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Prevention and management of dental decay in the pre-school child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope and purposeThe guideline addresses effective strategies for preventing and managing dental decay in the preschool child. The nature of dental decay, its diagnosis and its epidemiology are reviewed. Methods for prevention and management of the disease at an individual and population level are reviewed and identification of children at increased risk of developing dental disease is discussed.MethodologyThe guideline was

Sergio Uribe



The demand for preventive and restorative dental services.  


Chronic tooth decay is the most common chronic condition in the United States among children ages 5-17 and also affects a large percentage of adults. Oral health conditions are preventable, but less than half of the US population uses dental services annually. We seek to examine the extent to which limited dental coverage and high out-of-pocket costs reduce dental service use by the nonelderly privately insured and uninsured. Using data from the 2001-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and an American Dental Association survey of dental procedure prices, we jointly estimate the probability of using preventive and both basic and major restorative services through a correlated random effects specification that controls for endogeneity. We found that dental coverage increased the probability of preventive care use by 19% and the use of restorative services 11% to 16%. Both conditional and unconditional on dental coverage, the use of dental services was not sensitive to out-of-pocket costs. We conclude that dental coverage is an important determinant of preventive dental service use, but other nonprice factors related to consumer preferences, especially education, are equal if not stronger determinants. PMID:23349123

Meyerhoefer, Chad D; Zuvekas, Samuel H; Manski, Richard



Preventing dental caries in children: Indian scenario.  


The prevalence of dental caries in developing countries like India is increasing to an alarming level in contrast to developed countries where it has decreased because of variety of preventive measures at the community and individual level. There is no State or Centre funded programs for prevention of dental diseases in India. The present review enlists the targeted prevention of dental caries in permanent teeth of 6 to 16 years old children presenting for dental care. PMID:22971868

Gupta, A; Marya, C M; Dahiya, V; Bhatia, H P; Dhingra, S



Dental Decay Among Texas School Children.  

E-print Network

'WXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIOP *4. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION. BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS ULLET 'IN NO. DIVISION OF RURAL HOME RESEARCH url rNTAL DECAY AMONG ,,XAS SCHOOL CHILDREN ICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0.... S. Department of Agriculture. $In cooperation with Texaa Extension Service. lmong 6701 school children of Texas, dental decay was fot in approximately 70 per cent of the white group, 65 per cent o the Mexican, and 45 per cent of the negro...

Whitacre, Jessie (Jessie Opal)



Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years  


... age 5 and to preventive services provided by primary care clinicians. Primary care clinicians include doctors and nurses who provide general ... the potential benefits and harms of efforts by primary care clinicians to prevent dental caries (tooth decay): (1) ...


The Importance of Tooth Decay Prevention in Children under Three  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tooth decay and tooth loss was once the norm but public health interventions have led to major improvements for most people. Nevertheless, not all children have benefited. Dental disease in young children is unacceptably high. Tooth decay is preventable. Early childhood educators are often the first to notice the problem. Professional…

Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen; Chi, Donald



Education on and prevention of dental trauma: it's time to act!  


Dental trauma is, unfortunately, not uncommon and may be even more prevalent in high-risk populations. It should be emphasized and acknowledged that many cases of dental trauma are preventable. Appropriate management includes primary prevention, i.e. avoidance of pathology development, and secondary prevention, i.e. early diagnosing and treatment of the pathology before significant morbidity occurs. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the current dental trauma literature with regard to education and knowledge and with relevance to primary and secondary prevention. As the duty of providing the public with measures for the maintenance of proper oral health is of the dental profession, the responsibility of providing primary and secondary prevention of dental trauma is of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental nurses. They may, and should, educate other medical, paramedical, and non-medical professionals, taking into account that those non-dental professionals could not maintain a high level of knowledge and service regarding dental trauma without a continuous backing by the dental professionals. It should be remembered that as the prevalence of dental decay has reduced in the Western world during recent decades, dental trauma plays a significant part in causing dental morbidity and mortality (tooth loss). It seems that now is the time to act for the benefit of our community and move from 'treating' toward 'managing' risk factors and prevention. PMID:21895972

Levin, Liran; Zadik, Yehuda



Near-IR imaging of occlusal dental decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near-IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains and pigmentation. Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

Buehler, Christopher M.; Fried, Daniel



Application of a novel confocal imaging technique for early the detection of dental decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to stop or prevent the progression of dental disease, early detection and quantification of decay are crucially important. Dental decay (caries) detection methods have traditionally involved clinical examination by eye, using probes and dental radiography, but up to 60% of lesions are missed. What the dentist requires is a cheap, reliable method of detection of early disease, ideally with information on the depth and rate of growth or healing. Conventional commercial scanning confocal microscopes are unsuitable for use on dental patients. We report on a fibre optic based confocal microscope designed for in vivo examination of caries lesions. The system utilizes a common fibre both as the source and to detect the reflected confocal signal. The initial system has been optimized using dielectric mirrors and the thickness of the stack has been measured with high precision. Dental samples have been examined and the system has been demonstrated to provide information on the depth and mineral loss of a lesion. Fibre optic microscopy (FOCM) demonstrates a practical route to developing an in vivo caries profiler. In this paper, the FOCM and its applications in caries detection are described and the potential of this scheme as a practical dental probe is discussed.

Rousseau, Christel; Girkin, John M.; Vaidya, Shilpa; Hall, Andrew F.; Whitters, C. J.; Creanor, Steve L.



Utilization of Preventive Dental Practices by Graduates of One U.S. Dental School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 113 graduates of the State University of New York at Stony Brook dental school now in general practice found a high rate of self-reported use of preventive practices (oral hygiene instruction, pit-and-fissure sealants, fluorides, and diet analysis) included in the dental school's curriculum. (MSE)

Ripa, Louis W.; Johnson, Robin M.



Preventive Dental Care for Children in the United States: A National Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Preventive dental care is a cornerstone of optimal oral health. However, in 1996, only 38% of US children received preventive dental care. We used the National Survey of Children's Health to (1) describe the proportion of US children with 1 preventive dental visit within the previous year, (2) identify factors that were associated with preventive dental care use, and

Charlotte W. Lewis; Brian D. Johnston; Kristi A. Linsenmeyar; Wendy Mouradian


Taekwondo coaches knowledge about prevention and management of dental trauma.  


The aim of this study was to assess level of knowledge about prevention and dental trauma management among taekwondo coaches in Croatia. The questionnaire submitted to the taekwondo coaches contained 16 items about dental trauma prevention and management. The questionnaires were filled in by 131 taekwondo coaches; 28 females and 103 males. Descriptive statistics was used to describe and analyze the obtained data. The coaches were familiar with dental injuries in high percentage: 41 (31.3%) have observed dental injury and 36 (27.5%) have experienced a dental injury themselves. Eight of them had tooth avulsion, fourteen crown fracture, and eight had tooth luxation. About half of all interviewed coaches 68 (52.7%) were aware of the possibility of replanting avulsed teeth. Twenty six (19.8%) were familiar with the tooth rescue kit. Only 99 out of 131 coaches (75.6%) have used a mouthguard. The obtained results show low knowledge about possibilities for prevention of dental trauma. Insufficient use of mouthguards in this contact sport requires more attention of dentists and coaches education about dental trauma prevention. PMID:25145007

Vidovi?, Dina; Gorseta, Kristina; Bursac, Danijel; Glavina, Domagoj; Skrinjari?, Tomislav



Evaluation of Isfahan's Dental Students' Awareness about Preventive Dentistry  

PubMed Central

Statement of Problem: The modern dentistry approach is moving toward preventive dentistry, an approach that has decreased the prevalence of caries within the past decades. Since some reports imply that dentists are not knowledgeable enough in this issue. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the attitude and awareness of future dental graduates toward preventive dentistry regarding gender and educational characteristics. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was performed on one hundred and forty questionnaires which were distributed among dental students of Isfahan province, Azad university of Khorasgan, Iran. Data regarding the level of awareness of dental students about preventive dentistry were recorded and analyzed by using the mean and standard deviations on scores as appropriated. Results: Majority of dental students were aware about the role of sugar in caries process, while only a minority were aware about the role of fluoridated toothpaste and brushing method in caries prevention. Most of the students (82.1%) were among the group with medium level of awareness. Compared with their female counterparts, male students had more knowledge about fluoride efficacy and general hygiene role in caries process. Conclusion: Dental students of  the Isfahan State University and Azad University of Khorasgan had acceptable levels of awareness about the role of sugar and fluoridated water in caries process, but were not aware enough about the role of fluoridated toothpaste in preventing dental caries. PMID:24738083

Nilchian, F.; Kazemi, Sh.; Abbasi, M.; Ghoreishian, F.; Kowkabi, M.



Delta Dental of Michigan Dental Benefit Highlights for  

E-print Network

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Occurrence of Dental Decay in Children after Maternal Consumption of Xylitol Chewing Gum, a Follow-up from 0 to 5 Years of Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have shown that prevention of mutans streptococci (MS) colonization in early childhood can lead to prevention of dental decay. In the microbiological part of the present study in Ylivieska, Finland, with 195 mothers with high salivary MS levels, regular maternal use of xylitol chewing gum resulted in a statistically significant reduction in MS colonization in their children's teeth at

P. Isokangas; E. Soderling; K. Pienihakkinen; P. Alanen



Exploring the effect of dentition, dental decay and familiality on oral health using metabolomics.  


As a proof of principle, we used an untargeted global metabolic profiling of saliva to understand the biochemical processes associated with dental decay, dentition (primary and secondary tooth eruption) and familiality in a sample of 25 sibling pairs. Pairs were selected to represent four different combinations of dentition and tooth health: (1) both siblings with primary teeth and no decay (n=5); (2) both siblings with primary teeth and discordant for dental decay (n=6); (3) both siblings with primary teeth and dental decay (n=4); and (4) one sibling with primary teeth the other with mixed dentition and both with no dental decay (n=10). There was a strong effect of sibship on the metabolite profiles identified; this may reflect the effects of common genes, environment and behaviors, and shared oral microbial communities. Nested in the familial effects were associations of metabolite profile with dentition and with dental decay. Using three different analyses (Euclidean distance, hierarchical clustering and PCA using selected biochemicals) metabolite profiles of saliva from children with decayed teeth were more similar than the metabolite profiles of saliva from children with healthy (sound) teeth. Larger studies that include host behaviors, environmental factors, oral microbiota composition and structure, and host genetic predisposition are required to identify biomarkers for decay, and to estimate the relative contribution of host factors and oral microbes on risk of dental decay. PMID:24080168

Foxman, Betsy; Srinivasan, Usha; Wen, Ai; Zhang, Lixin; Marrs, Carl F; Goldberg, Deborah; Weyant, Robert; McNeil, Daniel; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary



Fluoride Programs in the School Setting: Preventive Dental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two types of school-based programs that increase students' use of fluoride for preventive dental health are described. In fluoride mouthrinse programs, teachers give their students a fluoride solution once a week in a paper cup. In areas where the level of fluoride in the water supply is insufficient, the flouride tablet program is used. (JN)

Rebich, Theodore, Jr.; And Others



Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Nutrition Education--1973. Part 6--Phosphate Research and Dental Decay. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., April 16, 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearings before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate include testimony on the subject of research into the use of phosphates to prevent dental decay. The purpose of the hearing was to explore certain dental health questions raised during the committee's recent hearings on the Television Advertising of…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.


Near-infrared transillumination at 1310-nm for the imaging of early dental decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New imaging technologies are needed for the early detection of dental caries (decay) in the interproximal contact sites between teeth. Previous measurements have demonstrated that dental enamel is highly transparent in the near-IR at 1300-nm. In this study, a near-IR imaging system operating at 1300-nm was used to acquire images through tooth sections of varying thickness and whole teeth in order to demonstrate the utility of a near-IR dental transillumination system for the imaging of early dental caries (decay). Simulated lesions, which model the optical scattering of natural dental caries, were placed in plano-parallel dental enamel sections. The contrast ratio between the simulated lesions and surrounding sound enamel was calculated from analysis of acquired projection images. The results show significant contrast between the lesion and the enamel (>0.35) and a spatial line profile that clearly resolves the lesion in samples as thick as 6.75-mm. This study clearly demonstrates that a near-IR transillumination system has considerable potential for the imaging of early dental decay.

Jones, Robert S.; Huynh, Gigi D.; Jones, Graham C.; Fried, Daniel



Microbiologic Comparison of Dental Handpieces 2. Aerosol Decay and Dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS IN INTERLINGUACOMPARATION MICROBIOLOGIC DE DENTAL PECIAS DE MANO: DECOMPOSITION E DISPERSION DE PARTICULAS DE AEROSOL.-Esseva construite un simulate situation de operationes dental in le qual le ventilation e le dilution aeree poteva esser regulate pro le objectivo de studiar le effecto de aerosol producite per pecias de mano propulsionate (1) per corregia e (2) per turbina a aere. Un

W. J. Hausler; Richard M. Madden



My testimony today reflects the totality of my experience. It is based on three facts: • first, that tooth decay is overwhelmingly preventable; • second, that dental care is essential to children's overall health and wellbeing; and • third, that dental care is cost effective. All three qualities have strong implications for your Committee's oversight of Medicaid and the State Child Health Insurance Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicaid dental coverage for children as envisioned by Congress is tremendously valuable, appropriately designed, and fully accountable. The handful of states that have implemented Medicaid dental coverage well have demonstrated that this program works for children, their families, and their caregivers. But in the majority of states, Medicaid dental coverage is little more than an unfulfilled promise - adequate coverage

Burton L. Edelstein


Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel



Determinants of preventive oral health behaviour among senior dental students in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background To study the association between oral health behaviour of senior dental students in Nigeria and their gender, age, knowledge of preventive care, and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 179 senior dental students in the six dental schools in Nigeria. The questionnaire obtained information on age, gender, oral self-care, knowledge of preventive dental care and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Attending a dental clinic for check-up by a dentist or a classmate within the last year was defined as preventive care use. Students who performed oral self-care and attended dental clinic for check-ups were noted to have complied with recommended oral self-care. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses. Results More male respondents agreed that the use of fluoride toothpaste was more important than the tooth brushing technique for caries prevention (P < 0.001). While the use of dental floss was very low (7.3%), more females were more likely to report using dental floss (p=0.03). Older students were also more likely to comply with recommended oral self-care (p<0.001). In binary regression models, respondents who were younger (p=0.04) and those with higher knowledge of preventive dental care (p=0.008) were more likely to consume sugary snacks less than once a day. Conclusion Gender differences in the awareness of the superiority of using fluoridated toothpaste over brushing in caries prevention; and in the use of dental floss were observed. While older students were more likely to comply with recommended oral self-care measures, younger students with good knowledge of preventive dental care were more likely to consume sugary snacks less than once a day. PMID:23777298



Preventing baby bottle tooth decay in American Indian and Alaska native communities: a model for planning.  


Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease which surveys have shown affects more than 50 percent of Native American children. An experimental program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 Native American communities. The project represented a cooperative effort by three Department of Health and Human Service agencies: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, Head Start Bureau; Indian Health Service, Dental Program; and Centers for Disease Control, Dental Disease Prevention Activity. Intervention strategies included the training of parent volunteers, health professionals, and the tribal employees who counseled caretakers of young children and made group presentations. There was also a media campaign in each community that ran for a 3-year period. Numerous educational materials were developed including training manuals, counseling booklets, tippee cups, posters, and bumper stickers. The BBTD project's planners encouraged tailoring the education materials and strategies to fit each community. Preliminary results documented statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of BBTD at the pilot sites. This multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention offers a model for organizing members of minority communities to prevent health problems. PMID:2511598

Bruerd, B; Kinney, M B; Bothwell, E



Dental Decay in Southern Illinois Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: An Analysis of Clinical Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are a population at risk for oral health problems. Data on the oral health conditions of migrant and seasonal farmworkers' permanent teeth are particularly lacking. Purpose: To document the relative rates of treated and untreated dental decay in a sample of southern Illinois migrant and seasonal…

Lukes, Sherri M.; Simon, Bret



Dental Decay in Southern Illinois Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers: An Analysis of Clinical Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are a population at risk for oral health problems. Data on the oral health conditions of migrant and seasonal farmworkers? permanent teeth are particularly lacking. Purpose: To document the relative rates of treated and untreated dental decay in a sample of southern Illinois migrant and seasonal…

Lukes, Sherri M.; Simon, Bret



Innovative interventions to promote positive dental health behaviors and prevent dental caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy self-care behaviors (diet and oral hygiene). The conventional (health) education (CE), focusing on disseminating information and giving normative advice, often fails to achieve sustained behavioral changes. This study incorporates two innovative elements into CE: (i) motivational interviewing (MI), a client-centered counseling for changing behaviors, and (ii) an interactive caries risk assessment (RA) tool, which is devised to facilitate dental counseling and may enhance MI in several ways. Through a randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial, three intervention schemes (CE, CE + MI, and CE + MI + RA) will be compared for their effectiveness in eliciting dentally healthy behaviors and preventing caries in preschool children. Methods/Design This study targets 3-year-old children who are at a critical stage for embedding health habits. Children with unfavorable dental behaviors (insufficient toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) and their parents will be recruited from 12 participating kindergartens. Parent-child dyads (n = 690) will be randomly assigned into three groups. In the first group (CE), oral health information and advice will be delivered to parents through pamphlets. In the second group (CE + MI), in addition to the pamphlets, individual MI counseling with each parent will be performed by one of two trained dental hygienists. In the third group (CE + MI + RA), besides pamphlets and MI, interactive RA will be integrated into MI to motivate parents and facilitate their informed decision making and goal planning. At baseline and after 12 and 24 months, parents will complete a questionnaire and children will undergo a dental examination. The effectiveness of the intervention schemes will be compared over 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome will be caries increment in children and proportion of caries-free children. Secondary outcomes will be changes in parental efficacy for protecting children’s oral health and changes in children’s dental behaviors. Discussion Motivating and empowering parents to cultivate dentally healthy habits of young children presents both promises and challenges. With careful methodological considerations, this study is expected to provide scientific evidence for public health workers, dentists, and dental auxiliaries (nurses and hygienists) to choose appropriate interventions to advance children’s oral health. Trial registration HKCTR-1455 PMID:23782918




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Decay is the process of organic rotting. Decay can take many different forms, such as tooth decay. Many times, you can see the visible effects of decay. Some types of decay can be prevented or can be fought against; others are inevitable. Microbes are responsible for decay in fruits, vegetables, and other organisms and products.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)



Prevention. Part 2: Dietary advice in the dental surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is directly related to diet and nutrition. Dental caries remains the most significant dental public health problem in the UK and concerns have been expressed over the potentially rising prevalence of erosion. Both these conditions are linked to dietary factors. The dental professional and their teams therefore have a role to play in supporting their patients in adopting

P McGlone; E J Kay; R G Watt



Sugar intake and dental decay: results from a national survey of children in Scotland.  


The aim of this analysis was to investigate the strength of the association between sugar intake and treatment for dental decay in children in Scotland, and the impact of tooth brushing frequency on this association. The Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland was carried out in 2006 in those aged 3-17 years. Diet was assessed using the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ, and interviews were carried out by trained fieldworkers who asked about dental health. A total of 1700 interviews were carried out, and 1512 FFQ were returned. Of the children, 56% had received treatment for decay (fillings or teeth removed due to decay). Intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES), but not total sugar, increased the risk of having had treatment for decay: adjusted OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.28, 2.64) for the highest ( ? 20.0% food energy) v. lowest ( ? 14.8% food energy) tertile of NMES intake. This raised risk remained in children who reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day. Compared with children who reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day and were in the lowest tertile of NMES intake, children who reported brushing their teeth once a day or less and were in the highest tertile of NMES intake were over three times more likely to have received treatment for decay (adjusted OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.97, 5.82). In order to improve dental health in children in Scotland, dental health strategies must continue to stress the importance of both reduced NMES intake and good oral hygiene. PMID:20637133

Masson, Lindsey F; Blackburn, Alison; Sheehy, Christine; Craig, Leone C A; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Holmes, Bridget A; McNeill, Geraldine



Delta Dental of Michigan Dental Benefit Highlights for  

E-print Network

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An Evaluation of the School-Based Dental Disease Prevention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report analyzes the effect of the California Dental Disease Prevention Program (DDPP). The program includes education about dental health and nutrition, daily toothbrushing and flossing, and weekly application of a fluoride mouthrinse. The DDPP serves approximately 350,000 elementary school children. The implementation of the DDPP is…

California State Legislature, Sacramento. Office of the Legislative Analyst.


Pediatricians Offer New Dental Recommendations  


... New Dental Recommendations American Academy of Pediatrics urges fluoride use on first teeth to prevent decay (*this ... News) -- All children should start using toothpaste with fluoride when their teeth appear, regardless of their risk ...


Potentially preventable hospital use for dental conditions: implications for expanding dental coverage for low income populations.  


Recently, attention has been placed on the issue of poor access to dental care, and the implications this may have for health care systems, in particular emergency department use for basic dental problems. In 2006, approximately 26,000 of 12 million Ontarians used acute-care hospital services for select dental problems, representing a cost of $16.4 million. There were 964 hospital admissions. The majority of use is by low-income adults. Although better access to dental care may lessen this burden on the health care system, the potential costs averted are considerably less than current proposals to improve access to dental care for low-income groups in Canada. Justifying renewed government investments in dental care in economic terms will require a broader assessment of costs; these data provide a starting-point for policymakers. PMID:21841295

Quiñonez, Carlos; Ieraci, Luciano; Guttmann, Astrid



Prevalence of Streptococcus mutans and dental decay in schoolchildren living in Genoa (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study population (105 schoolchildren aged 5.5 – 11.5 yrs), dental decay was detected in 75.2% and S. mutans in 55.2% of the subjects. The presence of S. mutans was assessed - using the selective GSTB medium - in unstimulated saliva and in pooled occlusal and pooled buccal plaques from the four most posterior teeth. All three samples showed

C. DE LEO; R. C. Coppola; G. Blasi; C. Eftimiadi; M. Salvarani; A. M. Molina



Diet, nutrition and the prevention of dental diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is related to diet in many ways, for example, nutritional influences on craniofacial development, oral cancer and oral infectious diseases. Dental diseases impact considerably on self-esteem and quality of life and are expensive to treat. The objective of this paper is to review the evidence for an association between nutrition, diet and dental diseases and to present dietary

Paula Moynihan; Poul Erik Petersen



A Dietary Procedure for Preventing Dental Caries in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant improvement in the dental caries status of children in the United States has been seen in recent decades. The percentage of children who are free from dental caries, however, rapidly decreases with age. By the time young people enter colleges or universities, only a few are caries free. Colleges and universities are places where the young are simultaneously, and

Kauko K. Mäkinen



Aeration prevents methyl mercury production in dental wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has demonstrated that Hg is methylated in the reducing conditions of the dental clinic wastewater collection system, studies are inconclusive as to whether further methylation occurs in the aeration basin of activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) which typically treats this waste. Given the high levels of methyl Hg reported in dental wastewater (DWW), it is important to

Xiuhong Zhao; Karl J. Rockne; James L. Drummond



The Effect of 0.2% Sodium Fluoride Mouthwash in Prevention of Dental Caries According to the DMFT Index  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Dental caries still remains a major problem in the field of oral and dental health and its prevention is more important than its treatment. Fluoride plays a significant role in prevention of caries, and improving oral and dental health. One of the common ways of fluoride use is the use of a fluoride-containing mouthwash, the most important of which in use is 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash. School-based fluoride mouthwash programs have been used for delivering oral and dental health to children in recent years. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash in prevention of dental caries according to DMFT index. Materials and methods The study included a case and a control group. For each group, 100 students were selected randomly from elementary schools of Tabriz, Iran. Case group had been participating in school-based fluoride mouthwash program for three years, while control group did not benefit from the program. The two groups were assessed by means of intra-oral examination. Data was recorded using DMFT index. Results Following the use of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash, mean DMFT index in case group decreased as much as 51.5% compared to that of control group. The mean values of decrease for the decayed, missing and filled indices were 45%, 44% and 59%, respectively. The decrease in DMFT value of the case group compared to that of control group was statistically significant (p<0.001). A statistically significant decrease was seen in the decayed and filled indices of case group (p=0.042 and p=0.016, respectively), however the missing index did not show any statistically significant difference between the two groups (p=0.361). Conclusion According to this study results, the weekly use of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash program has been successful in elementary schools of Tabriz. Such program can play an important role in the improvement of oral and dental health among children of school age. PMID:23277837

Asl Aminabadi, Nasser; Balaei, Esrafil; Pouralibaba, Firoz



Pediatric Dental Care: Prevention and Management Protocols Based on Caries Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infant oral care programs among clinicians and early establishment of dental homes for young children. PMID:21162350




Camellia sinensis (Tea): Implications and role in preventing dental decay.  


Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages with bioactive compounds like polyphenols-flavonoids-catechins, which are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to the tea. These compounds have multi-dimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase and inhibition of acid production. This article outlines the possible role of these compounds coupled with the presence of high fluoride content in tea to exhibit an anticariogenic effect. PMID:24347923

Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Karun, Vinayak; Nigam, Anant G; Dutta, Samir; Marwah, Nikhil



Camellia sinensis (Tea): Implications and role in preventing dental decay  

PubMed Central

Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages with bioactive compounds like polyphenols-flavonoids-catechins, which are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to the tea. These compounds have multi-dimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase and inhibition of acid production. This article outlines the possible role of these compounds coupled with the presence of high fluoride content in tea to exhibit an anticariogenic effect. PMID:24347923

Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Karun, Vinayak; Nigam, Anant G.; Dutta, Samir; Marwah, Nikhil



Role of estrogen related receptor beta (ESRRB) in DFN35B hearing impairment and dental decay  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital forms of hearing impairment can be caused by mutations in the estrogen related receptor beta (ESRRB) gene. Our initial linkage studies suggested the ESRRB locus is linked to high caries experience in humans. Methods We tested for association between the ESRRB locus and dental caries in 1,731 subjects, if ESRRB was expressed in whole saliva, if ESRRB was associated with the microhardness of the dental enamel, and if ESRRB was expressed during enamel development of mice. Results Two families with recessive ESRRB mutations and DFNB35 hearing impairment showed more extensive dental destruction by caries. Expression levels of ESRRB in whole saliva samples showed differences depending on sex and dental caries experience. Conclusions The common etiology of dental caries and hearing impairment provides a venue to assist in the identification of individuals at risk to either condition and provides options for the development of new caries prevention strategies, if the associated ESRRB genetic variants are correlated with efficacy. PMID:25023176



The importance of preventive dental visits from a young age: systematic review and current perspectives  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries, the most common childhood chronic disease, disproportionately affects vulnerable parts of the population and confers substantial impacts to children, families, and health systems. Because efforts directed toward oral health promotion and disease prevention are fundamentally superior to dental rehabilitation secondary to disease development, early preventive dental visits (EPDVs) are widely advocated by professional and academic stakeholders. The aim of this comprehensive review was to critically review and summarize available evidence regarding the effectiveness of EPDVs in improving children’s oral health outcomes. Materials and methods A systematic literature search of the PubMed and Embase electronic databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed publications investigating the effectiveness of EPDVs on oral health outcomes, including clinical, behavioral, and cost end points up to October 30, 2013. Outcomes of the identified studies were abstracted and summarized independently by two investigators. Results Four manuscripts met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. All studies were conducted in the US and employed a retrospective cohort study design using public insurance-claims data, whereas one study matched claims files with kindergarten state dental surveillance data. That study found no benefit of EPDVs in future clinically determined dental caries levels in kindergarten. The other three studies found mixed support for an association of EPDVs with subsequent more preventive and fewer nonpreventive visits and lower nonpreventive service-related expenditures. Selection bias and a problem-driven dental care-seeking pattern were frequently articulated themes in the reviewed studies. Conclusion The currently available evidence base supporting the effectiveness of EPDVs and the year 1 first dental visit recommendation is weak, and more research is warranted. The benefits of EPDVs before the age of 3 years are evident among children at high risk or with existing dental disease. However, EPDVs may be associated with reduced restorative dental care visits and related expenditures during the first years of life. PMID:24672258

Bhaskar, Vaishnavi; McGraw, Kathleen A; Divaris, Kimon



Children's tooth decay in a public health program to encourage low-income pregnant women to utilize dental care  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A community-based public health program to provide a dental home for women covered by the Oregon Health Plan (Medicaid) in Klamath County, Oregon USA was instituted with the long-term goal to promote preventive oral care for both mothers and their new infants provided by dental managed care companies. METHODS: As part of the evaluation of the program, children in

Peter Milgrom; Marilynn Sutherland; R Mike Shirtcliff; Sharity Ludwig; Darlene Smolen



Regular pattern of preventive dental services--A measure of access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having a regular pattern of care should be an indicator of access to and periodic use of preventive and health maintenance services. The analyses reported in this study are intended to provide a better understanding of the factors related to having a regular pattern of preventive dental care. The data were collected in 1981 as part of a U.S. household

John F. Newman; Helen C. Gift



The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures were assessed in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program, a four-year study involving more than 20,000 students, from ten schools nationwide. Communal water fluoridation was reaffirmed as the most cost-effective means of…

Klein, Stephen P.; And Others



The Cost and Effectiveness of School-Based Preventive Dental Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program assessed the cost and effectiveness of various types and combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved 20,052 first, second, and fifth graders from five fluoridated and five non-fluoridated communities. These children were examined at baseline and…

Klein, Stephen P.; And Others


DENTAL PLAN 01-01-2012 The Dental Plan provides benefits for preventive, diagnostic, restorative, and orthodontic dental  

E-print Network

the right to amend or terminate this Dental Plan at any time and for any reason. WHO IS ELIGIBLE that recognizes same-sex marriage, you must provide a copy of your marriage certificate. If you are currently covering a same-sex domestic partner and you live in a state that recognizes same-sex marriage, you have up

Johnson, Peter D.


Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay  

PubMed Central

Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG. Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent proportions and means. Multivariate statistical tests will also be used to take account of socio-economic and demographic factors in addition to parental knowledge, behaviour, self-efficacy, and parent/child stress. Discussion The study will test the effects of an oral health promotion intervention to affect oral health and general health and have the potential to demonstrate the “common risk factor” approach to health promotion. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: http://ACTRN12611000997954 PMID:23509932



Disparities in Children's Oral Health and Access to Dental Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental caries can be prevented by a combination of community, profes- sional, and individual measures including water fluoridation, professionally applied topical fluorides and dental sealants, and use of fluoride tooth- pastes. Yet, tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Dental care is the most prevalent unmet health need in US children with wide disparities existing in oral

Wendy E. Mouradian; Elizabeth Wehr; James J. Crall



Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a research study (Knowlden, Hill, Alles-White, & Cottrell, 2012\\/this issue)

Adam P. Knowlden; Lawrence F. Hill; Monica L. Alles-White; Randall R. Cottrell



Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.



Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in German Schoolchildren in Areas with Different Preventive Programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective study in two different regions of Germany, 1,041 fifteen-year-old pupils were examined for dental fluorosis. The adolescents had taken part in different caries prevention programmes. There were 746 subjects in the study group and 295 subjects in the control group. For each participant, specific aspects of early development, diet and fluoride exposure in group prevention programmes and

A. Momeni; A. Neuhäuser; N. Renner; M. Heinzel-Gutenbrunner; J. Abou-Fidah; K. Rasch; M. Kröplin; O. Fejerskov; K. Pieper



Dental Amalgam  


... that is used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. Tooth decay results in a loss of tooth structure. Dental ... type of dental filling material used to repair tooth structure that has been destroyed by decay and to restore the biting surfaces of a ...


Factors That Drive Dentists towards or Away from Dental Caries Preventive Measures: Systematic Review and Metasummary  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries is a serious public health concern. The high cost of dental treatment can be avoided by effective preventive measures, which are dependent on dentists’ adherence. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that drive dentists towards or away from dental caries preventive measures. Methods and Findings This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42012002235). Several databases as well as the reference lists and citations of the included publications were searched according to PRISMA guidelines, yielding 18,276 titles and abstracts, which were assessed to determine study eligibility. Seven qualitative studies and 41 surveys (36,501 participants) remained after data extraction and interpretation. A total of 43 findings were abstracted from the reports and were grouped together into 6 categories that were judged to be topically similar: education and training, personal beliefs, work conditions, remuneration, gender, place of residence and patients. The main findings for adherence based on their calculated frequency effect sizes (ES) were teamwork (21%) and post-graduation (12%), while for non-adherence were biologicism (27%), and remuneration for preventive procedures (25%). Intensity ES were also calculated and demonstrated low prevalence of the findings. Quality assessment of the studies demonstrated that the methodological quality, particularly of surveys, varied widely among studies. Conclusions Despite the questionable quality of the included reports, the evidence that emerged seems to indicate that further education and training coupled with a fairer pay scheme would be a reasonable approach to change the balance in favor of the provision of dental caries preventive measures by dentists. The results of this review could be of value in the planning and decision making processes aimed at encouraging changes in professional dental practice that could result in the improvement of the oral health care provided to the population in general. PMID:25296335

Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimaraes; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; Fujimaki, Mitsue; Pascotto, Renata Correa; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Vissoci, Joao Ricardo N.; Rodrigues, Clarissa G.



Hazards of occupational transmission and strategies for prevention of infectious disease in dental education.  


The emergence of AIDS has alerted the nation's health care community to the dangers of occupational transmission of infectious disease. This article assesses the risk of occupational transmission in the health care setting and examines two prevention strategies: vaccination programs and infection control protocols. The implementation of these strategies by the School of Dentistry, University of California at San Francisco, is recounted to illustrate an institutional response to the issue of infection control in the dental setting. PMID:3165416

McCauley, K R; Gerbert, B J; Greene, J C; Robertson, P B; Littlejohn, C; Greenspan, D; Greenspan, J S



Dental Sealants  


... Statistics > Find Data by Topic > Dental Sealants Dental Sealants Main Content Dental sealants are thin plastic coatings that protect the chewing ... teeth from tooth decay. Overall, the prevalence of sealants in children’s and adolescent’s teeth has increased since ...


Enzyme Replacement Therapy Prevents Dental Defects in a Model of Hypophosphatasia  

PubMed Central

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) occurs from loss-of-function mutation in the tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) gene, resulting in extracellular pyrophosphate accumulation that inhibits skeletal and dental mineralization. TNALP-null mice (Akp2-/-) phenocopy human infantile hypophosphatasia; they develop rickets at 1 week of age, and die before being weaned, having severe skeletal and dental hypomineralization and episodes of apnea and vitamin B6-responsive seizures. Delay and defects in dentin mineralization, together with a deficiency in acellular cementum, are characteristic. We report the prevention of these dental abnormalities in Akp2-/- mice receiving treatment from birth with daily injections of a mineral-targeting, human TNALP (sALP-FcD10). sALP-FcD10 prevented hypomineralization of alveolar bone, dentin, and cementum as assessed by micro-computed tomography and histology. Osteopontin – a marker of acellular cementum – was immuno-localized along root surfaces, confirming that acellular cementum, typically missing or reduced in Akp2-/- mice, formed normally. Our findings provide insight concerning how acellular cementum is formed on tooth surfaces to effect periodontal ligament attachment to retain teeth in their osseous alveolar sockets. Furthermore, they provide evidence that this enzyme-replacement therapy, applied early in post-natal life – where the majority of tooth root development occurs, including acellular cementum formation – could prevent the accelerated tooth loss seen in individuals with HPP. PMID:21212313

McKee, M.D.; Nakano, Y.; Masica, D.L.; Gray, J.J.; Lemire, I.; Heft, R.; Whyte, M.P.; Crine, P.; Millan, J.L.



Tooth-Binding Micelles for Dental Caries Prevention?  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of the effective local concentration of antimicrobials on the tooth surface is critical for the management of cariogenic bacteria in the oral cavity. We report on the design of a simple tooth-binding micellar drug delivery platform that would effectively bind to tooth surfaces. To achieve tooth-binding ability, the chain termini of biocompatible Pluronic copolymers were modified with a biomineral-binding moiety (i.e., alendronate). The micelles formulated with this polymer were shown to be able to swiftly (<1 min) bind to hydroxyapatite (HA; a model tooth surface) and gradually release the encapsulated model antimicrobial (farnesol). These tooth-binding micelles were negatively charged and had an average effective hydrodynamic diameter of less than 100 nm. In vitro biofilm inhibition studies demonstrated that the farnesol-containing tooth-binding micelles were able to provide significantly stronger inhibition of Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilm formation on HA discs than the untreated blank control micelles (P < 0.0001). Upon further optimization, this delivery platform could provide an effective tool for caries prevention and treatment. PMID:19704121

Chen, Fu; Liu, Xin-Ming; Rice, Kelly C.; Li, Xue; Yu, Fang; Reinhardt, Richard A.; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Wang, Dong



Recent reorganization of the public dental health service in Greenland in favor of caries prevention.  


The Danish dental health service in Greenland has not succeeded in its attempts to subdue a steadily growing caries problem in this rapidly changing society; surveys from 1974 and 1977 show that DMFS indices in this country are among the highest in the world. A comparison between the 1974 and 1977 surveys indicates that the DMFS indices reached a maximum around 1974. Pressing needs for other health services have left only small resources for a reorganization of the dental health service; at the same time, a certain lack of initial administrative support has hampered design and implementation of an adequate preventive program. Recently, a comprehensive plan for the training in Greenland of Greenlandic auxiliary personnel was put into effect, but at a time of economic depression. As a consequence, the dental health service now finds itself compelled to limit its previous scope of "comprehensive care", to be able to spend a reasonable part of existing resources on preventive programs utilizing indigenous auxiliary personnel. PMID:284882

Jakobsen, J



Perception of Tobacco use Prevention and Cessation Among Faculty Members in Latin American and Caribbean Dental Schools.  


Rates of tobacco use are increasing in the regions of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Unfortunately, tobacco cessation education is not a standard component of the dental curriculum in LAC dental schools. The objective of this study was to identify the perceptions of LAC dental faculty members regarding the tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) competencies that should be addressed in the dental curricula. Dental deans and faculty completed a web-based questionnaire in Spanish, Portuguese, French, or English. The questionnaire contained 32 competencies grouped into the five A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) of tobacco cessation and six supplementary questions for identifying barriers to providing TUPAC education to dental students. Respondents indicated the degree to which they believed each competency should be incorporated into the dental curricula using a five-point Likert scale ("1"?=?strongly disagree to "5"?=?strongly agree). Responses were obtained from 390 faculty members (66 % South America, 18 % Mexico/Central America, 16 % the Caribbean). Of the respondents, 2, 12, and 83 % reported that smoking was allowed in clinical environments, other indoor environments, and outdoor environments of their dental schools, respectively. Mean importance ratings for each of the competencies were as follows: Ask (4.71), Advise (4.54), Assess (4.41), Assist (4.07), and Arrange (4.01). Overall, LAC dental educators agree that TUPAC training should be incorporated into the dental curricula. Assist and Arrange competencies were rated lower, relative to other competencies. Tobacco use among dental educators and high rates of on-campus smoking could potentially pose barriers to promoting cessation interventions in the LAC dental schools. PMID:24385339

Tamí-Maury, Irene; Aigner, Carrie J; Hong, Judy; Strom, Sara; Chambers, Mark S; Gritz, Ellen R



Roles of parents in preventing dental caries in the primary dentition among preschool children in Thailand.  


This study aimed to identify important roles of parents in preventing caries in primary dentition among preschool children in Thailand. A total of 664 preschool children aged 3 to 4 years and their parents were sampled from representative provinces of the 5 regions of Thailand. Dental examination to assess dental caries in preschool children was conducted. Questionnaires investigating roles of parents in caring for their children's teeth were used to interview parents. Preschool children were more likely to have at least 1 carious tooth if parents did not always clean their teeth every time they bathed them, did not always examine the cleanliness of children's teeth regularly, and always allowed children to consume snacks more than 3 times a day. Thai parents must be motivated to consistently spend the time required to take care of the primary dentition of their children by regular cleaning and controlling the snacking behavior of children. PMID:19574270

Narksawat, Kulaya; Boonthum, Angsana; Tonmukayakul, Utsana



First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention.  


In view of the widespread lack of knowledge of first aid procedures in cases of dental trauma, this article describes the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for education of those likely to witness or be victims of dental trauma while practising sports. Dental and oral injuries, the commonest type of orofacial injuries, are often sustained by athletes playing contact sports; indeed, they represent the most frequent type of sporting injury. Studies of a large group of children and adults have shown that as many as 31% of all orofacial injuries are caused by sporting activities. Furthermore, current literature on the subject emphasizes that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory. Delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should we know and, more importantly, what should we do? Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If replantation is impossible, milk is the preferred transport medium for the avulsed tooth. There is a general low level of awareness about the need for prompt triage of traumatic dental injuries sustained in sports, despite their relative frequency. When a cohort of Swiss basketball players was interviewed, only half were aware that an avulsed tooth could be replanted. Cheap, commercially available tooth storage devices containing an isotonic transport medium (so-called 'Save-a-Tooth boxes'), can maintain the viability of an avulsed tooth for up to 72 hours, prior to replantation. More readily available storage media such as milk, sterile saline or even saliva may be used, but knowledge of this information is rare among sports participants. For example, just 6.6% of the Swiss basketball players interviewed were aware of the 'Tooth Rescue box' products. Sporting organizations seem to offer very little information about sports-related risks or preventive strategies for orodental trauma. Having an attending dentist at sports events - amateur or professional - is clearly a luxury that is neither practical nor affordable. The solution must lie in extending the knowledge of management of orodental trauma beyond the dental profession. Educational posters, when displayed prominently in sports clubs, gym halls and dressing rooms of swimming pools, are a clear, accessible and low cost method of presenting the appropriate procedures to follow after orodental injury. When the potentially avoidable financial burden and discomfort of protracted restorative or cosmetic dentistry are taken into account, rarely can such significant morbidity be so easily prevented. PMID:20433209

Emerich, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Jan



Parents' self-reported compliance with preventive practices after witnessing their child undergo intravenous sedation for dental treatment.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the self-reported compliance of parents with preventive dental care measures after witnessing their child undergo full-mouth rehabilitation under i.v. sedation. Records of 251 pediatric patients who underwent full-mouth rehabilitation under i.v. sedation between 1995 and 1999 at the University Children's Dental Center in Los Angeles, California were evaluated. Demographic data and rates of post sedation follow-up preventive visits were collected. In addition, seventy-five parents participated in a telephone interview and answered five multiple-choice questions that focused on the following areas: nursing habits, diet, hygiene, and follow-up preventive visits pre and post sedation. Parental attitude towards the experience was also assessed. Only 47 percent of the patients returned for at least one post-op/recall visit at the Children's Dental Center. Seventy-six percent of parents interviewed stated they made improvements in their child's hygiene post sedation. Only 45 percent of parents stated they made improvements in their child's diet and only 47 percent stated that they increased their child's dental recall visits post sedation. Eighty-eight percent of parents stated that they would be willing to have their children undergo i.v. sedation again if necessary for dental treatment. Parental presence during a child's dental rehabilitation via i.v. sedation does not change the preventive behaviors of these parents post sedation when compared to results of other studies. PMID:12119820

Lee, Clara M; Blain, Stephen M; Duperon, Donald F



[Assessment of disinfection and sterilization processes in dental practice as an important factors in prevention of infections].  


The dental health-care settings is an environment where disease transmission occurs easily. Prevention of cross infection is therefore a crucial aspect of dental practice and dental clinic stuffmust adopt certain basic routines while practicing. Infections may be transmitted in the dental operatory through direct contact with blood, oral fluids or other secretions; via indirect contact with contaminated instruments, equipment or environmental surfaces; or by contact with airborne contaminants present in either droplet splatter or aerosols of oral and respiratory fluids. Strategies to prevent dental patient infections have focused on disinfection and sterilization. This study evaluates basic routines in prevention of cross-infection in the dentistry. The sample comprised 100 dentists, who completed questionnaires. Based on inquires the conditions for disinfection and sterilization of medical devices were assessed. The following issues were taken into consideration: the way of disinfection and preparation of the disinfectants, the localization of disinfection, preparing to disinfection, washing and packing of dental devices, the frequency of disinfection, methods of sterilization and the monitoring system, type of sterilizers and the available cycles. The dental practices are well equiped to proceed the steam sterilization, but 33% of dentists don't know the available cycles in their autoclaves. Only 35% of them made sterilization process protocols. Very common are three failures of instruments disinfections: multiple use of disinfectant, adding of disinfectant, adding new instruments. There is still need for improvement in disinfection and sterilization in dental practice, especially including: monitoring and documentation of sterilization process, proper use of disinfectants according to manufactures instructions, frequent disinfection of surfaces which contact with patients. Dental stuff should take part in advanced training courses about disinfection and sterilization. PMID:20120954

Podgórska, Marta; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Chojecka, Agnieszka



Preparing the dental workforce for oral disease prevention in an aging population.  


The growing proportion of older adults in the U.S. population, as well as escalating dental expenditures, is leading to major changes in the demands on oral health care delivery. Researchers over the years have clearly demonstrated the shortcomings of traditional restorative treatment and the cycle of repeat interventional care. Oral health care professionals are constantly seeking advances in technology, protocols, methodologies, and materials to meet the needs of the growing, diverse older population. Early stages of oral diseases such as caries and periodontal disease are vigorous, preventable, and reversible. Assessment of social, systemic, and oral risk factors that emphasize patient counseling to facilitate risk reduction, along with individualized evidence-based disease prevention planning, is more cost-effective than traditional restorative treatment and will improve overall outcome. The purposes of this article are to briefly describe current issues and challenges related to oral health promotion for older adults and to examine strategies for disease prevention and health promotion in health and dental care settings. PMID:20930239

Dounis, Georgia; Ditmyer, Marcia M; McClain, Mildred A; Cappelli, David P; Mobley, Connie C



Use of caries prevention services in the Northwest PRECEDENT dental network  

PubMed Central

Objective This cross-sectional study assessed the use of caries preventive services by Northwest PRECEDENT dental network practitioners and compared the caries experience of patients who received such services in the past 12 months with those who had not. Methods An oral health survey was conducted on approximately 20 patients seen by each of 97 private practice dental practitioners in the network. Eligible patients (total of 1877 aged 3–92) were randomly assessed for the occurrence of one or more new caries lesions as well as having received the following preventive services within the past 12 months: fluoride varnish or gel, sealant in molar or premolar, and prophylaxis. Patients were stratified by gender and age (1–17 years old, 18–64 years old, and 65+ years old). Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between the practitioner characteristics and the use of preventive services, as well as the preventive services and the presence of a new caries lesion in the past 12 months. Results The percent of patients in age category 1–17 years old / 18–64 years old / 65+ years old receiving each preventive treatment varied as follows: 95%/85%/81% for prophylaxis, 87%/24%/22% for fluoride, and 27%/2%/0% for sealant. There was a very limited association between the use of a specific preventive service and practitioner gender, and no significant association between use of services and practice location (rural, urban or suburban). There was a significant association between greater use of sealants for dentists with 0–15 years of practice experience as compared with those having more than 25 years of experience. For the 1–17 year old age group, males had about 1.7 times the odds of having a new lesion than females in the past 12 months, and patients receiving a sealant had 1.9 times the odds of having a new caries lesion. In the 18–64 year old group, receiving a prophylaxis in the past 12 months was significantly associated with lower odds for having a new lesion (odds ratio = 0.57). Conclusions This study reports that aside from prophylaxis, which more than 85% of the patients had received, about one-third of the patients overall received preventive services consisting of either sealants or some type of fluoride treatment in private dental practices in the Northwest PRECEDENT network. PMID:21114514

Ferracane, J.; Hilton, T.; Korpak, A.; Gillette, J.; McIntyre, P. Speed; Berg, J.



STUDENT INSURANCE DENTAL BENEFIT 2012 2013 POLICY YEAR Preventative Dental (All enrollees): Two Annual Oral Evaluations; Two Adult/Child  

E-print Network

Annual Oral Evaluations; Two Adult/Child Cleaning/Prophylaxis; Annual Bitewing x-ray covered at 100% R per policy year. Other Dental Treatment: For injury to sound natural teeth or removal of full bony

Stuart, Steven J.


Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic  

PubMed Central

Background: More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the crosscontamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Methods: Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Results: Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tested and the presence of invisible and remnant blood was identified in 28 (58.3%) items. Conclusions: We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting. PMID:25400895

Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Cadore, Peterson; Gallon, Andrea; Imanishi, Soraia Almeida Watanabe



Caregiver Acceptability and Preferences for Preventive Dental Treatments for Young African American Children  

PubMed Central

Our prior research focused on parental treatment acceptability (TA) and preferences (TP) for preventive dental treatments for young Hispanic children. We adapted the interview for administration to parents of young African American children. Objective In a sample of African American parents, determine parental TA and TP for 5 dental treatments to prevent early childhood caries. Methods Interviewed 48 parents/caregivers of African American children attending Head Start, assessing TA and TP for 3 treatments for children: toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste (TB), fluoride varnish (FV), and xylitol in food (XF); and 2 treatments for mothers: xylitol gum (XG) and chlorhexidine (CHX) rinse. The interview included verbal information, illustrated treatment cards, photos/video clips, and samples. Parents provided TA of each treatment (1–5 scale), TP between each of 10 pairs of the 5 treatments, and open-ended reasons for their preferences. TP were summed (0–4) to create overall preference. Results All treatments were acceptable (means 4.4–4.9). TB was more acceptable than FV and XF (p<0.05). Summed TP revealed a strong preference for TB (mean 3.1) above other treatments (all p<0.01). Primary reasons for preferring TB were: promotes healthy habits; child-focused; and effectiveness. Conclusions All treatments were acceptable, however, parents/guardians strongly preferred TB. Parents’ emphasis on healthy habits and child-focused treatment supports efforts for oral health education programs in early childhood settings. Some parents expressed concerns about FV, XF, and CHX. Results may be useful in planning prevention programs for young children in African American communities. PMID:22506551

Adams, Sally H.; Rowe, Corie R.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Cheng, Nancy F.; Barker, Judith C.; Hyde, Susan



75 FR 22140 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services; Division of Oral Health; Dental Preventive and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...606-8220. Please review and complete the CCR Registration required for funding. Complete lack of a documented needs...objectives will address the clinical and preventive...certain facilities (or in some cases, any portion of the...



A comparative study of the effect of probiotics on cariogenic biofilm model for preventing dental caries.  


Dental caries is induced by oral biofilm containing Streptococcus mutans. Probiotic bacteria were mainly studied for effect on the gastrointestinal tract and have been known to promote human health. However, the information of probiotics for oral health has been lack yet. In this study, we investigated influence of various probiotics on oral bacteria or cariogenic biofilm and evaluated candidate probiotics for dental caries among them. The antimicrobial activity of the spent culture medium of probiotics for oral streptococci was performed. Probiotics were added during the biofilm formation with salivary bacteria including S. mutans. The oral biofilms were stained with a fluorescent dye and observed using the confocal laser scanning microscope. To count bacteria in the biofilm, the bacteria were plated on MSB and BHI agar plates after disrupting the biofilm and cultivated. Glucosyltransferases (gtfs) expression of S. mutans and integration of lactobacilli into the biofilm were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Among probiotics, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited growth of oral streptococci. Moreover, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited formation of cariogenic biofilm model. The expression of gtfs was significantly reduced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The integration of L. rhamnosus into the biofilm model did not exhibit. However, L. acidophilus and L casei integrated into the biofilm model. These results suggest that L. rhamnosus may inhibit oral biofilm formation by decreasing glucan production of S. mutans and antibacterial activity and did not integrate into oral biofilm, which can be a candidate for caries prevention strategy. PMID:24919536

Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Jae



Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS): A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v) dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983) were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions) from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877 PMID:20923557



Prevention of infective endocarditis: a review of the medical and dental literature.  


This paper is a review of what is presently known about the cause and prevention of infective endocarditis. Systemic antibiotics alone are not always enough for an effective prevention of infective endocarditis. Non-streptococcus bacteria frequently found in the periodontal pocket are now reported as causing infective endocarditis; these bacteria are not uniformly susceptible to the antibiotics recommended for prophylaxis. Animal studies indicate that periodontal disease does increase the incidence of infective endocarditis and that the number of microbes entering the blood stream may not be as important in the production of infective endocarditis as other qualities, such as the microbe's ability to adhere. Antibiotics may affect the ability of a microorganism to adhere to tissues of the heart, but this association is yet unclear and may vary with the antibiotic and species of bacteria. Reduction of inflammation of the periodontal tissues is of the utmost importance in the prevention of infective endocarditis; however, mouthrinses have a very limited effect in a periodontal pocket of more than 3 mm in depth and irrigation of a periodontal pocket may create a dangerous bacteremia. Nevertheless, in addition to systemic antibiotics, local antimicrobial agents followed by routine dental treatment and maintenance show promise as an effective means for the prevention of infective endocarditis. Future research in the prevention of infective endocarditis should include placement of antimicrobials in the periodontal pocket and systemic agents that reduce platelet adhesion. The suggestions presented in this review are only recommendations for further research and are not to be construed as a substitute for the current guidelines. PMID:1920019

Barco, C T



Simple, Effective—and Inexpensive— Strategies to Reduce Tooth Decay in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to primary preventive dental care will likely decrease in a poor economy, challenging all health care providers to identify inexpensive ways to help families prevent tooth decay. The incidence of tooth decay in very young children is increasing. Tooth decay can result in death in children if the subsequent infection is untreated. However, easy, inexpensive, and effective strategies exist

Jennifer Holtzman



Harvesting and Curing of Garlic to Prevent Decay.  

E-print Network

.............. .. ................................................................... 16 Curing on wire racks in open shed .................................. .... ...................... 18 Curing in barn loft ......................................................................................... 19 Drying experiments... as well as decreasing the yields. There was a tendency to harvest garlic before it had fully matured. The produce merchants, therefore, suffered a large portion of the shrinkage or drying loss together with the risk of decay before and after shipment...

Altstatt, G. E. (George E.); Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson); Byrom, Mills H. (Mills Herbert)



Alternatives to fluoride in the prevention and treatment of dental erosion.  


In recent years, different agents have been discussed as potential alternatives to fluoride in the prevention of dental erosion. These agents are intended to form acid-resistant layers on the surface, to induce repair of eroded lesions by mineral precipitation or to prevent the enzymatic degradation of demineralised collagen. The application of adhesives and/or fissure sealants is considered to be an effective alternative to fluoride, but requires professional application and, depending on the product used, a re-sealing of the surface every several months. Studies testing film-forming products, such as polymers, have suggested the potential effectiveness of some of these approaches, such as chitosan, although further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this approach. Other studies have demonstrated that products designed to deliver calcium and/or phosphate have not been successful at providing a significant anti-erosive effect. In advanced erosive lesions, the demineralised collagenous dentine matrix can be degraded by host enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). As well as fluorides, epigallocatechin gallate and chlorhexidine have been identified as effective MMP inhibitors, with the potential to reduce the progression of dentine erosion. While fluoride compounds have been shown to have an anti-erosive potential, particularly those containing tin, alternative approaches that provide even greater protective capacity still need to be developed and proven to be effective. PMID:24993272

Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wiegand, Annette



Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft drinks have many potential health problems. The inherent acids and sugars have both acidogenic and cariogenic potential,\\u000a resulting in dental caries and potential enamel erosion. In this report we present a 25-year-old man complaining with the\\u000a severe worn-out of the front teeth during the past 3 years. He had a history of drinking cola for more than 7 years

Ran Cheng; Hui Yang; Mei-ying Shao; Tao Hu; Xue-dong Zhou



A dental condition prediction system with artificial neural networks and fuzzy inference systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tooth decay (dental caries) can be prevented with a combination of daily home care and professional care. In the daily home care for the prevention of tooth decay, tooth brushing after every meal is very significant. Consequently, tooth brushing instruction forms an important part of the work of a dentist. In this paper, we develop a decision support system which

T. Okuda; T. Yoshida; M. Hotta



Oral health disparity in older adults: dental decay and tooth loss.  


Progress has been made in reducing dental caries and edentulism in older adults, but disparities continue to exist related to race, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, and sex. Lack of training in treating medically complex patients, economic factors including absence of coverage for oral health services in Medicare and as a required service for adults in Medicaid, and attitudinal issues on the part of patients, caregivers, and providers contribute to barriers to care for older adults. In addition to the impact of oral health on overall health, oral health impacts quality of life and social and employment opportunities. PMID:25201540

Friedman, Paula K; Kaufman, Laura B; Karpas, Steven L



Effects of common dental materials used in preventive or operative dentistry on dentin permeability and remineralization.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentin remineralization induced by bioactive substances contained in common dental materials used in preventive and operative dentistry. Several materials were applied on human dentin segments. Dentin permeability was quantified using a fluid filtration system working at 20 cm H(2)O. Micro-Raman, SEM-EDX, and microhardness calculation were used to evaluate changes in the mineralization of dentin. Dentin treated with the prophylactic materials showed different dentin permeability values, in particular subsequent to immersion in remineralizing solutions (RSS). The bioactive glass (Sylc) was the only substance able to reduce dentin permeability after immersion in remineralizing solution and to show hydroxyapatite precipitation as a sign of dentin remineralization. The reduction in dentin permeability obtained after the application of the other prophylactic materials used in this study was due to the presence of the remnant material in the dentinal tubules, with no remineralization effect after storage in remineralizing solution. In conclusion, the results indicated that bioactive glass prophy powder may induce immediate remineralization of dentin. PMID:21777102

Sauro, Salvatore; Thompson, Ian; Watson, Timothy F



Near-infrared image-guided laser ablation of dental decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image-guided laser ablation systems are now feasible for dentistry with the recent development of nondestructive high-contrast imaging modalities such as near-IR (NIR) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that are capable of discriminating between sound and demineralized dental enamel at the early stages of development. Our objective is to demonstrate that images of demineralized tooth surfaces have sufficient contrast to be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural and artificial caries lesions. NIR imaging and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) operating at 1310-nm are used to acquire images of natural lesions on extracted human teeth and highly patterned artificial lesions produced on bovine enamel. NIR and PS-OCT images are analyzed and converted to binary maps designating the areas on the samples to be removed by a CO2 laser to selectively remove the lesions. Postablation NIR and PS-OCT images confirmed preferential removal of demineralized areas with minimal damage to sound enamel areas. These promising results suggest that NIR and PS-OCT imaging systems can be integrated with a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of dental caries.

Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel



In Vivo Near-IR Imaging of Approximal Dental Decay at 1,310 nm  

PubMed Central

Objective The high transparency of dental enamel in the near-IR (NIR) light at 1,310-nm can be exploited for imaging dental caries without the use of ionizing radiation (X-rays). We present the results of the first in vivo imaging study in which NIR images were acquired of approximal contact surfaces. Methods NIR imaging hand-pieces were developed and attached to a compact InGaAs focal plane array and subsequently used to acquire in vivo NIR images of 33 caries lesions on 18 test subjects. The carious lesions were discernible on bitewing radiographs, but were not visible upon clinical examination. Results NIR images were acquired in vivo from three directions and the majority of lesions examined were too small to require restoration, based on accepted bitewing radiograph criteria. All but one of the 33 lesions examined were successfully imaged from at least one direction. Conclusion This first in vivo study of imaging at the 1,310-nm wavelength region shows that NIR imaging has great potential as a screening tool for the detection of approximal lesions without the use of ionizing radiation. PMID:20432277

Staninec, Michal; Lee, Chulsung; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel



Access to Dental Care for Children in Rhode Island. Rhode Island Kids Count Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dental disease restricts activities in school, work, and home, and often significantly diminishes the quality of life for many children and adults, especially those who are low income or uninsured. Noting that dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common preventable chronic childhood disease, this Kids Count issue brief considers the extent to…

Katz, Linda; Fontes, Janice; Ross, Maureen; Lawrence, Robin; Andrews, John; Kernan, Sharon; Leddy, Tricia; O'Bara, Joan; Young, John


The sound of dental tissue ablation as a possible parameter for conservative dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in cariology have been struggling for the development of caries prevention techniques, precocious diagnoses of lesions, re-mineralization of incipient carious lesions and early restorative intervention with minimally invasive procedures. When removing caries, healthy dental structure is often removed inadvertently during its final phase, for being quite difficult to precise the limits between viable and decayed dental tissues clinically. With

Fábio Renato P. Robles; Fausto Medeiros Mendes; Adriana Bona Matos



Role of sweeteners in the etiology and prevention of dental caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that is caused by an interplay of three major factors, i.e., teeth, cariogenic bacteria, and fermentable sugars. Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus, collectively termed mutans streptococci (MS), are principal causative agents of dental caries. Initial MS-tooth surface attachment is followed by firm and irreversible adhesion of MS to the tooth surface, accompanied by the

Shigeyuki Hamada



Cost-effectiveness in dental health: a review of strategies available for preventing caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most decisions in public health are based on imperfect information, and this is certainly the case for dental health. Relatively little is known about the cost-effectiveness of the various options available to improve dental status. It is, however, well recognised that regular exposure to fluoride reduces the incidence of caries considerably, and it is no coincidence that oral status throughout

Ron Akehurst; Diane Sanderson



Undergraduate Dental Hygiene  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Dental Hygiene Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry #12; Dental hygienists work as part of a dental team playing a pivotal role in the prevention, treatment and management and using a variety of instruments to remove deposits from the teeth, the dental hygienist ensures

Bristol, University of


Preventing Tooth Decay: A Guide for Implementing Self-Applied Fluoride in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook was developed to assist citizens in initiating programs to prevent tooth decay in young children through the use of fluoridation. It contains outlines for determining the needs of the school and community for fluoride in drinking water, and presents the various steps and activities that are necessary for developing and implementing…

National Inst. of Dental Research (NIH), Bethesda, MD.


Dental Materials BIOMATERIALS  

E-print Network

, and most adults, have dental caries (tooth decay). The annual US cost for treating tooth decay amounts, restorations are often replaced due to secondary caries at the tooth- composite interphase. Current test of dental materials related to the tooth-composite interphase. We are discussing our method development


Use of Preventive Dental Care Among Medicaid-Enrolled, School-Aged US Children in Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Families: Trends in Pennsylvania From 2005 Through 2010.  


Objectives. We describe trends in receipt of preventive dental care among Medicaid-enrolled children in Pennsylvania between 2005 and 2010, comparing the US children of immigrants with their co-ethnic peers in nonimmigrant families. Methods. We analyzed Pennsylvania Medicaid claims, birth records, and census data for children born in Pennsylvania and enrolled in Medicaid for 10 or more months during any of the calendar years assessed. Results. Receipt of preventive dental care was more likely among Latino children in immigrant families than among their peers in nonimmigrant families; also, it was more likely among White children in immigrant families than among their peers in nonimmigrant families. Rates of preventive dental care use among African American and Asian children in immigrant and nonimmigrant families were comparable. From 2005 to 2010, the percentage of Latino children in nonimmigrant families who received preventive dental care increased from 33% to 61%. Changes in other groups were significant but less dramatic. Conclusions. Receipt of preventive dental care has increased among Medicaid-enrolled children in Pennsylvania, with marked gains among Latino children. Within each racial/ethnic group, the children of immigrants were either more likely than or equally likely as children in nonimmigrant families to receive care. PMID:25322290

Yun, Katherine; Chesnokova, Arina; Shults, Justine; Pinto, Andres; Rubin, David M



Current understanding of the epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention of dental caries in preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seriousness and societal costs of dental caries in preschool children are enor- mous. National data shows that caries is highly prevalent in poor and near poor US preschool children, yet this disease is infrequently treated. The etiology in- cludes elevated colonization levels of mutans streptococci, high frequency sugar consumption, and developmental defects on primary teeth. A necessary first step

Norman Tinanoff; Michael J. Kanellis; Clemencia M. Vargas



Design and implementation of a dental caries prevention trial in remote Canadian Aboriginal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Aboriginal women were hired from the

Rosamund Harrison; Jacques Veronneau; Brian Leroux



Optical coherence tomography guided dental drill  


A dental drill that has one or multiple single mode fibers that can be used to image in the vicinity of the drill tip. It is valuable to image below the surface being drilled to minimize damage to vital or normal tissue. Identifying the boundary between decayed and normal enamel (or dentine) would reduce the removal of viable tissue, and identifying the nerve before getting too close with the drill could prevent nerve damage. By surrounding a drill with several optical fibers that can be used by an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) to image several millimeters ahead of the ablation surface will lead to a new and improved dental treatment device.

DaSilva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Colston, Jr., Bill W. (Livermore, CA); James, Dale L. (Tracy, CA)



Not All Cavities Are Treated Equal: Increasing Access to Preventive Dental Care in Texas  

E-print Network

funding. Founded in 1965 as part of Title XIX of the Social Security Act, the program is designed to provide medical coverage to low-income individuals.20 The Texas Medicaid program was established in 1967 and is administered through Health and Human... argued that Texas children on Medicaid lacked access to check-ups and follow-up medical and dental care. The plaintiffs originally filed the case in the federal courts in the eastern district of Texas. In 1996, a consent decree was filed, in which...

Andrews, Sarah; Barrett, Elizabeth; Beonigk, Rachel; Broughton, Whitney; Cifuentes-Soto, Mauricio; Hill, Jenny; Louder, Nathan; Nwanze, Chukwudebe; Wang, Yefeng (Caryl)



Going, going, gone? Proactive control prevents the congruency sequence effect from rapid decay.  


The congruency sequence effect, the finding of a reduced congruency effect following incongruent trials in conflict tasks, has received considerable attention in the research on cognitive control over the last two decades. This effect can reflect either the expectancy-guided, preparatory biasing of attention in anticipation of the upcoming stimulus (i.e. proactive control), or the phasic enhancement of the attentional set in response to conflict on the previous trial (i.e. reactive control). A recent study by Egner et al. in Front Psychol 1 (2010) set out to contrast these two alternatives, by exploring the congruency sequence effect across a wide range of inter-trial intervals. It was found that congruency sequence effects were subject to rapid decay over time. This decay fits well with the notion of reactive control, while at the same time speaking against the involvement of proactive regulation—which should also (and even mainly) be evident at longer intervals. In the present study, we first replicate the reduction of the congruency sequence effect with increasing inter-trial interval in a face-word Stroop task. In a second experiment, we show that congruency sequence effects are observed at longer intervals, too, when the proportion of trials with the longest inter-trial interval is increased. Our findings indicate that proactive control can prevent the congruency sequence effect from decaying rapidly. PMID:24077774

Duthoo, W; Abrahamse, E L; Braem, S; Notebaert, W



Disinfection protocols to prevent cross-contamination between dental offices and prosthetic laboratories.  


Control of cross-contamination between dental offices and prosthetic laboratories is of utmost importance to maintain the health of patients and dental office staff. The purpose of this study was to evaluate disinfection protocols, considering antimicrobial effectiveness and damage to the structures of prostheses. Solutions of 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, 50% vinegar and sodium perborate were evaluated. Specimens were contaminated in vitro with standardized suspensions of Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis spores. Disinfection by immersion for 10 min was performed. Final counts of microorganisms were obtained using the plating method. Results were statistically compared by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Dunn's test. The surface roughness of 40 specimens was analyzed before and after 10 disinfection cycles, and results were compared statistically using Student's t test. The solution of 50% vinegar was as effective as 1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine against C. albicans, E. coli and S. mutans. The sodium perborate solution showed the lowest antimicrobial effectiveness. Superficial roughness increased after cycles in 1% sodium hypochlorite (p=0.02). Solutions of 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine and 50% vinegar were effective for the disinfection of heat-polymerized acrylic specimens. Sodium hypochlorite increased the superficial roughness. PMID:23999338

Salvia, Ana Carolina Rodrigues Danzi; Matilde, Fernanda Dos Santos; Rosa, Francine Cristina Silva; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Balducci, Ivan; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi



Design and implementation of a dental caries prevention trial in remote Canadian Aboriginal communities  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of this cluster randomized trial is to test the effectiveness of a counseling approach, Motivational Interviewing, to control dental caries in young Aboriginal children. Motivational Interviewing, a client-centred, directive counseling style, has not yet been evaluated as an approach for promotion of behaviour change in indigenous communities in remote settings. Methods/design Aboriginal women were hired from the 9 communities to recruit expectant and new mothers to the trial, administer questionnaires and deliver the counseling to mothers in the test communities. The goal is for mothers to receive the intervention during pregnancy and at their child's immunization visits. Data on children's dental health status and family dental health practices will be collected when children are 30-months of age. The communities were randomly allocated to test or control group by a random "draw" over community radio. Sample size and power were determined based on an anticipated 20% reduction in caries prevalence. Randomization checks were conducted between groups. Discussion In the 5 test and 4 control communities, 272 of the original target sample size of 309 mothers have been recruited over a two-and-a-half year period. A power calculation using the actual attained sample size showed power to be 79% to detect a treatment effect. If an attrition fraction of 4% per year is maintained, power will remain at 80%. Power will still be > 90% to detect a 25% reduction in caries prevalence. The distribution of most baseline variables was similar for the two randomized groups of mothers. However, despite the random assignment of communities to treatment conditions, group differences exist for stage of pregnancy and prior tooth extractions in the family. Because of the group imbalances on certain variables, control of baseline variables will be done in the analyses of treatment effects. This paper explains the challenges of conducting randomized trials in remote settings, the importance of thorough community collaboration, and also illustrates the likelihood that some baseline variables that may be clinically important will be unevenly split in group-randomized trials when the number of groups is small. Trial registration This trial is registered as ISRCTN41467632. PMID:20465831



77 FR 12517 - VA Dental Insurance Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...coverage for the following dental care and services: (i) Diagnostic...Preventive services. (A) Dental prophylaxis. (B) Topical...Endodontic services. (A) Pulp capping. (B) Pulpotomy and...Palliative (emergency) treatment of dental pain. (B) Therapeutic...



Effectiveness of Disposable Face Masks in Preventing Cross Contamination during Dental Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosols generated by the air turbine handpiece contain oral microorganisms that are a potential health hazard to the dentist. The effectiveness of different face masks in preventing cross contamination varied greatly but in all instances was significant.

Richard Bailey; Phyllis Giglio; Harry Blechman; Carlos Nunez



Dental Caries  

PubMed Central

Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases afflicting mankind. It reached a peak in the 1950s but has been declining drastically in recent years in children and young adults. This article describes the three contributing factors in dental caries: microbial plaque, tooth susceptibility, and diet, and discusses practical preventive measures which help to reduce caries incidence. Some of these, such as vaccines and antimicrobial varnishes, are still in the research stages, while others, such as sucrose substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, and limitation of frequency of sugar snacks are well established and can be promoted by family physicians. PMID:21253193

Burgess, Ralph C.



Dental care resistance prevention and antibiotic prescribing modification--the cluster-randomised controlled DREAM trial  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial resistance development is one of the most urgent problems in healthcare worldwide. In Europe, dentistry accounts for a comparatively high amount of antibiotic prescriptions. In light of increasing levels of bacterial resistance, this development is alarming. So far, very few interventional studies have been performed, and further research is urgently needed. By means of a complex educational intervention, the DREAM trial aims at optimising antibiotic prescribing behaviour of general dentists in Germany. Method This is a cluster-randomised controlled trial, where each cluster consists of one dental practice and all of its patients in a defined period. Participants are general dentists practicing in the German region of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Randomisation takes place after baseline data collection (6 months) and will be stratified by the antibiotic prescribing rates of the participating dental practices. Dentists randomised into the intervention group will participate in a complex small group educational seminar that aims at: increasing knowledge on bacterial resistance, pharmacology, and prophylaxis of infectious endocarditis; increasing awareness of dentist-patient communication using video-taped vignettes of dentist-patient communication on antibiotic treatment; improving collaboration between general dentists, general practitioners, and practice-based cardiologists on the necessity of antibiotic prophylaxis; enhancing awareness of the dentists’ own prescribing habits by providing antibiotic prescribing feedback; and increasing patient knowledge on antibiotic treatment by providing patient-centred information material on antibiotic prophylaxis of endocarditis. The dentists randomised into the control group will not receive any educational programme and provide care as usual. Primary outcome is the overall antibiotic prescribing rate measured at T1 (period of six months after intervention). In a subgroup of adult patients affected by odontogenic infections, microbiological analyses for antibiotic resistance of oral streptococci are performed. Discussion Major aim of the study is to improve the process of decision making with regard to antibiotic prescribing. The approach is simple to implement and might be used rapidly in graduate and post-graduate medical education. We expect the results of this trial to have a major impact on antibiotic prescription strategies and practices in Germany. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN09576376 PMID:24559212



Comparing Dental and Pharmacy Students' Perceptions on Public Health and Preventive Health Care Course  

PubMed Central

Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604

Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi



76 FR 10899 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICES Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for water systems adjust the amount of fluoride in drinking water to 0.7 mg/L to...period on the proposed recommendations for fluoride concentration in drinking water for...



Impact of the "Guidelines for infection prevention in dentistry" (2006) by the Commission of Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention at the Robert Koch-Institute (KRINKO) on hygiene management in dental practices – analysis of a survey from 2009  

PubMed Central

Aim: To assess trends in hygiene management in dental practices in comparison to an earlier survey in 2002/2003 and to point out key aspects for future efforts. Method: The infection prevention management of all dental practices in Greifswald (n=35) was determined by a questionnaire in a personal interview in 2008/2009. Results: 26% of the dentists did not use sufficient personal protective equipment during the general examination of the patient. In conservative and prosthetic dentistry, 15% still did not use adequate measures and 9% did not even in surgical interventions. Vaccination coverage was clearly too low, as only 35% of dentists were vaccinated against influenza and coverage with other vaccinations was also quite low. 11% of the dentists did not perform a documented anamnesis and in 29% of the dental practices no appointment system for risk patients existed. There were significant deficiencies in the reprocessing of medical devices and in the equipment needed for reprocessing. The opportunity to participate in further training in this field was rejected by 23% of the dentists. In 10 dental practices, the colony count in the dental unit water-conducting system was five times higher than the limit. A contamination with P. aeruginosa was discovered in 4 practices. All units were renovated. Discussion: Overall, both the hygiene management and hygiene equipment in the practices have improved considerably compared to the previous survey in 2002/2003. This demonstrates the positive effect of the KRINKO guidelines from 2006. However, the survey again showed relevant deficiences in the hygiene management of dental practices, which agrees with a Germany-wide online survey from 2009. Conclusion: While the study revealed persistent deficiencies in hygiene management, especially in reprocessing, it confirms that the KRINKO guidelines for dental practices from 2006 led to significant improvements in hygiene management. Doubts about the impact of the guidelines are not backed by evidence. PMID:22558048

Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Handrup, Stephan; Meyer, Georg; Kramer, Axel



Minority participation in a school-based randomized clinical trial of tooth decay prevention in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo describe the strategies—based on the social triad concept of a partnership of researchers, school personnel and community—employed to recruit low-income, minority parent\\/caregivers of kindergarten children into a school-based tooth decay prevention trial in the United States.

Suchitra Nelson; Peter Milgrom


Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.  


Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers. PMID:24860920

Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M



Influence of an Intervention to Prevent Early Childhood Caries Initiated before Birth on Children's Use of Dental Services up to 7 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background : In a previously reported randomised controlled trial, advising first time mothers on the prevention of early childhood caries from before their child was born, decreased the prevalence of early childhood caries at 20 months of age 5-fold. Objective: We examined the effect of the intervention on the frequency and nature of dental visits up to 7 years of age. Methods: Of 649 expectant mothers who participated in the trial, 277 completed a “Child Oral Health Survey” 7 years later. Their answers were compared with those of a comparison group of 277 mothers selected at random among those living in the same area with a first child born in the same year enrolled with the South Australian School Dental Services (SA SDS). Results: Only 1.5% of children had a dental visit before 12 months of age and only 4% before 2 years of age unless a dental problem had arisen. The age at the first visit did not differ among groups, but the reasons for the visit did as did the number of visits and the need for treatment under sedation or anaesthesia. In the trial group, 34% of first visits were for pain, 29% for injury, and 29% for concern with appearance. In the comparison group, pain was the main concern in 49%, injury in 9.5%, and appearance in 25% (p=0.019). Over time, children in the trial had an average of 2.2 visits compared with 3.1 in the comparison group. In the intervention group of the trial, no child had required treatment under sedation or general anaesthesia compared with 2.9% in the control group, and 6.5% in the comparison group. Only 15% of mothers reported that they had received any information on caries prevention from health care professionals other than dental care practitioners. Conclusion: Providing first-time mothers with guidance on the prevention of childhood caries decreased the use of dental services to deal with problems in preschool children. PMID:24949107

Plutzer, Kamila; Keirse, Marc J.N.C



[Incidence and primary prevention of complications related to the placement of dental implants].  


Despite high success rate with endosseous titanium implants, failures inevitably occur. At an early stage, lack of primary stability, surgical trauma, peroperative contamination and occlusal overload seem to be the most important causes of implant failure. Many authors have reported that implant failures after primary healing and osseointegration are mainly due to peri-implant infection and/or excessive occlusal stress. Like periodontal disease, peri-implant inflammatory lesions develop as a result of plaque accumulation and exhibit similar clinical and microbiological signs as encountered for periodontitis. Clinicians should therefore enforce preventive measures to decrease the prevalence of such causative agents. Therapeutic attempts should have their rationale in the restoration of a biomechanical and/or host-bacterial equilibrium. The major limitation at this point seems to be the detection of a pathological process. Aside from clinical evaluation, the interpretation of radiographic images is one of the most frequently applied diagnostic procedures in patients with osseointegrated implants. Post-therapeutic maintenance care is an integral part of the entire implant treatment approach. PMID:11508118

Torelli, S; Bercy, P



Corrosion of dental metallic materials by dental treatment agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, dental bleaching and fluoride treatment agents are popular for esthetic purposes and prevention of plaque and caries formation. The corrosive effect of these agents on dental metallic materials has not been well documented. It was an objective of this in vitro study to evaluate and compare chemical and electrochemical corrosion behavior of seven metallic dental materials in commercially available

Yoshiki Oshida; Cory B. Sellers; Kawther Mirza; Farrokh Farzin-Nia



Physicochemical changes in Mazafati date fruits incubated in hot acetic acid for accelerated ripening to prevent diseases and decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed and optimized for the accelerated ripening of date fruits of cultivar ‘Mazafati’ to prevent diseases and decay. The date fruits were incubated in hot acetic acid solution 0.5% at 40+1°C for 72h. During the process some physicochemical changes in the fruits were studied and were found to be comparable with the changes in the fruits that

Asgar Farahnaky; Hassan Afshari-Jouybari



Ability Of Optical Coherence Tomography To Detect Caries Beneath Commonly Used Dental Sealants  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective The onset and progression of early tooth decay is often preventable with dental sealants. However, occasionally decay progresses underneath the sealant. Current technology does not permit monitoring of potential lesion progression or arrest. Dental sealants themselves mask the visual cues that identify early tooth decay, and radiographs are not sufficiently sensitive. Therefore clinicians can be reluctant to use dental sealant. The objective of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the ability of dentists to detect decay beneath commonly used dental sealants using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. Study Designs/Materials/Methods Forty extracted teeth were divided into equal groups of carious and non-carious teeth, as determined by visual inspection. After radiographs and OCT imaging, teeth were randomly assigned for sealant placement with one of four commonly purchased dental sealants: Clinpro™, Fuji Triage™, Embrace Wet Bond™, and Delton™. Following sealant placement, teeth were radiographed, imaged with OCT, sectioned, examined histologically, and scored as healthy/not healthy. OCT and radiographic images were scored separately. The gold standard was histopathological diagnosis from the serial sections. Cohen’s Kappa, sensitivity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value were computed for all measures. Results After 90 mins training, pre-standardized dentists were able to detect tooth decay more accurately using OCT than with visual or radiographic examination. Detection using OCT was somewhat better prior to sealant placement than afterwards. This effect varied in size depending on the type of sealant used. Radiographic diagnosis was also less accurate after sealant placement. Of the four dental sealants, Delton provided excellent positive predictive value and the best post-sealant negative predictive values. Conclusion In this ex vivo study, dentists were able to detect tooth decay beneath four commonly used dental sealants based on OCT images. Clinical investigations are now underway to determine the usefulness of this approach in vivo. PMID:20848554

Osann, Kathryn; Pharar, Jessica; Lee, Kenneth; Ahn, Yeh-chan; Tucker, Travis; Sabet, Sharareh; Chen, Zhongping; Gukasyan, Ripsik; Wilder-Smith, Petra



The Level of Dental Anxiety and Dental Status in Adult Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study aimed to assess potential correlation between dental anxiety and overall dental status in adult patients, in consideration of the frequency of dental appointments and individual dental hygiene practices. Materials and Methods: Individual dental anxiety levels were assessed with the aid of the Corah’s dental anxiety scale (DAS). The study embraced 112 patients of the University Dental Clinic, Kraków. Following clinical and X-ray exams, respectively, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index and dental treatment index (DTI) were computed for each study subject. Results: Mean DAS among the 112 subjects under study was 9.41 standard deviation (SD = 3.36). Mean DMFT value was 15.86 (SD = 7.00), whereas DTI value was 0.76 (SD = 0.27). The number of decayed teeth and an individual dental anxiety level were found to be correlated (r = 0.26). Higher dental anxiety correlated with lower DTI value (r = ?0.22) and lesser frequency of dental appointments (r = 0.22). Conclusions: Individual dental anxiety level appears to impact overall dental status, frequency of dental appointments and everyday oral health practices. Every conceivable effort should therefore be undertaken with a view to effectively diminishing dental anxiety levels in the patients. How to cite the article: Dobros K, Hajto-Bryk J, Wn?k A, Zarzecka J, Rzepka D. The level of dental anxiety and dental status in adult patients. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):11-4. PMID:25083026

Dobros, Katarzyna; Hajto-Bryk, Justyna; Wnek, Anna; Zarzecka, Joanna; Rzepka, Dominik



Tooth decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teeth can decay and break or fall out of the gum line if they become damaged. One way in which they can be damaged is if dental plaque builds up on teeth. Plaque consists mostly of bacteria, and these bacteria cause cavities to be made in teeth if they are not removed on a regular basis.

N/A N/A (None;)



Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems  


... dental health primarily to increased access to fluoridation. “Fluoride reduces tooth decay as well as slows down ... than 95 percent of all toothpastes now have fluoride in them, and about 65 percent of our ...


Review of Spaceflight Dental Emergencies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All exploration class missions--extending beyond earth's orbit--differ from existing orbital missions by being of longer duration and often not having a means of evacuation. If an exploration mission extends beyond a year, then there will be a greater lapse since the crewmembers last terrestrial dental exams, which routinely occur each year. This increased time since professional dental care could increase the chance of a dental emergency such as intractable pain, dental decay requiring a temporary filling, crown replacement, exposed pulp, abscess, tooth avulsion, or toothache. Additionally, any dental emergency will have to be treated in-flight with available resources and personnel who may not have extensive training in dental care. Thus, dental emergencies are an important risk to assess in preparation for exploration missions.

Menon, Anil



Dental Care in Pregnancy  


... protective) coating on your teeth, which can cause tooth decay (cavities) or even tooth loss. Periodontal disease can ... prevent plaque buildup, which causes gum disease and tooth decay. Use a soft-bristled toothbrush because your gums ...


Endodontics and dental readiness.  


The primary mission of the Dental Corps--maintaining the dental health of our soldiers at an optimum level to ensure their readiness to deploy and fight--is more important than ever in today's downsized, high-operational-tempo Army. A review of the literature indicates that 20 to 25% of all soldiers will report on dental sick call during a 1-year deployment, and approximately half will require endodontic intervention. This could cost a division more than 18,000 man-days of combat effectiveness in a theater of battle, an unacceptable loss. Approximately three-fourths of these sick call visits could be prevented if selected conditions were identified and treated before deployment. Endodontic conditions, which result in the majority of dental sick call complaints, should be given priority for treatment in garrison, and the identified soldier should be placed in dental fitness class 3 until the tooth is definitively treated. PMID:10709374

Liewehr, F R



Effectiveness of a Dental Care Intervention in the Prevention of Lower Respiratory Tract Nosocomial Infections among Intensive Care Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.  


Objective.?To evaluate whether dental treatment may enhance oral antisepsis, thus preventing more effectively lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) among critically ill patients. Design.?Observer-blind randomized clinical trial. Setting.?General intensive care unit (ICU) for adult patients. Patients.?We analyzed data from 254 adult patients who stayed for at least 48 hours in the ICU. Intervention.?Patients were randomized by means of rolling dice. The experimental group (n = 127) had access to dental care provided by a dental surgeon, 4-5 times a week. Besides routine oral hygiene, care also included teeth brushing, tongue scraping, removal of calculus, atraumatic restorative treatment of caries, and tooth extraction. The control group (n = 127) had access to routine oral hygiene only, which included the use of chlorhexidine as a mouth rinse, which was performed by the ICU nurse staff. Results.?The primary study outcome was the LRTI incidence, which was 8.7% in the experimental group and 18.1% in the control group (adjusted relative risk [RR], 0.44 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-0.96]; P = .04). Ventilator-associated pneumonia rates per 1,000 ventilator-days were 16.5 (95% CI, 9.8-29.5) in the control group and 7.6 (95% CI, 3.3-15.0) in the experimental group (P < .05). Mortality rates were similar between both study groups: 31.5% in the control group versus 29.1% in the experimental group (adjusted RR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.52-1.65]; P = .796). No severe adverse events related to oral care were observed during the study. Conclusion.?Dental treatment was safe and effective in the prevention of LRTI among critically ill patients who were expected to stay at least 48 hours in the ICU. Trial registration.?Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry, affiliated with the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trial Registry Platform: U1111-1152-2671. PMID:25333428

Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Wanessa T; Menegueti, Mayra G; Gaspar, Gilberto G; Nicolini, Edson A; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Martinez, Roberto; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando



Survey and analysis of dental caries in students at a deaf-mute high school.  


The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence of dental caries was 55.9%, Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index in deaf students was 1.40±1.89; in healthy students was 13.8% and 1.36±1.72, respectively. Relatively lower proportion of awareness on dental health knowledge and lower proper practice of dental health behavior have been observed among deaf students compared with the control group. Multiple logistic regressions showed that the risk factors of dental caries in deaf students involved high frequency of consuming dessert and carbonated beverage. Poor oral health, lack of oral health knowledge and proper oral health practice could be found in deaf students. The dental treatment for the two groups was urgently needed. The dental health education concerning dietary behavior and prevention program to the deaf students and their parents should be reinforced; the supervision of oral health behavior for deaf and healthy students needs to be strengthened. PMID:22502855

Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min



Head Start Combats Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Among Native American Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents current developments concerning nursing bottle caries--"baby bottle tooth decay"--and spotlights a program funded by Head Start to reduce the prevalence of these painful and disfiguring, but preventable, children's dental diseases among American Indians and Alaska Native families. (Author/BB)

Phillips, Margaret G.; Stubbs, Phyllis E.



Feline dental disease.  


Periodontal disease and chronic gingivitis/stomatitis are the most common feline dental diseases. With routine dental care and increased emphasis on home oral hygiene, these diseases can be controlled. Cats can be seen with a number of other dental disorders, and improved treatment methods such as restorations of early subgingival resorptive lesions, endodontic therapy, and orthodontic therapy can be performed successfully. More study and research are necessary about the gingivitis/stomatitis syndrome and subgingival resorptive lesions so that improved prevention and treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:3490037

Frost, P; Williams, C A



Indoor wood-decay basidiomycetes: damage, causal fungi, physiology, identification and characterization, prevention and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor wood-decay fungi cause considerable economical damage. Most of the structural damage to the indoors of buildings in\\u000a Europe and North America is caused by brown-rot fungi that degrade conifer wood; white-rot fungi, which preferentially attack\\u000a hardwoods, are less common. This review covers the approximately 80 basidiomycetes that commonly occur in buildings. Emphasis\\u000a was placed on Serpula lacrymans, which is

Olaf Schmidt



[Preventive and interceptive orthodontics in the primary health care network of the Brazilian Unified Health System: the viewpoint of the dental surgeons of Florianopolis City Hall].  


The scope of this exploratory study was to understand the viewpoint of the dental surgeons of the Primary Health Care (PHC) network in Florianópolis regarding the need, feasibility and interest in broadening preventive orthodontic services and in the implementation of interceptive orthodontics. A structured questionnaire was used to establish the viewpoint of all the primary care dental surgeons who perform clinical care in the network. The results indicate that: the majority are in favor provided that there is an appropriate structure to attend the needs of the population; the professionals consider themselves unqualified to perform the requisite procedures, so training would be necessary; there would be no need to deploy other orthodontic procedures in primary care than those analyzed; and the main difficulties that might be encountered were related to excess demand and the lack of human resources. Despite these obstacles, the majority of the professionals consider it positive and feasible to introduce this service, which could increase the comprehensiveness of health care and bolster primary care, thereby improving the health of the population. PMID:24863821

Guzzo, Samuel Carlos; Finkler, Mirelle; Reibnitz Júnior, Calvino; Reibnitz, Marynes Terezinha



Application of Stem Cell Technology in Dental Regenerative Medicine  

PubMed Central

Significance In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the isolation and characterization of dental tissue-derived stem cells and address the potential of these cell types for use in regenerative cell transplantation therapy. Recent Advances Looking forward, platforms for the delivery of stem cells via scaffolds and the use of growth factors and cytokines for enhancing dental stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are discussed. Critical Issues We aim to understand the developmental origins of dental tissues in an effort to elucidate the molecular pathways governing the genesis of somatic dental stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of several dental stem cells are discussed, including the developmental stage and specific locations from which these cells can be purified. In particular, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth may act as a very practical and easily accessibly reservoir for autologous stem cells and hold the most value in stem cell therapy. Dental pulp stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells should also be considered for their triple lineage differentiation ability and relative ease of isolation. Further, we address the potentials and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cells as a cell source in dental regenerative. Future Directions From an economical and a practical standpoint, dental stem cell therapy would be most easily applied in the prevention of periodontal ligament detachment and bone atrophy, as well as in the regeneration of dentin-pulp complex. In contrast, cell-based tooth replacement due to decay or other oral pathology seems, at the current time, an untenable approach. PMID:24527351

Feng, Ruoxue; Lengner, Chistopher



Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

Ismail, Amid L.; And Others



Epidemiology of dental trauma: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent reports describing the aetiology of dental trauma from national and international studies as well as the different classi- fications currently used to report dental injuries. It also discusses possible preventive measures to reduce the increasing frequency of dental trauma. Reported studies demonstrate that males tend to experience more dental trauma in the permanent dentition than females,

Elisa B. Bastone; Terry J. Freer; John R. McNamara



Dental OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.



Medicaid: Extent of Dental Disease in Children Has Not Decreased, and Millions Are Estimated to Have Untreated Tooth Decay. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-08-1121  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of dental care for low-income children. Attention to this subject became more acute due to the widely publicized case of Deamonte Driver, a 12-year-old boy who died as a result of an untreated infected tooth that led to a fatal brain infection. Deamonte had health coverage through…

Cosgrove, James C.



Anti-Streptococcal activity of Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest plant extracts presents potential for preventive strategies against dental caries  

PubMed Central

Caries is a global public health problem, whose control requires the introduction of low-cost treatments, such as strong prevention strategies, minimally invasive techniques and chemical prevention agents. Nature plays an important role as a source of new antibacterial substances that can be used in the prevention of caries, and Brazil is the richest country in terms of biodiversity. Objective In this study, the disk diffusion method (DDM) was used to screen over 2,000 Brazilian Amazon plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods Seventeen active plant extracts were identified and fractionated. Extracts and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid partition, were tested in the DDM assay and in the microdilution broth assay (MBA) to determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). The extracts were also subjected to antioxidant analysis by thin layer chromatography. Results EB271, obtained from Casearia spruceana, showed significant activity against the bacterium in the DDM assay (20.67±0.52 mm), as did EB1129, obtained from Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae) (15.04±2.29 mm). EB1493, obtained from Ipomoea alba, was the only extract to show strong activity against Streptococcus mutans (0.08 mg/mLprevention strategies to treat caries. PMID:24676578

da SILVA, Juliana Paola Correa; de CASTILHO, Adriana Ligia; SARACENI, Cintia Helena Couri; DIAZ, Ingrit Elida Collantes; PACIENCIA, Mateus Luis Barradas; SUFFREDINI, Ivana Barbosa



Long-Term Effect of Xylitol Chewing Gum in the Prevention of Dental Caries: A Follow-Up 5 Years after Termination of a Prevention Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 65% of the original 258 children who participated in 1982–1984 in a caries prevention program involving the use of xylitol chewing gum were retrieved in 1989 for a follow-up study. Ninety-five subjects from the original xylitol (X) group and 70 subjects from the original control (no-gum, C) group were available. In 1984, when the children completed the program at

P. Isogangas; K. K. Mäkinen; J. Tiekso; P. Alanen



Dental Disease Prevalence among Methamphetamine and Poly-drug Users in an Urban Setting: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Rampant tooth decay has been reported among methamphetamine users. We investigated the prevalence of dental disease and associated risk behaviors in methamphetamine users compared to heroin users. Methods This pilot project is a cross-sectional study of an on-going cohort of young adult injection-drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco. An oral health questionnaire was administered by a research-assistant, and two dentists performed clinical examinations to record the Decayed-Missing-Filled-Surfaces (DMFS) index, presence of residual roots, the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, and salivary hypofunction. Results The prevalence of dental disease among 58 young adult IDUs was strikingly high compared to the U.S. general population, however, there was no difference in the level of dental disease between the methamphetamine and heroin users in this study. The mean DMFS and number of decayed surfaces exceeded 28 in both groups. Conclusions While no difference in dental disease between methamphetamine and heroin users was detected, we found a high prevalence of caries and caries-associated behaviors in this sample of young adult IDUs. Clinical Implications Given the high level of dental disease observed in this population of young adult IDUs, one next step may be to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of providing low-intensity preventative measures (e.g., distribution of chlorhexidine rinses, xylitol gum, application of fluoride varnishes) through outreach workers. PMID:22942146

Brown, Carolyn; Krishnan, Sumathi; Hursh, Kevin; Yu, Michelle; Johnson, Paul; Page, Kimberly; Shiboski, Caroline H.



Absorption and thermal study of dental enamel when irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the aim of caries prevention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely recognized that Nd:YAG can increase enamel resistance to demineralization; however, the safe parameters and conditions that enable the application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in vivo are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine a dye as a photoabsorber for Nd:YAG laser and to verify in vitro a safe condition of Nd:YAG irradiation for caries prevention. Fifty-eight human teeth were selected. In a first morphological study, four dyes (waterproof India ink., iron oxide, caries indicator and coal paste) were tested before Nd:YAG laser irradiation, under two different irradiation conditions: 60 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (84.9 J/cm2); 80 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz (113.1 J/cm2). In a second study, the enamel surface and pulp chamber temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiations. All dyes produced enamel surface melting, with the exception of the caries indicator, and coal paste was the only dye that could be completely removed. All irradiation conditions produced temperature increases of up to 615.08°C on the enamel surface. Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 60 mJ/pulse, 10 Hz and 84.9 J/cm2 promoted no harmful temperature increase in the pulp chamber (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Among all dyes tested, the coal paste was an efficient photoabsorber for Nd:YAG irradiation, considered feasible for clinical practice. Nd:YAG laser at 84.9 J/cm2 can be indicated as a safe parameter for use in caries prevention.

Boari, H. G. D.; Ana, P. A.; Eduardo, C. P.; Powell, G. L.; Zezell, D. M.



Dental enamel formation and its impact on clinical dentistry.  


The nature of tooth enamel is of inherent interest to dental professionals. The current-day clinical practice of dentistry involves the prevention of enamel demineralization, the promotion of enamel remineralization, the restoration of cavitated enamel where demineralization has become irreversible, the vital bleaching of dental enamel that has become discolored, and the diagnosis and treatment of developmental enamel malformations, which can be caused by environmental or genetic factors. On a daily basis, dental health providers make diagnostic and treatment decisions that are influenced by their understanding of tooth formation. A systemic condition during tooth development, such as high fever, can produce a pattern of enamel defects in the dentition. Knowing the timing of tooth development permits estimates about the timing of the disturbance. The process of enamel maturation continues following tooth eruption, so that erupted teeth can become less susceptible to decay over time. Mutations in the genes encoding enamel proteins lead to amelogenesis imperfecta, a collection of inherited diseases having enamel malformations as the predominant phenotype. Defects in the amelogenin gene cause X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta, and genes encoding other enamel proteins are candidates for autosomal forms. Here we review our current understanding of dental enamel formation, and relate this information to clinical circumstances where this understanding may be particularly relevant. PMID:11569606

Simmer, J P; Hu, J C



Cigna Dental Care DHMO Insurance  

E-print Network

Cigna Dental Care DHMO Insurance Summary Plan Description #12;Vanderbilt University CIGNA DENTAL ..............................................................................................................................................7 Dental Benefits ­ Cigna Dental Care...........................................................................................................................................................15 Dental Benefits Extension

Simaan, Nabil


Dental Hygienist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.


Diet, nutrition and the prevention of dental diseases Background paper for the Joint WHO\\/FAO Expert Consultation on diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases (Geneva, 28 January1 February 2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is related to diet in many ways, for example, nutritional influences on Q1 craniofacial development, oral cancer and oral infectious diseases. Dental diseases impact considerably on self-esteem and quality of life and are expensive to treat. The objective of this paper is to review the evidence for an association between nutrition, diet and dental diseases and to present

Paula Moynihan; Poul Erik Petersen


Seal Out Tooth Decay  


... for getting sealants is to avoid tooth decay. Fluoride in toothpaste and in drinking water protects the ... other ways to prevent tooth decay? Yes. Using fluoride toothpaste and drinking fluoridated water can help protect ...


Dental caries experience, oral health status and treatment needs of dental patients with autism  

PubMed Central

Objectives Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. Material and Methods 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females) attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. Results The autism group had a male-tofemale ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI) and Met Need Index (MNI) for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61) or fair 37.8% (23/61) oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61) of the autistic children had gingivitis. Conclusions Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism. PMID:21625735

JABER, Mohamed Abdullah



Dental Treatment Abuse  

PubMed Central

These case reports highlight dental treatment abuse performed by a quack on children. The anterior teeth of these children were metal capped using cement, which were otherwise healthy. The treatment was done on children without parental consent by a quack from Denmark who gave the reason as for resolving proclination of upper permanent incisors. The unanatomic, unaesthetic metal caps were removed after the child reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. PMID:25177645

Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Krishnan, Ramesh; Pavaskar, Rajdeep



Wireless sensor networks evaluation for heritage monitoring; in the development of decay detecting techniques for a preventive conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring systems using sensor techniques are widely used in the field of cultural heritage. In recent decades, the use of monitoring techniques involving sensors has been evolving in a wide way, because of the increasing importance they have in the observation of decay phenomena in order to establish predictive strategies to promote a preventive conservation. Wireless sensor networks, formed by a group of sensors nodes or monitoring points which have wireless communication, allow us a great number of nonexistent advantages until now since they have an easier way of installation, maintenance and fault detection versus wired networks previously used, with the costs reduction and the increase of reliability in measurement systems that this fact entails. To assess the suitability of wireless sensor networks it is necessary to take into account many factors since heritage is a very demanding field. This paper evaluates the quality of communications in various deployments of heritage interest, both architectural and natural heritage, of a competitive wireless sensor networks platform which has been subjected to different conditions of range in demanding monitoring environments. To measure the communication quality, multiple parameters for the characterization of the received signal and the links were taken into account, such as the RSSI, which measures the power level of the received signal and the percentage of correctly received messages, among others. Additionally, it will be also of relevance to achieve a long-term and low energy monitoring, since measured parameters do not undergo significant variations in short periods of study, so that the evaluation includes energy and consumption aspects of wireless sensor networks systems, establishing a final assessment methodology for this type of technology applied to the heritage monitoring field. Furthermore some design software / hardware aspects are evaluated for an appropriate validation of the system from the point of view of the end user. Research funded by Geomateriales (S2009/MAT-16), projects CGL2010-19554 and CGL2011-27902. M.I. Martínez-Garrido has been supported by a PICATA predoctoral fellowship of the Moncloa Campus of International Excellence (UPM-UCM, CSIC).

Inmaculada Martínez Garrido, María; Fort, Rafael



Subscriber's Certificate Delta Dental PPO  

E-print Network

services to prevent or detect tooth decay and other forms of oral disease. Type 2 includes services to: (i) restore decayed or fractured teeth; (ii) remove diseased or damaged natural teeth; (iii) treat oral) restore severely decayed or fractured teeth. Your group may also have purchased Supplemental Coverage

Fraden, Seth


Summary Comparison of UNM Dental Plan Options Benefit Period July 1, 2012 through June 30, 2013 Benefits administered by Delta Dental of New Mexico  

E-print Network

Summary Comparison of UNM Dental Plan Options ­ Benefit Period July 1, 2012 through June 30, 2013 Benefits administered by Delta Dental of New Mexico High Option Low Option Featuring Delta Dental Premier® Featuring Delta Dental PPOSM The Plan Pays You Pay The Plan Pays You Pay Diagnostic and Preventive Services

New Mexico, University of


Summary Comparison of UNM Dental Plan Options Benefit Period July 1, 2011 through June 30, 2012 Benefits administered by Delta Dental of New Mexico  

E-print Network

Summary Comparison of UNM Dental Plan Options ­ Benefit Period July 1, 2011 through June 30, 2012 Benefits administered by Delta Dental of New Mexico High Option Low Option Featuring Delta Dental Premier® Featuring Delta Dental PPOSM The Plan Pays You Pay The Plan Pays You Pay Diagnostic and Preventive Services

New Mexico, University of


Summary Comparison of UNM Dental Plan Options Benefit Period July 1, 2013 through June 30, 2014 Benefits administered by Delta Dental of New Mexico  

E-print Network

Summary Comparison of UNM Dental Plan Options ­ Benefit Period July 1, 2013 through June 30, 2014 Benefits administered by Delta Dental of New Mexico High Option Low Option Featuring Delta Dental Premier Featuring Delta Dental PPO The Plan Pays You Pay The Plan Pays You Pay Diagnostic and Preventive Services

New Mexico, University of


[Prevalence of dental caries among 12-year old schoolchildren in the Dakar region].  


Oral diseases are considered as major public health problem. Dental caries restricts the school activities and are the dominant cause of dental morbidity. The aims of this survey were to determine prevalence of dental caries among pupils of Dakar and to study their food habits and oral hygiene. A descriptive transversal study was conducted from February 15th to May 07th, 2011 with respect of WHO directives (protocol of 1997) readjusted to Senegalese context. Our results showed a prevalence of 41.8%; a mean DMF index of 0.644; a proportion of teeth decayed of 65%, 32.2% for missing teeth and 2.7% of filled teeth. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that snacking, consumption of sweetened drinks far from meals and brushing teeth before the meals were significantly linked to the presence of dental caries. These results showed that the state of oral health and the prevention level of dental caries among these children were not so good. A new orientation of oral health policy based on messages regarding the main etiologic factors is imperative. PMID:25223148

Benoist, F Leye; Bane, K; Aidara, A W; Ndiaye, D; Chouker, Y; Kane, A W



First Aid for Sports-Related Dental Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sports-related dental injuries are common but first aid is usually performed by non-dental personnel. This article describes basic procedures to be followed in order to diagnose the type and severity of the injury and to determine whether emergency treatment is required. Prevention of dental injuries is addressed. (Author/MT)

Castaldi, C. R.



dentAl hygiene College of Rural and Community Development  

E-print Network

dentAl hygiene College of Rural and Community Development Community and Technical College 907 The registered dental hygienist is a licensed oral health educator and clinical operator who uses preventive. The dental hygiene AAS degree is a three-year program with one year of prerequisite science and general

Hartman, Chris


[Updates on rickets and osteomalacia. dental diseases in rickets].  


Rickets is characterized by mineralization defect in bone and cartilage. X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is the most common form of inherited rickets. Mineralization defect is observed in dentin as well as in bone and cartilage in XLH. The dominant feature is the occurrence of infectious periradicular abscesses on deciduous and permanent teeth, not associated with trauma or decay. Dental care including the maintenance of good oral hygiene and periodical examinations should be performed. A preventive sealing of occlusal surfaces can be considered. Endodontic treatment or extraction are carried out in the presence of periradicular abscesses. Further studies are necessary for elucidating mechanisms of dentin mineralization defect and the occurrence of periradicular abscesses and for developing preventive and curative measures in XLH. PMID:24076649

Kubota, Takuo



Dental Training Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.


Dental education and dental practice.  

PubMed Central

This paper relates recent modes of dental practice to changes that the public and government are likely to ask the health care professions to make in the future. As usual they are asking for the best of all worlds. First, that we maintain the clinical model to the highest standards of personal dental care based and tested against the best research at our disposal, whilst we ensure there is no reduction in the high technical standards for which british dentists have a reputation. Second, that the profession is required to consider ways of providing care on the medicosocial model for the whole community at an economic level the country will afford. The broad changes in dental education have been reviewed, from the technical apprenticeship to the establishment of strong university departments in teaching hospitals. The importance of a sound biomedical foundation and of research both to education and the credibility of dental practice as a primary health care profession is stressed if the profession is to retain its position as a sister to medicine and not slide down to that of a technical ancillary. PMID:6374141

Moore, J R



The sound of dental tissue ablation as a possible parameter for conservative dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies in cariology have been struggling for the development of caries prevention techniques, precocious diagnoses of lesions, re-mineralization of incipient carious lesions and early restorative intervention with minimally invasive procedures. When removing caries, healthy dental structure is often removed inadvertently during its final phase, for being quite difficult to precise the limits between viable and decayed dental tissues clinically. With laser technologies, a subjective clinical hint, often used to indicate when tissue ablation should be stopped is that different sounds are perceptive whether in carious (bass) or in healthy (treble) dental structure; when sound produced by ablation turned treble it would mean that healthy tissue was reached. This study aims to classify those audio differences and to turn them into objective parameters for a conservative operative dentistry with minimally invasive tissue removal when using erbium lasers. Twenty freshly extracted human teeth were used (10 decayed and 10 sound teeth). Dentine was erbium laser irradiated under same parameters, distance and refrigeration and a mono directional microphone was set 10 cm far from the operative area in order to capture and record the ablation produced sounds when working either on carious or healthy dentine. Ten pulses per file were then analysed in a computer software (200 analyses). It was permitted to draw similarities among the patterns in each group (decayed and healthy teeth) as well as differences between decayed and healthy produced sounds. Audio analysis came out to be a technical reliable objective parameter to determine whether laser ablated dentine substrates are decayed or sound; therefore it can be proposed as a conservative parameter, avoiding unnecessary removal of healthy dentine and restricting it to carious one.

Robles, Fábio Renato P.; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Matos, Adriana Bona



Fast and Accurate Segmentation of Dental X-Ray Records  

E-print Network

exploited biometrics for decades as key forensic identification tools. Dental features, resist early decay tooth in order to facilitate the extraction of features (e.g., crown contour and root contour

Li, Xin


A systematic review of literature on socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of dental caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, are a disease of the oral cavity that affects the tooth structure and leads to the occurrence of cavities in teeth. Dental caries are one of the leading chronic diseases in the population and are very common in childhood. If not treated appropriately, dental caries have debilitating effect on the oral and general

Arati Bhosale



Dental occlusion and postural control in adults.  


We studied the influence of a dental occlusion perturbation on postural control. The tests were performed in three dental occlusion conditions: (Rest Position: no dental contact, Maximal Intercuspal Occlusion: maximal dental contact, and Thwarted Laterality Occlusion: simulation of a dental malocclusion) and four postural conditions: static (stable platform) and dynamic (unstable platform), with eyes open and eyes closed. A decay of postural control was noted between the Rest Position and Thwarted Laterality Occlusion conditions with regard to average speed and power indexes in dynamic conditions and with eyes closed. However, the head position and stabilization were not different from those in the other experimental conditions, which means that the same functional goal was reached with an increase in the total energetic cost. This work shows that dental occlusion differently affects postural control, depending on the static or dynamic conditions. Indeed, dental occlusion impaired postural control only in dynamic postural conditions and in absence of visual cues. The sensory information linked to the dental occlusion comes into effect only during difficult postural tasks and its importance grows as the other sensory cues become scarce. PMID:19070652

Tardieu, Corinne; Dumitrescu, Michel; Giraudeau, Anne; Blanc, Jean-Luc; Cheynet, François; Borel, Liliane



Reducing dental plaque formation and caries development. A review of current methods and implications for novel pharmaceuticals.  


Dental caries is an oral disease, which has a high worldwide prevalence despite the availability of various prophylactic means, including the daily use of fluoride toothpastes, water fluoridation, dental sealants, oral health educational programs and various antiseptic mouth-rinses. One important reason for this is uncontrolled increase in consumption of foods containing considerable sucrose concentration, especially among children. Sucrose is easily metabolized by oral bacteria (mostly streptococci) to acids and, subsequently, causing tooth decay or dental caries. In the oral ecosystem, streptococci principally reside on tooth surfaces forming biofilm. Important structural and binding materials of biofilm are glucan polymers synthesized by several isoforms of glucosyltransferase enzyme present in certain species of oral bacteria, including mutans group streptococci - Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which preferably colonize humans. Thus, there is a constant need to develop the methods and chemotherapeutics for improving oral health care and decreasing teeth decay through the suppression of cariogenic biofilm formation in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper was to review literature related to the pathogenesis of dental caries as well as currently existing and experimental pharmaceutical substances used for prevention of this process. PMID:25209226

Kalesinskas, Povilas; Ka?ergius, Tomas; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Pe?iulien?, Vytaut?; Ericson, Dan



Dental Issues & Down Syndrome  


... Associated Conditions » Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental care is important for everybody, but people ... is Different About the Teeth of People With Down Syndrome? Delayed Eruption The teeth of people with Down ...


Infant dental care (image)  


... teeth and gums which are essential to overall good health. Poor dental development, dental disease, and dental trauma can result in poor nutrition, painful and dangerous infections, problems with speech development, and problems with ...


Drug and dental impression materials  

PubMed Central

Guidelines to prevent cross contamination with infectious agents have been instituted for dental clinical and laboratory procedures. However, compliance by dental offices and clinics in disinfecting impression material has not been universal. Techniques for disinfecting impression materials are spraying or immersing impression materials. These techniques can reduce the surface detail and dimensional accuracy of impressions; most disinfectants are irritants. This study reviewed whether antimicrobial activity can be achieved by mixing certain drugs with the impression material and their effects on the disinfection are achieved through such additions. PMID:23066280

Maller, Sudhakara V.; Karthik, K. S.; Maller, Udita S.; Abraham, Mathew C.; Kumar, Rachuri Narendra; Manikandan, R.



Dental Holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten years have passed since the first articles appeared in this new field. The qualities of the laser light together with the need of contactless 3-D measurements for different dental purposes seemed to be extremely promising, but still just a few scientists have used the method and mostly for laboratory studies. For some reason there has been a preponderance for orthodontic measurements. This seems to be a bit peculiar from holographic view compared with measurements for engineering purposes, which usually are made on metals. So naturally holography can become a clinical tool for measurements in the field of fixed bridges, removable partial dentures and implants. One of the problems is that the need for holography in dental research must be fulfilled in collaboration with physicists. Only a two-way communication during an entire experiment can balance both technical and odontological demands and thus give practical and clinical important results. The need for an easy way of handling the evaluation to get all required information is another problem and of course the holographic equipment must be converted to a box easy to handle for everyone. At last the position of dental holography today is going to be carefully examined together with an attempt to look into the hopefully exciting and not to utopic future for this research field.

Dirtoft, Ingegerd



From Public Mental Health to Community Oral Health: The Impact of Dental Anxiety and Fear on Dental Status  

PubMed Central

Dental fear is a widely experienced problem. Through a “vicious cycle dynamic,” fear of dental treatment, lower use of dental services, and oral health diseases reinforce each other. Research on the antecedents of dental anxiety could help to break this cycle, providing useful knowledge to design effective community programs aimed at preventing dental fear and its oral health-related consequences. In this regard, frameworks that analyze the interplay between cognitive and psychosocial determinants of fear, such as the Cognitive Vulnerability Model, are promising. The onset of dental fear often occurs in childhood, so focusing on the child population could greatly contribute to understanding dental fear mechanisms and prevent this problem extending into adulthood. Not only can public mental health contribute to population health, but also community dentistry programs can help to prevent dental fear. Regular dental visits seem to act in a prophylactic way, with dental professionals playing an important role in the regulation of the patients’ anxiety-related responses. Both public mental health and community dentistry could therefore benefit from a multidisciplinary approach to dental fear and oral health. PMID:24616889

Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Díaz, María; Armfield, Jason M.; Romero, Martín



Application of hypno-dissociative strategies during dental treatment of patients with severe dental phobia.  


Dental phobia is a well-known condition that may prevent patients from receiving adequate dental care. Dentists offer varied methods to help their patients overcome their phobic reactions and to enable them to proceed with needed dental treatment. These methods include diverse medical and behavioral interventions that are generally intended to regulate physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional expressions of stress. Some patients with severe dental phobia together with actual or assumed traumatic background are only minimally responsive to these stress management procedures. The authors propose hypnotically induced dissociative strategies as a model of intervention for this category of dental phobic patients. The proposed model can help reduce or even suspend symptomatic behavior during dental treatment. PMID:24568324

Meyerson, Joseph; Uziel, Nir



Dental Fear among Medical and Dental Undergraduates  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the prevalence and level of dental fear among health related undergraduates and to identify factors causing such fear using Kleinknecht's Dental Fear Survey (DFS) questionnaire. Methods. Kleinknecht's DFS questionnaire was used to assess dental fear and anxiety among the entire enrollment of the medical and dental undergraduates' of the University of Malaya. Results. Overall response rate was 82.2%. Dental students reported higher prevalence of dental fear (96.0% versus 90.4%). However, most of the fear encountered among dental students was in the low fear category as compared to their medical counterpart (69.2 versus 51.2%). Significantly more medical students cancelled dental appointment due to fear compared to dental students (P = 0.004). “Heart beats faster” and “muscle being tensed” were the top two physiological responses experienced by the respondents. “Drill” and “anesthetic needle” were the most fear provoking objects among respondents of both faculties. Conclusion. Dental fear and anxiety are a common problem encountered among medical and dental undergraduates who represent future health care professionals. Also, high level of dental fear and anxiety leads to the avoidance of the dental services. PMID:25386615

Hakim, H.; Razak, I. A.



NF-?B Activation in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells by TNF and LPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-natal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) represent a unique precursor population in the dental pulp, which has multipotential and can regenerate a dentin\\/pulp-like structure. Because the dental pulp is frequently infected by oral bacteria due to dental decay, in this study, we examined whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activated the immunologic transcription factor nuclear factor kappa

J. Chang; C. Zhang; N. Tani-Ishii; S. Shi; C.-Y. Wang



Aetna Dental Plan Dental Benefits Summary  

E-print Network

, reconstructive or cosmetic surgery, or other dental services or supplies, that are primarily intended to improveAetna Dental Plan Dental Benefits Summary Active PPO With PPOII Network Participating Non% 70% Major Services 50% 40% Annual Benefit Maximum $1,000 $1,000 Office Visit Copay N/A N

Gordon, Geoffrey J.


Dental Status of New Caledonian Children: Is There a Need for a New Oral Health Promotion Programme?  

PubMed Central

Background Before implementing a new oral health promotion program in the French overseas territory of Nouvelle Calédonie, the health authorities needed recent data about dental status of the New Caledonian child population. Objectives This study aimed to describe the dental status of 6, 9 and 12-yr-old New Caledonian children and to investigate the environmental and behavioural risk factors related to oral health. Methods A randomly selected sample of 2734 children (744 6-yr-olds, 789 9-yr-olds, and 1201 12-yr-olds) was examined clinically by seven calibrated investigators and participants responded to a questionnaire. The main variables were objective criteria about dental status and subjective criteria about experience of dental care, dental fear, self-perception of oral health, cultural or ethnic identity and environmental and behavioural risk factors. Results Overall, most of the children had infectious oral diseases: more than 50% had gingivitis, and 60% of 6- and 9 yr-olds had at least one deciduous or permanent tooth with untreated caries. The mean 12-yr-old number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT) was 2.09±2.82. The number of carious lesions was related to the unfavourable lifestyle, deprived social status and no preventive dental care. Kanak, Polynesians and Caledonians (respectively 27%, 18% and 45% of the study sample) were more affected by caries than metropolitan French and Asian children. Children with many untreated carious lesions had negative perceptions of their oral health; they complained of chewing difficulty and had higher scores for dental anxiety. Conclusion This study highlights the need for new strategies aimed at improving oral health and at reducing inequalities in New Caledonia. An oral health promotion program would need to be developed in connection with other health programmes using the common risk factor approach within the context of the local environment. PMID:25380304

Pichot, Hélène; Hennequin, Martine; Rouchon, Bernard; Pereira, Bruno; Tubert-Jeannin, Stéphanie



The Effects of Finger Rest Positions on Hand Muscle Load and Pinch Force in Simulated Dental Hygiene Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the techniques taught in dental and dental hygiene programs is to use finger rests to stabilize the instrument while performing dental scaling or other types of dental work. It is believed that finger rests may also reduce muscle stress and prevent injury due to muscle fatigue. In this study the effects of three different finger rest positions on

Hui Dong; Alan Barr; Peter Loomer; David Rempel


Delta Dental PPO Our national  

E-print Network

Delta Dental PPO Our national Point-of-Service program University of Michigan Dental Plan Welcome! Delta Dental Plan of Michigan, Inc. is a nonprofit dental care corporation, doing business as Delta Dental of Michigan. Delta Dental of Michigan is the state's dental benefits specialist. Good oral health

Daly, Samantha


Dental education in Colombia.  


This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

Jaramillo, Jorge A; Pulido, Jairo H Ternera; Castro Núñez, Jaime A; Bird, William F; Komabayashi, Takashi



Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I)  

PubMed Central

In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces. This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century. PMID:20617066

Usha, Carounanidy; R, Sathyanarayanan



Bienvenidos a Columbia Dental: En Columbia Dental estamos comprometidos en proveerle con cuidado dental de altura.  

E-print Network

Bienvenidos a Columbia Dental: En Columbia Dental estamos comprometidos en proveerle con cuidado dental de altura. Columbia Dental le ofrece una amplia variedad de servicios dentales en todos nuestros departamentos especializados, incluyendo Implantes Dentales. Su primera cita en Columbia Dental será con un

Grishok, Alla


Emerging technologies for diagnosis of dental caries: The road so far  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now universally recognized that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental decay at an early stage of formation could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction in the time required for clinical trials of anticaries agents. The use of technologies as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technologies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting dental caries at the earliest stage of its formation, assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion, and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time. The need and the importance of these technologies were also discussed. The data discussed are primarily based on published scientific studies and reviews from case reports, clinical trials, and in vitro and in vivo studies. References have been traced manually by MEDLINE® or through manufacturer's websites. While some of the devices are fully developed and commercially available, others are still under development. The devices vary in their modes of action as well as their capability as caries diagnostic aids. It is clear that the differences in caries presentations and behavior in different anatomical sites make it unlikely that any one diagnostic modality will have adequate sensitivity and specificity of detection of carious lesions for all sites; a combination of diagnostic tools will help us diagnose lesions earlier and detect failing restorations sooner, all to avoid more costly, destructive dental procedures and truly take dentistry into the preventive rather than the reactive mode.

Amaechi, Bennett T.



The FiCTION dental trial protocol - filling children's teeth: indicated or not?  

PubMed Central

Background There is a lack of evidence for effective management of dental caries (decay) in children’s primary (baby) teeth and an apparent failure of conventional dental restorations (fillings) to prevent dental pain and infection for UK children in Primary Care. UK dental schools’ teaching has been based on British Society of Paediatric Dentistry guidance which recommends that caries in primary teeth should be removed and a restoration placed. However, the evidence base for this is limited in volume and quality, and comes from studies conducted in either secondary care or specialist practices. Restorations provided in specialist environments can be effective but the generalisability of this evidence to Primary Care has been questioned. The FiCTION trial addresses the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme’s commissioning brief and research question “What is the clinical and cost effectiveness of restoration caries in primary teeth, compared to no treatment?” It compares conventional restorations with an intermediate treatment strategy based on the biological (sealing-in) management of caries and with no restorations. Methods/Design This is a Primary Care-based multi-centre, three-arm, parallel group, patient-randomised controlled trial. Practitioners are recruiting 1461 children, (3–7 years) with at least one primary molar tooth where caries extends into dentine. Children are randomized and treated according to one of three treatment approaches; conventional caries management with best practice prevention, biological management of caries with best practice prevention or best practice prevention alone. Baseline measures and outcome data (at review/treatment during three year follow-up) are assessed through direct reporting, clinical examination including blinded radiograph assessment, and child/parent questionnaires. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of either pain or infection related to dental caries. Secondary outcomes are; incidence of caries in primary and permanent teeth, patient quality of life, cost-effectiveness, acceptability of treatment strategies to patients and parents and their experiences, and dentists’ preferences. Discussion FiCTION will provide evidence for the most clinically-effective and cost-effective approach to managing caries in children’s primary teeth in Primary Care. This will support general dental practitioners in treatment decision making for child patients to minimize pain and infection in primary teeth. The trial is currently recruiting patients. Trial registration Protocol ID: NCTU: ISRCTN77044005 PMID:23725316



Dental anxiety and fear: relationship with oral health behavior in a Turkish population.  


The aim of this study was to assess fear and anxiety in dental patients. Five hundred patients were evaluated using the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and the Dental Fear Scale, along with a questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed using the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT)/Decayed, Missing, and Filled Surfaces (DMFS) index. Statistic al analysis was performed (P < .05). Sex significantly affected dental anxiety (P < .05), and sex, marital status, having children, and time elapsed since last visit to clinician affected dental fear (P < .05). DMFT/DMFS scores were not related to dental anxiety or fear (P > .05). Female sex alone was a significant predictor of dental anxiety; female sex, adulthood, marriage, having children, and time passed since last visit to a clinician are significant predictors of fear. PMID:24392477

Yüzügüllü, Bulem; Gül?ahi, Ayse; Celik, Cigdem; Bulut, Sule



The relationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysian adolescents: a latent variable approach  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the role of geography (place of residence) as a moderator in the relationship between dental caries disease and treatment experience and dental fear in 16-year-olds living in Malaysia. Methods A multi-stage-stratified sampling method was employed. Five hundred and three, 16-year-olds from 6 government secondary schools participated in this study. The questionnaire examined participants’ demographic profile and assessed their dental fear using the Dental Fear Survey (DFS). The clinical examination consisted of the DMFT as the outcome measure of dental caries disease and treatment experience by a single examiner (ICC?=?0.98). Structural equation modelling inspected the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience. Results The mean DMFT was 2.76 (SD 3.25). The DT, MT and FT components were 0.64 (SD 1.25), 0.14 (SD 0.56) and 1.98 (SD 2.43) respectively. Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly greater mean numbers of decayed and missing teeth. The mean DFS score was 40.8 (SD 12.4). Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores for physical symptoms of dental fear. The correlation between dental fear (DFS) and dental caries disease and treatment experience (DMFT) was 0.29, p?dental caries disease and treatment experience. The strength of the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience varied in accordance with place of residence. Conclusion In conclusion a relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience was shown to exist in 16-year-old adolescents living in Malaysia. This study showed that the rural–urban dichotomy acted as a moderator upon this relationship. PMID:24621226



Dental School Research Strategy 2014  

E-print Network

Dental School Research Strategy 2014 #12;#12;Dental SchoolInternationalisationagendathroughthedevelopmentofglobal collaborationsandrecruitmentofoverseaspostgraduateresearchstudents. The Dental School research strategy and activity will be delivered by two subgroups: � Community

Guo, Zaoyang


Dental management of patients with epidermolysis bullosa.  


Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB) is a group of rare, genetic skin disorders characterized by fragility and blistering to minimal trauma. All oral surfaces may be involved, including the tongue, buccal mucosa, palate, floor of the mouth and gingiva. Common oral findings of the disease include microstomia, intraoral ulcerations and bullae formation, ankyloglossia, tongue atrophy, elimination of buccal and vestibular sulci, lingual depapillation and atrophy of the palatal folds. In these case reports; systemic findings, oral manifestations and preventive measures are described for 3 patients with EB, all of whom required extensive oral management. Early dental management and preventive care to minimize caries development and improve oral health is very important for patients with EB. Pediatric dentists play an especially important role in early intervention. In describing the dental management of three EB cases, this article stresses the importance of an aggressive dental preventive programme with strict oral hygiene instructions for patients and parents along with frequent professional cleaning and fluoride therapy. PMID:25284524

Dag, Canan; Bezgin, Tugba; Ozalp, Nurhan



Dental plaque - associated infections and antibacterial oral hygiene products.  


Synopsis Dental plaque accumulates on hard non-shedding surfaces such as teeth, dentures and orthodontic appliances. This accumulation is facilitated by the absence of adequate oral hygiene procedures. The term 'plaque' describes a mass of microorganisms embedded in an organic matrix of host and microbial origin. In addition to the aesthetic desirability of 'clean teeth, healthy gums and fresh breath' associated with the absence of plaque, obvious consequences of the presence of plaque include tooth decay (dental caries), gingivitis and periodontal (gum) disease and denture associated problems. Thus the prevention of plaque formation, the reduction of plaque accumulation and the effective removal of plaque are considerations of the cosmetic and health professions alike. There are many oral hygiene products available to the general public - toothpastes, mouthwashes, denture cleaners, and, more recently, chewing gums and novel mouthwashes. Several of these products have antimicrobial components. This paper reviews the microbiology of plaque and plaque associated problems, and surveys the type of products currently available for maintenance of good oral hygiene. Potential areas for future development are also explored. PMID:19291039

Verran, J



Dental and Periodontal Health Status of Beta Thalassemia Major and Sickle Cell Anemic Patients: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: This study aimed to assess the dental and periodontal health status of beta thalassemia major and sickle cell anemic patients in Bilaspur, Chattishgarh, India. Materials & Methods: A total of 750 patients were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups I (n=250), II (n=250) and III (n=250), ranging from 3-15 years. After performing a thourough general examination, including their demographic data, intraoral examination was done using Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth Index (DMFT Index), Plaque index (PI) and Gingival index (GI). Statistical analysis was done using statistical software SPSS 17.5 version. Chi square test & student t test was used for the comparison of study and control groups. The level of significance was set at P<0.05. Results: In the present study, it was found that, prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases was significantly more in beta thalassemic patients followed by sickle cell anemic patients than control group. However, when group I (beta thalassemia) was compared with group II (sickle cell anemia), results were found to highly significant (P<0.001) only for decayed missing filled tooth. Conclusion: Appropriate dental and periodontal care improves a patient's quality of life. Preventive dental care is must for thalassemic and Sickle cell disease patients. How to cite this article: Singh J, Singh N, Kumar A, Kedia NB, Agarwal A. Dental and Periodontal Health Status of Beta Thalassemia Major and Sickle Cell Anemic Patients: A Comparative Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):53-8. PMID:24324305

Singh, Jaideep; Singh, Nitin; Kumar, Amit; Kedia, Neal Bharat; Agarwal, Anil



75 FR 33169 - Dental Devices: Classification of Dental Amalgam, Reclassification of Dental Mercury, Designation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Dental Amalgam, Reclassification of Dental Mercury, Designation of Special Controls for Dental Amalgam, Mercury, and Amalgam Alloy; Technical Amendment...class II device, reclassified dental mercury from class I to class II, and...



Some thoughts on dental malpractice.  


Malpractice litigation is not new nor is it limited to the professions of medicine and dentistry. The number of dental malpractice claims is increasing in many countries though the percentage of cases in which the patient succeeds remains constant at about ten to twelve per cent. In successful cases however the monetary compensation awarded has increased substantially in the past few years. The increasing use of multi-chair dental offices and the employment of more auxiliary workers in dental practice may have contributed to the increase in litigation as has the widespread dissemination of knowledge of patients' rights by newspapers and television. It is unfair to blame the legal profession for this increase. There is evidence that the 'contingent fee' arrangement between plantiff and lawyer contributes to the number of cases brought. It has been suggested that the existence of malpractice insurance may make the dentist less careful to prevent untoward effects of dental treatment. In many states the law will not permit punitive damages to be paid by the insurance agency nor are fines imposed for criminal activities covered. It is important that the dentist should be fully informed about the details of the cover which his insurance does in fact provide. PMID:1067226

Morris, W O



Influence of private practice employment of dental therapists in Saskatchewan on the future supply of dental therapists in Canada.  


The profession of dental therapy has long been held up as a model for reducing access to care barriers in high-risk, underserved populations worldwide. Dental therapists practice in many countries delivering preventive and basic restorative care to children and adults. In North America, dental therapy education and practice date back to 1972 with the establishment of training programs at the National School of Dental Therapy in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, and the Wascana Institute of Applied Arts and Science in Regina, Saskatchewan, as a means of reducing access to care barriers in Canada's northern territories and to implement the Saskatchewan Health Dental Plan, respectively. At present, dental therapy in North America has reached a crossroads: in the United States, the profession is cautiously being explored as a solution for improving access to care in at-risk populations. In 2011, Canada's sole training program, the National School of Dental Therapy in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, closed when the federal government eliminated its funding. This article examines the impact of private practice employment of dental therapists in Saskatchewan on the supply of dental therapist human resources for health in Canada's three northern territories (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon), its role in the closure of the National School of Dental Therapy in 2011, and ramifications for the future of dental therapy in Canada. PMID:22855596

Uswak, Gerry; Keller-Kurysh, Emory



Nutrition Program Boosts Dental Health of Orange County Migrant Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Orange County, California, 76 migrant preschool children and 45 parents participated in a 7-week pilot program concerned with preventing dental disease by encouraging good dental habits and healthy food choices. Parent questionnaires revealed that the most remarkable program-related change was a decrease in consumption of sugary foods for over…

Cotter, Anne; And Others



Dental management of patients irradiated for head and neck cancer.  


Patients undergoing radiation therapy as either primary, adjuvant, combination therapy or palliative management of head and neck malignancies are prone to a range of dental complications. Strategies for prevention and management of such complications may be controversial. This article aims to highlight the current understanding and management of the dental needs for patients before, during and after radiation therapy. PMID:24495127

Beech, N; Robinson, S; Porceddu, S; Batstone, M



The effectiveness of electronic dental anesthesia in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the effectiveness of traditional local anesthesia with a Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation unit that controls pain via electronic dental anesthesia for restorative dental procedures in 6- to 12-year-old children. The sample included 27 children who had two antimere teeth that required restorations of similar size (preventive resin restorations). In each case, the cavity preparation extended into dentin.

Jane Jakobsen


dental materials 2 5 ( 2 0 0 9 ) 520525 available at  

E-print Network

dental materials 2 5 ( 2 0 0 9 ) 520­525 available at journal homepage: www. Manesh, R.O. Ritchieb , Daniel Frieda a Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences strength of dentin. © 2008 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1

Ritchie, Robert


Simple Steps to Better Dental Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Simple Steps to Better Dental Health is a joint project of the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine and the health insurance company, Aetna. The site serves as "an independent consumer dental portal," offering loads of nicely presented Web pages on just about anything youâÂÂd ever want to know about dental health. The content falls into three main sections: Prevent Problems, Understanding Conditions, and Explore Treatments. The site is bursting with interactive tools and easy-to-understand diagrams, and also includes a section just for kids. From head and neck anatomy to cosmetic dentistry to your basic cavity, this Web site is a fantastically comprehensive resource that would be worth bookmarking for future reference.



Association of dental and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. A retrospective case controlled study  

PubMed Central

Introduction To assess the association of oral hygiene, dental caries, and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Material and methods A retrospective case-control study on 81 patients treated for neoplasms with bone metastases. Twenty-nine patients with bone necrosis and 52 controls treated with bisphosphonates were compared using the Oral Hygiene Index, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth, Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs, and Residual Periodontal Bone. The null hypothesis stated that there was no difference in parameters of oral health between patients with and without bone necrosis. Differences of means of above-mentioned variables were compared between the groups with Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney rank sum test and ?2 test. Value of p ? 0.05 was considered significant. Results Poorer oral hygiene (OHIs 1.94 vs. 1.32; p = 0.065), more advanced dental caries (DMFT 26.85 vs. 22.87; p = 0.05), and more advanced periodontal disease (CPITN: = 0: 21.05% vs. 42.51%; = 1 13.16% vs. 7.29%; = 2: 0% vs. 15.38%; = 3: 65.79% vs. 28.34%; = 4: 0% vs. 6.48%, Residual periodontal bone 73.1% vs. 80.51%; p = 0,001) were characteristic of patients with bisphosphonate related jaw necrosis when compared with control group. An advanced dental caries or periodontal disease required surgical intervention which directly contributed to the development of the bone necrosis. Conclusions Dental and periodontal disease can lead to bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oncologic patients treated with bisphosphonates should be offered preventive care to reduce dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, and periodontal disease. PMID:24701224



Dental education in Mexico.  


The aim of this article is to provide information about dental education in Mexico, including its history, the dental school system, curriculum and dental licensure. In 1977, there were only 59 Mexican dental schools; however, there were 83 schools registered in the last official national count in 2007. Forty-one dental schools are public, and the other 42 are private. Every year the number of private dental schools increases. Admission to dental schools in Mexico requires a high school diploma. All classes are conducted in Spanish. To obtain licensure in Mexico, dental students must complete a 3 to 5-year program plus a year of community service. No formal nationwide standard clinical/didactic curriculum exists in Mexico. There are approximately 153,000 dentists in Mexico, a number that increases each year. The dentist-patient ratio is approximately 1:700. However, the high percentage of inactive licensed dentists in Mexico points to a serious problem. PMID:24984634

Masuoka, David; Komabayashi, Takashi; Reyes-Vela, Enrique



Finding Dental Care  


... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral ...


Global burden of dental condition among children in nine countries participating in an international oral health promotion programme, 2012-2013.  


The Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2 programme is a unique global partnership between FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever Oral Care which aims to provide measurable improvement of oral health on a global scale through encouraging twice-daily brushing with a fluoride toothpaste. It was based on international recommendations using the principles of health promotion within school for the implementation of preventive health strategies. This paper is an overview of the dental caries condition of children from 2012 to 2013 in nine countries included in four World Health Organisation (WHO) regions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in each country before the implementation of health-promotion measures focused on twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. The sample was based on stratified sampling according to the WHO pathfinder recommendations. From a total of 7,949 children examined, there were 517 children (1-2 years of age), 1,667 preschool children (3-5 years of age) and 5,789 schoolchildren (6-13 years of age). The prevalence and severity of primary dental caries, early childhood caries and temporary dental caries were described using decayed, filled teeth (dft), permanent decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) indices and the significant caries index (SCI). The major findings were a high prevalence of caries, identification of high-risk groups and inequality in the distribution of the severity of dental conditions. Aggregated data from this overview should provide justification for implementing an oral health programme. The main point is the need to retain and expand the community fluoridation programme as an effective preventive measure. At the individual level, the aggregated data identify the need for more targeted efforts to reach children early - especially among specific high-risk groups. PMID:25209648

Bourgeois, Denis M; Llodra, Juan Carlos



Dental Reimbursement Request Form Please submit to: Office of Student Health Benefits, 410 Church Street S.E., N323, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Fax: 612-626-5183 or 1-800-624-9881.  

E-print Network

Dental Reimbursement Request Form Please submit to: Office of Student Health Benefits, 410 Church preventative dental work (such as a routine cleaning) performed outside of Boynton Health Service Dental Clinic not receive free preventive treatment at Boynton Health Service Dental Clinic during the plan year. To request

Weiblen, George D



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Dental Laboratory Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.


Dental Anxiety and Phobia  


What Is Dental Anxiety and Phobia? Causes of Dental Anxiety and Phobia Symptoms Some people don't look forward to dental appointments any ... stressed. Most people can live with having some anxiety about going to the dentist. For those with ...


Gaps in Prevention and Treatment: Dental Care for Low-Income Children. New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families, Series B, No. B-15. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using estimates drawn from the 1997 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF), this brief examines variations in the receipt of dental care services and in unmet need for dental care across different subgroups of children aged 3 and over, both nationally and across 13 states. The NSAF is a household survey that provides information on more than…

Kenney, Genevieve M.; Ko, Grace; Ormond, Barbara A.


Dental complications of rickets in early childhood: case report on 2 young girls.  


Vitamin D is an essential hormone for calcium gut absorption. It is also involved in child growth, cancer prevention, immune system responses, and tooth formation. Due to inadequate vitamin D intake and/or decreased sunlight exposure, vitamin D deficiency has resurfaced in developed countries despite known inexpensive and effective preventive methods. Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of rickets, a condition that affects bone development in children and that can have serious dental complications. Deficiency during pregnancy can cause enamel hypoplasia of primary teeth. Enamel regeneration is currently impossible; hypoplasia is therefore irreversible, and once affected, teeth are prone to fast caries development. Deficiency during early childhood can affect permanent teeth and ensuing caries can sometimes lead to tooth loss at a young age. Oral manifestations of rickets should be diagnosed early by both physicians and dentists to prevent severe dental complications. This case study presents 2 young girls with rickets in early childhood who suffered from subsequent serious tooth decay. PMID:24616355

Davit-Béal, Tiphaine; Gabay, Julie; Antoniolli, Pauline; Masle-Farquhar, Jeanne; Wolikow, Maryse




E-print Network

MONTHLY DENTAL RATES for Retirees Effective 7/1/2012 - 6/30/2013 UNDER 65 Dental Rates Delta Dental.00 $17.00 Family $40.00 $14.00 $35.00 $19.00 $29.00 $25.00 Delta Dental Premier (High Option) Annualized.00 $69.00 $59.00 OVER 65 Dental Rates Delta Dental PPO (Low Option) Delta Dental Premier (High Option

New Mexico, University of


ORIGINAL ARTICLES Dietary and Social Characteristics of Children with Severe Tooth Decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims Dental decay remains a major public health problem in Scottish children. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between diet, bowel habit, social class, and body mass index (BMI) in children with severe tooth decay. Children and Methods A cross sectional study of 165 children aged 3 -11 years attending Glasgow Dental Hospital for

FL Cameron; LT Weaver; CM Wright; RR Welbury


University of New Mexico Dental Plans Administered by Delta Dental  

E-print Network

University of New Mexico Dental Plans Administered by Delta Dental Delta Dental Premier® Delta Dental PPOSM · The broadest selection of dentists ­ over 370 points of access in the Albuquerque Metro. · Plan contributions structured to make Delta Dental quality more affordable. · Over 180 dentists

New Mexico, University of


Seattle Pacific University Washington Dental Service, a Delta Dental Plan  

E-print Network

Seattle Pacific University Washington Dental Service, a Delta Dental Plan Plan No. 00333 Effective your dental benefits plan, you may call: Washington Dental Service Customer Service (206) 522-2300 (800) 554-1907 Written inquiries may be sent to: Washington Dental Service Customer Service Department P

Nelson, Tim



E-print Network

1 BALTIMORE COLLEGE OF DENTAL SURGERY DENTAL SCHOOL UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND Technical Standards for Admission and Matriculation The mission of the Dental School is " improve the quality of life dental, oral, and craniofacial health." To facilitate the achievement of its mission, the Dental School

Weber, David J.


Dental x-ray image segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Law enforcement agencies have been exploiting biometric identifiers for decades as key tools in forensic identification. With the evolution in information technology and the huge volume of cases that need to be investigated by forensic specialists, it has become important to automate forensic identification systems. While, ante mortem (AM) identification, that is identification prior to death, is usually possible through comparison of many biometric identifiers, postmortem (PM) identification, that is identification after death, is impossible using behavioral biometrics (e.g. speech, gait). Moreover, under severe circumstances, such as those encountered in mass disasters (e.g. airplane crashers) or if identification is being attempted more than a couple of weeks postmortem, under such circumstances, most physiological biometrics may not be employed for identification, because of the decay of soft tissues of the body to unidentifiable states. Therefore, a postmortem biometric identifier has to resist the early decay that affects body tissues. Because of their survivability and diversity, the best candidates for postmortem biometric identification are the dental features. In this paper we present an over view about an automated dental identification system for Missing and Unidentified Persons. This dental identification system can be used by both law enforcement and security agencies in both forensic and biometric identification. We will also present techniques for dental segmentation of X-ray images. These techniques address the problem of identifying each individual tooth and how the contours of each tooth are extracted.

Said, Eyad; Fahmy, Gamal F.; Nassar, Diaa; Ammar, Hany



Dental Erosion in Industry  

PubMed Central

Five hundred and fifty-five acid workers were examined between March 1962 and October 1964. One hundred and seventy-six (31·7%) were affected by industrial dental erosion at the first examinations. In 33 cases (6·0%) the dentine was affected. During the period of the survey, 66 (20·4%) of 324 workers examined more than once showed evidence that erosion was progressing. The prevalence and incidence of erosion were highest among battery formation workers, lower among picklers, and least among other processes covered by the survey. The age of workers did not appear to influence their susceptibility to erosion. The habit of working with the lips slightly parted had little effect. Erosion superimposed upon attrition predisposed to more severe loss of tooth structure than either operating alone. Little inconvenience or functional disability was suffered by acid workers due to erosion. Twenty-seven (23·7%) of 114 erosions were considered to be disfiguring. Regular dental treatment was sought less by acid workers than by controls, and the oral hygiene of the latter was superior. There was no evidence to show any difference between caries experience among acid workers and controls. Calculus and periodontal disease were more prevalent among acid workers than among controls, but it was not possible to attribute this to the working environment. Black staining in iron picklers was considered to be due to the working environment. The use of closed acid containers or lip extraction on open acid vats prevented significant atmospheric contamination and diminished the prevalence of erosion. The use of wall fans and detergent foaming agents was helpful. Images PMID:5723349

Cate, H. J. Ten Bruggen



Recent Developments in the Study of Dental Caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chief consideration in a study of this kind is obviously the prevention of the disease in question. Effective preventive measures, however, must be based upon a full knowledge of the factors involved in the production of the disease. Unfortunately, at the present time there are certain missing links in the evidence concerning the etiology of dental caries which prevent

Russell W. Bunting



Harvard Medical School Harvard Dental School  

E-print Network

Harvard Medical School Harvard Dental School Harvard School of Public Health Delivering Effective Feedback Prevention: Set your expectations at the start. Make sure they're clear, consistent: Consider when to have the conversation; set aside enough/uninterruptible time where to have conversation

Paulsson, Johan


Operations Handbook for Migrant Student Dental Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Migrant Education and the Superintendent of Public Instruction in the state of Washington have brought several agencies together to provide low cost dental services to migrant children. The program, initiated in 1980 and serving 138 children that year, has focused on the provision of preventative and emergency services. Migrant Education has…

Hansen, William E.; Resendez, Ignacio V.


Strategies for Combating Dental Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental anxiety and subsequent avoidance of dental care and deterioration of oral health pose a significant problem for the dental profession. In an attempt to elucidate preferences of anxious dental patients, we gathered survey data from 121 persons at a small, private liberal arts college in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Half of the respondents experienced dental anxiety,

Lyndsay C. Bare; Lauren Dundes


Evaluation of Dental Fear in Children during Dental Visit using Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Fear of dental treatment in children has been recognized as a source of serious health problems and it may persist into adolescence, which may lead to a disruptive behavior, during dental treatment. In order to prevent this psychometric method namely the dental subscale of the children's fear survey schedule (CFSS-DS) is a well-known psychometric scale that was developed by Cuthbert and Melamed in 1982 for assessing dental fear in children. The present study was to evaluate dental fear in children during first dental visit using CFSS-DS between three different age group 4 and 6 years, 7 and 9 years, 10 and 14 years children to select fearful and nonfearful children from a larger reference population and to estimate the dental fear children. Total 600 children show CFSS-DS of 27.17 ± 5.3385, 307 were girls (51.17%) and they showed CFSS-DS of 27.50 ± 5.060 and 293 were boys (48.83%) and they show CFSS-DS 26.84 ± 5.617. This shows that there were no significant difference in fear between boys and girls. In 4 to 6 years show total CFSS-DS 28.78 ± 5.742, 7 to 9 years show that mean and standard deviation of CFSS-DS 27.81 ± 4.783, 10 to 14 years show that mean and standard deviation of CFSS-DS 25.93 ± 5.586. Fear scores were highest for ‘injections', ‘choking', ‘noise of dentist drilling', ‘dentist drilling which was not significant between boy's and girl's but item, ‘having somebody look at you’ showed that significant differences in fear scores between boys and girls in present study. The present study concluded that dental fear decreased as age increased. Total fear scores also exhibited no strong overall sex difference or age by sex interaction. d> Raj S, Agarwal M, Aradhya K, Konde S, Nagakishore V. Evaluation of Dental Fear in Children during Dental Visit using Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):12-15. PMID:25206180

Agarwal, Manisha; Aradhya, Kiran; Konde, Sapna; Nagakishore, V



Relation between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re- ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions. Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di- agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re- corded. A food frequency table was completed

T. Malek Mohammadi; A. Hajizamani


Delta Dental PPO Plus Premier  

E-print Network

months. Bitewing X-rays Once every 6 months. Single Tooth X-rays As needed. Preventive 100% 100% Teeth of primary or permanent anterior teeth. Sealants Unrestored permanent molars, every 4 years per tooth a recent cavity and are at risk for decay. Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse This is a covered benefit only when

Fraden, Seth


Case based dental radiology.  


Dental radiology is quickly becoming integral to the standard of care in veterinary dentistry. This is not only because it is critical for proper patient care, but also because client expectations have increased. Furthermore, providing dental radiographs as a routine service can create significant practice income. This article details numerous conditions that are indications for dental radiographs. As you will see, dental radiographs are often critical for proper diagnosis and treatment. These conditions should not be viewed as unusual; they are present within all of our practices. When you choose not to radiograph these teeth, you leave behind painful pathology. Utilizing the knowledge gained from dental radiographs will both improve patient care and increase acceptance of treatment recommendations. Consequently, this leads to increased numbers of dental procedures performed at your practice. PMID:19410233

Niemiec, Brook A



Corrosion of Dental Amalgam  

Microsoft Academic Search

DENTAL amalgam is incorporated into about 80% of all dental restorations. It is prepared by grinding or triturating a silver-tin alloy (Ag3Sn, the gamma phase) with mercury in the proportions 1 : 1 or 5 : 6 of alloy to mercury. The setting reaction of dental amalgam has been studied by many workers1-4 and is now accepted to be Excess

J. A. von Fraunhofer; P. J. Staheli



Dental conditions. Final rule.  


The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as a final rule the proposal to amend its adjudication regulations regarding service connection of dental conditions for treatment purposes. This amendment clarifies that principles governing determinations by VA's Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) for service connection of dental conditions for the purpose of establishing eligibility for dental treatment by VA's Veterans Health Administration (VHA), apply only when VHA requests information or a rating from VBA for those purposes. This amendment also clarifies existing regulatory provisions and reflects the respective responsibilities of VHA and VBA in determinations concerning eligibility for dental treatment. PMID:22359800



Dental Implant Systems  

PubMed Central

Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktoren, Oya; Gencay, Koray



Dental Status and Associated Factors in a Dentate Adult Population in Bulgaria: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to determine variations in the dental status of a dentate adult population in terms of “decayed,” “missing,” and “filled” teeth in relation to several sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Quota sampling was used to draw 2531 subjects aged 20 years and over. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and an oral examination. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to observe associations between “decayed,” “missing,” and “filled” teeth and the factors of interest. The mean numbers of “decayed,” “missing,” and “filled” teeth were 2.2, 6.7, and 4.9, respectively. Molar teeth were significantly more often “missing” than premolar and anterior teeth. Age, gender, education, and tooth brushing revealed most noticeable associations. Increasing age was associated with a lower chance of having “decayed” and “filled” teeth, but with a higher chance of having “missing” teeth. Females were more likely to have “missing” and “filled” teeth. Higher education was associated with a lower chance of having “missing” teeth. More frequent tooth brushing was associated with a lower chance of having “decayed” and “missing” teeth, but with a higher chance of having “filled” teeth. These risk indicators should be considered in prevention program planning if reduction of tooth loss is to be achieved. PMID:22654908

Damyanov, Nikola D.; Witter, Dick J.; Bronkhorst, Ewald M.; Creugers, Nico H. J.



[Cause of secondary caries and prevention].  


Secondary caries is a disease that occurs on the tooth after the filling has been used for a period of time. Secondary caries is also the main reason for the replacement of dental restorations. Regardless of the material used for fillings, secondary caries cannot be completely avoided. The proportion of secondary caries is very high after filling in permanent teeth or primary teeth. Secondary caries mainly occurs because of the formation of micro cracks after filling. When the micro crack width exceeds 50 microm, saliva will enter the micro cracks between the filling and tooth tissue. The cariogenic bacteria in the saliva will grow when the environment of micro cracks is appropriate, thereby producing secondary caries. The prevention of secondary caries includes micro crack control, fluoride use, teeth cleaning, tooth decay and gum disease treatment, and regular checkups. PMID:24881200

Feng, Xiping



Arresting rampant dental caries with silver diamine fluoride in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease post-bone marrow transplantation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Rampant caries is an advanced and severe dental disease that affects multiple teeth. This case describes the management of rampant caries in a young teenager suffering from chronic oral graft versus host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Case presentation A 14-year-old Chinese boy suffering from ?–thalassemia major was referred to the dental clinic for the management of rampant dental caries. An oral examination revealed pale conjunctiva, bruising of lips, and depapillation of tongue indicating an underlying condition of anemia. The poor oral condition due to topical and systemic immunosuppressants was seriously aggravated, and rampant caries developed rapidly, affecting all newly erupted, permanent teeth. The teeth were hypersensitive and halitosis was apparent. Strategies for oral health education and diet modification were given to the patient. Xylitol chewing gum was used to stimulate saliva flow to promote remineralization of teeth. Silver diamine fluoride was topically applied to arrest rampant caries and to relieve pain from hypersensitivity. Carious teeth with pulpal involvement were endodontically treated. Stainless steel crowns were provided on molars to restore chewing function, and polycarbonate crowns were placed on premolars, upper canines and incisors. Conclusion This case report demonstrates success in treating a young teenager with severe rampant dental decay by contemporary caries control and preventive strategy. PMID:24383434



Dental Laboratory Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.


Information for Students Interested in Dental Medicine Dental Careers  

E-print Network

Information for Students Interested in Dental Medicine Dental Careers · Dentists may have a variety disease, and teach and perform research. · Over 80% are general practitioners while about 20% are dental specialists who limit their practices to one of the nine recognized dental specialty areas. · Although most

Wolfe, Patrick J.


SCHOOL OF DENTAL HYGIENE Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene  

E-print Network

SCHOOL OF DENTAL HYGIENE Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene Degree Completion Program Applicant are seeking admission to studies leading to the Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene, (BScDH) with a description of the selection procedures for the School of Dental Hygiene at the University of Manitoba

Major, Arkady


Endotoxin contamination in the dental surgery.  


Dental waterlines contain large numbers of Gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin, a component of such organisms, has significant health implications. Paired samples of dental unit water and the aerosols generated during dental procedures were collected, and assayed for bacteria and endotoxin levels, using heterotrophic plate counts and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test. Consistent with published studies, the extent of bacterial contamination in the dental waters sampled for this investigation surpassed the levels associated with potable water, with counts in excess of 2.0x10(6) c.f.u. ml(-1) in some samples. Correspondingly high concentrations of endotoxin [up to 15 000 endotoxin units (EU) ml(-1)] were present in the water. A statistically significant Spearman correlation coefficient of rho=0.94 between endotoxin (EU ml(-1)) and bacterial load (c.f.u. ml(-1)) was demonstrated. All of the aerosol samples contained detectable endotoxin. Further studies of the consequences of dental endotoxin exposure, and evaluation of means to prevent exposure, are warranted. PMID:17761488

Huntington, M K; Williams, J F; Mackenzie, C D




Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the dental caries experience and knowledge on the causes and preventive measures for dental diseases. Design: A community based cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Elwak sub-district hospital, North Eastern Province, Kenya. Subjects: One hundred and forty one adults who presented themselves during a dental check up at a sub-district hospital and gave written consent. Main outcome measures: Dental



Dental health education for the mentally and physically handicapped.  


Dental disease is one of the most common health problems of Americans. It is one of the many health problems that handicapped children have in common with their non-handicapped peers. Research indicates that handicapped children have significantly more decayed and missing teeth than non-handicapped students. Methods of improving the dental health of handicapped children were explored. These methods included teacher education, development of special instruments, development of a directory of dentists who would treat the handicapped, and the role that parents should play in the dental health program. The plight of dental health care in the handicapped will continue unabated until health educators become more active in health education for all segments of the school population. PMID:147367

Price, J H



The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

Watson, M. Lisa



Polarization–Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography of Dental Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed during the last 10 years as a new noninvasive imaging tool and has been applied to diagnose different ocular and skin diseases. This technique has been modified for cross–sectional imaging of dental structures. In this first preliminary study the technique was applied to obtain tomographic images of extracted sound and decayed human teeth

A. Baumgartner; S. Dichtl; C. K. Hitzenberger; H. Sattmann; B. Robl; A. Moritz; A. F. Fercher; W. Sperr



Dental Institute Emergency Preparedness Action Sheets  

E-print Network

Dental Institute Emergency Preparedness Action Sheets Undergraduate dental students 1. The role for undergraduate dental students is limited. They cannot provide dental care unless supervised by a registered dental practitioner as directed by the General Dental Council within the context of a registered dental

Applebaum, David


Michigan State University Graduate Assistant Dental Plan  

E-print Network

Michigan State University Graduate Assistant Dental Plan Keep your smile healthy with dental benefits from Delta Dental Delta Dental of Michigan, Inc. and Michigan State University are pleased to partner to bring you an affordable, quality dental plan--the MSU Student Dental Plan. Delta Dental

Liu, Taosheng


Health Instruction Packages: Permanent Teeth, Dental Deposits, and Dental Instruments. Dientes Permanentes, Depositos Dentales y Instrumentos Dentales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These five learning modules use text interspersed with illustrations and reinforcement exercises to instruct dental aide and dental hygiene students about jaw bones and gums, dental deposits, and dental instruments. The first four modules were prepared by Patricia Lind in both Spanish and English. "The Gum and Bone of Permanent Teeth" ("La Encia y…

Lind, Patricia; Germano, Catherine



E-print Network

DENTAL RESEARCH Handbook UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE College of Dentistry #12;Page2 THE UNIVERSITY Associate Dean for Research DEPARMENT CONTACTS 6 CENTERS FOR DENTAL RESEARCH 7 DENTAL RESEARCH AT UTHSC 8, or Foundational Grants 27 o Dental Alumni Research Grants 31 SECTION II: STUDENTS IN RESEARCH 36 For Students

Cui, Yan


Oral and Dental Considerations in Pediatric Leukemic Patient  

PubMed Central

Throughout the world, there have been drastic decline in mortality rate in pediatric leukemic population due to early diagnosis and improvements in oncology treatment. The pediatric dentist plays an important role in the prevention, stabilization, and treatment of oral and dental problems that can compromise the child's health and quality of life during, and follow up of the cancer treatment. This manuscript discusses recommendations and promotes dental care of the pediatric leukemic patients. PMID:24724033

Padmini, Chiyadu; Bai, K. Yellamma



Dental student debt.  


The aim of this investigation is to provide information about the financial status of dental students enrolled on the Bachelor of Dental Surgery degree course at the University of Birmingham. All undergraduate dental students enrolled during the academic year 1993-94 were asked to participate in the study. The pre-tested questionnaire, which was given to all students, covered personal details, expenditure levels, income, loans, overdrafts, use of government schemes ('top-up loans'), and so on. The questionnaire was completed by 115 dental students (response rate 47%). The results showed that dental students' debts increased each year throughout the course. A top-up loan (range 700 Pounds-850 Pounds) had been taken out by 36% of students. The financial status of 9% of students was severe enough to warrant their eligibility for awards from access funds. Credit cards were possessed by 52% of the surveyed students, and although only half of these owed money, 22% owed between 500 Pounds and 2000 Pounds. Personal overdrafts were held by 56% of respondents. A total of 17% of students engaged in weekly part-time employment. The average debt for final year students was 1200 Pounds. Dental students' estimates of the level of debt they were likely to incur was greater than the actual debt presently experienced by final year students. In conclusion, this preliminary study showed that most dental students incur debt during their undergraduate course and that this debt increases during the course. PMID:8941799

Mannion, H; Bedi, R



Recent changes in health related dental behaviors in Norway.  


There has been a substantial decrease in the prevalence of caries in younger age groups in the western world during the last 15 years. A corresponding increase has been reported regarding use of preventive remedies. Since prevention and control of dental disease is highly dependent upon personal behavior, investigations of dental health behaviors within subgroups of the population are important for future preventive strategies. Occurrence and changes in individual dental health behaviors in Norway were studied through four sets of cross-sectional data collected in 1981, 1983, 1985, and 1987. Personal interviews performed by trained interviewers were held with probability samples, each of about 1400 persons, covering the Norwegian population aged 15 and above. During the 6-yr period the proportion of individuals who brushed their teeth and used fluoride dentifrice every day increased. The number of people who used toothpicks or dental floss every day also increased from 1981 to 1985. A marked decrease was, however, observed in use of interdental remedies from 1985 to 1987. Daily use of dental floss was reduced by 10 percent points. Logistic regression showed that the reduction in the probability of using interdental aids was most pronounced among those with few teeth. Lower importance attached to dental health education, at all levels, combined with difficult economic times since 1987, might account for the decrease in daily use of interdental aids in Norway. PMID:1742984

Søgaard, A J; Grytten, J; Holst, D



Forty years of research--its impact on dental practice.  


With the multiple use of fluorides the philosophical basis of dental practice shifted from the restoration of the dentition to the prevention of the initiation of dental disease. In the United States, the profound impact on caries in children, with 50 per cent of the 5-17 year olds caries-free, has changed the relative distribution of the various dental services and the pattern of dental care. The child orientation has been superceded by greater attention to the restorative and other needs of the middle-aged and geriatric population. The research-generated insights into the role of plaque in the periodontal diseases and the wide-scale efforts to improve oral hygiene via plaque control have resulted in a marked reduction in gingivitis and manageable levels of periodontis in the employed population below the age of 65. More advanced disease can be treated more effectively because of new diagnostic procedures and new technologies as well as the use of anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agents. Major research advances in oral biology, oral medicine and oral diagnosis have extended both the depth and breadth of preventive dental practice. The scope of preventive dentistry now goes well beyond caries and periodontal disease to include: (1) injury, oro-facial defects, malocclusion and temporomandibular joint dysfunction; (2) oral mucosal lesions; (3) systemic diseases with oral manifestations and (4) hazards associated with dental practice. Dentistry is now being practised with an ordered set of priorities. PMID:2703266

Mandel, I D



The prevalence of dental caries among adult population of different regions of georgia.  


The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of dental caries in adult population of Georgia according to their regional distribution. The survey was carried out by pathfinder survey, based on cluster- stratified method derived by WHO. 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men distributed in 4 age groups: I - 20-34 years, II - 35-44, III - 45-64, IV - 65+ years, the residents of the city, town and village in 9 regions of Georgia and the capital Tbilisi were examined. The assessment of dental status and oral hygiene was based on WHO-'s recommendation. (WHO 1997 'Oral Health Assessment Form') Examination was done under good natural light using a mouth mirror and an explorer. Questionnaires comprised questions for revealing the following risk-factors: social status and family income, existence of common diseases, people's attitude towards oral hygiene (tooth brushing, using dental floss) accessibility and acceptability of dental service, sugar consumption rate, tobacco use, consumption of dairy products. The study revealed the high prevalence of dental caries in Georgia's adult population (96-100%) Caries intensity and severity was seen as the highest in Mtskheta- Mtianeti - 13.26±5.97, Guria - 12.79±8.92, Samtskhe-Javakheti - 12.62±8.44, Shida Qartli - 12.03±7.22 and Achara - 12.23±7.89 regions, relatively lower in Tbilisi - 11.64±7.8; Qvemo Qartli - 10.96±7.07; Imereti - 10.79±7.63 Samegrelo - 10.54±7.95 and in Kakheti - 9.86±7.02. By the mean number of caries decayed teeth Mckheta-Mtianeti - 4.26±3.51, Samckhe-Javakheti - 3.52±3.51 and Imereti - 3.05±3.1 were distinguished. The mean number of caries missing teeth was noted to be highest in Guria - 5.49±7.42, Samckhe-Javakheti - 5.31±6.97 and Achara - 5.32±6.73. Mckheta-Mtianeti - 2.62±3.05, Shida Qartli - 2.39±2.8 and Tbilisi - 2.28±2.09 were the leading regions by the mean number of filled teeth, the lowest value of filled teeth variable was seen in Imereti - 0.67±1.39. In summary behavioral factors (unsatisfactory oral hygiene and less acceptability of dental service due to low medical educational background) play substantial role in occurrence and prevalence of dental caries among adult population of Georgia in all regions, though the financial problem seems to be a considerable contributor in caries prevalence. Reliable statistical data obtained in the study allowed to conclude that in spite of small differences in prevalence in different regions of Georgia dental caries is very widespread throughout the country (96-100%). It represents a major problem in Georgia and needs serious attention and preventive measures to be carried out to enhance peoples' referral to dental service and improve medical educational background of the population. PMID:25214266

Tsitaisvili, L; Margvelashvili, M; Kalandadze, M; Margvelasvili, V



Economic impact of dental hygienists on solo dental practices.  


The fact that a significant percentage of dentists employ dental hygienists raises an important question: Are dental practices that utilize a dental hygienist structurally and operationally different from practices that do not? This article explores differences among dental practices that operate with and without dental hygienists. Using data from the American Dental Association's 2003 Survey of Dental Practice, a random sample survey of U.S. dentists, descriptive statistics were used to compare selected characteristics of solo general practitioners with and without dental hygienists. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of dental hygienists on the gross billings and net incomes of solo general practitioners. Differences in practice characteristics--such as hours spent in the practice and hours spent treating patients, wait time for a recall visit, number of operatories, square feet of office space, net income, and gross billings--were found between solo general practitioners who had dental hygienists and those who did not. Solo general practitioners with dental hygienists had higher gross billings. Higher gross billings would be expected, as would higher expenses. However, net incomes of those with dental hygienists were also higher. In contrast, the mean waiting time for a recall visit was higher among dentists who employed dental hygienists. Depending on personal preferences, availability of qualified personnel, etc., dentists who do not employ dental hygienists but have been contemplating that path may want to further research the benefits and opportunities that may be realized. PMID:22855590

Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Beazoglou, Tryfon J



Nova Scotia Dental Association: Healthy Teeth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What exact role does sugar play in the formation of cavities? Find the answer to this question and many more at Healthy Teeth, a comprehensive and lively oral health education website for 3rd-6th graders and created by the Nova Scotia Dental Association. The site contains sections on Cavities, Teeth and Gums, Prevention, and more. The sections are student-friendly with straightforward text and fun animated images. Additionally, the site offers hands-on classroom activities and experiments.


Dental Care and Travel  


... Life. MouthHealthy > A-Z Topics > T > Travel Share Travel If you are planning a trip out of ... healing. This should be factored in to your travel plans. Significant dental procedures require follow-up care ...


Postmortem dental radiography.  


Comparison of postmortem and antemortem dental radiographic films or digital images is a common procedure for establishing identity of human remains. This article describes some problems with producing postmortem dental radiographs in a medical examiner setting and gives methods for circumventing these difficulties. Resection of the jaws, when permitted, significantly simplifies the postmortem radiographic technique. When producing an actual postmortem panoramic dental radiograph (orthopantomogram) from a dry skull, stabilization of the specimen for exposure by the moving beam source may be accomplished simply by placing the specimen upside down on an anthropologist's skull ring. Image "burnout" in the anterior segment, which results from absence of the tissues of the neck, may be avoided by appropriate placement of radiodense objects such as "zippered" plastic bags filled with water or other fluid material, freezer gel packs, or a block of self-polymerizing acrylic. These methods may increase future postmortem dental radiography efficiency. PMID:18284529

Mincer, Harry H; Chaudhry, Jahanzeb; Blankenship, Jane A; Turner, Edgar W



Dental care - child  


... dental exams, and getting necessary treatments such as fluoride, extractions, fillings, or braces and other orthodontics. ... provider if your infant needs to take oral fluoride . THE FIRST TRIP TO THE DENTIST Your child's ...


Dental Care in Scleroderma  


... Rewind San Francisco National Patient Education Confere nce FLUORIDE Today, most people drink fluoridated water and prescribe ... Support, Education and Research Dental Care in Scleroderma FLUORIDE Today, most people drink fluoridated water and prescribe ...


Dental Treatment Considerations  


... need for antibiotic treatment after oral surgery. 3. Prednisone • Suppresses immune system. • May predispose to oral/wound ... dentist whether there is a need to increase steroid dose before stressful or complicated dental procedures (e. ...


Etruscan Gold Dental Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By 630 BCE Etruscan metallurgists in central Italy had begun to apply their impressive goldworking skills in the production\\u000a of dental bridges (pontics). The achievement of this technological development began with the fabrication of a hollow gold\\u000a tooth mounted on a thin band of gold. The band served to anchor this dental appliance to the healthy teeth adjacent to the

Marshall Joseph Becker


SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE University of Pittsburgh  

E-print Network

SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE University of Pittsburgh Pitt Dental Medicine Alumni Update March 2012 Conservatory: Terry L. Buckenheimer (DMD `80) - Distinguished Alumnus Dental Medicine - Dr. Buckenheimer has leadership positions with the American Dental Association. Additionally, Dr. Buckenheimer has been actively

Jiang, Huiqiang


Nuclear Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an overview of basic atomic structure and the concept of radioactive decay. Topics include the particles that make up an atom, binding forces, and the concept of isotopes. There is also discussion of decay methods and half-life versus activity. The lesson includes an activity in which students use online applets to investigate the half-life and activity of selected isotopes and to examine possible decay chains for some others. They will also use a pair of dice to simulate the process of decay.

Pratte, John


Extension for prevention: is it relevant today?  


Extension for prevention has been an integral part of dentistry for over 100 years. Because this concept advocated the removal of sound tooth structure, it was not totally accepted at the turn of the century. The advent of the gold casting catapulted extension for prevention into general acceptance. In 1883, Webb presented a concept of "prevention of extension of decay". This concept advocated a proximal cavity preparation extending toward the buccal and lingual aspects of the tooth so that contact with adjacent teeth would not be at the margins. The separation of the margins, along with proper restoration contours, was thought to promote natural cleansing of the embrasures with saliva and fluids in the diet. GV Black's 1891 idea of "extension for prevention" was to provide extension of the preparation to the facial and lingual line angles in order to bring about "self-cleansing" margins via food excursion. Black's concept also included extending preparations through fissures to allow cavosurface margins to be on non-fissured enamel. Black integrated the extension of the proximal margins with his concept of an occlusal isthmus for a Class II amalgam preparation one-third the faciolingual width of the occlusal surface. Challenges to this concept of extension for prevention were immediate; and, by the 1950's, narrower, more conservative preparations were seen by a few as being more effective in preserving teeth. Not only occlusal width was reassessed, but the need to routinely extend proximal margins to the buccal and lingual line angles was also questioned. By the mid-1960's and early 1970's a more conservative approach to amalgam preparation was advocated and was being taught in some dental schools. Today, a standardized outline form should not be used or taught as a principle of cavity preparation. In areas where fissure caries has necessitated a preparation extending into dentin, a composite resin or dental amalgam restoration should be placed, and a fissure sealant should be used to protect remaining susceptible fissures from carious attack. This current form of the concept of extension for prevention, which is supported by clinical research, preserves sound tooth structure that, using outdated concepts, would have been cut away. Placing proximal margins in sound tooth structure that just clears an adjacent tooth is also strongly advocated. Sound enamel margins in certain areas may occasionally be left in contact with adjacent teeth for amalgam preparations. For Class II preparations for composite resin, facial or lingual proximal bevels will usually suffice to separate the margins from the adjacent tooth to allow finishing and polishing at the margins. Preventing unnecessary extension and allowing sounder tooth structure to remain is one important aspect of helping patients to maintain their teeth for their lifetimes. PMID:10388375

Osborne, J W; Summitt, J B



Relationship between dietary intake and dental caries in preschool children.  


This study assessed the relationship between intake of nutrients and dental caries in preschool children. One hundred and eighty-two children aged three to six years were recruited from nine day care centers in central Taiwan. These children had an oral health examination, and their parents or guardians answered a questionnaire. Each child's intake of nutrients was estimated using the 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire data. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the associations between dental caries and intake of each nutrient or food group, with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of dental caries was 73 % and increased with age. Not being a first-born and having more between-meal snacks were associated with increased caries risk. After controlling for other important factors, vitamin A intake was significantly associated with fewer dental caries (deft, decayed, indicated for extraction, and filled primary teeth: ? 4 vs. < 4), with an odds ratio of 0.97 (95 % confidence interval: 0.94 - 0.99) for an 100-?g increase in vitamin A intake. There was no significant association between dental caries and energy, macronutrient intake, and Ca/P ratio, respectively. Vegetable intake was also significantly associated with lower dental caries score. PMID:21234862

Yen, Chin-En; Huang, Yi-Chia; Hu, Suh-Woan



An immunization program for dental practices.  


Immunization helps prevent acquisition of diseases, many of which were once common in the United States. Immunity is generally achieved by administering live or dead pathogens or their components. Vaccines used for active immunization consist of live (attenuated) organisms, killed whole or split organisms, microbial components, or inactivated toxins (toxoids). Some cases require the administration of antibody-containing gamma globulin injections. According to the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline on infection control, dental practices must develop a written, comprehensive policy on immunizing workers and refer personnel to qualified professionals for evaluation and, when necessary, for all appropriate immunizations. PMID:15641330

Palenik, Charles John; Govoni, Mary



The evaluation of a managed dental delivery concept.  


Phased dentistry (PD) is a philosophy of managed oral health care that emphasizes an orderly approach to dental risk assessment, prevention, and disease management. PD is divided into two stages. Phase I (PH1) care is intended to eliminate all conditions that may produce a dental emergency within 12 months. PH1 care is directed primarily to recruits and apprentice training students. Phase 2 (PH2) care strives to attain and maintain optimal oral health for Navy and Marine Corps personnel after their initial training period and throughout their military career. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of introducing PH1 into a recruit dental treatment facility. Data were obtained at Naval Dental Center (NDC), Orlando from 4,571 recruit dental patients who were in-processed and completed recruit training between May 27 and October 1, 1993. The incoming operational dental readiness (ODR) of recruits during the PD trial was 28.5%, whereas the ODR of graduating recruits was 85.8%. During this same period there was a 34% increase in completed dental treatments per provider full time equivalent. Although dramatic increases in ODR and productivity were noticed during PD, other variables may have contributed to these results. PMID:8754713

Meyer, D M; Simecek, J W; Stone, M E; Alexander, D C



Design optimization of functionally graded dental implant.  


The continuous increase of man's life span, and the growing confidence in using artificial materials inside the human body necessities introducing more effective prosthesis and implant materials. However, no artificial implant has biomechanical properties equivalent to the original tissue. Recently, titanium and bioceramic materials, such as hydroxyapatite are extensively used as fabrication materials for dental implant due to their high compatibility with hard tissue and living bone. Titanium has reasonable stiffness and strength while hydroxyapatite has low stiffness, low strength and high ability to reach full integration with living bone. In order to obtain good dental implantation of the biomaterial; full integration of the implant with living bone should be satisfied. Minimum stresses in the implant and the bone must be achieved to increase the life of the implant and prevent bone resorption. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation is to design an implant made from functionally graded material (FGM) to achieve the above advantages. The finite element method and optimization technique are used to reach the required implant design. The optimal materials of the FGM dental implant are found to be hydroxyapatite/titanium. The investigations have shown that the maximum stress in the bone for the hydroxyapatite/titanium FGM implant has been reduced by about 22% and 28% compared to currently used titanium and stainless steel dental implants, respectively. PMID:15156104

Hedia, H S; Mahmoud, Nemat-Alla



Dental students' attitudes toward smoking cessation guidelines.  


Dentists can be effective in helping their patients achieve smoking cessation. To plan a didactic program, we explored the smoking cessation attitudes and practices of dental students and identified barriers to service provision in the dental setting. We assessed 244 fourth-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry through a self-report survey. The instrument included a twenty-nine-item measure assessing attitudes towards tobacco-use counseling and adherence to National Cancer Institute tobacco cessation guidelines. The survey also assessed demographics, tobacco use history, and level of preparation to provide services. Generally, students endorsed tobacco prevention practices, but perceived barriers to service provision. Students provided counseling inconsistently, with 69 percent asking about smoking, 58 percent advising cessation, 24 percent offering assistance, and 22 percent providing followup on a routine basis. Those who provided more counseling were more likely to have undergone formal training in smoking cessation, did not feel time was a barrier to counseling, and had more favorable beliefs about dentists' role in promoting smoking cessation. Study findings indicate great receptivity among students as well as a critical need and opportunity to include comprehensive cessation counseling training in the dental curriculum. PMID:11052341

Yip, J K; Hay, J L; Ostroff, J S; Stewart, R K; Cruz, G D



Awareness of emergency management of dental trauma  

PubMed Central

Aim: Traumatic dental injuries frequently occur in society and may occur at home. The ultimate prognosis of an avulsed tooth occurring in a child may depend on the parents’ knowledge of appropriate emergency measures. This study is aimed at evaluating the awareness level of a sample of Indian (Rohtak, Haryana) parents in the management of dental trauma. Materials and Methods: A total of 1500 parents were surveyed using a self-administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into three parts. The tabulated data were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square test. Result: This study indicated a low level of knowledge regarding tooth avulsion and replantation procedures to be followed in emergency. The residing area and age of parent did not affect the knowledge and awareness of parents. Moreover, well-educated parents also had very little or no information about dental trauma first-aid. The lack of significance in correct answers between those with and without such experience indicated that past experience did not seem to have increase the knowledge of the correct emergency procedures. Very little or no information about tooth avulsion and replantation had been given to most of them. Conclusion: Dental injury prevention and management should be recognized as a major public health issue and adequate resources to be allocated for research in this area. Educational programs to improve the knowledge and awareness among the parents have to be implemented.

Namdev, Ritu; Jindal, Ayushi; Bhargava, Smriti; Bakshi, Lokesh; Verma, Reena; Beniwal, Disha



Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries - a review  

PubMed Central

This publication describes the history of Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the ‘surgical’ care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI’s policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

Frencken, Jo E.; Peters, Mathilde C.; Manton, David J.; Leal, Soraya C.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Eden, Ece



Factors Discriminant of Dental Health Care Behavior Orientation in Southwest Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identified, among a multiplicity of demographic and psycho-social variables, the factors which discriminate between preventively and symptomatically oriented individuals regarding dental health care for both self (mother) and her children; determined if a relationship exists between orientation to medical care in general and dental

Solis, Enrique, Jr.


Dental care - adult  


Tooth decay and gum disease are caused by plaque, a sticky combination of bacteria and food. Plaque begins ... cleaned well each day, plaque will lead to tooth decay. Over time, plaque will harden into tartar. Plaque ...


Prevention of periodontal disease.  


Periodontal disease is the most common disease affecting adult dogs and cats. It is also a very preventable disease. The insidious nature of the disease and requirement for the pet owner to be actively involved make client and public education absolutely vital. Although clients are commonly aware of their pets' bad breath, they rarely notice gingivitis, fractured teeth, and traumatic malocclusions. The annual National Pet Dental Health Month program has resulted in a tremendous increase in public awareness. Veterinarians must carry this further in their everyday practices, convincing our clients of the need for preventive dental care. It is only through clients' ongoing desire and persistence that a long-term preventive program can be successful. This requires a coordinated effort by the entire hospital staff. When successful, clients' pets will live healthier and longer lives. PMID:9779544

DuPont, G A



Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others



Esthetic dental anomalies as motive for bullying in schoolchildren.  


Facial esthetics, including oral esthetics, can severely affect children's quality-of-life, causing physical, social and psychological impairment. Children and adolescents with esthetic-related dental malformations are potential targets for bullies. This study was aimed to present and discuss patients who suffered from bullying at school and family environment due to esthetic-related teeth anomalies. Providing an adequate esthetic dental treatment is an important step in their rehabilitation when the lack of esthetic is the main source of bullying. After dental treatment, we noted significant improvement in self-esteem, self-confidence, socialization and academic performance of all patients and improvement in parental satisfaction regarding the appearance of their children. It is imperative that both family and school care providers be constantly alert about bullying in order to prevent or interrupt aggressive and discriminatory practices against children and adolescents. Clearly, dental anomalies may be a motive for bullying. PMID:24966759

Scheffel, Débora Lopes Salles; Jeremias, Fabiano; Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; Dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes Aparecida Martins; Hebling, Josimeri; de Oliveira, Osmir Batista



Esthetic dental anomalies as motive for bullying in schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Facial esthetics, including oral esthetics, can severely affect children's quality-of-life, causing physical, social and psychological impairment. Children and adolescents with esthetic-related dental malformations are potential targets for bullies. This study was aimed to present and discuss patients who suffered from bullying at school and family environment due to esthetic-related teeth anomalies. Providing an adequate esthetic dental treatment is an important step in their rehabilitation when the lack of esthetic is the main source of bullying. After dental treatment, we noted significant improvement in self-esteem, self-confidence, socialization and academic performance of all patients and improvement in parental satisfaction regarding the appearance of their children. It is imperative that both family and school care providers be constantly alert about bullying in order to prevent or interrupt aggressive and discriminatory practices against children and adolescents. Clearly, dental anomalies may be a motive for bullying. PMID:24966759

Scheffel, Debora Lopes Salles; Jeremias, Fabiano; Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes Aparecida Martins; Hebling, Josimeri; de Oliveira, Osmir Batista



The dental education environment.  


The second in a series of perspectives from the ADEA Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (CCI), this article presents the CCI's view of the dental education environment necessary for effective change. The article states that the CCI's purpose is related to leading and building consensus in the dental community to foster a continuous process of innovative change in the education of general dentists. Principles proposed by CCI to shape the dental education environment are described; these are critical thinking, lifelong learning, humanistic environment, scientific discovery and integration of knowledge, evidence-based oral health care, assessment, faculty development, and the health care team. The article also describes influences external to the academic dental institutions that are important for change and argues that meaningful and long-lasting change must be systemic in nature. The CCI is ADEA's primary means to engage all stakeholders for the purpose of educating lifelong learners to provide evidence-based care to meet the needs of society. PMID:17170316

Haden, N Karl; Andrieu, Sandra C; Chadwick, D Gregory; Chmar, Jacqueline E; Cole, James R; George, Mary C; Glickman, Gerald N; Glover, Joel F; Goldberg, Jerold S; Hendricson, William D; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Neumann, Laura; Pyle, Marsha; Tedesco, Lisa A; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; Winder, Ronald L; Young, Stephen K; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L



Compliance with infection control practices in an university hospital dental clinic  

PubMed Central

Aim: Compliance with infection control practices is the key to quality care and excellence in dentistry. Infection control remains one of the most cost-beneficial interventions available. However, implementing control procedures requires full compliance of the whole dental team. The aim of our study was to measure the compliance in daily clinical practice. Methods: The compliance with infection control practices in dentistry by dental health care personnel (DHCP) in a German university dental clinic was observed during clinical work. In addition, a survey was conducted to assess the individual knowledge about infection control procedures. Contamination of the workplace during invasive dental procedures was tested, as well. Results: A total of 58 invasive dental treatments implying close contacts between HCWs and patients were scrutinized. All HCWs (100%) wore gloves during dental work, but in some cases (female dentists: 14.3%; dental assistants: 28.6%) gloves were neither changed nor hands were disinfected between different activities or patient contacts (female dentists: 68.6%; male dentists: 60.9%; dental assistants: 93%). Only 31.4% of female and 39.1% of male dentists carried out adequate hygienic hand disinfection after removing gloves. Male dentists wore significantly more often (100%) protective eyewear compared to 77.1% of female dentists (p<0.05). In addition, most of female dentists (62.9%) and dental assistants (80.7%) wore jewelry during dental procedures. Conclusion: Despite the knowledge of distinct hygiene procedures only a small percentage of dental staff performs hygiene practices according to recommended guidelines. Strict audit is clearly needed in the dental setting to ensure compliance with infection control guidelines to prevent transmission of pathogens. Our results provide insights for the development of a targeted education and training strategy to enhance compliance of dental staff especially of dental assistants with infection control procedures.

Mutters, Nico T.; Hagele, Ulrike; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Hellwig, Elmar; Frank, Uwe



Dental Assistant Specialist. (AFSC 98150).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for dental assistant specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are an introduction to dental services (the mission and organization of medical/dental service, career ladder progressions, medical readiness/wartime training, and…

Eling, David R.


Dental ethics and emotional intelligence.  


Dental ethics is often taught, viewed, and conducted as an intell enterprise, uninformed by other noncognitive factors. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined distinguished from the cognitive intelligence measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This essay recommends more inclusion of emotional, noncognitive input to the ethical decision process in dental education and dental practice. PMID:25219193

Rosenblum, Alvin B; Wolf, Steve




E-print Network

THE INDEMNITY DENTAL BENEFITS PLAN THE UNIVERSITY SYSTEM OF GEORGIA Plan Design � Originated regarding your indemnity dental benefits plan, please contact the appropriate resource(s) identified below Office Dental Claims Unit MetLife MyBenefits website (you must register on the site to access plan

Hutcheon, James M.


American Dental Hygienists' Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the official website of the American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA), this site is a prime resource for dental health students and professionals. On the site, one can easily find industry news, content from professional journals, as well as information and offers for dental hygiene students. The ADHA site also provides Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) files for much of its content; most notably Single Topic Supplements under the Publications section. Students may find these supplements useful in supporting their curriculum-based studies while faculty will be interested in the value these documents may add to classroom discussions. The site also features continuing education opportunities, scholarship information and links to related sites over a cross section of government, library, and organizational resources.



Dental student attrition.  


In summary, the attrition rate for the recent dental school freshman classes has been reduced to 3 1/2 %. The national freshman enrollment of US dental schools can be expected to have approximately a 7% attrition rate by the time of graduation. The reasons for student withdrawal are evenly divided between personal and academic problems. The academic problems are experienced with slightly more frequency in nonclinical courses than in technique courses, both areas of difficulty being predicted significantly by DAT scores. Finally, the attrition rate for women is higher than for men, which has been true to a significant degree in the first-year classes during the past two years, as well as for all four years of dental school. However, no specific reason has been identified for this difference. PMID:265996

DeMarais, D R



Occurrence and management of dental fluorosis.  


The prevalence of dental fluorosis is on the increase in different parts of the world, even in areas with fluoride-deficient public water supplies. This may be due to increased use of fluoride in preventive dentistry. In some countries, exposure to apparently low fluoride concentrations in drinking water has resulted in severe dental fluorosis in some children. This underscores the importance of taking into consideration all sources of fluoride intake in a community before prescribing fluoride supplements or recommending appropriate fluoride concentration for the public water supply. Preventive management of dental fluorosis includes de-fluoridation of drinking water in endemic areas, cautious use of fluoride supplements and supervision of the use of fluoride toothpaste by children aged below 5 years. Aesthetically objectionable discolouration of fluorosed teeth may be managed by bleaching, micro-abrasion, veneering or crowning. The choice between these treatments depends on the severity of the fluorosis and this may be satisfactorily determined by the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index. PMID:11697585

Akpata, E S



Laser processing of dental hard tissues (Invited Paper)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to their use for the painless removal of dental decay, lasers are also well suited to modify the chemical composition of the mineral phase of dental hard tissues in order to render the tissues more resistant to acid dissolution and for the modification of the hard tissue morphology for better adhesion to restorative materials. In this paper the principal applications of lasers for the processing of dental hard tissues are discussed with an emphasis on the influence of an externally applied layer of water. The presence of an optically thick layer of water profoundly influences the phase composition of the laser irradiated tissue surface and the morphology resulting in more efficient ablation, better adhesion and improved resistance to acid dissolution.

Fried, Daniel



Pneumoconiosis and exposures of dental laboratory technicians.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and seventy-eight dental laboratory technicians and 69 non-exposed controls participated in an epidemiological respiratory study. Eight technicians who had a mean of 28 years' grinding nonprecious metal alloys were diagnosed as having a simple pneumoconiosis by chest radiograph. Mean values for per cent predicted FVC and FEV1 were reduced among male nonsmoker technicians compared to male nonsmoker controls; after controlling for age, there was also a reduction in spirometry with increasing work-years. An industrial hygiene survey was conducted in 13 laboratories randomly selected from 42 laboratories stratified by size and type of operation in the Salt Lake City, Utah metropolitan area. Personal exposures to beryllium and cobalt exceeded the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) in one laboratory. Occupational exposures in dental laboratories need to be controlled to prevent beryllium-related lung disorders as well as simple pneumoconiosis. PMID:6496819

Rom, W N; Lockey, J E; Lee, J S; Kimball, A C; Bang, K M; Leaman, H; Johns, R E; Perrota, D; Gibbons, H L



Dental disease in type 3 Von Willebrand disease: a neglected problem.  


? Type 3 Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a rare, severe, autosomal recessive bleeding disorder. In our institution, we follow 17 children with type 3 VWD. We have observed a high prevalence of dental disease in these patients prompting us to undertake a retrospective review of our cohort of patients with type 3 VWD to catalogue the extent of their dental disease. Sixteen of these patients have been assessed by our dentistry department. Five children have undergone minor dental procedures (e.g. restorations, stainless steel crowns) and seven major procedures (e.g. dental extractions, pulpotomies and root canal treatments). These patients have collectively used 85,400 (ristocetin cofactor) IU of Humate-P on dental procedures alone. In addition to the considerable costs of factor are the cost of operating room time, dentists' costs, and the cost of other topical haemostatic agents (e.g. Tisseel) used during their dental procedures. As such there is considerable morbidity and cost from dental disease in these patients that is much higher than what is seen in patients with haemophilia or in the normal paediatric population. We speculate that the combination of these patients having a significant mucosal bleeding disorder together with various socioeconomic factors contribute to the significant degree of dental disease seen in this group of patients. We would suggest that better preventive dental care needs to be provided to these patients to avoid the considerable morbidity and very high burden of dental disease in type 3 VWD. PMID:20565545

Carcao, M D; Seary, M E; Casas, M; Winter, L; Stain, A M; Judd, P



Dental treatment of patients with systemic diseases compared to patients with developmental disabilities under general anesthesia.  


The medical and dental records were examined for 46 patients with systemic diseases (SD) and 75 patients with developmental disabilities (DD) aged 2-20 years, who had received dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA). Age, gender, decayed missing and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT), dental procedures, duration of GA, and posttreatment hospitalization were recorded. Before treatment, dental disease in the primary teeth was significantly higher among the group with SD (p= 0.04). In the permanent teeth, dental disease was higher among the group with DD, though not significantly. More teeth were restored, (p= 0.015) and total dmft (p= 0.043) was significantly higher among subjects with SD. In the permanent teeth, more extracted and more restored teeth and higher DMFT were noted among subjects with DD, though not significantly. Only pulpectomies were significantly more prevalent among those with DD (p= 0.038). Six subjects needed hospitalization due to their diseases after GA. PMID:22229595

Peretz, Benjamin; Spierer, Ayala; Spierer, Shoshana; Rakocz, Meir



Reasons for use and non-use of dental services among people visiting a dental college hospital in India: A descriptive cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To find out the reasons for use and non-use of dental services among people visiting a dental college hospital in India. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 180 people, aged 15–65 years visiting the outpatient department of a dental college hospital in India. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about the history of dental visits and reasons for use and non-use of dental services. Results: For a majority of the people (38.5%), time since the last dental visit was more than 2 years, and the main reason for visiting a dentist was dental pain (35.3%). Majority of the people had undergone extraction of teeth in their previous dental visit (44.3%). The major reason cited for not visiting a dentist was the presence of dental problem that was not severe enough to go to a dentist (43.1%). Conclusion: Majority of the people were “problem-oriented visitors” rather than “prevention oriented visitors.” PMID:23077423

Devaraj, CG; Eswar, Pranati



Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR?=?0.48, 95% CI?=?0.27-0.85). Bonding social capital (positive interaction) was independently associated with dental pain (OR?=?0.88, 95% CI?=?0.80-0.91). Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain. PMID:23289932



Tobacco cessation for the dental team: a practical guide part II: evidence-based interventions.  


Dental professionals are strategically placed to be the leaders in tobacco prevention and cessation as they provide preventive and therapeutic services to a basically healthy population on a regular basis. By expanding the dental exam, diagnosis, and treatment to include tobacco cessation, a potentially life saving element of care is added to an established service. In addition periodontal disease and the potential for oral cancer mandate the inclusion of tobacco cessation services into dental care. Though dental professionals are aware of the health issues associated with tobacco use, they often feel ill prepared or uncomfortable presenting patients with a clear cessation message. In this, the second of a two-part article, the purpose is to provide dental professionals with the evidence-based strategies necessary to provide effective tobacco cessation as a normal part of patient care. PMID:16299620

Davis, Joan M



Tobacco cessation for the dental team: a practical guide part I: background & overview.  


Dental professionals are strategically placed to be the leaders in tobacco prevention and cessation as they provide preventive and therapeutic services to a basically healthy population on a regular basis. By expanding the dental exam, diagnosis, and treatment to include tobacco cessation, a potentially life saving element of care is added to an established service. In addition periodontal disease and the potential for oral cancer mandate the inclusion of tobacco cessation services into dental care. Though dental professionals are aware of the health issues associated with tobacco use, they often feel ill prepared or uncomfortable presenting patients with a clear cessation message. In this, the first of a two-part article, the purpose is to provide dental professionals with the foundational knowledge necessary to provide effective tobacco cessation as a normal part of patient care. PMID:16127485

Davis, Joan M



Dental development in hemifacial microsomia.  


Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital disorder marked by facial asymmetry. Whether facial asymmetry accounts for asymmetrical dental development is unknown. There are few data on dental development relative to mandibular development or severity of HFM, or on development over time. We hypothesized that when mandibular development was severely disturbed, local dental development was also affected. We compared dental development scores between affected and non-affected mandibular sides in patients with HFM (n = 84) and compared these data with those collected from Dutch control children (n = 451). Logistic functions were constructed for dental age over time for all four Pruzansky/Kaban types. The results showed a tendency toward delayed dental development in Pruzansky/Kaban types IIb and III at younger ages. The temporary delay of tooth formation in patients with severe forms of HFM and the distribution of agenic teeth suggest an interaction between mandibular and dental development. PMID:20739700

Ongkosuwito, E M; de Gijt, P; Wattel, E; Carels, C E L; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M



Rural-urban differences in dental service use among children enrolled in a private dental insurance plan in Wisconsin: analysis of administrative data  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on rural–urban differences in dental care have primarily focused on differences in utilization rates and preventive dental services. Little is known about rural–urban differences in the use of wider range of dental procedures. This study examined patterns of preventive, restorative, endodontic, and extraction procedures provided to children enrolled in Delta Dental of Wisconsin (DDWI). Methods We analyzed DDWI enrollment and claims data for children aged 0-18?years from 2002 to 2008. We modified and used a rural and urban classification based on ZIP codes developed by the Wisconsin Area Health Education Center (AHEC). We categorized the ZIP codes into 6 AHEC categories (3 rural and 3 urban). Descriptive and multivariable analysis using generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to examine the patterns of dental procedures provided to children. Tukey-Kramer adjustment was used to control for multiple comparisons. Results Approximately, 50%, 67% and 68?% of enrollees in inner-city Milwaukee, Rural 1 (less than 2500 people), and suburban-Milwaukee had at least one annual dental visit, respectively. Children in inner city-Milwaukee had the lowest utilization rates for all procedures examined, except for endodontic procedures. Compared to children from inner-city Milwaukee, children in other locations had significantly more preventive procedures. Children in Rural 1-ZIP codes had more restorative, endodontic and extraction procedures, compared to children from all other regions. Conclusions We found significant geographic variation in dental procedures received by children enrolled in DDWI. PMID:23259637



Genotoxicity of dental materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to characterize the (possible) DNA-damaging properties of dental materials and to identify specific compounds that contribute to this genotoxicity. For screening, three tests that assay for different aspects of genotoxicity (i) the bacterial umu-test; (ii) the eucaryotic DNA synthesis inhibition test; and (iii) the in vivo alkaline filter elution technique were chosen. This investigation gives several

Jürgen Heil; Georg Reifferscheid; Petra Waldmann; Gabriele Leyhausen; Werner Geurtsen



Dental amalgam and mercury  

SciTech Connect

This paper looks at the issues of the current amalgam controversy: the daily dose of mercury from amalgam, hypersensitivity to mercury, claims of adverse effects from amalgam mercury and alleged overnight 'cures.' In addition, the toxicity and allergenicity of the proposed alternative materials are examined with the same kind of scrutiny applied by the anti-amalgam group to dental amalgam. 100 references.

Mackert, J.R. Jr. (Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (United States))



Smoking and dental implants  

PubMed Central

Smoking is a prevalent behaviour in the population. The aim of this review is to bring to light the effects of smoking on dental implants. These facts will assist dental professionals when implants are planned in tobacco users. A search of “PubMed” was made with the key words “dental implant,” “nicotine,” “smoking,” “tobacco,” and “osseointegration.” Also, publications on tobacco control by the Government of India were considered. For review, only those articles published from 1988 onward in English language were selected. Smoking has its influence on general as well as oral health of an individual. Tobacco negatively affects the outcome of almost all therapeutic procedures performed in the oral cavity. The failure rate of implant osseointegration is considerably higher among smokers, and maintenance of oral hygiene around the implants and the risk of peri-implantitis are adversely affected by smoking. To increase implant survival in smokers, various protocols have been recommended. Although osseointegrated dental implants have become the state of the art for tooth replacement, they are not without limitations or complications. In this litigious era, it is extremely important that the practitioner clearly understands and is able and willing to convey the spectrum of possible complications and their frequency to the patients. PMID:24478965

Kasat, V.; Ladda, R.




PubMed Central

Objectives Clinical data on survival rates reveal that all-ceramic dental prostheses are susceptible to fracture from repetitive occlusal loading. The objective of this review is to examine the underlying mechanisms of fatigue in current and future dental ceramics. Data/sources The nature of various fatigue modes is elucidated using fracture test data on ceramic layer specimens from the dental and biomechanics literature. Conclusions Failure modes can change over a lifetime, depending on restoration geometry, loading conditions and material properties. Modes that operate in single-cycle loading may be dominated by alternative modes in multi-cycle loading. While post-mortem examination of failed prostheses can determine the sources of certain fractures, the evolution of these fractures en route to failure remains poorly understood. Whereas it is commonly held that loss of load-bearing capacity of dental ceramics in repetitive loading is attributable to chemically-assisted 'slow crack growth' in the presence of water, we demonstrate the existence of more deleterious fatigue mechanisms, mechanical rather than chemical in nature. Neglecting to account for mechanical fatigue can lead to gross overestimates in predicted survival rates. Clinical significance Strategies for prolonging the clinical lifetimes of ceramic restorations are proposed based on a crack-containment philosophy. PMID:24135295

Zhang, Yu; Sailer, Irena; Lawn, Brian R



Odontology and Dental History \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a medal of dental relevance will be discussed. This bronze medal was dedicated in 1962 to profes- sor Erwin Reichenbach. It was a honory medal of the Leopoldina in Halle (Germany). The Leopoldina is one of the oldest societies of science in the world. Reichenbach was the Vice-President of the Leopoldina (1955- 1973) and also the Director

Gerold Rüdiger Heckert


NOTICE TO NHS PATIENTS (February/ March 2014) The University of Cambridge Dental Practice, like all dental practices providing NHS dental  

E-print Network

Dental Practice, like all dental practices providing NHS dental care, contracts with the Local Area Health Team (LAHT), previously the Primary Care Trust (PCT); to provide a fixed quantity of dental completed the allocation of dental treatment with just almost two months of the contract year to run

Talbot, James P.


Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries  

PubMed Central

Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and 50 male) with age range of 15 -17 years were randomly selected, divided to four groups. Unstimulated whole saliva specimens were collected at the morning. TAC of saliva was evaluated by spectrophotometric assay. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student’s t-test, by SPSS 13. Results: The level of TAC was significantly higher in the saliva of caries active group relative to the caries free subjects. Statistical analysis for male and female groups showed a statistically significant reduction of TAC level in female group. Conclusion: TAC was higher in caries active group. Thus this result showed that total antioxidant capacity may influence in dental caries and activity can be measured by salivary factors and this may be helpful in preventive dentistry. Key words:Dental caries, saliva, total antioxidant capacity. PMID:23524431

Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Hendi, Seyedeh S.; Kasraei, Shahin; Moghimbeigi, Abbas



Managing dental caries in children in Turkey - a discussion paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper describes the oral healthcare system and disease situation amongst children in Turkey. Considering the high prevalence and severity of dental caries, a proposal for improvement of oral health in this population group is formulated. DISCUSSION: A virtual absence of palliative, preventive and restorative care characterises juvenile oral healthcare in Turkey. Consequently, carious cavities remain untreated, which may

Asli Topaloglu-Ak; Ece Eden; J. E. F. M. Frencken



Comparative epidemiology of multiple sclerosis and dental caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographical distribution and other epidemiological characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) are compared with those of dental caries. The rates of death due to MS in Australian states are linearly related to the numbers of decayed, missing, and filled (DMF) teeth found in individuals from those states (r=0.97, P less than 0.002). In the United States of America, a strong

W Craelius



Osteoradionecrosis: Causes and prevention  

SciTech Connect

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the most serious complications arising from head and neck radiation therapy. Current research has shown that ORN represents nonhealing, dead bone and is not a state of infection. ORN is the result of functional and structural bony changes that may not be expressed for months or years. ORN may occur spontaneously or in response to wounding. Predisposing factors include absorbed radiation dose, fractionation, delivery modality, and dental status. Timing of dental extractions and other factors have also been shown to affect incidence. ORN may be reduced through early intraoral evaluation, treatment, and adequate healing time prior to beginning RT. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has been beneficial in the prevention and treatment of ORN. It is of paramount importance for the medical community to recognize the factors that may reduce ORN incidence, endorse oral care protocols, and acknowledge the value of HBO therapy in the prevention and treatment of this disease. 60 references.

Friedman, R.B. (Medical College of Virginia Hospitals, Richmond (USA))



IR Spectromicroscopy of Laser Irradiated Dental Hard Tissues D. Fried , C. R. Wheeler and C. Q. Le  

E-print Network

to increase the diffusion of chemical inhibitors of tooth decay such as fluoride for greater efficacy. RESULTS of dental decay, to render the surface more resistant to acid dissolution and to prepare the surface of 9.6- �m is primarily absorbed by the tooth mineral, the Er:YAG laser operating at 2.94-�m


School of Dental Medicine School of Medicine  

E-print Network

Combined DMD/MPH Program School of Dental Medicine & School of Medicine Contact Us: For 617.636.3646 American Board of Dental Public Health Dental Public Health is one of the nine dental specialty areas recognized by the American Dental Association. Earning a DMD from TUSDM, combined

Dennett, Daniel


Involving Parents in Their Children's Dental Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that parent education is vital to good dental hygiene for the whole family. Discusses what Head Start staffers can do to ensure that children's dental needs are being met, particularly in assisting parents with taking responsibility for children's dental hygiene. Covers dental care tips for parents, questions and answers about dental

Becker, Donna



Oral-dental concerns of the pediatric oncology patient  

SciTech Connect

One of the main concerns of all disciplines in health care today is maintaining the patient's quality of life and comfort during cancer therapy. Oral complications resulting from radiation or chemotherapy can be expected in a large percentage of patients. Conducting a dental evaluation and performing treatment before therapy can help prevent or lessen potential complications. With preventive care and fewer infections, the patient will be able to communicate with friends and family, and optimum care and comfort can be provided.

Lawson, K.



Findings of the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio's Dental School pilot mobile van program in Laredo, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of access to oral health care frequently affects those of lower socio-economic level; individuals in this group experience more dental decay, and the caries experience is more likely to be untreated. Inadequate dental care access may be attributed to exclusion that is due to income, geography, age, race or ethnicity. Objective: The present study aims were to: (1) determine

Juanita Lozano-Pineda



Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

Not Available



Predicting dental avoidance among dentally fearful Australian adults.  


Dental fear is related to poorer oral health outcomes, and this might be explained by the less frequent dental visiting of many fearful people. The objectives of this study were to investigate differences between dentally fearful people who regularly attend the dentist and fearful people who infrequently visit the dentist. A random sample of 1,082 Australians ? 15 yr of age completed a mailed questionnaire (response rate = 71.6%), and 191 dentate, high-fear adults (? 18 yr of age) were selected for further analysis. Dental avoidance was recorded if a person was currently avoiding or delaying dental care and if he/she had not been to a dentist in the previous 2 yr. Among the selected dentally fearful adults, dental avoidance was predicted by smoking status, toothbrushing frequency, coping strategy use, perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable and unpredictable, and by anxiety relating to numbness, not knowing what the dentist is going to do, and cost. In a multivariate logistic regression model, smoking, toothbrushing, coping, and anxiety about numbness and cost remained as statistically significant predictors, with the model accounting for 30% of the variance. While several variables were associated with dental avoidance among fearful adults, the nature and causal directions of these associations remain to be established. PMID:23659256

Armfield, Jason M



Dental Procedures, Oral Practices, and Associated Anxiety: A Study on Late-teenagers  

PubMed Central

Objectives The study aims to determine the degree of anxiety pertaining to dental procedures and various oral hygiene practices among college teenagers. Methods Corah's Modified Dental Anxiety Scale was administered on a randomly chosen sample of 100 Indian college students (50 males and 50 females) of Delhi University, belonging to the age group of 17–20 years. Results Descriptive statistical computations revealed 12.14 years as the mean age of first dental visit, with moderately high levels of anxiety (60.75%) for various dental procedures among the Indian teenagers and 5% lying in the “phobic or extremely anxious” category. With merely 4.16% people going for regular consultations, general check-ups evoked 78.3% anxiety and having an injection or a tooth removed was perceived as the most threatening. The sample subgroup not using mouthwash and mouthspray, smokers, and alcohol drinkers with improper oral hygiene practices experienced much higher anxiety towards routine dental procedures. Conclusion The majority of the Indian youngsters had an evasive attitude of delaying dental treatment. The core problems lay in deficient health care knowledge, lack of patient-sensitive pedagogy to train dental professionals, inaccessibility of services, and a dismissive attitude towards medical help. The feelings of fear and anxiety prevalent among the Indian youth offer significant insights into causes and preventive measures for future research and practice. Methods of education and motivation could be developed to dissipate the anxiety amongst Indian teenagers that prevent routine dental visits and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene. PMID:25379373

Bhola, Rahul; Malhotra, Reema



Microbial contamination of used dental handpieces.  


Microbial contamination of used, unprocessed internal components of dental handpieces (HPs) was assessed. HPs were dismantled aseptically, immersed in phosphate-buffered saline, ultrasonicated, and cultured. A median of 200 CFU per turbine (n = 40), 400 CFU per spray channel (n = 40), and 1000 CFU per item of surgical gear (n = 20) was detected. Isolates included oral streptococci, Pseudomonas spp, and Staphylococcus aureus. Recovery of S aureus confirms the need for appropriate HP cleaning and sterilization after each patient to prevent cross-infection. PMID:25179340

Smith, Gordon; Smith, Andrew



Foreign body ingestion in dental practice.  


Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully. The majority of the reported literature describes the management of ingested blunt objects. However, ingestion of sharp objects can still occur with a higher rate of perforation corresponding to treatment dilemmas. We report a case of inadvertently ingested sharp foreign body by a special child, which was retrieved by endoscopic guided forceps. Urgent endoscopic assessment and retrieval of recently ingested sharp dental foreign body is indicated and routine use of preventive measures such as rubber dam, gauze throat screens or floss ligatures is suggested. PMID:22016321

Bhatnagar, S; Das, U M; Chandan, G D; Prashanth, S T; Gowda, L; Shiggaon, N



Dental Hygiene Program 2014 Admission Application Instructions  

E-print Network

Dental Hygiene Program 2014 Admission Application Instructions These instructions have been prepared for applicants to The Ohio State University Dental Hygiene Program. Please read these instructions carefully before completing the online application. Complete information about the dental hygiene program


Open wide: looking into the safety culture of dental school clinics.  


Although dentists perform highly technical procedures in complex environments, patient safety has not received the same focus in dentistry as in medicine. Cultivating a robust patient safety culture is foundational to minimizing patient harm, but little is known about how dental teams view patient safety or the patient safety culture within their practice. As a step toward rectifying that omission, the goals of this study were to benchmark the patient safety culture in three U.S. dental schools, identifying areas for improvement. The extensively validated Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture (MOSOPS), developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was administered to dental faculty, dental hygienists, dental students, and staff at the three schools. Forty-seven percent of the 328 invited individuals completed the survey. The "Teamwork" category received the highest marks and "Patient Care Tracking and Follow-Up" and "Leadership Support for Patient Safety" the lowest. Only 48 percent of the respondents rated systems and processes in place to prevent/catch patient problems as good/excellent. All patient safety dimensions received lower marks than in medical practices. These findings and the inherent risk associated with dental procedures lead to the conclusion that dentistry in general, and academic dental clinics in particular, stands to benefit from an increased focus on patient safety. This first published use of the MOSOPS in a dental clinic setting highlights both clinical and educational priorities for improving the safety of care in dental school clinics. PMID:24789834

Ramoni, Rachel; Walji, Muhammad F; Tavares, Anamaria; White, Joel; Tokede, Oluwabunmi; Vaderhobli, Ram; Kalenderian, Elsbeth



Teledentistry-assisted, affiliated practice for dental hygienists: an innovative oral health workforce model.  


The 2010 U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) calls for training programs to develop mid-level dental health care providers to work in areas with underserved populations. In 2004, legislation was passed in Arizona allowing qualified dental hygienists to enter into an affiliated practice relationship with a dentist to provide oral health care services for underserved populations without general or direct supervision in public health settings. In response, the Northern Arizona University (NAU) Dental Hygiene Department developed a teledentistry-assisted, affiliated practice dental hygiene model that places a dental hygienist in the role of the mid-level practitioner as part of a digitally linked oral health care team. Utilizing current technologies, affiliated practice dental hygienists can digitally acquire and transmit diagnostic data to a distant dentist for triage, diagnosis, and patient referral in addition to providing preventive services permitted within the dental hygiene scope of practice. This article provides information about the PPACA and the Arizona affiliated practice dental hygiene model, defines teledentistry, identifies the digital equipment used in NAU's teledentistry model, give an overview of NAU's teledentistry training, describes NAU's first teledentistry clinical experience, presents statistical analyses and evaluation of NAU students' ability to acquire diagnostically efficacious digital data from remote locations, and summarizes details of remote applications of teledentistry-assisted, affiliated practice dental hygiene workforce model successes. PMID:21642518

Summerfelt, Fred F



Fluorescence of dental porcelain.  


This study of the fluorescence of natural enamel and of dental ceramics shows the fluorescence of ceramics not containing rare earths decreases when the color saturation increases; the fluorescence of samples of the same shade guide are not homogenous; some guides show a strong green fluorescence; and two shade guides of the same origin can present completely different fluorescence. The cementing medium can affect the fluorescence of a ceramic prosthesis. PMID:8455155

Monsénégo, G; Burdairon, G; Clerjaud, B



Sports dentistry and dental traumatology.  


Sports dentistry had its origins in the 1980s. More recently, the Academy for Sports Dentistry joined forces with the International Association of Dental Traumatology in cosponsoring the World Congress on Sports Dentistry and Dental Traumatology. It is the intent of the present paper to introduce readers to the arena of sports dentistry, suggest future areas for collaborative research, and stimulate authors to submit high quality, scientifically based manuscripts on sports dentistry to Dental Traumatology. PMID:12427197

Ranalli, Dennis N



An update on dental imaging.  


This paper reviews recent advances and current trends in dental radiology. Developments in the design of dental x-ray equipment which improve both radiation hygiene and image quality are described. Also discussed are new features which broaden the scope of intra-oral and panoramic radiological diagnosis in the general dental practice setting. The article concludes with the main recommendations from the latest guidelines on quality standards for radiography, selection criteria and quality assurance in general practice. PMID:9769550

Whaites, E; Brown, J



Dental Assisting Education in California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 22 dental assisting programs showed an average of 1,124 hours of instruction in dental assisting for 15 four-semester, 955 for three three-semester, and 1,042 for four two-semester programs. The average instructional hours for the four-semester programs were 48 in introduction to dental assisting, 179 in the life sciences, 221 in the…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Industrial Education.


Information technology in dental education.  


The use of information technology in dental education is continually increasing. In this article, IT is defined, and its uses in teaching and learning explored. Examples of the appropriateness of multimedia teaching in dental education are given. Successful multimedia teaching, especially in clinical settings, relies on the proper use of IT and an implementation strategy. The applications of IT to curriculum development, computer-assisted learning (CAL), educational administration, dental practice, hospital administration, and clinical research are also considered. PMID:10589137

Yip, H K; Barnes, I E



2013 AAHA dental care guidelines for dogs and cats.  


Veterinary dentistry is constantly progressing. The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for the practice of companion animal dentistry for the veterinary profession. Dental care is necessary to provide optimum health and optimize quality of life. Untreated diseases of the oral cavity are painful and can contribute to local and systemic diseases. This article includes guidelines for preventive oral health care, client communication, evaluation, dental cleaning, and treatment. In addition, materials and equipment necessary to perform a medically appropriate procedure are described. PMID:23443202

Holmstrom, Steven E; Bellows, Jan; Juriga, Stephen; Knutson, Kate; Niemiec, Brook A; Perrone, Jeanne



Radioactive Decay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module develops a mathematical model for decay of radioactive substances, and a technique for deciding whether quantitative data fits the model or not. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Barker, William; Smith, David



Dental education in the US.  


Dental education in the United States has changed considerably over the last 30 years and it could be argued that not all the changes are positive. The number of dental schools has increased and the number of graduates has increased, but the level of dental care in the country as a whole has not increased. The majority of US dental schools are now private and profit making and even the state schools need to generate income. The curriculum has also changed at the expense of the basic sciences. PMID:25415008

Pogrel, M A



Computerized Dental Injection Fear Treatment  

PubMed Central

One in four adults reports a clinically significant fear of dental injections, leading many to avoid dental care. While systematic desensitization is the most common therapeutic method for treating specific phobias such as fear of dental injections, lack of access to trained therapists, as well as dentists’ lack of training and time in providing such a therapy, means that most fearful individuals are not able to receive the therapy needed to be able to receive necessary dental treatment. Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning (CARL) is a self-paced computerized treatment based on systematic desensitization for dental injection fear. This multicenter, block-randomized, dentist-blind, parallel-group study conducted in 8 sites in the United States compared CARL with an informational pamphlet in reducing fear of dental injections. Participants completing CARL reported significantly greater reduction in self-reported general and injection-specific dental anxiety measures compared with control individuals (p < .001). Twice as many CARL participants (35.3%) as controls (17.6%) opted to receive a dental injection after the intervention, although this was not statistically significant. CARL, therefore, led to significant changes in self-reported fear in study participants, but no significant differences in the proportion of participants having a dental injection (, NCT00609648). PMID:23690352

Heaton, L.J.; Leroux, B.G.; Ruff, P.A.; Coldwell, S.E.



Identification of tooth decay using terahertz imaging and spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz (THz) frequency spectroscopic imaging studies of teeth are reported. The aim is to establish the characteristic properties of the enamel and dentine at these high frequencies. Changes to the THz characteristics as a result of various types of tooth decay are reported showing the potential of this technique for dental diagnosis.

N. N. Zinov'ev; A. F. Fitzgerald; S. M. Strafford; D. J. Wood; F. A. Carmichael; R. E. Miles; M. A. Smith; J. M. Chamberlain



Dental health of children in an integrated urban development programme for destitute mothers with twins in Addis Ababa.  


The Ethiopian Gemini Trust in Addis Ababa is a charitable organisation which cares for mothers who have delivered twins or triplets. A dental preventive programme for the disadvantaged children in the Trust was begun and this paper describes the first objective of the programme, the determination of the levels of dental disease. Caries, periodontal disease, malocclusion and enamel opacities were recorded. PMID:1286928

Nunn, J H; Welbury, R R; Gordon, P H; Stretton-Downes, S; Green-Abate, C



The impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries of special school children with disability.  


The daily oral activities may severely influence oral health of children with disabilities. In this survey, we analyzed the impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries in special school children with disabilities. This cross-sectional survey investigated 535 special school children with disabilities aged 6-12 years, 60.93% males, 39.07% females from 10 special schools in Taiwan. Oral examinations were carried out by dentists with a Kappa score of their inter-examiner agreement exceeding 0.8. Data on demographics, diet, and tooth-brushing habits of children with disabilities were collected using a standardized questionnaire completed by parents/caregivers. More than three quarters of the participants were combined with severe or profound disability. Children with profound severity in disability had a higher percentage (67.37%) in teeth-brushing by parents/caregivers compared to those children with mild/moderate severity in disability which had a higher percentage (81.60%) in teeth-brushing by themselves. Children whose teeth were brushed by parents/caregivers had a better dental health, and lower caries prevalence. The main risk factors related to decayed teeth of children with disabilities are frequency of sweets intake, ability to brush teeth and with plaque or not. The dental health education, prevention program and periodical oral check-up to children with disabilities and their parents/caregivers should be reinforced. Brushing skill should be taught to children according to their type, severity and individual characteristics of disability. PMID:20850944

Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Chun-Chih; Hu, Wen-Chia; Tang, Ru-Ching; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te



Children's Dental Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  


... hygiene practices such as thorough brushing with a fluoride toothpaste can help keep children from getting cavities. ... Fluoridation Nearly all naturally occurring water sources contain fluoride— a mineral that prevents tooth decay and even ...


Aetna Dental presents A Dental Benefit Summary for  

E-print Network

Plan 63 Aetna Dental presents A Dental Benefit Summary for Rice University CODE PROCEDURE PATIENT, Three or more surfaces $225 D0210 X-ray, Intraoral, Complete Series No Charge D2543 Onlay, Metallic, Three surfaces $240 (including bitewings) D2740 Crown, Porcelain/Ceramic Substrate $315 D0220 X-ray


Essays in the Economics of Dental Insurance and Dental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis consists of four papers, all of which are concerned with the demand for and consumption of dental care services. In Paper [I] the presence of supplier induced demand is studied in the Swedish market for dental care. A two-part, hurdle model is used to capture the fact that the decision whether or not to visit a dentist, and

Christina Olsson



The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora  

PubMed Central

Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual.

Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal



Antibiotic prophylaxis patterns of Finnish dentists performing dental implant surgery.  


Abstract Background. The peri-operative use of prophylactic antibiotics in clinically healthy patients undergoing dental implant surgery is very common in Finland. While antibiotics are prescribed with the hope of preventing both local and systemic complications, their application and utilization is not uniform. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the variation in prescribing patterns among Finnish dentists performing dental implant placement operations. This study also aimed to examine the possible relationship between early implant removal and the use of the prophylactic antibiotics in Finland. Materials and methods. The National Institute for Health and Welfare in Finland granted permission to access the Finnish Dental Implant Register. The peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis prescribing patterns were assessed in a total of 110 543 dental implant placement procedures and 1038 dental implant removal operations performed in Finland between April 1994 and April 2012. Results. A total of 61 different antibiotics or combinations were prescribed peri-operatively during implant placements in Finland between 1994-2012. Phenoxymethylpenicillin was the most commonly prescribed drug (72.2%). No statistically significant difference in early implant removal rates could be found between patients who had or had not received peri-operative prophylaxis. However, patients who had received peri-operative prophylaxis had statistically significant longer implant survival rates. Conclusion. There is a variation in antibiotic prescribing patterns among Finnish dentists placing dental implants. The results suggest that the use of prophylactic antibiotics has little effect on the prevention of primary implant surgery-related complications and, hence, success rates. PMID:24791607

Pyysalo, Mikko; Helminen, Mika; Antalainen, Anna-Kaisa; Sándor, George K; Wolff, Jan



University of Minnesota Dental Clinics  

E-print Network

for all dentistry patients. Even if the parking ramp sign indicates "Full", enter the ramp, inform to the University of Minnesota Dental Clinics: From the east or west: Follow interstate 94 to exit 235B, Huron at the dental school. Revised 5/13 #12;Page 2 Table of Contents School of Dentistry Phone Numbers

Blanchette, Robert A.


The simulation of dental fluorosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental fluorosis occurs when excess fluoride is incorporated into the enamel of developing teeth, resulting in a mottled appearance on eruption. The effects can range from mild white striations to more severe pitting and staining. In recent years there has been an increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis, which is probably linked to an increase in fluoride intake during

David R. Simmons; Maura Edwards; Lorna M. D. MacPherson; Kenneth Stephen; Robert A. McKerlie



Denitrification in human dental plaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that

Frank Schreiber; Peter Stief; Armin Gieseke; Ines M Heisterkamp; Willy Verstraete; Dirk de Beer; Paul Stoodley



Dental Chairside Technique. Student's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: local anesthesia; dental office emergencies; oral hygiene;…

Apfel, Maura; Weaver, Trudy Karlene


Current trends in dental implants  

PubMed Central

Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evolution of dental implants. It also describes the types of implants that have been developed, and the parameters that are presently used in the design of dental implants. Finally, it describes the trends that are employed to improve dental implant surfaces, and current technologies used for the analysis and design of the implants. PMID:24868501

Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja



Cutaneous sinuses of dental origin  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a cutaneous sinus related to a non-vital lower premolar. The case was misdiagnosed by non-dentally trained medical staff and subsequent treatment proved ineffective. Following referral to an Oral and Maxillofacial clinic the correct cause was established. Correct treatment was followed by rapid resolution of signs and symptoms. This case highlights the need for healthcare professionals dealing with such patients to be aware of the dentition as a cause for cutaneous sinuses in the head and neck region. Those professionals not dentally qualified should enquire about dental pain and consider referral to the dental practitioner or a specialist department for further evaluation. Even those with a dental background can be fooled and a through history and examination is paramount, supplemented by special investigations were appropriate. PMID:24960764

Alibhai, M; Balasundaram, I; Bridle, C



Cutaneous sinuses of dental origin.  


We report a case of a cutaneous sinus related to a non-vital lower premolar. The case was misdiagnosed by non-dentally trained medical staff and subsequent treatment proved ineffective. Following referral to an Oral and Maxillofacial clinic the correct cause was established. Correct treatment was followed by rapid resolution of signs and symptoms. This case highlights the need for healthcare professionals dealing with such patients to be aware of the dentition as a cause for cutaneous sinuses in the head and neck region. Those professionals not dentally qualified should enquire about dental pain and consider referral to the dental practitioner or a specialist department for further evaluation. Even those with a dental background can be fooled and a through history and examination is paramount, supplemented by special investigations were appropriate. PMID:24960764

Alibhai, M; Balasundaram, I; Bridle, C



Dental impression materials.  


It is clear that many impression materials are available to the veterinary dentist. They each have different inherent properties, handling characteristics, and indications for use. A thorough understanding of these concepts is essential if the veterinarian and laboratory technician are to produce meaningful and accurate reproductions of oral structures. New products are constantly being introduced to the dental market, with fantastic claims for ease of use and reproduction of detail. The reader is urged to seek independent research findings when assessing such claims, and make decisions founded in the highest possible levels of evidence. PMID:24006720

Perry, Rachel



Is dental caries neglect?  


The recent and widespread media interest highlighting the concerning number of children with poor oral health has, at last, put paediatric dentistry well and truly under the spotlight. Whether on the front page of the Sunday Times (, on GDPUK forums or live Twitter feeds as ITV's The Dentists was broadcast, the whole nation has suddenly awoken to the realisation that tens of thousands of children are undergoing multiple dental extractions under general anaesthesia in the UK every year. This is of course, not a new phenomenon, so why the sudden interest? PMID:25377816

Stevens, C L



Rural-urban differences in dental service utilization among an early childhood population enrolled in South Carolina Medicaid.  


Our exploratory study examined rural-urban differences in dental care utilization during early childhood among Medicaid-enrolled children aged younger than 4 years in South Carolina. We conducted a secondary data analysis using Medicaid data. Dependent variables included preventive dental visits, use of medical settings (emergency room [ER] and primary care [PC] offices) for dental reasons, receipt of fluoride varnish, and dental home status. The primary independent variable was child's area of residence, rural or urban. The control variables were child's age, gender, race, and special healthcare need status. In adjusted analyses, rural children were found to have significantly higher odds of lacking preventive dental visits, fluoride varnishes, and dental homes as well as using medical settings for dental reasons compared to urban children. This difference, however, was not a simple function of rural residence. Other variables such as race and special healthcare need status interacted with rurality in explaining the differences in the outcomes of interest except visiting medical settings for dental reasons. Children under age of 2 years had higher odds of undesirable outcomes compared to those aged older than 2 years. Significant disparities in dental care utilization were evident among rural, Medicaid-enrolled preschool-aged children in South Carolina. While the state has addressed Medicaid reimbursement and related policies for nearly 10 years, their impact may be disproportionately effective. PMID:21153760

Martin, Amy Brock; Vyavaharkar, Medha; Veschusio, Christine; Kirby, Heather



Oral health status and behaviour of Mauritians visiting private dental clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated with oral health behaviour were investigated. Cross-sectional data on oral

P. Pugo Gunsam; S. Banka



Risk factors for dental caries in the five-year-old South Australian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study tested the hypothesis that risk behaviours in disadvantaged groups would explain socio-economic inequality in dental caries prevalence among preschool children. Methods: Using a case-control study, children with caries experience (one or more decayed, missing or filled primary tooth surfaces) and with no caries experience were sampled with known probabilities from among five year olds attending the South

GD Slade; AE Sanders; CJ Bill



ORIGINAL ARTICLE Force modeling for tooth preparation in a dental training system  

E-print Network

Tooth preparation is the process of re-shaping a decayed tooth to restore it. The shapeORIGINAL ARTICLE Force modeling for tooth preparation in a dental training system Guanyang Liu Ã?-Verlag London Limited 2008 Abstract Feedback force is very important for novices to simulate tooth preparation


Oral Health Status and Behaviour of Mauritians Visiting Private Dental Clinics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…

Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.



1) Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus 2) Anthem Blue Dental PPO  

E-print Network

- 35 - 1) Anthem Blue Dental PPO Plus 2) Anthem Blue Dental PPO DENTAL INSURANCE ANTHEM BLUE CROSS AND BLUE SHIELD You may select from two separate dental care plans to meet your individual needs. Premium with comprehensive dental care benefits. However, each plan has special features and a variety of ways to manage your


The association between dental health and procedures and developing shunt infections in pediatric patients.  


Object Cerebrospinal fluid-diverting shunts are often complicated by bacterial infections. Dental procedures are known to cause transient bacteremia that could potentially spread hematogenously to these implanted devices. No literature currently exists to inform practitioners as to the need for prophylactic antibiotics for patients who possess these implants. The authors performed a retrospective study to assess whether dental procedures and poor oral health were associated with a higher likelihood of developing CSF-diverting shunt infections. Methods Neurosurgical and pediatric dental records from January 2007 to December 2012 were reviewed for shunt surgeries and dental encounters. Indications for shunt surgery and infection rates were recorded. Dental records were reviewed for several markers of overall dental health, such as a DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) score and a gingival health/oral hygiene score. The association between these scores and the incidence of shunt infections were studied. Moreover, the relationship between the incidence of shunt infections and the timing and invasiveness of preceding dental encounters were analyzed. Results A total of 100 pediatric patients were included in our study, for a total of 204 shunt surgeries. Twenty-one shunt infections were noted during the 6-year study period. Five of these shunts infections occurred within 3 months of a dental procedure. The odds ratio (OR) of developing a shunt infection within 3 months of a dental procedure was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-3.01), and was not statistically significant. The OR of developing a shunt infection after a high-risk dental procedure compared with a low-risk dental procedure was 1.32 (95% CI 0.02-16.29), and was not statistically significant. There was no significant association between measures of dental health, such as DMFT and gingival health score, and the likelihood of developing a shunt infection. The ORs for these 2 scores were 0.51 (95% CI 0.04-4.96) and 1.58 (95% CI 0.03-20.06), respectively. The study was limited by sample size. Conclusions Dental health status and the number and type of dental procedures performed do not appear to confer a higher risk of developing a CSF-diverting shunt infection in this pediatric population. PMID:25216290

Moazzam, Alan A; Nehrer, Ernest; Da Silva, Stephanie L; Polido, José C; Arakelyan, Anush; Habibian, Mina; Krieger, Mark D



Dental erosion in workers exposed to sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing facility.  


Dental erosion, and specifically its symptoms, has long been studied in Japan as an occupational dental disease. However, in recent years, few studies have investigated the development of this disease or labor hygiene management aimed at its prevention. As a result, interest in dental erosion is comparatively low, even among dental professionals. Our investigation at a lead storage battery factory in 1991 found that the work environmental sulfuric acid density was above the tolerable range (1.0mg/m(3)) and that longterm workers had dental erosion. Therefore, workers handling sulfuric acid were given an oral examination and rates of dental erosion by tooth type, rates of erosion by number of working years and rates of erosion by sulfuric acid density in the work environment investigated. Where dental erosion was diagnosed, degree of erosion was identified according to a diagnostic criterion. No development of dental erosion was detected in the maxillary teeth, and erosion was concentrated in the anterior mandibular teeth. Its prevalence was as high as 20%. Rates of dental erosion rose precipitously after 10 working years. The percentages of workers with dental erosion were 42.9% for 10-14 years, 57.1% for 15-19 years and 66.7% for over 20 years with 22.5% for total number of workers. The percentages of workers with dental erosion rose in proportion to work environmental sulfuric acid density: 17.9% at 0.5-1.0, 25.0% at 1.0-4.0 and 50.0% at 4.0-8.0mg/m(3). This suggests that it is necessary to evaluate not only years of exposure to sulfuric acid but also sulfuric acid density in the air in factory workers. PMID:20689238

Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi



[Dental spacing problems and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents].  


The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental spacing problems and associated factors among adolescents using data from the SB Brazil 2010 survey. The outcomes evaluated were dental spacing problems: space deficit (crowding and misalignment) and excess space (diastema and spacing) obtained using the DAI index. The association of independent variables with outcomes was assessed using a hierarchical model with four levels: contextual, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, access to services and dental morbidity. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and univariate and multivariate Poisson distribution to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). The overall prevalence of space problems was 71.43%, with misalignment being the most common type (56.4%). The following aspects were significantly associated with excess space: age of 16, 18 and 19 years; being non-Caucasian (PR = 1.75), perception of speech problems (PR = 1.72) and periodontal pockets 4-5mm (RP = 1.56). For space deficit: family income up to 3 minimum wages, dental visit 1 year or more previously (PR = 1.19) and having one or more decayed teeth on average (PR = 1.32). There was a prevalence of spacing problems, especially with socioeconomic and demographic variables and morbidity as potential risk factors. PMID:25351321

Nunes Neto, Theodorico de Almeida; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Ferreira, Meire Coelho; Santos, Alcione Miranda Dos; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa



Airborne Microbial Contamination of Dental Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Occupational risk of dental personnel to microbial airborne contamination has been demonstrated through the increased prevalence of respiratory infections. The American Dental Association has suggested stringent protection for infectious agents present in dental aerosols. Materials and Methods: Occupational exposure of dentists to airborne microbial and mycological contamination in various locations of a dental school was monitored by sampling of

Mansour R. Azari; Ali Ghadjari; Mohammad Reza Massoudi Nejad; Negar Faghih Nasiree


UK Dental Care Certificate of Coverage  

E-print Network

UK Dental Care Certificate of Coverage July 2013 ­ June 2014 #12;UK Dental Care Plans Certificate of Coverage Employee Benefit Booklet This Certificate is issued and administered by UK Dental Care plans, for persons who have selected the UK Dental Care plan benefit structure

Hayes, Jane E.


Yale University Group # 4630 Delta Dental PPOSM  

E-print Network

Yale University ­ Group # 4630 Delta Dental PPOSM plus Premier Faculty, Managerial & Professional on or after January 1, 2012. $2,000* Dependent children are covered to age 26. Delta Dental has two networks available under this plan. The Delta Dental Premier® network is the largest of the Delta Dental networks


Prepaid Dental Plans State Assurant Prepaid 225  

E-print Network

18 19 Prepaid Dental Plans State Assurant Prepaid 225 Plan Code--4025 State CIGNA Dental Plan Code. After your information is sent to the primary dental office, you may access services. Network only the plan prior to referral to ensure it is approved. If covered dental expenses for a procedure

Pilyugin, Sergei S.


Delta Dental Program Highlights For Employees of  

E-print Network

Delta Dental Program Highlights For Employees of The University of Oklahoma Basic Plan (PPO "Point-of-Service") This brochure provides a brief description of the most important features of your new Delta Dental dental benefits program. If you have more specific questions regarding your benefits, please contact Delta Dental

Oklahoma, University of


Delta Dental PPO Easy, Friendly, Accessible  

E-print Network

about enrolling with Delta Dental: E HL_PPO_2col #73286 (rev. 5/13) · Save money with a Delta Dental PPO from. Since Delta Dental offers access to one of the largest dentist networks in the U.S., chances are contracted Delta Dental dentists, giving more enrollees convenient access to more dentists. Visit us

California at Santa Cruz, University of


Prevalence and Correlates of Dental Caries in an Elderly Population in Northeast China  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65–74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n?=?1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). Results 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT?=?2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (P<0.01). Missing teeth accounted for 80.72% of DMFT, and filled teeth due to caries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (P<0.01). Logistic regression analysis indicated significant association among elderly population in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337–2.195), smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384–2.288), and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120–3.754) with dental caries. Conclusions The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries. PMID:24260129

Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo



Knowledge and attitudes of saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer.  


Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory. PMID:24699922

Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama



Involving dental practitioners in setting the dental research agenda.  


This paper describes the process set up by the BDA and the Shirley Glasstone Hughes (SGH) Trust as a result of their will to involve dental practitioners in dental research prioritisation, so that funding could be directed towards research that practitioners would find useful. The paper considers the technical, operational and economic feasibility of using an online system to determine the research priorities of primary care practitioners and describes the extent to which the system worked in practice. The aim of the work described was to ensure that the research commissioned by SGH Trust actually served practitioners' needs and promotes the use of evidence in general dental practice. PMID:25256992

Fox, C; Kay, E J; Anderson, R



Cross-border dental care: 'dental tourism' and patient mobility.  


Patient mobility is increasing. 'Dental tourism' is driven by numerous factors. These factors include the high cost of local care, delays in obtaining access to local dentists, competent care at many international clinics, inexpensive air travel, and the Internet's capacity to link 'customers' to 'sellers' of health-related services. Though dental tourism will benefit some patients, increased patient mobility comes with numerous risks. Lack of access to affordable and timely local care plays a significant role in prompting patients to cross borders and receive dental care outside their local communities. PMID:18500297

Turner, L



Muon decay  

SciTech Connect

Improved searches for rare processes in muon decay have substantially improved existing limits, but no evidence for any non-standard behavior has been found. The result of a recent sensitive search for right-handed currents indicates that the ratio (V + A)-amplitude/(V - A)-amplitude less than or equal to 0.029. This experiment also imposed new limits on non-standard couplings and on the energy scales where lepton substructure and family symmetry breaking effects might manifest themselves.

Steiner, H.



Time until first dental caries for young children first seen in Federally Qualified Health Centers: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The study assessed the time until first dental caries for young children seen at 5 Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) in Iowa and the relationship with the frequency and gaps (in months) of dental episodes, the number of topical fluoride treatments, and the number of dentists caring for the subject. Methods Forty children were randomly selected at each FQHC (n=200). All children were continuously enrolled in the Medicaid program and had their first dental visit prior to age 6. Dental chart findings, claims data for the child and family, and birth certificate information were merged into one dataset. Dental visits were followed for a minimum of 36 months, including dental visits external to the FQHCs. Using time until first caries as the dependent variable, the data were subject to left, interval, and right censoring and were analyzed via Weibull regression. Results Slightly more than half of the 200 children experienced caries. Regression analysis indicated that the hazard rate of first dental caries increased by approximately 2% with each additional month that transpired between preventive recall examinations. In addition, children with older siblings who had a dental visit at the same center during the previous year prior to the subject’s first visit were more likely to have a longer time until first dental caries. Conclusions Timing of dental care episodes was associated with caries experience in young children from low income families. Dental professionals should focus on regularity of dental care in order to prevent or delay caries experience in young children. PMID:24483730

Kuthy, RA; Jones, M; Kavand, G; Momany, E; Askelson, N; Chi, D; Wehby, G; Damiano, P



Dental depth profilometry using simultaneous frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and laser luminescence for the diagnosis of dental caries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometry is introduced as a dynamic dental diagnostic tool and its main features are compared with modulated laser luminescence for quantifying sound and carious enamel or dentin. Dental caries found in the fissures or grooves of teeth is very difficult to diagnose or quantify with the present clinical techniques. Visual examination and dental radiographs do not detect the presence of decay until there has been significant carious destruction of the tooth. A high-spatial-resolution dynamic experimental imaging set-up, which can provide simultaneous measurements of laser-induced frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometric and luminescence signals form defects in teeth, was developed. Following optical absorption of laser photons, the new set-up can monitor simultaneously and independently the non-radiative conversion, and the radiative de-excitation in turbid media such as hard dental tissue. This work is intended to show the complementarity between modulated luminescence and photothermal frequency scans in detecting carious lesions in teeth. A sound extracted molar with a dentin-enamel interface was introduced to examine the depth profilometric abilities of the method. Occlusal surfaces of teeth with potential areas of demineralization or carious destruction in the fissures were examined and compared to the signals produced by the sound enamel establishing the depth profilometric abilities of the method. The significance to clinical dentistry lies in the potential of this technique to detect and monitor early carious lesions in the pits and fissures of teeth.

Nicolaides, Lena; Garcia, Jose A.; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.



The epidemic tendency of dental caries prevalence of school students from 1991 to 2005 in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The epidemic tendency of dental caries of school students over the past 15 years in China was analyzed in order to provide\\u000a bases for prevention of dental caries. Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7, 9, 12 years (deciduous caries) and 7,\\u000a 9, 12, 14, 17 years (permanent caries) were collected from the series of Chinese

Jie Tang; Yizhen Yu; Ying Ma



Eph\\/ephrinB Mediate Dental Pulp Stem Cell Mobilization and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage to the dentin matrix instigates the proliferation and mobilization of dental progenitor cells to the injury site, the mechanisms of which are not defined. EphB receptors and ephrin-B ligands expressed within the perivascular niche of dental pulp have been implicated following tooth injury. We propose that elevated levels of ephrin-B1 following injury may prevent the proliferation and migration of

A. Arthur; S. Koblar; S. Shi; S. Gronthos



Clinical use of dental classification.  


The Dental Classification system used by the uniformed services is supposed to predict the incidence of dental emergencies in the operational setting, at least on the unit level. Since most Sailors and Marines are deployed without close dental support, the sea services have adopted a policy of early treatment of class 3 dental conditions during recruit training. The other services are beginning to do the same. Recently, two factors have emerged that are affecting this early dental class 3 treatment. These factors must be considered when planning to provide early dental treatment. First, changing population and dentist provider demographics in the civilian sector are beginning to affect the class 3 treatment needs of incoming military recruits. Second, attrition from recruit training results in treatment provided to recruits who leave military service before finishing their training. Some view this as a waste of resources, others as a cost of doing business. As operational jointness increases, the three services must develop and use a single dental classification terminology, as well as unified standards and guidelines, both for better research in this area and for the readiness and well-being of our patients. PMID:18277724

Jones, Gordon



Evaluating the effectiveness of oral health education program among mothers with 6-18 months children in prevention of early childhood caries  

PubMed Central

Background: Mothers play a key role as transmitters of oral health behavior for their children. Hence increasing their knowledge about positive attitude toward desirable oral health behaviors regarding their children will lead to the better oral health of the children. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of oral health education program among mothers with 6-18 months old children in the prevention of early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: A total of 480 mothers with 6-18 months old children were selected using cluster randomization of the primary health center. The allocated mothers were assigned into three groups: Motivation group (group A), traditional health education group (group B) and control group (group C). Clinical examination was carried out to record the dental decay of the child. Statistical Analysis: The data was analyzed using SPSS 13. Evaluation of statistical significance between groups was made using the Chi-square test, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis. Results: Mean number of decayed teeth was 0.23 + 0.58 in group A that was significantly less as compared to 0.39 + 0.79 and 1.17 + 1.32 in group B and C, respectively. Conclusion: Motivational intervention was more effective in reducing dental decay in the children as compared to the other two groups.

Manchanda, Kavita; Sampath, Naganandini; Sarkar, Avishek De



Entrepreneurship in continuing dental education: a dental school perspective.  


The definition of continuing dental education is presented, along with its benefits to the profession. The preeminence of dental schools in providing lifelong learning opportunities and freedom from commercial involvement that existed even twenty years ago has changed. Less than a quarter of CE takes place in school, and the focus there is increasingly on material with deep scientific background and hands-on learning. The newest innovations and those with the greatest commercial potential are taught elsewhere. Proposed changes in the ADA CERP standards would take on a "purist" approach that could place dental schools at a severe disadvantage while allowing "for profit" institutes to flourish and thus further undermine the role dental schools can play in providing quality professional development experiences. PMID:16350923

Liberto, Vincent N



[Tooth decay and its complication prognosis in smokers].  


The study focuses on complicated and non-complicated tooth decay course and prognosis in smokers. Oral status, prevention and treatment effectiveness was assessed in 330 non-smokers and 345 smoking patients. The results allowed concluding with guidelines for tooth decay prevention and treatment in smokers. PMID:24576962

Orekhova, L Iu; Osipova, M V



Subscriber's Certificate Delta Dental* certifies that you have the right to benefits for services according to the terms of  

E-print Network

". This certificate includes four types of services: 1. Type I includes services to prevent or detect tooth decay and other forms of oral disease. 2. Type II includes services to: (i) restore decayed or fractured teeth decayed or fractured teeth. 4. Type IV includes services to prevent and correct misalignment of the teeth

Fraden, Seth


The impact of recent changes in the epidemiology of dental caries on guidelines for the use of dental sealants: clinical perspectives.  


When used properly, sealants result in improved dental health. However, their use on all occlusal tooth surfaces for preventive reasons will result in wasted dental care resources. To optimize the preventive effects of sealants, a delivery model should be initiated that uses specially trained dental hygienists or dental assistants who visit schools to explain oral health-related issues, conduct visual inspections of clinical oral health status, identify patients at risk for dental caries, and generate a central database for program operation. When a high-risk patient is identified, auxiliary personnel could place sealants and recall the patient for a new visual inspection six months later. If caries is suspected at that time, the patient could be sent to a dentist for additional treatment. To offset the negative effects caused by overutilization of sealants, their usage should be divided into two categories. First, a preventive option should be available, and the fee for use of sealants in this option should be lower compared to the fees used today. By using specially trained auxiliary personnel to place such sealants, the fee could be kept reasonably low. Second, a sealant treatments option that targets treatments of incipient lesions also should be available. The fee for such a treatment should be close to that of the traditional occlusal restoration, and the application should be by a dentist. By using such a fee structure based on market forces, one would expect that sealant usage would increase among patients suffering from early carious lesions, while the usage of preventive sealants would remain the same or decline. This utilization pattern for dental sealants would contribute to improved efficiency of sealant usage in the treatment of dental caries, particularly at a time when caries frequency is declining. The improved efficiency could release dental care resources that should be used to target risk groups with improved education in dental health. By using such a strategy, the long-term effect would be not only the placement of fewer restorations, but an improvement in dental health among adolescents and adults. PMID:8854270

Söderholm, K J



Dental hard tissue characterization using laser-based ultrasonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dental health care and research workers require a means of imaging the structures within teeth in vivo. One critical need is the detection of tooth decay in its early stages. If decay can be detected early enough, the process can be monitored and interventional procedures, such as fluoride washes and controlled diet, can be initiated to help re-mineralize the tooth. Currently employed x-ray imaging is limited in its ability to visualize interfaces and incapable of detecting decay at a stage early enough to avoid invasive cavity preparation followed by a restoration. To this end, non-destructive and non-contact in vitro measurements on extracted human molars using laser-based ultrasonics are presented. Broadband ultrasonic waves are excited in the extracted sections by using a pulsed carbon-dioxide (CO2) laser operating in a region of high optical absorption in the dental hard tissues. Optical interferometric detection of the ultrasonic wave surface displacements in accomplished with a path-stabilized Michelson-type interferometer. Results for bulk and surface in-vitro characterization of caries are presented on extracted molars with pre-existing caries.

Blodgett, David W.; Massey, Ward L.



Characteristics of Streptococcus mutans genotypes and dental caries in children.  


This longitudinal cohort study evaluated the diversity, commonality, and stability of Streptococcus mutans genotypes associated with dental caries history. Sixty-seven 5- and 6-yr-old children, considered as being at high caries risk, had plaque collected from baseline through 36 months for S. mutans isolation and genotyping using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (4,392 total isolates). Decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (dmfs (primary teeth)/DMFS (secondary teeth)) for each child were recorded at baseline. At baseline, 18 distinct genotypes were found among 911 S. mutans isolates from 67 children (diversity), and 13 genotypes were shared by at least two children (commonality). The number of genotypes per individual was positively associated with the proportion of decayed surfaces (p-ds) at baseline. Twenty-four of the 39 children who were available at follow-up visits maintained a predominant genotype for the follow-up periods (stability) and this was negatively associated with the p-ds. The observed diversity, commonality, and stability of S. mutans genotypes represent a pattern of dental caries epidemiology in this high-caries-risk community, which suggests that fewer decayed surfaces are significantly associated with lower diversity and higher stability of S. mutans genotypes. PMID:23659236

Cheon, Kyounga; Moser, Stephen A; Wiener, Howard W; Whiddon, Jennifer; Momeni, Stephanie S; Ruby, John D; Cutter, Gary R; Childers, Noel K



Assessment of tobacco dependence curricula in Italian dental hygiene schools.  


The aim of this study was to assess the level of tobacco dependence education offered by Italian dental hygiene programs. A fifty-question survey was mailed to the thirty-one active public and private dental hygiene programs in Italy during the 2008-09 academic year. The survey assessed faculty confidence in teaching tobacco treatment, which courses contained tobacco dependence content, the number of minutes spent on specific content areas, and the level of clinical competence that dental hygiene graduates should be able to demonstrate. Surveys were returned by sixteen programs for a response rate of 52 percent. Respondents indicated tobacco dependence education was included in clinic or clinic seminar (56 percent), periodontics (44 percent), oral pathology (31 percent), and prevention (19 percent). All programs reported including the effects of tobacco on general and oral diseases in courses. However, more in-depth topics received less curriculum time; these included tobacco treatment strategies (63 percent) and discussion of cessation medications (31 percent). Interestingly, 62 percent of the respondents indicated they expected dental hygiene graduates to demonstrate a tobacco treatment competency level of a moderate intervention or higher (counseling, discussion of medications, follow-up) rather than a brief intervention in which patients are advised to quit then referred to a quitline. The results of this study indicated that Italian dental hygiene students are not currently receiving adequate instruction in tobacco treatment techniques nor are they being adequately assessed. This unique overview of Italian dental hygiene tobacco dependence education provides a basis for further discussion towards a national competency-based curriculum. PMID:23929577

Pizzo, Giuseppe; Davis, Joan M; Licata, Maria E; Giuliana, Giovanna



Eldercare at Home: Dental Problems  


... to be checked and refitted on a regular basis because they can become loose or uncomfortable. Poor ... the plaque that accumulates there on a daily basis. Ask your dental hygienist or dentist to show ...


Dental insurance! Are we ready?  


Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008) focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company. PMID:21525693

Toor, Ravi S S; Jindal, R




PubMed Central

Background: Regular utilization of dental services is key to the attainment of optimal oral health state, an integral component of general health and well being needed for effective productivity by working personnel. Objective: This study assessed the rate and pattern of dental service utilization among civil servants and their attitudes towards its regular use. Methodology: A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select participants from the Federal Secretariat in Ibadan, Nigeria. A structured, standardized, pretested and self-administered questionnaire was utilized to elicit responses on dental services and attitudes towards their regular utilization. Responses to knowledge and attitude questions were scored and categorized. Chi-squared test was used to test associations between variables at 5% level of significance. Results: A total of 400 civil servants participated in the study. Their mean age was 44.0 ±7.3years. Many 291(72.8%) were well informed about dental health care and services, but few 156 (39%) had ever utilized it. Of the utilizers, 32 (20.5%) visited within the previous one year period, while others last visited in more than one year period. Few 17 (10.9%) of the utilizers visited for routine dental checks, 103 (66%) for acute pain relief, while the rest had other dental health care needs. The majority 312 (78.0%) showed positive attitude towards regular dental service utilization and this improved with higher educational attainment, improved level of income, being aware of dental services and having ever utilized it (all p<0.05). Conclusion: Despite the awareness and positive attitude towards regular dental service use, their utilization rate was relatively low, episodic and problem driven. Appropriate oral health promotion strategies to enhance utilization of preventive dental services are strongly recommended for them. PMID:25332695

Osuh, M.E.; Oke, G.A.; Asuzu, M.C.



Challenges in Hyperon Decays  

E-print Network

We give an personal overview of some of the unsolved problems related to hyperon decays. We cover nonleptonic decays, radiative decays and magnetic moments. Some of the theoretical issues are also touched upon.

Darwin Chang



When and Why Parents Seek Dental Care for Children under 36 Months  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim was to analyze an infant preventive program determining at what age parents take their children for their first dental visit and the reasons why they do it. Materials & Methods: A total of 844 children aged from 0 to 36 months, enrolled in the program of oral health maintenance of the Baby Clinic, participated in this study. During the first dental visit, the parents were inquired about the reasons that led them to enroll their children in the program. One trained investigator identified this reasons on the records and classified them according to the following scores: orientation/prevention, caries treatment, malpositioned teeth, dental trauma, tooth color alterations and others. Results: Orientation/prevention was the most prevalent reason from 0-6 months to 25-30 months of age, and at the age 30-36 months, the reason caries/treatment overcame orientation/prevention, becoming the most prevalent reason in that age group. The third place was occupied by dental trauma. The mean age parents seek for dental care to their children was 14, 92 months. Conclusion: This study showed a preferentially preventive/educational profile for the children. However, lots of parents still take children to the dentist preferentially for curative instead of preventive treatment. How to cite this article: Volpato LE, Palti DG, Lima JE, Machado MA, Aranha AM, Bandeca MC, Pedro FL, Borges AH. When and Why Parents Seek Dental Care for Children under 36 Months. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):21-25. PMID:24155615

Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Palti, Dafna Geller; Lima, Jose Eduardo de Oliveira; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fabio; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Pedro, Fabio Luis Miranda; Borges, Alvaro Henrique



Radioactive Decay Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online calculator computes radioactive decay, timed decay, and timed solid disposal for a databank containing 116 isotopes. It also features University of British Columbia disposal limits and a unit converter and date/time calculators. These tools calculate the half-life for selected isotopes; radioactive decay final activity, given the initial activity and decay time; the decay time, given the initial and final activities; and the decay time, given the mass of a solid and the initial activity.

Enns, Alan


Semileptonic Decays  

SciTech Connect

The following is an overview of the measurements of the CKM matrix elements |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub ub}| that are based on detailed studies of semileptonic B decays by the BABAR and Belle Collaborations and major advances in QCD calculations. In addition, a new and improved measurement of the ratios R(D{sup (*)}) = {Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}})/{Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) is presented. Here D{sup (*)} refers to a D or a D* meson and {ell} is either e or {mu}. The results, R(D) = 0.440 {+-} 0.058 {+-} 0.042 and R(D*) = 0.332 {+-} 0.024 {+-} 0.018, exceed the Standard Model expectations by 2.0{sigma} and 2.7{sigma}, respectively. Taken together, they disagree with these expectations at the 3.4{sigma} level. The excess of events cannot be explained by a charged Higgs boson in the type II two-Higgs-doublet model.

Luth, Vera G.; /SLAC



Dental Therapy Assistant: Quality of Restorations Placed and Finished.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Army Dental Corps has implemented a new concept of dental care delivery, formally identified as the Improved Dental Care Delivery System. The concept is based on the conservation of professional manpower resources through the use of dental treatment teams employing expanded duty dental assistants. Dental Therapy Assistant (DTA) is the…

Heid, Theodore H.; Bair, Jeffrey H.


MSU Student Dental Plan (Non-GA Students)  

E-print Network

MSU Student Dental Plan (Non-GA Students) Helping smiles at State look great! Keep your smile healthy with dental benefits from Delta Dental Delta Dental of Michigan, Inc. and Michigan State University are pleased to partner to bring you an affordable, quality dental plan--the MSU Student Dental

Liu, Taosheng


Prosthetic joint infection, dental treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Current international and national prophylactic antibiotic regimens have been analyzed in respect of the prevention of bacteremia after dental and surgical procedures and, therefore, of joint prosthesis infection. This information was used to formulate guidelines for the Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Publications since 2003 were used in this research. In addition, recommendations of accredited institutions and associations were examined. These included the guidelines of the American Dental Association in association with the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2003), the American Heart Association (2007), the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2006) and the Australian Dental Guidelines (2005). No guidelines published by any institution in South Africa were found. The general rationale for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical (including dental) interventions is that those procedures may result in a bacteremia that may cause infection in joint prostheses. Antibiotics, however, should therefore be administered to susceptible patients, e.g. immunocompromised patients, prior to the development of bacteremia. The guidelines recommended for use in South Africa are based solely on those used outside South Africa. South Africa is regarded as a developing country with its own population and demographic characteristics. Eleven percent of our population is infected with HIV, and a specific guideline for prophylactic antibiotic treatment is, therefore, essential. PMID:21808671

Kotze, Marthinus J.



Reach the unreached - a systematic review on mobile dental units.  


Provision of health care facilities and the extent of their utilization is one of the indices of human development. The services for the masses need to be designed with the basic objective of alleviating and preventing the vast amounts of diseases of the mass. This could be achieved by mobile dental units (MDUs). The present systemic review access the efficacy of MDUs for community settings. A review of literature was performed both electronically and manually using MeSH Terms- Mobile Dental Units/clinics. Eight articles, which fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the review. MDUs help in overcoming the accessibility, affordability and sustainability barrier. They are able to reach more people than fixed-site clinics. Even in Government sector, mobile dental vans can help reach the underserved at an affordable cost.The present systematic review revealed that MDUs prove to be an effective adjunct to the oral health service providers like dental colleges and private practitioners. PMID:25302288

Vashishtha, Vaibhav; Kote, Sunder; Basavaraj, Patthi; Singla, Ashish; Pandita, Venisha; Malhi, Ravneet Kaur



Reach the Unreached - A Systematic Review on Mobile Dental Units  

PubMed Central

Provision of health care facilities and the extent of their utilization is one of the indices of human development. The services for the masses need to be designed with the basic objective of alleviating and preventing the vast amounts of diseases of the mass. This could be achieved by mobile dental units (MDUs). The present systemic review access the efficacy of MDUs for community settings. A review of literature was performed both electronically and manually using MeSH Terms- Mobile Dental Units/clinics. Eight articles, which fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the review. MDUs help in overcoming the accessibility, affordability and sustainability barrier. They are able to reach more people than fixed-site clinics. Even in Government sector, mobile dental vans can help reach the underserved at an affordable cost.The present systematic review revealed that MDUs prove to be an effective adjunct to the oral health service providers like dental colleges and private practitioners. PMID:25302288

Kote, Sunder; Basavaraj, Patthi; Singla, Ashish; Pandita, Venisha; Malhi, Ravneet Kaur



1.4 Research and the dental student.  


There has been significant concern that the dental curriculum and system of clinical education, in particular, is not designed to take advantage of the explosion in knowledge in biomedical science and its application to the health of the public. Although there are some examples of innovations in dental education on a global scale that have the capacity to increase the assimilation of basic and clinical knowledge, most of the dental education models are mired in the traditional '2 + 2' approach to education. This can be seen in North America and the European '2 + 3' model or the stomatological '4 + 2' approach. In each of these systems, the basic and behavioural science courses continue to be perceived as hurdles over which students must leap in order to reach the clinical programmes where there is little opportunity to use basic science information to advance patient care and treatment. Examples of issues that are not well represented include: innovations in imaging; diagnosis; bio-materials; science-based approaches to clinical practice; novel approaches to therapeutics; interactions between the oral, dental and craniofacial complex and systemic health and disorders; the role of oral infections and systemic disease; the increasing appreciation of chronic diseases and disorders such as osteoporosis and diabetes that affect oral tissues; the promise of bioengineering, tissue engineering and biomimetics; the potential use of saliva as a diagnostic tool; the understanding of oral complications of cancer treatment; the treatments of HIV/AIDS diseases and hepatitis; the use of dental and dental hygiene staff on health-care teams to deal with issues such as birth defects, orofacial trauma, head and neck cancer, chronic pain management and so on. There seems to be an excessive emphasis on restorative dentistry and, to a lesser extent, on the more biological approaches to diagnosis, prevention and therapeutics. This continued lack of integration of basic and clinical sciences in the curriculum continues to foster a dental workforce that is highly technically competent to provide specific clinical services but poorly equipped to evaluate and implement new biological approaches to diagnosis, therapeutics and intervention. Unfortunately, after many attempts by organized dental symposia aimed at the integration of basic and clinical sciences, there has been little discernible curricular change. It appears that there is an opportunity through this global congress to identify the best practices in the various global curricula that could change this paradigm in dental education and lead us toward the education of a more scientifically orientated practitioner-one who can take advantage of innovations in new and emerging technologies in their application to patient care. It is the challenge of this section to try to ascertain the best method or methods by which dental education promotes research to the dental student and what research represents in terms of critical thinking and evidence-based approaches to dental education and clinical practice. PMID:12390258

DePaola, Dominick; Howell, Howard; Baker, Charles G; Boy-Lefevre, Marie Laure; Hull, Peter; Holmstrup, Palle; Jerolimov, Vjekoslav; Hardwick, Kevin; Lamster, Ira B; Lopez, Nestor J; Rifkin, Barry



Prevalence of Dental Caries in the Municipality Gorazde During the Period 2007-2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Dental caries today, regardless of known multi causal etiology of the disease and the possibility of its effective prevention still represents the most widespread disease of our civilization, which affects about 95% of our population. It affects all populations and age groups and is a disease that is very difficult to completely eradicate due to a complex interaction of biological factors, eating habits, social status Etc. Goal: Goal is to report the prevalence of dental caries, DMFT-index and DMFT index in the first and seventh grades of grammar school in the municipality Gorazde during the last six years. Material and methods: Children, which have yet to enroll in school and in the seventh grade children, have required medical examinations. A total of 1198 first grade and 1666 seventh-grade students are included. To determine the prevalence of dental caries DMFT was used. Examinations are carried out in accordance with the methodology and criteria of the WHO, by a dental mirror and dental probe. Results: The prevalence of dental caries is extremely high as well as the values of DMFT index in the first and seventh grades in the municipality Gorazde. Conclusion: In practice it is necessary to introduce prevention programs for pregnant women, toddlers, preschool and school-aged children with a wider use of the mass media. PMID:24167427

Deljo, Emsudina; Cavaljuga, Semra; Meskovic, Belma



[Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].  


Nearly every person will be in need of dental treatment in his lifetime, whether purely for health causes or alternately for esthetic issues. Yet the main reasons of seeking dental treatment are in fact Caries, Gingivitis and Periodontitis. In spite of the fact that these pathologies occur due to the accumulation of Plaque around the oral cavity and teeth, they are fairly easy to prevent. Using simple techniques such as oral rinsing, flossing and brushing of the teeth, are normally sufficient for obtaining good oral health. If this is actually the case, than how is it that we are witnessing a massive spread of dental problems? How come there are so many incidents of people suffering from dental problems if the preventative care is that easy to manage? The answer lies in the concept of Adherence, referring to the cooperation of an individual with the demands of his treatment regime and the dental staff. The idea of promoting health adherence aims mainly for using medication, attending the periodic inspections and examination, and making lifestyle changes such as preventive care illustrated above. This article exemplifies how one of the current trends in Medical Psychology discipline is to enhance adherence by establishing a secure therapeutic alliance which is based upon a positive relationship between the patient and his doctor, increasing patient's confidence and sense of self-efficacy, and recruiting family members and friends to the patient's process of change. A distinctive emphasis is put on expanding the patient's knowledge about his condition, and raising awareness to the linkage between his medical (to be more specific-dental) problem and its symptoms to the implications. The most modish and putative intervention nowadays is Patient Centered, where the guiding principles used are urging the patient to be responsible for implying the treatment regime, taking active participation, and make decisions regarding his current and future status. This article illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic incentives (such as free toothpaste samples), support throughout the treatment, sharing the rati

Poplinger, A



492 Journal of Dental Education Volume 71, Number 4 Critical Issues in Dental Education  

E-print Network

492 Journal of Dental Education Volume 71, Number 4 Critical Issues in Dental Education Creating an Evidence-Based Admissions Formula for a New Dental School: University of Nevada, Las Vegas, School of Dental Medicine Karl Kingsley, Ph.D.; Jeremy Sewell, B.A.; Marcia Ditmyer, Ph.D.; Susan O'Malley, M

Ahmad, Sajjad


1274 Journal of Dental Education Volume 73, Number 11 Dental Students' Preparation and Study  

E-print Network

1274 Journal of Dental Education Volume 73, Number 11 Dental Students' Preparation and Study Habits for the National Board Dental Examination Part I Nathan Hawley, B.A.; Devin Johnson, D.M.D.; Keith was to assess dental students' study habits and level of preparation necessary to successfully prepare

Ahmad, Sajjad


Revised: 11/7/11 Master's Degree in Dental Science: Transitional and Clinical Dental Science  

E-print Network

Revised: 11/7/11 Master's Degree in Dental Science: Transitional and Clinical Dental Science Core ­ Clinical 1 ORB 556 Biology of the Periodontium 1 ORB 580 Fundamentals of Dental Caries 1 Required Research Experiments 1 ORB 579 Saliva and Salivary Glands 2 ORB ???-1 Dental Specialty Seminar-Literature Review 1 ORB

Goldman, Steven A.


IN HONOR OF YOUR GRADUATION, The Dental Alumni Association and the Division of Continuing Dental Education  

E-print Network

IN HONOR OF YOUR GRADUATION, The Dental Alumni Association and the Division of Continuing Dental Education extend to you free attendance for Continuing Education lectures on-campus at the School of Dental for a course. We wish you the very best as you begin your dental career. Sunday, May 18, 2014 Joseph C

Jiang, Huiqiang


Dental Health Associates P.A. Patient care remains the priority of Dental Health Associates after  

E-print Network

#12;Dental Health Associates P.A. Patient care remains the priority of Dental Health Associates founded the practice now known as Dental Health Associates in the 1940s. Tech- nology and the ins changed from a blue-collar demo- graphic to a more diverse family-oriented clientele. Dental Health

Lin, Xiaodong


Transmission of Microorganisms from Dentists to Dental Laboratory Technicians through Contaminated Dental Impressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY During dental procedures, dentists and their assistants, dental laboratory technicians and their assistants may be exposed to a wide variety of microorganisms in the blood, saliva, and oral cavity of the patients. These microorganisms may cause various air-borne and blood borne infections. The efficient infection control procedures in the dental office and the dental laboratory are not sufficiently used,

Jonas Junevicius; Alvydas Pavilonis; Algimantas Surna


American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine  


... and delivery of optimal care to dental sleep medicine patients. AADSM Practical Demonstration Course Join us for the Practical Demonstration ... by renewing your AADSM membership today. Dental Sleep Medicine Facility ... Course Renew Your Membership for 2015 Membership ...


Dental stem cells--characteristics and potential.  


Soft dental tissues have been identified as easily accessible sources of multipotent postnatal stem cells. Dental stem cells are mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) capable of differentiating into at least three distinct cell lineages: osteo/odontogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic. They express various markers including those specific for MSC, embryonic stem cells and neural cells. Five different types of dental stem cells have been isolated from mature and immature teeth: dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla and dental follicle progenitor cells. Dental stem cells may be used in dental tissue engineering including dental, enamel and periodontal tissue regeneration. They could also be used as a promising tool in potential treatment of neurodegenerative, ischemic and immune diseases. PMID:24446280

Bojic, Sanja; Volarevic, Vladislav; Ljujic, Biljana; Stojkovic, Miodrag



Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children  


... permanent teeth and lead to future dental problems. Teaching Good Dental Habits The best way to protect ... Pediatric First Aid for Caregivers and Teachers (PedFACTs) Teaching Package Food Fights Raising Twins Healthy Living Nutrition ...


Prevalence of dental caries among school-going children in Namakkal district: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth among 4-6 years old school going children in the Namakkal District. Materials and Methods: The study covered a total of 850 school going children in a total of 26 schools in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. The age group selected for this study ranged from 4 to 6 years of age. Each child was examined in their respective schools by one of the four calibrated examiners and decay, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index was recorded along with demographic details. This study was done in September-October 2013 in a span of 1 month duration. Results: Of 850 children examined, 560 (65.88%) children had dental caries. Mean dmft score was 2.86. Prevalence of dental caries was higher in boys (69.6%) than in girls (61.5%). The untreated decay teeth accounted for 92.4%. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among 4-6 years old children is high in the Namakkal district. The need for the creation of dental awareness among children and their primary caregivers is crucial and the need for developing immediate oral health promotion strategies including an increase in school dental health programs is recommended. PMID:25210362

Karunakaran, Ramachandran; Somasundaram, Sujatha; Gawthaman, Murugesan; Vinodh, Selvaraj; Manikandan, Sundaram; Gokulnathan, Subramanian



[Dental health: relationship between dental caries and food consumption].  


Although the reduction and prevalence of dental caries in many countries has been largely associated with the use of fluorine and improving dental hygiene, eating habits also play a role in the development of caries. Fermentable carbohydrates characteristics of the food, rate of consumption, food protectors, the quality and quantity of saliva indices that determine the remineralization of teeth are factors to be considered. All these elements are analyzed through the sociodemographic, behavioral, physical and biological environment directly or indirectly with diet and caries. PMID:23834094

González Sanz, Angel Miguel; González Nieto, Blanca Aurora; González Nieto, Esther



Osseointegrated dental implants in growing children: a literature review.  


Edentulism is usually associated with the aging patient. However, total or partial tooth loss also affects young individuals, mainly as a result of trauma, decay, anodontia, or congenital and acquired jaw defects involving the alveolar processes. For elderly patients, the use of oral implants has become an accepted treatment modality for edentulism, and most of today's knowledge regarding implants is based on such practice. There has been hesitation to perform implant therapy for growing children; hence, few children to date have been provided with implant-supported construction. Consequently, little is known about the outcome of the osseointegration procedure in young patients, and until now, only a limited number of case presentations have been reported. This article reviews the current literature to discuss the use of dental implants in growing patients and the influence of maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental growth on the stability of those implants. The literature review was performed through Science Direct, Wileys Blackwell Synergy, PubMed, Google, Embase, Medknow publications, and Springer for references published from 1963 to 2011. It is recommended to wait for the completion of dental and skeletal growth, except for severe cases of ectodermal dysplasia. PMID:22214484

Mankani, Nivedita; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Patil, Brijesh A; Nagaraj, E; Madalli, Poornima



Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures.  


Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed during the last 10 years as a new noninvasive imaging tool and has been applied to diagnose different ocular and skin diseases. This technique has been modified for cross-sectional imaging of dental structures. In this first preliminary study the technique was applied to obtain tomographic images of extracted sound and decayed human teeth in order to evaluate its possible diagnostic potential for dental applications. Classical OCT images based on reflectivity measurements and phase retardation images using polarization-sensitive OCT were recorded. It was demonstrated that polarization-sensitive OCT can provide additional information which is probably related to the mineralization status and/or the scattering properties of the dental material. One of the attractive features of OCT is that it uses near-infrared light instead of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, high transversal and depth resolution on the order of 10 microm can be obtained. Present limitations, e.g. the limited penetration depth, and possible solutions are discussed. PMID:10601786

Baumgartner, A; Dichtl, S; Hitzenberger, C K; Sattmann, H; Robl, B; Moritz, A; Fercher, A F; Sperr, W



Tobacco Cessation Counselling Practices and Attitude among the Dentist and the Dental Auxiliaries of Urban and Rural Areas of Modinagar, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The increasing use of tobacco among youths warrants the need for dental health professionals to effectively provide tobacco cessation counselling (TCC) in the office and community settings. However, there have been concerns among the dental professionals regarding TCC in dental settings. Aims and Objectives: To assess the attitude of dental professionals including the dentist and dental hygienist towards the TCC and identify the possible barriers towards the implementation of these practices in the rural and urban areas of Modinagar district. Materials and Methods: The present questionnaire based survey was carried among the qualified dentist and dental hygienist from the urban and rural areas of the Modinagar district to attitudes in tobacco cessation, practices in tobacco cessation interventions and related barriers towards implementation. The survey data were analyzed using the SPSS 16 version software package. The descriptive statistics (frequency) was generated for the each question to assess their attitude and practice. Results: The response rate of the questionnaire among the dentist and dental hygienist was 100%. The attitude of the majority of dentist towards the tobacco cessation counselling was positive as compared to the dental hygienist. 69.2% of the dentist were of the view that the dental health professionals should provide TCC as compared to 54.2% among the hygienist. Regarding the practice, only 12.5% and 5.8% of the dentist and dental hygienist had ever used the nicotine replacement therapy in their dental practice. The lack of the knowledge and information regarding TCC was the only perceived barrier among the dentists (51.7%) and dental hygienist (68.3%). Conclusion: Dental professionals must expand their horizon and armamentarium to include TCC strategies inclusive of their regular preventive and therapeutic treatment modalities. Also, the dental institutions should include TCC into the curriculum, but it should not be just theoretical knowledge rather it must have a practical component. PMID:25386513

Patthi, Basavaraj; Singh, Khushboo; Jain, Swati; Vashishtha, Vaibhav; Kundu, Hansa; Malhi, Ravneet; Pandita, Venisha



General dental practitioners' knowledge of and attitudes towards the employment of dental therapists in general practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate general dental practitioners' knowledge of and attitudes towards dental therapists, to ascertain the likelihood of their employment in general dental practice, what client groups they would be likely to treat, and to identify the main perceived barriers to their employment in general dental practice.Method Postal questionnaire.Setting General dental practitioners in the county of West Sussex.Sampling All dentists

J. L. Gallagher; D. A. Wright



Dental amalgam: A review of the literature  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1800s, dental amalgam has been the most commonly used dental restorative material. Each year, dentistry in the United States uses over 100 tons of mercury, continuing a controversy regarding mercury's safety for patients and dental personnel. 65 references.

Eggleston, D.W.



Studienordnung fr den weiterbildenden Masterstudiengang ,,Clinical Dental  

E-print Network

Studienordnung für den weiterbildenden Masterstudiengang ,,Clinical Dental CAD/CAM" an der Ernst Masterstudiengang ,,Clinical Dental CAD/CAM" als Satzung: Inhaltsverzeichnis § 1 Geltungsbereich § 2 Studium § 3 Clinical Dental CAD/CAM vom 3. Dezember 2009. * BM M-V S. 511 Soweit für Funktionsbezeichnungen

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität


Dental Medi-cine's Department of Oral  

E-print Network

hat is the School of Dental Medi- cine's Department of Oral Biology best known for- ment was the first of its kind established in the U.S.--by the dental school's visionary dean, James- ence and for establishing an organized scientific research presence in dental schools. Anyone working

Krovi, Venkat



E-print Network

June 2013 OPTING OUT OF THE DENTAL PLAN Name: McGill ID #: Tel. Number: Email: I, the undersigned, wish to opt out of the McGill University ­ Dental Plan ("Plan") effective acknowledge that I may opt out of the Plan if: I am covered under another group group dental plan (eg. my

Barthelat, Francois


A Cognitive Task Analysis for Dental Hygiene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…

Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay



Oral Presentation Track 7: Dental Biomechanics  

E-print Network

Oral Presentation Track 7: Dental Biomechanics 7.5. Biomechanical Problems in the Dental Area Abstract: 4529 Citation: Journal of Biomechanics 2006; Vol. 39 Suppl. 1, page S205 The duration of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel The periodontal ligament (PDL

Gefen, Amit


21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...tooth to protect the tooth pulp. (2) § 872.9. (b) Dental cement other than zinc...tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...tooth to protect the tooth pulp. (2)...



Special cluster issue on tribocorrosion of dental materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tribocorrosion affects all walks of life from oil and gas conversion to biomedical materials. Wear can interact with corrosion to enhance it or impede it; conversely, corrosion can enhance or impede wear. The understanding of the interactions between physical and chemical phenomena has been greatly assisted by electrochemical and microscopic techniques. In dentistry, it is well recognized that erosion due to dissolution (a term physicists use to denote wear) of enamel can result in tooth decay; however, the effects of the oral environment, i.e. pH levels, electrochemical potential and any interactions due to the forces involved in chewing are not well understood. This special cluster issue includes investigations on the fundamentals of wear-corrosion interactions involved in simulated oral environments, including candidate dental implant and veneer materials. The issue commences with a fundamental study of titanium implants and this is followed by an analysis of the behaviour of commonly used temporomandibular devices in a synovial fluid-like environment. The analysis of tribocorrosion mechanisms of Ti6Al4V biomedical alloys in artificial saliva with different pHs is addressed and is followed by a paper on fretting wear, on hydroxyapatite-titanium composites in simulated body fluid, supplemented with protein (bovine serum albumin). The effects of acid treatments on tooth enamel, and as a surface engineering technique for dental implants, are investigated in two further contributions. An analysis of the physiological parameters of intraoral wear is addressed; this is followed by a study of candidate dental materials in common beverages such as tea and coffee with varying acidity and viscosity and the use of wear maps to identify the safety zones for prediction of material degradation in such conditions. Hence, the special cluster issue consists of a range of tribocorrosion contributions involving many aspects of dental tribocorrosion, from analysis of physiological approaches and tissue engineering to studying of the effects of the environments encountered in clinical practice and management which lead to tooth decay. A wide range of analytical techniques and tribocorrosion experimental approaches is used to simulate, assess and model the synergistic interactions of wear and corrosion, many of them leading to new insights. We hope it will lead to increased awareness of tribocorrosion phenomena for researchers and dental clinicians alike and 'food for thought' for further studies in this field.

Mathew, Mathew T.; Stack, Margaret M.



Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Special and medically compromised patients present a unique population that challenges the dentist’s skill and knowledge. Providing oral care to people with cerebral palsy (CP) requires adaptation of the skills we use everyday. In fact, most people with mild or moderate forms of CP can be treated successfully in the general practice setting. This article is to review various dental considerations and management of a CP patient. How to cite this article: Sehrawat N, Marwaha M, Bansal K, Chopra R. Cerebral Palsy: A Dental Update. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):109-118. PMID:25356010

Sehrawat, Nidhi; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Radhika




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Removal of a Dental Implant Displaced into the Maxillary Sinus by Means of the Bone Lid Technique  

PubMed Central

Background. Rehabilitation of edentulous jaws with implant-supported prosthesis has become a common practice among oral surgeons in the last three decades. This therapy presents a very low incidence of complications. One of them is the displacement of dental implants into the maxillary sinus. Dental implants, such as any other foreign body into the maxillary sinus, should be removed in order to prevent sinusitis. Methods. In this paper, we report a case of dental implant migrated in the maxillary sinus and removed by means of the bone lid technique. Results and Conclusion. The migration of dental implants into the maxillary sinus is rarely reported. Migrated implants should be considered for removal in order to prevent possible sinusal diseases. The implant has been removed without any complications, confirming the bone lid technique to be safe and reliable. PMID:23762641

Fusari, Pietro; Doto, Matteo; Chiapasco, Matteo



An anthropological perspective: another dimension to modern dental wear concepts.  


For many years, research on tooth wear by dental academics has been diametrically opposite to that of anthropological research, with each discipline having a different understanding as to the nature of the wear processes. Dental focus revolved around preventive and restorative considerations while the anthropological focus was a biological understanding related to human evolution, diet, environment, form, and function and included all the craniofacial structures. Introducing the anthropological perspective into modern dentistry gives an insight into the "bigger picture" of the nature and extent of tooth wear. By combining anthropological evidence with clinical knowledge and experience, it is most likely to provide the best-informed and biologically based approach to the management of tooth wear in modern societies. PMID:23304146

Kaidonis, John A; Ranjitkar, Sarbin; Lekkas, Dimitra; Townsend, Grant C



Dental patient education: self-care to healthy human development.  


Credited with a long history of providing preventive care, dentists are challenged by increasing demands from better educated consumers interested in improving their health and caring for themselves. The task of administering patient education services, identifying patients at risk, targeting specific behaviors for change, and managing costs is the subject of this case study. The Self-Care Motivation Model described here, is used to develop a patient education/smoking cessation/lifestyle change program for a patient with numerous dental and general health disturbances. Time and cost saving methods for administering such total patient care are discussed. Suggestions for reframing the context of dental patient education and health behavior change initiatives to include general healthy human development competencies are provided. PMID:2290742

Horowitz, L G



Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries  

PubMed Central

Background Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression to estimate the association between urine cadmium concentrations and caries experience, adjusting these analyses for potential confounders including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Results Urine cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.38 ng/mL. Approximately 56% of children had experienced caries in their deciduous teeth, and almost 30% had been affected by caries in their permanent dentition. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in creatinine-corrected cadmium concentrations (0.21 ?g/g creatinine) corresponded to a 16% increase in the odds of having experienced caries in deciduous teeth [prevalence odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96–1.40]. This association was statistically significant in children with low ETS exposure (prevalence OR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.01–1.67). The results from the ZINB regression indicated that, among children with any caries history in their deciduous teeth, an IQR increase in cadmium was associated with 17% increase in the number of decayed or filled surfaces. We observed no association between cadmium and caries experience in permanent teeth. Conclusions Environmental cadmium exposure may be associated with increased risk of dental caries in deciduous teeth of children. PMID:18560540

Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O.



Mercury vapour exposure during dental student training in amalgam removal  

PubMed Central

Background Amalgam that is used for dental fillings contains approximately 50% elemental mercury. During dental student training, amalgam is often removed by drilling without the use of water spray and suction, which are protective measures in preventing mercury aerosol. In this study we measured mercury vapor levels in ambient air during amalgam removal as is typically performed in dental training. Methods Mercury vapor levels in ambient air were measured in a dental school laboratory during removal of amalgam fillings from artificial teeth set into a dental jaw simulator. Mercury vapor was measured under three conditions (25 measurements each): with the simultaneous use of water spray and suction, with the use of suction only, and with the use of neither suction nor water spray. These three conditions are all used during dental student training. Results were compared to Alberta occupational exposure limits for mercury vapor in order to assess potential occupational risk to students. Analysis of variance testing was used to compare data obtained under the three conditions. Results When water spray and suction were used, mercury vapor levels ranged from 4.0 to 19.0 ?g/m3 (arithmetic mean?=?8.0 ?g/m3); when suction only was used, mercury vapor levels ranged from 14.0 to 999.0 (999.0 ?g/m3 represents the high limit detection of the Jerome analyzer) (arithmetic mean?=?141.0 ?g/m3); when neither suction nor water was used, the vapor levels ranged from 34.0 to 796.0 ?g/m3 (arithmetic mean?=?214.0 ?g/m3). Conclusions The Alberta Occupational Health and Safety threshold limit value for mercury vapor over an eight-hour time-weighted period is 25.0 ?g/m3. The absolute ceiling for mercury vapor, not to be exceeded at any time, is 125.0 ?g/m3. When both water spray and suction were used, mercury vapor levels were consistently below this threshold. When suction without water spray was used, mercury vapor levels exceeded the safety threshold 8% of the time. When neither water spray nor suction was used, 36% of the mercury vapor readings exceeded the absolute ceiling value. To maximize safety, dental schools should train students to remove amalgam only while using water spray and high volume suction. Alternatively, students should use appropriate occupational hygiene personal protective equipment during amalgam removals. PMID:24090056



Dental fear and anxiety in older children: an association with parental dental anxiety and effective pain coping strategies  

PubMed Central

An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA) has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS), Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS), Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P<0.001) and CDAS (r=0.32, P<0.001). Fathers’ CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in children’s fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings may help to devise interventions that will prevent or alleviate children’s DFA. PMID:25187737

Coric, Anka; Banozic, Adriana; Klaric, Miro; Vukojevic, Katarina; Puljak, Livia



Oral health status, dental treatment needs, and barriers to dental care of elderly care home residents in Lodz, Poland  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine oral health status, dental treatment needs, and to identify barriers that prevent easy access to dental care by elderly care home residents in Lodz. Background Studies in many countries show that oral health status of elderly care home residents is poor and there is an urgent need to improve it. Methods The study included 259 care home residents, aged 65 years and older. The oral examination was performed. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked about frequency of cleaning teeth and/or dentures, whether they needed assistance, and whether the assistance was available; they were also asked about the perceived dental needs, and about the time since their last visit to a dentist and the purpose of the visit. If they had not visited the dentist in the past 12 months, they were asked about reasons for failing to visit the dentist. Results Forty-six percent of the subjects were edentulous. Only 5.8% of all participants had a sufficient number of functional natural teeth. Dental treatment was found to be necessary in 59.8% of the respondents. One in four subjects reported reduced ability of correctly cleaning teeth and dentures themselves, of whom only one-third were helped by others. An insufficient level of hygiene was found in every other subject. About 42% of residents had not visited a dentist for over 5 years, mainly due to organizational reasons. Conclusion Expanding the current scope of medical care for the elderly care home residents to include dental care would improve their currently poor oral health status. PMID:25284997

Gaszynska, Ewelina; Szatko, Franciszek; Godala, Malgorzata; Gaszynski, Tomasz



Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers  

PubMed Central

Background: Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods: We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result: The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion: The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries. PMID:21731272

Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K



What's in a dental practice-based research network?  

PubMed Central

Objectives The authors conducted a study to describe the general dentists, practices, patients and patient care patterns of the dental practice-based research network (PBRN) Northwest Practice-based REsearch Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT). Methods Northwest PRECEDENT is a dental PBRN of general and pediatric dentists and orthodontists from five U.S. states in the Northwest: Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah and Washington. The authors collected data from general dentists in Northwest PRECEDENT (n = 101) regarding the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases in a survey with a systematic random sample of patients (N = 1,943) visiting their practices. They also obtained demographic data from the general dentists and their patients. Results The authors found that 50 percent of the general dentists were 51 to 60 years of age, 14 percent were female and 76 percent were non-Hispanic white. More than one-half (55 percent) of the dentists had practiced dentistry for more than 20 years, 83 percent had private solo practices and 32 percent practiced in rural community settings. The majority (71 percent) of patients visiting the dental practices was in the age range of 18 to 64 years, 55 percent were female and 84 percent were non-Hispanic white. In terms of reasons for seeking dental care, 52 percent of patients overall visited the dentist for oral examinations, checkups, prophylaxis or caries-preventive treatment. In the preceding year, 85 percent of the patients had received prophylaxis, 49 percent restorative treatments, 34 percent caries-preventive treatments and 10 percent endodontic treatments. Conclusions Northwest PRECEDENT general dentists are dispersed geographically and are racially and ethnically diverse, owing in part to efforts by network administrators and coordinators to enroll minority dentists and those who practice in rural areas. Estimates of characteristics of dentists and patients in Northwest PRECEDENT will be valuable in planning future studies of oral diseases and treatments. PMID:20592411

Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Hilton, Thomas J.; Ferracane, Jack; Berg, Joel; Zhou, Lingmei; Rothen, Marilynn



Usefulness of Forensic Dental Symbols© and Dental Encoder© database in forensic odontology.  


A new universal graphic dental system, Forensic Dental Symbols(©), has been created to provide precision in the construction of dental records, improve standardization, and increase efficiency in dental identification procedures. Two hundred and thirty-four different graphic symbols representing the most frequent clinical status for each tooth were designed. Symbols can be then converted to a typographic font and then are ready to use in any computer. For the appropriate use, manipulation, and storage of dental information generated by the Forensic Dental Symbols(©), Dental Encoder(©) database has been created. The database contains all the information required by INTERPOL Disaster Victim Identification (DVI)-dental-forms. To explore the possibilities that Dental Encoder(©) offers, an antemortem dental database from a Spanish population of 3920 military personnel had been constructed. Data generated by Dental Encoder(©) were classified into sex and age groups. The program can perform an automatic search of the database for cases that match a selected clinical status presented in a single tooth or a combination of situations for several teeth. Moreover, Dental Encoder(©) allows information to be printed on INTERPOL DVI-dental-forms, or the inclusion of any completed form into any document, technical report, or identification of dental report. PMID:22074597

Martínez-Chicón, Jesús; Valenzuela, Aurora



Mechanics behind 4D interferometric measurement of biofilm mediated tooth decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Evaluating the efficacy of dental materials to protect human teeth requires the capacity to measure tooth decay. Currently,\\u000a practices for determining tooth decay are destructive, qualitative to lowly quantitative, and\\/or measure bulk changes that\\u000a have low to no spatial resolution. The combination of the highly variable nature of tooth enamel and the inability to perform\\u000a serial analyses on the same

Michael S. Waters; Bin Yang; Nancy J. Lin; Sheng Lin-Gibson


Family Income and Tooth Decay in US Children: Does the Association Change with Age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored whether the association of family income with tooth decay changes with age among children in the United States. A second objective was to explore the role of access to dental health care services in explaining the interrelationships between family income, child age and tooth decay. Data from 7,491 2- to 15-year-old children who participated in the 1999–2004

E. Bernabé; E. K. Delgado-Angulo; J. E. Murasko; W. Marcenes



Teratological Aspects of Dental Amalgam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The teratogenic effect is determined by four factors: (1) the agent, (2) the dose, (3) the stage of embryonic development, and (4) the genetic constitution of the embryo. The first two factors are of particular interest and warrant further comment. It should be emphasized that the mercury released from dental amalgam is mainly metallic mercury vapor. The dose of mercury

K. S. Larsson



Dental Health for the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines to aid attendants to maintain good dental health among institutionalized mentally retarded persons are presented. Aspects considered include reasons for taking care of the mouth and means of adapting the oral hygiene program to each individual. Also described are oral hygiene programs now existing in group living settings and methods of…

Alabama Univ., Birmingham. Dental Advisory Committee.


Clinical Experiences with Dental Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical utilization of dental impants has accelerated in recent years, and new applications continue to emerge. Concomitantly, alternative implant systems have introduced conceptually different approaches to treatment using altered protocols. The purpose of this paper is to address some of the background issues pertinent to the long-term success, survival, safety, and effectiveness of these devices. The requirements for clinical

Patrick J. Henry



Dental Assistant. Health Occupations Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum is comprised of 31 instructional units divided into eight subject areas: orientation (6 units), anatomy and physiology (6 units), dental histology (1 unit), microbiology and bacteriology (2 units), pharmacology (2 units), chairside assistance (9 units), roentgenology (2 units), and practice administration (3 units). Each…

Hefner, Dollie


Head Start Dental Health Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum for Head Start programs provides preschool learning experiences that teach about dental health. The majority of the curriculum guide is devoted to the following lesson plans: (1) "Introduction of 'Smiley the Super Pup'," an optional puppet character which may be used to review the concepts covered in each lesson; (2) "Visiting the…

Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.


Health Instruction Packages: Dental Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct non-professional dental personnel in selected job-related skills. The first module, by Gary E. Hayes, describes how to locate the hinge axis point of the jaw, place and secure a bitefork, and perform a facebow transfer. The second module,…

Hayes, Gary E.; And Others


Polarization resolved near-IR imaging of sound and carious dental enamel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light is reflected from and transmitted through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of optical imaging devices. New optical imaging tools employing non-ionizing radiation are needed for the detection and assessment of dental caries. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light is reflected from the occlusal surface or transmitted through thin sections of extracted human whole teeth. Previous near-IR imaging studies suggest that polarization imaging can be exploited to obtain higher contrast images of early dental caries due to the rapid depolarization of incident polarized light by the highly scattering areas of decay. In this study, the reflectance from tooth occlusal surfaces with demineralization and transmitted light through tooth thin sections with caries lesions were investigated. Major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel. This study suggests that polarization resolved optical imaging can be exploited to obtain higher contrast images of dental decay.

Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel



Dental extraction in patients on warfarin treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Warfarin is one of the most common oral anticoagulants used to prevent thromboembolic episodes. The benefits of discontinuation of this drug before simple surgical procedures are not clear and this approach could be associated with complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of bleeding in a series of 35 patients (in cases where the international normalized ratio [INR] is less than 4) following simple tooth extraction without modification of the warfarin dose given to patients. Methods Thirty-five patients taking warfarin who had been referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Department, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, for dental extractions were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included patients with an INR of ?4 or with a history of liver disease or coagulopathies. No alteration was made in warfarin dose, and the CoaguChek System was used to identify the INR on the same day of dental extraction. Bleeding from the extraction site was evaluated and recorded immediately after extraction until the second day. Results A total of 35 patients (16 women and 19 men) aged between 38 and 57 years (mean =48.7) were included in the present study. All patients underwent simple one-tooth extraction while undergoing warfarin treatment. Oozing, considered mild bleeding and which did not need intervention was seen in 88.6% of patients. Moderate bleeding occurred in 11.4% of all cases. The INR of the patients ranged from 2.00 to 3.50, with 77.2% of patients having INR between 2.0 and 2.5 on the day of extraction. No severe bleeding which needed hospital management was encountered after any of the extractions. The patients who suffered moderate bleeding were returned to the clinic where they received local treatment measures to control bleeding. Moderate bleeding occurred only in four patients, where three had INR between 3.1 and 3.5, and one with INR less than 3. Conclusion In the present study, we have shown that simple tooth extraction in patients on warfarin treatment can be performed safely without high risk of bleeding, providing that the INR is equal or less than 3.5 on the day of extraction. A close follow-up and monitoring of patients taking warfarin is mandatory after dental extraction. PMID:25170281

Abdullah, Walid Ahmed; Khalil, Hesham



Nutrition and health: guidelines for dental practitioners.  


Good nutrition is vital to overall health, and poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nutritional factors are implicated in many oral and systemic diseases and conditions, including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, dental caries and some cancers including oral cancers. This review focuses on the evidence for the relations between key nutritional factors and health. Energy intake is related to body weight and obesity, highlighting the importance of lower-energy diets and regular physical activity for body weight maintenance and for preventing obesity. Evidence is presented for the health benefits of high quality carbohydrates, such as whole grain products, and fruits and vegetables, in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The adverse effects of sugar, sweetened beverages, and trans and saturated fats on several diseases including caries, diabetes and cardiovascular disease are described. The health benefits of unsaturated fats, antioxidants, B vitamins and vitamin D in cardiovascular disease, periodontitis, cancer, and other conditions are documented. Both benefits and harmful effects of dairy product intake on health are discussed. Based on the evidence, nutritional guidelines are provided, as well as key recommendations for preventing obesity. Dentists can play a critical role in motivating and enabling healthy food choices. PMID:19467151

Palacios, C; Joshipura, Kj; Willett, Wc



Nutritional Disorders of Children. Prevention, Screening, and Followup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for child health care providers, the text contains information on improving preventive efforts in nutrition, particurlarly those focused on prevention of the major health problems which are nutrition related (obesity, atherosclerosis, dental caries, and anemia). Part I focuses on screening of individual children likely to be at risk of…

Fomon, Samuel J.


Strategies and approaches in oral disease prevention and health promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is an important element of general health and well-being. Although largely preventable, many people across the world still suffer unnecessarily from the pain and discomfort associated with oral diseases. In addition, the costs of dental treatment are high, both to the individual and to society. Effective evidence-based preventive approaches are needed to address this major public health problem.

Richard G. Watt



Impact of dental considerations on the quality of life of oral cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the significance of pre-treatment dental care in oral cancer patients and to assess its impact on the quality of life of these patients. Materials and Methods: The sample size included 50 oral cancer patients who were visiting to a palliative care unit at Jaipur. Assessment was based on thorough case history, complete dental examination. Quality of life was estimated by W.H.O quality of life questionnaire. Result: On analysis, patients of age group 50-59 avoided to prophylactic dental treatment before cancer treatment and therapy. Seventy-eight percent patients experienced worst quality of life after the treatment as a result of dental complications. Out of those 78%, only 2% of patients took preventive dental treatments before the cancer therapy. Conclusion: Dental negligence is still a major cause of worsening of post treatment quality of life of an individual. Therefore, the treating oncologist should always take these considerations seriously to provide quality treatment to the patient. PMID:25006287

Thanvi, Jaishree; Bumb, Dipika



Comprehensive training in suspected child abuse and neglect for dental students: a hybrid curriculum.  


Child abuse and neglect are tragic realities of American society. However, most U.S. dental schools do not provide students with adequate training to deal with the problem. This article proposes expanding the predoctoral dental curriculum with a problem-based learning model that can effectively stimulate critical thinking skills to assist graduates in screening and reporting suspected child abuse and neglect throughout their careers. The unique multicultural environment of dental school offers students an unprecedented opportunity to develop awareness about child abuse and domestic violence, while increased vigilance can potentially save innocent young lives. Educating students about proper protocol when they suspect child abuse or neglect is imperative, particularly for dental schools involving students in community sealant and other preventive programs in public schools. By expanding their curriculum to include recognition and intervention, dental schools can help break the cycle of violence and transform attitudes towards taking decisive action. Clinical curricula that have moved to private practice preceptor models are well suited to screen for child abuse. The goal is to motivate dental schools to deal with this critical issue, develop reporting protocols and procedures for appropriate response, and provide their students with consummate training. PMID:23740906

Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L



NutritionThe British Nutrition Foundation Oral Task Force Report — issues relevant to dental health professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent report on diet and oral health by the British Nutrition Foundation reviews the anatomy, microbiology and pathology of a number of oral diseases including dental caries, tooth-wear, oral cancer, periodontal disease and enamel defects. The role of nutritional factors in the aetiology and prevention of these oral diseases is discussed. The report states that improvements in the levels

P Moynihan



Consensus document on the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in dental surgery and procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The goal of antibiotic prophylaxis in Odontology is to prevent the onset of infections through the entrance way provided by the therapeutic action, therefore it is indicated provided there is a considerable risk of infection, either because of the characteristics of the operation itself or the patient's local or general condition. Nonetheless, clinical trials with antibiotics in dental pathologies

Gutiérrez JL; Bagán JV; Bascones A; Llamas R; Llena J; Planells P; Prieto J


Infrared Spectroscopy of Laser Irradiated Dental Hard Tissues using the Advanced Light Source  

E-print Network

. Fried and T. S. Breunig University of California, San Francisco, Dept. of Preventive and Restorative for dentistry, namely laser ablation of dental hard tissue, caries inhibition treatments by localized surface the bonding to restorative materials. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly characterize the laser (thermal


Childhood Obesity & Dental Disease: Common Causes, Common Solutions. Oral Health & Obesity Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…

Children Now, 2011



Photodynamic therapy on bacterial reduction in dental caries: in vivo study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in supragingival plaque is one of the principal factors in caries prevention and control. A large number of microorganisms have been reported to be inactivated in vitro by photodynamic therapy (PDT). The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model to investigate the effects of PDT on bacterial reduction in induced dental caries.

Alessandra Baptista; Renato Araujo Prates; Ilka Tiemy Kato; Marcello Magri Amaral; Anderson Zanardi de Freitas; Martha Simões Ribeiro



Synthesis and solubility of calcium fluoride\\/hydroxyfluorapatite nanocrystals for dental applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the mineral phase of tooth enamel consists of apatite containing fluoride, the “CaF2-like” salts are of significant interest in dentistry for their roles as labile fluoride reservoirs in caries prevention. Fluoride ion is required for normal dental development because of its therapeutic ability of osteoporosis healing and stimulating osteoblast activity both in vitro and in vivo. In this research,

Mahmoud Azami; Sasan Jalilifiroozinezhad; Masoud Mozafari; Mohammad Rabiee



Assessment of factors associated with dental caries in rural communities in Rakai District, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess factors associated with dental caries in rural communities in Rakai District, Uganda. This was a cross-sectional\\u000a survey in 18–62 year olds, randomly selected from three sub-counties: Kyalurangira (n?=?121), Kabira (n?=?133), and Kacheera (n?=?67). The participants were clinically examined for caries using Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) index and were administered\\u000a to a structured questionnaire. In the whole material, caries

Charles Mugisha Rwenyonyi; Louis Mugambe Muwazi; William Buwembo



Food labeling: health claims; dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries. Final rule.  


The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is adopting as a final rule, without change, the provisions of the interim final rule that amended the regulation authorizing a health claim on noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries, i.e., tooth decay, to include isomaltulose as a substance eligible for the health claim. FDA is taking this action to complete the rulemaking initiated with the interim final rule. PMID:18605406



Near-IR polarization imaging of sound and carious dental enamel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liquid crystal retarders and the 36 images were acquired as the polarized near-IR light propagates through the enamel of extracted human thin tooth sections. In previous work, we reported that polarized light is rapidly depolarized by demineralized enamel, and sound and demineralized dentin.1 The rapid depolarization of polarized light by dental caries in the near-IR provides high contrast for caries imaging and detection. In this initial study, major differences in the Mueller matrix elements were observed in both sound and demineralized enamel which supports this approach and warrants further investigation.

Darling, Cynthia L.; Jiao, Jane J.; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel



Dental caries is correlated with knowledge of comprehensive food education in Japanese university students.  


In Japan, the "Food Education Basic Law" (The Basic Law on Shokuiku, food education) was enacted in 2005. The comprehensive food education programs, namely Shokuiku, aim to improve dietary practices to reduce lifestyle-related diseases. Dental caries is one of the diseases associated with inappropriate dietary habits. Thus, food education may influence the prevalence of dental caries. However, there are no data regarding the association between public based-food education and dental caries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge about comprehensive food education (Shokuiku) and dental caries experience in Japanese university students. A total of 2,184 students (1,240 men, 944 women), aged 18-20 years, were examined. They had attended the Shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. The numbers of teeth present, and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) (dental caries experience) were recorded. Additional information was collected via a questionnaire regarding knowledge about food education, dietary habits and oral health behavior. Of the students, 315 men (20.7%) and 345 women (52.8%) reported that they know and can explain the meaning and content of the word "Shokuiku". After adjusting for potential confounding factors, subjects who did not have knowledge about Shokuiku had higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) for dental caries experience (DMFT >0) than those who had (adjusted OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48; p<0.05). These observations revealed that having knowledge about comprehensive food education in university students correlates with low prevalence of dental caries. PMID:23635378

Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Furuta, Michiko; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kojima, Azusa; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu



An Overview of Dental Radiology. NCHCT Monograph Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of dental radiology contains sections on demographics, equipment, dental radiology quality assurance, efficacy, dental radiology education curricula, professional organizations' guidelines for training and use, and state activities. In section 1 dental personnel, population of dental personnel, employment and earning prospects,…

Manny, Edward F.; And Others


Creating a Successful School-Based Mobile Dental Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Dental disease is one of the leading causes of school absenteeism for children. This article describes the creation and evolution of the St. David's Dental Program, a mobile school-based dental program for children. Methods: The dental program is a collaboration of community partners in Central Texas that provides free dental care to…

Jackson, David M.; Jahnke, Lauren R.; Kerber, Lisa; Nyer, Genie; Siemens, Kammi; Clark, Carol



Seattle Pacific University Program #00333 Delta Dental PPO  

E-print Network

Seattle Pacific University Program #00333 Delta Dental PPO Effective July 1, 2012 PAYMENT LEVELS Plan Summary Delta Dental PPO Dentist D Pre tist elta Dental mier Den Nonparticipating Dentist Class I to improve their oral health. It is accessed through the Washington Dental Service Web site www.DeltaDental

Nelson, Tim


TECHNICAL STANDARDS Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL STANDARDS Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene Students admitted to the dental hygiene concepts from biomedical, psychosocial and dental hygiene sciences to clinical dental hygiene procedures. 3 the ability to bend, twist, reach, push and pull, operate dental equipment and execute client care. 10


A Kansas Policymaker's Guide to Registered Dental Practitioners: Inspired by Global Practices, a Homegrown Solution to Kansas' Oral Health Crisis  

E-print Network

are affected the most. Tooth decay is the most common chronic childhood disease, even more common than asthma. Left untreated, dental decay can set the stage for a lifetime of poor health. It is linked to such 14 serious health problems as diabetes..., stroke, and heart disease. The tragic death of 12-year-old Deamonte Driver in 2007, which resulted from untreated tooth decay that spread to his brain, was a sobering reminder for America of the tragic consequences that can result from a lack of access...

Appelhanz, Christie



Traumatic dental injuries among primary school children in Sulaimani city, Iraq.  


A cross-sectional survey was carried out through clinical examination of anterior teeth among 4015, 6- to 13-year-old children enrolled in 20 public primary schools of Sulaimani city, northern Iraq. The prevalence and pattern of traumatized anterior teeth were studied in relation to age, gender, type of injury, dental treatment needs, place and cause of the trauma in addition to occlusal relation and upper lip position. The prevalence of children with traumatic dental injuries was found to be 6.1% (243 children) of the total sample. Age and gender were highly significantly associated with dental trauma (P < 0.001). Males were more affected than females and the prevalence increased with age. Simple enamel fracture was the most common type of injury followed by enamel-dentine fracture and concussion. The maxillary central incisors were found to be most affected by trauma followed by mandibular central incisors and the maxillary lateral incisors. The number of injured teeth per child was 1.38 (totally 336 anterior teeth were found with dental trauma) and single tooth trauma was the most common type (69.5%). Results showed that only 7% of the traumatized anterior teeth received treatment and about half (48.7%) of the remaining traumatized teeth did not need dental treatments, while the least treatment type needed was extraction (3.5%). The highest proportions of traumatized children were found with class II division 1 malocclusion and inadequate upper lip coverage. Falls and playing were the most common causes of dental injury, while home was the most common place of trauma occurrence. The present study revealed a relatively low prevalence of dental trauma, but still this figure represents a large number of children. Therefore, educational programs are to be initiated for the community regarding causes, prevention and treatments of traumatic dental injuries. PMID:19496800

Noori, Arass Jalal; Al-Obaidi, Wesal Ali



The utilization of dental skills in non-dental situations.  


The development of electronic control systems has enabled severely physically handicapped people to revolutionize their lives by using any minimal residual movements they may have to operate micro-switches linking them with typewriters and other environmetal controls. Technical skills of a high order are required in making the unique splint or interface which links the switches with these residual movements whether of the tongue, lips, chin, eyebrow, finger or toe. Through the initiative of the Cordent Trust and generous financial support from the Leverhulme Trust a mobile laboratory was designed and built and a dental technician appointed for a three-year development project in the use of these switches as it was felt that his experience was particularly appropriate to the work and would also demonstrate how dental skills can be used to bring about a degree of rehabilitation far beyond the oral environment. PMID:1054327

McLean, R



Evidence for the decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence is presented for the decay using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1, collected with the LHCb detector. A signal yield of 32 ± 8 decays is found with a significance of 4.5 standard deviations. The ratio of the branching fraction of the decay to that of the decay is measured to be where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Gomez, M. Calvo; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Caponio, F.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Akiba, K. Carvalho; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Suárez, A. Dosil; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Esen, S.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Albor, V. Fernandez; Rodrigues, F. Ferreira; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Torreira, A. Gallas; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Gándara, M. Grabalosa; Diaz, R. Graciani; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Hafkenscheid, T. W.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Morata, J. A. Hernando; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jezabek, M.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.