Science.gov

Sample records for prevention critical reflections

  1. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  2. Critically Reflective Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    Critical Reflective Practice (CRP) has a proven reputation as a method for teacher-researchers in K-12 classrooms, but there have been few published examples of this method being used to document school leaders' work-based practice. This paper outlines adaptations made by the author from an original CRP method to a Critically Reflective Leadership…

  3. Educational Criticism: Reflections and Reconsiderations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Gail

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents reflections and reconsiderations of notions about educational criticism. Several issues about the process of educational criticism need to be explored: (1) the metaphor of criticism; (2) exemplifying and elaborating methods for criticism; and (3) exploring the critic's role. (CJ)

  4. Murals Reflecting Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Safe and Drug Free Schools Program.

    This document is used in a collaborative project that engages children and adolescents in alcohol, tobacco, and drug prevention activities through the arts. The project offers an innovative teaching resource that uses the universal language of the arts for drug prevention. By creating murals with drug prevention themes, elementary and secondary…

  5. A Critically Reflective Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Marge

    1990-01-01

    Examines social studies in the twenty-first century from a critical theory perspective. Traces critical reflection's origins from Marxist educational theories to Jurgen Habermas's critical theory. Highlights Fred Newmann's curricular model, "Education for Citizen Action," for developing competent action in public affairs. Advocates infusing…

  6. Critical Reflection as Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter considers how doctoral education, particularly in applied settings such as education, social work, counseling, and health care, could be reimagined if it was organized around the idea and process of critical reflection: of helping students to better understand how power operates in educational environments and how students' sense of…

  7. Working in the Midst of Ideological and Cultural Differences: Critically Reflecting on Youth Suicide Prevention in Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Many non-Aboriginal practitioners are interested in working effectively with Aboriginal youth, families, and communities. Honouring Indigenous ways of knowing and being informed by a critical consciousness regarding the influence of history, politics, and social forces in the emergence of suicidal behaviour among Aboriginal youth are central to…

  8. Teaching Critical Reflection to Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gavan Peter Longley; Kenny, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Critical reflection is a highly valued and widely applied learning approach in higher education. There are many benefits associated with engaging in critical reflection, and it is often integrated into the design of graduate level courses on university teaching as a life-long learning strategy to help ensure that learners build their capacity as…

  9. New Cultures of Critical Reflection in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiff, Jean

    2011-01-01

    We speak about the need for critical reflection on practice, but what do we do when we do it; and how do we explain how and why we should do it? This paper explores these issues, and itself acts as the site for an exploration and explanation of what it means to be critically reflective. Drawing on recent research in Qatar, I give an account of how…

  10. Reflecting on Reflection as a Critical Component in Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the popularity of service learning, it is sometimes criticized for its lack of academic rigor. This piece provides a counterpoint to that argument by describing a LIS service-learning course from the student's perspective. I focus particularly on the role of reflection, a key component in service-learning courses that helps to…

  11. Creating Critical Viewers: A Personal Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherow-O'Leary, Renee

    2014-01-01

    This essay is a personal reflection on the implementation of "Creating Critical Viewers," a national media literacy program sponsored by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (NATAS), an industry association, in 1995. The television industry's decision to develop a media literacy curriculum in the 1990s was a powerful…

  12. Critical Reflective Working Behaviour: A Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2002-01-01

    Survey responses from 742 of 1,670 Dutch workers validated the following dimensions of critically reflective work behavior: learning from mistakes, vision sharing, challenging group-think, asking for feedback, experimentation, knowledge sharing, and awareness of employability. Individual self-efficacy had more impact than job/organizational…

  13. Critical Reflective Work Behaviour: A Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    After a review of the literature, critical reflective work behavior (CRWB) was defined as: a set of connected, individual activities aimed at analyzing, optimizing, or innovating work practices on the individual, team, or organizational level. The combination of literature review and analysis of case studies led to the operationalization of CRWB…

  14. Evidence for practice, epistemology, and critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Avis, Mark; Freshwater, Dawn

    2006-10-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) has become a critical concept for ethical, accountable professional nursing practice. However, critical analysis of the concept suggests that EBP overemphasizes the value of scientific evidence while underplaying the role of clinical judgement and individual nursing expertise. This paper explores the empiricist position that valid evidence is the basis for all knowledge claims. We argue against the positivist idea that science should be regarded as the only credible means for generating evidence on which to base knowledge claims. We propose that the process of critically reflecting on evidence is a fundamental feature of empirical epistemology. We suggest that critical reflection on evidence derived from science, arts and humanities and, in particular, nursing practice experience can provide a sound basis for knowledge claims. While we do not attempt to define what counts as evidence, it is argued that there is much to be gained by making the processes of critical reflection explicit, and that it can make a valid contribution to expert nursing practice, without recourse to irreducible concepts such as intuition. PMID:16965303

  15. Keeping the Spirit of Community Partnerships Alive in the Scale Up of HIV/AIDS Prevention: Critical Reflections on the Roll Out of DEBI (Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions)

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Hunter, Joyce; Rapkin, Bruce; Remien, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    DEBI, or the Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions is the largest centralized effort to diffuse evidence-based prevention science to fight HIV/AIDS in the United States. DEBI seeks to ensure that the most effective science-based prevention interventions are widely implemented across the country in community-based organizations. Thus, this is a particularly timely juncture in which to critically reflect on the extent to which known principles of community collaboration have guided key processes associated with the DEBI rollout. We review the available evidence on how the dissemination of packaged interventions is necessary but not sufficient for ensuring the success of technology transfer. We consider additional principles that are vital for successful technology transfer, which were not central considerations in the rollout of the DEBI initiative. These issues are: (1) community perceptions of a top-down mode of dissemination; (2) the extent to which local innovations are being embraced, bolstered, or eliminated; and (3) contextual and methodological considerations that shape community preparedness. Consideration of these additional factors is necessary in order to effectively document, manage, and advance the science of dissemination and technology transfer in centralized prevention efforts within and outside of HIV/AIDS. PMID:18612809

  16. Leak prevention critical for ASTs

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.

    1994-08-01

    Aboveground storage tanks can be crafted to prevent leaks caused by vandalism, overfill accidents and faulty valves. New designs and safety devices available in aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have made ASTs viable option for owners of commercial, institutional and governmental facilities with storage needs of less than 20,000 gallons.

  17. Critical Reflectivity and the Development of New Culturally Relevant Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, Tonia R.; Truscott, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Three case studies present how preservice teachers use reflections while learning to teach. Interviews and document analysis reveal that critical reflections evidence greater understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy and offer a platform for critical consciousness. Using critical reflectivity to develop teachers' understandings of…

  18. Teaching Critical Reflection. Myths and Realities No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David

    Critical reflection blends learning through experience with theoretical and technical learning to form new knowledge constructions and new behaviors or insights. Through the process of critical reflection, adults come to interpret and create new knowledge and actions from their experiences. It is generally agreed that critical reflection consists…

  19. INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Congress passed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. Pollution prevention is clearly a concept that will be of increasing importance to U.S. companies and to the public agencies that are responsible for regulating those companies. In this critical review the aut...

  20. Critical Reflection in the Workplace: Is It Just Too Difficult?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Clare; Trehan, Kiran

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The intentions of this article are to contribute reflections of an empirical account of working with critical reflection within an organisational development programme, addressing the following questions: What space is there for critical reflection in organisational development? What issues are raised for in-company developers and…

  1. Critical Action Learning--Rituals and Reflective Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneberry, Pamela; Turner, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    This paper is written to outline our ideas on rituals and reflective places and how this thinking has emerged through our writing, facilitation and reflections around critical action learning and critical leadership. We attempt to show the conceptual framework that underpins our vision of Critical Leadership and how out of this work we have begun…

  2. Exploring Dimensions of Critical Reflection in Activist-Facilitator Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how 14 diverse, Canadian activist-facilitators working in international development experience and understand "critical reflection" as a component of participatory methodologies in facilitation practices. The findings, based on my doctoral study, demonstrate that although critical reflection is often discussed as…

  3. Critically Reflective Dialogues in Learning Communities of Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Endedijk, Maaike D.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Simons, P. Robert-Jan; van Beukelen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Communities in which professionals share and create knowledge potentially support their continued learning. To realise this potential more fully, members are required to reflect critically. For learning at work such behaviour has been described as critically reflective work behaviour, consisting of six aspects: challenging groupthink, critical…

  4. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  5. Honesty in Critically Reflective Essays: An Analysis of Student Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Stephen; Tai, Joanna Hong-Meng; Lo, Kristin; Molloy, Elizabeth; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    In health professional education, reflective practice is seen as a potential means for self-improvement from everyday clinical encounters. This study aims to examine the level of student honesty in critical reflection, and barriers and facilitators for students engaging in honest reflection. Third year physiotherapy students, completing summative…

  6. Reflective Practice and Supervision in Child Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wightman, Barbara; Whitaker, Kate; Traylor, Diane; Yeider, Sheri; Hyden, Vivian C.; Weigand, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The contributors to this article reflect on the process and value of participating together in a monthly reflective supervision group for supervisors in a child abuse prevention program. Some of them joined the group with considerable interest in and experience with reflective supervision. For others this was an entirely new experience that they…

  7. Approaching Reflexivity through Reflection: Issues for Critical Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual article seeks to develop insights for teaching reflexivity in undergraduate management classes through developing processes of critical reflection. Theoretical inferences to support this aim are developed and organized in relation to four principles. They are as follows: first, preparing and making space for reflection in the…

  8. A Physical Educators Use of Freirian Praxis for Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada-Phillips, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Reflection is a vital component of quality teaching. It is supported and practiced in teacher preparation programs and furthered by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, whereas critical reflection with particular emphasis on the internal schema of the practitioner has not been focused on much and training within teacher…

  9. Using Blogs to Enhance Critical Reflection and Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-Hsien

    2009-01-01

    Using the theories of critical reflection and community of practice, the aim of this paper was to explore the use of blogs as a reflective platform in the training processes of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) student teachers, who were learning to teach English for future employment in Taiwan. They made use of blogs as a platform to critically…

  10. Teaching for Liberation: Critical Reflections in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author shares a critical reflection of his work as a teacher educator over the last five years teaching in both public and private universities in the U.S. Midwest. The author reflects on his work in a class called "Diversity in Education" over the course of two semesters as a way to trace the genealogy of a course…

  11. Developing and Sustaining Critical Reflection in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John

    1989-01-01

    The emergence of reflectivity in teacher education is discussed. Four forms of action (describing, informing, confronting, and reconstructing) are suggested to uncover the forces that inhibit and constrain teachers and teacher educators in their efforts to implement critical reflection in their curricula. (IAH)

  12. Transforming Violent Selves through Reflection in Critical Communicative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecha, Ainhoa; Pulido, Cristina; Christou, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Currently, teenagers are being socialized into a world of violent realities, not only through social interaction but also through interaction via the media, especially via the Internet. Research conducted using the critical communicative methodology has shown that this methodology helps young people to reflect critically about their violent…

  13. Development of Critically Reflective Dialogues in Communities of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Endedijk, Maaike; Jaarsma, Debbie; van Beukelen, Peter; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Critically reflective dialogues (CRD) are important for knowledge sharing and creating meaning in communities. CRD includes different aspects: being open about mistakes, critical opinion sharing, asking for and giving feedback, experimentation, challenging groupthink and research utilisation. In this article we explore whether CRD aspects change…

  14. A two-reflection divergent differentiating critical angle refractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenping; Xia, Min; Li, Wei; Dai, Jie; Yang, Kecheng

    2011-05-01

    A new critical angle refractometer (CAR) for high accuracy refractive index measurement of liquid has been developed. The instrument improves the accuracy by two reflections in an elongated parallelogram prism, and acquires the angular reflectivity without any angle scanning parts through introduction of a point source with a divergent beam and a charge coupled device. In addition, it employs a simple and robust measurement method that gets the critical angle by differentiating the angular reflectivity. Through investigating absorbing media with absorption index κ (the imaginary part of refractive index) from 0 to 10-2.1, the theoretical calculation shows that the proposed two-reflection CAR would outperform the traditional one-reflection CAR on lowering the principal error from the differentiation method and improving the ability of getting the critical angle. By testing two typical liquids-salt-water solution and milk, the preliminary experiment indicates that this two-reflection divergent differentiating critical angle refractometer is feasible and of high accuracy.

  15. Critical Reflections: Interpretation and Analysis of Japanese Women's Settlement Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss how I came to call into question the way in which I interpreted interview data in my dissertation, which investigated the migration and settlement experience of Japanese women who are married to Australian men and reside in Australia. Through critical reflections, I realized the way in which the positionality of…

  16. Developing Praxis through Critical Reflections in the ESL Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Paul Kei

    When four writing instructors were given the opportunity to teach writing for second language learners, they decided to collaborate in some ways and chose journal sharing as a way of facilitating their collaboration. The original goal of journal sharing was to critically reflect on their teaching practices and to connect their knowledge of…

  17. The Ideological Myth of Education: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, P.

    2008-01-01

    When reflecting critically on issues of education in society it is necessary to consider the following question: in what scientific paradigm should educational theory and practice be located in order to address issues of education in society in an educationally responsible manner? In this essay, I argue that for education theory and practice to…

  18. Critically Reflective Work Behaviour within Autonomous Professionals' Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; van den Berg, B. A. M.; Endedijk, M. D.; van Beukelen, P.; Simons, P. R. J.

    2011-01-01

    Informal learning communities in which participants show critically reflective work behaviour (CRWB) have the potential to support lifelong learning. In practice this behaviour does not always occur in groups of autonomous professionals. This study explores design principles (DPs) that could act as social affordances for CRWB, within the context…

  19. Critically Reflective Work Behavior of Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Esther; Jaarsma, Debbie; Endedijk, Maaike; Mainhard, Tim; Lam, Ineke; Simons, Robert-Jan; van Beukelen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Better understanding of critically reflective work behavior (CRWB), an approach for work-related informal learning, is important in order to gain more profound insight in the continuing development of health care professionals. Methods: A survey, developed to measure CRWB and its predictors, was distributed to veterinary…

  20. Qualitative Outcomes of a Homestay Immersion with Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Barden, Sejal; Mobley, A. Keith

    2015-01-01

    The authors explore the impact of a 3-week homestay cultural immersion on 10 counselor trainees by analyzing their 210 structured journals using consensual qualitative research. Findings suggest that establishing meaningful relationships and engaging in critical reflection are central to increasing multicultural awareness. Implications for…

  1. The Quest for World Class Universities in China: Critical Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngok, Kinglun; Guo, Weiqing

    2008-01-01

    Building world-class universities has become a national policy priority in China since then-President Jiang Zemin announced in May 1998 that China must have several world-class universities of international advanced level. This article aims to offer critical reflections on the policy in relation to building world-class universities in China. It…

  2. Teaching Research Methods Courses in Human Geography: Critical Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooks, Valorie A.; Castleden, Heather; Tromp-van Meerveld, Ilja

    2010-01-01

    The authors reflect critically on their experiences of teaching research methods/methodology/techniques (MMT) courses in human geography for the first time. Through a highly reflexive process involving journaling, they engage with the broader scholarship of teaching and learning approach. Three themes characterize commonalities in their…

  3. How reflective practice improves nurses' critical thinking ability.

    PubMed

    Cirocco, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purposeful reflection is consistent with adult learning theory. It is known to lead to a deeper understanding of issues and to develop judgment and skill. Required by law to ensure members' competence in their professional practice, the College of Nurses of Ontario recommends and has developed a tool for evaluating reflective practice. The tool focuses on key attributes said to be demonstrated by competent practitioners, including critical thinking (CT) and job knowledge. This study aimed to determine whether nurses engage in reflective practice and whether they perceive that it enhances their CT ability. Surveys were sent to 60 gastroenterology nurses at a large teaching hospital; 34 surveys were anonymously returned. All respondents engaged in reflective practice, and 24 reported using the college's tool. Nineteen respondents strongly agreed that their nursing practice had improved as a result. Critical thinking is difficult to assess because of a lack of clear-cut performance criteria. Improvement of CT was difficult to evaluate from the responses, even though all respondents participated in reflective practice. Both CT and reflective practice need to be better defined in order to examine and explain their relationship. PMID:18156956

  4. Reconsidering nutrition science: critical reflection with a cultural lens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background European culture gave birth to modern science as a means to investigate and explain the natural world. The biomedical disciplines that have since emerged, including nutrition, presuppose a web of basic presuppositions, background assumptions and implicit cultural values that are often overlooked and escape peer review. These "hidden subjectivities" are widely taken-for-granted while exerting a powerful hold on the scope, direction and patterns of disciplinary thought. Nutrition science currently has no accepted means of collectively attending to hidden subjectivities embedded within its methods and practice. Here I propose that directing inquiry into these dimensions holds potential to advance our discipline. Methods This critically reflective approach emerged from critical theory and the practice of cross-cultural engagement (CCE). CCE deliberately seeks out and critically engages food and health understandings of non-European cultures. Its protocol includes cognitive frameshifting, a practice of temporarily stepping outside of habitual thought patterns and into a non-biomedical framework of background assumptions. A cultural lens metaphor derives from CCE practice and is forwarded here as a viable means for restoring critically reflective attention to hidden subjectivities while also inviting further CCE practice within the discipline. Results Critical reflection with a cultural lens allows cognitive attachments to materialism, reductionism, mechanistic thought, naïve realism, control over nature and pervasive subject-object dichotomies between mind and matter, scientist and nature, experience and reality, among many others to become more available for critical consideration. Culturally diverse food and health understandings otherwise dismissed as "unscientific" or held in abeyance gain value as alternative assumptive frameworks and cognitive models that can be temporarily inhabited for further intercultural reflection and insight. Conclusion Critical

  5. Benchmarking of Graphite Reflected Critical Assemblies of UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2011-11-01

    A series of experiments were carried out in 1963 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for use in space reactor research programs. A core containing 93.2% enriched UO2 fuel rods was used in these experiments. The first part of the experimental series consisted of 253 tightly-packed fuel rods (1.27 cm triangular pitch) with graphite reflectors [1], the second part used 253 graphite-reflected fuel rods organized in a 1.506 cm triangular pitch [2], and the final part of the experimental series consisted of 253 beryllium-reflected fuel rods with a 1.506 cm triangular pitch. [3] Fission rate distribution and cadmium ratio measurements were taken for all three parts of the experimental series. Reactivity coefficient measurements were taken for various materials placed in the beryllium reflected core. The first part of this experimental series has been evaluated for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [4] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbooks, [5] and is discussed below. These experiments are of interest as benchmarks because they support the validation of compact reactor designs with similar characteristics to the design parameters for a space nuclear fission surface power systems. [6

  6. Development of critically reflective dialogues in communities of health professionals.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Esther; Endedijk, Maaike; Jaarsma, Debbie; van Beukelen, Peter; Simons, Robert-Jan

    2013-10-01

    Critically reflective dialogues (CRD) are important for knowledge sharing and creating meaning in communities. CRD includes different aspects: being open about mistakes, critical opinion sharing, asking for and giving feedback, experimentation, challenging groupthink and research utilisation. In this article we explore whether CRD aspects change over time, through a study of two dialogues each from six different communities of veterinary health professionals. Change was studied from the perspective of observations, through analysing transcripts of dialogues, and from the perspective of community members' perceptions, through an evaluative discussion with members. The results showed that some communities became more open about mistakes, a finding that is related to an increase in trust. Other observed aspects of CRD seemed to be fairly stable over time. Community members perceived research utilisation and asking for and giving feedback to have been increased. From an analysis of perceptions of the community members it emerged that limited interaction could be associated with the epistemological conceptions of community members. PMID:22976456

  7. [Prevention in sexology--some critical issues].

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, Göran

    2010-03-24

    The high number of divorces could partly be attributed to a lack of sexual desire in the couples linked to the prevailing sexual hyperstimulation in society. Sexual harassment on the internet and the exposition of abuse incidents in the mass media contribute to the increased numbers of child sexual abuse. Enhanced awareness among adults about the potential dangers of television and the internet, as well as psychotherapeutic treatment of abusers and their victims would be of preventative importance. Psychotherapeutic treatment of adolescents in situations of developmental "break-down" could result in a more mature sexuality contributing to fewer cases of sexual abuse and to the stabilisation of future couples on the long-term. PMID:20408361

  8. Criticality Benchmark Analysis of Water-Reflected Uranium Oxyfluoride Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2009-11-01

    A series of twelve experiments were conducted in the mid 1950's at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine the critical conditions of a semi-infinite water-reflected slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). A different slab thickness was used for each experiment. Results from the twelve experiment recorded in the laboratory notebook were published in Reference 1. Seven of the twelve experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments for the inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This evaluation will not only be available to handbook users for the validation of computer codes and integral cross-section data, but also for the reevaluation of experimental data used in the ANSI/ANS-8.1 standard. This evaluation is important as part of the technical basis of the subcritical slab limits in ANSI/ANS-8.1. The original publication of the experimental results was used for the determination of bias and bias uncertainties for subcritical slab limits, as documented by Hugh Clark's paper 'Subcritical Limits for Uranium-235 Systems'.

  9. Reflective particle technology for identification of critical components

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, K M

    1992-01-01

    Reflective Particle Tags were developed for uniquely identifying individual strategic weapons that would be counted in order to verify arms control treaties. These tags were designed to be secure from copying and transfer even after being lift under the control of a very determined adversary for a number of years. This paper discusses how this technology can be applied in other applications requiring confidence that a piece of equipment, such as a seal or a component of a secure, has not been replaced with a similar item. The hardware and software needed to implement this technology is discussed, and guidelines for the sign of systems that rely on these or similar randomly formed features for security applications are presented. Substitution of identical components is one of the easiest ways to defeat security seals, secure containers, verification instrumentation, and similar equipment. This technology, when properly applied, provides a method to counter this defeat scenario. This paper presents a method for uniquely identifying critical security related equipment. Guidelines for implementing identification systems based on reflective particles or similar random features without compromising their intrinsic security are discussed.

  10. Near Surface Seismic Reflection Imaging: Great Potential Under Critical Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. D.; Peterie, S.; Judy, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic-reflection imaging has long been a mainstay in the oil and gas exploration community with mind boggling advancements in just the last decade, but its application to engineering, environmental, and groundwater problems has not seen the same level of utilization. A great deal of the problem lies in the many assumptions that are valid for deep exploration that are violated in the very complex near surface. Large channel systems with acquisition geometries conducive for both deep and shallow targets are many times assumed to be capable of extending the imaging depth window. In reality, constraints of the source and sensor/recording systems must be considered, where large powerful sources are needed to image exploration depths while low-energy, high-frequency sources are required for the shallow and thin targets in the near surface. Attempts to make one size fit all will result in artifacts that result in bogus images and characterizations in the shallow subsurface.Narrow optimum offsets, highly attenuative materials, extreme velocity variability, wavefield interference, and low signal-to-noise ratios provide an ideal breeding ground for the generation of artifacts on near-surface seismic-reflection data. With the cost of shallow reflection data being so high relative to other geophysical methods and invasive sampling, sometimes a single failure can hinder the growth in the use of the method. The method is extremely powerful and has the potential to provide vast quantities of information critical to understand the distributed hydrogeological and biogeochemical processes that elude borehole investigations. It is imperative that data be acquired in its rawest possible form and be processed with an eye to each operation. Cost savings sometimes result in one-size-fits-all acquisition and automated processing flows. Attention to detail and following signal from origination to characterization is essential.

  11. Working with Uncertainty to Support the Teaching of Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Margaret; Tymon, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the cumulative reflections of lecturers examining their tacit assumptions of teaching practice. Despite extensive literature on the educational value of reflection, there is less visible research on teachers assessing their own reflective thinking. This longitudinal interpretive study uses Larrivee's assessment framework…

  12. Teaching Critical Thinking Using Reflective Journaling in a Nursing Fellowship Program.

    PubMed

    Zori, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is considered to be foundational for the development of RN clinical reasoning. Reflective journaling has been used as an educational strategy to support the development of CT. This project's purpose was to explore how using reflective journaling about CT dispositions with RNs in a fellowship program might influence RN's use of CT dispositions. This descriptive, qualitative study used content analysis as the method to analyze journal entries focused on seven CT dispositions: inquisitiveness, systematicity, open mindedness, analyticity, truth seeking, CT maturity, and CT confidence written by RNs in the first 7 weeks of their fellowship program. Based on the content analysis of journal entries, two major descriptive themes emerged: Development of Critical Thinking Is a Process That Develops During a Period of Time, and Purposefully Engaging Critical Thinking Dispositions May Help Prevent Negative Patient Outcomes. The purposeful use of CT dispositions as described in the journal entries also helped to guide the RN's individual learning. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(7):321-329. PMID:27351265

  13. Historical Consciousness and Critical Thinking: Reflections on an Indigenous Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    1999-01-01

    Approaches critical thinking as a socially constructed orientation embedded in collective histories, asking how social conditions and cultural representations may foster critical thinking. Examines the work of Vygotsky and Gramsci, suggesting that concepts forged in literate or academic traditions are the basis for critical thinkings. Also…

  14. How Critical Reflection Benefits Faculty as They Implement Learner-Centered Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Critical reflection assists faculty as they transition to using learner-centered approaches. When this reflection occurs within the context of social media, they can obtain reinforcing feedback and support.

  15. Using Video Records to Mediate Teaching Interns' Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sarah E.; Kucan, Linda; Correnti, Richard; Miller, Leigh A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the use of video records in a literacy methods course supports the development of reflective practitioners when video is a core element of the course design. Specifically, we detail how interns' video-based reflections provide evidence that the use of video records of teaching interns' promotes the development of…

  16. Promoting Critical Reflection in Teacher Education through Popular Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Patrick A.; Townsend, Jane S.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the possible influences of media narratives upon self-concepts, teacher educators have used films and television programs about teachers to promote preservice teachers' reflections on their professional identities and instructional practices. Theoretical models of reflection, in conjunction with media analysis, have the potential to…

  17. Reflective Practice in Physiotherapy Education: A Critical Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouder, Lynn

    2000-01-01

    Describes how reflective practice is conceptualized and interpreted by practicing physiotherapists and undergraduate physiotherapy students. Analysis of qualitative interviews and workshops highlights both contextual and practical differences in modes of reflection by practitioners. Discussion notes the context of the task-oriented culture of the…

  18. Through the Looking Glass: Some Criticisms of Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kompf, Michael; Bond, W. Richard

    This paper examines several questions about reflective thinking and its application in education as a way of extending the applications of the concept. An early section offers background on reflection from dictionary definitions and from philosophers such as John Locke and John Dewey. The next section examines educational practice and reflective…

  19. A Regression Model of Predictor Variables on Critical Reflection in the Classroom: Integration of the Critical Incident Questionnaire and the Framework for Reflective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Donald L.; Dupree, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This research study investigates the influence of independent variables on students' critical reflection scores in a library instruction program. A student sample (n=321), enrolled in English Composition II courses, participated in a four-session library instruction curriculum. Brookfield's Critical Incident Questionnaire was used as the main…

  20. The Effect of Specific Feedback on Critical Reflection of Physical Therapy Students during Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Deanna; Scott, Karen Wilson; Ostrom, Lee; Devine, Nancy; Leight, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    An essential component of expert professional practice is a practitioner's ability to critically reflect on one's performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of specific electronic feedback provided by the coordinator of clinical education on students' critical reflection ability displayed in weekly journal writings during…

  1. Critical Reflection as a Learning Tool for Nurse Supervisors: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbas-Llewellyn, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Critical reflection as a learning tool for nursing supervisors is a complex and multifaceted process not completely understood by healthcare leadership, specifically nurse supervisors. Despite a multitude of research studies on critical reflection, there remains a gap in the literature regarding the perceptions of the individual, the support…

  2. Using Community Based Action Research To Promote Critical Reflection in Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genor, Michele

    This paper documents one university's use of action research to encourage preservice teachers' ongoing critical reflection as they negotiated diversity and community in their classrooms. Several supervisors developed a self-study research plan, meeting over 1 year to study several strategies for engaging preservice teachers in critical reflection.…

  3. Gifts Differing: Critical Reflection, Technology and the Creation of a Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael H.

    Critical reflection refers to an adaptation of civic literacy theory by educators seeking to promote the development of learning communities, taking an analytical approach to educational institutions. Critical reflection is being combined with the praxis approach, which stresses investigating issues, acting based on findings, subjecting outcomes…

  4. A Critical Reflection on Knowledge Hierarchies, Language and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langthaler, Margarita; Witjes, Nina; Slezak, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion about the developmental value of knowledge by reflecting on the "knowledge for development" (K4D) paradigm. In particular, it draws attention to the interaction between linguistic and communicative processes and the areas of power, knowledge and education. This is considered…

  5. Interwoven Conversations: Learning and Teaching through Critical Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Judith M.

    This volume examines learning, teaching, and reflective practice. It is a personal account of a summer institute held in 1989 during which 21 teachers engaged in an exploration of writing and reading. Among metaphors discussed at the institute, one of the most powerful was the notion of teaching/learning being created from a fabric of interwoven…

  6. Reflections on the criticality of special actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1987-04-01

    During recent years, the list of nuclides known to be capable of supporting a chain reaction has substantially increased. Since the criticality aspects for some of these nuclides differ in important respects from those of the most common fissile nuclides, /sup 235//sub 92/U, and /sup 239//sub 94/Pu, a new term, ''fissible'' was recently proposed in nuclear engineering to help distinguish differences. Activation energies for fission have been calculated for 41 of the actinide isotopes which are grouped according to four types of nuclides, those with even-Z, even-N, odd-Z, odd-N, odd-Z, even-N, and even-Z, odd-N. With the possible exception of /sup 237//sub 92/U, all fissible isotopes listed have even N. The activation energy for fission is less in the case of the even-Z, even-N isotopes, but almost without eception it is the odd-N isotopes that undergo fission with thermal neutrons and which constitute the principal criticality problem. This paper reviews the criticality and fissionability aspects of the fissile and fissible actinide isotopes. The criticality of aqueous mixtures of fissile and fissible isotopes also is briefly discussed, including limits for criticality control.

  7. Critical Reflection as a Framework for Transformative Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for critical reflection that teacher educators can employ to analyze prospective teachers' reflection and support their transformative learning. The author argues that teacher educators should not only pay attention to the cognitive processes of prospective teachers (how they reflect), but also the content of…

  8. Co-Reflection in Online Learning: Collaborative Critical Thinking as Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukawa, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    This article presents findings from a comparative case study of the learning experiences of two graduate students in an online action research course. The key roles played by reflection and co-reflection, an emerging concept, are identified through the use of narrative analysis. Co-reflection is a collaborative critical thinking process mediated…

  9. Community water fluoridation and caries prevention: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Piscopo, Maria R; Pizzo, Ignazio; Giuliana, Giovanna

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to critically review the current role of community water fluoridation in preventing dental caries. Original articles and reviews published in English language from January 2001 to June 2006 were selected through MEDLINE database. Other sources were taken from the references of the selected papers. For the past 50 years community water fluoridation has been considered the milestone of caries prevention and as one of the major public health measures of the 20th century. However, it is now accepted that the primary cariostatic action of fluoride occurs after tooth eruption. Moreover, the caries reduction directly attributable to water fluoridation have declined in the last decades as the use of topical fluoride had become more widespread, whereas enamel fluorosis has been reported as an emerging problem in fluoridated areas. Several studies conducted in fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities suggested that this method of delivering fluoride may be unnecessary for caries prevention, particularly in the industrialized countries where the caries level has became low. Although water fluoridation may still be a relevant public health measure in poor and disadvantaged populations, the use of topical fluoride offers an optimal opportunity to prevent caries among people living in both industrialized and developing countries. PMID:17333303

  10. Beryllium reflected cavity reactor for UF6 critical experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, G. A.; Bernard, W.; Helmick, H. H.; White, R.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical studies are being conducted for NASA on critical assemblies with one-meter diam by one-meter long low-density cores surrounded by a thick beryllium reflector. These assemblies make extensive use of existing nuclear propulsion reactor components, facilities, and instrumentation. Due to excessive porosity in the reflector, the initial critical mass was 19 kg U(93.2). Addition of a 17-cm-thick by 89-cm-diam beryllium flux trap in the cavity reduced the critical mass to 7 kg when all the uranium was in the zone just outside the flux trap. A mockup aluminum UF6 container was placed inside the flux trap and fueled with uranium-graphite elements. Fission distributions and reactivity worths of fuel and structural materials are available. These results will be used to guide the design of a prototype plasma core reactor which will test energy removal by optical radiation.

  11. Ideology and Critical Self-Reflection in Information Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critten, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Information literacy instruction traditionally focuses on evaluating a source for bias, relevance, and timeliness, and rightfully so; this critical perspective is vital to a well-formed research process. However, this process is incomplete without a similar focus on the potential biases that the student brings to his or her interactions with…

  12. Combining Critical Reflection and Design Thinking to Develop Integrative Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, M. Ann; Dehler, Gordon E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue for advancing grounded curricula, which explicitly link theory and pedagogy, and executing them in authentic and multidisciplinary settings as a means to facilitate student growth into integrative learners. We describe the development of a student-centered learning experience that combines elements of critical management…

  13. The Call for an African University: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte; Higgs, Philip

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on philosophy (particularly African philosophy) to analyse the call for an African university. The call for an African university may be viewed as a call that insists that all critical and transformative educators in Africa embrace an indigenous African worldview and root their nation's educational paradigms in an indigenous…

  14. Sustaining Critically Reflective Practitioners: Competing with the Dominant Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Eades, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that discourse analysis can be utilized in conjunction with other forms of analysis to develop a more critical teaching and research agenda for Human Resource Development (HRD); in particular this article suggests that the introduction of a discourse analysis perspective can support and facilitate the development of critically…

  15. Reading Poetry for Critical Reflection on Consumer Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scimone, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Like many other dimensions of everyday life, people's need to satisfy themselves with stuff derives from deep impulses and responds to both obvious and subtle images. Ultimately, it isn't the commodities people buy so much as the behaviors they exhibit that are worth critical examination. What better way, then, to understand this phenomenon than…

  16. Where Poems Hide: Finding Reflective, Critical Spaces inside Writing Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Amy Seely; Laman, Tasha Tropp

    2012-01-01

    Research and teaching resources are replete with ideas for creating a more culturally responsive and critical curricula (Allen, 2010; Bomer & Bomer, 2001; Lewison, Leland, & Harste, 2008). Many have suggested that by offering a curriculum that is authentic and meaningful to children, real differences will be made in teaching and learning. In this…

  17. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  18. Reflections on the Use of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucott, Clare; Soni, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Providing support to schools following a critical incident has become an established part of service delivery for many Educational Psychology Services (EPSs) in the UK. This article offers reflections on the use of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) in schools. A review of the literature on critical incidents, trauma, resilience and…

  19. A critical assessment of vector control for dengue prevention.

    PubMed

    Achee, Nicole L; Gould, Fred; Perkins, T Alex; Reiner, Robert C; Morrison, Amy C; Ritchie, Scott A; Gubler, Duane J; Teyssou, Remy; Scott, Thomas W

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the Vaccines to Vaccinate (v2V) initiative was reconfigured into the Partnership for Dengue Control (PDC), a multi-sponsored and independent initiative. This redirection is consistent with the growing consensus among the dengue-prevention community that no single intervention will be sufficient to control dengue disease. The PDC's expectation is that when an effective dengue virus (DENV) vaccine is commercially available, the public health community will continue to rely on vector control because the two strategies complement and enhance one another. Although the concept of integrated intervention for dengue prevention is gaining increasingly broader acceptance, to date, no consensus has been reached regarding the details of how and what combination of approaches can be most effectively implemented to manage disease. To fill that gap, the PDC proposed a three step process: (1) a critical assessment of current vector control tools and those under development, (2) outlining a research agenda for determining, in a definitive way, what existing tools work best, and (3) determining how to combine the best vector control options, which have systematically been defined in this process, with DENV vaccines. To address the first step, the PDC convened a meeting of international experts during November 2013 in Washington, DC, to critically assess existing vector control interventions and tools under development. This report summarizes those deliberations. PMID:25951103

  20. [Cardiovascular prevention according to CEIPC: a critical appraisal].

    PubMed

    Miguel-García, Félix; Merino-Senovilla, Alejandro; Montero-Alonso, María José; García-Ortiz, Alejandra; Sanz-Cantalapiedra, Ruperto; Maderuelo-Fernández, José Angel

    2010-01-01

    We present a critical appraisal of the adaptation to the 4th European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice carried out by The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention (CEIPC), which is based on: 1) the removal, by the CEIPC, of important restrictions on the start of drug therapy that are contained in the European guide 2) the existence of internal contradictions and differing recommendations regarding the goals of LDL in the several publications of the CEIP adaptation; and 3) and the almost total lack of necessary discussion about risk tables in Spain. Therefore, it makes a critical appraisal of some of the most important clinical recommendations shared by the CEIPC and the European guide that are not supported by clinical evidence, like the implicit proposal of using the estimated cardiovascular risk as a target for treatment, the criteria to begin the antihypertensive drug therapy and therapeutic goals for blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol and HbA1c. The public health administration and also the scientific society must ensure transparency and independence in the drafting of documents endorsed by them, including the management and declaration of potential conflicts of interest among editors and group members. The public health administration and also the scientific society must guarantee a framework of honesty and transparency in the documents endorsed by them, with a complete declaration of the authors conflict of interests. PMID:20571719

  1. A Critical Assessment of Vector Control for Dengue Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Achee, Nicole L.; Gould, Fred; Perkins, T. Alex; Reiner, Robert C.; Morrison, Amy C.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Gubler, Duane J.; Teyssou, Remy; Scott, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the Vaccines to Vaccinate (v2V) initiative was reconfigured into the Partnership for Dengue Control (PDC), a multi-sponsored and independent initiative. This redirection is consistent with the growing consensus among the dengue-prevention community that no single intervention will be sufficient to control dengue disease. The PDC's expectation is that when an effective dengue virus (DENV) vaccine is commercially available, the public health community will continue to rely on vector control because the two strategies complement and enhance one another. Although the concept of integrated intervention for dengue prevention is gaining increasingly broader acceptance, to date, no consensus has been reached regarding the details of how and what combination of approaches can be most effectively implemented to manage disease. To fill that gap, the PDC proposed a three step process: (1) a critical assessment of current vector control tools and those under development, (2) outlining a research agenda for determining, in a definitive way, what existing tools work best, and (3) determining how to combine the best vector control options, which have systematically been defined in this process, with DENV vaccines. To address the first step, the PDC convened a meeting of international experts during November 2013 in Washington, DC, to critically assess existing vector control interventions and tools under development. This report summarizes those deliberations. PMID:25951103

  2. Infantile amnesia reflects a developmental critical period for hippocampal learning.

    PubMed

    Travaglia, Alessio; Bisaz, Reto; Sweet, Eric S; Blitzer, Robert D; Alberini, Cristina M

    2016-09-01

    Episodic memories formed during the first postnatal period are rapidly forgotten, a phenomenon known as 'infantile amnesia'. In spite of this memory loss, early experiences influence adult behavior, raising the question of which mechanisms underlie infantile memories and amnesia. Here we show that in rats an experience learned during the infantile amnesia period is stored as a latent memory trace for a long time; indeed, a later reminder reinstates a robust, context-specific and long-lasting memory. The formation and storage of this latent memory requires the hippocampus, follows a sharp temporal boundary and occurs through mechanisms typical of developmental critical periods, including the expression switch of the NMDA receptor subunits from 2B to 2A, which is dependent on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Activating BDNF or mGluR5 after training rescues the infantile amnesia. Thus, early episodic memories are not lost but remain stored long term. These data suggest that the hippocampus undergoes a developmental critical period to become functionally competent. PMID:27428652

  3. Critical reflections on the principle of beneficence in biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2012-01-01

    Medical ethics as a scholarly discipline and a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, anthropology and sociology. As such there are a number of values in medical ethics such as autonomy, non-maleficence, confidentiality, dignity, honesty, justice and beneficence, among others. These values act as guidelines for professionals in the medical fraternity and are therefore used to judge different cases in the fraternity. For purposes of this work, this paper examines the principle of beneficence in biomedicine. Using both hypothetical cases and others in real life situations, the paper reflects on the implications of beneficence in biomedicine. It argues that the principle of beneficence is a prima facie obligation that should “always be acted upon unless it conflicts on a particular occasion with an equal or stronger principle”. PMID:22514763

  4. Reflections on Gibbs: From Critical Phenomena to the Amistad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadanoff, Leo P.

    2003-03-01

    J. Willard Gibbs, the younger was the first American theorist. He was one of the inventors of statistical physics. His introduction and development of the concepts of phase space, phase transitions, and thermodynamic surfaces was remarkably correct and elegant. These three concepts form the basis of different but related areas of physics. The connection among these areas has been a subject of deep reflection from Gibbs' time to our own. I shall talk about these connections by using concepts suggested by the work of Michael Berry and explicitly put forward by the philosopher Robert Batterman. This viewpoint relates theory-connection to the applied mathematics concepts of asymptotic analysis and singular perturbations. J. Willard Gibbs, the younger, had all his achievements concentrated in science. His father, also J. Willard Gibbs, also a Professor at Yale, had one great achievement that remains unmatched in our day. I shall describe it.

  5. Critical reflections on the principle of beneficence in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Munyaradzi, Mawere

    2012-01-01

    Medical ethics as a scholarly discipline and a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, anthropology and sociology. As such there are a number of values in medical ethics such as autonomy, non-maleficence, confidentiality, dignity, honesty, justice and beneficence, among others. These values act as guidelines for professionals in the medical fraternity and are therefore used to judge different cases in the fraternity. For purposes of this work, this paper examines the principle of beneficence in biomedicine. Using both hypothetical cases and others in real life situations, the paper reflects on the implications of beneficence in biomedicine. It argues that the principle of beneficence is a prima facie obligation that should "always be acted upon unless it conflicts on a particular occasion with an equal or stronger principle". PMID:22514763

  6. Suicide prevention in correctional facilities: reflections and next steps.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Lindsay M

    2013-01-01

    Data from a recent national study of inmate suicides indicates that the suicide rate in county jails throughout the United States has steadily decreased. Despite this progress, the author argues that rather than developing and maintaining comprehensive policies and practices, policymakers and correctional administrators appear preoccupied with the notion that suicides can only be prevented when inmates are on suicide precautions. Measures such as closed-circuit television monitoring, suicide-resistant jail cells, safety smocks, and new technology are popular tools to keep certain inmates safe. There is more to suicide prevention than simply observing suicidal inmates and waiting for them to attempt suicide. The author argues that suicides are prevented and suicide rates reduced when correctional facilities provide a comprehensive array of programming that identifies suicidal inmates who are otherwise difficult to identify, ensures their safety on suicide precautions, and provides a continuity of care throughout confinement. PMID:23664363

  7. Thermoacoustic wave propagation and reflection near the liquid-gas critical point.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Shen, B

    2009-06-01

    We study the thermoacoustic wave propagation and reflection near the liquid-gas critical point. Specifically, we perform a numerical investigation of the acoustic responses in a near-critical fluid to thermal perturbations based on the same setup of a recent ultrasensitive interferometry measurement in CO2 [Y. Miura, Phys. Rev. E 74, 010101(R) (2006)]. The numerical results agree well with the experimental data. Different features regarding the reflection pattern of thermoacoustic waves near the critical point under pulse perturbations are revealed by the proper inclusion of the critically diverging bulk viscosity. PMID:19658455

  8. [Opinions on the prevention and treatment of chronic critical illness].

    PubMed

    An, Youzhong

    2016-07-01

    Chronic critical illness (CCI) is an inevitable result of overpopulation and aging, as well as the development of medicine. The number of CCI patients will constantly increase and become an unaffordable economic burden for families, societies and countries. CCI could be prevented by multiple measures. Firstly, doctors must know about the pathophysiology and etiology of the disease. When providing organ function support for CCI patient, we have to know and treat the cause of the disease as early as possible. Secondly, we need to precisely monitor the insults caused by the disease and/or improper host response to the disease, evaluate the organ reserve function, and predict the outcomes and life quality after discharging from hospital. In addition, it is necessary to strengthen the humanity training of health care workers, publicize the correct thanatopsis in the whole society that every life is "born to die", and define the core role of medicine as "to comfort always". PMID:27452750

  9. Criticality experiments and analysis of molybdenum reflected cylindrical uranyl fluoride water solution reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fieno, D.; Fox, T.; Mueller, R.

    1972-01-01

    Clean criticality data were obtained from molybdenum-reflected cylindrical uranyl-fluoride-water solution reactors. Using ENDF/B molybdenum cross sections, a nine energy group two-dimensional transport calculation of a reflected reactor configuration predicted criticality to within 7 cents of the experimental value. For these reactors, it was necessary to compute the reflector resonance integral by a detailed transport calculation at the core-reflector interface volume in the energy region of the two dominant resonances of natural molybdenum.

  10. Reflection on Teaching and Epistemological Structure: Reflective and Critically Reflective Processes in "Pure/Soft" and "Pure/Hard" Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreber, Carolin; Castleden, Heather

    2009-01-01

    We empirically explored whether academics from pure/soft and pure/hard fields engage in reflective practice on teaching differently and, if so, whether these differences could be partially explained by the epistemological structure of their discipline. Interview data from academics in pure/hard (N = 30) and pure/soft fields (N = 10) were…

  11. Nurturing Reflective Teaching During Critical-Thinking Instruction in a Computer Simulation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-Chu

    2004-01-01

    Nurturing reflective teaching and improving critical-thinking instruction are two important goals in teacher education, but these are only achievable when teachers-in-training are provided with opportunities for building professional knowledge and for exhibiting reflective teaching practices. A computer simulation program (CS-TGCTS) was therefore…

  12. Teaching Research Methodology Using a Project-Based Three Course Sequence Critical Reflections on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braguglia, Kay H.; Jackson, Kanata A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a reflective analysis of teaching research methodology through a three course sequence using a project-based approach. The authors reflect critically on their experiences in teaching research methods courses in an undergraduate business management program. The introduction of a range of specific techniques including student…

  13. Becoming Critical Thinkers: The Impact of Treatments on Student Reflective Practice in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depinet, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of instructional treatments on reflective practice and critical thinking in the college classroom at Bowling Green State University in the College of Business. The study employed a quasi-experimental pretest posttest control group design to examine student reflective practice among three…

  14. The "R" Word in Teacher Education: Understanding the Teaching and Learning of Critical Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Michael; Walsh, Steve; Wideman, Ronald; Winter, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    The case for critical reflective practice (CRP) among teachers has been advocated for some time. Reflective practice is now at the heart of a number of teacher education programmes and is regarded as an important element in the preparation of new teachers. While it is clear that CRP is highly regarded by teacher educators, less clear is whether…

  15. Radical Questioning on the Long Walk to Freedom: Nelson Mandela and the Practice of Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Nelson Mandela's autobiography "The Long Walk to Freedom" describes how an iconic political activist and freedom fighter reflected on, and sometimes modified, four core assumptions at the heart of his struggle to overturn the White supremacist, minority hegemony and create a free South Africa. Critical reflection's focus is on understanding the…

  16. The Use of Psychological Foundations To Inform Teaching for Critical Reflectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Kathleen S.

    This paper considers the theoretical positions that ground teacher education programs and asks whether these theories reflect the experiences and voices of all society or merely those of the dominant culture. The paper proposes the incorporation of elements of critical pedagogy as taught by Paulo Freire and reflective thinking according to John…

  17. Curriculum Evaluation in Higher Education: Self Reflection in a Critical Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmis, Stephen; Hughes, Clare

    A conception of evaluation is developed which depends upon the self-reflective activities of those most closely involved in the development and teaching of a course. This model is based upon the critical theory of Jurgen Habermas, and focuses upon the way participant understandings of a course evolve through the process of critical debate. This…

  18. Reflective Thinking and Teaching Practices: A Precursor for Incorporating Critical Thinking into the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, S. Chee; Oo, Pou San

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reflective thinking as a precursor for incorporating critical thinking has been not been adequately researched. Most research has not given any effective strategies on how to incorporate these two concepts. There is a constant need to incorporate critical thinking into the classroom without much success. This study will attempt to…

  19. Using a critical reflection process to create an effective learning community in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachel; Cooke, Marie; Henderson, Amanda; Creedy, Debra K

    2013-05-01

    Learning circles are an enabling process to critically examine and reflect on practices with the purpose of promoting individual and organizational growth and change. The authors adapted and developed a learning circle strategy to facilitate open discourse between registered nurses, clinical leaders, clinical facilitators and students, to critically reflect on practice experiences to promote a positive learning environment. This paper reports on an analysis of field notes taken during a critical reflection process used to create an effective learning community in the workplace. A total of 19 learning circles were conducted during in-service periods (that is, the time allocated for professional education between morning and afternoon shifts) over a 3 month period with 56 nurses, 33 students and 1 university-employed clinical supervisor. Participation rates ranged from 3 to 12 individuals per discussion. Ten themes emerged from content analysis of the clinical learning issues identified through the four-step model of critical reflection used in learning circle discussions. The four-step model of critical reflection allowed participants to reflect on clinical learning issues, and raise them in a safe environment that enabled topics to be challenged and explored in a shared and cooperative manner. PMID:22459911

  20. An Examination of the Construct of Critical Reflection: Implications for Teacher Education Programming in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Deborah S.; Sentner, Sally M.; Forlenza-Bailey, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Provides a rationale and framework for promoting critical reflection in teacher preparation, focusing on what critical reflection is, whether and how reflective practice can be taught, constructivist methods, dialogue as a form of teaching, action research to nurture reflective practice, and writing as a tool to encourage connections between…

  1. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anup R; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C; Sizer, Nigel C; Davis, Crystal L; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R

    2016-04-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km(2)) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km(2), 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001-2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km(2)) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km(2) ([Formula: see text], SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km(2)). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near-real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion. PMID:27051881

  2. Using Edward de Bono's six hats game to aid critical thinking and reflection in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Lesley J

    2003-03-01

    This article describes the use of a creative thinking game to stimulate critical thinking and reflection with qualified health professionals undertaking palliative care education. The importance of reflective practice in nursing is well documented and numerous models are available. However, the author as a nurse teacher has found that many of these models are either too simple or too complex to be valuable in practice. The six hats game, devised by Edward de Bono, is a method that stimulates a variety of types of thinking and when used as a means of reflection helps students to become more critical about their practice. Using this game with a palliative care case study the author demonstrates how thinking more creatively about the patients' perceived needs and problems can assist in developing reflective skills. The article concludes with a discussion on some of the challenges of using this method and suggestions for future practical uses. PMID:12682572

  3. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anup R.; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L.; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S.; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C.; Sizer, Nigel C.; Davis, Crystal L.; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km2) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km2, 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001–2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km2) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km2 (x¯=24km2, SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km2). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near–real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion. PMID:27051881

  4. The Experience of Critical Self-Reflection by Life Coaches: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Deanna Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of critical self-reflection by life coaches. Life coaching is expanding within many disciplines including education, health care, business, social work, and wellness. Life coaching involves a coach working with an individual or groups aimed at effecting change for professional and personal…

  5. Guiding Preservice Teachers to Critically Reflect: Towards a Renewed Sense about English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, Amy Michele

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this practitioner inquiry was to explore the use of Guided Critical Reflection (GCR) in preparing preservice teachers for English learners (ELs). As a teacher researcher, I documented, analyzed, and discussed the ways in which students in my course used the process of GCR to transform their passively held understandings about ELs.…

  6. Ethics Leadership in Research, Healthcare and Organizational Systems: Commentary and Critical Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades there has arisen a greater awareness of the ever present need for critical academic reflection on the nature of ethics leadership and committees in research, healthcare, and organizational systems. Yet what is meant by ethics itself? How is ethics understood as a historical phenomenon? What challenges must ethics leaders face…

  7. A Critical Reflection on My Learning and Its Integration into My Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This paper, "A critical reflection on my learning and its integration into my professional practice," was successfully submitted for a Master's programme at the University of Bath (UK) in 2010, whilst Sally was working full-time as a teacher in a large secondary school in an English town 10 miles from the city of Bath. Sally died of a…

  8. Let's Not Get Too Personal: Critical Reflection, Reflexivity and the Confessional Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to ask how we can think about critical reflection as a pedagogical practice given the "confessional turn." By the "confessional turn," the author refers to the idea that "subjective, autobiographical and confessional modes of expression" have expanded exponentially across a wide range of social spheres,…

  9. Critical Reflection to Identify Gaps between Espoused Theory and Theory-in-Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savaya, Riki; Gardner, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Critical reflection (CR) is a process by which one may identify the assumptions governing one's actions, question them, and develop alternative behaviors. This article presents two cases that demonstrate the use of CR to raise social workers' awareness of gaps between what Schon and Argryis term social workers' "espoused theories" and the…

  10. Establishing Open and Critical Discourses in the Science Classroom: Reflecting on Initial Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille M.; Taylor, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a reflective account of a science teacher's endeavors to use the referent of critical constructivism to transform her pedagogical practices. The context of the action research is a Year 10 bioethics unit taught at an independent girls' school. Contains 44 references. (DDR)

  11. Producing Neoliberal Citizens: Critical Reflections on Human Rights Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoja-Moolji, Shenila

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the celebratory uptake of human rights education (HRE) in postcolonial contexts by making visible the ideological and political entanglements of the discourse with neoliberal assumptions of citizenship. I draw evidence from, and critically reflect on, a specific HRE programme--a series of summer camps for girls entitled,…

  12. Critical and Creative Reflective Inquiry: Surfacing Narratives to Enable Learning and Inform Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardiff, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    Narratives are being increasingly used in nursing and action research. In this participatory action research study, nurse leaders of an acute care of the older person unit collectively, critically and creatively reflected on lived experiences in order to explore the concept of person-centred leadership within their own practice. This paper…

  13. Evaluation of Critical Thinking and Reflective Thinking Skills among Science Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and determine the critical thinking and reflective thinking skills of science teacher candidates. The study was performed with the participation of 30 teacher candidates enrolled in the science teaching department of a university in Turkey. Scales administered during the study included the California Critical…

  14. Observation of near-critical reflection of internal waves in a stably stratified fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauxois, Thierry; Didier, Anthony; Falcon, Eric

    2004-06-01

    An experimental study is reported of the near-critical reflection of internal gravity waves over sloping topography in a stratified fluid. An overturning instability close to the slope and triggering the boundary-mixing process is observed and characterized. These observations are found in good agreement with a recent nonlinear theory.

  15. Enhancing Critical Reflection and Writing Skills in the HBSE Classroom and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE) is an ideal location in which graduate social work students can enhance their critical reflection and writing skills while integrating social work theories with practice, research, and policy. A writing-intensive, learner-centered model using specific strategies is described via a framework of…

  16. Renaming Teaching Practice through Teacher Reflection Using Critical Incidents on a Virtual Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Antoni; Becerril, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    This study approaches teacher learning from a dialogical viewpoint where lecturers' voices used in a training course context reflect how lecturers generated new professional discourse. The design of the training course considered the analysis of several critical incidents (CIs) in online teaching. An analytical framework based on lecturers'…

  17. From idealistic helper to enterprising learner: critical reflections on personal development through experiences from Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Wickford, Jenny; Rosberg, Susanne

    2012-05-01

    There is little written about the cultural, social, and ethical challenges encountered by physiotherapists engaging in development work. This article takes a critical perspective on what it means to engage in development work as an expatriate physiotherapist, through a self-critical reflection on experiences from Afghanistan. The field notes from an ethnographic study of a development project conducted in Afghanistan were analysed to explore the transformative process of personal and professional development of the development worker. The critical reflective process entailed a change in meaning perspective, described as a shift from the position of an Idealistic Helper to an Enterprising Learner. Of importance in this process were "disorienting dilemmas" that challenged personal perceptions. Critical reflection over such dilemmas led to deeper understanding facilitating the process of change. The essential lesson learned is that the baseline for understanding others is an understanding of one's own meaning perspectives and manner of participation in relation to others and their context. The insights gained have implications for physiotherapists working in development contexts, for other development workers, and for physiotherapists working with patients in clinical practice in a nondevelopment context. Exploring how to collaborate in development contexts could be done using reflective groups with expatriate and local physiotherapists and/or patients. This could lead to greater understanding of oneself, each other, and the local context. PMID:22047471

  18. A Critical Analysis of Approaches To Targeted PTSD Prevention: Current Status and Theoretically Derived Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldner, Matthew T.; Monson, Candice M.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2007-01-01

    Although efforts to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have met with relatively limited success, theoretically driven preventive approaches with promising efficacy are emerging. The current article critically reviews investigations of PTSD prevention programs that target persons at risk for being exposed to a traumatic event or who have…

  19. Evaluation of Plutonium Hemisphere Critical Experiments Partially Reflected by Steel and Oil

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2012-01-01

    A series of 15 critical experiments performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s were evaluated and then determined to represent acceptable benchmark experiments for the validation of calculational methods. This series of experiments was part of a larger set of experiments performed to evaluate operational safety margins at the Rocky Flats Plant. The experiments consisted of bare plutonium metal hemishells reflected by steel hemishells of increasing thickness and motor oil. The hemishell assembly was suspended within dual aluminum tanks. Criticality was achieved by pumping oil into the tanks such that effectively infinite reflection was achieved in all directions except directly above the assembly; then the critical oil height was recorded. The results of these experiments had been initially ignored because early computational methods had been inadequate to analyze partially-reflected configurations. The dominant uncertainties include the uncertainty in the average plutonium density and the composition of materials in the gaps between the plutonium hemishells. Simple and detailed benchmark models were developed. Eigenvalue calculations using MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 were within 2s of the benchmark values. This benchmark evaluation has been added to the ICSBEP Handbook.

  20. A reflective lens: applying critical systems thinking and visual methods to ecohealth research.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Deborah; Wyborn, Carina

    2010-12-01

    Critical systems methodology has been advocated as an effective and ethical way to engage with the uncertainty and conflicting values common to ecohealth problems. We use two contrasting case studies, coral reef management in the Philippines and national park management in Australia, to illustrate the value of critical systems approaches in exploring how people respond to environmental threats to their physical and spiritual well-being. In both cases, we used visual methods--participatory modeling and rich picturing, respectively. The critical systems methodology, with its emphasis on reflection, guided an appraisal of the research process. A discussion of these two case studies suggests that visual methods can be usefully applied within a critical systems framework to offer new insights into ecohealth issues across a diverse range of socio-political contexts. With this article, we hope to open up a conversation with other practitioners to expand the use of visual methods in integrated research. PMID:21207106

  1. On critical conditions for detonation initiation by shock reflection from obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, G. O.; Ward, S. M.; Williams, R. Ll.; Bambrey, R. J.

    A series of experiments supported by numerical simulations are reported on the interaction between a planar incident shock and a single obstacle. The test mixtures used were stoichiometric hydrogen and oxygen diluted with either argon or nitrogen at sub-atmospheric pressures. The main aim of the study was to determine the conditions under which a reflected detonation was generated. Observed critical conditions are compared with a simple predictive criterion based on the ratio of auto-ignition delay time behind an ideal reflected shock to the acoustic transit time across the face of the obstacle.

  2. Frustrated total internal reflection and critical coupling in a thick plasmonic grating with narrow slits

    SciTech Connect

    Mattiucci, N.; D'Aguanno, G. E-mail: giuseppe.daguanno@us.army.mil; Bloemer, M. J.; Alù, A.

    2014-06-02

    We demonstrate the possibility of critical coupling through frustrated total internal reflection in a thick plasmonic grating below the first diffraction order. Differently from conventional approaches relying on the excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons, here we exploit the light coupling with the leaky modes supported by the grating. This mechanism entails a wide-angle coupling and effectively access spectral bands that would otherwise be difficult to probe using conventional plasmonic critical coupling techniques, such as the Otto configuration. Our finding may pave the way to efficient plasmonic bio-sensor devices.

  3. Critical Thinking and Reflection for Mental Health Nursing Students Roberts Marc Critical Thinking and Reflection for Mental Health Nursing Students 160pp £16.99 SAGE Learning Matters 9781473913127 1473913128 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2016-03-16

    This essential guide starts by focusing on the skills required to apply critical thinking to personal reflection and practice. Focus then moves to the underlying principles of practice and evidence-based nursing care. Finally, there are helpful chapters on how to improve reflective and critical writing skills to meet academic standards. PMID:26982854

  4. Lactate in the emergency department: a case-based critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Rob

    2016-09-01

    Serum lactate levels are frequently measured in patients with undifferentiated conditions in emergency departments. This article uses a case-based reflection to critically analyse the role of lactate measurement in these patients. It examines the rationale for testing, and the potential causes of raised levels, to remind clinicians that this diagnostic intervention must be taken in the context of patients' clinical presentations and not in isolation. PMID:27615347

  5. Biomass Burning Aerosol Absorption Measurements with MODIS Using the Critical Reflectance Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Li; Martins, Vanderlei J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2010-01-01

    This research uses the critical reflectance technique, a space-based remote sensing method, to measure the spatial distribution of aerosol absorption properties over land. Choosing two regions dominated by biomass burning aerosols, a series of sensitivity studies were undertaken to analyze the potential limitations of this method for the type of aerosol to be encountered in the selected study areas, and to show that the retrieved results are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the assumptions used in the retrieval of smoke aerosol. The critical reflectance technique is then applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to retrieve the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) in South African and South American 35 biomass burning events. The retrieved results were validated with collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals. One standard deviation of mean MODIS retrievals match AERONET products to within 0.03, the magnitude of the AERONET uncertainty. The overlap of the two retrievals increases to 88%, allowing for measurement variance in the MODIS retrievals as well. The ensemble average of MODIS-derived SSA for the Amazon forest station is 0.92 at 670 nm, and 0.84-0.89 for the southern African savanna stations. The critical reflectance technique allows evaluation of the spatial variability of SSA, and shows that SSA in South America exhibits higher spatial variation than in South Africa. The accuracy of the retrieved aerosol SSA from MODIS data indicates that this product can help to better understand 44 how aerosols affect the regional and global climate.

  6. Why the Neighborhood Social Environment Is Critical in Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira F; Shelton, Rachel C; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y Claire; Rundle, Andrew; Link, Bruce G

    2016-02-01

    The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has been less extensively studied but is perhaps an equally important component of the neighborhood environment. The neighborhood social environment, particularly constructs of social capital, collective efficacy, and crime, is associated with obesity among both adults and children. Several studies have identified physical activity as a potential pathway of the neighborhood social environment and obesity association. Further work on social networks and norms and residential segregation, as well as the examination of dietary behaviors and mental health as potential mediating pathways, is necessary. Given the existing evidence, intervening on the neighborhood social environment may prove to be an effective target for the prevention on obesity. Intervention studies that promote healthy behaviors and prevent obesity while addressing aspects of the neighborhood social environment are necessary to better identify targets for obesity prevention. PMID:26780582

  7. Use of Poems Written by Physicians to Elicit Critical Reflection by Students in a Medical Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Winkle, Lon J.; Robson, Chester; Chandar, Nalini; Green, Jacalyn M.; Viselli, Susan M.; Donovan, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Critical reflection helps to animate humanistic values needed for professional behavior in medical students. We wanted to learn whether poems written by physicians could foster such critical reflection. To do so, we determined whether the poems elicited dissonance (i.e., recognition of their own or others behavior as incongruent with…

  8. Pre-Service Teachers' Critical Reflections of Arts and Education Discourse: Reconstructions of Experiences in Early Childhood and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda G.; Nicholas, Ellen L.; Lambeth, Meaghan L.

    2008-01-01

    This layered account of arts education is produced through the three authors' critical reflections of experiences in their own early childhood education, and their pre-service teacher education. The first layer establishes links between the arts, learning in the arts and critically reflective practices through an account of teaching and learning…

  9. Establishing open and critical discourses in the science classroom: Reflecting on initial difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille M.; Taylor, Peter C.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a reflective account of a science teacher’s endeavours to use the referent of critical constructivism to transform her pedagogical practices. The context of her action research was a Year 10 Bioethics unit taught at an independent girls’ school in Perth, Western Australia. Students were provided with opportunities to engage in open and critical discourses; many did, but a few were unwilling to participate in accordance with the teacher’s intentions. We illustrate the disruptive influence of these “dissident” students and explore the reasons for their unwillingness to suspend their disbelief in a new way of knowing (and of being) that involves a radical change in the role of language in the classroom. We conclude with recommendations for epistemological pluralism and the careful use of critical discourse for re-negotiating teaching and learning roles and creating conditions for open discourse to flourish.

  10. The Reflective Practice Guide: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Critical Reflection Bassot Barbara The Reflective Practice Guide: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Critical Reflection 152pp £26.99 Routledge 9781138784314 1138784311 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2016-06-22

    The aim of this book is to support all professional practitioners for whom reflection is integral to practice. This makes it unique among books on reflective practice, which usually cover only one discipline. PMID:27332603

  11. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable. PMID:27235566

  12. Spectroscopic refractometer for transparent and absorbing liquids by reflection of white light near the critical angle

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Perez, C.; Garcia-Valenzuela, A.

    2012-11-15

    We propose and evaluate a spectroscopic refractometer device to measure the refractive index dispersion of transparent and absorbing solutions. The angle-dependent reflectivity of a white beam of light in an internal reflection configuration around the critical angle is spectrally analyzed. The refractive index in a wavelength range from 400 nm to 900 nm is obtained from the angle-reflectivity curve around the critical angle at each wavelength. The device does not use angle scanning mechanisms, decreasing considerably the complexity of the instrument in comparison to previous proposals. As a result, the measurements are obtained relatively fast. Nevertheless, a good experimental resolution in refractive index of about {Delta}n Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} at all the wavelengths is achieved in the case of transparent solutions. The calibration procedure of the device is discussed in detail. We also present measurements of the refractive index dispersion of rhodamine 6G-methanol solutions, which has a strong absorption band in the visible spectra.

  13. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.

  14. Prevention of Iatrogenic Anemia in Critical and Neonatal Care.

    PubMed

    Jakacka, Natalia; Snarski, Emilian; Mekuria, Selamawit

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic anemia caused by diagnostic blood sampling is a common problem in the intensive care unit, where continuous monitoring of blood parameters is very often required. Cumulative blood loss associated with phlebotomy along with other factors render this group of patients particularly susceptible to anemia. As it has been proven that anemia in this group of patients leads to inferior outcomes, packed red blood cell transfusions are used to alleviate possible threats associated with low hemoglobin concentration. However, the use of blood components is a procedure conferring a set of risks to the patients despite improvements in safety. Iatrogenic blood loss has also gained particular attention in neonatal care, where cumulative blood loss due to samples taken during the first week of life could easily equal or exceed circulating blood volume. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the causes of iatrogenic anemia and discusses the most common preventive measures taken to reduce diagnostic blood loss and the requirement for blood component transfusions in the aforementioned clinical situations. PMID:26935514

  15. Reflection and moral maturity in a nurse's caring practice: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jane

    2010-07-01

    The likelihood of nurse reflection is examined from the theoretical perspectives of Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action and Moral Action and Sumner's Moral Construct of Caring in Nursing as Communicative Action, through a critical social theory lens. The argument is made that until the nurse reaches the developmental level of post-conventional moral maturity and/or Benner's Stage 5: expert, he or she is not capable of being inwardly directed reflective on self. The three developmental levels of moral maturity and Benner's stages are presented with discussion on whether or not there can be self-reflection because of an innate vulnerability that leads to self-protective behaviours. It is only when the confidence from mastery of practice has been achieved can the nurse be comfortable with reflection that enables him or her to become enlightened, emancipated, and empowered. The influences and constraints of the knowledge power between nurse and patient are acknowledged. The power hierarchy of the institution is recognized as constraining. PMID:20536765

  16. Validation of FSP Reactor Design with Sensitivity Studies of Beryllium-Reflected Critical Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall

    2013-02-01

    The baseline design for space nuclear power is a fission surface power (FSP) system: sodium-potassium (NaK) cooled, fast spectrum reactor with highly-enriched-uranium (HEU)-O2 fuel, stainless steel (SS) cladding, and beryllium reflectors with B4C control drums. Previous studies were performed to evaluate modeling capabilities and quantify uncertainties and biases associated with analysis methods and nuclear data. Comparison of Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR)-20 benchmark experiments with the FSP design indicated that further reduction of the total design model uncertainty requires the reduction in uncertainties pertaining to beryllium and uranium cross-section data. Further comparison with three beryllium-reflected HEU-metal benchmark experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) concluded the requirement that experimental validation data have similar cross section sensitivities to those found in the FSP design. A series of critical experiments was performed at ORCEF in the 1960s to support the Medium Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) space reactor design. The small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were graphite- or beryllium-reflected assemblies of SS-clad, HEU-O2 fuel on a vertical lift machine. All five configurations were evaluated as benchmarks. Two of the five configurations were beryllium reflected, and further evaluated using the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis capabilities of SCALE 6.1. Validation of the example FSP design model was successful in reducing the primary uncertainty constituent, the Be(n,n) reaction, from 0.28 %dk/k to 0.0004 %dk/k. Further assessment of additional reactor physics measurements performed on the SCCA experiments may serve to further validate FSP design and operation.

  17. Experimental physics characteristics of a heavy-metal-reflected fast-spectrum critical assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heneveld, W. H.; Paschall, R. K.; Springer, T. H.; Swanson, V. A.; Thiele, A. W.; Tuttle, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    A zero-power critical assembly was designed, constructed, and operated for the purpose of conducting a series of benchmark experiments dealing with the physics characteristics of a UN-fueled, Li-7 cooled, Mo-reflected, drum-controlled compact fast reactor for use with a space-power electric conversion system. The experimental program consisted basically of measuring the differential neutron spectra and the changes in critical mass that accompanied the stepwise addition of (Li-7)3N, Hf, Ta, and W to a basic core fueled with U metal in a pin-type Ta honeycomb structure. In addition, experimental results were obtained on power distributions, control characteristics, neutron lifetime, and reactivity worths of numerous absorber, structural, and scattering materials.

  18. Sharing stories: using narratives to illustrate the role of critical reflection in practice with First Australians.

    PubMed

    Booth, Jodie; Nelson, Alison

    2013-09-01

    This paper aims to fill a gap in existing literature by using examples of reflective practice and how these informed service delivery and development with First Australians within a population health paradigm. Population-based approaches have been proposed as useful for providing services that reach beyond the individual. They may be particularly helpful in providing a framework for occupational therapists working with First Australians, when modified appropriately. "Healthy Ears" is a statewide ear health programme for First Australians. It is an example of a health promotion programme working to partner with First Australian communities using a community-driven and strengths-based approach. The occupational therapy role within this service has been recently established. Collaborative autoethnography was used to produce narrative reflection and discussion between the first and second authors in order to illustrate the role of critical reflection in developing this new occupational therapy service. The narratives presented are based on three main themes, which emerged as important guiding principles; these are core occupational therapy knowledge and skills, partnerships with communities and organizations and cultural safety. Each theme comprises narrative excerpts followed by interpretations based on the literature. The findings from these narratives, whilst limited to a particular context, suggest there is a need for greater professional preparation and support for occupational therapists working cross-culturally through undergraduate training and professional development opportunities. This paper highlights the usefulness of reflective practice as a tool for developing culturally safe occupational therapy services and emphasizes the importance of relationships with key First Australians as a platform for culturally safe practice. PMID:23319148

  19. Critical Social Theory and Transformative Learning: Evidence in Pre-Service Teachers' Service-Learning Reflection Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Suzanne; Selva, Gitta

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the opportunities for transformational learning experienced by a group of pre-service teachers who were engaged in service-learning as a pedagogical process with a focus on reflection. Critical social theory informed the design of the reflection process as it enabled a move away from knowledge transmission toward knowledge…

  20. Validation of a Method for Measuring Medical Students' Critical Reflections on Professionalism in Gross Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Drake, Richard L.; Szostek, Jason H.; Reed, Darcy A.; Lachman, Nirusha; McBride, Jennifer M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Improving professional attitudes and behaviors requires critical self reflection. Research on reflection is necessary to understand professionalism among medical students. The aims of this prospective validation study at the Mayo Medical School and Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine were: (1) to develop and validate a new instrument for…

  1. Prevention-centered caries management strategies during critical periods in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Chi, Donald L

    2011-10-01

    The current caries management model in the United States is based on restoring teeth rather than preventing disease. Scarce resources make this approach unsustainable, especially in clinical settings that serve vulnerable child populations. This paper presents specific prevention-centered caries management strategies that should form the basis of clinical interventions targeted at children during four critical periods in childhood: pre-age 1, ages 1-3, ages 4-5, and ages 6-7. PMID:22132585

  2. Development of Information Security-Focused Incident Prevention Measures for Critical Information Infrastructure in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Takahito; Nagayasu, Yukinobu

    In recent years, the dilemma of cyber attacks by malicious third parties targeting security vulnerabilities in information and communication systems has emerged, resulting in security incidents. This situation suggests that the establishment of proactive efforts and recurrence prevention measures are becoming imperative, especially in critical infrastructure sectors.This paper provides an analysis of 58 security incident cases, which occurred in critical infrastructures worldwide and were published in media. The purpose of the analysis is to conclude to a valid list of recurrence prevention measures that constitute good practices.

  3. Health Behavior Theory for Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Root-Cause Analysis Project in Critical Care Nursing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kristen R; Ragnoni, Jennifer A; Bickmann, Jonathan D; Saarinen, Hannah A; Gosselin, Ann K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use a behavioral theory to examine pressure ulcer prevention by nurses in a critical care setting. A root-cause analysis approach was used, including an integrative literature review, operationalization of behavioral constructs into a survey, and root-cause analysis application in a cardiovascular intensive care unit. This article highlights an innovative approach to quality improvement in critical care. PMID:26111143

  4. What Is a Critical Multicultural Researcher? A Self-Reflective Study of the Role of the Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoorman, Dilys; Bogotch, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Critical multiculturalism and social justice have emerged in educational contexts as primarily pedagogical concerns, confined to the processes of teaching and learning. This article raises the question about the application of these principles to the research process. Through a critical self-reflection on researcher roles and practices, this…

  5. Experimental physics characteristics of a heavy-metal-reflected fast-spectrum critical assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heneveld, W. H.; Paschall, R. K.; Springer, T. H.; Swanson, V. A.; Thiele, A. W.; Tuttle, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A zero-power critical assembly was designed, constructed, and operated for the purpose of conducting a series of benchmark experiments dealing with the physics characteristics of a UN-fueled, Li-cooled, Mo-reflected, drum-controlled compact fast reactor for use with a space-power electric conversion system. The range of the previous experimental investigations has been expanded to include the reactivity effects of:(1) surrounding the reactor with 15.24 cm (6 in.) of polyethylene, (2) reducing the heights of a portion of the upper and lower axial reflectors by factors of 2 and 4, (3) adding 45 kg of W to the core uniformly in two steps, (4) adding 9.54 kg of Ta to the core uniformly, and (5) inserting 2.3 kg of polyethylene into the core proper and determining the effect of a Ta addition on the polyethylene worth.

  6. CRITICAL IMPERMEABILITY PRESSU RE OF LEAK PREVENTED SEAL BY BLOCKING EFFECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaga, Munehiko

    We have carried out the research on the impermeability of segment joint of shield tunnel used in a new water-expansion rubber material of injected ty pe. As the result, we found a new mechanism of impermeability by blocking effect. As next step, we investigated the impermeability function of a hard rubber leak prevented seal. It can be estimated that the critical imperm eability pressure rapidly increases if the hard rubber leak prevented seal has a cut-off performance by blockage effect. Consequently, we clarified that the hard rubber leak prevented seal has impermeability function by blocking effect. This result can be utilized for the development of impermeability method.

  7. A critical reflection on the personal impact of managerial hegemony within nurse education.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N S; Wimpenny, P

    1996-03-01

    This paper, written by two male nurse teachers, describes and analyses their experience of working in a nurse education culture permeated by the philosophy of business management. The introduction of business management practices to nurse education is discussed as a reflection of the current political hegemony of market forces and individualism. The authors discuss the implications for nurse teachers of being continually exposed to these politically motivated forces which increasingly provide the paradigm for service developments within the United Kingdom health services. In discussing the impact of this exposure it is argued that at the personal level individual teachers are experiencing a degree of apathy and personal dissonance which undermines their professional value system, resulting in emotional distress and a crisis of identity. It provides a critical reflection on the way organizational dynamics and power relations influence the subjective sense-making of individuals. The authors use a multiplicity of perspectives, including those provided by individual psychology, power relations, feminism and personhood, to argue for the need to develop an alternative paradigm which is characterized by the valuing of individual persons, empathic sensitivity and the fostering of creativity. PMID:8655822

  8. Critical Reflectance Derived from MODIS: Application for the Retrieval of Aerosol Absorption over Desert Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Kelley C.; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Remer, Lorraine A.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2012-01-01

    Aerosols are tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere that scatter and absorb sunlight. Smoke particles are aerosols, as are sea salt, particulate pollution and airborne dust. When you look down at the earth from space sometimes you can see vast palls of whitish smoke or brownish dust being transported by winds. The reason that you can see these aerosols is because they are reflecting incoming sunlight back to the view in space. The reason for the difference in color between the different types of aerosol is that the particles arc also absorbing sunlight at different wavelengths. Dust appears brownish or reddish because it absorbs light in the blue wavelengths and scatters more reddish light to space, Knowing how much light is scattered versus how much is absorbed, and knowin that as a function of wavelength is essential to being able to quantify the role aerosols play in the energy balance of the earth and in climate change. It is not easy measuring the absorption properties of aerosols when they are suspended in the atmosphere. People have been doing this one substance at a time in the laboratory, but substances mix when they are in the atmosphere and the net absorption effect of all the particles in a column of air is a goal of remote sensing that has not yet been completely successful. In this paper we use a technique based on observing the point at which aerosols change from brightening the surface beneath to darkening it. If aerosols brighten a surface. they must scatter more light to space. If they darken the surface. they must be absorbing more. That cross over point is called the critical reflectance and in this paper we show that critical reflectance is a monotonic function of the intrinsic absorption properties of the particles. This parameter we call the single scattering albedo. We apply the technique to MODIS imagery over the Sahara and Sahel regions to retrieve the single scattering albedo in seven wavelengths, compare these retrievals to ground

  9. Not Just Another Single Issue: Teen Pregnancy Prevention's Link to Other Critical Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses critical social issues linked to teen pregnancy, explaining that teen pregnancy prevention should be viewed as working to improve these social issues. After providing general background on teen pregnancy, the report offers five fact sheets: (1) "Teen Pregnancy, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty" (continuing to reduce teen…

  10. Enteral nutrition in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in adult critical care patients.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jill; Rasmussen, Louisa

    2014-12-01

    Prevention and healing of pressure ulcers in critically ill patients can be especially challenging because of the patients' burden of illness and degree of physiological compromise. Providing adequate nutrition may help halt the development or worsening of pressure ulcers. Optimization of nutrition can be considered an essential ingredient in prevention and healing of pressure ulcers. Understanding malnutrition in critical care patients, the effect of nutrition on wound healing, and the application of evidence-based nutritional guidelines are important aspects for patients at high risk for pressure ulcers. Appropriate screenings for nutritional status and risk for pressure ulcers, early collaboration with a registered dietician, and administration of appropriate feeding formulations and micronutrient and macronutrient supplementation to promote wound healing are practical solutions to improve the nutritional status of critical care patients. Use of nutritional management and enteral feeding protocols may provide vital elements to augment nutrition and ultimately result in improved clinical outcomes. PMID:25452406

  11. Beyond Socks, Signs, and Alarms: A Reflective Accountability Model for Fall Prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Linda M; Guarracino, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Despite standard fall precautions, including nonskid socks, signs, alarms, and patient instructions, our 48-bed cardiac intermediate care unit (CICU) had a 41% increase in the rate of falls (from 2.2 to 3.1 per 1,000 patient days) and a 65% increase in the rate of falls with injury (from 0.75 to 1.24 per 1,000 patient days) between fiscal years (FY) 2012 and 2013. An evaluation of the falls data conducted by a cohort of four clinical nurses found that the majority of falls occurred when patients were unassisted by nurses, most often during toileting. Supported by the leadership team, the clinical nurses developed an accountability care program that required nurses to use reflective practice to evaluate each fall, including sending an e-mail to all staff members with both the nurse's and the patient's perspective on the fall, as well as the nurse's reflection on what could have been done to prevent the fall. Other program components were a postfall huddle and guidelines for assisting and remaining with fall risk patients for the duration of their toileting. Placing the accountability for falls with the nurse resulted in decreases in the unit's rates of falls and falls with injury of 55% (from 3.1 to 1.39 per 1,000 patient days) and 72% (from 1.24 to 0.35 per 1,000 patient days), respectively, between FY2013 and FY2014. Prompt call bell response (less than 60 seconds) also contributed to the goal of fall prevention. PMID:26710147

  12. A study of the relationship between reflective writing and critical thinking in seventh grade integrated science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowicki, Mark Adam

    This study examined the role of reflective journal writing on the development of critical thinking in seventh grade integrated science students. The students participating in this study were part of four science classes taught by the same instructor, using the same curriculum and methods employed during this study. The larger working group consisted of 69 seventh grade students who were allowed to participate in this study by virtue of a signed consent form. The 12 students who comprised the smaller writing group were selected from the larger working group. The smaller, criterion-based writing group was selected from the working group based on their level of critical thinking as indicated on the pre-test instrument. The study utilized several methods of data collection. Data were collected through analyses of student journal entries, class discussions, and a pre and posttest instrument to measure a student's level of critical thinking. All participants were given code names to mask their identity. The findings of this study indicate that a majority of the students' ability to think critically appeared to improve after 18 weeks of reflective journal writing. However, no relationship was found between a student's level of critical thinking and his or her ability to write reflectively. Although many participants did improve their level of reflective writing and critical thinking, there was no direct relationship found between the two skills. This study provided some evidence that reflective journal writing is beneficial for students although some benefits may be intangible. The attitudes of many students toward writing improved, and there was a noticeable increase in students' willingness to share their thoughts and respond to questions in class. Practice in reflective writing also contributed to improved writing skills by the participants. Additionally, there are five recommendations for further research derived from this study.

  13. A New Holistic Security Approach for Government Critical Systems: Flooding Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhabeeb, Mohammed; Almuhaideb, Abdullah; Le, Phu Dung; Srinivasan, Bala

    Flooding attack is a threat to services in the Internet. They can cause significant financial losses. This paper presents a new holistic security approach which prevents flooding in the government critical systems. A new corporation with local service providers has been suggested to finding the real source of the flooding attacks. In addition, a new concept of a dynamic-multi-communicationpoint is included to make the prevention of flooding attacks easier. Also the dynamic key encryption technique is adapted as a part of the proposed approach to enhance its functionality.

  14. Prophylactic use of dressings for pressure ulcer prevention in the critical care unit.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Elaine

    2016-06-23

    Multiple comorbidities and intensive therapy increase the risk of pressure ulcer (PU) development in critical care unit (CCU) patients. Given the high number of risk factors that CCU patients present with, it is important to acknowledge that not all PUs are entirely preventable, and incidence is thought to be between 14% and 42%. The consequences of acquiring a PU in critical care include increased mortality, morbidity and longer length of stay. Implementing prevention strategies as soon as the patient enters the unit can significantly reduce incidence. By adopting a proactive versus reactive mind-set, one CCU abandoned traditional PU risk assessment and implemented a number of intensive interventions, including the use of a prophylactic sacral dressing as an adjunct. As a result, PU incidence fell from 19.9 per 1000 patient population to 0.84 per 1000 patient population in 2014. In addition, 310 PU-free days were achieved. PMID:27345087

  15. A Critical Evaluation of the Usefulness of a Coding Scheme to Categorise Levels of Reflective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Amani; Kelton, Jill; McDonagh, Nadia; Mladenovic, Rosina; Morrison, Kellie

    2011-01-01

    The use of reflective learning journals to encourage higher order learning outcomes is a growing area in higher education research and practice. However, without a unified and clear definition of reflection, identifying and assessing reflection is problematic for educators. In an attempt to address this issue, in 1999 Kember and colleagues devised…

  16. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  17. Study of neutron noise from reflected, metal assemblies with criticality safety applications in mind

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, C.S.

    1985-08-20

    The author studied the statistics of detected neutrons that leaked from four subcritical reflected, enriched-uranium assemblies, to explore the feasibility of developing a criticality warning system based on neutron noise analysis. The calculated multiplication factors of the assemblies are 0.59, 0.74, 0.82, and 0.92. The author studied three possible discriminators, i.e., three signatures that might be used to discriminate among assemblies of various multiplications. They are: (1) variance-to-mean ratio of the counts in a time bin (V/M); (2) covariance-to-mean ratio of the counts in a common time bin from two different detectors (C/M); and (3) covariance-to-mean ratio of the counts from a single detector in two adjacent time bins of equal length, which the author calls the serial-covariance-to-mean ratio (SC/M). The performances of the three discriminators were not greatly different, but a hierarchy did emerge: SC/M greater than or equal to V/M greater than or equal to C/M. An example of some results: in the neighborhood of k = 0.6 the ..delta..k required for satisfactory discrimination varies from about 3% to 7% as detector solid angle varies from 19% to 5%. In the neighborhood of k = 0.8 the corresponding ..delta..ks are 1% and 2%. The noise analysis techniques studied performed well enough in deeply subcritical situations to deserve testing in an applications environment. They have a good chance of detecting changes in reactivity that are potentially dangerous. One can expect sharpest results when doing comparisons, i.e., when comparing two records, one taken in the past under circumstances known to be normal and one taken now to search for change.

  18. Education for Sustainable Development Networks, Potential and Challenge: A Critical Reflection on the Formation of the Caribbean Regional Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Down, Lorna; Nurse, Henderson

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we seek to reflect critically on the process of establishing a Caribbean Network for the reorientation of teacher education to address sustainability. We begin by addressing the origin and purpose/value of the network. As a sub-network of the UNITWIN/UNESCO International Network for the Reorientation of Teacher Education to Address…

  19. Structure and Agency in Learning: A Critical Realist Theory of the Development of Capacity to Reflect on Academic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter; Qualter, Anne; Young, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Theories of learning typically downplay the interplay between social structure and student agency. In this article, we adapt a causal hypothesis from realist social theory and draw on wider perspectives from critical realism to account for the development of capacity to engage in reflection on professional practice in academic roles. We thereby…

  20. Understanding Critical Reflection as Informal Learning: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Analysis of Factory Workers in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyoung Hwa

    2011-01-01

    This study started from the question "how does learning occur in human life". In particular, I am interested in learning that takes place continuously anywhere at any time rather than learning that is occurred by being taught by others. This study interpreted critical reflection as learning that continuously occur in anywhere at any time i.e. as…

  1. How a Small Family Run Business Adopted Critical Reflection Action Learning Using Hand Drawn Images to Initiate Organisational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In this account of practice I would like to share my experiences of facilitating a Critical Reflection Action Learning (CRAL) set with a small family run business, struggling to make change and expand their services due to the problems they encountered in separating their business lives from their family lives. The account I present here is based…

  2. QCD diffraction: a critical phenomenon reflecting both confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.R.

    1982-07-01

    Arguments are presented for studying soft diffractive physics at anti p-p colliders in terms of Critical Pomeron Reggeon Field Theory. It is emphasized that both confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking play a vital role in the occurrence of the Critical Pomeron in QCD. SU(3) is the unique strong-interaction gauge group giving the Critical Pomeron and the maximum number of quarks allowed by asymptotic freedom is required for criticality.

  3. The Use of Critical Incidents to Foster Reflection and Learning in HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preskill, Hallie

    1996-01-01

    Graduate students in two human resource development courses (n=35) answered critical incidents questions each week and evaluated the critical incidents method. Critical incidents increased students' understanding of evaluation and instructional design, raised consciousness of assumptions and beliefs, and highlighted communication issues affecting…

  4. Practicing Critical Thinking in an Educational Psychology Classroom: Reflections from a Cultural-Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyutykh, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Present standards include creative and critical thinking among dispositions essential for the teaching profession. While teaching introductory courses in educational psychology, I have noticed that even though students can easily describe critical thinking in the abstract, they rarely and reluctantly engage in thinking critically about their own…

  5. Preventive HIV/AIDS education through physical education: reflections from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Njelesani, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Governments, UN agencies and international and local NGOs have mounted a concerted effort to remobilise sport as a vehicle for broad, sustainable social development. This resonates with the call for sport to be a key component in national and international development objectives. Missing in these efforts is an explicit focus on physical education within state schools, which still enroll most children in the global South. This article focuses on research into one of the few instances where physical education within the national curriculum is being revitalised as part of the growing interest in leveraging the appeal of sport and play as means to address social development challenges such as HIV/AIDS. It examines the response to the Zambian government's 2006 Declaration of Mandatory Physical Education (with a preventive education focus on HIV/AIDS) by personnel charged with its implementation and illustrates weaknesses within the education sector. The use of policy instruments such as decrees/mandates helps ensure the mainstreaming of physical education in development. However, the urgency required to respond to new mandates, particularly those sanctioned by the highest levels of government, can result in critical pieces of the puzzle being ignored, thereby undermining the potential of physical education (and sport) within development. PMID:21949950

  6. Exploring the Impact of Critical Reflection through the Use of Service-Learning and Digital Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Kisha

    2013-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to address the needs of 21st century teachers, a service-learning project was designed which coupled structured reflection and technology. The reflective practitioner model through the use of traditional methods coursework has long been viewed as the most appropriate model for the development of teachers (Hall, 2012). However,…

  7. Teachers Talking about Teaching and School: Collaboration and Reflective Practice via Critical Friends Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, Lisa P.

    2016-01-01

    Reflective practice has potentially positive effects on an organization's capacity to focus on student learning and teaching practices. In an effort to comply with policy and provide teachers with opportunities to reflect on their practice, districts, schools, and teachers have turned to various models that feature collaborative experiences. One…

  8. The mature minor: some critical psychological reflections on the empirical bases.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Brian C

    2013-06-01

    Moral and legal notions engaged in clinical ethics should not only possess analytic clarity but a sound basis in empirical findings. The latter condition brings into question the expansion of the mature minor exception. The mature minor exception in the healthcare law of the United States has served to enable those under the legal age to consent to medical treatment. Although originally developed primarily for minors in emergency or quasi-emergency need for health care, it was expanded especially from the 1970s in order to cover unemancipated minors older than 14 years. This expansion initially appeared plausible, given psychological data that showed the intellectual capacity of minors over 14 to recognize the causal connection between their choices and the consequences of their choices. However, subsequent psychological studies have shown that minors generally fail to have realistic affective and evaluative appreciations of the consequences of their decisions, because they tend to over-emphasize short-term benefits and underestimate long-term risks. Also, unlike most decisionmakers over 21, the decisions of minors are more often marked by the lack of adequate impulse control, all of which is reflected in the far higher involvement of adolescents in acts of violence, intentional injury, and serious automobile accidents. These effects are more evident in circumstances that elicit elevated affective responses. The advent of brain imaging has allowed the actual visualization of qualitative differences between how minors versus persons over the age of 21 generally assess risks and benefits and make decisions. In the case of most under the age of 21, subcortical systems fail adequately to be checked by the prefrontal systems that are involved in adult executive decisions. The neuroanatomical and psychological model developed by Casey, Jones, and Summerville offers an empirical insight into the qualitative differences in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases

  9. Experience based learning (EBL): Exploring professional teaching through critical reflection and reflexivity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Fiona; Timmins, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Utilising Rolfe's [Rolfe, G., 1998. Expanding Nursing Knowledge: Understanding and Researching Your Own Practice. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford] reflexive action research, one novice nurse educator explored current teaching practice. The data were collected from a reflective journal and colleague feedback. Through this data collection and applying Rolfe's (1998) understanding-action-evaluation (UAE) cycle an insight was gained within the community of practice regarding teaching methods. Didactic lecture methods were found to be the preferred option, arising from lack of confidence. Through personal reflection and sharing with colleagues overall teaching practice improved. It is suggested that models of reflective practice that focus on work based learning, rather than the individual are utilised within nurse education settings to develop localised theory and support novice teachers. Models of reflection and action research may be used within these frameworks to extrapolate in depth reflections as a basis for theory development. PMID:18603477

  10. Thinking and meddling with boundaries: Critical reflections on Matthew Weinstein's narrative of street medics, red-zones and glop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-03-01

    In pursuit of more mindful notions of hybridity, this review essay provides a series of reflections on Mathew Weinstein's representations of Street Medics and `sciences for the red zones of neoliberalism'. My analysis draws on three popular ways of thinking with boundaries to offer a critical reading of the boundary-work that the essay performs with respect to three dialectics: (1) technical and political; (2) disciplinarily and multidisciplinarities; and (3) structures and agencies. I conclude with reflections on my boundary labour as a researcher, writer and pedagogue and how such cultural work might learn to live better with difference, ambiguities, hybrids and cross-hybrid learning.

  11. The metaphor of experience and the experience of metaphor: critical reflection on a contemplative process toward aliveness and compassion.

    PubMed

    Kuchan, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    An epistemological web invites critical reflection and the possibility of new ideas emerging in the space between experience and different ways of thinking. A web offers a postmodern method of a hermeneutic of experience and a way of knowing that creates space for a robust, flexible, dynamic process of critical reflection and discovery. The following article utilizes an inter-textual epistemological web (see Figure 1, p. 4) to answer the question, "Do metaphors of experience and experiences of metaphor during contemplative healing prayer with a spiritual director nurture a transformational process toward aliveness and compassion?" How can one discover and communicate this reality in dialog with Hebrew scripture, psychoanalytic theory, affective neuroscience and ways of thinking about contemplative transformation? PMID:20306943

  12. [Prevention and management of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Fan, Chaogang

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional support is an important means to treat the patients with chronic critical illness for commonly associated malnutrition. Refeeding syndrome is a serious complication during the process, mainly manifested as severe electrolyte with hypophosphataemia being the most common. Refeeding syndrome is not uncommon but it is often ignored. In our future clinical work, we need to recognize this chinical situation and use preventative and treatment measures. According to NICE clinical nutrition guideline, we discussed the risk factors, treatment methods and preventive measures of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness. We argued that for patients with high risk refeeding syndrome, nutritional support treatment should be initially low calorie and slowly increased to complete requirement. Circulation capacity should be recovered, fluid balance must be closely monitored and supplement of vitamins, microelement, electrolytes should be noted. After the emergence of refeeding syndrome, we should reduce or even stop the calorie intake, give an active treatment for electrolyte disorder, provide vitamin B, and maintain the functions of multiple organs. PMID:27452747

  13. Representing the Margins: Multimodal Performance as a Tool for Critical Reflection and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvin, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses how drama as a multimodal performance can be a powerful means to represent marginalized identities and to stimulate critical thought among teachers and learners about material conditions of existence and social inequalities.

  14. Walking the Walk? Critical Reflections from an Afro-Irish Emancipatory Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adshead, Maura; Dubula, Vuyiseka

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors, who are both collaborators in this project, reflect on the challenges faced in developing and sustaining an emancipatory research framework approach to our research network in the context of radically shifting ideals and objectives for higher education in all partner institutions. The article is focused around…

  15. Journeys in Peace Education: Critical Reflection and Personal Witness. Peace Education Reports No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber, Robert, Ed.

    These essays attempt to chronicle the work of six authors in peace education as they reflect on the processes and important persons leading them to commit to peace education. They also examine those obstacles, successes and failures encountered trying to make these commitments concrete and substantial. The essays in this volume include: (1) "Paper…

  16. Role Reversal: Educators in an Enabling Program Embark on a Journey of Critical Self-Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Jenny; Davis, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    While much has been written about the transformative potential of adult education from the student perspective, little research has been done into the experiences of those who teach in such contexts. This paper draws on the reflections of three academics who work in an enabling program in regional Australia. We embarked on a process of critical…

  17. Fostering Critical Reflection: Moving From a Service to a Social Justice Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Owen, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    This chapter explores how community engagement creates opportunities to facilitate meaningful discussions about issues including: the nature and sources of power; who benefits and who is silenced by service and leadership efforts; which community actions result in change rather than charity; and how to developmentally sequence reflective practice. PMID:27150903

  18. Progressing Knowledge in Alternative and Local Food Networks: Critical Reflections and a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tregear, Angela

    2011-01-01

    In the now extensive literature on alternative food networks (AFNs) (e.g. farmers' markets, community supported agriculture, box schemes), a body of work has pointed to socio-economic problems with such systems, which run counter to headline claims in the literature. This paper argues that rather than being a reflection of inherent complexities in…

  19. A Critical Reflection on Integrating Informational Technology into EFL Curriculum: An EFL Teacher's Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jin-Shan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the reflective practices of integrating informational technology into English curriculum of an EFL (English as a foreign language) teacher in Taiwan over a decade. The teaching experiences have been reconstructed and represented through first person narrative inquiry, highlighting the conflicts the teacher encountered, the…

  20. A Corpus-Based Investigation of Critical Reflective Practice and Context in Early Career Teacher Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Bróna

    2015-01-01

    Reflective practice is at the core of teacher education programmes and is highly regarded as an essential component in the education of new and experienced teachers. Given the recent interest in language use and the role of discourse in articulating knowledge of one's practice, this paper focuses on how two groups of early career teachers from…

  1. Transforming Undergraduate and Graduate Candidate Social Perceptions about Diverse Learners through Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Tonnie; Penner-Williams, Janet; Herrera, Socorro; Rodriguez, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Each preservice or inservice teacher who faces the prospect of student diversity in clinical experiences or practice settings does so with an individual set of assumptions about cultures and languages that differ from his or her own. Mezirow (1991) maintained that reflections on such assumptions and presuppositions about oneself and others can…

  2. Preparing Teachers for Diverse Contexts: A Collective Case Study of Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Laurie A.

    2009-01-01

    This collective case study focused on 4 novice teachers' reflections on diversity in their classrooms and schools. The 4 participants were followed throughout their final year of an undergraduate, secondary teacher education program and into their 1st year of teaching in public secondary schools. This research was an effort to engage…

  3. Enhancing our understanding of emancipatory nursing: a reflection on the use of critical feminist methodologies.

    PubMed

    MacDonnell, Judith Ann

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this analysis is to contribute to an understanding of emancipatory nursing in the context of higher education. Engagement with formative studies that used critical feminist methodologies led to my research focus on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health in my academic research program. Dimensions of emancipatory nursing include reflexivity, transformative learning, interdisciplinarity, praxis, and situated privilege. Several critical feminist methodologies are addressed: feminist ethnography, community-based participatory action research (CBPAR), and comparative life history. Commonalities across methodologies illustrate the potential for emancipatory outcomes/goals. PMID:25102217

  4. Critical Issues in K-12 Service-Learning: Case Studies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulati-Partee, Gita, Ed.; Finger, William R., Ed.

    This compilation includes practical and transferable principles that can be used by service-learning practitioners. The 39 case studies and personal essays in the compilation are organized around critical issues in strengthening long-term institutional and community support for K-12 service-learning programs. Each article describes how the issue…

  5. Everyone's a Criminal? Reflections on Critical Reading in the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vivienne

    Richard Hoggart calls for "creative reading"--meaning "recognizing that some books are better than others." Those influenced by Paulo Freire call for "critical reading," meaning that what matters is that readers are encouraged to "read the word and the world." Hoggart and Freire give a clear idea of what they think the adult who reads critically…

  6. Breaking the Cycle of Racism in the Classroom: Critical Race Reflections from Future Teachers of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Rita

    2008-01-01

    As a resource specialist in a middle school in Oakland, California, the author worked with many students who were labeled "learning disabled." Contrary to the label, these students were critical of the world and challenged it in brilliant ways that have forever changed the author's life perspective. To highlight the impact that cultural bias in…

  7. On the "Art and Science" of Personal Transformation: Some Critical Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Raya A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the applicability of the Jungian view on individuation and imagination. While Jungian ideas can bring something fresh and necessary into educational practice, personal enthusiasm might blind us to a dissonance between educational goals and the therapeutic goal of analytical psychology. The case is made with…

  8. Government, Public Relations, and Lobby Groups: Stimulating Critical Reflections on Information Providers in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Suzette

    2003-01-01

    In a management class role-playing activity, students adopt the roles of parents, government representatives, and health providers in a scenario about child immunization. The objective is to develop critical understanding of the creation, management, and dissemination of information on decision making. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  9. Reflections of the Caribbean in Children's Picture Books: A Critical Multicultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Zaria T.; Lowery, Ruth McKoy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a critical analysis of the books that are used to represent different cultural groups in the United States. They advocate exposing preservice teachers and others to the diverse experiences of young children in books, to the ways in which these books can be used in classrooms, and they argue that the stories…

  10. Reconceptualizing Self and Other through Critical Media Engagement. Experiences and Reflections of English Learners and Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shin-ying

    2015-01-01

    This research explores how critical media literacy transforms ways of engaging with media texts and expands the understanding and practice of literacy. In this qualitative teacher inquiry, even though the teacher researcher had envisioned for the students an identity as academic-language learners who engage with competing ideologies of masculinity…

  11. Reflecting on Social Emotional Learning: A Critical Perspective on Trends in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    This critical cultural analysis of trends in the field of social emotional learning (SEL) in the United States considers how ideas concerning emotional skills and competencies have informed programmatic discourse. While currently stressing links between SEL and academic achievement, program literature also places emphasis on ideals of caring,…

  12. Using Critical Incident Reflections: A Self-Study as a Mathematics Teacher Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodell, Joanne E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I report the results of a 4-year study into how my students learn to become mathematics teachers during the combined 15-week methods and field placement course I teach. At the start of most weekly methods class meetings, groups of three or four students reported their critical incidents to each other, and then chose one incident to…

  13. Fostering Critical Thinking and Reflection through Blog-Mediated Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novakovich, J.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of digital literacy practices has created a tension in academia, with many academics challenging the view that critical thinking can be fostered on social networks. A quasi-experimental study was conducted on two sections of university-level writing classrooms to determine if there were meaningful differences in the quality of…

  14. The Race for Class: Reflections on a Critical Raceclass Theory of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to appraise the insights gained from Critical Race Theory (CRT) in Education. It is particularly interested in CRT's relationship with Marxist discourse, which falls under two questions. One, how does CRT understand Marxist concepts, such as "capital," which show up in the way CRT appropriates them? The article argues that…

  15. Complications during intrahospital transport of critically ill patients: Focus on risk identification and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Patrick H; Maheshwari, Neelabh; Hussain, Jafar; Scholl, Michael; Hughes, Michael; Papadimos, Thomas J; Guo, Weidun Alan; Cipolla, James; Stawicki, Stanislaw P; Latchana, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Intrahospital transportation of critically ill patients is associated with significant complications. In order to reduce overall risk to the patient, such transports should well organized, efficient, and accompanied by the proper monitoring, equipment, and personnel. Protocols and guidelines for patient transfers should be utilized universally across all healthcare facilities. Care delivered during transport and at the site of diagnostic testing or procedure should be equivalent to the level of care provided in the originating environment. Here we review the most common problems encountered during transport in the hospital setting, including various associated adverse outcomes. Our objective is to make medical practitioners, nurses, and ancillary health care personnel more aware of the potential for various complications that may occur during patient movement from the intensive care unit to other locations within a healthcare facility, focusing on risk reduction and preventive strategies. PMID:26807395

  16. Antithrombotic alternatives for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: critical differences and remaining questions

    PubMed Central

    Kalus, James S

    2013-01-01

    Three therapeutic alternatives for prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation are available in dabigatran (an oral direct thrombin inhibitor), rivaroxaban, and apixaban (both oral blood coagulation factor Xa inhibitors). Compared with warfarin, these new agents have a more predictable pharmacodynamic response and fewer major clinically relevant drug–drug interactions. These agents also have few, if any, food–drug interactions, and infrequent or no need for routine laboratory monitoring. These agents also bring new disadvantages, particularly lack of clearly defined reversal strategies, inability to effectively monitor patient response, and higher cost. Selection of the most appropriate oral antithrombotic agent for a given patient is dependent on clinician knowledge of the similarities and critical differences between the available antithrombotic medications. PMID:24432039

  17. Theory before practice: implicit assumptions about clinical nursing education in Australia as revealed through a shared critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Grealish, Laurie; Smale, Lacey Anne

    2011-08-01

    The transfer of nursing education into the higher education sector occurred over a 10-year period in Australia (1985-1994). Australian nurse leaders settled on a single outcome measure to be applied for all nursing graduates in the form of national competency standards. While this move enabled diversity, the lack of consistency in curriculum design has subsequently led to increasing confusion for clinicians who support students' learning in clinical placements. Using a shared critical reflection method, the authors reviewed (1) the evaluation comments from nurses in one nursing unit of a hospital in one Australian jurisdiction and (2) an historical review of nursing literature at the time of the transfer of nursing education into the higher education sector. The reflection suggests that the aim of the transfer, to create critical thinking graduates, has been undermined by the implicit clinical education practices that have since emerged. In order to address the contemporary challenges for clinical staff working with students from multiple universities, as well as increased student numbers to address the nursing shortage, we recommend a new approach to curriculum design: a national clinical curriculum drawn from social, as well as cognitive, learning theory that at once informs clinicians of students' potential abilities and provides the scope to accommodate the increasingly difficult and critical learning requirements of tertiary-based nursing students. PMID:21955266

  18. YAP Is a Critical Inducer of SOCS3, Preventing Reactive Astrogliosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhihui; Wang, Ying; Hu, Guoqing; Zhou, Jiliang; Mei, Lin; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a key transcriptional cofactor of the Hippo pathway, critical for the development of multiple organs. However, its role in the developing brain remains poorly understood. Here, we found that YAP was highly expressed in astrocytes and YAP deletion elevated the astrocytic activation in culture and in vivo, which was associated with microglial activation. At the molecular level, YAP in astrocytes was activated by IFNβ or ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which was necessary for IFNβ or CNTF induction of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of the Janus kinase–signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK–STAT) inflammatory pathway. YAP−/− astrocytes thus showed hyperactivation of the JAK–STAT inflammatory pathway and reactive astrogliosis. Expression of SOCS3 in YAP−/− astrocytes prevented the hyperactivation of STAT3 and partially restored the astrocytic activation. Finally, reactive astrogliosis was associated with blood–brain barrier dysfunction in YAP brain-selective knockout mice. Taken together, these results identify unrecognized functions of YAP in preventing reactive astrogliosis and reveal a pathway of YAP-SOCS for the negatively control of neuroinflammation. PMID:26679195

  19. YAP Is a Critical Inducer of SOCS3, Preventing Reactive Astrogliosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhihui; Wang, Ying; Hu, Guoqing; Zhou, Jiliang; Mei, Lin; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a key transcriptional cofactor of the Hippo pathway, critical for the development of multiple organs. However, its role in the developing brain remains poorly understood. Here, we found that YAP was highly expressed in astrocytes and YAP deletion elevated the astrocytic activation in culture and in vivo, which was associated with microglial activation. At the molecular level, YAP in astrocytes was activated by IFNβ or ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which was necessary for IFNβ or CNTF induction of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) inflammatory pathway. YAP(-/-) astrocytes thus showed hyperactivation of the JAK-STAT inflammatory pathway and reactive astrogliosis. Expression of SOCS3 in YAP(-/-) astrocytes prevented the hyperactivation of STAT3 and partially restored the astrocytic activation. Finally, reactive astrogliosis was associated with blood-brain barrier dysfunction in YAP brain-selective knockout mice. Taken together, these results identify unrecognized functions of YAP in preventing reactive astrogliosis and reveal a pathway of YAP-SOCS for the negatively control of neuroinflammation. PMID:26679195

  20. The benefits of a critical stance: a reflection on past papers on the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Manstead, Antony S R

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, I reflect on past papers published in the British Journal of Social Psychology (BJSP) that have played a role in the development of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). I focus on seven papers that fall into five categories: (1) those that critique the TRA/TPB for taking insufficient account of social factors; (2) those that critique the models on the grounds that many social behaviours are 'habitual'; (3) those that critically examine the construct of perceived behavioural control; (4) those that argue for the importance of affective factors, which appear to be overlooked in the TRA/TPB; and (5) those that argue for the importance of studying the role of moderating factors and interaction effects in the TRA/TPB. I conclude that BJSP's traditional focus on criticism and theory development is one that benefits the journal and the field. PMID:21884536

  1. Which medicine? Whose standard? Critical reflections on medical integration in China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ruiping; Holliday, Ian

    2007-01-01

    There is a prevailing conviction that if traditional medicine (TRM) or complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are integrated into healthcare systems, modern scientific medicine (MSM) should retain its principal status. This paper contends that this position is misguided in medical contexts where TRM is established and remains vibrant. By reflecting on the Chinese policy on three entrenched forms of TRM (Tibetan, Mongolian and Uighur medicines) in western regions of China, the paper challenges the ideology of science that lies behind the demand that all traditional forms of medicine be evaluated and reformed according to MSM standards. Tibetan medicine is used as a case study to indicate the falsity of a major premise of the scientific ideology. The conclusion is that the proper integrative system for TRM and MSM is a dual standard based system in which both TRM and MSM are free to operate according to their own medical standards. PMID:17664302

  2. Critical Reexamination of Resonant Soft X-Ray Bragg Forbidden Reflections in Magnetite

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, S.B.; Di Matteo, S.; Beale, T.A.W.; Joly, Y.; Mazzoli, C.; Hatton, P.D.; Bencok, P.; Yakhou, F.; Brabers, V.A.M.

    2009-05-01

    Magnetite, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, displays a highly complex low-temperature crystal structure that may be charge and orbitally ordered. Many of the recent experimental claims of such ordering rely on resonant soft x-ray diffraction at the oxygen K and iron L edges. We have reexamined this system and undertaken soft x-ray diffraction experiments on a high-quality single crystal. Contrary to previous claims in the literature, we show that the intensity observed at the Bragg forbidden (001/2){sub c} reflection can be explained purely in terms of the low-temperature structural displacements around the resonant atoms. This does not necessarily mean that magnetite is not charge or orbitally ordered but rather that the present sensitivity of resonant soft x-ray experiments does not allow conclusive demonstration of such ordering.

  3. Critical femtosecond laser parameters for the fabrication of optimal reflecting diffraction gratings on Invar36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Hossein, Goudarzi; Meng-Jyun, Lin; Ji-Bin, Horng; Jeng-Ywan, Jeng

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the effect of femtosecond laser parameters on Invar36, and the efficiency of reflecting diffraction gratings on the alloy. Several gratings were made with different laser parameters in two regimes: constant repetition rates and constant average laser power on the Invar surface. The efficiency of diffraction gratings is measured in an off-plane configuration by determining the power of diffracted points. With the constant average power technique, an increase in laser influence decreased the ablation depth of lines and increased the line widths. The discoloration of line edges from increasing the laser influence more than 0.57 J /cm2 decreased the grating efficiency by over 49%. It was also found that increasing the repetition rate enhanced the grating efficiency and increasing the average power decreased the efficiency. In addition, the ablation threshold of Invar is 0.122 J /cm2 when the number of pulses (NOP) equals 389.

  4. Reflections on Implementation of the PREPaRE Crisis Prevention and Intervention Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melissa A.; Brock, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    After a nationwide search, the NASP PREPaRE Workgroup recently invited Brian Lazzaro, Christina Conolly-Wilson, and Melinda Susan to join the workgroup. This was done in an attempt to meet the ever-increasing demand and associated duties that accompany the dissemination of the PREPaRE Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum. In this…

  5. Dropout Prevention and the Model-Minority Stereotype: Reflections from an Asian American High School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Jade; Pyle, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    A recent review of the research by the U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences has resulted in the recommendation of six promising practices to ensure that all students are actively engaged in school and on a path to post-secondary success (Dynarski et al. in Dropout prevention: A practice guide (NCEE 2008-4025)). The purpose…

  6. The journey of positioning self as both mental health nurse and qualitative researcher: a critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Brunero, S J; Jeon, Y H; Foster, K

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mental health nurse clinician to a mental health nurse researcher. Understanding the theoretical and professional drives that shape mental health nurses clinical practice and how that links to becoming a researcher is discussed. Mental health nurses who conduct research have to often move between their clinical roles and that of the researcher, doing this safely using a reflective supervision approach enables the nurse to conduct the research from a stronger professional and ethical standpoint. The intention of the paper is to encourage mental health nurses to engage in research and development. Shifting between the positions of a mental health nurse clinician and a qualitative researcher has some parallels to the processes in the nurse-service user relationship. This paper addresses this development from practitioner to researcher in one mental health nurse's journey through a PhD study using constructivist grounded theory. The paper examines theoretical and professional drives that have shaped my clinical practice and the role of the researcher in constructivist grounded theory, the notion of the researcher shifting between insider and outsider status, and the importance of reflexivity in conducting research. These influences will be discussed in the context of the development of a constructivist grounded theory study of the delivery of health care to service users with a mental illness in general hospital wards. PMID:26234189

  7. [Tobacco: knowledge, reasoning and opinion of high school students in Doubs. Reflections on prevention].

    PubMed

    Michaud, C; Saraiva, I; Henry, Y; Dodane, M

    2003-03-01

    The prevalence of smoking has increased among young people aged 14 to 18 between 1993 and 1999, and most notably among girls within the same period. These observations illustrate the necessity for significant changes in mass media campaigns and education programmes related to the prevention of smoking among youth. The objective of this survey, initiated by the city of Besançon and the French National Mutual Insurance of Doubs, was to describe and analyse the knowledge and rationale of high school students on tobacco and their opinions in terms of prevention. Twelve public and private high schools in Besançon and Morteau (Doubs-France) participated in the survey; the group also represented a mix of general and professional schools. The questionnaire was filled out by 970 students selected at random. 96% of the students indicated cancer as being the main illness linked to tobacco and 94% stated that second-hand smoke constitutes a health risk. 61% admitted to seeking out the psychoactive effects of smoking. The students responses confirm that the types of messages relayed in a smoking prevention campaign which have an impact on them are: evoking fear of death (74%) and the use of humor (16%). One-third of high school students find that it is unacceptable to forbid smoking on school premises. The knowledge of the dangers related to smoking is not sufficient to keep young people from smoking and confirms that an educational approach based solely on knowledge and facts will not be sufficient to decrease their tobacco consumption. It is important to take into account the image that young people have of tobacco as a means to combat stress in future prevention strategies and campaigns. PMID:12806810

  8. Towards Eco-reflexive Science Education. A Critical Reflection About Educational Implications of Green Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöström, Jesper; Eilks, Ingo; Zuin, Vânia G.

    2016-05-01

    The modern world can be described as a globalized risk society. It is characterized by increasing complexity, unpredictable consequences of techno-scientific innovations and production, and its environmental consequences. Therefore, chemistry, just like many other knowledge areas, is in an ongoing process of environmentalization. For example, green chemistry has emerged as a new chemical metadiscipline and movement. The philosophy of green chemistry was originally based on a suggestion of twelve principles for environment-friendly chemistry research and production. The present article problematizes limitations in green chemistry when it comes to education. It argues that the philosophy of green chemistry in the context of education needs to be extended with socio-critical perspectives to form educated professionals and citizens who are able to understand the complexity of the world, to make value-based decisions, and to become able to engage more thoroughly in democratic decision-making on sustainability issues. Different versions of sustainability-oriented science/chemistry education are discussed to sharpen a focus on the most complex type, which is Bildung-oriented, focusing emancipation and leading to eco-reflexive education. The term eco- reflexive is used for a problematizing stance towards the modern risk society, an understanding of the complexity of life and society and their interactions, and a responsibility for individual and collective actions towards socio-ecojustice and global sustainability. The philosophical foundation and characteristics of eco-reflexive science education are sketched on in the article.

  9. Autistic expertise: a critical reflection on the production of knowledge in autism studies.

    PubMed

    Milton, Damian Em

    2014-10-01

    The field of autism studies is a highly disputed territory within which competing contradictory discourses abound. In this field, it is the voices and claims of autistic people regarding their own expertise in knowledge production concerning autism that is most recent in the debate, and traditionally the least attended to. In this article, I utilise the theories of Harry Collins and colleagues in order to reflect upon and conceptualise the various claims to knowledge production and expertise within the field of autism studies, from the perspective of an author who has been diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum. The notion that autistic people lack sociality is problematised, with the suggestion that autistic people are not well described by notions such as the 'social brain', or as possessing 'zero degrees of cognitive empathy'. I then argue, however, that there is a qualitative difference in autistic sociality, and question to what extent such differences are of a biological or cultural nature, and to what extent interactional expertise can be gained by both parties in interactions between autistic and non-autistic people. In conclusion, I argue that autistic people have often become distrustful of researchers and their aims, and are frequently frozen out of the processes of knowledge production. Such a context results in a negative feedback spiral with further damage to the growth of interactional expertise between researchers and autistic people, and a breakdown in trust and communication leading to an increase in tension between stakeholder groups. The involvement of autistic scholars in research and improvements in participatory methods can thus be seen as a requirement, if social research in the field of autism is to claim ethical and epistemological integrity. PMID:24637428

  10. Conceptualizing learning for sustainability through environmental assessment: critical reflections on 15 years of research

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, A. John Diduck, Alan Fitzpatrick, Patricia

    2008-10-15

    Numerous scholars are now directing their attention to the education and learning implications of participatory resource and environmental governance because of the potential implications of these for generating the social mobilization necessary to achieve sustainability trajectories. Our work, and that of other researchers, establishes that public participation in environmental assessment (EA) provides fertile ground for considering the intricacies of governance as they relate to participation, and for examining the education and learning implications of participation. Since EA law requires in many cases that public voices be part of the decision process, it has resulted in the creation of fascinating, state-sanctioned, deliberative spaces for civic interactions. Our purpose here is to share, and build upon, a framework that conceptualizes the relationships among participation, education, learning and sustainability in an EA context. We do so by considering findings from studies we have undertaken on participation in EA in Canada since the early 90's. Our approach was interactive and collaborative. We each considered in detail the key results of our earlier work as they relate to education, learning and EA process design. The findings illuminate aspects of the conceptual framework for which there is considerable empirical evidence, such as the link between meaningful participation and critical education and the diversity of individual learning outcomes associated with public participation in EA. The findings also highlight those parts of the framework for which the empirical evidence is relatively sparse, such as the range of possible social learning outcomes, their congruence with sustainability criteria, and the roles of monitoring and cumulative and strategic assessments in shaping EA into an adaptive, learning system.

  11. A critical reflection of a decade of urbanization and global environmental change research and science coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Urbanization and Global Environmental Change (UGEC) Project was established in 2005 when attention to the bidirectional interactions of urbanization and GEC issues and the associated system responses was very new and the community of UGEC researchers very small. Much of the urban scholarship used specific disciplinary lenses through which to understand the city, e.g., in terms of demographics and population growth, ecology of cities or economics of cities. Over the last decade new analytical lenses have revealed much more about how cities function, the underlying socio-economic and ecological processes that drive urbanization, their dynamic and teleconnected nature, and other bio-physical interactions within the Earth system. Furthermore, it is within the cities that the impacts of current and projected urbanization and environmental changes are felt, but also where action is taken and where great potential for intervention of urbanization trajectories exists towards creating more livable urban futures. A former IHDP core project, now Future Earth project, UGEC is in its sunset/synthesis phase and exploring future directions. This presentation will: Give an brief overview of UGEC evolution over the course of the last decade not only in terms of the science, but also the institution Present preliminary results from a critical analysis of UGEC's ten year role as a GEC research coordination project including its impact, strengths and weaknesses Make the case for greater interdisciplinarity (particularly across the physical sciences and humanities) and involvement of other stakeholders (private sector and decisionmakers) in future urbanization and environmental research, as 'urban' is a crosscutting issue that has both global to local scale implications Present work that UGEC is leading, which is to advance an urban agenda within the new Future Earth initiative as part of the recently awarded Cluster Activity 'Livable Urban Futures', as an example of research

  12. [[The prevention of food wastage by restoring the value to food: reflections of an agroeconomist].

    PubMed

    Segré, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Each year, about one trillion USD worth of food sales is lost or wasted. In addition to its economic impacts, food wastage has significant societal costs that are born indirectly by taxpayers. Should damage costs associated with food wastage be accounted for, this global wastage appears much higher. In fact, the monetization of environmental costs such as the impact of greenhouse gases, land erosion, water use and pollinators loss amnounts to another trillion USD. Furthermore, a valuation of social costs, such as health effects of pesticides, loss of livelihoods and conflicts over natural resources adds another trillion USD. Noteworthy is the fact that not all food wastage reduction strategies are equal in terms of environmental efficiency and reducing food wastage must be a priority over energy recovery fromn food wastage. As a case study, the Italian National Plan for Food Waste Prevention (PINPAS) aims at reducing food wastage upstream the food chain, will be considered. PINPAS also seeks to improve recovery measures of unsold food. As indicated in the Guidelines on the preparation of food waste prevention programmes by the European Commission, PINPAS engages all stakeholders of the agri-food chain, from policy makers to civil groups aid producers. The first action will be the reintroduction of food education at school. PMID:25558710

  13. "A Moving Target": A Critical Race Analysis of Latina/o Faculty Experiences, Perspectives, and Reflections on the Tenure and Promotion Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urrieta, Luis, Jr.; Méndez, Lina; Rodríguez, Esmeralda

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how Latina/o professors perceive, experience, and reflect on the tenure and promotion process. Findings for this longitudinal study are drawn from a purposive sample of nine female and seven male, Latina/o tenure-track faculty participants. Using a Critical Race Theory, Latino Critical (LatCrit) Race Theory, and Chicana…

  14. The "Critical Friend" Role in Fostering Reflective Practices and Developing Staff Cohesion: A Case Study in a New Secondary School, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Noeline; Adam, Amina

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory case study, arising from a longitudinal project into the establishment of a new secondary school in New Zealand, examines reflective practice through critical friend roles among staff. The paper describes, through the lens of Bourdieu's logic of practice, the implementation of a critical friendship approach linked to the school…

  15. Towards critical digital health studies: Reflections on two decades of research in health and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I provide some reflections on critical digital health research in the context of Health's 20th anniversary. I begin by outlining the various iterations of digital technologies that have occurred since the early 1990s--from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 to Web 3.0. I then review the research that has been published on the topic of digital health in this journal over the past two decades and make some suggestions for the types of directions and theoretical perspectives that further sociocultural and political research could tackle. My concluding comments identify four main areas for further research: (1) devices and software, (2) data materialisations, (3) data practices and (4) data mobilities. PMID:26487686

  16. Muslim women's reflections on the acceptability of vaginal microbicidal products to prevent HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Hoel, Nina; Shaikh, Sadiyya; Kagee, Ashraf

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines South African Muslim women's opinions of the acceptability of microbicidal products to prevent HIV infection if these were to become available in the future. In the context of the HIV pandemic, prophylactic methods such as male circumcision, vaccines and microbicidal preparations are increasingly thought of as ways to reduce the incidence of infection. We examine the extent to which participants' religious beliefs and the implications of religious norms and ideals might influence decision-making concerning hypothetical acceptability to use a microbicide. We conducted qualitative interviews with 29 Muslim women residing in South Africa, a country with one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world. Four themes emerged from the data, namely, (1) participants' questioning of the need for microbicides; (2) reasons they gave in favour of microbicide use; (3) the juxtaposition of microbicide use and religious ethics; and (4) the role of religious authorities in decision-making regarding microbicide use. The juxtaposition of microbicide use and religious ethics was further informed by three sub-themes, namely, the life-promoting nature of both Islam and microbicide use, the possibility that microbicide use could encourage sexual risk-taking among male partners, and that the use of these products contradicted womens' notions of ethical agency and ideals about marriage. These themes and sub-themes are analysed in the context of gender relations among South African Muslims. The study findings are significant in light of recent data showing the effectiveness of a microbicidal preparation in reducing the risk of HIV infection in South Africa. We also show that the acceptability of microbicidal products is to a certain extent linked to a variety of religious persuasions and ideals. When microbicides become available in the future, proponents of their use will need to consider religious reasoning of potential users, including that of Muslim women. PMID

  17. Reflections from an Undergraduate Student Peer Facilitator in the Team Up for Healthy Living School-Based Obesity Prevention Project

    PubMed Central

    Crenshaw, Caroline E.; Mozen, Diana M.; Dalton, William T.; Slawson, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Team Up for Healthy Living was a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate a cross-peer school-based obesity prevention program in Southern Appalachia. Undergraduate students from the disciplines of Kinesiology, Nutrition, and Public Health were trained as peer facilitators to deliver an 8-week curriculum in high school Lifetime Wellness classes. The focus of the curriculum was on improving diet and physical activity with an additional emphasis on enhancing leadership and communication skills. Control group participants received their regularly scheduled Lifetime Wellness curriculum. The current article is about the experiences of an undergraduate kinesiology student participating as a peer-facilitator in the Team-Up for Healthy Living trial. A brief overview of the program and peer facilitator training is followed by this students reflections on both personal development and student outcomes. PMID:26636111

  18. A Value-Critical Choice Analysis of a Policy to Prevent Suicide in Veterans and Service Members.

    PubMed

    Schuman, Donna L; Schuman, Donald L

    2016-10-01

    A few years after the advent of the Global War on Terror, veteran and service member suicide emerged on the national forefront as a public health issue of significant concern. This social policy analysis applies a value-critical choice model to the military suicide prevention provisions mandated by Section 2 of Exec. Order No. 13625 (2012): Improving Access to Mental Health Services for Veterans, Service Members, and Military Families. Results reveal that the suicide prevention provisions mandated by the order have not been fully and effectively implemented and the goal of reducing military suicide remains elusive. PMID:27254385

  19. Use of Methadone for Prevention of Opioid Withdrawal in Critically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Sonia A; McGloin, Rumi; Pitfield, Alexander F; Carr, Roxane R

    2012-01-01

    Background Opioids are commonly administered to critically ill children for analgesia and sedation, but many patients experience opioid withdrawal upon discontinuation. The authors’ institution developed a protocol for using methadone to prevent opioid withdrawal in children who have received morphine by continuous IV infusion for 5 days or longer in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Objectives The primary objectives were to determine if opioids were tapered according to the protocol and to determine the conversion ratio for IV morphine to oral methadone that was used. Secondary objectives were to describe the methadone dosage used and the clinical outcomes, to evaluate adjustments to methadone dosing, and to report the incidence of adverse effects. Methods A retrospective analysis of charts was conducted for pediatric patients who had received morphine by continuous IV infusion for 5 days or longer followed by methadone in the PICU between May 2008 and August 2009. Validated scoring systems (the Withdrawal Assessment Tool and the State Behavioral Scale) were used to assess symptoms of withdrawal and degree of sedation, respectively. Results Forty-three patients were included in the study, with median age of 8 months (range 0.25–201 months). For 31 patients (72%), the protocol was not used, and there were no patients for whom the protocol was followed to completion. The median duration of weaning was 10 days (range 0–91 days). The conversion ratio for IV morphine to oral methadone was 1:0.78 for anticipated 5-day weaning and 1:0.98 for anticipated 10-day weaning. During the first 10 days of weaning, 18 patients (42%) experienced withdrawal symptoms. The methadone dose was increased for 11 (26%) of the 43 patients. Patients were sedated for a median of 1 day (range 0–9 days), were comfortable for a median of 6.5 days (range 1–64 days), and were agitated for a median of 2.5 days (range 0–23 days). Naloxone was required for 2 patients. Conclusions

  20. Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice. Methods More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molecular pathology and cell biology; hormonal influences and endocrine therapy; imaging, detection and screening; current/novel therapies and biomarkers; drug resistance; metastasis, angiogenesis, circulating tumour cells, cancer ‘stem’ cells; risk and prevention; living with and managing breast cancer and its treatment. The groups developed summary papers through an iterative process which, following further appraisal from experts and patients, were melded into this summary account. Results The 10 major gaps identified were: (1) understanding the functions and contextual interactions of genetic and epigenetic changes in normal breast development and during malignant transformation; (2) how to implement sustainable lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and weight) and chemopreventive strategies; (3) the need for tailored screening approaches including clinically actionable tests; (4) enhancing knowledge of molecular drivers behind breast cancer subtypes, progression and metastasis; (5) understanding the molecular mechanisms of tumour heterogeneity, dormancy, de novo or acquired resistance and how to target key nodes in these dynamic processes; (6) developing validated markers for chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity; (7) understanding the optimal duration, sequencing and rational combinations of treatment for improved personalised therapy; (8) validating multimodality imaging biomarkers for minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring of responses in primary and metastatic disease

  1. Sexual Assault Prevention for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Critical Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…

  2. Humanizing Pedagogy through HIV and AIDS Prevention: Transforming Teacher Knowledge. Series in Critical Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradigm Publishers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This book explores the power of educators to serve as HIV and AIDS prevention agents. The definitive text represents the work of a distinguished panel of teacher educators and health scientists who identify core information and skills effective educators of HIV and AIDS prevention should learn as they prepare to attend to the academic and human…

  3. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  4. A Critical Review of the Characteristics of Theater-Based HIV Prevention Interventions for Adolescents in School Settings.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Arianna; Taggart, Tamara; Holloway, Ian; Houpt, Amanda; Gordon, Robert; Gere, David; Milburn, Norweeta; Lightfoot, Alexandra F

    2016-07-01

    Theater-based interventions are a viable prevention strategy for changing sexual health knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV prevention. However, few studies have explored interventions in English-speaking, high-income countries such as the United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom. This article critically reviews the literature to identify key characteristics of theater-based HIV prevention strategies used for adolescents in school-settings in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Specifically, we identify the theatrical approach used in HIV prevention interventions, the behavioral theories that inform such interventions, and the study design and results of existing evaluation studies conducted in school settings. In the 10 articles reviewed, we found limited grounding in theory and the use of nonrigorous study design. To strengthen the evidence and practical application of theater-based HIV prevention interventions, we highlight three specific recommendations for practitioners and researchers: (1) define and operationalize the theater approach and techniques used, (2) ensure theater-based interventions are grounded in theory, and (3) conduct rigorous evaluation of theater-based interventions. These recommendations are key to strengthening future research on and implementation of theater-based interventions for HIV prevention. PMID:27095037

  5. Critical gaps in universal access to reproductive health: contraception and prevention of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Culwell, Kelly R; Vekemans, Marcel; de Silva, Upeka; Hurwitz, Manuelle; Crane, Barbara B

    2010-07-01

    Unsafe abortion accounts for a significant proportion of maternal deaths, yet it is often forgotten in discussions around reducing maternal mortality. Prevention of unsafe abortion starts with prevention of unwanted pregnancies, most effectively through contraception. When unwanted pregnancies occur, provision of safe, legal abortion services can further prevent unsafe abortions. If complications arise from unsafe abortion, emergency treatment must be available. Recommendations made on this issue during the Precongress Workshop held prior to the 2009 FIGO World Congress in Cape Town, South Africa, were part of a report that was adopted by the FIGO General Assembly. These recommendations address prevention of unsafe abortion and its consequences and support access to safe abortion care to the full extent allowed by national laws, along with 6 strategies for implementation, including integration of family planning into other reproductive health services, adequate training for providers, task-sharing with mid-level providers, and using evidence to discuss this issue with key stakeholders. PMID:20451196

  6. Health prevention in the era of biosocieties: a critical analysis of the 'Seek-and-Treat' paradigm in HIV/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Foth, Thomas; O'Byrne, Patrick; Holmes, Dave

    2016-06-01

    On 18 November 2014, the United Nations launched an urgent new campaign to end AIDS as a global health threat by 2030. With its proposed strategy, the UN follows leading scientists who had declared the failure of former prevention strategies and now were promoting a 'Seek and Treat for Optimal Prevention' (STOP) approach as the most cost-effective response to the pandemic to meet the goal of 'an AIDS-free generation'. STOP combines antiretroviral therapy and routine HIV screening to find persons unaware that they are HIV-positive, because research has shown that people consistently change their behaviour (i.e. increase condom use, have fewer partners) after an HIV diagnosis. AIDS activists have broadly criticized this strategy on different levels. In this article, we go beyond these criticisms and try to analyse the political rationalities behind this 'new' strategy. We believe that it is necessary to put the rationale underpinning the STOP programme into the context of broader societal transformations that can best be captured as the development of advanced liberal societies and the new emphasis on self-controlling or self-responsibility rather than on disciplining behaviour. PMID:26146905

  7. Problem Solving and Critical Inquiry in the Written and Oral Reflections of Middle School Preservice Teachers' Classroom Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann Marie; Lennon, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to investigate undergraduate preservice student-teachers' interpretations of written reflections and how these written reflections impacted their thoughts about teaching practices. A second question was to investigate how preservice teachers talked about their processes of reflection beyond the…

  8. Session 1.3: health protection and disease prevention: a critical review of experience.

    PubMed

    Merlin-Scholtes, Joanna; Narain, Jai; Chunsuttiwat, Supamit; Hyde-Price, Caroline; Dubois, Philippe Francois; Sorensen, Eigil

    2005-01-01

    This is a summary of the presentations and discussion of Health Protection and Disease Prevention of the Conference, Health Aspects of the Tsunami Disaster in Asia, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in Phuket, Thailand, 04-06 May 2005. The topics discussed included issues related health protection and disease prevention as pertaining to the responses to the damage created by the Tsunami. It is presented in the following major sections: (1) key questions; (2) national perspectives; (3) an international perspective; (4) laboratory aspects in disease surveillance; and (5) partnership. PMID:16496618

  9. Critical issues in implementing a national integrated all-vaccine preventable disease surveillance system☆

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Terri B.; Andrus, Jon K.; Dietz, Vance J.; Andrus, Jon K.; Hyde, Terri B.; Lee, Carla E.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Verani, Jennifer R.; Friedman, Cindy; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Lopez, Adriana S.; Jumaan, Aisha; Dietz, Vance J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization published the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance (GFIMS) outlining measures to enhance national surveillance for vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The GFIMS emphasized that VPD surveillance should be integrated and placed in a ‘unified framework’ building upon the strengths of existing surveillance systems to prevent duplication of activities common to all surveillance systems and to minimize human resource and supply expenditures. Unfortunately, there was little experience in actually developing integrated VPD surveillance. We describe the process of developing operational guidance for ministries of health to implement such an integrated surveillance system for multiple VPDs. PMID:23777699

  10. Developing a Capacity to Engage in Critical Reflection: Students' "Ways of Knowing" within an Undergraduate Business and Accounting Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ursula; Tan, Phaik Leng

    2013-01-01

    The development of a capacity to engage in critical reflection is central to higher education. However, students vary in this capacity and its development requires students to move from an absolute towards a contextual way of knowing. Using 32 semi-structured interviews, this study identifies the ways of knowing of 17 business and accounting…

  11. Thinking and Meddling with Boundaries: Critical Reflections on Matthew Weinstein's Narrative of Street Medics, Red-Zones and Glop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In pursuit of more mindful notions of hybridity, this review essay provides a series of reflections on Mathew Weinstein's representations of Street Medics and "sciences for the red zones of neoliberalism". My analysis draws on three popular ways of thinking with boundaries to offer a critical reading of the boundary-work that the…

  12. "Math Is All around Us and … We Can Use It to Help Us": Teacher Agency in Mathematics Education through Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Mathew D.; Koestler, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    As social-justice mathematics teacher educators, we have always engaged and supported the prospective and practicing teachers in our classes in critical reflection about mathematics and the teaching and learning of mathematics (Felton, 2010, 2012; Felton & Koestler, 2012; Koestler, 2012). Although there are different notions, purposes, and…

  13. An Investigation of the Effects of Field Experience and Critical Reflection on Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renn, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of critical reflection and field experiences on pre-service teachers' beliefs about diversity. A convenience sample of 64 students enrolled in two sections of an education course at a Midwestern university participated in the study. Participants in the intervention group completed field…

  14. A Qualitative Study of Managerial Coaching: How Critical Reflection and Experiential Learning Are Facilitated within a Multi-National Pharmaceutical Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Tony Isaac

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study was designed to explore whether and how a sample of domestic and international managers use two key adult education concepts--critical reflection and experiential learning--to influence changes in individual employees whom they coach. The study is based on the primary assumption that although managers do not…

  15. Examining the Practice of Critical Reflection for Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Multicultural Competencies: Findings from a Study Abroad Program in Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Suniti; Phillion, JoAnn; Malewski, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In response to a critical need in teacher preparation, study abroad programs aimed at developing multicultural competencies in pre-service teachers have proliferated across the United States. Multicultural competencies constitute the ability to challenge misconceptions that lead to discrimination based on cultural difference, reflect on one's…

  16. Promoting Mental Health Literacy among Educators: Critical in School-Based Prevention and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…

  17. Endomucin prevents leukocyte–endothelial cell adhesion and has a critical role under resting and inflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Alisar; Alcaide, Pilar; Yang, Jinling; Jones, Alexander; Gregory, Meredith; dela Paz, Nathaniel G.; Patel-Hett, Sunita; Nevers, Tania; Koirala, Adarsha; Luscinskas, Francis W.; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Ksander, Bruce; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Argüeso, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Endomucin is a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed luminally by endothelial cells that line postcapillary venules, a primary site of leukocyte recruitment during inflammation. Here we show that endomucin abrogation on quiescent endothelial cells enables neutrophils to adhere firmly, via LFA-1-mediated binding to ICAM-1 constitutively expressed by endothelial cells. Moreover, TNF-α stimulation downregulates cell surface expression of endomucin concurrent with increased expression of adhesion molecules. Adenovirus-mediated expression of endomucin under inflammatory conditions prevents neutrophil adhesion in vitro and reduces the infiltration of CD45+ and NIMP-R14+ cells in vivo. These results indicate that endomucin prevents leukocyte contact with adhesion molecules in non-inflamed tissues and that downregulation of endomucin is critical to facilitate adhesion of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. PMID:26831939

  18. Endomucin prevents leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and has a critical role under resting and inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Zahr, Alisar; Alcaide, Pilar; Yang, Jinling; Jones, Alexander; Gregory, Meredith; dela Paz, Nathaniel G; Patel-Hett, Sunita; Nevers, Tania; Koirala, Adarsha; Luscinskas, Francis W; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Ksander, Bruce; D'Amore, Patricia A; Argüeso, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Endomucin is a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed luminally by endothelial cells that line postcapillary venules, a primary site of leukocyte recruitment during inflammation. Here we show that endomucin abrogation on quiescent endothelial cells enables neutrophils to adhere firmly, via LFA-1-mediated binding to ICAM-1 constitutively expressed by endothelial cells. Moreover, TNF-α stimulation downregulates cell surface expression of endomucin concurrent with increased expression of adhesion molecules. Adenovirus-mediated expression of endomucin under inflammatory conditions prevents neutrophil adhesion in vitro and reduces the infiltration of CD45(+) and NIMP-R14(+) cells in vivo. These results indicate that endomucin prevents leukocyte contact with adhesion molecules in non-inflamed tissues and that downregulation of endomucin is critical to facilitate adhesion of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. PMID:26831939

  19. Life skills, mathematical reasoning and critical thinking: a curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel E; Macdonald, John; Somerset, Matthew

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that youth are two to three times more likely than adults to report gambling related problems. This paper reports on the development and pilot evaluation of a school-based problem gambling prevention curriculum. The prevention program focused on problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, coping skills, and knowledge of the nature of random events. The results of a controlled experiment evaluating the students learning from the program are reported. We found significant improvement in the students' knowledge of random events, knowledge of problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring, and knowledge of coping skills. The results suggest that knowledge based material on random events, problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, and coping skills can be taught. Future development of the curriculum will focus on content to expand the students' coping skill options. PMID:18095146

  20. A critical review of expert systems for corrosion prevention and control

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R.

    1994-12-31

    The serious gap that exists between modern corrosion science and the real world, where a heavy toll is continuously paid to corrosion, is a clear indication that the present knowledge of corrosion mechanisms is not always translated into sound practices. The dichotomy between prevention principles discovered in a laboratory environment and their application on an industrial scale can often be felt at specialized conferences where scientists and operational engineers seem to be speaking different languages. The application of artificial intelligence to perform expert functions has opened new communication channels between various strata of corrosion knowledge holders. This paper reviews the efforts recently made public on the applications of the expert system technology to corrosion prevention and control.

  1. Resurgence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States: Anesthetic and Critical Care Implications.

    PubMed

    Porteous, Grete H; Hanson, Neil A; Sueda, Lila Ann A; Hoaglan, Carli D; Dahl, Aaron B; Ohlson, Brooks B; Schmidt, Brian E; Wang, Chia C; Fagley, R Eliot

    2016-05-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) such as measles and pertussis are becoming more common in the United States. This disturbing trend is driven by several factors, including the antivaccination movement, waning efficacy of certain vaccines, pathogen adaptation, and travel of individuals to and from areas where disease is endemic. The anesthesia-related manifestations of many VPDs involve airway complications, cardiovascular and respiratory compromise, and unusual neurologic and neuromuscular symptoms. In this article, we will review the presentation and management of 9 VPDs most relevant to anesthesiologists, intensivists, and other hospital-based clinicians: measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis, diphtheria, influenza, meningococcal disease, varicella, and poliomyelitis. Because many of the pathogens causing these diseases are spread by respiratory droplets and aerosols, appropriate transmission precautions, personal protective equipment, and immunizations necessary to protect clinicians and prevent nosocomial outbreaks are described. PMID:27088999

  2. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-08-15

    Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area. PMID:27429186

  3. Why a macroeconomic perspective is critical to the prevention of noncommunicable disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard

    2012-09-21

    Effective prevention of noncommunicable diseases will require changes in how we live, and thereby effect important economic changes across populations, sectors, and countries. What we do not know is which populations, sectors, or countries will be positively or negatively affected by such changes, nor by how much. Without this information we cannot know which policies will produce effects that are beneficial both for economies and for health. PMID:22997330

  4. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Lisa M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area. PMID:27429186

  5. [Evidence-based medicine and prevention of thrombosis in microsurgery. Critical review].

    PubMed

    Dumont, L-A; Gangloff, G; Grolleau-Raoux, J-L; Chavoin, J-P; Garrido-Stowhas, I

    2011-06-01

    Prevention of thrombosis in microsurgery was the point of numerous publications without any referenced protocol. The question of this article was to know if it existed, for a patient who needed a microsurgical procedure, any medical treatment used, proved to lower the thrombotic risk. Using principles of evidence-based medicine, we observed that none of the medical treatments proved efficiency on preventing vascular thrombosis, arterial or venous. The low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) could be used on postoperatives to prevent the deep venous thrombosis of lower limbs but not to lower specially the microvascular thrombosis rate. Aspirin did not improve the positive rates and its adjunction to LMWH increased the bleeding. The evidence-based medicine, as we used it here, permits to conclude that the microsurgeon should not wait any miracle of the medical treatments. Until scientific studies prove efficacity of a treatment, the surgeon has to make a personal choice: keeping habits or following evidence-based medicine. The experience of the surgeon, of the anesthetist and of the paramedical team seem to be the main point to decrease the thrombotic risk during the multidisciplinary healing care of the patient. PMID:20646817

  6. Respiratory health of elite athletes – preventing airway injury: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Kippelen, Pascale; Fitch, Kenneth D; Anderson, Sandra Doreen; Bougault, Valerie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Rundell, Kenneth William; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; McKenzie, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    Elite athletes, particularly those engaged in endurance sports and those exposed chronically to airborne pollutants/irritants or allergens, are at increased risk for upper and lower airway dysfunction. Airway epithelial injury may be caused by dehydration and physical stress applied to the airways during severe exercise hyperpnoea and/or by inhalation of noxious agents. This is thought to initiate an inflammatory cascade/repair process that, ultimately, could lead to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and asthma in susceptible athletes. The authors review the evidence relating to prevention or reduction of the risk of AHR/asthma development. Appropriate measures should be implemented when athletes exercise strenuously in an attempt to attenuate the dehydration stress and reduce the exposure to noxious airborne agents. Environmental interventions are the most important. Non-pharmacological strategies can assist, but currently, pharmacological measures have not been demonstrated to be effective. Whether early prevention of airway injury in elite athletes can prevent or reduce progression to AHR/asthma remains to be established. PMID:22522585

  7. Combinations of Obesity Prevention Strategies in U.S. Elementary Schools: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Kaleena; Rutfield, Rachel; Hall, Nathanael; Fedor, Nicholas; McCaughey, Virginia K.; Zajac, Kristyn

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children has roughly tripled in the past thirty years. Given the numerous health risks associated with obesity, elementary schools have implemented a variety of prevention programs targeting this problem. This review examines recent studies of combinations of obesity prevention programs in U.S. elementary schools and offers recommendations about effective strategies. We found twelve studies that met selection criteria and reviewed their findings related to obesity-related outcomes. Among the single intervention strategies, neither physical activity nor education alone demonstrated efficacy in reducing objective measures of obesity. Most studies of programs with two or three components (i.e., physical activity plus nutrition, physical activity plus both education and nutrition) found statistically significant improvements in objective obesity-related outcomes. Studies evaluating programs with community and parental involvement suggest that these components may increase effectiveness. However, studies assessing outcomes following the cessation of the program showed a reversal of positive effects, suggesting that long-term implementation of programs is important for sustained gains. Results suggest that combinations of obesity prevention programs sustained over time are most likely to be effective. PMID:25288474

  8. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  9. Supplemental Parenteral Nutrition Is the Key to Prevent Energy Deficits in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Taku; Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Pichard, Claude

    2016-08-01

    This review emphasizes the role of a timely supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) for critically ill patients. It contradicts the recommendations of current guidelines to avoid the use of PN, as it is associated with risk. Critical illness results in severe metabolic stress. During the early phase, inflammatory cytokines and mediators induce catabolism to meet the increased body energy demands by endogenous sources. This response is not suppressed by exogenous energy administration, and the early use of PN to reach the energy target leads to overfeeding. On the other hand, early and progressive enteral nutrition (EN) is less likely to cause overfeeding because of variable gastrointestinal tolerance, a factor frequently associated with significant energy deficit. Recent studies demonstrate that adequate feeding is beneficial during and after the intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Supplemental PN allows for timely adequate feeding, if sufficient precautions are taken to avoid overfeeding. Indirect calorimetry can precisely define the adequate energy prescription. Our pragmatic approach is to start early EN to progressively test the gut tolerance and add supplemental PN on day 3 or 4 after ICU admission, only if EN does not meet the measured energy target. We believe that supplemental PN plays a pivotal role in the achievement of adequate feeding in critically ill patients with intolerance to EN and does not cause harm if overfeeding is avoided by careful prescription, ideally based on energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry. PMID:27256992

  10. Lycopene and Its Antioxidant Role in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases-A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lars; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Lowe, Gordon; Böhm, Volker

    2016-08-17

    The present review is based mainly on papers published between 2000 and 2011 and gives information about the properties of the carotenoid lycopene in chemical and biological systems and its possible role in preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The main aim of this report is to highlight its role as an antioxidant, also reported are bioactive properties that may influence the development of foam cells and protection against endothelial cell damage. The paper will also examine recent observations that lycopene may improve blood flow and reduce inflammatory responses. Lycopene possesses antioxidant properties in vitro, and some epidemiological studies have reported protective effects against the progression of CVD. The oxidation of human low density lipoproteins (LDL) is a fundamental mechanism in the initiation of atherosclerosis. A beneficial role of lycopene as antioxidant in the prevention of CVD is suggested but the data are still controversial. Lycopene is believed to be the most potent carotenoid antioxidant in vitro. Tissue culture experiments and animal studies support potential cardioprotective effects for lycopene and other carotenoids in the blood. Most studies showed beneficial effects of lycopene to individuals who are antioxidant-deficient like elderly patients, or humans exposed to higher levels of oxidative stress like smokers, diabetics, hemodialysis patients and acute myocardial infarction patients. By defining the right population and combining antioxidant potentials of lycopene with vitamins and other bioactive plant compounds, the beneficial role of lycopene in CVD can be clarified in future studies. PMID:25675359