care facilities. PMID:24082719

  19. Dental Treatment Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Krishnan, Ramesh; Pavaskar, Rajdeep

    2014-01-01

    These case reports highlight dental treatment abuse performed by a quack on children. The anterior teeth of these children were metal capped using cement, which were otherwise healthy. The treatment was done on children without parental consent by a quack from Denmark who gave the reason as for resolving proclination of upper permanent incisors. The unanatomic, unaesthetic metal caps were removed after the child reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. PMID:25177645

  20. Dental Hygienists

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygienists to be licensed; requirements vary by state. Education Dental hygienists typically need an associate’s degree in ... the skills needed in this occupation. Entry-level Education Typical level of education that most workers need ...

  1. Dental Assistants

    MedlinePlus

    ... use. These programs also include supervised practical experience. High school students interested in a career as a dental ... graduated from an accredited program or have a high school diploma and complete the required amount of work ...

  2. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    MedlinePlus

    ... I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material used to ... silver/copper/tin alloy particles to form an amalgam. Dental amalgam fillings are also known as “silver fillings” ...

  3. Planning an Education Program for Dental Hygienists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry W.; And Others

    Intended for adaptation to local situations, the handbook was prepared to assist interested groups to determine whether a dental hygiene educational program is needed and feasible, and to supply basic guidelines for planning. The introduction deals with dental hygiene in preventive dentistry and the historical development of educational programs.

  4. Ameloglyphics and predilection of dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Girish, HC; Murgod, Sanjay; Ravath, CJ Manasa; Hegde, Ramesh B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is an infectious disease of microbiologic origin resulting in destruction and loss of tooth structure and is related to every speciality of dentistry. Many studies have been carried out to identify the causative factors, methods of prevention, and treatment of dental caries. Ameloglyphics is the study of enamel rod end patterns. These patterns have been found to be unique to individual teeth of the same individual and also to different individuals. A possible correlation between the type of enamel rod end pattern and the occurrence of dental caries might help in predicting caries susceptibility of an individual and implementation of preventive measures. This is a simple and easy method cutting short elaborate methods currently in use and can be invaluable in caries prevention. Objective: This study is aimed at ascertaining the possibility of a correlation between enamel rod end patterns and occurrence of dental caries, which might help in identifying predisposition to dental caries. Materials and Methods: Thirty carious and 30 noncarious teeth were used to obtain enamel rod end patterns. Occurrence of any particular pattern in either of the study groups, which might affect the predisposition of teeth to dental caries was analyzed. Results: No particular rod end pattern was found in teeth affected by dental caries. Also, no particular pattern was found to be unique to teeth not affected by dental caries. PMID:24250075

  5. The sound of dental tissue ablation as a possible parameter for conservative dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Fábio Renato P.; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Matos, Adriana Bona

    2007-02-01

    Studies in cariology have been struggling for the development of caries prevention techniques, precocious diagnoses of lesions, re-mineralization of incipient carious lesions and early restorative intervention with minimally invasive procedures. When removing caries, healthy dental structure is often removed inadvertently during its final phase, for being quite difficult to precise the limits between viable and decayed dental tissues clinically. With laser technologies, a subjective clinical hint, often used to indicate when tissue ablation should be stopped is that different sounds are perceptive whether in carious (bass) or in healthy (treble) dental structure; when sound produced by ablation turned treble it would mean that healthy tissue was reached. This study aims to classify those audio differences and to turn them into objective parameters for a conservative operative dentistry with minimally invasive tissue removal when using erbium lasers. Twenty freshly extracted human teeth were used (10 decayed and 10 sound teeth). Dentine was erbium laser irradiated under same parameters, distance and refrigeration and a mono directional microphone was set 10 cm far from the operative area in order to capture and record the ablation produced sounds when working either on carious or healthy dentine. Ten pulses per file were then analysed in a computer software (200 analyses). It was permitted to draw similarities among the patterns in each group (decayed and healthy teeth) as well as differences between decayed and healthy produced sounds. Audio analysis came out to be a technical reliable objective parameter to determine whether laser ablated dentine substrates are decayed or sound; therefore it can be proposed as a conservative parameter, avoiding unnecessary removal of healthy dentine and restricting it to carious one.

  6. Maintenance and Monitoring of Dental Implants in General Dental Practice.

    PubMed

    Tarawali, Karifala

    2015-01-01

    A lot of effort has been directed towards developing dental implant surfaces which in turn have seen the increased success rate of osseointegration. Peri-implantitis and peri-implant mucositis are inflammatory conditions of implants that can lead to implant failure. Monitoring and maintaining implant restorations is aimed at preventing these complications. PMID:26506806

  7. Dental crowns

    MedlinePlus

    ... cover a tooth Replace a misshapen tooth or dental implant Correct a misaligned tooth Talk to your dentist ... the tooth pulled and replaced with a tooth implant. Your crown could chip or crack: If you grind your teeth or clench your jaw, you may need to ...

  8. Reducing dental plaque formation and caries development. A review of current methods and implications for novel pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kalesinskas, Povilas; Kačergius, Tomas; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Pečiulienė, Vytautė; Ericson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is an oral disease, which has a high worldwide prevalence despite the availability of various prophylactic means, including the daily use of fluoride toothpastes, water fluoridation, dental sealants, oral health educational programs and various antiseptic mouth-rinses. One important reason for this is uncontrolled increase in consumption of foods containing considerable sucrose concentration, especially among children. Sucrose is easily metabolized by oral bacteria (mostly streptococci) to acids and, subsequently, causing tooth decay or dental caries. In the oral ecosystem, streptococci principally reside on tooth surfaces forming biofilm. Important structural and binding materials of biofilm are glucan polymers synthesized by several isoforms of glucosyltransferase enzyme present in certain species of oral bacteria, including mutans group streptococci - Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which preferably colonize humans. Thus, there is a constant need to develop the methods and chemotherapeutics for improving oral health care and decreasing teeth decay through the suppression of cariogenic biofilm formation in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper was to review literature related to the pathogenesis of dental caries as well as currently existing and experimental pharmaceutical substances used for prevention of this process. PMID:25209226

  9. Dental-derived Stem Cells and whole Tooth Regeneration: an Overview

    PubMed Central

    Dannan, Aous

    2009-01-01

    The need for new dental tissue-replacement therapies is evident in recent reports which reveal startling statistics regarding the high incidence of tooth decay and tooth loss. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of dental stem cells, and in dental tissue-engineering strategies, suggest that bioengineering approaches may successfully be used to regenerate dental tissues and whole teeth. Interest in dental tissue-regeneration applications continues to increase as clinically relevant methods for the generation of bioengineered dental tissues, and whole teeth, continue to improve. This paper is concerned about dental-derived stem cells and their characterization. Additionally, since conventional dental treatments partially serve the purpose for replacing missing teeth and always include possible failure rates, the potential of dental-derived stem cells in promoting whole tooth regeneration is also discussed. Keywords Dental stem cells; Tissue engineering; Tooth regeneration PMID:22505970

  10. [Dental care using silver amalgam].

    PubMed

    Vanherle, G

    1996-01-01

    Dental amalgam is the most widely used filling material in dentistry. In our country there are an estimated 40 million amalgam fillings in place. The mercury present in these fillings has caused health concerns over the last 160 years that amalgam has been used in decayed teeth. The fears have always proven to be unjustified and no harmful effects have ever been demonstrated in dental patients. Mercury can be found in several forms. In dentistry, only the metallic form is used, while inorganic and organic compounds are also present in the environment. The metallic form is absorbed in the human body mostly through the lungs. Once mercury reaches toxic levels inside the body, it will interfere with cell metabolism. Most important among the target organs are the brain, the liver and the kidneys. Elimination occur through urine and feces. Mercury is universally found in blood and urine. The concentration depends on absorption by air, water, nutrition, medication (including dental fillings) and occupational hazards. There are four kinds of objectives to dental amalgam: oral galvanism, toxicity, allergenicity and ecological grievances. Disorders from oral galvanism are difficult and delicate to evaluate as the actual currents are very small. Furthermore, no significant difference can be found in current intensity between patients with and without complaints. Finally patients with complaints often present other oral disorders, the treatment of which most often eliminates all complaints that could be attributed to oral galvanism. Toxicity is dose dependent. Industrial safety rules indicate that the amount of mercury absorbed from dental amalgam fillings is far below the safety level. HgB and HgU levels in patients with amalgam fillings are situated well below the acceptable levels. Allergic disorders are observed in patients with amalgam fillings but far less than expected in view of the wide spread use of dental amalgam. The problem of mercury spilling from dental amalgam fillings into the environment will be resolved by strict legislation in the near future. In this context, it can be stated that the use of dental amalgam is safe and justified. Furthermore, it is also advisable as no other material can meet the actual dental needs as efficiently as can dental amalgam. PMID:9027133

  11. Dental Training Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

  12. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries. PMID:26159983

  13. Dental Caries Experience and Use of Dental Services among Brazilian Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Leite Cavalcanti, Alessandro; Araujo Rodrigues, Iris Sant´Anna; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; Sarmento de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Cabral Xavier, Alidianne Fabia; Dias de Castro, Ricardo; Nascimento Padilha, Wilton Wilney

    2014-01-01

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, “decayed” and “missing” components contributed to the high mean DMFT index. PMID:25429680

  14. Drug and dental impression materials

    PubMed Central

    Maller, Sudhakara V.; Karthik, K. S.; Maller, Udita S.; Abraham, Mathew C.; Kumar, Rachuri Narendra; Manikandan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Guidelines to prevent cross contamination with infectious agents have been instituted for dental clinical and laboratory procedures. However, compliance by dental offices and clinics in disinfecting impression material has not been universal. Techniques for disinfecting impression materials are spraying or immersing impression materials. These techniques can reduce the surface detail and dimensional accuracy of impressions; most disinfectants are irritants. This study reviewed whether antimicrobial activity can be achieved by mixing certain drugs with the impression material and their effects on the disinfection are achieved through such additions. PMID:23066280

  15. Noninvasive Quantitative Evaluation of the Dentin Layer during Dental Procedures Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Bradu, Adrian; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2015-01-01

    A routine cavity preparation of a tooth may lead to opening the pulp chamber. The present study evaluates quantitatively, in real time, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the drilled cavities during dental procedures. An established noninvasive imaging technique, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), is used. The main scope is to prevent accidental openings of the dental pulp chamber. Six teeth with dental cavities have been used in this ex vivo study. The real time assessment of the distances between the bottom of the drilled cavities and the top of the pulp chamber was performed using an own assembled OCT system. The evaluation of the remaining dentin thickness (RDT) allowed for the positioning of the drilling tools in the cavities in relation to the pulp horns. Estimations of the safe and of the critical RDT were made; for the latter, the opening of the pulp chamber becomes unavoidable. Also, by following the fractures that can occur when the extent of the decay is too large, the dentist can decide upon the right therapy to follow, endodontic or conventional filling. The study demonstrates the usefulness of OCT imaging in guiding such evaluations during dental procedures. PMID:26078779

  16. Dental Fluorosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... you should consider the fluoride level in the community drinking water, other sources of fluoride, and factors likely to affect susceptibility to tooth decay when weighing the risk and benefits of using ...

  17. Sociodemographic, Socio-economic, Clinical and Behavioural Factors Modifying Experience and Prevalence of Dental Caries in the Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, MS; Medina-Solis, CE; Islas-Granillo, H; Lara-Carrillo, E; Scougall-Vilchis, RJ; Escoffié-Ramírez, M; la Rosa-Santillana, R De; Avila-Burgos, L

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and caries prevalence in Nicaraguan children 9-12 years old. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 800 school children 9-12 years old in the city of León, Nicaragua. The clinical oral examinations to identify caries experience were undertaken by two trained and certified examiners. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and behavioural data were collected using questionnaires. Negative binomial regression (NBR) and binary logistic regression (BLR) models were used to model caries experience and caries prevalence, respectively. Results: Mean DMFT index was 0.98 ± 1.74 and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0) was 37.9%. In the NBR model, the categories that increase the expected DMFT mean were: older age, female gender, presence of plaque, and if the school children received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. In the BLR model, the odds of presenting with caries in the permanent dentition were increased in older children, those from large families, mothers with a positive dental attitude, and those school children who received curative and curative/preventive dental care in the last year. Conclusions: Using different models, we identified several sociodemographic, socio-economic, clinical and behavioural factors that modify the experience (NBR) and prevalence (BLR) of dental caries. PMID:25867561

  18. Dental Status of New Caledonian Children: Is There a Need for a New Oral Health Promotion Programme?

    PubMed Central

    Pichot, Hélène; Hennequin, Martine; Rouchon, Bernard; Pereira, Bruno; Tubert-Jeannin, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Before implementing a new oral health promotion program in the French overseas territory of Nouvelle Calédonie, the health authorities needed recent data about dental status of the New Caledonian child population. Objectives This study aimed to describe the dental status of 6, 9 and 12-yr-old New Caledonian children and to investigate the environmental and behavioural risk factors related to oral health. Methods A randomly selected sample of 2734 children (744 6-yr-olds, 789 9-yr-olds, and 1201 12-yr-olds) was examined clinically by seven calibrated investigators and participants responded to a questionnaire. The main variables were objective criteria about dental status and subjective criteria about experience of dental care, dental fear, self-perception of oral health, cultural or ethnic identity and environmental and behavioural risk factors. Results Overall, most of the children had infectious oral diseases: more than 50% had gingivitis, and 60% of 6- and 9 yr-olds had at least one deciduous or permanent tooth with untreated caries. The mean 12-yr-old number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT) was 2.09±2.82. The number of carious lesions was related to the unfavourable lifestyle, deprived social status and no preventive dental care. Kanak, Polynesians and Caledonians (respectively 27%, 18% and 45% of the study sample) were more affected by caries than metropolitan French and Asian children. Children with many untreated carious lesions had negative perceptions of their oral health; they complained of chewing difficulty and had higher scores for dental anxiety. Conclusion This study highlights the need for new strategies aimed at improving oral health and at reducing inequalities in New Caledonia. An oral health promotion program would need to be developed in connection with other health programmes using the common risk factor approach within the context of the local environment. PMID:25380304

  19. Dental surgery standards for perioperative nurses. Medical Center of Central Georgia.

    PubMed

    Sanders, R A; Daniel, I Q; Fuhrmann, P B

    1995-08-01

    Practice standards for dental surgery are necessary to maintain quality care for dental patients. Specific standards or recommended practices for dental surgery have not been addressed by AORN, and none are available from the American Dental Association or the Georgia Dental Association. We incorporated the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations had to be incorporated into existing perioperative standards to institute dental surgery standards for our facility. The standards for dental surgery at the Medical Center of Central Georgia, Macon, evolved with the leadership of perioperative nurses. PMID:7486971

  20. Natural products and caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Li, Jiyao; He, Libang; Zhou, Xuedong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is considered as the most common polymicrobial oral disease in the world. With the aim of developing alternative approaches to reduce or prevent the decay, numerous papers showed the potential anticaries activity of a number of natural products. The natural products with anticaries effects are selected from e.g. food, beverages, flowers or traditional herbs. Most of the effective components are proven to be polyphenol compounds. Many of the natural products are studied as antibacterial agents, while some of them are found to be effective in shifting the de-/remineralization balance. However, the mechanisms of the anticaries effects are still unclear for most of the natural products. In the future, more efforts need to be made to seek novel effective natural products via in vitro experiment, animal study and in situ investigations, as well as to enhance their anticaries effects with the help of novel technology like nanotechnology. PMID:25871417

  1. [Determinants of dental caries in Haitian schoolchildren and implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Bedos, C; Brodeur, J M

    2000-01-01

    This work was carried out as part of a community development project in North-West Haiti. The aim was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among young Haitians and to identify the principal determinants and risk factors. A total of 322 schoolchildren, all aged 12 years, participated in the study in March and April 1996. Demographic characteristics, hygiene and dietary habits were recorded. In parallel, a dentist assessed the amount of debris present on the teeth and investigated the children's history of caries. Almost two thirds of the children examined were free of caries. The mean number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT index) was 0.93, which is low. However, a high-risk group was identified with a mean DMFT index of 3.8. This group is a source of some concern, particularly as the region's health services are often inaccessible resulting in dental caries frequently remaining untreated until tooth extraction is required. Logistic regression analysis showed that dental hygiene and, to a lesser extent, sugar intake, were the principal risk factors for dental caries. Adolescents who consume more than three meals per day and who, presumably, have a higher intake of cariogenic food, present more caries than those who consume less. These schoolchildren meet the objectives of the WHO for dental caries for 2000, but two courses of action are nonetheless necessary: caries prevention and improved access to dental health care. To prevent caries, techniques for increasing the resistance of teeth could be recommended, as in industrialized countries. However, such strategies would be difficult to implement in the rural context of a developing country. The addition of fluoride to drinking water, for example, is not practical as most of the inhabitants of rural areas do not have access to running water. The use of sealing agents, which protect against decay affecting the occlusal surfaces of molars, is also impractical, for financial reasons. Thus, basic measures involving the improvement of dental hygiene and reducing the intake of cariogenic foods remain the principal means of preventing caries. Increasing the accessibility of dental care, like prevention, involves a number of problems. Increasing the number of health centers, or renovating existing clinics requires resources, and possibly infrastructure, that the Haitian state may not be in a position to provide. The recently developed ART (Atraumatic Restoration Treatment) overcomes this problem. This method involves manually cleaning cavities and sealing then with glass ionomer. This product is highly adhesive, which frees dentists from the constraints of having to use rotating electrical equipment. Caries can therefore now be treated in remote areas with a minimum of dental equipment. However, although encouraging results were obtained in a three-year trial in Thailand, the mechanical quality of glass ionomer and its ability to block caries development are unclear. In conclusion, a lack of financial resources limits the possibilities of intervention in developing countries, drawing attention to the important question of the financing of health programs. Funding remains the key to any program and has been shown to be an essential issue in epidemiological studies. PMID:11022145

  2. Preventive oral health care for the infant, child, and adolescent.

    PubMed

    Griffen, A L; Goepferd, S J

    1991-10-01

    Although we have the knowledge and technology necessary to prevent it, most children experience dental disease, and a few children continue to experience high rates of decay. The appropriateness and effectiveness of preventive measures vary throughout the life of a child, and recommendations should be tailored to the needs of the individual. Water fluoridation continues to be the most cost-effective preventive measure available. For patients who do not have access to fluoridated water, dietary supplementation offers similar benefits. A wide variety of professionally applied and home use topical fluoride products such as dentrifrices, gels, and rinses can also reduce the risk of dental caries, particularly on the smooth surfaces of the teeth. The most common site of decay in children is the fissures of the molar teeth. These areas can be protected by the professional application of plastic sealants. Dietary practices influence caries rates, and patients should be advised to limit the frequency of carbohydrate exposures rather than the total amount of carbohydrates consumed. Parents of infants should be advised to discontinue bottle feeding around the age of 12 months to avoid nursing caries. Although oral hygiene practices are not as effective in reducing caries rates as is generally believed, daily toothbrushing and flossing are unquestionably effective in preventing periodontal disease. In order to be maximally effective, preventive efforts should be initiated early in the life of the child. Although most children experience dental disease, a mouth free of caries and periodontal disease is a potentially attainable goal for all children when they use currently available techniques. PMID:1886743

  3. Techniques of dental DNA extraction: Some operative experiences.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Torricelli, Francesca; Nutini, A Lucia; Conti, Marco; Iozzi, Sara; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2011-01-30

    This study presents and discusses the possibility of multiple dental DNA extraction at different times using an endodontic technique. We chose a mixed sample of twenty teeth (decayed, filled, different kinds of teeth, etc.) and performed two different accesses to the pulp cavity to collect samples of dental tissue useful for DNA extraction. The Identifiler(®) and Minifiler(®) kits were used respectively for the first and second genetic analysis. The research's most relevant findings are the possibility of successfully repeating dental DNA extractions, and that a dental element can be considered as a DNA source that can be reused even after prolonged time elapses. The study's results document a simple and efficient methodology for dental identification based on the choice of dental elements, endodontic techniques and the use of the Minifiler(®) kit for genetic analysis. PMID:20558019

  4. Infant dental care (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... child to bed with a bottle of milk, juice, or sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which are essential to overall good health. Poor dental development, dental disease, and dental trauma ...

  5. Emerging technologies for diagnosis of dental caries: The road so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-05-01

    It is now universally recognized that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental decay at an early stage of formation could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction in the time required for clinical trials of anticaries agents. The use of technologies as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technologies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting dental caries at the earliest stage of its formation, assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion, and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time. The need and the importance of these technologies were also discussed. The data discussed are primarily based on published scientific studies and reviews from case reports, clinical trials, and in vitro and in vivo studies. References have been traced manually by MEDLINE® or through manufacturer's websites. While some of the devices are fully developed and commercially available, others are still under development. The devices vary in their modes of action as well as their capability as caries diagnostic aids. It is clear that the differences in caries presentations and behavior in different anatomical sites make it unlikely that any one diagnostic modality will have adequate sensitivity and specificity of detection of carious lesions for all sites; a combination of diagnostic tools will help us diagnose lesions earlier and detect failing restorations sooner, all to avoid more costly, destructive dental procedures and truly take dentistry into the preventive rather than the reactive mode.

  6. Dental Caries and the Associated Factors Influencing It in Tribal, Suburban and Urban School Children of Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    John, J. Baby; Asokan, Sharath; Aswanth, KP; Priya, P.R. Geetha; Shanmugaavel, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups Design and methods Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from various government schools located in Palamalai and Kolli Hills (tribal), Tiruchengode (suburban) and Erode (urban), Tamil Nadu, were included in the study. Decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT), decayed and filled teeth (dft) and Significant Caries Index were recorded. A specially prepared questionnaire was used to record all the data regarding oral hygiene practices, socioeconomic background, dental treatment availability, parent’s education level were used for the study. ANOVA t-test and post hoc test were used for comparing quantitative variables between the 3 subgroups. Results The tribal school children had 89.3% caries prevalence, where as it was 77% in suburban and 55% in urban school children. The mean DMFT score among tribal, suburban and urban school children were statistically significant different (P=0.001) between the three groups. There was a highly significant difference (P=0.001) in the mean DMFT score based on brushing frequency. There was a statistically significant difference (P=0.018) in the mean DMFT scores in the urban group based on the mothers education status. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DMFT scores based on the presence or absence of television in their house and the parents’ income. Conclusions Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services played an important role in prevalence of dental caries. It was observed that the socioeconomic status, parents’ educational status and mass media influenced the oral health of these children but without a significant contribution. Significance for public health It was observed from the present study that the socioeconomic status, parents’ educational status, media and family structure influence the oral health of children in under-privileged communities. Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services also play an important role in the prevalence of dental caries among children. Children of government schools in Tamil Nadu, India, don’t get adequate information on oral health, related diseases and methods of prevention. Oral health education and health promotion should be mandatory for all school children. PMID:25918690

  7. The FiCTION dental trial protocol – filling children’s teeth: indicated or not?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of evidence for effective management of dental caries (decay) in children’s primary (baby) teeth and an apparent failure of conventional dental restorations (fillings) to prevent dental pain and infection for UK children in Primary Care. UK dental schools’ teaching has been based on British Society of Paediatric Dentistry guidance which recommends that caries in primary teeth should be removed and a restoration placed. However, the evidence base for this is limited in volume and quality, and comes from studies conducted in either secondary care or specialist practices. Restorations provided in specialist environments can be effective but the generalisability of this evidence to Primary Care has been questioned. The FiCTION trial addresses the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme’s commissioning brief and research question “What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of restoration caries in primary teeth, compared to no treatment?” It compares conventional restorations with an intermediate treatment strategy based on the biological (sealing-in) management of caries and with no restorations. Methods/Design This is a Primary Care-based multi-centre, three-arm, parallel group, patient-randomised controlled trial. Practitioners are recruiting 1461 children, (3–7 years) with at least one primary molar tooth where caries extends into dentine. Children are randomized and treated according to one of three treatment approaches; conventional caries management with best practice prevention, biological management of caries with best practice prevention or best practice prevention alone. Baseline measures and outcome data (at review/treatment during three year follow-up) are assessed through direct reporting, clinical examination including blinded radiograph assessment, and child/parent questionnaires. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of either pain or infection related to dental caries. Secondary outcomes are; incidence of caries in primary and permanent teeth, patient quality of life, cost-effectiveness, acceptability of treatment strategies to patients and parents and their experiences, and dentists’ preferences. Discussion FiCTION will provide evidence for the most clinically-effective and cost-effective approach to managing caries in children’s primary teeth in Primary Care. This will support general dental practitioners in treatment decision making for child patients to minimize pain and infection in primary teeth. The trial is currently recruiting patients. Trial registration Protocol ID: NCTU: ISRCTN77044005 PMID:23725316

  8. Musculoskeletal disorders (Msds) and dental practice. part 1. General information-terminology, aetiology, work-relatedness, magnitude of the problem, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Nermin, Yamalik

    2006-12-01

    Occupational health hazards are common in many sectors and are on the increase. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), which are problems of musculoskeletal system, are significant and costly workplace problems affecting occupational health, productivity and the careers of the working population. Although there is a lack of uniform medical information and a clear understanding of the nature of MSDs, and significant difficulties in diagnosis which generate an ongoing debate regarding many aspects of these conditions, various risk factors are identified and preventive measures are available. As safety and health at work is a realistic target and prevention is clearly the best approach, the preventive philosophy deserves particular attention. This review aims to provide background information on general features of MSDs, identified risk factors and the basic philosophy of prevention. PMID:17243470

  9. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  10. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison. PMID:26126345

  11. Dental care utilization over time.

    PubMed

    Beazoglou, T; Brown, L J; Heffley, D

    1993-12-01

    Between 1950 and 1978, per capita real dental expenditures in the U.S. grew at an average annual rate of 3.33%. Between 1978 and 1989 there was virtually no net growth in this measure of dental care utilization. This sharp curtailment of utilization growth has promoted debate about the sources of this change. Possible explanations include, among others, a reduction in dental disease due to increased exposure to fluoridation, the substitution of noncaloric sweeteners for refined sugar, preventive dentistry, , improved oral health habits, an increase in the net price of dental services, and the cost-containment efforts of insurers and employers. Changes have occurred in all of these variables, but little has done to isolate and quantify the individual effects. This decomposition is difficult, in part, because of the lack of an established model for time-series analysis of dental care utilization. A model of dental care demand, incorporating economic factors (out-of-pocket or net dental prices, per capita income, and nondental prices) as well as dietary factors (refined sugar consumption, noncaloric sweeteners, and exposure to fluoridated water), is combined with a simple model of dental care supply within an equilibrium framework. A two-stage estimation procedure is applied, using U.S. aggregate time-series data for the period 1950-89. Results show that economic and dietary factors are significantly related to changes in utilization. Net price and income elasticities of demand exhibit the expected signs and are compatible with estimates from cross-sectional studies. Decreases in cane and beet sugar consumption, facilitated by the increase in the use of noncaloric sweeteners, are associated with reductions in utilization. Fluoridation appears to be weakly but positively related to utilization. There also appears to have been a significant structural shift in demand since 1978. Overall goodness-of-fit is strong and the model accurately tracks the 1978-89 flattening of per capita real dental expenditures. Analysis of the relative contribution of each independent variable suggests that economic, dietary, and structural shift factors have contributed to this curtailment of growth. PMID:8303330

  12. Children's dental health in Europe. An epidemiological investigation of 5- and 12-year-old children from eight EU countries.

    PubMed

    Bolin, A K

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is based on a cross-sectional comparative study of dental health, treatment needs and attitudes to dental care in groups of 5- and 12-year-old children from the following eight cities in respective EU countries: Athens-Greece, Berlin-Germany, Cork-Ireland, Dundee-Scotland, Gent-Belgium, Sassari-Italy, Stockholm-Sweden and Valencia-Spain. A total of 3,200 children, 200 in each age group, were clinically examined by well-calibrated dentists, the parents completing a questionnaire on dental habits, parental and children's attitudes to dental care, smoking habits and parental occupations. The results disclosed pronounced differences in dental health and treatment need among the children from the different countries. The Scottish, Italian and German 5-year-olds exhibited the highest values for decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft). The m component dominated for the Scottish sample, the d component in the Italian and d and f in the German sample. The highest values for DMFT in the 12-year-olds were found in the German, Greek and Italian samples followed by the Swedish sample. The F component dominated in the German and Swedish samples, while D dominated in the Greek and Italian samples. Analyses of the influence of socio-demographic and behavioural factors on the dental health, expressed as dmft/DMFT, showed that the most important factors explaining differences in caries experience were toothache, social class of the family and dental fear in the children. The frequency of similar attitudes (dental fear) in subjects and parents was 50% or higher in all the samples, and the frequency of similar dental attendance patterns in child and parent was 42% or higher in all the samples. For both age groups the proportion of subjects with regular dental attendance habits was highest in the Swedish, Belgian, German and Scottish samples. These findings, together with the high frequency of regular attenders without treatment need in the Swedish 5-year-olds indicate that organization of dental care must be closely adapted to the population it is set to serve. Separate strategies are necessary to manage the dental needs of healthy respectively diseased children. Reliable epidemiological data are necessary for planning, so that resources can be directed to the individuals with the greatest needs. However, to reach the children before onset of disease, parents, teachers, general health workers, sports coaches etc. must work jointly together with the dental profession. Among the eight countries, there is greater similarity in the organization of dental care for schoolchildren than for pre-school children. Only the Swedish system offers both preventive and restorative treatment irrespective of initiatives from the parents. In the other countries parents are mainly responsible for arranging for restorative treatment, above all for pre-school children. Different policies to promote dental health in the child population can be seen. Fluoridation of domestic water supplies has been implemented in Ireland, and the frequent use of fissure sealants in the Scottish, Irish and also the Belgian 12-year-olds is another example of a cost-effective measure influencing the dental health. PMID:9200352

  13. Dental and Periodontal Health Status of Beta Thalassemia Major and Sickle Cell Anemic Patients: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jaideep; Singh, Nitin; Kumar, Amit; Kedia, Neal Bharat; Agarwal, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to assess the dental and periodontal health status of beta thalassemia major and sickle cell anemic patients in Bilaspur, Chattishgarh, India. Materials & Methods: A total of 750 patients were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups I (n=250), II (n=250) and III (n=250), ranging from 3-15 years. After performing a thourough general examination, including their demographic data, intraoral examination was done using Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth Index (DMFT Index), Plaque index (PI) and Gingival index (GI). Statistical analysis was done using statistical software SPSS 17.5 version. Chi square test & student t test was used for the comparison of study and control groups. The level of significance was set at P<0.05. Results: In the present study, it was found that, prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases was significantly more in beta thalassemic patients followed by sickle cell anemic patients than control group. However, when group I (beta thalassemia) was compared with group II (sickle cell anemia), results were found to highly significant (P<0.001) only for decayed missing filled tooth. Conclusion: Appropriate dental and periodontal care improves a patient's quality of life. Preventive dental care is must for thalassemic and Sickle cell disease patients. How to cite this article: Singh J, Singh N, Kumar A, Kedia NB, Agarwal A. Dental and Periodontal Health Status of Beta Thalassemia Major and Sickle Cell Anemic Patients: A Comparative Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):53-8. PMID:24324305

  14. Dental plaque - associated infections and antibacterial oral hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Verran, J

    1991-02-01

    Synopsis Dental plaque accumulates on hard non-shedding surfaces such as teeth, dentures and orthodontic appliances. This accumulation is facilitated by the absence of adequate oral hygiene procedures. The term 'plaque' describes a mass of microorganisms embedded in an organic matrix of host and microbial origin. In addition to the aesthetic desirability of 'clean teeth, healthy gums and fresh breath' associated with the absence of plaque, obvious consequences of the presence of plaque include tooth decay (dental caries), gingivitis and periodontal (gum) disease and denture associated problems. Thus the prevention of plaque formation, the reduction of plaque accumulation and the effective removal of plaque are considerations of the cosmetic and health professions alike. There are many oral hygiene products available to the general public - toothpastes, mouthwashes, denture cleaners, and, more recently, chewing gums and novel mouthwashes. Several of these products have antimicrobial components. This paper reviews the microbiology of plaque and plaque associated problems, and surveys the type of products currently available for maintenance of good oral hygiene. Potential areas for future development are also explored. PMID:19291039

  15. Effects of supervised daily dental plaque removal by children: first-year results.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, A M; Suomi, J D; Peterson, J K; Voglesong, R H; Mathews, B L

    1976-01-01

    In September 1973, a three-year school-based study was initiated in East Hampton, Connecticut, a rural nonfluoridated community. The purpose of the study is to determine the effect on dental decay, gingival inflammation and oral hygiene of removing dental plaque through supervised daily toothbrushing and flossing in school during a three-year period. To establish baseline data, three indexes were used: the DHC Index to evaluate gingivitis; the DMF Surface Index to quantify dental caries and the PHP Index to measure dental plaque. The examinations for dental caries, including radiographs, are scheduled annually in September, whereas the plaque and gingival examinations are done biannually, in September and June. After the baseline examinations the 481 children were blocked according to grade and sex and then were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or to a control group. In November, the treatment group was provided 10 sessions of instruction in plaque removal. For the remainder of the year (six months) they practiced daily plaque removal, supervised by a dental hygienist and a nurse. The control group was not instructed in oral hygiene procedures. In the treatment group, mean plaque and gingival scores at the June (first follow-up) examination were 14 percent and 29 percent lower, respectively, than at baseline. No change was seen in the control group. At the second follow-up examination in September (after summer vacation), the same indexes were nearly at baseline levels in the treatment group. There was no treatment effect on dental caries increments after one year of study. Considering the nature of the treatment regimen and the few treatments during the first year of the study, it is not surprising that there were no caries-preventive benefits demonstrated among children in the treatment group after one year. The total number of the plaque removal sessions will be greater during the second year of the study. Therefore, the possibility of detecting a caries preventive effect at the twenty-four month examinations, should one exist, will be enhanced. PMID:1065757

  16. Dental hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R M

    2011-08-01

    A 14-year-old girl developed dental pain and was treated for acute infected pulpitis of her right upper lateral incisor with drilling and filling. The pain continued and was helped by analgesia, sucking ice cubes and drinking cold water. Forty-eight hours later, she became confused and disoriented. She started to vomit and complained of headache. Investigations revealed hyponatraemia with normal serum potassium levels and initially normal urinary sodium excretion. Over the next 24 hours, she passed 5.45 L of urine and her serum sodium rose from 125 to 143 mmol/L. Self-induced water intoxication has been described during drinking games and initiation ceremonies, but this would appear to an unusual cause. Conservative management proved successful in allowing this girl to recover without sequelae. PMID:21873727

  17. Genetic engineering and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shipra; Pandit, I K; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj

    2003-01-01

    Dental caries, a multifactorial disease requires four principle factor: the host, the microflora, the substrate & time for its occurrence and can be prevented or managed by elimination/modification of either of the above factors. The conventional preventive measure being followed for long time for the dental caries are not successful to the desirable extent due to their non avaibailaballity in the rural areas, lack of awareness & inaccessibility of dental services. Therefore, the focus has now been shifted to submicroscopic level to ensure that these measures can be reached to the farthest areas & each & every member of the population is benefitted. Few of the measures taken are. i) Genetically modifying the S. Mutans: ii) Searching The antagonist peptides to work against the specific enzyme system (Glucosyltransferase) of S. Mutans. iii) Changing the oral environment by those Genetically modified organisms that will produce bases (instead of acids) & these bases provides a milieu favoring remineralization. This paper discusses various ways in which genetically modified strains of microogranisms or genetically modified strains of microogranisms of genetically modified foods can help in the prevention of caries. PMID:15328998

  18. Report of the Task Force on AIDS and Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, John; Gray, Carolyn F.

    1988-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' task force on acquired immune deficiency syndrome and dental education recommends that educational strategies stress the necessity for routine infection control procedures in treatment, enhancing the health professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning all aspects of disease prevention.…

  19. Nutrition Program Boosts Dental Health of Orange County Migrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Anne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In Orange County, California, 76 migrant preschool children and 45 parents participated in a 7-week pilot program concerned with preventing dental disease by encouraging good dental habits and healthy food choices. Parent questionnaires revealed that the most remarkable program-related change was a decrease in consumption of sugary foods for over…

  20. POLICIES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE TRAINING OF DENTAL AUXILIARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Dental Education.

    ALTHOUGH THE DENTAL PROFESSION NOW SEEKS SUPPORT FOR AUXILIARY TRAINING PROGRAMS FROM EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES OTHER THAN DENTAL SCHOOLS, IT IS CONCERNED THAT TRAINING IN NONDENTAL SCHOOL SETTINGS SUCH AS JUNIOR COLLEGES, TECHNICAL INSTITUTES, UNIVERSITY EXTENSION PROGRAMS, AND POST-HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS PREVENTS TRAINEE EXPOSURE TO…

  1. Genetic aspects of dental disorders.

    PubMed

    Townsend, G C; Aldred, M J; Bartold, P M

    1998-08-01

    This paper reviews past and present applications of quantitative and molecular genetics to dental disorders. Examples are given relating to craniofacial development (including malocclusion), oral supporting tissues (including periodontal diseases) and dental hard tissues (including defects of enamel and dentine as well as dental caries). Future developments and applications to clinical dentistry are discussed. Early investigations confirmed genetic bases to dental caries, periodontal diseases and malocclusion, but research findings have had little impact on clinical practice. The complex multifactorial aetiologies of these conditions, together with methodological problems, have limited progress until recently. Present studies are clarifying previously unrecognized genetic and phenotypic heterogeneities and attempting to unravel the complex interactions between genes and environment by applying new statistical modelling approaches to twin and family data. Linkage studies using highly polymorphic DNA markers are providing a means of locating candidate genes, including quantitative trait loci (QTL). In future, as knowledge increases; it should be possible to implement preventive strategies for those genetically-predisposed individuals who are identified to be at risk. PMID:9775475

  2. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  3. Strand I - Physical Health; Dental Health for Grades K-3. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.

    This is a curriculum guide for teaching dental health material to early elementary grade students. This outline emphasizes the prevention and treatment of dental diseases, and is designed to provide the knowledge and develop the habits necessary for a lifetime of good dental health. A list of seven pupil objectives is presented to develop good…

  4. Dental erosion: understanding this pervasive condition.

    PubMed

    Almeida e Silva, Júnio S; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Araujo, Edson; Widmer, Nicolas

    2011-08-01

    Dental erosion is a contemporary disease, mostly because of the change of the eating patterns that currently exist in society. It is a "silent" and multifactorial disease, and is highly influenced by habits and lifestyles. The prevalence of dental erosion has considerably increased, with this condition currently standing as a great challenge for the clinician, regarding the diagnosis, identification of the etiological factors, prevention, and execution of an adequate treatment. This article presents a dental erosion review and a case report of a restorative treatment of dental erosion lesions using a combination of bonded ceramic overlays to reestablish vertical dimension and composite resin to restore the worn palatal and incisal surfaces of the anterior upper teeth. Adequate function and esthetics can be achieved with this approach. PMID:21806751

  5. Experiences of dental care: what do patients value?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dentistry in Australia combines business and health care service, that is, the majority of patients pay money for tangible dental procedures such as fluoride applications, dental radiographs, dental fillings, crowns, and dentures among others. There is evidence that patients question dentists’ behaviours and attitudes during a dental visit when those highly technical procedures are performed. However, little is known about how patients’ experience dental care as a whole. This paper illustrates the findings from a qualitative study recently undertaken in general dental practice in Australia. It focuses on patients’ experiences of dental care, particularly on the relationship between patients and dentists during the provision of preventive care and advice in general dental practices. Methods Seventeen patients were interviewed. Data analysis consisted of transcript coding, detailed memo writing, and data interpretation. Results Patients described their experiences when visiting dental practices with and without a structured preventive approach in place, together with the historical, biological, financial, psychosocial and habitual dimensions of their experience. Potential barriers that could hinder preventive activities as well as facilitators for prevention were also described. The offer of preventive dental care and advice was an amazing revelation for this group of patients as they realized that dentists could practice dentistry without having to “drill and fill” their teeth. All patients, regardless of the practice they came from or their level of clinical risk of developing dental caries, valued having a caring dentist who respected them and listened to their concerns without “blaming” them for their oral health status. These patients complied with and supported the preventive care options because they were being “treated as a person not as a patient” by their dentists. Patients valued dentists who made them aware of existing preventive options, educated them about how to maintain a healthy mouth and teeth, and supported and reassured them frequently during visits. Conclusions Patients valued having a supportive and caring dentist and a dedicated dental team. The experience of having a dedicated, supportive and caring dentist helped patients to take control of their own oral health. These dentists and dental teams produced profound changes in not just the oral health care routines of patients, but in the way patients thought about their own oral health and the role of dental professionals. PMID:22726888

  6. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes and Oral Health > Diabetes: Dental Tips Diabetes: Dental Tips Main Content Diabetes can cause serious problems ... damage the gum and bone that hold your teeth in place and may lead to painful chewing ...

  7. Dental Care in Scleroderma

    MedlinePlus

    Dental Care in Scleroderma People living with scleroderma face unique challenges while trying to maintain their oral ... They are more likely to be affected by dental conditions such as small mouth, dry mouth, jaw ...

  8. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes: Dental Tips For additional copies contact: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Oral Health Information Clearinghouse ... damage the gum and bone that hold your teeth in place and may lead to painful chewing ...

  9. American Dental Education Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental Schools ADEA Member Benefits for Advanced Dental Education Programs ADEA Member to Member Recruitment Faculty and ... Program Directors Faculty Current Students & Residents Prospective Students Education & Events Educational Meetings Upcoming Events Past Events Professional ...

  10. Alternative Practice Dental Hygiene in California: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    MERTZ, ELIZABETH; GLASSMAN, PAUL

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the development of the registered dental hygienist in alternative practice in California through an analysis of archival documents, stakeholder interviews, and two surveys of the registered dental hygienist in alternative practice. Designing, testing and implementing a new practice model for dental hygienists took 23 years. Today, registered dental hygienists in alternative practice have developed viable alternative methods for delivering preventive oral health care services in a range of settings with patients who often have no other source of access to care. PMID:21337961

  11. Dental population health measures: supporting Army transformation.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Jeffrey

    2003-03-01

    General Eric K. Shinseki, Chief of Staff of the Army, has initiated the transformation of the Army with the goals of making the force more lethal, agile, and versatile. A key component to the transformation is deploying healthier soldiers that will result in the ability to decrease the amount of deployed medical support. This article describes two new population health measures the U.S. Army Dental Command is implementing to support the transformation. The new program will make it mandatory for dental providers to assess caries and tobacco risk at all active duty soldiers' annual dental examinations. These measures will allow the dental personnel to identify who is at risk for future disease and then to plan appropriate prevention strategies for those individual soldiers. These aggregate corporate data will allow dental leaders to target prevention services to the units with a high percentage of tobacco users. These new measures and the resultant prevention strategies can increase the readiness of our forces and can result in a healthier and mission-ready force. PMID:12685688

  12. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  13. Accreditation in Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The

  14. DENTAL SCHOOL PLANNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GALAGAN, DONALD J.

    THIS DISCUSSION PRESENTS A COMPLETE PICTURE OF THE CURRENT STATE OF DENTAL EDUCATION WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR MEETING THE DEMANDS FOR DENTAL STAFF AND FACILITIES. THE AREAS INVESTIGATED ARE (1) OBJECTIVES IN DENTAL EDUCATION--COURSES, TEACHING MODES, INNOVATIONS IN CURRICULUM, COORDINATION OF BASIC AND CLINICAL INSTRUCTION, (2) FACILITY…

  15. Dental Manpower Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ake, James N.; Johnson, Donald W.

    Statistical data on many aspects of dental and allied dental personnel supply, distribution, characteristics, and education and on certain other aspects of dental services are presented and discussed. The data on dentist supply show the national trend in the supply of active dentists since 1950 and the concurrent changes in dentist-to-population…

  16. Dental Assisting Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Sandra J.

    Compiled to introduce the dental assisting student to various techniques used in the dental office and to present theoretical information essential for the student's professional development, this laboratory guide consists of three units of instruction. The first unit is an introduction to dental assisting and contains five topics of study. The…

  17. Dental findings in patients with West syndrome: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Amit; Kalra, Namita; Tyagi, Rishi; Baweja, Mani; Khandelwal, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    West syndrome a rare, severe form of epilepsy occurs in early infancy. It is characterized by a triad consisting of infantile spasms that occurs in clusters, arrest of psychomotor development and hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalogram. We present here two cases of west syndrome where patients required dental care due to the presence of certain dental findings. Preventive measurements such as controlled diet and proper oral hygiene along with professional dental management are recommended in patients with west syndrome to avoid dental problems. PMID:24739920

  18. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience.

    PubMed

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs. PMID:26916132

  19. The 1993 national survey of children's dental health: a commentary on the preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Downer, M C

    1994-03-19

    A preliminary report of the 1993 national survey of children's dental health shows encouraging evidence of a further marked decline in caries throughout the United Kingdom compared with earlier surveys in 1973 and 1983. Over the course of 20 years total decay experience (dmft/DMFT) among children in England and Wales has fallen by 55% in deciduous teeth at 5 years of age, 82% in permanent teeth at 8 years, 75% at 12 years and 74% at 14 years. Whereas in 1973 only 7% of 12-year-old children had no experience of permanent tooth decay (DMFT = 0), by 1993, 50% were caries-free. Nevertheless the marked regional inequalities in dental health of earlier years have been perpetuated with much higher caries levels in Scotland and particularly Northern Ireland than in England currently. It is also apparent that in 5-year-old children the decline in caries in deciduous teeth has now levelled out over many areas of the country. Particular groups of children are still at high risk to the disease and the need in many areas for population preventive strategies such as water fluoridation remains. PMID:8167063

  20. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides. PMID:9747617

  1. Pressures on the dental care system in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Wotman, S; Goldman, H

    1982-01-01

    A number of significant pressures are creating tensions in the dental profession and the dental care delivery system. These pressures may be categorized in five major areas: 1) regulation and deregulation pressures involve changes in the state dental practice acts, court decisions concerning antitrust and advertising, and the inclusion of consumers on State professional regulatory boards; 2) cost of services includes factors involving the out-of-pocket cost of dental care and the growth of dental insurance; 3) dentist-related factors include the increased number of dentists and the indebtedness of dental graduates; 4) the pressures of changes in the American populations include the decline in population growth and the increase in proportion of elderly people; 5) changes in the distribution of dental care are based on new epidemiologic data concerning dental caries and progress in the prevention of periodontal disease. Many of these pressures are inducing competition in the dental care system. It is clear that the dental care system is in the process of change as it responds to these complex pressures. PMID:7091458

  2. Dental x-ray image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Eyad; Fahmy, Gamal F.; Nassar, Diaa; Ammar, Hany

    2004-08-01

    Law enforcement agencies have been exploiting biometric identifiers for decades as key tools in forensic identification. With the evolution in information technology and the huge volume of cases that need to be investigated by forensic specialists, it has become important to automate forensic identification systems. While, ante mortem (AM) identification, that is identification prior to death, is usually possible through comparison of many biometric identifiers, postmortem (PM) identification, that is identification after death, is impossible using behavioral biometrics (e.g. speech, gait). Moreover, under severe circumstances, such as those encountered in mass disasters (e.g. airplane crashers) or if identification is being attempted more than a couple of weeks postmortem, under such circumstances, most physiological biometrics may not be employed for identification, because of the decay of soft tissues of the body to unidentifiable states. Therefore, a postmortem biometric identifier has to resist the early decay that affects body tissues. Because of their survivability and diversity, the best candidates for postmortem biometric identification are the dental features. In this paper we present an over view about an automated dental identification system for Missing and Unidentified Persons. This dental identification system can be used by both law enforcement and security agencies in both forensic and biometric identification. We will also present techniques for dental segmentation of X-ray images. These techniques address the problem of identifying each individual tooth and how the contours of each tooth are extracted.

  3. Buonocore Memorial Lecture. Dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Lussi, Adrian; Hellwig, Elmar; Ganss, Carolina; Jaeggi, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There is some evidence that dental erosion is steadily spreading. To diagnose erosion, dental professionals have to rely on clinical appearance, as there is no device available to detect it. Adequate preventive measures can only be initiated if the different risk factors and potential interactions between them are known. When substance loss, caused by erosive tooth wear, reaches a certain degree, oral rehabilitation becomes necessary. Prior to the most recent decade, the severely eroded dentition could only be rehabilitated by the provision of extensive crown and bridgework or removable dentures. As a result of the improvements in composite restorative materials and in adhesive techniques, it has become possible to rehabilitate eroded dentitions in a less invasive manner. PMID:19544813

  4. [Epidemiology of dental caries (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Patz, J; Glzow, H J

    1977-03-25

    More than 99% of the population of North and Central Europe and also North America suffer from dental caries. Epidemiological studies on the spread and course of this, perhaps the most common disease of mankind, and on the state of dental care and the efficacy of preventive measures are consequently of great social hygienic and health political significance. Methods of obtaining information (including time-saving and yet permissible partial registration), the difficulties of caries diagnosis and the demands for highly informative statistics on caries are discussed. The importance of nutrition and oral hygiene for the prevention of caries is emphasized. But it must be expressed that at present there is no alternative, apart from the use of fluorides (drinking water, tablets, salt etc.), for an effective mass prophylaxis of dental caries. PMID:404523

  5. A comprehensive oral and dental management of an epileptic and intellectually deteriorated adolescent.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sourabh Ramesh; Pendyala, Gowri Swaminatham; Saraf, Veena; Choudhari, Shantanu; Mopagar, Viddyasagar

    2013-07-01

    Epilepsy along with intellectual deterioration and other neurological disorders can have social, physical, and psychological consequences, especially, when they begin in childhood. Moreover, the seizure episode along with mental deterioration may compromise the oral and dental care resulting in numerous decayed teeth. This report presents the case history of an adolescent with poor oral hygiene and numerous decayed teeth. This report also presents the comprehensive endodontic, surgical, and prosthodontic management of epileptic mentally challenged patient in the dental office. Epilepsy along with intellectual deterioration and other neurological disorders can have social, physical, and psychological consequences, especially, when they begin in childhood. Moreover, the seizure episode along with mental deterioration may compromise the oral and dental care resulting in numerous decayed teeth. This report presents the case history of an adolescent with poor oral hygiene and numerous decayed teeth. This report also presents the comprehensive endodontic, surgical, and prosthodontic management of epileptic mentally challenged patient in the dental office. PMID:24130597

  6. Culture and Dental Health among African Immigrant School-Aged Children in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper examines African immigrant parents' views on dental decay and whether such views affect their decision to obtain dental insurance for their children. The paper also examines the cultural underpinnings of the immigrants' oral health care practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data for the study were collected in the states…

  7. Dental Erosion in Industry

    PubMed Central

    Cate, H. J. Ten Bruggen

    1968-01-01

    Five hundred and fifty-five acid workers were examined between March 1962 and October 1964. One hundred and seventy-six (317%) were affected by industrial dental erosion at the first examinations. In 33 cases (60%) the dentine was affected. During the period of the survey, 66 (204%) of 324 workers examined more than once showed evidence that erosion was progressing. The prevalence and incidence of erosion were highest among battery formation workers, lower among picklers, and least among other processes covered by the survey. The age of workers did not appear to influence their susceptibility to erosion. The habit of working with the lips slightly parted had little effect. Erosion superimposed upon attrition predisposed to more severe loss of tooth structure than either operating alone. Little inconvenience or functional disability was suffered by acid workers due to erosion. Twenty-seven (237%) of 114 erosions were considered to be disfiguring. Regular dental treatment was sought less by acid workers than by controls, and the oral hygiene of the latter was superior. There was no evidence to show any difference between caries experience among acid workers and controls. Calculus and periodontal disease were more prevalent among acid workers than among controls, but it was not possible to attribute this to the working environment. Black staining in iron picklers was considered to be due to the working environment. The use of closed acid containers or lip extraction on open acid vats prevented significant atmospheric contamination and diminished the prevalence of erosion. The use of wall fans and detergent foaming agents was helpful. Images PMID:5723349

  8. Operations Handbook for Migrant Student Dental Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William E.; Resendez, Ignacio V.

    Migrant Education and the Superintendent of Public Instruction in the state of Washington have brought several agencies together to provide low cost dental services to migrant children. The program, initiated in 1980 and serving 138 children that year, has focused on the provision of preventative and emergency services. Migrant Education has

  9. Operations Handbook for Migrant Student Dental Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William E.; Resendez, Ignacio V.

    Migrant Education and the Superintendent of Public Instruction in the state of Washington have brought several agencies together to provide low cost dental services to migrant children. The program, initiated in 1980 and serving 138 children that year, has focused on the provision of preventative and emergency services. Migrant Education has…

  10. [Dental technician's pneumoconiosis; a case report].

    PubMed

    Karaman Eybo?lu, Canan; Itil, Oya; Gl?en, A?kin; Kargi, Aydanur; Cimrin, Arif

    2008-01-01

    Since 1939, it has been known that, silicosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be seen among dental technicians. The interstitial disease caused by the exposure to complex substances used by dental technicians is classified as a special group called dental technician's pneumoconiosis. A 36-year-old man, who has no smoking history, presented with severe dyspnea. He had worked in different dental laboratories for 22 years, but he did not have respiratory symptoms until five years ago. After that date, he had hospitalized and had been examined for respiratory pathologies for many times. He had came to our clinic, because of the progression of his dyspnea. Diffuse pulmonary parenchymal infiltrates which can be related with pneumoconiosis and chronic type 1 respiratory deficiency had been diagnosed as the result of the examinations. While he has no history of smoking or any other risk factors or diseases in his medical history, the case was accepted as dental technician's pneumoconiosis. The factors related with the pathogenesis of dental technician's pneumoconiosis are; the complex compound of the substances (metal dusts, silica, plaster, wax and resins, chemical liquids, methyl methacrylate) used in this sector and their effects on the lung parenchyma. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis related with methyl methacrylate has been reported. The most important factor to acquire an occupational lung disease is a complex occupational exposure. The insufficient workplace airing and the lack of preventive measures added on this exposure, the risks become much more greater. PMID:18701982

  11. Dental Usage Under Changing Economic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Manski, Richard J.; Moeller, John F.; Chen, Haiyan; Schimmel, Jody; St Clair, Patricia A.; Pepper, John V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between changes in household finances (wealth and income) and changes in dental utilization at the onset of the recent recession in a population of older Americans. Methods Data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were analyzed for U.S. individuals aged 51 years and older during the 2006 and 2008 waves of the HRS. We estimated logistic models of (1) starting and (2) stopping dental use between 2006 and 2008 survey periods as a function of changes in household wealth and income, controlling for other potentially confounding covariates. Results We found that only when household wealth falls by 50 percent or more were older adults less likely to seek dental care. Changes in household income and other changes in household wealth were not associated with changes in dental utilization among this population. Conclusions Older Americans’ dental care utilization appeared to be fairly resilient to changes in household finances; only when wealth fell by 50 percent or more did individuals decrease dental use. This finding might extend to other health care services that are preventive, routine, and relatively inexpensive. PMID:22994647

  12. A report on the feasibility of establishing a paediatric emergency dental service at Glasgow Dental Hospital.

    PubMed

    Blinkhorn, A S; Attwood, D; Kippen, A M

    1991-09-01

    A six-month pilot emergency service for children was established at Glasgow Dental Hospital to provide care for patients in pain, offer preventive advice and ensure ongoing dental care. The service was staffed by experienced community dental officers. In the main study period 2965 patients were seen. The majority (54 per cent) were referred from general dental practitioners; however, 27 per cent came directly to the hospital without seeking dental advice in their locality. The most common problems were toothache (55 per cent), occasional pain (28 per cent) and swelling (14 per cent). Eighty per cent of the patients were directed to oral surgery for extractions under general anaesthesia and six per cent for extractions under local anaesthesia. Dental caries still causes pain and distress to a large number of Glasgow school children. Clearly water fluoridation would greatly improve dental health and in so doing reduce the proportion of children requiring extractions under a general anaesthetic. The emergency service is currently being reorganised so as to place more emphasis on following up those patients who do not have a dentist, or who presented for care without a referral letter. PMID:1834318

  13. Methods used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use; and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. Methods A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing at least some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included use of dental radiographs, dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying, fiber optic devices, and magnification, as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent, or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Results Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries as well as to detect caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth, were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). Conclusion Use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods. PMID:21488724

  14. Social support and dental utilization among children of Latina immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nahouraii, Helen; Wasserman, Melanie; Bender, Deborah E; Rozier, R Gary

    2008-05-01

    Latino children use fewer professional dental services and experience more dental decay than non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black children. This study tested the association between four types of social support (information, influence, material aid, emotional aid) and dental use among children of Latina immigrants in North Carolina. Latina mothers age 15-44 years (N=174) were sampled from four counties using a multistage church-based sampling design. Each mother reported dental care use for her oldest child younger than 11 years of age. Instrumental aid (information) alone was not associated with dental care use, but receiving any of the other types of social support was associated with dental care use at the bivariate level (p<.01) and at the multivariate level (OR=3.13; 95% CI=1.67-5.87). Over half of the women (65.2%) received at least one of these forms of social support. Interventions expanding dental-related social support could help Latina immigrant mothers overcome barriers to dental care for their children. PMID:18469414

  15. The Future of Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    The author, a representative of the American Dental Trade Association, identifies major challenges facing dental education in the areas of predoctoral dental education, postdoctoral dental education, and continuing dental education. Ten recommendations address preclinical and clinical courses, licensing examinations, mandatory continuing

  16. [Cause of secondary caries and prevention].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    Secondary caries is a disease that occurs on the tooth after the filling has been used for a period of time. Secondary caries is also the main reason for the replacement of dental restorations. Regardless of the material used for fillings, secondary caries cannot be completely avoided. The proportion of secondary caries is very high after filling in permanent teeth or primary teeth. Secondary caries mainly occurs because of the formation of micro cracks after filling. When the micro crack width exceeds 50 microm, saliva will enter the micro cracks between the filling and tooth tissue. The cariogenic bacteria in the saliva will grow when the environment of micro cracks is appropriate, thereby producing secondary caries. The prevention of secondary caries includes micro crack control, fluoride use, teeth cleaning, tooth decay and gum disease treatment, and regular checkups. PMID:24881200

  17. Biocompatibility of Dental Amalgams

    PubMed Central

    Uar, Yurdanur; Brantley, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this review paper is to review the literature regarding the toxicology of mercury from dental amalgam and evaluate current statements on dental amalgam. Materials and Methods. Two key-words dental amalgam and toxicity were used to search publications on dental amalgam biocompatibility published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Manual search was also conducted. The most recent declarations and statements were evaluated using information available on the internet. Case reports were excluded from the study. Results. The literature show that mercury released from dental amalgam restorations does not contribute to systemic disease or systemic toxicological effects. No significant effects on the immune system have been demonstrated with the amounts of mercury released from dental amalgam restorations. Only very rarely have there been reported allergic reactions to mercury from amalgam restorations. No evidence supports a relationship between mercury released from dental amalgam and neurological diseases. Almost all of the declarations accessed by the internet stated by official organizations concluded that current data are not sufficient to relate various complaints and mercury release from dental amalgam. Conclusions. Available scientific data do not justify the discontinuation of amalgam use from dental practice or replacement with alternative restorative dental materials. PMID:22145006

  18. [Outcomes of Infection Control Team Inspections at the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Mitsuhiro, Sunakawa; Hiroyuki, Matsumoto; Rie, Okihata; Hiromi, Tsuruoka; Yuichi, Yamada; Toshiko, Adachi; Yuichi, Izumi

    2015-07-01

    In the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, an infection control team (ICT) has been formed to inspect each diagnosis department of clinics and wards in order to identify problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In this study, we analyzed the inspection reports and highlighted the following serious problems: 1) inadequate hygienic hand-washing for out- and in-patient treatment, 2) incomplete wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) by dental health care workers, 3) necessity of environmental improvement in the clinics, and 4) cross-infection risk induced by. the continuous use of treatment devices without appropriate disinfection. The ICT provided feedback to the inspected departments, suggesting solutions to problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In order to enhance infection control in our hospital, dental healthcare practitioners must make further efforts on nosocomial infection control and prevention, and act according to their position by continuously educating students and enlightening hospital staff about the importance of infection control. PMID:26502663

  19. Factor analysis on implementation of domiciliary dental care in Metropolitan Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hirata, SoIchiro; Sakayori, Takaharu; Maki, Yoshinobu; Takano, Naohisa; Ishii, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    The need for domiciliary dental care has increased with the aging of Japanese society. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government and Tokyo Dental Association conducted a survey of dental institutions within Tokyo in order to clarify which factors influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care by dental institutions. The proportion was significantly higher in (1) dentists in their 50s or older, (2) those working in cooperation with primary care physicians, (3) those providing dysphagia rehabilitation, (4) those who give information on prevention of aspiration pneumonia, (5) those who attended training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care, and (6) those who attended training workshops and seminars provided by the Tokyo Dental Association in 2010. In the logistic regression analysis, a significant odds ratio was obtained for the same items, excluding age. Attendance at training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care had the highest odds ratio. Those who attended any kind of training course implemented domiciliary dental care significantly more often. Training conducted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Center for Oral Health of Persons with Disabilities, Tokyo Dental Association, and local dental associations showed a significant odds ratio, with the highest by the Tokyo Dental Association. Traditionally, education on domiciliary dental care in the elderly is not provided at the college level. The present results indicate the importance of educating students with regard to the unique challenges such work poses. Attending seminars hosted by the Tokyo Dental Association also significantly influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care. This seems to be an important result, suggesting the effectiveness of training provided by dental associations with regard to the promotion of domiciliary dental care. This indicates the need for dental associations to provide such training throughout Japan. PMID:23903576

  20. Silver Nanoparticles in Dental Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Juliana Mattos; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Sanches, Heloísa Lajas; da Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Poiate, Isis Andréa Venturini Pola

    2015-01-01

    Silver has been used in medicine for centuries because of its antimicrobial properties. More recently, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized and incorporated into several biomaterials, since their small size provides great antimicrobial effect, at low filler level. Hence, these nanoparticles have been applied in dentistry, in order to prevent or reduce biofilm formation over dental materials surfaces. This review aims to discuss the current progress in this field, highlighting aspects regarding silver nanoparticles incorporation, such as antimicrobial potential, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and long-term effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for more studies to determine the optimal concentration of silver nanoparticle and its release over time. PMID:25667594

  1. Before and After (Dental Restorations)

    MedlinePlus

    FAQs | Common Questions Why see a prosthodontist? Dentures Dental Implants Board Certification Improving Your Smile Conditions & Symptoms | Treatment ... of Prosthodontists View Top Searches 01. Dentures 02. Dental Implants 03. Tmj 04. Dental Crowns 05. Veneers 06. ...

  2. Arresting rampant dental caries with silver diamine fluoride in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease post-bone marrow transplantation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rampant caries is an advanced and severe dental disease that affects multiple teeth. This case describes the management of rampant caries in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Case presentation A 14-year-old Chinese boy suffering from β–thalassemia major was referred to the dental clinic for the management of rampant dental caries. An oral examination revealed pale conjunctiva, bruising of lips, and depapillation of tongue indicating an underlying condition of anemia. The poor oral condition due to topical and systemic immunosuppressants was seriously aggravated, and rampant caries developed rapidly, affecting all newly erupted, permanent teeth. The teeth were hypersensitive and halitosis was apparent. Strategies for oral health education and diet modification were given to the patient. Xylitol chewing gum was used to stimulate saliva flow to promote remineralization of teeth. Silver diamine fluoride was topically applied to arrest rampant caries and to relieve pain from hypersensitivity. Carious teeth with pulpal involvement were endodontically treated. Stainless steel crowns were provided on molars to restore chewing function, and polycarbonate crowns were placed on premolars, upper canines and incisors. Conclusion This case report demonstrates success in treating a young teenager with severe rampant dental decay by contemporary caries control and preventive strategy. PMID:24383434

  3. Dental Implant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

  4. Infection control recommendations for the dental office and the dental laboratory. ADA Council on Scientific Affairs and ADA Council on Dental Practice.

    PubMed

    1996-05-01

    This report is based on the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other publications in the medical and dental literature. The recommendations here, which have been accepted by the ADA Council on Scientific Affairs and the ADA Council on Dental Practice, are intended to offer general guidance for dental offices and laboratories on infection control. They are not intended to establish a standard of care or industry custom, nor are they intended to deprive the dentist of the ability to exercise his or her professional judgment. PMID:8642147

  5. Dental disease control in Pine Hill, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carberry, Frank J; Cloud, Bill; Finster, Carolyn

    2004-02-01

    One-year results of a community-operated dental disease control project in Pine Hill, New Mexico. The program uses fluoride, chiefly rinse, and has not only reduced the amount of decay in permanent teeth, but has markedly reduced the need for restorative care of primary teeth. PMID:15124338

  6. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  7. Marketing your dental practice using microsoft powerpoint.

    PubMed

    Kotlow, L A

    2001-12-01

    Educating the parents of my patients about the techniques and specialized care pediatric dentists provide has always been a challenge. When I began my dental practice in 1974, the materials and audiovisual programs that were available for parental and patient education were of poor quality and often did not reflect my office philosophy. The multimedia material for pediatric dentistry was limited in scope and of little value in conveying to the parents and patients pediatric restorative procedures, causes of dental disease, caries prevention and patient management. Effective communication to the public can be divided into two areas: in-office marketing; and outside advertising. The primary focus of this discussion will be on in-house marketing of your dental practice using Microsoft PowerPoint. PMID:11862912

  8. The environmental effects of dental amalgam.

    PubMed

    Chin, G; Chong, J; Kluczewska, A; Lau, A; Gorjy, S; Tennant, M

    2000-12-01

    Dental amalgam is one of the most commonly used materials in restorative dentistry. However, one of its major components, mercury, is of particular concern due to its potential adverse effects on humans and the environment. In this review, the environmental impact of dental amalgam will be discussed, with particular reference to the effects attributed to its mercury component. Mercury commonly occurs in nature as sulfides and in a number of minerals. Globally, between 20,000-30,000 tons of mercury are discharged into the environment each year as a result of human activities. According to a recent German report, approximately 46 per cent of the freshly triturated amalgam is inserted as new amalgam restorations and the rest is waste. Depending on the presence of an amalgam separating unit, some of the generated amalgam-contaminated sludge is discharged into the sewage system. Lost or extracted teeth with amalgam fillings and amalgam-contaminated waste, such as trituration capsules and cotton rolls are discharged with the solid waste and, in most instances, are incinerated. Use of disinfectants containing oxidizing substances in dental aspirator kits may contribute to remobilization of mercury and its subsequent release into the environment. Nevertheless, dental mercury contamination is only a small proportion of terrestrial mercury (3-4 per cent), which is quite insignificant compared with industrial pollution and combustion of fossil fuels by vehicles. The environmental impact of dental mercury is mainly due to the poor management of dental amalgam waste. Proper collection of mercury-contaminated solid waste prevents the release of mercury vapour during combustion. In addition, the use of amalgam separating devices reduces the amount of amalgam-contaminated water released from dental clinics. PMID:11225525

  9. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  10. Dental Charting. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Trudy Karlene; Apfel, Maura

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: dental anatomical terminology; tooth numbering systems;

  11. Dental Charting. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Trudy Karlene; Apfel, Maura

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: dental anatomical terminology; tooth numbering systems;…

  12. Workbook for Dental Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Corinne K.; Volpe, Margaret E.

    This workbook contains l8 units of instruction for dental assistant students, each designed to give students practical experience in completing forms that simulate realistic situations in a dental office. Units are: (1) The Appointment Record, (2) The Recall System, (3) Clinical Records, (4) Estimates, (5) Daily Record Sheet, (6) Patient's…

  13. Monitoring of vital signs during dental care.

    PubMed

    Fukayama, Haruhisa; Yagiela, John A

    2006-04-01

    Advances in medicine have greatly increased the survival of patients with severe health problems and have significantly prolonged life in elderly individuals with systemic disorders. Concomitant advances in dentistry and evolving societal expectations regarding dental health and function have likewise ensured that these patients are increasingly retaining their teeth and/or seeking dental care. The administration of local anaesthetics and the performance of extensive dental procedures may cause stress and systemic disturbances in such patients. In order to avoid potentially serious reactions, dentists are obligated to monitor continuously their medically challenged patients. Monitoring provides three important benefits. First, it helps the dentist detect acute medical emergencies that may require an immediate response. Second, monitoring may reveal gradual deleterious trends that can often be easily reversed before a true emergency occurs. Third, monitoring can assist the dentist in evaluating the efficacy of any emergency treatments or preventive measures that are rendered. The purposes of this article are to: briefly review monitoring techniques and devices, discuss their suitability for use in the dental office, and provide some tips for their application during dental care. In overall decreasing order of routine importance, monitoring resources include the following: responsible personnel, non-invasive blood pressure monitor, pulse oximeter, ECG, and the pretracheal stethoscope or capnograph. PMID:16620039

  14. Common Dental Injury Management in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Eliot J.; Macias, C. Roger; Stephens, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Context: Orofacial and dental trauma continues to be a commonly encountered issue for the sports medicine team. All sports have some risk for dental injury, but “contact sports” presumably incur more risk. Immediate evaluation and proper management of the most common injuries to dentition can result in saving or restoration of tooth structure. Despite the growing body of evidence, mouth guard use and dental protection have not paralleled the increase in sports participation. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search from 1960 through April 2012 was conducted, as well as a review of peer-reviewed online publications. Results: Common dental injuries in sports include tooth (crown) fractures; tooth intrusion, extrusion, and avulsion; and temporomandibular joint dislocation. Mouth guards help prevent most injuries and do not significantly affect ventilation or speech if fitted properly. Conclusion: A working knowledge of the presentation as well as management of commonly encountered dental trauma in sports is essential to the immediate care of an athlete and returning to play. Mouth guard use should be encouraged for athletes of all ages in those sports that incur significant risk. PMID:26131303

  15. Association of Dental Care with Adherence to HEDIS Measures

    PubMed Central

    Mosen, David; Pihlstrom, Dan; Snyder, John; Smith, Ning; Shuster, Elizabeth; Rust, Kristal

    2016-01-01

    Context: The dental setting represents an unrealized opportunity to increase adherence to preventive services and improve health outcomes. Objective: To compare adherence to a subset of Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures among a population that received dental care with a population that did not receive dental care. Design: Using a retrospective cohort design, we identified 5216 adults who received regular dental care and 5216 persons who did not. The groups were matched on propensity scores, were followed for 3 years, and retained medical and dental benefits. Receipt of dental care was defined as 1 or more dental visits in each 12-month period. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures were assessed in a subpopulation that qualified for 1 of 5 HEDIS denominator groups (dental = 4184 patients; nondental = 3871 patients). They included 3 preventive measures (cervical, colorectal, and breast cancer screening), 4 chronic disease management services (hemoglobin A1c and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol testing, and nephropathy and retinopathy screening among the diabetes mellitus [DM] population), and 4 health outcome measures (poor glycemic control, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control, blood pressure control in the DM population, and blood pressure control in the hypertensive population). Results: Dental care was associated with higher adherence to all three cancer screening measures, one of four disease management services (higher retinopathy screening), and three of four health outcomes (better glycemic control in the DM population and better blood pressure control in the DM and hypertensive populations). Conclusions: Dental care was associated with improved adherence to 7 of 11 HEDIS measures. PMID:26580145

  16. Dental Fear Among University Employees: Implications for Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakko, Tarja; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.; Getz, Tracy; Weinstein, Philip; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 270 University of Washington permanent employees who were potential candidates for teaching clinics, found dental anxiety prevalent, correlating with poorer perceived dental health, longer intervals between dental appointments, higher frequency of past fear behaviors, more physical symptoms during last dental injection, and more…

  17. The future dental workforce?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J E; Wilson, N H F

    2009-02-28

    The Editor-in-Chief of the BDJ has previously raised important questions about dental workforce planning and the implications for dental graduates of recent changes and pressures. It is now time to revisit this issue. Much has changed since the last workforce review in England and Wales, and the rate of change is in all probability set to increase. First, at the time of writing this paper the momentous step of including dental care professionals (DCPs) on General Dental Council (GDC) registers in the United Kingdom has recently been completed. Second, the Scope of Practice of all dental professionals has been under consultation by the General Dental Council, and research evidence suggests that greater use should be made of skill-mix in the dental team. Third, within England, Lord Darzi has just published the 'Final Report of the NHS Next Stage Review', which emphasises 'quality care' and 'team-working' as key features of healthcare; this report was accompanied by an important document entitled 'A High Quality Workforce', in which plans for local workforce planning within the NHS are outlined, placing responsibilities at national, local and regional levels. Fourth, policy makers across the UK are wrestling with addressing oral health needs, promoting health and facilitating access to dental care, all of which have implications for the nature and shape of the dental workforce. Fifth, with the impact of globalisation and European policies we are net gainers of dentists as well as having more in training. Sixth, although there have been reviews and policy initiatives by regulatory, professional and other bodies in support of shaping the dental workforce, there has been little serious consideration of skill-mix and funding mechanisms to encourage team-working. Together, these events demand that we enter a fresh debate on the future dental workforce which should extend beyond professional and national boundaries and inform workforce planning. This debate is of great importance to future generations of dental healthcare professionals, funders, commissioners and providers of both dental services and dental education and training, and most importantly our patients and the public whom we serve. Furthermore, workforce planning must be linked to a philosophy of care which promotes promotion of health and embraces quality care, rather than merely treatment of disease, and addresses oral health needs and demands. PMID:19247334

  18. Health Instruction Packages: Permanent Teeth, Dental Deposits, and Dental Instruments. Dientes Permanentes, Depositos Dentales y Instrumentos Dentales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Patricia; Germano, Catherine

    These five learning modules use text interspersed with illustrations and reinforcement exercises to instruct dental aide and dental hygiene students about jaw bones and gums, dental deposits, and dental instruments. The first four modules were prepared by Patricia Lind in both Spanish and English. "The Gum and Bone of Permanent Teeth" ("La Encia y…

  19. [Sanitary recommendations in dental laboratories].

    PubMed

    Irgolic, R

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of infection in a dental team is great and the sources of infection numerous. This article discusses the possibility of transmitting infectious diseases in a dental laboratory and the self-protection of dental technicians at work. Besides general protective measures and observance of regulations, sanitary recommendations based on the experience of the Berlin University Dental Clinic are summarized. PMID:2097835

  20. Teaching dental undergraduates behaviour change skills.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, P M; Pine, C M; Mossey, P A

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes an active learning-based education tool which enables dental students to learn preventive techniques relevant to patient dental health behaviour. 2 studies were conducted involving 33, 2nd year (study 1) and 9, 3rd year (study 2) undergraduate dental students. In study 1, snacking behaviour and its antecedents were analysed from detailed 3-day diet diaries completed by the students. Study 2 entailed the students changing one aspect of their sugar/diet behaviour using self-management techniques. It is concluded that dental students can successfully (a) identify antecedents to sugar snacking behaviours on several levels, i.e., cognitive, emotional and situational, (b) set goals and use behaviour change techniques to modify these behaviours, and (c) appreciate that this experience is relevant to similar preventive techniques that they will use in clinical practice. Training in the application of these skills to their own maladaptive behaviours provides a strong educational tool based on psycho-educational theories. PMID:9855809

  1. Familial polythelia associated with dental anomalies: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Gabriel M; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Polythelia has been defined as the presence of supernumerary nipples without accessory glandular tissue. Usually, these growths follow imaginary mammary lines running from the armpits to the groin. Although the presence of dental anomalies may occasion only a simple cosmetic problem with specific clinical considerations, the association with familial polythelia has been scarcely reported. This paper reports on a case of polythelia that is associated with dental anomalies in an Argentine family and discusses suggestions for a thorough dental history and medical consultation to prevent possible pathological conditions or potential malignant transformation of mammary tissues. PMID:24970959

  2. Oral and Dental Considerations in Pediatric Leukemic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Padmini, Chiyadu; Bai, K. Yellamma

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the world, there have been drastic decline in mortality rate in pediatric leukemic population due to early diagnosis and improvements in oncology treatment. The pediatric dentist plays an important role in the prevention, stabilization, and treatment of oral and dental problems that can compromise the child's health and quality of life during, and follow up of the cancer treatment. This manuscript discusses recommendations and promotes dental care of the pediatric leukemic patients. PMID:24724033

  3. 75 FR 33169 - Dental Devices: Classification of Dental Amalgam, Reclassification of Dental Mercury, Designation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... previous classification of amalgam alloy in the codified section of the final rule (74 FR 38686 at 38714...-AG21 Dental Devices: Classification of Dental Amalgam, Reclassification of Dental Mercury, Designation of Special Controls for Dental Amalgam, Mercury, and Amalgam Alloy; Technical Amendment AGENCY:...

  4. The Use of Dental Sealing in Cluj, Romania: Frequency, Materials and Techniques A Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    CORNEA, DANIELA; OPREAN, RADU; DUDEA, DIANA

    2014-01-01

    Aims. Dental decay is a condition that affects both temporary and permanent dentitions. Prophylactic methods for dental decays consist of: dental sealing, use of fluorides, oral hygiene and healthy diet habits. This article focuses on the frequency, dental materials and techniques of dental sealing used for caries prophylaxis in the Cluj County. Materials and methods. The study used a set of questionnaires that was applied to 175 doctors/dentists from Cluj. The questionnaire contained 11 questions and was delivered to the doctors personally or by the internet Results. From the interviewed dentists 85.7% use dental sealing and 86.7% use materials based on composite resins in this respect. For diagnostic purposes,76% of the dentists use inspection and palpation, 68.66% use cotton rolls and aspiration for isolation, 74% use professional brushing, 74% call back the patient after 6 months for a check-up and 60% of the doctors redo the sealing if the sealant is partially or entirely lost or they perform a filling if a secondary decay appeared. Conclusions. Most of the interviewed dentists perform dental sealing and consider it as a good caries prophylaxis method. Also, most of them use a material based on composite resins as pit and fissure sealant. The techniques for this procedure are different among the interviewed dentists. PMID:26528021

  5. Dental education and dentistry system in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pakshir, Hamid Reza

    2003-01-01

    Before 1979, there were only 5 undergraduate dental schools in Iran with a total admission of 200 students per year, and only 2,000 dentists and about 50 specialists practicing in the country. Currently, there are 18 dental schools with a total admission of 750 undergraduate students, 5 postgraduate programs in 10 disciplines with a total of 100 students, more than 11,000 dentists (1 dentist per 5,500 population) and nearly 1,000 specialists in the country. Two new schools have recently begun offering specialty training courses in 2 disciplines. The length of the dentistry curriculum is 6 years. Students take general and basic science courses during the first 2 years, then continue on the predental and dental courses for the remaining 4 years. The curriculum has been revised over the past 20 years to establish intership and specialty programs and introduce courses reflecting current trends in the dental profession. Dental services in Iran are provided by both public and private sectors. Oral health care was integrated into the Public Health Care network by 1997, and 4 levels of a Dental Health Care Delivery System were established. The first level is concerned with primary prevention at 'health houses', where auxiliary health workers called 'behvarzes' provide periodic examinations, referrals, and oral health education. At the next level, oral hygienists and dentists in 'health centers' perform basic oral health care services such as fillings, scaling, and extraction. At the third level, dentists manage and treat oral diseases in 'urban health centers', while the last level is for advanced treatment by specialists in university health centers in the cities. PMID:12707502

  6. Attitudes of dental professionals toward tobacco use

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Dipika Kalyan; Pawar, Sudarshana Devendrasing; Mandal, Anahita; Shah, Rohit Ajay; Rodrigues, Silvia Victor; Desai, Ankit Bharat; Pathare, Pragalbha Nandkumar; Shingnapurkar, Saurabh Hemant; Vijayakar, Harshad Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The habit of tobacco consumption has plagued all nations from time immemorial. While tobacco use is decreasing in many developed countries, it is increasing in developing countries like India. Health care professionals have a key role to play to motivate and advise tobacco users to quit. Aim: The aim was to assess the attitudes and practice of dental professionals in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai toward tobacco cessation and the potential barriers faced. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire-based survey was conducted with 500 dental surgeons in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai. The questionnaire contained close-ended questions and assessed the smoking status of the professional, whether they impart tobacco cessation advice to their patients, whether the professional is trained for basic intervention, whether they would be eager to undergo training and also the potential barriers encountered by the professional. Statistical Analysis Used: The SPSS version 17 was used. Frequencies and percentages were used to determine distributions of the responses for each of the variables. Chi-square test was used for analysis. Results: It was observed that the majority of dental clinicians do not use tobacco and although 93% believed that it is the role of the dental professional to offer advice, 21% do not. Potential barriers reported were: Little chance of success, lack of training, lack of time, lack of remuneration, and the possibility of losing patients. Conclusions: Dental professionals must expand their horizon and armamentarium to tobacco intervention strategies inclusive of their regular preventive and therapeutic treatment modalities. Furthermore, the dental institutions (schools) should include tobacco intervention in the curriculum, but it should not be just theoretical knowledge rather it must have a practical component. PMID:26229275

  7. Occupational hazards among clinical dental staff.

    PubMed

    Fasunloro, Adebola; Owotade, Foluso John

    2004-05-15

    Although identification of risks to dental healthcare workers has been explored in several industrialized nations, very little data is available from developing countries. This paper examines the occupational hazards present in the dental environment and reports survey results concerning attitudes and activities of a group of Nigerian dental care providers. A survey on occupational hazards was conducted among the clinical dental staff at the Dental Hospital of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife in Osun State, Nigeria. Thirty eight of the forty staff responded, yielding a response rate of 95%. Subject ages ranged from 26 to 56 years with approximately 25% in the 31-46 year old bracket. All of the staff were aware of the occupational exposure to hazards, and the majority had attended seminars/workshops on the subject. Only five staff members (13.2%) owned a health insurance policy and 26 (68.4%) had been vaccinated against Hepatitis B infection. All dentists (24) had been vaccinated compared with only two non-dentists; this relationship was significant (p= 30.07, chi2=0.000). Fourteen members of the clinical staff (36.8%) could recall a sharp injury in the past six months, and the majority (71.1%) had regular contact with dental amalgam. Wearing protective eye goggles was the least employed cross infection control measure, while backache was the most frequently experienced hazard in 47% of the subjects. The need for Hepatitis B vaccinations for all members of the staff was emphasized, and the enforcement of strict cross infection control measures was recommended. The physical activities and body positions that predispose workers to backaches were identified and staff education on the prevention of backaches was provided. PMID:15150641

  8. Dental Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Videos Webinar Series Health Care Associated Conditions ADHD & Down Syndrome Alzheimer's Disease & Down Syndrome Anesthesia & Down Syndrome Atlantoaxial Instability & Down Syndrome Blood Diseases & Down Syndrome Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dual Diagnosis of Down Syndrome & Autism Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & ...

  9. American Dental Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... dentists Fluoridation favored in May in three U.S. communities Online course covers dentistry, diabetes High schoolers score ... to increase the annual Flexible Spending Account cap Community Dental Health Coordinator honored for helping kids get ...

  10. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools for early caries detection by field health care providers working in non-traditional settings are urgently needed to support inter-professional dental health management. Lasers Surg. PMID:26414887

  11. Portable Dental System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Portable dental system provides dental care in isolated communities. System includes a patient's chair and a dentist's stool, an X-ray machine and a power unit, all of which fold into compact packages. A large yellow "pumpkin" is a collapsible compressed air tank. Portable system has been used successfully in South America in out of the way communities with this back-packable system, and in American nursing homes. This product is no longer manufactured.

  12. Dental arch asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to assess the dental arch asymmetry in a Yemeni sample aged (18-25) years. Materials and Methods: The investigation involved clinical examination of 1479 adults; only 253 (129 females, 124 males) out of the total sample were selected to fulfill the criteria for the study sample. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure mandibular arch dimensions. Three linear distances were utilized on each side on the dental arch: Incisal-canine distance, canine-molar distance and incisal-molar distance, which represent the dental arch segmental measurements. Results: When applying t-test at P < 0.05, no significant differences were found between the right and left canine-molar, incisal-canine and incisal-molar distances in both dental arches for both sexes. The greater variation (0.30 mm) was observed between right and left canine-molar distance in the maxillary dental arch in male and the smaller (0.04 mm) in the mandibular dental arch between the right and left canine-molar distance in females. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed a symmetrical pattern of dental arches, since the right and left sides showed no statistically significant difference. In general, it can be observed that the measurements related to the central incisors and canines have the widest range of reading and give the impression that the location of central incisor and canines to each other and to other teeth is the strongest factor in determining the dental arch asymmetry. PMID:24966774

  13. Dental (Odontogenic) Pain

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a simple overview of acute trigeminal pain for the non dentist. This article does not cover oral mucosal diseases (vesiculobullous disorders) that may cause acute pain. Dental pain is the most common in this group and it can present in several different ways. Of particular interest for is that dental pain can mimic both trigeminal neuralgia and other chronic trigeminal pain disorders. It is crucial to exclude these disorders whilst managing patients with chronic trigeminal pain. PMID:26527224

  14. Reflections on the dental Pipeline program's efforts regarding community-based dental education.

    PubMed

    Hood, Janet Grobe

    2010-10-01

    Although many changes are being made, many are still needed in educating future dental professionals about prevention programs, ethics, professionalism, communication, cultural competence, and access to care. It is not yet clear if producing more dentists will put these professionals into underserved areas where they are needed, with the skills they need. The achievements of the Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education program schools in increasing the amount of time students spend in community-based education and service-learning programs result from a widespread, national effort to meet this challenge. This article is a personal reflection and review of these programs, considering what has been learned and still needs to be learned about student educational impact and quality, faculty issues, program management, infrastructure and logistics, and financial impact, with suggestions for future study that can help dental schools design the most effective programs. PMID:20930229

  15. Evaluation of Glove Damage during Dental Procedures among Dental Specialists in Tabriz

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Mahdipour, Masoumeh; Pakravan, Reza; Yazdani, Javad; Nezafati, Saeed; Mesgarzaded, Ali Hossein; Arta, Seyed Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Background and aims Dental practitioners are prone to occupational risk of infection. This can be prevented in part by wearing gloves. However, for this to be effective, gloves should be intact during the entire course of dental procedure. Leaky surgical latex gloves have been seen in 0.9% of cases before use. As much as 1.9% of latex gloves have been reported to be damaged during dental procedures. In this study, we decided to assess glove damage during dental procedures among dental specialists in Tabriz. Materials and methods Thirty-six dental specialists were selected for this study. Each practitioner received 40 pairs of intact powdered latex gloves. Upon the completion of dental procedures, the gloves were retrieved and any tears were evaluated separately for right and left hands. Data was analyzed using chi-square test. Results 159 punctures were detected in 144 gloves (5%) out of 2880 unpaired gloves used by practitioners. They noticed the tear(s) in 60 cases (2%), however, 99 cases (3%) of tear(s) were not noted during the procedure. The highest rate of glove damage was observed in the prosthodontists’ group (12.3%), which was statistically significant comparing to other groups (p=0.048). The lowest rate of the damage was observed in the oral surgeons’ group (2%) which showed no significant difference (p=0.134). The highest rate of punctures in the gloves was observed in the first and second fingers of the non-dominant hand. Conclusion The damage to 5% of the gloves is highly significant, with a potential role in occupational hazards. The higher rate of leaks in the prosthodontists’ group compared to other groups demands for greater prudence in this field. The high rate of leaks in the first and second fingers of the non-dominant hand requires more attention to this area during daily practice. PMID:23277839

  16. Dental Caries and Enamel Defects in Very Low Birth Weight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S.; Albert, J.M.; Lombardi, G.; Wishnek, S.; Asaad, G.; Kirchner, H.L.; Singer, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine developmental enamel defects and dental caries in very low birth weight adolescents with high risk (HR-VLBW) and low risk (LR-VLBW) compared to full-term (term) adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 224 subjects (80 HR-VLBW, 59 LR-VLBW, 85 term adolescents) recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. Sociodemographic and medical information was available from birth. Dental examination of the adolescent at the 14-year visit included: enamel defects (opacity and hypoplasia); decayed, missing, filled teeth of incisors and molars (DMFT-IM) and of overall permanent teeth (DMFT); Simplified Oral Hygiene Index for debris/calculus on teeth, and sealant presence. A caregiver questionnaire completed simultaneously assessed dental behavior, access, insurance status and prevention factors. Hierarchical analysis utilized the zero-inflated negative binomial model and zero-inflated Poisson model. Results The zero-inflated negative binomial model controlling for sociodemographic variables indicated that the LR-VLBW group had an estimated 75% increase (p < 0.05) in number of demarcated opacities in the incisors and first molar teeth compared to the term group. Hierarchical modeling indicated that demarcated opacities were a significant predictor of DMFT-IM after control for relevant covariates. The term adolescents had significantly increased DMFT-IM and DMFT scores compared to the LR-VLBW adolescents. Conclusion LR-VLBW was a significant risk factor for increased enamel defects in the permanent incisors and first molars. Term children had increased caries compared to the LR-VLBW group. The effect of birth group and enamel defects on caries has to be investigated longitudinally from birth. PMID:20975268

  17. Oral Health Status of Psychiatric In-patients in Serbia and Implications for Their Dental Care

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Svetlana; Milovanović, Srđan D.; Gajić, Ivanka; Mandić, Jelena; Latas, Milan; Janković, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine oral health status and identify predictors of oral health in a representative sample of psychiatric in-patients in Serbia. Methods The study included 186 psychiatric in-patients and 186 control participants without psychiatric illness matched to the study group by age, sex, marital status, education level, employment, and monthly income. Dental examinations were done in both groups to measure the following indices of oral health: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index; community periodontal index; and plaque index. Participants were also interviewed about their dental health behavior and their medical records were examined. Results Psychiatric in-patients had higher caries prevalence, poorer periodontal health, and poorer oral hygiene than controls. The average DMFT score in the patient group was 24.4 and 16.1 in the control group (P < 0.001). Periodontal diseases were significantly more prevalent among psychiatric in-patients than among controls (P < 0.001). The average plaque index for patients was 2.78 and 1.40 for controls (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that 1) DMFT index was associated with age, male sex, duration of mental illness, use of antidepressants, time since the last visit to the dentist, and snacking frequency; 2) community periodontal index was associated with male sex; and 3) plaque index was associated with age, male sex, education level, employment, monthly income, tooth brushing technique, and snacking frequency. Conclusion Psychiatric in-patients in Serbia have poorer oral health than healthy controls. It is necessary to intensify preventive dental care in this vulnerable population. PMID:20960594

  18. Factors that limit access to dental care for adults with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Hon K; Wolf, Bethany J; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Magruder, Kathryn M; Selassie, Anbesaw W; Salinas, Carlos F

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated dental care service utilization among adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) and identified barriers and other factors affecting utilization among this population. There were 192 subjects with SCI who participated in the oral health survey assessing dental care service utilization and they were compared with subjects from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS). There was no significant difference in the proportion of subjects with SCI who visited the dentist for any reason in the past year compared to the general population (65.5% vs. 68.8%, p= .350). However, subjects with SCI were less likely to go to the dentist for a dental cleaning in the past year compared to the general population (54.6% vs. 69.4%, p < .001). The three most commonly reported barriers to accessing dental care were cost (40.1%), physical barriers (22.9%), and dental fear (15.1%). Multivariate modeling showed that physical barriers and fear of dental visits were the two significant factors deterring subjects from dental visits in the past year. Physical barriers preventing access to dental facilities and dental fear are prevalent and significantly impede the delivery of dental health care to adults with SCI. Dentists should undertake necessary physical remodeling of their facilities to accommodate wheelchair users and implement appropriate strategies for the management of dental fear among patients with SCI. PMID:20618781

  19. Dental care in geriatric patients—a cross-sectorial service

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Michael; Mertens, Matthias; Decker-Maruska, Mechthild

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Evaluation of a customer-designed dental service network across the service sectors for geriatric patients. Context The lack in accessibility of dental services and the non-awareness of possible dental causes to medical problems by clinicians often prevents the geriatric patient from receiving the dental care needed. In cooperation with the Dental Board a geriatric dentist was appointed, multi-professional rounds, training in oral hygiene organized and a documentation system for cross-references to other medical conditions and the nutritional status implemented. Data source The scientific evaluation of >280 geriatric dental patients from 2008 to 2009 (22 with original teeth, 260 with dentures, 88 with denture problems, 32 with other affections). Case description Upon admission patients are screened for dental problems. Possible problems are seen by the specially trained geriatric dentist. The patient’s dental problems are photo-documented and than cross-referenced to his overall medical condition in a common documentation sheet for an overview of possible dental causes, the nutritional situation or other conditions. Conclusion and discussion The integration of a special geriatric dental service, using competence from across the sectors of medical care lead to an improved level of dental care and oral hygiene in the geriatric patients and better inter-professional understanding.

  20. Looking inside the 2003 CDC dental infection control guidelines.

    PubMed

    Harte, Jennifer A

    2004-11-01

    On Dec. 19, 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published updated infection control guidelines for dentistry. The guidelines provide comprehensive information on all aspects of dental infection control. The recommendations are designed to prevent or reduce the potential for disease transmission from patient to dental health care personnel, from dental health care personnel to patient, and from patient to patient. Most recommendations will be familiar and are already practiced routinely. This article highlights major updates and additions in the CDC guidelines and provides additional information to assist readers in applying the latest guidelines. Almost a year ago, the CDC and Prevention published updated dental infection control guidelines in a supplement to the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health Care Settings--2003 represent a collaborative effort between leading experts in infection control from other federal agencies, public health, and hospital epidemiology and infection control. Unlike regulatory agencies such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the CDC cannot mandate certain practices; it can only recommend. However, the CDC is recognized as the nation's disease prevention agency and develops a broad range of guidelines intended to improve health care and to inform clinicians and the public. As a result, many dental licensing boards adopt CDC's recommendations, or variations of them, as the infection control standard for dental practice in their states. In contrast to the 1986 and 1993 CDC dental infection control recommendations, the 2003 CDC publication includes more background information and the scientific rationale for the recommendations. Also, readers will notice that each recommendation has a rank assigned to it categorizing the recommendation on the basis of existing scientific data, theoretical rationale, and applicability (Table 1). Most recommendations will be familiar and already are practiced routinely. As with previous CDC recommendations, the guidelines are designed to prevent or reduce the potential for disease transmission from patient to dental health care personnel; from dental health care personnel to patient, and from patient to patient. The following is an overview highlighting major updates and additions in the 2003 CDC guidelines. It is not intended to be a comprehensive review. Readers can access the complete document (Figure 1) by visiting www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/ infectioncontrol. PMID:15651469

  1. Preventive dentistry and the family physician.

    PubMed

    Clark, M M; Album, M M; Lloyd, R W

    1996-02-01

    Family physicians care for infants and toddlers during a critical period for dental health, and before most children have seen a dentist. The risk of dental disease can be reduced in children by encouraging appropriate diet and hygiene, avoidance of harmful bottle habits, optimal fluoride intake and application of dental sealants to permanent posterior teeth. Fluoride effectively reduces dental caries, but combined intake from water, beverages, foods, dentifrices and inappropriate supplementation has led to an increase in dental fluorosis. New guidelines for fluoride use recommend that fluoride supplementation be delayed until the child is six months of age. Physicians can provide parents with valuable counsel related to teething concerns, thumb-sucking and prevention of dental trauma and disease. PMID:8629542

  2. Opinions of Romanian Dental Students Toward Tobacco Use Interventions in the Dental Setting.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, A L; Ibric, S; Ibric-Cioranu, V

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smoking habits as well as attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling among Romanian dental students in order to build an evidence base for further undergraduate curriculum development. A 38-item self-administered questionnaire was delivered to first to sixth dental students enrolled at the University "Lucian Blaga" Sibiu. The questionnaire covered sociodemographics, smoking habits, knowledge concerning health effects, attitudes, and confidence toward smoking cessation counseling. Smoking was reported by 37 % of participants and was more prevalent among clinical (48.98 %) than preclinical (29.58 %) and basic science students (35.93 %). Students' knowledge that tobacco affects general and oral/dental health and knowledge of dental students regarding the smoking and alcohol behavior taken during medical history varied according to academic year and smoking status, but not according to gender. Only 51.1 % of all students agreed or strongly agreed that they were adequately trained to provide tobacco cessation education. 58.6 %, respectively 52.9 %, strongly agreed that is part of their role as a dentist to assist their patients to stop smoking and to prevent patients from starting to use tobacco products, while only 35.8 % believed that smoking cessation counseling provided by a dentist can be effective in helping patients stop smoking. The main determinants of student's attitudes toward smoking cessation counseling were academic year, clinical experience in the dental settings, and knowledge of smoking adverse effects. Dental school should offer adequate training in tobacco dependence and available continuing education in tobacco intervention in aim to encourage oral health care practitioners to have up-to-date information in aim to play their role effectively in the overall smoking cessation and prevention activities. PMID:26007635

  3. Influence of dental materials on dental MRI

    PubMed Central

    Tymofiyeva, O; Vaegler, S; Rottner, K; Boldt, J; Hopfgartner, AJ; Proff, PC; Richter, E-J; Jakob, PM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the potential influence of standard dental materials on dental MRI (dMRI) by estimating the magnetic susceptibility with the help of the MRI-based geometric distortion method and to classify the materials from the standpoint of dMRI. Methods: A series of standard dental materials was studied on a 1.5 T MRI system using spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences and their magnetic susceptibility was estimated using the geometric method. Measurements on samples of dental materials were supported by in vivo examples obtained in dedicated dMRI procedures. Results: The tested materials showed a range of distortion degrees. The following materials were classified as fully compatible materials that can be present even in the tooth of interest: the resin-based sealer AH Plus® (Dentsply, Maillefer, Germany), glass ionomer cement, gutta-percha, zirconium dioxide and composites from one of the tested manufacturers. Interestingly, composites provided by the other manufacturer caused relatively strong distortions and were therefore classified as compatible I, along with amalgam, gold alloy, gold–ceramic crowns, titanium alloy and NiTi orthodontic wires. Materials, the magnetic susceptibility of which differed from that of water by more than 200 ppm, were classified as non-compatible materials that should not be present in the patient’s mouth for any dMRI applications. They included stainless steel orthodontic appliances and CoCr. Conclusions: A classification of the materials that complies with the standard grouping of materials according to their magnetic susceptibility was proposed and adopted for the purposes of dMRI. The proposed classification can serve as a guideline in future dMRI research. PMID:23610088

  4. Attitudes of two groups of dentists towards dental hygienists.

    PubMed

    Uitenbroek, D G; Schaub, R M; Tromp, J A; Kant, J H

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess whether cooperation with a dental hygienist was based on pursuit of financial gain or on aspirations to improve patient care. To this end a questionnaire was sent to 972 dentists. 412 dentists replied, of whom 178 had patients treated by a dental hygienist. Questions were asked regarding practice profile, preventive orientation and dentists' opinion about the material and immaterial value of cooperation with a dental hygienist. Discriminant analysis showed that the main distinguishing factor between dentists who did and dentists who did not cooperate with dental hygienists was their opinion about the quality of the dental hygienists' work in relation to the non-financial costs for patients, insurance companies, and dentists. The difference in the dentists' opinions about the direct profitability of dental hygienists was not significant. The conclusion can be drawn that the orientation of Dutch dentists towards care for their patients plays a more important role in a dentist's decision to cooperate with a dental hygienist than is usually presumed. PMID:2917455

  5. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. PMID:25572078

  6. Assessment of the readability of dental health education literature.

    PubMed

    Blinkhorn, A S; Verity, J M

    1979-08-01

    General dental practitioners have an important role in the dissemination of information to their patients and their advice is often reinforced with written health education material. Unfortunately, this written information is often of limited value for particular groups of patients because of its level of readability. This investigation of the problem was in two parts; firstly, a group of 140 secondary schoolchildren were asked to explain the meaning of a selection of words in common use in dental health education, and secondly, the readability of some current dental health education literature was assessed using the Fog Index. The results indicate that current dental health education literature reflects the reading ability of the designers rather than the ability of the potential target group. Many of the words in the dental profession's preventive vocabulary were not understood by the children. Over 80% were unsure of the meaning of fluoride tablets, gum disease, gingivitis and oral hygiene. The results of this investigation indicate that dentists should ensure that dental health education literature is not unduly complex and should take more time explaining the dental vocabulary in lay terminology. PMID:293237

  7. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease. PMID:25721273

  8. Design optimization of functionally graded dental implant.

    PubMed

    Hedia, H S; Mahmoud, Nemat-Alla

    2004-01-01

    The continuous increase of man's life span, and the growing confidence in using artificial materials inside the human body necessities introducing more effective prosthesis and implant materials. However, no artificial implant has biomechanical properties equivalent to the original tissue. Recently, titanium and bioceramic materials, such as hydroxyapatite are extensively used as fabrication materials for dental implant due to their high compatibility with hard tissue and living bone. Titanium has reasonable stiffness and strength while hydroxyapatite has low stiffness, low strength and high ability to reach full integration with living bone. In order to obtain good dental implantation of the biomaterial; full integration of the implant with living bone should be satisfied. Minimum stresses in the implant and the bone must be achieved to increase the life of the implant and prevent bone resorption. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation is to design an implant made from functionally graded material (FGM) to achieve the above advantages. The finite element method and optimization technique are used to reach the required implant design. The optimal materials of the FGM dental implant are found to be hydroxyapatite/titanium. The investigations have shown that the maximum stress in the bone for the hydroxyapatite/titanium FGM implant has been reduced by about 22% and 28% compared to currently used titanium and stainless steel dental implants, respectively. PMID:15156104

  9. Global Economic Impact of Dental Diseases.

    PubMed

    Listl, S; Galloway, J; Mossey, P A; Marcenes, W

    2015-10-01

    Reporting the economic burden of oral diseases is important to evaluate the societal relevance of preventing and addressing oral diseases. In addition to treatment costs, there are indirect costs to consider, mainly in terms of productivity losses due to absenteeism from work. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs of dental diseases worldwide to approximate the global economic impact. Estimation of direct treatment costs was based on a systematic approach. For estimation of indirect costs, an approach suggested by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health was employed, which factored in 2010 values of gross domestic product per capita as provided by the International Monetary Fund and oral burden of disease estimates from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Direct treatment costs due to dental diseases worldwide were estimated at US$298 billion yearly, corresponding to an average of 4.6% of global health expenditure. Indirect costs due to dental diseases worldwide amounted to US$144 billion yearly, corresponding to economic losses within the range of the 10 most frequent global causes of death. Within the limitations of currently available data sources and methodologies, these findings suggest that the global economic impact of dental diseases amounted to US$442 billion in 2010. Improvements in population oral health may imply substantial economic benefits not only in terms of reduced treatment costs but also because of fewer productivity losses in the labor market. PMID:26318590

  10. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A dental... and dental alloy particles, such as silver, tin, zinc, and copper. The mixed dental amalgam...

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Fluoride in Toddlers After Application of 5% Sodium Fluoride Dental Varnish

    PubMed Central

    Taves, Donald M.; Kim, Amy S.; Watson, Gene E.; Horst, Jeremy A.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries (tooth decay) among preschool children is increasing, driven partially by an earlier age of onset of carious lesions. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish at intervals increasing with caries risk status, as soon as teeth are present. However, the varnishes are marketed for treatment of tooth sensitivity and are regulated as medical devices rather than approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for prevention of dental caries (tooth decay). The objective of this research is to examine the safety of use in toddlers by characterizing the absorption and distribution profile of a currently marketed fluoride varnish. We measured urinary fluoride for 5 hours after application of fluoride varnish to teeth in 6 toddlers aged 12 to 15 months. Baseline levels were measured on a separate day. The urine was extracted from disposable diapers, measured by rapid diffusion, and extrapolated to plasma levels. The mean estimated plasma fluoride concentration was 13 μg/L (SD, 9 μg/L) during the baseline visit and 21 μg/L (SD, 8 μg/L) during the 5 hours after treatment. Mean estimated peak plasma fluoride after treatment was 57 μg/L (SD, 22 μg/L), and 20 μg/kg (SD, 4 μg/L) was retained on average. Retained fluoride was 253 times lower than the acute toxic dose of 5 mg/kg. Mean plasma fluoride after placement of varnish was within an SD of control levels. Occasional application of fluoride varnish following American Academy of Pediatrics guidance is safe for toddlers. PMID:25136045

  12. Saliva and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Dowd, F J

    1999-10-01

    A study of saliva and its tooth-protective components reveals at least four important functions of saliva: (1) buffering ability, (2) a cleansing effect, (3) antibacterial action, and (4) maintenance of a saliva supersaturated in calcium phosphate. Several salivary constituents subserve one or more of these functions. Research has yielded important information about organic and inorganic secretory products. It is also clear that saliva as a unique biologic fluid has to be considered in its entirety to account fully for its effects on teeth. Saliva is greater then the sum of its parts. One reason for this is that salivary components display redundancy of function, each often having more than one function. This redundancy, however, does not imply that proteins that share functional roles all contribute to the same degree. For instance, when comparing proteins that inhibit calcium phosphate precipitation, statherin and acidic proline-rich proteins are most potent, whereas histatins, cystatins, and mucins appear to play lesser roles. The complex interaction between proteins is another major factor contributing to saliva's function. In this regard, heterotypic complexes of various proteins have been shown to form on hydroxyapatite. Mucin binding to other salivary proteins, including proline-rich proteins, histatins, cystatins, and statherin, is well documented. The complexes, whether adsorbed to the tooth surface or in saliva, have important implications for bacterial clearance, selective bacterial aggregation on the tooth surface, and control of mineralization and demineralization. Finally, proteolytic activity of saliva generates numerous products whose biologic activities are often different from their parent compounds. Fluoride is another important component of saliva that is discussed separately in other articles in this issue. The ability of saliva to deliver fluoride to the tooth surface constantly makes salivary fluoride an important player in caries protection largely by promoting remineralization and reducing demineralization. Some key properties of salivary components discussed in this article are listed in Table 1. Saliva is well adapted to protection against dental caries. Saliva's buffering capability; the ability of the saliva to wash the tooth surface, to clear bacteria, and to control demineralization and mineralization; saliva's antibacterial activities; and perhaps other mechanisms all contribute to its essential role in the health of teeth. The fact that the protective function of saliva can be overwhelmed by bacterial action indicates the importance of prevention and therapy as in other infectious diseases. The knowledge of functional properties of saliva as well as those of its separate components may permit a better assessment of dental caries susceptibility. Future research is essential to characterize more fully salivary components and their interactions and how these affect the caries process. With such knowledge, the use of modified oral molecules as therapeutic agents may become a reality. Equally intriguing is the prospect of influencing the secretion of salivary components by greater knowledge and control over the secretory processes responsible for the delivery of those components. PMID:10553245

  13. Esthetic dental anomalies as motive for bullying in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Scheffel, Débora Lopes Salles; Jeremias, Fabiano; Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; Dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes Aparecida Martins; Hebling, Josimeri; de Oliveira, Osmir Batista

    2014-01-01

    Facial esthetics, including oral esthetics, can severely affect children's quality-of-life, causing physical, social and psychological impairment. Children and adolescents with esthetic-related dental malformations are potential targets for bullies. This study was aimed to present and discuss patients who suffered from bullying at school and family environment due to esthetic-related teeth anomalies. Providing an adequate esthetic dental treatment is an important step in their rehabilitation when the lack of esthetic is the main source of bullying. After dental treatment, we noted significant improvement in self-esteem, self-confidence, socialization and academic performance of all patients and improvement in parental satisfaction regarding the appearance of their children. It is imperative that both family and school care providers be constantly alert about bullying in order to prevent or interrupt aggressive and discriminatory practices against children and adolescents. Clearly, dental anomalies may be a motive for bullying. PMID:24966759

  14. Maternal Dental Anxiety and its Effect on Caries Experience Among Children in Udaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ruchi; Shah, Altaf Hussain; Wyne, Amjad Hassan; Sharma, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Context Dental caries is a common oral disease among children. There are various factors that influence caries development. Parents and family environment influence oral health behaviours among children. Dental Anxiety is a common hindrance in seeking dental treatment. Mothers’ dental anxiety may act as a barrier to seek professional advice about their children’s caries experience. Aim To evaluate dental anxiety among mothers and its possible relationship with caries experience in their children in Udaipur city, India Setting and Design The sample was selected from those attending Darshan Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur for dental treatment. The study period was from June 2014 to November 2014. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was designed. A total of 187 mother-child pairs were recruited for the study. The children’s age ranged from 3-14 years. Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), Hindi version, was used to evaluate dental anxiety among the mothers that categorizes the dental anxiety into five levels. Demographic detail such as age, educational level, and family income was also collected. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria was utilized for the diagnosis of dental caries in children. DMFT (Decayed, missing and filled teeth) and DMFS (Decayed, missing and filled surfaces) scores were then calculated. Statistical Analysis Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used to interpret data. Maternal anxiety scores taken as mean MDAS were compared with various independent variables. Statistical tests were used to compare maternal anxiety and children’s caries experience. A p value equal or less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Almost half (49.7%) of the mothers reported as being ‘fairly anxious’ or ‘very anxious’. There was a significant (p=.001) difference in maternal dental anxiety level in relation to age of the children. Mothers of younger children reported higher anxiety scores. Similarly, mothers with lesser education and lesser family income reported higher anxiety scores. The mean decayed score in children of very anxious mothers and phobic mothers was significantly (p=.001) higher as compared to the children of the mothers with lower anxiety levels. Conclusion There was a strong positive association between maternal dental anxiety and children’s dental caries experience. PMID:26266216

  15. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  16. Dental Implantology in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavitz, J. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The results of a survey of 44 dental schools corroborate the belief that dental implantology is gaining widespread acceptance in U.S. dental schools. Currently, predoctoral students have limited clinical participation. Most programs have taken the position that clinical techniques are best taught within the existing specialties at a graduate…

  17. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience

    PubMed Central

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6–7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8–27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs. PMID:26916132

  18. Curriculum Guidelines foe Dental Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' curriculum guidelines for dental nutrition include an overview of the curriculum, primary educational objectives, suggested prerequisites, a core content outline, and suggestions for sequencing and faculty qualifications. (MSE)

  19. Dental pulp tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Demarco, Flvio Fernando; Conde, Marcus Cristian Muniz; Cavalcanti, Bruno Neves; Casagrande, Luciano; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Nr, Jacques Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue that has a limited regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that has demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article reviews the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and provides insightful information to readers about the different aspects involved in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The findings collected in this literature review show that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable goal and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research. PMID:21519641

  20. Maintaining proper dental records.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Wilhemina

    2014-01-01

    Referred to as Standard of Care, the legal duty of a dentist requires exercising the degree of skill and care that would be exhibited by other prudent dentists faced with the same patient-care situation. Primarily, the goal of keeping good dental records is to maintain continuity of care. Diligent and complete documentation and charting procedures are essential to fulfilling the Standard of Care. Secondly, because dental records are considered legal documents they help protect the interest of the dentist and/or the patient by establishing the details of the services rendered. Patients today are better educated and more assertive than ever before and dentists must be equipped to protect themselves against malpractice claims. Every record component must be handled as if it could be summoned to a court room and scrutinized by an attorney, judge or jury. Complete, accurate, objective and honest entries in a patient record are the only way to defend against any clinical and/or legal problems that might arise. Most medical and dental malpractice claims arise from an unfavorable interaction with the dentist and not from a poor treatment outcome. By implementing the suggestions mentioned in this course, dental health care professionals can minimize the legal risks associated with the delivery of dental care to promote greater understanding for patients of their rights and privileges to their complete record. PMID:24834675

  1. The dental education environment.

    PubMed

    Haden, N Karl; Andrieu, Sandra C; Chadwick, D Gregory; Chmar, Jacqueline E; Cole, James R; George, Mary C; Glickman, Gerald N; Glover, Joel F; Goldberg, Jerold S; Hendricson, William D; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Neumann, Laura; Pyle, Marsha; Tedesco, Lisa A; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; Winder, Ronald L; Young, Stephen K; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L

    2006-12-01

    The second in a series of perspectives from the ADEA Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (CCI), this article presents the CCI's view of the dental education environment necessary for effective change. The article states that the CCI's purpose is related to leading and building consensus in the dental community to foster a continuous process of innovative change in the education of general dentists. Principles proposed by CCI to shape the dental education environment are described; these are critical thinking, lifelong learning, humanistic environment, scientific discovery and integration of knowledge, evidence-based oral health care, assessment, faculty development, and the health care team. The article also describes influences external to the academic dental institutions that are important for change and argues that meaningful and long-lasting change must be systemic in nature. The CCI is ADEA's primary means to engage all stakeholders for the purpose of educating lifelong learners to provide evidence-based care to meet the needs of society. PMID:17170316

  2. DENTAL PULP TISSUE ENGINEERING

    PubMed Central

    Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L; Sakai, V; Nör, JE

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article will review the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and providing insightful information to readers about the different aspects enrolled in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The finds collected in our review showed that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research. PMID:21519641

  3. Compliance with infection control practices in an university hospital dental clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mutters, Nico T.; Hägele, Ulrike; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Hellwig, Elmar; Frank, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Compliance with infection control practices is the key to quality care and excellence in dentistry. Infection control remains one of the most cost-beneficial interventions available. However, implementing control procedures requires full compliance of the whole dental team. The aim of our study was to measure the compliance in daily clinical practice. Methods: The compliance with infection control practices in dentistry by dental health care personnel (DHCP) in a German university dental clinic was observed during clinical work. In addition, a survey was conducted to assess the individual knowledge about infection control procedures. Contamination of the workplace during invasive dental procedures was tested, as well. Results: A total of 58 invasive dental treatments implying close contacts between HCWs and patients were scrutinized. All HCWs (100%) wore gloves during dental work, but in some cases (female dentists: 14.3%; dental assistants: 28.6%) gloves were neither changed nor hands were disinfected between different activities or patient contacts (female dentists: 68.6%; male dentists: 60.9%; dental assistants: 93%). Only 31.4% of female and 39.1% of male dentists carried out adequate hygienic hand disinfection after removing gloves. Male dentists wore significantly more often (100%) protective eyewear compared to 77.1% of female dentists (p<0.05). In addition, most of female dentists (62.9%) and dental assistants (80.7%) wore jewelry during dental procedures. Conclusion: Despite the knowledge of distinct hygiene procedures only a small percentage of dental staff performs hygiene practices according to recommended guidelines. Strict audit is clearly needed in the dental setting to ensure compliance with infection control guidelines to prevent transmission of pathogens. Our results provide insights for the development of a targeted education and training strategy to enhance compliance of dental staff especially of dental assistants with infection control procedures. PMID:25285262

  4. Dental Assistant Specialist. (AFSC 98150).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eling, David R.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for dental assistant specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are an introduction to dental services (the mission and organization of medical/dental service, career ladder progressions, medical readiness/wartime training, and…

  5. Dental Hygiene Realpolitik Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…

  6. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  7. Dental obturation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Elizabeth; Chudej, Lauren; Bilyeu, Brian; Brostow, Witold

    2006-10-01

    During the last decades, people have tried to develop a better material for use in dental obturation materials. This new material should meet the following requirements: durability, wear resistance, biocompatibility and chemical adhesion to dentin enamel. Wear resistance is very important and it is related with the service life of dental replacements. We have obtained aesthetically promising novel nano composites that can be used as dental replacements. The main objective of this work is to study the scratch and wear resistance of these nano composites. To meet this goal, scratch tests are performed using a micro scratch tester machine (CSEM), where a diamond indenter is used to make the scratch and the penetration of this indenter is measured with high resolution (7nm). We will be looking at the penetration depth (Rp) and the residual (or healing) depth (Rh) to calculate the percent recovery. These measurements represent the scratch resistance of the material.

  8. Dental amalgam: An update

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ramesh; Wadhwani, Kulvinder Kaur; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Chandra, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Dental amalgam has served as an excellent and versatile restorative material for many years, despite periods of controversy. The authors review its history, summarize the evidence with regard to its performance and offer predictions for the future of this material. The PubMed database was used initially; the reference list for dental amalgam featured 8641 articles and 13 publications dealing with recent advances in dental amalgam. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles and using some author names. For the present, amalgam should remain the material of choice for economic direct restoration of posterior teeth. When esthetic concerns are paramount, tooth-colored materials, placed meticulously, can provide an acceptable alternative. All alternative restorative materials and procedures, however, have certain limitations. PMID:21217947

  9. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. Results: About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Conclusions: Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health.

  10. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85). Bonding social capital (positive interaction) was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91). Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain. PMID:23289932

  11. A new website to aid the interpretation of antemortem dental records:www.internationaldentalcharts.org.

    PubMed

    Manica, S

    2014-01-01

    The INTERPOL (International Police Organization) Disaster Victim Identification forms represent a global standard for mass disasters and the collection of international ante-mortem dental records. These records can now be interpreted more easily with the help of a new online dictionary of dental terminology for translating dental charts from several languages into English. The free website launched in 2013 (www.internationaldentalcharts.org) is the result of a M.Sc project on international dental charts: Guide of International Dental Charts translated into English decoding international ante-mortem dental charts for INTERPOL's Ante-mortem (AM) Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) forms (Section F2), completed in 2011. The aim of this study was to analyze the tooth numbering system, symbols and abbreviations used on dental charting worldwide. A letter was sent to the national dental associations of the 188 INTERPOL member countries, addressing the goals of the project and asking for samples of dental charts. A total of 45 countries replied and 32 common dental alterations were selected for translation, such as: decay, filling and extraction. Their symbols and/or abbreviations used were summarized in various languages. More than one system of dental notations was used in the same country whereas there was an absence of standard systems in other countries. Some of the samples of charts received were of little value. However, a fair amount of useful information and detail was found in most of them. This free consultation website could be useful when the handwriting, symbols, and abbreviations on the ante-mortem dental charts are not clear. It will be particularly applicable when ante-mortem xrays and casts are not available. PMID:26851530

  12. Dental fear affects adolescent perception of interaction with dental staff.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Sirkka; Lahti, Satu; Räihä, Hannele; Saarinen, Maiju; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Aromaa, Minna; Sillanpää, Matti; Suominen, Sakari; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Rautava, Päivi

    2014-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore whether subjective perception of interaction with dental staff is associated with dental fear in a population-based sample of 18-yr-old adolescents (n = 773). The interaction was measured using the Patient Dental Staff Interaction Questionnaire (PDSIQ), validated with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, which yielded the factors of 'kind atmosphere and mutual communication', 'roughness', 'insecurity', 'trust and safety', and 'shame and guilt'. Dental fear was measured using the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). Gender and sense of coherence (SOC) were included as potential confounding variables. Adolescents with high dental fear more often perceived their interaction with dental staff negatively and more often felt insecure than others. This difference persisted after adjustment for gender and SOC. In conclusion, adolescents with high dental fear may perceive their interaction with dental staff more positively if the staff succeed in creating a positive, trusting, approving, and supportive atmosphere with kindness, calmness, and patience. The communication and interaction skills of dental staff may play a particularly important role when encountering highly fearful dental patients. PMID:25039483

  13. Dental status as a quality control health care parameter for children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bakarcić, Danko; Prpić, Igor; Ivancić-Jokić, Natasa; Bilić, Iva; Lajnert, Vlatka; Buković, Dino

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of dental health condition in children with disabilities and to find out weather dental health status might be used as a quality control parameter regarding overall health care for disabled children. Disabled and healthy children from 3 to 17 years old were examined. There were 86 boys and 34 girls in each group. Dental health status was evaluated using the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth. The relations between mean decayed, missing and filled teeth index for primary, mixed and permanent dentition showed no statistically significant differences among groups. Our results showed that disabled children have evenly level of dental caries as their healthy peers. One can conclude that organized health care for disabled children have positive influence on dental care, too. Furthermore, dental status as an indicator of dental care level might be used as a parameter for quality control regarding overall health care for disabled children. PMID:19408617

  14. Performance of Dental Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Rekow, E.D.; Silva, N.R.F.A.; Coelho, P.G.; Zhang, Y.; Guess, P.; Thompson, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    The clinical success of modern dental ceramics depends on an array of factors, ranging from initial physical properties of the material itself, to the fabrication and clinical procedures that inevitably damage these brittle materials, and the oral environment. Understanding the influence of these factors on clinical performance has engaged the dental, ceramics, and engineering communities alike. The objective of this review is to first summarize clinical, experimental, and analytic results reported in the recent literature. Additionally, it seeks to address how this new information adds insight into predictive test procedures and reveals challenges for future improvements. PMID:21224408

  15. Pneumoconiosis and exposures of dental laboratory technicians

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Lockey, J.E.; Lee, J.S.; Kimball, A.C.; Bang, K.M.; Leaman, H.; Johns, R.E. Jr.; Perrota, D.; Gibbons, H.L.

    1984-11-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight dental laboratory technicians and 69 non-exposed controls participated in an epidemiological respiratory study. Eight technicians who had a mean of 28 years grinding nonprecious metal alloys were diagnosed as having a simple pneumoconiosis by chest radiograph. Mean values for per cent predicted FVC and FEV1 were reduced among male nonsmoker technicians compared to male nonsmoker controls; after controlling for age, there was also a reduction in spirometry with increasing work-years. An industrial hygiene survey was conducted in 13 laboratories randomly selected from 42 laboratories stratified by size and type of operation in the Salt Lake City, Utah metropolitan area. Personal exposures to beryllium and cobalt exceeded the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) in one laboratory. Occupational exposures in dental laboratories need to be controlled to prevent beryllium-related lung disorders as well as simple pneumoconiosis.

  16. Pneumoconiosis and exposures of dental laboratory technicians.

    PubMed Central

    Rom, W N; Lockey, J E; Lee, J S; Kimball, A C; Bang, K M; Leaman, H; Johns, R E; Perrota, D; Gibbons, H L

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight dental laboratory technicians and 69 non-exposed controls participated in an epidemiological respiratory study. Eight technicians who had a mean of 28 years' grinding nonprecious metal alloys were diagnosed as having a simple pneumoconiosis by chest radiograph. Mean values for per cent predicted FVC and FEV1 were reduced among male nonsmoker technicians compared to male nonsmoker controls; after controlling for age, there was also a reduction in spirometry with increasing work-years. An industrial hygiene survey was conducted in 13 laboratories randomly selected from 42 laboratories stratified by size and type of operation in the Salt Lake City, Utah metropolitan area. Personal exposures to beryllium and cobalt exceeded the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) in one laboratory. Occupational exposures in dental laboratories need to be controlled to prevent beryllium-related lung disorders as well as simple pneumoconiosis. PMID:6496819

  17. 75 FR 16511 - Pentron Clinical Technologies, a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of Kerr Dental/Sybron Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... the Federal Register on February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7037). At the request of the State Agency, the... such as dental prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental... prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental materials to...

  18. Reasons for use and non-use of dental services among people visiting a dental college hospital in India: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, CG; Eswar, Pranati

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To find out the reasons for use and non-use of dental services among people visiting a dental college hospital in India. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 180 people, aged 15–65 years visiting the outpatient department of a dental college hospital in India. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about the history of dental visits and reasons for use and non-use of dental services. Results: For a majority of the people (38.5%), time since the last dental visit was more than 2 years, and the main reason for visiting a dentist was dental pain (35.3%). Majority of the people had undergone extraction of teeth in their previous dental visit (44.3%). The major reason cited for not visiting a dentist was the presence of dental problem that was not severe enough to go to a dentist (43.1%). Conclusion: Majority of the people were “problem-oriented visitors” rather than “prevention oriented visitors.” PMID:23077423

  19. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly. PMID:25802916

  20. Semileptonic Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Luth, Vera G.; /SLAC

    2012-10-02

    The following is an overview of the measurements of the CKM matrix elements |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub ub}| that are based on detailed studies of semileptonic B decays by the BABAR and Belle Collaborations and major advances in QCD calculations. In addition, a new and improved measurement of the ratios R(D{sup (*)}) = {Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}})/{Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) is presented. Here D{sup (*)} refers to a D or a D* meson and {ell} is either e or {mu}. The results, R(D) = 0.440 {+-} 0.058 {+-} 0.042 and R(D*) = 0.332 {+-} 0.024 {+-} 0.018, exceed the Standard Model expectations by 2.0{sigma} and 2.7{sigma}, respectively. Taken together, they disagree with these expectations at the 3.4{sigma} level. The excess of events cannot be explained by a charged Higgs boson in the type II two-Higgs-doublet model.

  1. Skylab Dental Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Skylab 2 Commander Charles Conrad is seen undergoing a dental examination by the Medical Officer, Joseph Kerwin in the Skylab Medical Facility. In the absence of an examination chair, Conrad simply rotated his body to an upside down position to facilitate the procedure.

  2. Dental amalgam and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Mackert, J.R. Jr. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper looks at the issues of the current amalgam controversy: the daily dose of mercury from amalgam, hypersensitivity to mercury, claims of adverse effects from amalgam mercury and alleged overnight 'cures.' In addition, the toxicity and allergenicity of the proposed alternative materials are examined with the same kind of scrutiny applied by the anti-amalgam group to dental amalgam. 100 references.

  3. Dental Treatment Considerations

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been on daily prednisone of medium to high dose. 4.Mestinon®/Prostigmine® • May cause your saliva flow to increase. • Dentist can use a low speed saliva ejector to collect the saliva during dental treatment. • Dentist can use high-speed evacuation, suction to collect debris and saliva ...

  4. The Dental Admissions Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myslinski, Norbert R.; Jeffrey, Robert I.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of Canadian and US dental school admissions offices concerning their use of the admissions interview revealed that use of the interview is increasing, interviewers are generally untrained, and schools use the interview to assess applicants' character, motivation, communication ability, knowledge, and intelligence. (MSE)

  5. Smoking and dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Kasat, V.; Ladda, R.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a prevalent behaviour in the population. The aim of this review is to bring to light the effects of smoking on dental implants. These facts will assist dental professionals when implants are planned in tobacco users. A search of “PubMed” was made with the key words “dental implant,” “nicotine,” “smoking,” “tobacco,” and “osseointegration.” Also, publications on tobacco control by the Government of India were considered. For review, only those articles published from 1988 onward in English language were selected. Smoking has its influence on general as well as oral health of an individual. Tobacco negatively affects the outcome of almost all therapeutic procedures performed in the oral cavity. The failure rate of implant osseointegration is considerably higher among smokers, and maintenance of oral hygiene around the implants and the risk of peri-implantitis are adversely affected by smoking. To increase implant survival in smokers, various protocols have been recommended. Although osseointegrated dental implants have become the state of the art for tooth replacement, they are not without limitations or complications. In this litigious era, it is extremely important that the practitioner clearly understands and is able and willing to convey the spectrum of possible complications and their frequency to the patients. PMID:24478965

  6. FATIGUE OF DENTAL CERAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Sailer, Irena; Lawn, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Clinical data on survival rates reveal that all-ceramic dental prostheses are susceptible to fracture from repetitive occlusal loading. The objective of this review is to examine the underlying mechanisms of fatigue in current and future dental ceramics. Data/sources The nature of various fatigue modes is elucidated using fracture test data on ceramic layer specimens from the dental and biomechanics literature. Conclusions Failure modes can change over a lifetime, depending on restoration geometry, loading conditions and material properties. Modes that operate in single-cycle loading may be dominated by alternative modes in multi-cycle loading. While post-mortem examination of failed prostheses can determine the sources of certain fractures, the evolution of these fractures en route to failure remains poorly understood. Whereas it is commonly held that loss of load-bearing capacity of dental ceramics in repetitive loading is attributable to chemically-assisted 'slow crack growth' in the presence of water, we demonstrate the existence of more deleterious fatigue mechanisms, mechanical rather than chemical in nature. Neglecting to account for mechanical fatigue can lead to gross overestimates in predicted survival rates. Clinical significance Strategies for prolonging the clinical lifetimes of ceramic restorations are proposed based on a crack-containment philosophy. PMID:24135295

  7. Financing Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Chester; Fein, Rashi

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the current status of and recent trends in dental school finances provides an overall financial description, documents trends in revenue and expenses, discusses student debt and its consequences, and presents alternatives for increasing revenues and decreasing expenses. The paper provides background for an Institute of Medicine study…

  8. Dental patient preferences and choice in clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Fukai, Kakuhiro; Yoshino, Koichi; Ohyama, Atsushi; Takaesu, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    In economics, the concept of utility refers to the strength of customer preference. In health care assessment, the visual analogue scale (VAS), the standard gamble, and the time trade-off are used to measure health state utilities. These utility measurements play a key role in promoting shared decision-making in dental care. Individual preference, however, is complex and dynamic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient preference and educational intervention in the field of dental health. The data were collected by distributing questionnaires to employees of two companies in Japan. Participants were aged 18-65 years and consisted of 111 males and 93 females (204 in total). One company (Group A) had a dental program of annual check-ups and health education in the workplace, while the other company (Group B) had no such program. Statistical analyses were performed with the t-test and Chi-square test. The questionnaire items were designed to determine: (1) oral health-related quality of life, (2) dental health state utilities (using VAS), and (3) time trade-off for regular dental check-ups. The percentage of respondents in both groups who were satisfied with chewing function, appearance of teeth, and social function ranged from 23.1 to 42.4%. There were no significant differences between groups A and B in the VAS of decayed, filled, and missing teeth. The VAS of gum bleeding was 42.8 in Group A and 51.3 in Group B (p<0.05). The percentage of persons having a regular dental check-up every three months was 34.1 and 31.3% in Groups A and B respectively. These results suggest that low preference results from lack of opportunity or utilization of dental care in the worksite. Ascertaining the factors involved in patient preference may have significant potential benefits in shared decision-making. PMID:22790334

  9. Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Michael J. E-mail: WahlMichaelJ@aol.com

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions.

  10. Coeliac disease in children - an update for general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Paul, S P; Kirkham, E N; John, R; Staines, K; Basude, D

    2016-05-13

    Coeliac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic disorder caused by ingestion of gluten found in wheat, rye and barley. It affects around 1% of children, but 90% of cases are considered to remain undiagnosed. CD classically presents with gastrointestinal manifestations including diarrhoea, bloating, weight loss and abdominal pain, but extra-intestinal features (including oral and dental manifestations) are increasingly being reported. Dental and oral manifestations such as dental enamel defects, delayed eruption of teeth, recurrent aphthous ulcers are well-recognised manifestations of CD. In patients with yet undiagnosed CD, these can sometimes be the only presenting features. Dentists have regular contact with well children, and therefore the visit to the dentist is an opportunity to suspect CD. When CD is suspected, Dental practitioners can liaise with the general medical practitioner to organise screening for coeliac disease. Positive serology will prompt onward referral to a paediatric gastroenterologist to confirm the diagnosis. The recent European Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines revised in 2012 have streamlined the diagnostic pathway for faster diagnosis of CD. Management involves strict adherence to a gluten free diet, which should lead to resolution of symptoms, recovery of intestinal mucosa and prevention of long-term complications associated with it. This article aims to describe CD, inform of recent changes to the diagnostic pathway and highlight the dental manifestations of the condition to equip dental practitioners to aid early diagnosis and initiation of treatment for children with CD. PMID:27173708

  11. Risk factors associated with asthma phenotypes in dental healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tanusha; Bello, Braimoh; Jeebhay, Mohamed F

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure in the dental environment can increase the risk of respiratory disease in dental healthcare workers (HCWs). This study investigated the prevalence of asthma phenotypes in dental HCWs and associated risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study of 454 dental HCWs in five dental institutions in South Africa was conducted. A self-administered questionnaire elicited the health and employment history of subjects. Sera was analysed for atopic status and latex sensitization. Pre and post bronchodilator spirometry was performed. Results The prevalence of atopic asthma was 6.9%, non-atopic asthma 5.9% and work-exacerbated asthma (WEA) 4.0%. Atopy and work-related ocular-nasal symptoms were strong predictors of WEA (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.07 –10.8; OR: 6.7, 95% CI: 2.4 – 19.1), respectively. Regular use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was associated with a protective affect (OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.1 – 0.7) among non-atopic asthmatics, while glove use and respiratory protection was protective among atopic asthmatics (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17 – 0.89). Conclusion Identification of risk factors associated with specific asthma phenotypes in dental HCWs can be used to focus preventive strategies for asthmatics. PMID:22473580

  12. Fluoride use in caries prevention in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Clark, Melinda B; Slayton, Rebecca L

    2014-09-01

    Dental caries remains the most common chronic disease of childhood in the United States. Caries is a largely preventable condition, and fluoride has proven effectiveness in the prevention of caries. The goals of this clinical report are to clarify the use of available fluoride modalities for caries prevention in the primary care setting and to assist pediatricians in using fluoride to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while minimizing the likelihood of enamel fluorosis. PMID:25157014

  13. Determination of dental decay rates with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, A. Z.; Zezell, D. M.; Mayer, M. P. A.; Ribeiro, A. C.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Vieira, N. D., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    We report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect and quantify demineralization process induced by S. mutans biofilm in third molars human teeth. Artificial lesions were induced by a S. mutans microbiological culture and the samples (N = 50) were divided into groups according to the demineralization time: 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 days. The OCT system was implemented using a light source delivering an average power of 96 μW in the sample arm, and spectral characteristics allowing 23 μm of axial resolution. The images were produced with lateral scans step of 10 μm and analyzed individually. As a result of the evaluation of theses images, lesion depth was calculated as function of demineralization time. The depth of the lesion in the root dentine increased from 70 μm to 230 μm (corrected by the enamel refraction index, 1.62 @ 856 nm), depending of exposure time. The lesion depth in root dentine was correlated to demineralization time, showing that it follows a geometrical progression like a bacteria growth law.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and dental alloy particles, such as silver, tin, zinc, and copper. The mixed dental amalgam material... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a rotary... materials intended for use in the fabrication of dental devices. (b) Classification. Class I...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and dental alloy particles, such as silver, tin, zinc, and copper. The mixed dental amalgam material... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a rotary... materials intended for use in the fabrication of dental devices. (b) Classification. Class I...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a rotary... materials intended for use in the fabrication of dental devices. (b) Classification. Class I...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and dental alloy particles, such as silver, tin, zinc, and copper. The mixed dental amalgam material... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  20. Trends in Dentistry and Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valachovic, Richard W.; Weaver, Richard G.; Sinkford, Jeanne C.; Haden, N. Karl

    2001-01-01

    Compiled from many of the surveys that the American Dental Education Association routinely publishes, along with data from surveys conducted by the American Dental Association and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, presents statistical tables and descriptive text on trends among dental patients, among dental practitioners, and in dental

  1. Dental Therapy Assistant: Attitudes of Army Dentists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Theodore H.; Bair, Jeffrey H.

    The U. S. Army Dental Corps has implemented a formal program based on the concept that dental care can be more efficiently and effectively provided with treatment teams composed of one dental officer, two dental therapy assistants, one basic assistant, and the shared support of other auxiliary personnel. Such a team will use three dental treatment…

  2. Dental Health - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF California Dental Association Dental Tourism English 牙科旅行 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF California Dental ... NEEG MOB - Hmoob (Hmong) California Dental Association Dental Tourism English Kev Kho Hniav Txawv Teb Chaws - Hmoob ( ...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and dental alloy particles, such as silver, tin, zinc, and copper. The mixed dental amalgam material... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  4. Dental caries - not just holes in teeth! A perspective.

    PubMed

    Bowen, W H

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation in teeth results from a pathogenic process termed dental caries that has occurred on the tooth surface for weeks or even years. Accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm) on the tooth is usually the first manifestation of the disease. Although acid production is the immediate and proximal cause of dissolution of teeth; it is the milieu within which the acid is formed that should be of primary concern. Focusing on the 'critical pH' has detracted attention from the more biological aspects (biofilm formation) of dental caries. Dental caries is unique; it is a biological process occurring on essentially an inert surface. Investigation of the multitude of interactions occurring in plaque ranging from enamel interfaces to surfaces of bacteria and matrices poses challenges worthy of the best scientific minds. The mouth clearly offers unique opportunities to investigate the multi facets of biofilm formation in vivo, generating data that have relevance way beyond the mouth. Prevention of this ubiquitous disease, dental caries, continues to present serious challenges. The public health benefits of fluoride delivered in its various formats are well recognized. Nevertheless, additional preventive approaches are required. Overcoming the rapid clearance of agents from the mouth is particularly challenging. Building on the polymerizing capacity of glucosyltransferases it may be possible to incorporate a therapeutic agent into the matrix plaque, thereby delivering therapeutic agents precisely to where they are needed. PMID:26343264

  5. The evolving impact of aging America on dental practice.

    PubMed

    Shay, Kenneth

    2004-11-15

    American dentistry has recognized for a quarter century that the growth in the proportion of elderly in the population is impacting on the profession. Multiple articles in the professional literature have speculated on the ways in which this change will be manifested. Data and projections from earlier articles are revisited and five trends are offered to guide professionals as they position their practices for the coming years. The increase in number and proportion of elderly in dental practices stems from successes in preventing and controlling infectious diseases during the last century. The trend has not peaked but will continue for at least two more decades. Retention of teeth into advanced age has resulted from emerging and improved preventive and restorative dental advances directed at children and adults beginning mid-century, and dental utilization studies confirm the elderly are seeking dental care at an unprecedented and growing rate. Chronic disease and infirmity that accompany advanced age make dental care more challenging for this group. Dentists and their staff will need to continuously undertake educational opportunities that will foster and maintain their facility in providing care to the elderly. They will need to do this because Americans of advanced age are becoming the dominant age group seeking, and able to pay for, sophisticated dental services. The blend of those services is shifting away from removable prostheses to a rising demand for restorative, periodontic, and endodontic care. Root caries, in particular, will be a growing challenge to both providers and patients. There is mounting evidence oral disease impacts endocrine, cardiovascular, and pulmonary health, particularly in frail elders, and will likely provide many elderly additional stimuli to seek dental care. Providers who seek an alternative approach for delivering their services will find growing demand for and satisfaction with traveling to patients, rather than the other way around. PMID:15558095

  6. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…

  7. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed

  8. Oral-dental concerns of the pediatric oncology patient

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, K.

    1989-01-01

    One of the main concerns of all disciplines in health care today is maintaining the patient's quality of life and comfort during cancer therapy. Oral complications resulting from radiation or chemotherapy can be expected in a large percentage of patients. Conducting a dental evaluation and performing treatment before therapy can help prevent or lessen potential complications. With preventive care and fewer infections, the patient will be able to communicate with friends and family, and optimum care and comfort can be provided.

  9. Dental therapists in general dental practices: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J; Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Heffley, Dennis R; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-08-01

    Dental access disparities are well documented and have been recognized as a national problem. Their major cause is the lack of reasonable Medicaid reimbursement rates for the underserved. Specifically, Medicaid reimbursement rates for children average 40 percent below market rates. In addition, most state Medicaid programs do not cover adults. To address these issues, advocates of better oral health for the underserved are considering support for a new allied provider--a dental therapist--capable of providing services at a lower cost per service and in low-income and rural areas. Using a standard economic analysis, this study estimated the potential cost, price, utilization, and dentist's income effects of dental therapists employed in general dental practices. The analysis is based on national general dental practice data and the broadest scope of responsibility for dental therapists that their advocates have advanced, including the ability to provide restorations and extractions to adults and children, training for three years, and minimum supervision. Assuming dental therapists provide restorative, extraction, and pulpal services to patients of all ages and dental hygienists continue to deliver all hygiene services, the mean reduction in a general practice costs ranges between 1.57 and 2.36 percent. For dental therapists treating children only, the range is 0.31 to 0.47 percent. The effects on price and utilization are even smaller. In addition, the effects on most dentists' gross income, hours of work, and net income are negative. The estimated economic impact of dental therapists in the United States on private dental practice is very limited; therefore, the demand for dental therapists by private practices also would probably be very limited. PMID:22855595

  10. Evaluation of caries experience in 3-6-year-old children, and dental attitudes amongst the caregivers in the Ludhiana city.

    PubMed

    Simratvir, M; Moghe, G A; Thomas, A M; Singh, N; Chopra, S

    2009-01-01

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a lifestyle disease that begins when the child's teeth erupt in the oral cavity. The distinctive pattern of decay rapidly spreads from one tooth to another and involves the surfaces of teeth that are usually not at risk. Detection of disease is crucial to control the oral condition using preventive and therapeutic regimes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of caries in children of age 3-6 years in Ludhiana and to examine the relationship between age and caries experience. A total of 609 children in the age group of 3-6 years were examined using def index. To determine dental care seeking attitude, 105 caregivers were interviewed. Results revealed that 52.87% of children in the age group of 3-3.11 years, 45.1% of children in the age group of 4-4.11 years and 58.55% of children in 5-5.11 age groups suffered from caries. The mean def index was 1.82, 1.57 and 2.21, respectively. Interview of caregivers of children revealed that out of 105 only 12 (11.4%) children had previously been to a general dentist. None of them knew about Pedodontics as a specialty. The results of the present study can be used mainly for screening child populations in need of treatment, helping public workers and planners to develop dental health programs to aid early intervention and prevention. PMID:19841548

  11. Self-reported dental hygiene, obesity, and systemic inflammation in a pediatric rural community cohort

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A growing body of epidemiologic evidence links oral health, obesity, and cardiovascular health, though few studies have reported on these relationships in children. While underlying mechanisms are unclear, adult studies have suggested sub-acute systemic inflammation, also implicated in the etiology of both obesity and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated associations between self-reported dental hygiene, obesity, and systemic inflammation in children. Methods 128 children < 19 years of age from rural counties in West Virginia participated in a community-based health screening that included anthropometric assessments, blood collection, and a questionnaire about dental hygiene and self-assessed oral health. Results Participants ranged from 3.0-18.7 years. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between parent-reported dental hygiene, including frequency of preventive dental care and parent-assessed overall dental health, and markers of systemic inflammation but not obesity. In multivariable regression, parent-assessed overall dental health and obesity were independent predictors of systemic inflammation, after adjustment for age, gender, and parent education. Conclusions This is the first known study of the association between dental hygiene, obesity, and systemic inflammation in children. These results highlight the importance of preventive dental care in overall, systemic health in children and are consistent with previous reports in adults. PMID:20849640

  12. Importance of Dental Records in Forensic Dental Identification

    PubMed Central

    Waleed, Petro; Baba, Feras; Alsulami, Salem; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The patient’s record maintains all the diagnostic information with regards to patients and contains valuable information that can be beneficial to the dentist as well as legal authorities during forensic human identification. Aim: Objective of the study was to compare dental records with an ideal dental record form, as well as to compare between dental records of private clinics and academic hospitals and to assess the awareness and the knowledge of the dentists regarding the maintenance of their dental records accurate for medico-legal purposes. Material and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study between records kept in private clinics and academic teaching hospitals in Khartoum locality. Results: Our results showed that Students are more likely to encounter accurate dental records more than dentists in private clinics. In conclusion Students are more aware regarding medicolegal purposes of maintenance of dental records. Accurate maintenance of dental records is more among dental students. Therefore, private clinics encounter dental records as financial documents. PMID:25870492

  13. Future priorities for a successful dental school.

    PubMed

    Ranney, R R

    1999-01-01

    Priorities for success for a dental school of the future are considered. University relations, demographic changes, digital information technology and functional genetic technology are emphasised as important environmental pressures that will influence the priorities. The goal advocated for university relations is creating a culture in which the dental school is viewed as integral and necessary to the University's mission. Financial stability, quality research and scholarship and provision of health care for employees may be important ingredients. Keeping an eye on demographic changes and taking the school's business where the customers are is another key to success in the future. Ethnic diversity, changing approaches with changing disease patterns, flexibility in schedule and collaborations in areas of need are strategies to be considered. The emerging field of functional genetics typifies a new biology with which currency will be needed in a health-sciences field. Necessity for faculty development, adoption of molecular diagnostic technologies, emphasis on risk assessment and preventive counselling, and a shift to a wellness model are likely consequences. Digital information technology will result in increased distance-learning opportunity. Dental schools will also need to make accommodating changes in curriculum structure available. Conversion to electronic imaging and totally electronic patient records are likely to become standard. PMID:10865371

  14. Improving dental epidemiologic data collection with computers.

    PubMed

    Joshi, A; McDermott, S; Marcus, P; Douglass, C W; Jette, A

    1992-01-01

    A computerized dental data recording system (DDRS) was developed for the New England Elder Dental Study to improve data quality and increase field staff efficiency. The DDRS displays video screens similar to traditional paper forms to record data on coronal and root caries, dentate and denture status, subacute bacterial endocarditis screening, gingival bleeding, calculus, and periodontal attachment level. DDRS provides facilities for date and exam-component time tracking, on-line contextual comments, random record retrieval, editing, data backup, and data output in various data formats. This study compared the DDRS with a paper-form system for data entry accuracy. Dental caries and periodontal disease measurement data from 38 subjects were recorded on paper forms and independently entered using DDRS. The DDRS identified 150 illogical data errors, 39 inconsistent data errors, 7 invalid data and 34 miscellaneous data errors. Four technicians with field experience using both paper forms and DDRS reported time savings using DDRS in the field. DDRS has the potential for additional time savings by minimizing the time for data coding, cleaning, and management. Results demonstrate that DDRS could improve the quality of oral epidemiologic data by mandating strict adherence to protocols, preventing errors, and increasing field efficiency. PMID:1512749

  15. The Impact of a Home Visiting Program on Childrens Utilization of Dental Services

    PubMed Central

    Haldiman, Robin R.; Evani, Bhanu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Child Health Investment Partnership (CHIP) of Roanoke Valley is a home visiting program that promotes childrens health and family self-sufficiency. CHIPs Begin With a Grin program provides preventive dental services in the home (oral health anticipatory guidance and fluoride varnish) for children aged 0 to 6 years. The purpose of this study was to compare the dental utilization of Medicaid-enrolled children in CHIP versus Medicaid-enrolled children not in CHIP. METHODS: Using the propensity score method, control subjects were selected from the statewide Medicaid database by using a caliper-matching algorithm. A vector of chosen covariates was used to match control subjects; these covariates included risk factors, estimated propensity score, age, race, gender, and days of Medicaid eligibility. Propensity scores were developed by using a logistic regression. Differences in dental utilization outcomes were tested: ?1 dental claim (logistic regression) and number of dental claims (Poisson regression) for each subject within the test period. RESULTS: When CHIP children were compared with Medicaid-only children, the CHIP child was 3 times more likely to have at least 1 dental visit (odds ratio: 3.0 [95% confidence interval: 1.94.7]) and have a higher number of dental claims (ratio of estimated average number of dental claims [cases/control]: 8.60/3.05 = 2.82 [95% confidence interval: 2.563.12]). CONCLUSIONS: A home visiting model can introduce children and their families to dental prevention, improve dental health literacy, establish a dental home, and provide application of fluoride varnish. PMID:24187117

  16. Prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth and its relation with tooth brushing habits among schoolchildren in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Faraz A.; Khabeer, Abdul; Moheet, Imran A.; Khan, Soban Q.; Farooq, Imran; ArRejaie, Aws S.,

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries in the primary and permanent teeth, and evaluate the brushing habits of school children in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This study was conducted at Dammam, KSA. Oral examination of the participants was conducted from February to May 2014. The total sample size for this cross-sectional study was 711. There were 397 children between the age of 6-9 years, who were examined for primary teeth caries, and 314 between the age 10-12 years were examined for permanent teeth caries. Primary and permanent dentitions were studied for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft [primary teeth], DMFT [permanent teeth]). Results: The overall prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was almost 73% (n=711). Among the 6-9-year-old, the prevalence of caries was approximately 78% (n=397) whereas, among the 10-12-year-old children, it was approximately 68% (n=314). Mean dmft value among the 6-9-year-olds was 3.66±3.13 with decayed (d) component of 3.28±2.92, missing (m) component of 0.11±0.69, and filled (f) component of 0.26±0.9. Mean DMFT value among the 10-12-year-old children was 1.94±2.0 with decayed (D) component of 1.76±1.85, missing (M) component of 0.03±0.22, and filled (F) of component 0.15±0.73. Daily tooth brushing had a positive effect on caries prevention, and this effect was statistically significant for caries in primary teeth. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was not found to be as high as other researchers reported from different cities of KSA, still the prevalence was high considering the World Health Organization future oral health goals. Awareness should be provided to students, as well as, teachers and parents regarding the importance of good brushing habits and regular dental visits. PMID:25987118

  17. Sugar Industry Influence on the Scientific Agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program: A Historical Analysis of Internal Documents

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Cristin E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry’s interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP. Methods and Findings We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR’s call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors. Conclusions The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects itself from potentially damaging research, which can inform policy makers today. Industry opposition to current policy proposals—including a World Health Organization guideline on sugars proposed in 2014 and changes to the nutrition facts panel on packaged food in the US proposed in 2014 by the US Food and Drug Administration—should be carefully scrutinized to ensure that industry interests do not supersede public health goals. PMID:25756179

  18. Teledentistry-assisted, affiliated practice for dental hygienists: an innovative oral health workforce model.

    PubMed

    Summerfelt, Fred F

    2011-06-01

    The 2010 U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) calls for training programs to develop mid-level dental health care providers to work in areas with underserved populations. In 2004, legislation was passed in Arizona allowing qualified dental hygienists to enter into an affiliated practice relationship with a dentist to provide oral health care services for underserved populations without general or direct supervision in public health settings. In response, the Northern Arizona University (NAU) Dental Hygiene Department developed a teledentistry-assisted, affiliated practice dental hygiene model that places a dental hygienist in the role of the mid-level practitioner as part of a digitally linked oral health care team. Utilizing current technologies, affiliated practice dental hygienists can digitally acquire and transmit diagnostic data to a distant dentist for triage, diagnosis, and patient referral in addition to providing preventive services permitted within the dental hygiene scope of practice. This article provides information about the PPACA and the Arizona affiliated practice dental hygiene model, defines teledentistry, identifies the digital equipment used in NAU's teledentistry model, give an overview of NAU's teledentistry training, describes NAU's first teledentistry clinical experience, presents statistical analyses and evaluation of NAU students' ability to acquire diagnostically efficacious digital data from remote locations, and summarizes details of remote applications of teledentistry-assisted, affiliated practice dental hygiene workforce model successes. PMID:21642518

  19. Open wide: looking into the safety culture of dental school clinics.

    PubMed

    Ramoni, Rachel; Walji, Muhammad F; Tavares, Anamaria; White, Joel; Tokede, Oluwabunmi; Vaderhobli, Ram; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2014-05-01

    Although dentists perform highly technical procedures in complex environments, patient safety has not received the same focus in dentistry as in medicine. Cultivating a robust patient safety culture is foundational to minimizing patient harm, but little is known about how dental teams view patient safety or the patient safety culture within their practice. As a step toward rectifying that omission, the goals of this study were to benchmark the patient safety culture in three U.S. dental schools, identifying areas for improvement. The extensively validated Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture (MOSOPS), developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was administered to dental faculty, dental hygienists, dental students, and staff at the three schools. Forty-seven percent of the 328 invited individuals completed the survey. The "Teamwork" category received the highest marks and "Patient Care Tracking and Follow-Up" and "Leadership Support for Patient Safety" the lowest. Only 48 percent of the respondents rated systems and processes in place to prevent/catch patient problems as good/excellent. All patient safety dimensions received lower marks than in medical practices. These findings and the inherent risk associated with dental procedures lead to the conclusion that dentistry in general, and academic dental clinics in particular, stands to benefit from an increased focus on patient safety. This first published use of the MOSOPS in a dental clinic setting highlights both clinical and educational priorities for improving the safety of care in dental school clinics. PMID:24789834

  20. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ?80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ?10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to <5% of energy to protect dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ?10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to <5% of energy. Available data were from ecologic studies and, although classified as being of low quality, showed lower dental caries when free sugar intake was <5% of energy compared with when it was >5% but ?10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice. PMID:26773022

  1. [Complete dental care of patients suffering from localized aggressive periodontitis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt; Nemes, Júlia; Nyárasdy, Ida

    2015-12-01

    A 34 years old male patient was referred to our clinic for restorative dental treatment. During detailed consultation and dental examination a relatively rare form of periodontal disease had been diagnosed. Intraoral examination included recording of dental and periodontal status. Based on patient's dental history, measurements of probing pocket depths (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and also the X-ray findings, Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP) unknown by the patient was diagnosed. After patient's consent the comprehensive treatment plan covered the dental prevention, periodontal non-surgical and surgical therapy and rehabilitation. The treatment started with oral hygienic instruction, motivation then supra- and subgingival scaling and rootplaning. Later extraction and elective root canal treatment were performed, followed by open flap periodontal surgery combined with hemisection of two molars. After a full mouth conservative restorative therapy, function and esthetics were restored by fix dental prostheses. This case is a good example to underline the importance of periodontal examination during the dental screening and dental status recording for each patients showing up at dental clinics. Otherwise in many cases this asympthomatic disease can remain undetected. PMID:26863818

  2. The effects of finger rest positions on hand muscle load and pinch force in simulated dental hygiene work.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Barr, Alan; Loomer, Peter; Rempel, David

    2005-04-01

    One of the techniques taught in dental and dental hygiene programs is to use finger rests to stabilize the instrument while performing dental scaling or other types of dental work. It is believed that finger rests may also reduce muscle stress and prevent injury due to muscle fatigue. In this study the effects of three different finger rest positions on hand muscle activity and thumb pinch force were compared. Twelve predental students performed simulated dental scaling tasks on a manikin using three different finger rest positions: 1) no finger rest, 2) one finger rest, and 3) two finger rests. Muscle activity and thumb pinch force were measured by surface electromyography and a pressure sensor, respectively. Using two finger rests was always associated with reduced thumb pinch force and muscle activity, as compared to not using any finger rests (p<0.05), while using one finger rest reduced thumb pinch force and muscle activity in most cases. Hence, using finger rests plays an important role in reducing the muscle load of the hand in students performing simulated dental hygiene work. It is concluded that dental and dental hygiene students may benefit from instructions for using finger rests at an early stage of their clinical training. Including biomechanical and ergonomic principles in dental and dental hygiene curricula will raise awareness of ergonomics among dental practitioners and help them incorporate these principles into daily practice. PMID:15800259

  3. Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Home : Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Celiac disease manifestations ... affecting any organ or body system. One manifestation—dental enamel defects—can help dentists and other health ...

  4. Medical Emergency Education in American Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Morris S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    American dental schools were surveyed to determine the state of development of programs in medical emergencies in the dental curriculum. Results show that programs for teaching the diagnosis and management of medical emergencies are seriously underdeveloped in dental schools. (MLW)

  5. Proton decay theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Topics include minimal SU(5) predictions, gauge boson mediated proton decay, uncertainties in tau/sub p/, Higgs scalar effects, proton decay via Higgs scalars, supersymmetric SU(5), dimension 5 operators and proton decay, and Higgs scalars and proton decay. (WHK)

  6. Dental problems in athletes.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Jill; McGrew, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial injuries and diseases occur in athletes, and they may not always have access to dentists. Therefore team physicians should be aware of the common injuries and initial management. Treatment of dental injuries will depend on whether the teeth are primary or permanent. The most common type of fracture is crown fracture, but there are other dental injuries that can lead to future complications if not treated promptly and monitored closely. Tooth avulsions need to be handled properly, and athletes should see a dentist as soon as possible. Despite the urgency of some injuries, other orofacial injuries or diseases, such as lacerations and caries, should not be overlooked. Proper education and use of mouth guards can assist athletes in reducing their risk of orofacial injuries. PMID:25574879

  7. Standardising dental processes.

    PubMed

    Knott, N J

    2009-06-13

    A global transformation is taking place in dentistry with the use of CADCAM based technology. Whilst the headlines in the dental press continue to be dominated by precision fitting ceramic dental prostheses it is reasonable for us to ask--how well do they fit and how good are they? These questions of course cannot be answered in the absence of any benchmarked standards. Throughout manufacturing industry, process controls are designed to deliver constant improvement and eliminate failure--everything has to be measured. The best companies retain their competitive advantage by developing and selling products that are all made within an envelope of excellence. Likewise we must be able to measure clinical excellence objectively and demonstrate the benefits to our patients. PMID:19521370

  8. Dental Assisting Education in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Industrial Education.

    A survey of 22 dental assisting programs showed an average of 1,124 hours of instruction in dental assisting for 15 four-semester, 955 for three three-semester, and 1,042 for four two-semester programs. The average instructional hours for the four-semester programs were 48 in introduction to dental assisting, 179 in the life sciences, 221 in the…

  9. [Phenomenon of dental fear].

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Birn, H

    1990-01-01

    Odontophobia is a rather unique phobia with special psychosomatic components that impact on the dental health of odontophobic persons. It also has psychosocial components largely as a result of destruction of the teeth and subsequent embarrassment that can affect a person and cause a vicious cycle of dental fear. The phenomenon is facilitated by misunderstandings and myths generated by both patients and dentists. The most common reasons given in the literature for such strong fears of dental treatment are: 1) bad experiences in childhood for 85% of cases, 2) feeling of powerlessness and lack of control over personal emotional reactions and over the social situation in the dental chair, 3) social learning processes in which the image of the dentist is cast in a negative light by the mass media or by the person's relatives or friends and 4) that the person has other psychologic problems (in 20% of cases), such as serious phobias and/or neuroses. A strategy of researching and thus tackling the problem is presented which focuses on three essential targets that require studying and change: 1) the community at large and their image of the dentist, 2) the patient role and 3) the dentist role. Various model projects are presented along with their diagnostic systems. These are seen to focus in varying degrees on different elements of the target groups that effect the dentist-patient relationship but the need to come out into the community and make the social environment right for these patients is an important factor in all strategies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2377962

  10. Dental public health for the 21st century: implications for specialty education and practice.

    PubMed

    Shulman, J D; Niessen, L C; Kress, G C; DeSpain, B; Duffy, R

    1998-01-01

    A panel of public health practitioners sponsored by the Health Resources and Services Administration met December 6-8, 1994, to examine current roles and responsibilities for dental public health workers and to recommend changes in education and training to meet challenges posed by an evolving health care system. Overall, at least the same number, if not more, dental public health personnel will be needed in the future. While some new roles were identified, the panel felt that only small numbers of personnel will be needed to fill these new roles. Not all of these roles necessarily require a dental degree. The panel felt that a need exists for more academicians for dental schools, schools of public health, dental public health residencies, and dental hygiene programs; oral epidemiologists and health services researchers; health educators; and specialists in utilization review/outcomes assessment, dental informatics, nutrition, program evaluation, and prevention. To meet these personnel needs: (1) dental public health residency programs should be structured to meet the educational needs of working public health dentists with MPH degrees through on-the-job residency programs; (2) the standards for advanced specialty education programs in dental public health should be made sufficiently flexible to include dentists who have advanced education and the requisite core public health courses; (3) flexible MPH degree programs must be available because of the rising debt of dental students and the decreased numbers of graduating dentists; (4) loan repayment should be available for dentists who have pursued public health training and are working in state or local health departments; and (5) standards for advanced education in dental public health should be developed for dental hygienists. PMID:9661106

  11. Resuscitation in the dental practice.

    PubMed

    Jevon, P

    2016-03-11

    The Resuscitation Council (UK) published new resuscitation guidelines in October 2015. The aim of this article is to understand these new guidelines and how dental practices should implement them. A 'resuscitation in the dental practice poster' has been designed which incorporates the new Resuscitation Council (UK) adult basic life support algorithm. This poster, endorsed by the British Dental Association, is included with this issue of the British Dental Journal. Further copies can be downloaded from: https://www.walsallhealthcare.nhs.uk/Data/Sites/1/media/documents/health-and-safety/resus.pdf. PMID:26964602

  12. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

    PubMed Central

    Armfield, Jason M; Slade, Gary D; Spencer, A John

    2008-01-01

    Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations. PMID:18218075

  13. Harvesting dental stem cells - Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, P. M.; Manikandan, Ramanathan; Muthumurugan; Yoithapprabhunath, Thukanayakanpalayam Ragunathan; Sivakumar, Muniapillai

    2015-01-01

    Dental stem cells have recently become one of the widely researched areas in dentistry. Ever since the identification of stem cells from various dental tissues like deciduous teeth, dental papilla, periodontal ligament and third molars, storing them for future use for various clinical applications was being explored. Dental stem cells were harvested and isolated using various techniques by different investigators and laboratories. This article explains the technical aspects of preparing the patient, atraumatic and aseptic removal of the tooth and its safe transportation and preservation for future expansion. PMID:26538883

  14. Dental care - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems such as tooth decay and gum disease (periodontitis) . You should also teach your children how to ... Gingivitis , which are swollen, inflamed, and bleeding gums Periodontitis , is the destruction of the ligaments and bone ...

  15. Dental Care in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid. That acid can destroy the enamel (protective) coating on your teeth, which can cause tooth decay ( ... from vomiting can also break down the enamel coating of the teeth. Is it safe to visit ...

  16. Dental care and treatments provided under general anaesthesia in the Helsinki Public Dental Service

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental general anaesthesia (DGA) is a very efficient treatment modality, but is considered only in the last resort because of the risks posed by general anaesthesia to patients’ overall health. Health services and their treatment policies regarding DGA vary from country to country. The aims of this work were to determine the reasons for DGA in the Helsinki Public Dental Service (PDS) and to assess the role of patient characteristics in the variation in reasons and in the treatments given with special focus on preventive care. Methods The data covered all DGA patients treated in the PDS in Helsinki in 2010. The data were collected from patient documents and included personal background: age (<6, 6–12, 13–17, 18–68), gender, immigration, previous conscious sedation and previous DGA; medical background; reasons for DGA and treatments provided. Chi-square tests, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression modelling were employed in the statistical analyses. Results The DGA patients (n=349) were aged 2.3 to 67.2 years. Immigrants predominated in the youngest age group (p<0.001) and medically compromised patients among the adults (p<0.001) relative to the other age groups. The main reason for DGA was extreme non-cooperation (65%) followed by dental fear (37%) and an excessive need for treatment (26%). In total, 3435 treatments were performed under DGA, 57% of which were restorations, 24% tooth extractions, 5% preventive measures, 5% radiography, 4% endodontics and the remaining 5% periodontics, surgical procedures and miscellaneous. The reasons for DGA and the treatments provided varied according to age, immigration, previous sedation and DGA and medical background. The logistic regression model showed that previous sedation (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.3-4.1; p=0.005) and extreme non-cooperation (OR 1.7; 95%CI 0.9-3.2; p=0.103) were most indicative of preventive measures given. Conclusions Extreme non-cooperation, dental fear and an excessive need for treatment were the main reasons for the use of comprehensive, conservative DGA in the Helsinki PDS. The reasons for the use of DGA and the treatments provided varied according to personal and medical background, and immigration status with no gender-differences. Preventive measures formed only a minor part of the dental care given under DGA. PMID:23102205

  17. Comparative epidemiology of multiple sclerosis and dental caries.

    PubMed Central

    Craelius, W

    1978-01-01

    The geographical distribution and other epidemiological characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) are compared with those of dental caries. The rates of death due to MS in Australian states are linearly related to the numbers of decayed, missing, and filled (DMF) teeth found in individuals from those states (r=0.97, P less than 0.002). In the United States of America, a strong positive correlation (r=0.55, P less than 0.001) also exists between MS death rates and dental caries indices. The prevalence of MS in 45 countries or areas correlates well with the frequencies of DMF teeth among children of school age in those locations (r=0.78, P less than 0.001). The prevalence of MS also correlates well with the percentage of edentulous individuals in certain countries (r=0.99, P less than 0.001). A review of the literature shows that the risk for dental caries is lower among the following groups: the lower socioeconomic classes in the United States of America; Chinese immigrants to England compared with natives; blacks compared with whites; and males compared with females. The dental caries risk is higher during pregnancy and lactation. All these trends have been described for MS as well. It is suggested that dental caries may be a more accurate epidemiological model for MS than poliomyelitis. It is also suggested that MS and dental caries may share certain aetiological factors, two of which may be dietary excess of certain fats, and vitamin D deficiency. PMID:711974

  18. Utilization of Dental Services Among Medicaid-Enrolled Children

    PubMed Central

    Bouchery, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess what characteristics of children and their communities are associated with lower dental service use rates, to support development of strategies to target subgroups of children with lower utilization. Data source The Medicaid Analytic Extract (MAX) 5-percent sample file, known as Mini- MAX 2008. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between enrollee and county characteristics and dental preventive and treatment service utilization. Principal Findings There is substantial variation in service use by age. Relative to a 9-year-old, a 2-year-old is 28 percentage points less likely, and a 15-year-old is 15 percentage points less likely, to receive a preventive dental service. Children enrolled in Medicaid for only part of the year were significantly less likely to receive a preventive or a treatment service relative to children covered by Medicaid for the full year. For preventive care, children enrolled for nine months were 15 percentage points less likely to have a service. Those enrolled for six months were 30 points less likely; those enrolled for three months were 41 points less likely. Children eligible for Medicaid based on disability were 9 and 6 percentage points less likely to receive a preventive or treatment service, respectively, than their counterparts who were eligible based on income alone. Conclusions This study identifies some subgroups of children who are particularly underserved and for whom states may need to devote more attention. PMID:24753978

  19. Mandatory Clinical Practice for Dental and Dental Hygiene Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Dental and dental hygiene faculty should maintain their clinical skills through regular practice, to improve their ability to relate to students through instruction, provide an additional source of income, and improve their image in the community. Institutional policies fostering and regulating faculty practice plans are suggested. (Author/MSE)

  20. Oral Health Status and Behaviour of Mauritians Visiting Private Dental Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…

  1. Oral Health Status and Behaviour of Mauritians Visiting Private Dental Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated

  2. Dental Treatment Considerations for Children with Complex Medical Histories: A Case of Townes-Brock Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elkaiali, Lujayn; Ratliff, Katelin; Oueis, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    It is common for oral health and dental care to be considered a lesser priority for children with complex medical histories than other aspects of their health care. Often, these patients are at a high risk for caries and infection due to poor oral health practices at home, special or restricted diets, and no early establishment of a dental home for routine dental care. Unfortunately, many of these patients present to their first dental visits with caries and require aggressive treatment, such as extractions instead of pulp therapy, or crowns instead of fillings, due to their high caries risk and the difficulty in safely managing them medically during treatment. A unique example of this occurred at the Children's Hospital of Michigan, where a patient with Townes-Brock syndrome (TBS) presented to the dental clinic with advanced caries. TBS is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by major findings such as anomalies of the external ear, imperforate anus, renal malformations, and malformations of the hand. Like many medically complex cases, dental anomalies are not a direct consequence of TBS; however, due to the necessity of high calorie and high sugar feeding supplementation, many of these patients are at high risk for advanced dental caries. Due to this high caries risk, a more aggressive treatment plan is necessary to minimize the risk of recurrent decay and infection. It is critical to stress that even if the disease, syndrome, etc., of a patient does not have inherent dental consequences, it is imperative for regular dental care to be part of the comprehensive treatment plan for these patients. This includes the establishment of a dental home at a young age and proper oral health education of the patient's caregivers and their physicians. In the case of the patient with TBS, recommendations for daily brushing, especially after high sugar feedings was stressed, as well as the reduction of any other sweets within the diet. PMID:26882646

  3. Evaluating oral health promotion activity within a general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Richards, W

    2013-07-01

    The prevention of the common dental diseases is fundamental to modern day general dental practice. Oral health promotion (OHP) is therefore key to facilitating health outcomes within organisations. The literature surrounding OHP stresses the importance of evaluation in order to assess the effectiveness of OHP activities. This paper describes the evaluation of OHP within a general dental practice setting. Early attendance, the use of adult toothpastes during childhood and consequential fluorosis are investigated. A small service evaluation study of 100 consecutive patients was undertaken. The results support the ongoing promotion of early attendance and the use of toothpastes with adequate fluoride levels. There was no evidence of unsightly fluorosis in the sample studied. PMID:23887535

  4. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. PMID:25422590

  5. Mercury as a potential hazard for the dental practitioner.

    PubMed

    Kostyniak, P J

    1998-04-01

    Mercury has been used for centuries for medical, chemical, metallurgical and electrical applications. It is an element of mystery, which in its metallic form is an enticing silvery liquid that can be as fascinating as it is dangerous. Its use in dental amalgam has a potential for continuous occupational exposure of dental practitioners to mercury vapor. It is imperative that the dental practitioner understands the hazards associated with the use of mercury, and controls exposures to prevent the development of any untoward effects. This article provides an overview of the toxicology of the different forms of mercury to which human exposure occurs and addresses safety issues associated with mercury vapor, the primary form of mercury encountered in the practice of dentistry. PMID:9613096

  6. Linking Mother and Child Access to Dental Care

    PubMed Central

    Grembowski, David; Spiekerman, Charles; Milgrom, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Among young children in low-income families covered by Medicaid, we estimate by racial/ethnic group whether children who have mothers with a regular source of dental care (RSDC) at baseline have greater dental utilization in the following year than children with mothers without a regular source. Patients and Methods From a population of 108,151 children enrolled in Medicaid aged 3 to 6 and their low-income mothers in Washington state, a disproportionate stratified random sample of 11,305 children aged 3 to 6 was selected from enrollment records in four racial/ethnic groups: 3,791 Black; 2,806 Hispanic 1,902 White; and 2,806 other racial/ethnic groups. In a prospective cohort design, we conducted a baseline survey of mothers and for respondents, collected their children’s Medicaid dental claims in the 1-year follow-up period. Mutivariable regression models estimated the associations between the mothers having a RSDC at baseline and their children’s prospective dental utilization. Results About 38% of mothers had a RSDC. Among children of Black and Hispanic mothers, having a mother with a RSDC at baseline was associated with greater odds of receiving any dental care in the following year (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.10-2.62 for children of Black mothers; OR 1.84, CI 1.23-2.73 for children of Hispanic mothers). For children with dental utilization, children of Black or Hispanic mothers with a RSDC received 1.22 (CI 1.08-1.38) and 1.10 (CI 1.01-1.19) more preventive services, respectively. For children of White mothers, associations were in the same direction but not significant. Conclusions For young children of Black and Hispanic mothers, dental care utilization is higher when their mothers have a RSDC. For low-income young children with Medicaid, increasing the mothers’ access to dental care may increase the children’s utilization of dental and preventive services, which, in turn, may reduce racial/ethnic inequalities in oral health. PMID:18829778

  7. Recent trends among dental residents at Tokyo Dental College.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Furusawa, Masahiro; Katakura, Akira; Sugito, Hiroki; Hirata, SoIchiro; Ishii, Takuo; Kameyama, Atsushi; Noro, Akio; Yamakura, Daiki; Kondou, Yoshihiro; Sugiyama, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Setsuko; Haruyama, Akiko; Asami, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Trends among dental residents at Tokyo Dental College between 2006, at which time clinical residency became mandatory, and 2011 were analyzed and the following results obtained. Almost all the eligible students from our school participated in the orientation seminar on dental residency programs. Although the number varied slightly by year, approximately 70 to 150 students from other schools also participated in these orientation seminars. Almost all the students from our school and 60 to 80% of those from other schools participating in the orientation seminar each year applied to sit the dental residency entrance examination. The number of candidates was highest in 2006 (318) and lowest in 2010 (205) (average: 248), and the applicant-to-seat ratio for residency was 1.59. The examination pass rate was 59.02%. Approximately 10% of the students from other schools were admitted as dental residents. PMID:24334633

  8. [Dissertations 25 years after date 30. Oral hygiene and dental hygienists].

    PubMed

    Gruythuysen, R J M

    2011-10-01

    In 1986 the thesis entitled 'Choosing for dental hygienists' was published in The Netherlands. It provided the scientific basis for the further development of the profession of dental hygienists in The Netherlands. Since then, the profession has developed very strongly. In the intervening years, qualified dental hygienists have come to be considered capable of taking over simple restorative treatments from dentists. As a result, treatment, especially in children, can largely be carried out by one person. Nevertheless, recent developments, such as the sharp increase in the number of new dental students, suggest that the re-allocation of responsibilities is proceeding slowly. This suggests that policy makers have not yet unambiguously opted for dental hygienists and prevention. PMID:22043642

  9. Obstacles to regular dental care related to extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.

    PubMed

    Syrjälä, A M; Knuuttila, M L; Syrjälä, L K

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test factors preventing regular dental care as put forward by persons who are extrinsically or intrinsically motivated in relation to dental care. The series consisted of 390 randomly selected young and middle-aged patients, 207 women and 183 men, visiting two occupational health centers in Oulu, Finland. Logistic regression analysis showed that the probability of being extrinsically motivated was greater among those who mentioned the purposelessness of brushing their teeth, lack of time, lack of interest, expense, laziness and failure to appreciate the seriousness of dental care as factors hindering regular dental care very much or somewhat. Thus extrinsically motivated persons seemed to propose superficial reasons and reasons related to non-appreciation of dental care more often than intrinsically motivated persons. PMID:7924243

  10. Fate of the Molar Dental Lamina in the Monophyodont Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dosedělová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S.; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  11. Fate of the molar dental lamina in the monophyodont mouse.

    PubMed

    Dosedělová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  12. Laser curing of dental materials.

    PubMed

    Powell, G L; Blankenau, R J

    2000-10-01

    Research supports the use of the argon laser in dentistry. Used at powers of 250 mW +/- 50 mW for 10 seconds per increment, the argon laser provides good curing of light-activated restorative materials in a shorter period of time with equal or better physical properties as compared to the conventional halogen curing light. When used at approximately 1.5 W, it is a good soft tissue surgical instrument that cuts with little or no bleeding and minimal postoperative pain. The future looks bright for the use of the argon laser in other areas, such as decay prevention or pulpal treatments for primary teeth as well as an adjunct to endodontic therapy. PMID:11048280

  13. The effectiveness of potent dental adhesives on the viability of LPS challenged human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Garner, Angelia D; Tucci, Michelle A; Benghuzzi, Hamed A

    2014-01-01

    Dental adhesives are necessary for the retention of specific dental restorations utilized to repair the anatomy of the tooth after dental decay is removed. Adhesives come into contact with healthy and diseased periodontal tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram negative bacterial pathogen, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-PG) is an endotoxin found in gingival connective tissues of patients who suffer from periodontal disease. The presence of the endotoxin causes inflammation. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of potent dental adhesives when human gingival fibroblasts are challenged with LPS-PG. The fibroblasts were exposed to the dental adhesives polymethly methacrylate (PMMA), OptiBond®, and Prime & Bond® which were purchased from Patterson Dental, a national dental materials supplier. The human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1, ATCC® CRL-2014™) were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The porphyromonas gingival lipopolysaccharide (LPS-PG) was purchased from Fisher Scientific (Pittsburg, PA). No significant differences in metabolic behavior was detected among the groups (p<0.132). While the glutathione assay determined that there was not any significant increase in oxidative stress levels; the lactate dehydrogenase assay identified significant cellular damage in the group exposed to combinations of the Prime & Bond® adhesives and LPS-PG at 48 hour intervals (p<0.003). No significant changes were noted in cellular morphology at any phases, and all cells demonstrated typical fibroblast spindle shape. PMID:25405402

  14. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S.; Wahab, Moustafa A.; Aboelil, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. Results A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. Conclusions A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed. PMID:26767084

  15. The Costs of Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eustachio, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    This brief statement offers 10 questions for consideration by American Dental Association (ADA) officials and others concerned with the burdensome indebtedness graduates often incur for their dental education. Questions ask for assessments in such areas as school operating costs, tuition, school support, loan forgiveness, and how the ADA can help

  16. Health Instruction Packages: Dental Assisting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEnery, Paula

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules to instruct dental assisting students in various office skills. The first module, "Dental Office Telephone Techniques," examines the qualities of a good telephone voice and demeanor and provides guidelines for taking a message and handling various telephone…

  17. Emerging Dental Specialties and Ethics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald S; Mashni, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses ethical dimensions related to the formal recognition of emerging dental specialties. It explores several issues related to the potential emergence of several new dental specialty areas. There are good reasons that dentistry should open the door to these new specialties, and patients would benefit. The ethical considerations for and against formal acceptance are examined. PMID:26697653

  18. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  19. Clinical Guidelines. Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Bonnie

    This manual contains information concerning the policies and procedures of the Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Dental Hygiene Clinic. The manual is presented in a question/answer format for the information and convenience of dental hygiene students in the program, and is intended to answer their questions concerning clinical policies and…

  20. Health Instruction Packages: Dental Assisting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEnery, Paula

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules to instruct dental assisting students in various office skills. The first module, "Dental Office Telephone Techniques," examines the qualities of a good telephone voice and demeanor and provides guidelines for taking a message and handling various telephone

  1. Dental Laboratory Technology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard dental laboratory technology curriculum for both diploma programs and associate degree programs in technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the dental laboratory technology field. The general information section contains the…

  2. Teaching Photography in Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuman, Ted A.; Hummel, Susan K.

    1992-01-01

    Two surveys investigated the extent of photography instruction in dental schools. The first survey of 53 schools revealed that 36% had formal dental photography programs. Of 21 photography instructors surveyed in the second study, 67% had no formal training, many knew little about texts or resources, and techniques and knowledge varied. (MSE)

  3. Dental Chairside Technique. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfel, Maura; Weaver, Trudy Karlene

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: local anesthesia; dental office emergencies; oral hygiene;…

  4. Dental Assisting Competencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Beverly; And Others

    This document contains dental assisting competencies and competency-based performance objectives, learning activities, resources, and evaluation procedures for each competency that was adapted and developed by instructors of dental assisting to suit the needs and legal parameters of Pennsylvania. The competencies and associated elements are…

  5. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Manjunath P.; K.R., Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Materials and Methods Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Results Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Conclusion Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries. PMID:26155592

  6. [Communitary dentisitry: a strategy to promote dental health].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Dagum, Esther; Sánchez Dagum, Mercedes

    2006-01-01

    Since its beginnings Dentistry has endevoured to mitigate the consequences of dental diseases. Human resources and materiales invested to reverse their profile have been significant indeed; however, in Latin America results at epidemiological level have proved to be insufficient. These results are indicative of strategies that the Public Health Authorities as well as Institutions in charge of Professional Training should implement in order to approach and solve the problems caused by oral pathologies. One of these strategies is the introduction of Community Health Programs, which promote dental health through organized community efforts, in which Health Community groups, Family gropus, and Dental Professionals take part. Community Dentistry means Community Health Dentistry. Preventive care and assistance is directed to all the members of the community, healthy or ill. This form of dental practice is based on the belief that the individual patient is the community itself. This simple concept makes the difference which develops methods and sets actions for the Dental Professionals to accomplish their goals. PMID:17645043

  7. Dental management in renal failure: patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Jover Cerveró, Alba; Bagán, José V; Jiménez Soriano, Yolanda; Poveda Roda, Rafael

    2008-07-01

    Chronic renal failure is an important health care problem throughout the world, with an incidence of 337, 90, 107 and 95 new cases per million inhabitants/year in the United States, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, respectively. These figures moreover invariably tend to increase. During the progression of renal damage, clinical manifestations are noted in practically all body organs and systems, and 90% of all affected patients experience oral symptoms. The existing management options range from simple measures based on changes in diet and life style, to different forms of dialysis (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis), and also kidney transplantation. Given the multiple oral manifestations of chronic renal failure, and the different repercussions of its treatment upon the oral cavity, these patients require special considerations and precautions in the face of dental treatment. Consultation with the nephrologist is essential before any dental treatment is carried out, in order to determine the condition of the patient, define the best moment for dental treatment, introduce the necessary pharmacological adjustments, or to establish other important aspects for preventing complications in the dental clinic. The present study reviews the characteristics of the disease, the existing therapeutic options, and the considerations of relevance for the dental professional. PMID:18587305

  8. Impact of cleaning regimes on dental water unit contamination.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Soad A; Khalil, Ahmed I

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms that have been identified in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) are of concern because they can cause infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to assess the incidence of microbial contamination in DUWLs before and after intervention to reduce contamination, and to investigate the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Water samples were collected aseptically from the waterlines. The high-speed hand-piece and dental chair units were served by one distillation apparatus, which was fed by the potable tap water of four dental clinics. Different interventions were used: chlorination, flushing before clinics and between patients, draining at the end of the day, and freshly distilled water on a daily basis. There was a significant difference between the level of contamination in the high-speed hand-piece (1.5-2.7 log CFU/ml) and dental chair unit water (2.0-3.5 log CFU/ml). Coliforms (0.9%) E. coli (0.9%) and Pseudomonas (1.8%) were detected during 2008. This study indicates the need to monitor water quality regularly and prevent stagnation in DUWLs to reduce the number of viable bacteria to <100 CFU/ml. We recommend flushing the DUWL for 2 min before the first patient and for 10-20 s between patients, flushing the dental unit at the end of the day and draining it overnight to reduce the development of biofilms, and chlorination of the DUWLs. PMID:22048424

  9. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    PubMed

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries. PMID:26192983

  10. Seal Out Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  11. Current trends in dental implants.

    PubMed

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja; Ong, Joo L

    2014-04-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evolution of dental implants. It also describes the types of implants that have been developed, and the parameters that are presently used in the design of dental implants. Finally, it describes the trends that are employed to improve dental implant surfaces, and current technologies used for the analysis and design of the implants. PMID:24868501

  12. Current trends in dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evolution of dental implants. It also describes the types of implants that have been developed, and the parameters that are presently used in the design of dental implants. Finally, it describes the trends that are employed to improve dental implant surfaces, and current technologies used for the analysis and design of the implants. PMID:24868501

  13. Glucosyltransferase inactivation reduces dental caries.

    PubMed

    Devulapalle, K S; Mooser, G

    2001-02-01

    Dental caries has been an intractable disease in spite of intense dental research. The metabolic acids produced by mutans streptococci demineralize the tooth surface and lead to dental caries. The enzyme glucosyltransferase (GTF) produced by mutans streptococci is the key factor in this process. Oral bacterial GTFs use sucrose as a substrate in synthesis of either water-soluble or insoluble glucans. In this investigation, kinetic studies with divalent metal ions revealed their strong binding affinity to GTF. The metal ions also proved to be strong inhibitors of the enzyme. Here we describe a simple method of inactivating the enzyme that actively participates in dental caries by taking advantage of a Fenton reaction which requires metal ions such as iron or copper and peroxide. The hydroxyl radical ions produced via the Fenton reaction inactivate GTF, a factor in the production of dental caries. PMID:11332534

  14. The american dental dream.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth. PMID:25257392

  15. Dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that many impression materials are available to the veterinary dentist. They each have different inherent properties, handling characteristics, and indications for use. A thorough understanding of these concepts is essential if the veterinarian and laboratory technician are to produce meaningful and accurate reproductions of oral structures. New products are constantly being introduced to the dental market, with fantastic claims for ease of use and reproduction of detail. The reader is urged to seek independent research findings when assessing such claims, and make decisions founded in the highest possible levels of evidence. PMID:24006720

  16. Is dental caries neglect?

    PubMed

    Stevens, C L

    2014-11-01

    The recent and widespread media interest highlighting the concerning number of children with poor oral health has, at last, put paediatric dentistry well and truly under the spotlight. Whether on the front page of the Sunday Times (http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/Health/Sugar/article1433860.ece), on GDPUK forums or live Twitter feeds as ITV's The Dentists was broadcast, the whole nation has suddenly awoken to the realisation that tens of thousands of children are undergoing multiple dental extractions under general anaesthesia in the UK every year. This is of course, not a new phenomenon, so why the sudden interest? PMID:25377816

  17. The Prevalence of Dental Anxiety in Patients of a University Dental Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodmansey, Karl F.

    2005-01-01

    Dental anxiety remains a pervasive barrier to dental treatment for many individuals, including college-age patients. In this article, the author reviews dental anxiety and examines the usefulness of assessment instruments for identifying dental anxiety. Using 2 unique assessment instruments, he examines the prevalence of dental anxiety in his…

  18. Undergraduate dental English education in Japanese dental schools.

    PubMed

    Rodis, Omar M M; Matsumura, Seishi; Kariya, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Michiko; Yoshida, Toshiko

    2013-05-01

    Dental schools in Japan are among many worldwide whose medium of instruction is not in English. With advances in science, technology, and communication, the demand for the globalization of professions increases. At present, dental schools in Asia, the Middle East, and Europe have started revising their dental curricula to either include English courses for dentistry or offer a full English dental curriculum. In Japan, dental English courses started to be introduced into curricula in the early 1990s. However, a survey conducted in 1999 found that English courses were not offered in Japan's twenty-nine dental schools and there was no consensus as to what such courses should include or when and how they should be taught. Ten years after that survey, the survey results reported in this article found that the problems reported in the 1999 survey still exist. Additionally, there are still differences among schools offering English courses in terms of the timing and contents of the courses. Since teachers and school officials will have an important role in curriculum development, this article recommends that a fact-finding meeting with educators, school, and education officials be initiated to discuss, develop, and implement a core curriculum for these dental English courses. PMID:23658413

  19. Unmet needs for dental care in children with special health care needs

    PubMed Central

    Paschal, Angelia M.; Wilroy, Jereme D.; Hawley, Suzanne R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The unmet need for dental care is one of the greatest public health problems facing U.S. children. This issue is particularly concerning for children with special health care needs (CSHCN), who experience higher prevalence of unmet dental care needs. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate regional differences in unmet dental care needs for CSHCN. Using the Social Ecological Model as a framework, additional variables were analyzed for regional differences. It was hypothesized that (H1) unmet dental care needs would be high in the CSHCN population, (H2) there would be regional differences in unmet dental care needs in CSHCN, and (H3) there would be differences in specific individual, interpersonal (family), community (state), and policy level factors by region. Methods: Data were obtained from the 20092010 National Survey of CSHCN. SPSS was used for data management and analysis. Results: Each of the study hypotheses was supported for the sample of 40,242 CSHCN. The West region was more likely to have more unmet needs for preventive and specialized dental care in CSHCN than the reference region (Northeast). The South region followed the West region in unmet dental care needs. Statistically significant differences in individual, interpersonal (family), community (state) and policy factors were found by region. Conclusion: Further research is recommended. Effective strategies that include policy to address unmet dental care needs at multiple levels of intervention are suggested. PMID:26844190

  20. 21 CFR 872.6390 - Dental floss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental floss. 872.6390 Section 872.6390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6390 Dental floss. (a) Identification. Dental floss is...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6390 - Dental floss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental floss. 872.6390 Section 872.6390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6390 Dental floss. (a) Identification. Dental floss is...

  2. Dental Curriculum Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phantumvanit, Prathip

    1996-01-01

    Since establishment of formal dental education in Southeast Asia, changes stemming from research and technology have led to dental curriculum changes. Development of the dental curriculum can be divided into three phases: disease oriented; health oriented; and community oriented. Evolution of these phases is traced in the dental curricula of Laos,…

  3. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  6. Sources of Dental Health Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Jean H.

    1982-01-01

    Sources of dental health education teaching aids which are available for free or at minimal cost include: (1) The American Dental Health Association; (2) state and local departments of public health; (3) schools of dentistry, dental hygiene, and dental assisting; and (4) the Educator's International Guide. (JN)

  7. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  8. Involving Parents in Their Children's Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Donna

    1998-01-01

    Asserts that parent education is vital to good dental hygiene for the whole family. Discusses what Head Start staffers can do to ensure that children's dental needs are being met, particularly in assisting parents with taking responsibility for children's dental hygiene. Covers dental care tips for parents, questions and answers about dental…

  9. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a rotary cutting device made from carbon steel...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a rotary cutting device made from carbon steel...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3700 - Dental mercury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental mercury. 872.3700 Section 872.3700 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3700 Dental mercury. (a) Identification. Dental mercury is a device composed of mercury intended for use as a component of amalgam alloy in the restoration of...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6390 - Dental floss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental floss. 872.6390 Section 872.6390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6390 Dental floss. (a) Identification. Dental floss is...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6390 - Dental floss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental floss. 872.6390 Section 872.6390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6390 Dental floss. (a) Identification. Dental floss is...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6390 - Dental floss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental floss. 872.6390 Section 872.6390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6390 Dental floss. (a) Identification. Dental floss is...

  15. A Cross-sectional Study of Patients' Satisfaction with Dental Care Facilities: A Survey of Adult Treatment at the University of the West Indies, School of Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Balkaran, RL; Osoba, T; Rafeek, R

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine the level of satisfaction with adult dental care at The University of the West Indies (UWI), School of Dentistry, using the Dental Satisfaction Questionnaire (DSQ) developed by Davies and Ware (1982) and to inferentially explore the factors associated with various patients' demographics. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among adult dental patients attending UWI adult dental clinics. Data were collected using a self-administered, structured questionnaire which consisted of 19 questions on three subscales of pain management, quality and access (total). Results: Sixty-nine per cent were female, 40% were between 45 and 64 years old and 31.3% had excellent self-rated dental health status. A Dental Satisfaction Index (DSI overall) of 76.42% satisfaction was found, with the highest satisfaction subscale for quality (81.17%), while access (72%) was the lowest occurring subscale. The mean DSI was 3.57 for the UWI emergency dental clinic and 3.87 for the polyclinic. The difference between the DSI overall in the emergency clinic compared to the polyclinic was statistically significant (p < 0.05) Conclusions: There was a high level of overall satisfaction with dental care at the UWI dental school. Self-rated oral health status may be important in patients' satisfaction. Policies and strategies promoting preventive dental advice are likely to improve patients' satisfaction with dental care and may lead to increased satisfaction with dental services. PMID:25781288

  16. Dental Disease in Infants and Toddlers: A Transdisciplinary Health Concern and Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Emanuel; Wolpin, Scott

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the consequences of dental disease among children under age 3. "Early childhood carries" (ECC) is preventable but is still a major public health problem--especially in poor and medically underserved communities--due to lack of awareness about prevention. The authors explain that in transdisciplinary care, practitioners work…

  17. Dental impression material: a rare cause of small-bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Dent, Lemuel; Peterson, Analeta; Pruett, Danica; Beech, Derrick

    2009-12-01

    Small-bowel obstruction due to foreign bodies is unusual in adults. Intestinal obstruction is occasionally caused by pits, bezoars, endoscopy capsules, and gastrostomy tube buttons. We report a rare case of distal small-bowel obstruction due to dental impression material. Avoidance of this potentially life-threatening complication may be achieved by increased vigilance in accounting for all impression material when dental impression trays are removed. Early detection of swallowed dental material may afford endoscopic removal from the stomach, thus preventing intestinal obstruction. PMID:20070020

  18. Sectional collapsible complete removable dental prosthesis for a patient with microstomia.

    PubMed

    Sinavarat, Potchaman; Anunmana, Chuchai

    2015-11-01

    Patients who have unusually small mouths may have difficulty in obtaining dental care and maintaining good oral hygiene. The fabrication of conventional complete removable dental prostheses for an edentulous patient with microstomia is challenging because of the limited access to the oral cavity. Sectional collapsible complete removable dental prostheses were designed as hinged maxillary and mandibular complete dentures that can be folded for denture delivery. This design also prevented denture deflection during function by using the upper part of the prosthesis, minimizing the possibility of breakage. PMID:26187103

  19. Baryonic B Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistov, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this talk the decays of B-mesons into baryons are discussed. Large mass of B-meson makes possible the decays of the type B → baryon (+mesons). Experimental observations and measurements of these decays at B-factories Belle and BaBar have stimulate the development of theoretical models in this field. We briefly review the experimental results together with the current theoretical models which describe baryonic B decays.

  20. [Maintenance care for dental implant].

    PubMed

    Kamoi, K

    1989-10-01

    Dental implant has tried at the early stage in 19th century recovering an oral function and esthetics. Technological revolutions in biochemical and new materials have developed on the remarkable change in the dental implants, nowadays we call the three generation therapy for dental implantology. There are many kinds of methods and techniques in dental implants, however a lot of troublesome complication on the process of surgical phase, construction of prothodontics and prognosis of maintenance care. In the proceedings of this symposium, I would like to propose you how to manage the maintenance care for various kind of dental implants through the methodology and case presentations. Tendenay and future for dental implants The current outlook of dental implant has increasing supply and demand not only dentists but also patients. According to Japanese Welfare Ministry's report in 1987, average missing teeth over sixty years old generations are approximately 42% in accordance with NIDR (U.S.A.) research. They are missed on ten over teeth in full 28th teeth dentitions owing to dental caries and periodontal diseases. Generally speaking, latent implant patients are occupied on the same possibility of needs for dental implants both Japan and U.S.A. Management of maintenance care The patients hardly recognized the importance of plaque control for the maintenance care in the intraoral condition after implantation. Dentists and dental staffs must be instruct patients for importance of plaque removal and control, because they already had forgotten the habit of teeth cleaning, especially in the edenturous conditions. 1) Concept of establishment in oral hygiene. Motivation and instruction for patients include very important factors in dental implants as well as in periodontal diseases. Patients who could not achieve on good oral hygiene levels obtained no good results in the long term observations. To establish good oral hygiene are how to control supra plaque surrounding tissues with patient himself. Ultimate concept of implantology have supported common concordance with periodontal therapy. 2) Patients consent and co-operation the right of informed consent, agreement to treatment by the patient has been gaining increased importance to implantology. Even the patient has consent, they must co-operate the process of dental implant with co-therapist (Fig. 2). 3) The clinical examination of clinical parameters in dental implants. (1) Plaque Index (Silness & Loe 1964) and Plaque Control Record (0 Leary 1978) (Table 5). (2) Gingival inflammation (Fig. 3). Ordinarlly, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI Ainamo & Bay 1975) and Papilla Bleeding Index (Saxer & Jühlemann 1975) are used. (3) The depth of peri-implant sulcus with the plastic probe. (NDU style) (Fig. 4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2489287

  1. Career patterns of dental hygienists qualifying from the Liverpool Dental Hospital School of Dental Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hillam, D G

    1989-04-22

    This study assesses the pattern of employment of dental hygienists who qualified from the Liverpool Dental Hospital School of Dental Hygiene between 1977 and 1986. Of the 100 students who qualified during this period, 98 responded to a questionnaire. Seventy-seven per cent were employed as dental hygienists or dental health educators at the time of the survey, which took place between October 1987 and February 1988. The results show that after an initial slight under-employment, the majority quickly found as much work as they wanted and worked for an average of 2.24 practices each. The majority chose part-time employment and there was a steady decline in the number of sessions worked from the third year after qualifying. This decline was due to domestic commitments rather than dissatisfaction with the job. Only 4% stated they would definitely not return to work as a hygienist whilst a further 10% were uncertain. PMID:2719891

  2. Time until first dental caries for young children first seen in Federally Qualified Health Centers: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kuthy, RA; Jones, M; Kavand, G; Momany, E; Askelson, N; Chi, D; Wehby, G; Damiano, P

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the time until first dental caries for young children seen at 5 Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) in Iowa and the relationship with the frequency and gaps (in months) of dental episodes, the number of topical fluoride treatments, and the number of dentists caring for the subject. Methods Forty children were randomly selected at each FQHC (n=200). All children were continuously enrolled in the Medicaid program and had their first dental visit prior to age 6. Dental chart findings, claims data for the child and family, and birth certificate information were merged into one dataset. Dental visits were followed for a minimum of 36 months, including dental visits external to the FQHCs. Using time until first caries as the dependent variable, the data were subject to left, interval, and right censoring and were analyzed via Weibull regression. Results Slightly more than half of the 200 children experienced caries. Regression analysis indicated that the hazard rate of first dental caries increased by approximately 2% with each additional month that transpired between preventive recall examinations. In addition, children with older siblings who had a dental visit at the same center during the previous year prior to the subjects first visit were more likely to have a longer time until first dental caries. Conclusions Timing of dental care episodes was associated with caries experience in young children from low income families. Dental professionals should focus on regularity of dental care in order to prevent or delay caries experience in young children. PMID:24483730

  3. Degradation, Fatigue, and Failure of Resin Dental Composite Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, J.L.

    2008-11-03

    The intent of this article is to review the numerous factors that affect the mechanical properties of particle- or fiber-filler-containing indirect dental resin composite materials. The focus will be on the effects of degradation due to aging in different media, mainly water and water and ethanol, cyclic loading, and mixed-mode loading on flexure strength and fracture toughness. Several selected papers will be examined in detail with respect to mixed and cyclic loading, and 3D tomography with multi-axial compression specimens. The main cause of failure, for most dental resin composites, is the breakdown of the resin matrix and/or the interface between the filler and the resin matrix. In clinical studies, it appears that failure in the first 5 years is a restoration issue (technique or material selection); after that time period, failure most often results from secondary decay.

  4. [Dental anatomy of dogs].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, E G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate dog teeth anatomy as animal model for study of etiopathogenesis of caries disease and physiological tooth wear in human. After examining the dog's dental system, following conclusions were drawn: the dog has 42 permanent teeth, which are distributed over the dental arches not equally, and so the upper dentition consists of 20, and the lower of 22 teeth. The largest are considered upper fourth premolar and lower first molars, which are called discordant teeth. Between discordant teeth and fangs a dog has an open bite, which is limited to the top and bottom conical crown premolar teeth. Thus, in the closed position of the jaws, behind this occlusion is limited by discordant teeth, just in contact are smaller in size two molars. Only large dog's molars in a valid comparison can be likened to human molars, which allows us to use them in an analog comparison between them with further study of the morphological features ensure durability short-crown teeth and their predisposition to caries. PMID:25617107

  5. Managing Intraoral Lesions in Oral Cancer Patients in a General Dental Practice: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Kim, Reuben Han-Kyu; Yang, Paul; Sung, Eric C

    2016-02-01

    As medical technology advances in the area of cancer therapeutics, dental practitioners will encounter patients with active cancer or a history of cancer. Typically, these patients may have had or are undergoing therapies such as surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or a combination of therapies. These patients may present with multiple side effects that dental practitioners can manage or prevent. We discuss some of these concerns and provide management strategies. PMID:26930751

  6. Cross-border dental care: 'dental tourism' and patient mobility.

    PubMed

    Turner, L

    2008-05-24

    Patient mobility is increasing. 'Dental tourism' is driven by numerous factors. These factors include the high cost of local care, delays in obtaining access to local dentists, competent care at many international clinics, inexpensive air travel, and the Internet's capacity to link 'customers' to 'sellers' of health-related services. Though dental tourism will benefit some patients, increased patient mobility comes with numerous risks. Lack of access to affordable and timely local care plays a significant role in prompting patients to cross borders and receive dental care outside their local communities. PMID:18500297

  7. Decay of hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, B.F.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical situation regarding the mesonic and nonmesonic decays of light hypernuclei is reviewed. Nuclear matter and shell model estimates for nonmesonic decays are compared within the one-boson-exchange model approximation. The importance of strangeness exchange is explored as well as the spin-isospin dependence of the nonmesonic weak decays. 30 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. [Boron in dental hard tissues studied by 11B(p,alpha)8Be nuclear reaction].

    PubMed

    Torrisi, L; Rapisarda, E; Cicero, G

    1989-09-01

    Boron's low atomic number and low concentration make its measurement in hard dental tissues difficult. Using nuclear reaction, the 11B(p,alpha)8Be*, enamel, dentine and radicular cement of 18 dental elements, ten healthy and eight decayed teeth, both permanent and deciduous were studied. The highest Boron concentrations were found in the two most superficial microns of the vestibular enamel in non-decayed incisors, particularly deciduous ones. Premolar and molar teeth showed lower Boron concentrations than frontal ones, decayed teeth revealed hardly any Boron. In confirmation of the prevailing exogenous contribution of this karyostatic trace element, on average, Boron concentrations were 2.5 times as high as dentine and 10 times as high as cement. PMID:2811808

  9. Dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression among adult patients with dental anxiety but with different dental-attendance patterns.

    PubMed

    Bernson, Jenny M; Elfström, Magnus L; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression in relation to regularity of dental treatment among persons with either regular dental care or phobic avoidance, whilst controlling for sociodemographic factors. Psychometric questionnaires on dental anxiety, dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression were delivered to 263 adult patients with dental phobic avoidance behavior who were seeking help from a specialized dental fear clinic and to 141 adult patients with dental anxiety who were receiving regular dental care from various public dental clinics. The results showed that the levels of dental and general anxiety and of depression were significantly higher among irregular attendees compared with regular attendees. Irregular attendees admitted fewer adaptive coping strategies. Predictive of irregular dental care were gender, dental anxiety, general anxiety, and the nonuse of the coping strategy 'optimism'. This study further confirms earlier preliminary results that the use of optimistic thinking is predictive for regular dental attendance habits and that male gender is a risk factor for irregular attendance. Moreover, this study adds that a high level of general anxiety indicates a higher risk for irregular dental care. PMID:23659261

  10. Finding Dental Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic ... You may also be able to find care at federally-funded health centers, where you pay what you can afford, ...

  11. Characteristics of Streptococcus mutans genotypes and dental caries in children

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Kyounga; Moser, Stephen A.; Wiener, Howard W.; Whiddon, Jennifer; Momeni, Stephanie S.; Ruby, John D.; Cutter, Gary R.; Childers, Noel K.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal cohort study evaluated the diversity, commonality, and stability of Streptococcus mutans genotypes associated with dental caries history. Sixty-seven 5 and 6 yr-old children, considered being at high caries risk, had plaque collected from baseline through 36 months for S. mutans isolation and genotyping with repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (4,392 total isolates). Decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs/DMFS) for each child were recorded at baseline. At baseline, 18 distinct genotypes were found among 911 S. mutans isolates from 67 children (diversity) and 13 genotypes were shared by at least 2 children (commonality). The number of genotypes per individual was positively associated with the proportion of decayed surfaces (p-ds) at baseline. Twenty-four of the 39 children who were available at follow-up visits maintained a predominant genotype for the follow-up periods (stability) and was negatively associated with p-ds. The observed diversity, commonality, and stability of S. mutans genotypes represent a pattern of dental caries epidemiology in this high caries risk community, which suggest fewer decayed surfaces are significantly associated with lower diversity and stability of S. mutans genotypes. PMID:23659236

  12. Dental implant changes following incineration.

    PubMed

    Berketa, J; James, H; Marino, V

    2011-04-15

    Non-visual identification of victims utilizes DNA, fingerprint and dental comparison as primary scientific identifiers. In incidents where a victim has been incinerated, there may be loss of fingerprint detail and denaturing of DNA. Although extremely durable, tooth loss will also occur with extreme temperatures and the characteristics of recovered dental implants, if any, may be the only physical identifying data available. Currently, there are no experimental investigations to determine what changes occur to dental implants following high temperature exposure. A selection of dental implants was radiographed, utilizing purpose built apparatus to allow standard methodology. They were then heated in an INFI-TROL™ kiln to a maximum temperature of 1125°C and the radiographic procedure repeated. Image subtraction evaluation of the radiographs was recorded using Adobe(®) Photoshop(®). Both commercially pure titanium and titanium alloy dental implants survived the incineration and there was oxidation of the surface leading to minor alteration of the image. There was, however, no detectable sagging of the implants. The results of this research suggest that dental implants are still recognizable following incineration. In scenarios commonly seen by forensic odontologists, heat will destroy both teeth and conventional dental restorative materials. Implants, however, will resist these conditions and will also retain the features necessary to identify the type of implant. PMID:20880643

  13. Second life for dental education.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jane; Berge, Zane L

    2009-11-01

    Dental education strives to balance the use of traditional teaching methods with technologically advanced systems to meet the needs of an ever-expanding curriculum. Establishing distance education technologies is an identified goal of dental education. Technologically adept students desire meaningful and efficient distance education instruction. A majority of preclinical instruction is devoted to acquiring psychomotor skills and methods of patient care delivery, and simulation is a pedagogical instructional tool used for acquisition of preclinical skills. The purpose of this article is to review the technological tool Second Life as a medium for total virtual patient simulation. Second Life demonstrates promise for enhancing current standardized instruction and competency testing and for promoting distance education. As an emerging technological tool, Second Life is valuable as an adjunct to preclinical teaching methods in virtual problem-solving and communication prior to student clinicians' treating patients in the clinical setting and as a resource for continuing dental education for practitioners. Because some degree of consistency exists in the curriculum objectives of preclinical patient care and assessment in dental and dental hygiene education, within the context of this article the term "dental education" refers to both professions of dentistry and dental hygiene. PMID:19910474

  14. Classification schemes for dental school libraries.

    PubMed

    McMaugh, D R

    1979-12-01

    The provision of an efficient and acceptable library system for the dental literature is examined. It is suggested that an index to the dental literature is best provided by a combination of Index Medicus and Medical Subject Headings. The Library of Congress scheme would be best for an autonomous dental school and, where a dental school library is provided by a large medical library, the National Library of Medicine Classification would be suitable for dental student use. PMID:395935

  15. Increasing dental student diversity through the UNLV Dental Prospects Program.

    PubMed

    McClain, Mildred A; Jones, Francis R; McClain, Clifford R; Curd, Francis M

    2013-05-01

    Adequately providing for the health care of the growing minority population in the United States requires increased racial and ethnic diversity of the health care workforce. Long-term diversity in the dental profession depends on a more diverse student population in dental schools. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Dental Medicine's (UNLV SDM) Dental Prospects Club is a predental education program that has increased the number of underrepresented minority and disadvantaged students in the school by concentrating on outreach, recruitment, and retention initiatives. The approaches used by the club members and faculty advisors to increase the number of underrepresented minority students recruited to and enrolled in the UNLV SDM are discussed in this report. Also described are the strategies, methods, internal infrastructure, and organizational support used to increase the number of underrepresented minority students at the school. PMID:23658399

  16. A clinical evaluation of comprehensive dental treatment for children under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Su, H L; Chen, P S

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the comprehensive dental treatment for children under general anesthesia. From 1989 to 1991, 57 children with mean age of 3 years 2 months were treated, followed up with a minimal of 1 year. This procedure allows the dentition to be restored in one visit. Further care including preventive options and behavior shaping was provided on a 3-6 months recall schedule. The reasons for general anesthesia are that these children were either unable to accept treatment because of handicaps, extreme fear or young age. Their mean number of decayed tooth was 15 (Standard Deviation, SD = 5) and nearly three quarters of the children were under 6 years old. The most frequent treatment procedures were the extraction of teeth, composite resin restoration and Ni-Cr crown restoration. The Ni-Cr crown (1.7% failure rate) was more successful than the amalgam and composite resin restoration (9.7% failure rate). Pedo-strip crown had the highest failure rate (22%) for anterior teeth restoration. Nineteen children needed retreatment with conventional behavior guide. Six children had new caries and required further treatment. Thirty eight children returned for regular recall during the minimal 1 year follow-up period. PMID:1295652

  17. Establishing a speaker's bureau to teach dental public health curriculum in predoctoral dental and dental hygiene programs.

    PubMed

    Bhoopathi, Vinodh

    2015-09-01

    The opening of new dental schools and dental hygiene programs in the past decade has further exacerbated the shortage of faculty, including those with dental public health (DPH) expertise to teach. Therefore, one of the aims for the American Association of Public Health Dentistry's (AAPHD) Predoctoral Dental Public Health Competencies and Curriculum Project (Project), to develop DPH competencies and curriculum, was to establish a speakers bureau of interested dental professionals to teach the curriculum in dental schools and dental hygiene programs at the predoctoral level. This paper describes the process for establishing a speakers bureau including identifying and training individuals to teach the developed DPH curriculum. The speakers bureau and its availability were promoted through the AAPHD website and through letters to deans of dental schools and directors of dental hygiene programs. PMID:26630637

  18. Surface modulation of dental hard tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantbirojn, Daranee

    Tooth surfaces play a central role in the equilibrium of dental hard tissues, in which contrasting processes lead to loss or deposition of materials. The central interest of this Thesis was the modulation of tooth surfaces to control such equilibrium. Four specific studies were carried out to investigate different classes of surface modulating agents. These are: (1) Ionic modulation of the enamel surface to enhance stain removal . Dental stain is the most apparent form of tooth surface deposit. The nature of extrinsic stain in terms of spatial chemical composition was studied by using electron probe microanalysis. An ionic surface modulating agent, sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), was evaluated. Image analysis methodologies were developed and the ability of STPP in stain removal was proved. (2) Thin film modulation with substantive polymeric coating and the effect on in vitro enamel de/re-mineralization . A novel polymeric coating that formed a thin film on the tooth surface was investigated for its inhibitory effect on artificial enamel caries, without interfering with the remineralization process. The preventive effect was distinct, but the mineral redeposition was questionable. (3) Thick film modulation with fluoride containing sealants and the effect on in vitro enamel and root caries development. Fluoride incorporated into resin material is an example of combining different classes of surface modulating agents to achieve an optimal outcome. A proper combination, such as in resin modified glass ionomer, showed in vitro caries inhibitory effect beyond the material boundary in both enamel and dentin. (4) Thick film modulation with dental adhesives and the determination of adhesion to dentin. Dentin adhesives modulate intracoronal tooth surfaces by enhancing adhesion to restorative materials. Conventional nominal bond tests were inadequate to determine the performance of current high strength adhesives. It was shown that interfacial fracture toughness test was more appropriate. In general, this Thesis evaluates diverse tooth surface modulations, for which several experimental methodologies had to be developed. These will be invaluable for the development of succeeding generations of surface modulating agents.

  19. Evaluating components of dental care utilization among adults with diabetes and matched controls via hurdle models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background About one-third of adults with diabetes have severe oral complications. However, limited previous research has investigated dental care utilization associated with diabetes. This project had two purposes: to develop a methodology to estimate dental care utilization using claims data and to use this methodology to compare utilization of dental care between adults with and without diabetes. Methods Data included secondary enrollment and demographic data from Washington Dental Service (WDS) and Group Health Cooperative (GH), clinical data from GH, and dental-utilization data from WDS claims during 2002–2006. Dental and medical records from WDS and GH were linked for enrolees continuously and dually insured during the study. We employed hurdle models in a quasi-experimental setting to assess differences between adults with and without diabetes in 5-year cumulative utilization of dental services. Propensity score matching adjusted for differences in baseline covariates between the two groups. Results We found that adults with diabetes had lower odds of visiting a dentist (OR = 0.74, p < 0.001). Among those with a dental visit, diabetes patients had lower odds of receiving prophylaxes (OR = 0.77), fillings (OR = 0.80) and crowns (OR = 0.84) (p < 0.005 for all) and higher odds of receiving periodontal maintenance (OR = 1.24), non-surgical periodontal procedures (OR = 1.30), extractions (OR = 1.38) and removable prosthetics (OR = 1.36) (p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions Patients with diabetes are less likely to use dental services. Those who do are less likely to use preventive care and more likely to receive periodontal care and tooth-extractions. Future research should address the possible effectiveness of additional prevention in reducing subsequent severe oral disease in patients with diabetes. PMID:22776352

  20. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  1. Dental practice considerations.

    PubMed

    Griffin, A P; Lewis, J L

    1995-10-01

    Treating young children, working through an intermediary (the parenting adult), obtaining informed consent, and reporting suspected child abuse bring extra pressures to the dentist and staff members unless the protocol for each step is established and followed precisely. Managing for fiscal soundness and making a profit are other professional responsibilities. Counterbalancing the many pressures, the dentist who treats young children enjoys an added measure of pleasure beyond that experienced by many colleagues by helping a young child cope with the stresses of treatment, leading a child into a lifetime free of dental disease, and winning the trust and approval of parents or guardians. All of these aspects make dentistry a profession that provides a lifetime of excitement, fulfillment, learning, and constant opportunities for growth. PMID:8522047

  2. Legal implications and considerations in dental practice management.

    PubMed

    Katz, B; Sokol, D J

    1988-01-01

    This article deals with the legal aspects and ramifications of several common situations that arise in dental practices. The authors deal specifically with the areas of contracts and guarantees; unilateral termination of treatment while avoiding charges of abandonment; treatment of minors and the necessity for informed consent; fraud and misrepresentation; and employer-employee considerations. These areas are briefly analyzed with suggestions for prevention of problems. PMID:3422196

  3. Toothache among dental patients attending a Nigerian secondary healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Ololo, Oritseweyemi

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Pain intensity and oral health practices among patients with toothache, a major dental public health problem is necessary information for the formulation of preventive and interventional oral health policies. OBJECTIVE. To assess the pain intensity and oral health practices among dental patients attending a Nigerian secondary healthcare setting with toothache. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study was a prospective study of adult patients attending the dental clinic of Rasheed Shekoni Specialist Hospital, Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria. Interviewer-administered questionnaire which elicited information include demography, pain intensity using visual analogue, tooth brushing behaviour and previous dental treatment was the tool of data collection. RESULTS. The majority of the respondents were males and young adults. More than half (60.5%) of the respondents reported pain of moderate to severe intensity and 42.6% have engaged in self medication for the toothache. More than one-third (34.2%) had experienced the pain for ≥ four weeks and the major factor that prompted the decision to visit dentist were unbearable nature of the pain and sleep disturbances. Almost half (46.2%) of the respondents had previously visited the dentist and the common received treatment was tooth extraction. A total of 57.9% of the respondents indulge in twice-daily tooth cleaning. CONCLUSION. Data from this study revealed that respondents with toothache had history of dental visit and visited dental clinic when the pain is unbearable and disturbed sleep. There is a need for proper patient education at any encounter with dentist. PMID:24589637

  4. Campus-Based, Community-Based, and Philanthropic Contributions to Predoctoral Pediatric Dental Clinical Education: Two Years of Experiences at One Dental College.

    PubMed

    Spiritoso, Stephen; Gross, Erin; Bean, Canise Y; Casamassimo, Paul S; Levings, Kevin; Lloyd, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of a tiered predoctoral pediatric dentistry clinical education model to competency achievement by dental students over a two-year clinical education. Retrospective data were obtained for academic years 2012-13 and 2013-14 from three sources: a campus-based, dental school-housed clinic; division-directed clinics in community-based pediatric and special needs clinics (DDC); and clinics affiliated with the dental college's community-based dental education (CBDE) program, the OHIO Project (OP). A fourth dataset was obtained for the same two-year period from a biannual clinic event held at the college in conjunction with Give Kids a Smile Day (GKAS). Procedures considered essential to the care of children were sorted by 12 dental codes from all services for patients 18 years of age and younger. The dental school clinic provided 11,060 procedures; the DDC, 28,462; the OP, 17,863; and GKAS, 2,028. The two-year total was 59,433 procedures. Numbers of diagnostic and preventive procedures were 19,441, restorative procedures were 13,958, and pulp and surgical procedures were 7,392. Site contribution ranged from 52.2 to 144.9 procedures per attending student, with the DDC yielding the highest per student average for each year (126.4 and 144.9) and the dental school clinic the lowest (52.2 and 53.1). This study found that a combination of school-based, community-based, and philanthropic pediatric dental experiences offered a large number of essential pediatric dentistry experiences for predoctoral dental students, with CBDE opportunities offering the largest contribution. PMID:26246532

  5. Rethinking tenure in dental education.

    PubMed

    Slayton, Rebecca L; Kachalia, Parag R; Lozano-Pineda, Juanita; Rolf, David D; Kovarik, Robert E; Dillon, Joycelyn A

    2012-05-01

    In the midst of changes in the environment of academic dentistry over the past two decades, reform of traditional tenure is one way for dental schools to respond to these changes while maintaining scholarly, evidence-based learning environments. Challenges facing academic dentistry today and in the future include a crisis in workforce capacity, difficulty attracting recent graduates into academic positions, overburdened faculty members with limited time for scholarly activity, loss of tenured faculty members due to retirement, and a potentially diminished voice for dental schools within the parent university. The purpose of this opinion article is to suggest ways to reform the current tenure system in dental education as a means of improving recruitment and retention of new faculty members while maintaining or increasing scholarly activity within dental schools. PMID:22550103

  6. Infection Control in Dental Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Core Functions III. Public Health Priorities IV. Goals: Focusing the Efforts of the Division of Oral Health Site Index Infection Control in Dental Settings Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Although the ...

  7. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    PubMed Central

    Shweta; Prakash, S Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed. PMID:24348613

  8. Dental materials: 1995 literature review.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, C H; Scrimgeour, S N; Brown, D; Clarke, R L; Curtis, R V; Hatton, P V; Ireland, A J; McCabe, J F; Nicholson, J W; Setcos, J C; Sherriff, M; van Noort, R; Watts, D C; Whitters, C J; Wood, D

    1997-01-01

    This critical review of the published literature on dental materials for the year 1995 has been compiled by the Dental Materials Panel of the United Kingdom. It continues the series of annual reviews started in 1973 and published in the Journal of Dentistry. Emphasis has been placed upon publications which report upon the materials science or clinical performance of the materials. The review has been divided by accepted materials classifications (fissure sealants, glass polyalkenoate cements, resin composites, dentine bonding, dental amalgam, endodontic materials, casting alloys, investment materials, resin-bonded bridges and ceramo-metallic restorations, all ceramic restorations, denture base and soft lining materials, impression materials, dental implants, orthodontic materials and biomechanics). Three hundred and thirty articles published in 68 titles have been reviewed. PMID:9175346

  9. Dental materials: 1997 literature review.

    PubMed

    Whitters, C J; Strang, R; Brown, D; Clarke, R L; Curtis, R V; Hatton, P V; Ireland, A J; Lloyd, C H; McCabe, J F; Nicholson, J W; Scrimgeour, S N; Setcos, J C; Sherriff, M; van Noort, R; Watts, D C; Wood, D

    1999-08-01

    This review of the published literature on dental materials for the year 1997 has been compiled by the Dental Materials Panel of UK. It continues a series of annual reviews started in 1973. Emphasis has been placed upon publications, which report upon the materials science or clinical performance of the materials. The review has been divided by accepted materials classifications (fissure sealants, glass polyalkenoate cements, dentine bonding, dental amalgam, endodontic materials, casting alloys, ceramometallic restorations and resin-bonded bridges, ceramics, denture base resins and soft lining materials, impression materials, dental implant materials, orthodontic materials, biomechanics and image processing, resin composites, and casting investment materials and waxes). Three hundred and thirty three articles have been reviewed. PMID:10399409

  10. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    PubMed

    Toor, Ravi S S; Jindal, R

    2011-01-01

    Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008) focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company. PMID:21525693

  11. Differing types of medical prevention appeal to different individuals.

    PubMed

    Bouckaert, Nicolas; Schokkaert, Erik

    2016-04-01

    We analyze participation in medical prevention with an expected utility model that is sufficiently rich to capture diverging features of different prevention procedures. The predictions of the model are not rejected with data from SHARE. A decrease in individual health decreases participation in breast cancer screening and dental prevention and increases participation in influenza vaccination, cholesterol screening, blood pressure screening, and blood sugar screening. Positive income effects are most pronounced for dental prevention. Increased mortality risk is an important predictor in the model for breast cancer screening, but not for the other procedures. Targeted screening and vaccination programs increase participation. PMID:26188378

  12. Influence of Caregivers and Children’s Entry Into the Dental Care System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica Y.; Baker, A. Diane; Gizlice, Ziya; Rozier, R. Gary; DeWalt, Darren A.; Vann, William F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Early preventive dental visits are essential in improving children’s oral health, especially young children at high risk for dental caries. However, there is scant information on how these children enter the dental care system. Our objectives were as follows: (1) to describe how a population-based cohort of young Medicaid-enrolled children entered dental care; and (2) to investigate the influence of caregiver characteristics on their children’s dental care–seeking patterns. METHODS: We relied on Medicaid claims and interview data of caregiver–child dyads who were enrolled in the Carolina Oral Health Literacy study during 2007–2008. The analytical cohort comprised 1000 children who had no dental visits before enrollment. Additional information was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, oral health status, health literacy, dental neglect, and access to care barriers. Our analyses relied on descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate methods. RESULTS: During the 25-month median follow-up period, 39% of the children (mean baseline age: 16 months) entered the dental care system, and 13% of their first encounters were for emergency care. Caregivers’ dental neglect emerged as a significant predictor of nonentrance. Children with reported oral health problems at baseline were more likely to enter the dental care system compared with children with better oral health, but they were also more likely to require emergency care. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers have a pivotal role in children’s oral health and care. Interventions aimed at improving children’s oral health should involve community outreach to engage caregivers in a culturally appropriate manner when their children are infants or toddlers. PMID:24753522

  13. [Persistent fever of dental origin].

    PubMed

    Pernice, L; Ribault, J Y; Fourestier, J; Gacon, J; Quilichini, R; Aubert, L; Chaffanjon, P; Roubaudi, G

    1990-01-01

    Based on 5 cases of unexplained prolonged fever, the authors stress the need to systematically look for a dental focus of infection. They discuss the difficulties in determining the site of the probable causal focus and stress the uncertain pathogenic relationship between the dental focus of infection and the fever. The extraction of infected teeth leads to a cure, however, the functional disadvantages of multiple extractions need to be carefully taken into account. PMID:2130447

  14. [Functional dental anatomy and amalgam].

    PubMed

    Tavernier, B; Colon, P

    1989-01-01

    Very often, the functional dental anatomy are reflected during the rehabilitation of posterior quadrants. However, the placement, the shaping in correct relation of the different dental components are indispensable conditions to respect, in order to achieve an adequate integration of the restoration within the neuro-muscular system. A clinical protocol is proposed in order to reconcile the anatomical and biological prerequisite and the setting time of modern alloys. PMID:2633261

  15. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  16. Prevalence, etiology, and types of dental trauma in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Rezapour, Aziz; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Moosavi, Ahmad; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental traumas are common among children and adolescents in many societies posing health and social problems. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on prevalence, etiology, types, and other epidemiologic aspects of dental trauma in children and adolescents (0-18 years old). Methods: In this systematic meta-analytical review, data were collected searching for key words including traumatic dental injuries, dental trauma, dental injury, dental trauma, tooth injuries, tooth trauma, traumatized teeth, dentoalveolar trauma, oral trauma, epidemiology, etiology, prevalence, incidence, occurrence, child*, and adolescence in the following databases: Scopus, CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google scholar. Results: From the total of 3197 articles, 44 completely relevant papers were included in the study. The prevalence of dental trauma was variable based on geographical area and was estimated 17.5% in the population, with higher prevalence in boys. Falling was the major cause for dental trauma, and the most frequent location was home. The most frequent type of trauma was enamel fracture. Conclusion: A relatively high prevalence was detected for dental trauma, which calls for effective planning and intervention to prevent the occurrence in children and adolescents. These may include special care for children, eliminating fall-prone areas, installing safety measures at homes, using protective appliances in sports, education, and raising the knowledge and availability of services to address enamel fracture. Region-specific criteria should be taken into account in programs and interventions. PMID:26793672

  17. Developmental delays and dental caries in low-income preschoolers in the USA: a pilot cross-sectional study and preliminary explanatory model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anecdotal evidence suggests that low-income preschoolers with developmental delays are at increased risk for dental caries and poor oral health, but there are no published studies based on empirical data. The purpose of this pilot study was two-fold: to examine the relationship between developmental delays and dental caries in low-income preschoolers and to present a preliminary explanatory model on the determinants of caries for enrollees in Head Start, a U.S. school readiness program for low-income preschool-aged children. Methods Data were collected on preschoolers ages 3–5 years at two Head Start centers in Washington, USA (N = 115). The predictor variable was developmental delay status (no/yes). The outcome variable was the prevalence of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (dmfs) on primary teeth. We used multiple variable Poisson regression models to test the hypothesis that within a population of low-income preschoolers, those with developmental delays would have increased dmfs prevalence than those without developmental delays. Results Seventeen percent of preschoolers had a developmental delay and 51.3% of preschoolers had ≥1 dmfs. Preschoolers with developmental delays had a dmfs prevalence ratio that was 1.26 times as high as preschoolers without developmental delays (95% CI: 1.01, 1.58; P < .04). Other factors associated with increased dmfs prevalence ratios included: not having a dental home (P = .01); low caregiver education (P < .001); and living in a non-fluoridated community (P < .001). Conclusions Our pilot data suggest that developmental delays among low-income preschoolers are associated with increased primary tooth dmfs. Additional research is needed to further examine this relationship. Future interventions and policies should focus on caries prevention strategies within settings like Head Start classrooms that serve low-income preschool-aged children with additional targeted home- and community-based interventions for those with developmental delays. PMID:24119240

  18. Child Dental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  19. Rare Decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Sam

    2014-04-01

    Rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons provide an effective method of testing the Standard Model and probing possible new physics scenarios. The LHCb experiment has published a variety of interesting results in this field, some of which are presented here. In particular the measurements of the branching fractions of B(s)0 → μ+μ- which, in combination with CMS, resulted in the first observation of the Bs0 → μ+μ- decay. Other topics include searches for the rare decay D0 → μ+μ-, the lepton flavour violating decays B(s)0 → e±μ∓, and the observation of the ψ(4160) resonance in the region of low recoil in B+ → K+μ+μ- decay. New results on the angular analysis of the decay B0 → K*0μ+μ- with form factor independent observables are also shown.

  20. Medical care of the dental patient.

    PubMed

    Clark, M M; Album, M M; Lloyd, R W

    1995-09-15

    The family physician frequently makes decisions relating to patients' dental health. The physician can address patients' concerns about tooth eruption or the adverse effects of mercury amalgam. Predisposing factors for dental disease, such as use of certain medications, existing medical conditions (e.g., xerostomia) and traumatic injury, often are first noted by the family physician. Dental emergencies, including abscess and avulsion, can be initially managed by the physician and then referred to the dentist. The physician can coordinate care with a dentist when a patient has dental trauma, requires medical management for a dental procedure or has a medical condition that increases the likelihood of dental disease. PMID:7668204