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Sample records for prevention des expositions

  1. Italian Exposition

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-11

    Le DG parle dans son allocution à l'occasion de l'exposition (suivi d'une visite)de la contribution du Cern à la création d'une espace de la technologie européenne. Il parle de la manière comment organiser des formes fructueuses de coopération et coordination internationales dans ce domaine. "Afin de renforcer encore notre relation avec l'industrie et intensifier le transfert de la technologie nous proposerons au ministre de recherche de poursuivre dans le cadre du programme EUREKA ensemble avec les industries des programmes concrètes." Le ministre italien prend ensuite la parole.

  2. Italian Exposition

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le DG parle dans son allocution à l'occasion de l'exposition (suivi d'une visite)de la contribution du Cern à la création d'une espace de la technologie européenne. Il parle de la manière comment organiser des formes fructueuses de coopération et coordination internationales dans ce domaine. "Afin de renforcer encore notre relation avec l'industrie et intensifier le transfert de la technologie nous proposerons au ministre de recherche de poursuivre dans le cadre du programme EUREKA ensemble avec les industries des programmes concrètes." Le ministre italien prend ensuite la parole.

  3. [Exposit in a biological test].

    PubMed

    Hoyer, I; Gängler, P; Will, R; Benkert, O

    1989-01-01

    The biocompatibility of the composite resin materials Exposit and Evicrol was tested by functional studies of the rat incisor and the biological test of the dental pulp of pigs. Exposit shows mainly reversible reactions of the vascular connective tissue both in the vital-microscopical examination of the immediate reaction and in short-term tests (24 hours, 7 days), where positive adaptation reactions (new vessels and revascularization) are to be observed. Evicrol causes distinct and irreversible damages in the pulp of the rat incisor. The results of the vital-microscopical examination are proven by histological checks of the rat incisor. In the morphological picture Exposit shows in pig teeth mainly slight and partly moderate inflammatory pulpal reactions after a period of 30 and 90 days. For Evicrol, however, severe reactions with a massive accumulation of inflammatory cells is to be observed after a period of 30 days. Despite an acceptable and, compared to Evicrol, a better biocompatibility of Exposit there is a demand for an exact pulp protection. PMID:2534010

  4. Des-acyl ghrelin prevents heatstroke-like symptoms in rats exposed to high temperature and high humidity.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Yujiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Noboru; Nakahara, Keiko

    2016-02-26

    We have shown previously that des-acyl ghrelin decreases body temperature in rats through activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. Here we investigated whether des-acyl ghrelin ameliorates heatstroke in rats exposed to high temperature. Peripheral administration of des-acyl ghrelin significantly attenuated hyperthermia induced by exposure to high-temperature (35°C) together with high humidity (70-80%). Although biochemical analysis revealed that exposure to high temperature significantly increased hematocrit and the serum levels of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)), most of these heatstroke-associated reactions were significantly reduced by treatment with des-acyl ghrelin. The level of des-acyl ghrelin in plasma was also found to be significantly increased under high-temperature conditions. These results suggest that des-acyl ghrelin could be useful for preventing heatstroke under high temperature condition. PMID:26773867

  5. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION PRESS CONFERENCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Fielding questions from the press concerning 3rd Century America, the Bicentennial Exposition on Science and Technology are [left to right]: Herbert J. Rowe, NASA Associate Administrator for External Affairs; Miles Ross, KSC Deputy Director and Bicentennial General Manager; Lee Scherer, KSC Director, and Paul Donnelly, KSC Director of Space Transportation System Processing and Chief of the Exposition Site Development and Operations Office.

  6. Prevention des Toxicomanies Aupres des Filles avec des Problemes de Comportement: Effets a Court Terme (Prevention of Drug Addiction in Girls with Behavior Problems: Short-Term Effects).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article, written in French, describes and evaluates the first phase of a program to prevent drug addiction among 110 fifth-grade girls with behavior problems in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Evaluation of the instructional program showed positive results for student knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors and supported program continuation…

  7. [Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program"].

    PubMed

    Bröning, Sonja; Sack, Peter-Michael; Thomsen, Monika; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Children with Multiple Risk Factor Exposition Benefit from the German "Strengthening Families Program" The German adaptation of the substance use-preventive family-based Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (SFP, Iowa version) was evaluated in a longitudinal two-year follow-up trial. Participants were N = 292 children with a mean age of twelve years at baseline, and N = 292 parents. We employed a multi-centric, randomized-controlled, two-armed (SFP vs. minimal control condition) study design. Following a "risk moderation hypothesis", we assumed that children with an elevated risk-exposition R(+) would benefit more than children with a low risk-exposition R(-) irrespective of the preventive intervention, and that R(+) under SFP would benefit more than R(+) under the minimal control condition. "Risk-exposition" was measured in correspondence with the Communities That Care Youth Survey-questionnaire. A total of 28 % of children were classified with an elevated risk level. Children's reports confirmed our hypothesis: R(+) report a total of eleven improvements, four of these being significantly more distinct than in the other groups (Anxiety-Depressivity, Punitive Parenting of mother, Punitive Parenting of father, Unbalanced family functioning). In three measures an improvement appears solely in R(+) under SFP (Satisfaction with family functioning, School Attachment and Peer Relationship Quality, Quality of Life). Parents' reports showed a similar tendency, but were less pronounced. PMID:27595812

  8. Rhetoric--Warp and Woof of "All" Exposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Ruth M.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that to improve students' writing in upper level business communication courses they must be exposed to the thesis that it is impossible to put together any piece of exposition, specifically letters, memoranda, and reports, without using one, or a combination of, rhetorical techniques arranged logically. (FL)

  9. The Chesapeake College Social Sciences Exposition and Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Conway

    A Social Sciences Exposition and Fair has been conducted annually by Chesapeake College since 1978 as part of an effort to involve high school students and community organizations in competitive, academic events related to the social sciences and history, and to encourage faculty to participate in student recruitment. The first fair, held in…

  10. An Examination of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percoco, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan dealing with the Columbian Exposition of 1893 at the Chicago (Illinois) World's Fair. Stresses recognition of (1) the connection between the past and the present; (2) the significance of Columbus Day; (3) the use of photographs as primary sources; and (4) the architecture of historical periods. Includes suggestions,…

  11. Public health preparedness for the world's largest mass gathering: 2010 World Exposition in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yi, He; Zheng'an, Yuan; Fan, Wu; Xiang, Guo; Chen, Dong; Yongchao, He; Xiaodong, Sun; Hao, Pan; Mahany, Mollie; Keim, Mark

    2012-12-01

    The 2010 World Exposition in Shanghai China (Expo) was the largest mass gathering in world history, attracting a record 72 million visitors. More than 190 countries participated in the Expo, along with more than 50 international organizations. The 2010 Expo was six months in duration (May 1 through October 30, 2010), and the size of the venue site comprised 5.28 square kilometers. Great challenges were imposed on the public health system in Shanghai due to the high number and density of visitors, long duration of the event, and other risk factors such as high temperatures, typhoon, etc. As the major metropolitan public health agency in Shanghai, the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC) implemented a series of actions in preparing for, and responding to, the potential health impact of the world's largest mass gathering to date, which included partnerships for capacity building, enhancement of internal organizational structure, risk assessment, strengthened surveillance, disaster planning and exercises, laboratory management, vaccination campaign, health education, health intervention, risk communication and mass media surveillance, and technical support for health inspection. The clear-cut organizational structures and job responsibilities, as well as comprehensive operational and scientific preparations, were key elements to ensure the success of the 2010 World Exposition. PMID:22995587

  12. On the simulation of allergenic pollen exposition and its atmospheric transport on regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernath, Christian; Klein, Christian; Hoffmann, Peter; Gayler, Sebastian; Priesack, Eckart

    2013-04-01

    In Germany approximately 30% of the population is vulnerable to pollinosis (hay fever). Exposure to allergenic pollen affects vulnerable persons recurring seasonally, but depending on the individual susceptibility to individual pollen species. To prevent the suffering the patients usually use preventive drugs and rely on the current pollen forecast. However, recently used pollen forecast models mainly consider temperature sums to predict pollen exposition by different plant species. The models often fail to describe the impact of regionally variable environmental conditions on plant growth which depends on the soil characteristics that affect the water and nutrient availability. Furthermore, water and nutrient availability may significantly affect the pollen yield and its allergenic potential. Thus, the improvement of the simulations of the exposition of allergenic pollen by plants and atmospheric pollen loads on the regional scale could improve the preventive medication of vulnerable persons. We propose a new soil-plant-atmosphere model system that allows a dynamic ressource aquisition for the plant biomass growth to account for the allergenic potential of exposed pollen and the subsequent pollen transport in the atmosphere. Therefore, to simulate pollen exposure the land surface model Expert-N (soil-plant-system model) was coupled to the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF). Expert-N uses site specific physical soil properties to simulate the nutrient and water transport, and the carbon and nitrogen turnover, as well as the interactions between plant and soil. The allergenic potential of pollen yield is simulated using a new C- and N-allocation model which accounts for the production of carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs). These CBSCs are involved in the determination of the allergenic potential of pollen. The WRF model is used to predict the weather conditions for plant growth. Depending on the weather conditions pollen exposed by the plants is then

  13. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  14. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  15. Fine Art at the Cotton States and International Exposition, Atlanta, 1895. Learning Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kate; Peckham, Kathleen

    With the end of the Civil War just 30 years past, the organizers of the Atlanta (Georgia) 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition sought to demonstrate the South's national patriotism and progressivism. While the exhibits at the exposition widely varied, among the most ambitious undertakings were the displays of fine arts found in the Fine…

  16. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION AMERICAN FLAG & ARBA SYMBOL PAINTING FINISHED ON THE VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The massive Vehicle Assembly Building provides the focal point for the Bicentennial Exposition on Science and Technology, 3rd Century America. The largest flag ever painted and a large American Revolution Bicentennial Administration symbol adorn the side of the building, overlooking the bicentennial site which features 15 domes housing exhibits. Sixteen federal agencies, 10 U. W. industries and numerous colleges and universities are participating in the Exposition, which runs through September 7.

  17. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION & PAINTING OF AMERICAN FLAG ON VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Transformation of the U. S. Bicentennial on Science and Technology from an artist's concept to reality is well underway at KSC. At lower right are stages of the Saturn V rocket which will form part of the Exposition. Four of the 15 domes erected to house exhibits by 16 federal agencies and numerous industrial firms are visible in the foreground. At left center, workmen on a scaffold can be seen completing the blue field on the American flag being painted on the Vehicle Assembly Building. The Exposition will be open to the public from May 30 through September 7.

  18. Krebs als Funktion von Disposition, Exposition und Alter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmähl, D.; Habs, M.

    1982-07-01

    Essential parameters in carcinogenesis are the genetic and extragenetic disposition of an individual, its exposure to chemical, physical or viral influences in the environment as well as its age as the time that is needed to induce cancer. Cancer prevention seems only possible by reducing the exposure. It will be discussed whether the increase in life expectancy has become so important during the past decades that it compensates all efforts of reducing the exposure.

  19. Models for Change: Harassment and Discrimination Prevention Education for Colleges and Universities. A Resource Guide and Video=Formation pour la prevention du harcelement et de la discrimination a l'intention des decisionnaires des colleges et des universites. Guide de ressources et video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruemper, Wendy, Ed.; And Others

    Intended as a reference for preventing harassment and discrimination in Ontario colleges and universities, this resource guide describes a project to develop models of alternative instructional delivery and presents the models. Part 1 provides an introduction to the guide, reviews the goals of the project, and describes a related training video…

  20. To Hell with the Wigs! Native American Representation and Resistance at the World's Columbian Exposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, in celebration of the quadricentennial anniversary of Columbus's landing in the Americas, spread over six hundred acres of reclaimed marsh lands in Chicago's South Side. Fourteen great buildings and two hundred additional buildings stood on the fairgrounds, and if tourists had visited every exhibit, they…

  1. Technology 2003: The Fourth National Technology Transfer Conference and Exposition, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackett, Michael (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Proceedings from symposia of the Technology 2003 Conference and Exposition, December 7-9, 1993, Anaheim, CA, was discussed. Volume 1 features the Plenary Session and the Plenary Workshop, plus papers presented in Advanced Manufacturing, Biotechnology/Medical Technology, Environmental Technology, Materials Science, and Power and Energy.

  2. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION EXHIBIT VISITED BY FLETCHER AND TEAGUE DURING NASA DAY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dr. James C. Fletcher, U. S. Representative Olin Teague [D.-Texas], a group of foreign ambassadors and executives from NASA Headquarters visited KSC today as part of the observance of NASA Day at 3rd Century America, the U. S. Bicentennial Exposition on Science and Technology.

  3. Technology 2001: The Second National Technology Transfer Conference and Exposition, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Papers from the technical sessions of the Technology 2001 Conference and Exposition are presented. The technical sessions featured discussions of advanced manufacturing, artificial intelligence, biotechnology, computer graphics and simulation, communications, data and information management, electronics, electro-optics, environmental technology, life sciences, materials science, medical advances, robotics, software engineering, and test and measurement.

  4. Rural Schools, Social Capital and the Big Society: A Theoretical and Empirical Exposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Carl; Hillyard, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The paper commences with a theoretical exposition of the current UK government's policy commitment to the idealised notion of the Big Society and the social capital currency underpinning its formation. The paper positions this debate in relation to the rural and adopts an ethnographically-informed methodological approach to provide an…

  5. Technology 2003: The Fourth National Technology Transfer Conference and Exposition, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackett, Michael (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Proceedings from symposia of the Technology 2003 Conference and Exposition, Dec. 7-9, 1993, Anaheim, CA, are presented. Volume 2 features papers on artificial intelligence, CAD&E, computer hardware, computer software, information management, photonics, robotics, test and measurement, video and imaging, and virtual reality/simulation.

  6. The "Hefferline Notes": B. F. Skinner's First Public Exposition of His Analysis of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Terry J.

    2009-01-01

    B. F. Skinner's first public exposition of his analysis of verbal behavior was the "Hefferline Notes" (1947a), a written summary of a course Skinner taught at Columbia University during the summer of 1947 just prior to his presentation of the William James Lectures at Harvard University in the fall. The Notes are significant because they display…

  7. Selling Indian Education at World's Fairs and Expositions, 1893-1904.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trennert, Robert A., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Describes attempts by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to gain public approval of its policies by presenting school exhibits at world's fairs and expositions from 1893-1904. Explains that although the exhibits touted achievements of assimilation education, they unwittingly added to the growing interest in traditional native life and customs. (NEC)

  8. Petition for a Fair Representation of African Americans at the World's Columbian Exposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamel, Wynell Burroughs; Blondo, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a history lesson using a petition written by prominent African Americans objecting to the coverage of African Americans at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. Explains that African-American citizens were largely ignored in the exhibits. Includes questions for class discussion, writing activities, a copy of the petition, and research…

  9. Rural and Agricultural Education at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Bulletin, 1916, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foght, H. W.

    1917-01-01

    This bulletin was prepared to indicate recent progress in rural life and education as disclosed by the educational exhibits at the Panama-Pacific Exposition of 1915. The discussion includes (1) the general phases of progress in rural education, and (2) advancement in its more specific agricultural phases. Little attempt has been made to present…

  10. The expositive discourse as pedagogical discourse: studying recontextualization in the production of a science museum exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandino, Martha

    2016-06-01

    In this paper I report on the sociological and educational particulars of The Biodiscovery Space exhibition of the Life Museum of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Basil Bernstein's framework of pedagogic discourse and recontextualization. Data for analysis was obtained from interviews with the exhibition developers, field observations of museum visitors and analysis of exhibition documents. Using the ideas of power, classification and framework, among others, I analyzed the recontextualization process of the production of expositive discourse. Thus, working with Bernstein's idea of classification, I explain the relationship between the discourses of the science of biology, history of science, museology, education, and communication in order to produce an expositive discourse. I also make explicit how agents of the Official Recontextualization Field of the Museum and the Pedagogic Recontextualization Field "....of the Museum determine partly the final expositive discourse of an exhibition". Using the idea of a pedagogic discourse framework, I discuss how the constraints imposed by objects and texts in exhibitions help to create a specific manner of visitor interaction with these elements, "even if they have some autonomy". Considerations about the audience and the intended process of acquisition are presented, when I discuss the control strategies of the exhibition. I propose that the Biodiscovery Space exhibit has a visible pedagogy. Finally, using the collected data I discuss the power tensions created in the production of expositive discourse showing how distributive, recontextualization and evaluation rules work in the context of exhibitions. The study of the dynamics in forming the expositive discourse using Bernstein's framework reveals the individuals and institutions, the selection criteria, the negotiations and the power relations involved. It has the potential to assist both educators and researchers in the museum education

  11. The expositive discourse as pedagogical discourse: studying recontextualization in the production of a science museum exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper I report on the sociological and educational particulars of The Biodiscovery Space exhibition of the Life Museum of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Basil Bernstein's framework of pedagogic discourse and recontextualization. Data for analysis was obtained from interviews with the exhibition developers, field observations of museum visitors and analysis of exhibition documents. Using the ideas of power, classification and framework, among others, I analyzed the recontextualization process of the production of expositive discourse. Thus, working with Bernstein's idea of classification, I explain the relationship between the discourses of the science of biology, history of science, museology, education, and communication in order to produce an expositive discourse. I also make explicit how agents of the Official Recontextualization Field of the Museum and the Pedagogic Recontextualization Field "....of the Museum determine partly the final expositive discourse of an exhibition". Using the idea of a pedagogic discourse framework, I discuss how the constraints imposed by objects and texts in exhibitions help to create a specific manner of visitor interaction with these elements, "even if they have some autonomy". Considerations about the audience and the intended process of acquisition are presented, when I discuss the control strategies of the exhibition. I propose that the Biodiscovery Space exhibit has a visible pedagogy. Finally, using the collected data I discuss the power tensions created in the production of expositive discourse showing how distributive, recontextualization and evaluation rules work in the context of exhibitions. The study of the dynamics in forming the expositive discourse using Bernstein's framework reveals the individuals and institutions, the selection criteria, the negotiations and the power relations involved. It has the potential to assist both educators and researchers in the museum education

  12. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  13. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  14. Proceedings of the Bio-Energy '80 world congress and exposition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Many countries are moving with increasing urgency to obtain larger fractions of their energy from biomass. Over 1800 leading experts from 70 countries met on April 21 to 24 in Atlanta to conduct a World Congress and Exposition on Bio-Energy. This summary presents highlights of the Congress and thoughts stimulated by the occasion. Topics addressed include a comparison of international programs, world and country regionalism in the development of energy supplies, fuel versus food or forest products, production of ethyl alcohol, possibilities for expanded production of terrestrial vegetation and marine flora, and valuable chemicals from biomass. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 164 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. The Hefferline Notes: B. F. Skinner's First Public Exposition of His Analysis of Verbal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Terry J

    2009-01-01

    B. F. Skinner's first public exposition of his analysis of verbal behavior was the Hefferline Notes (1947a), a written summary of a course Skinner taught at Columbia University during the summer of 1947 just prior to his presentation of the William James Lectures at Harvard University in the fall. The Notes are significant because they display Skinner's analysis as it made the transition from spoken to written form; moreover, they are an effective supplemental source of examples and early approximations for comprehending Skinner's functional verbal operants. PMID:22477433

  16. Fractal EEG analysis with Higuchi's algorithm of low-frequency noise exposition on humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panuszka, Ryszard; Damijan, Zbigniew; Kasprzak, Cezary

    2001-05-01

    Authors used methods based on fractal analysis of EEG signal to assess the influence of low-frequency sound field on the human brain electro-potentials. The relations between LFN (low-frequency noise) and change in fractal dimension EEG signal were measured with stimulations tones. Three types of LFN stimuli were presented; each specified dominant frequency and sound-pressure levels (7 Hz at 120 dB, 18 Hz at 120 dB, and 40 Hz at 110 dB). Standard EEG signal was recorded before, during, and after subject's exposure for 35 min. LFN. Applied to the analysis fractal dimension of EEG-signal Higuchis algorithm. Experiments show LFN influence on complexity of EEG-signal with calculated Higuchi's algorithm. Observed increase of mean value of Higuchi's fractal dimension during exposition to LFN.

  17. U.S. BICENTENNIAL EXPOSITION & FINISHED PAINTED AMERICAN FLAG ON VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Finishing touches on the largest American flag ever painted were completed today on the south side of the Vehicle Assembly Building at KSC's Launch Complex 39. The flag was painted as part of 3rd Century America, the U. S. Bicentennial Exposition on Science and Technology to be held here from May 30 through September 7. The flag is located on the western side of the VAB's south wall. Still to be painted is the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration's [ARBA] distinctive emblem. This will be placed on the eastern side of the south wall and should be completed by mid-May. The flag is 209 feet long and 100 feet in width. Each of its 13 red and white bars is nearly 8 and a half feet wide. The ARBA symbol will be 110 feet in diameter.

  18. Education Exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, California, 1915. Bulletin, 1916, No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, W. Carson, Jr.

    1916-01-01

    The purpose of this bulletin is to present, for the benefit of school officials and others interested in education, a brief description of the education exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, held in San Francisco during 1915. Exhibits described herein are almost entirely limited to those that are educational in the narrower…

  19. Culture as Curriculum: Education and the International Expositions (1876-1904). History of Schools and Schooling. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The great International Expositions of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries brought together the world's political, intellectual, and industrial leaders for the exchange of information and ideas. They also promoted specific cultural values and belief systems. In this book, Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr. looks specifically at the educational…

  20. Les transfusions de globules rouges chez le nouveau-né : Des directives révisées

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    En général, depuis dix ans, les professionnels de la santé qui soignent des nouveau-nés à haut risque dans des unités de soins intensifs néonatals sont plus restrictifs dans leur utilisation de transfusions de globules rouges. Le présent énoncé est conçu pour ceux qui soignent des nouveau-nés à haut risque (des prématurés aux nouveau-nés d’un mois). Il vise à fournir des directives pour réduire l’incidence d’anémie chez les nourrissons prématurés et à terme, à repérer des stratégies pour réduire le besoin de transfusions de globules rouges et à limiter l’exposition à des donneurs au sein de cette population. Des recommandations portant sur les transfusions de globules rouges sont incluses.

  1. Physiological changes of the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum as result of carbon nanotubes exposition.

    PubMed

    Viana, Camila de O; Vaz, Raissa P; Cano, Abraham; Santos, Adelina P; Cançado, Luiz G; Ladeira, Luiz O; Junior, Ary Corrêa

    2015-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) is one of the more abundant nanomaterial produced in the world. Therefore, it is desirable to access its effects in all environment compartments, in order to mitigate environmental distress. This study aims to verify the potential use of lichens - classical atmospheric pollution indicators - as biomonitors of carbon nanotubes aerosols. To examine cause-effect relationships, preserving environmental microclimatic parameters, the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale was transplanted to open top chambers where aerosols of CNT were daily added. Physiological parameters such as cell viability, photosynthetic efficiency, cell permeability as well as nanoparticle internalization were assessed. Carbon nanotubes exposure led to reduction on the cell viability of P. tinctorum. The treatment with 100µg/mL of MWCNT-COOH resulted in intracellular ion leakage, probably due to changes in membrane permeability. No alterations on photosynthetic efficiency were detected. Carbon nanotubes entrapment and internalization into the lichen thallus were observed. Short term exposition of CNT produced measurable physiological changes in P. tinctorum lichen. This suggests the possibility of use of lichens as models to assess the environmental impact (air related) of engineered nanomaterials. PMID:26057077

  2. "Focus on glaciers": an exposition of geo-photos to attract interest on a vanishing beauty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Giuliana; Bohm, Gualtiero; Saraò, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Public awareness of the effects of industrial activity on the environment and climate is growing, but the information needs to be disseminated to a larger number of people, of all ages, to be effective. Images can certainly be an optimal tool to communicate the important message of global warming effects and, thanks to the digital techniques, photography is gaining a new popularity. Anybody, owning just a phone or a tablet, has a camera to catch images that can be immediately spread worldwide via web sites, on-line newspapers, social media or blogs to convey messages and emotions. Fine art photography can surely help in attracting interest and in educating people. For this reason, we organize an exposition of artistic pictures; the beauty of the images attracts the eyes of the public, discovering an unknown reality and gives the opportunity to illustrate the dramatic retreat of the Alpine glaciers, and the majesty of the Antarctic landscape, put in danger by the climate changes. The glaciers are the main characters, with the infinite grey-blue shadows due to change in ice density, the spectacular staircases created by the seracs, and the contrast with the embedding rocks. A sub-set of the images will be presented in this context.

  3. A soldier suffering from PTSD, treated by controlled stress exposition using virtual reality and behavioral training.

    PubMed

    Tworus, Radosław; Szymanska, Sylwia; Ilnicki, Stanisław

    2010-02-01

    This article presents a case of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a 30-year-old soldier of the Polish Military Contingent in Iraq who narrowly escaped death three times. The first time occurred when during a change of guard he was unintentionally shot by his colleague. The projectile penetrated the victim's helmet, slid along its internal shell curvature, and left the shell causing only a scratch on the scalp skin. Another traumatic event was experienced by the soldier a month after the first incident. As a guard of honor, he was "shot" in the same rear head area with a cap of a cream tube, inadvertently stepped on by a colleague. The third event occurred a couple of days later, during a rocket attack on the Diwaniyah base. After this incident the soldier was evacuated to the Clinic of Psychiatry and Combat Stress in Warsaw. Multiform PTSDs that developed in this soldier are described in this work. The course of his comprehensive therapy during his two stays, with a total duration of 8 months, in the clinic is discussed. Also, a detailed description of the therapy controlled exposition to combat stressors in virtual reality (VR), supplemented with behavioral training consisting of desensitization of an aversive reaction to contact with a weapon at a shooting range is presented. The comprehensive treatment activities resulted in full remission of the PTSD symptoms. The soldier continues his service in a logistic support unit. PMID:20528300

  4. An Exposition on the Nonlinear Kinematics of Shells, Including Transverse Shearing Deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth exposition on the nonlinear deformations of shells with "small" initial geometric imperfections, is presented without the use of tensors. First, the mathematical descriptions of an undeformed-shell reference surface, and its deformed image, are given in general nonorthogonal coordinates. The two-dimensional Green-Lagrange strains of the reference surface derived and simplified for the case of "small" strains. Linearized reference-surface strains, rotations, curvatures, and torsions are then derived and used to obtain the "small" Green-Lagrange strains in terms of linear deformation measures. Next, the geometry of the deformed shell is described mathematically and the "small" three-dimensional Green-Lagrange strains are given. The deformations of the shell and its reference surface are related by introducing a kinematic hypothesis that includes transverse shearing deformations and contains the classical Love-Kirchhoff kinematic hypothesis as a proper, explicit subset. Lastly, summaries of the essential equations are given for general nonorthogonal and orthogonal coordinates, and the basis for further simplification of the equations is discussed.

  5. Catalase activity of different Candida species after exposition to specific antiserum

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaka, Natália R.S.; Unterkircher, Carmelinda S.; Shimizu, Mario T.

    2008-01-01

    Antisera were developed in rabbits after challenge with intracellular antigens of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. Microorganism catalase has been correlated with virulence, resistance to drugs and immunogenicity. The intracellular catalase is consistently present in strains of Candida and in this paper, the enzyme activity was analysed by PAGE after exposition to antisera. The catalases of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were immunogenic and differed in their binding to specific antibodies raised in rabbits. Tests of cross-reactivity between different Candida species showed that when antiserum from C. albicans immunized rabbit was incubated with intracellular extracts of these three Candida species, the catalases activities were abolished. However, the antisera from C. parapsilosis or C. tropicalis immunized rabbits did not affect the catalase activity of C. albicans; the enzyme of C. albicans was inactivated only by the antiserum to the catalase of own C. albicans. The antiserum to the catalase of C. tropicalis was species-specific and did not cross-react with catalases of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The activities of Aspergillus niger and bovine catalases were not affected by the antiserum from any Candida immunized rabbits. This report is a preliminary study of specific antisera that react against intracellular catalase of Candida sp. and neutralize the enzymatic activity. Further study is necessary to develop species-specific antibody once differences in the susceptibility of the Candida species to commonly used antifungal drugs make identification to the species level important. PMID:24031174

  6. Increase in the exposition to floods in the Alicante coast (Valencia region, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcina, J.; Rico, A. M.; Hernandez, M.; Martínez, E.

    2009-09-01

    During the last two decades, Flood episodes along the Alicante coastline have caused important material losses and general disruptions of everyday life in the municipalities affected. We can speak of an increase in the vulnerability to floods chiefly as a result of an increase in exposition. In turn this increase is fundamentally linked to the nature of the recent urbanization process in this area and the corresponding occupation of flood prone land. The province of Alicante occupies one of the first positions in Europe regarding flood risk (ESPON 2006). Even counting with legislation that regulates land uses, processes leading to the occupation of flood risk areas have proven very difficult to manage. In this sense, the Valencia region has enacted legislation such as the Land Use Planning Law of 1989, the Law on Urban Growth Regulations of 1994, and the Planning Regulations of 1998. All these legal pieces attempted to prohibit development in flood prone land declaring this land as "non.urban". New laws such as the Law on Land Use Planning and Landscape protection of 2004, the Law on New Urban Land (2004), and the Decree on Landscape (2006) also consider the need to include the flood hazard in planning activities. Furthermore in 1997, the so-called "Cartography of the flood hazard at the regional level" was elaborated. This mapping exercise was the base for the "Territorial Plan for the Reduction of Flood Risks (PATRICOVA) approved in 2003 and currently the main planning tool for flood management in Valencia. On the other hand, the European Directive 60/2007 pointed towards the need to take into consideration the social perception of Flood risks in order to develop integrated actions of risk management. Accordingly we have undertaken 285 interviews in the coastal communities of Alicante, Calpe and Campello (95 interviews each). We have chosen these municipalities for two reasons: first their significance in population and economic activity terms, and second, their

  7. Preventing stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... Clinical Cardiology; Council on Functional Genomics and ... Council on Hypertension. Guidelines for the primary prevention ...

  8. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  9. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

  10. L’inhalation de corticostéroïdes est-elle sécuritaire durant la grossesse?

    PubMed Central

    Smy, Laura; Chan, Alvin C.H.; Bozzo, Pina; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Une femme atteinte d’asthme léger à modéré, autrement en santé, s’est présentée à ma clinique aujourd’hui après avoir appris qu’elle était enceinte. Elle m’a demandé si elle devait continuer à prendre ses corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI) et, dans l’affirmative, s’il pourrait y avoir des risques pour son enfant à naître. Quels seraient vos conseils à ce propos? Réponse Compte tenu des données probantes publiées, les CSI devraient être continués durant toute la grossesse à des doses allant de faibles à modérées et suffisantes pour contrôler les symptômes de l’asthme et prévenir les exacerbations. Il faut toutefois être prudent quand il s’agit de doses de plus de 1 000 µg/j (d’équivalent de béclométasone avec chlorofluorocarbures), quoiqu’il soit actuellement questionnable si de telles doses causeraient des effets indésirables. Il faut renseigner de manière continue les patientes sur l’administration appropriée des CSI et l’observance du traitement, y compris durant le premier trimestre. Un bon contrôle de l’asthme réduira la nécessité de doses plus fortes de CSI et de l’exposition possible à des corticostéroïdes systémiques et diminuera ainsi le risque de résultats périnatals ou de grossesse indésirables.

  11. Captured Knowledge: Presentations and Notes of the KMWorld Conference and Exposition (4th, Santa Clara, California, September 13-15, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca, Ed.; Nixon, Carol, Comp.; Burmood, Jennifer, Comp.

    This publication contains presentations, notes, and illustrative materials used in the annual KMWorld Conference and Exposition, "Knowledge Nets: Defining and Driving the E-Enterprise." Presentations include: "Knowledge Management Applied to the Manufacturing Enterprise" (Matthew Artibee); "Ryder Knowledge Center: Building Best practices through…

  12. Petition Signed by Thomas A. Edison for Sunday Openings at the World's Columbian Exposition. The Constitution Community: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Linda

    In 1893, in just 184 days, 28 million people, about one-third of the U.S. population, visited the World's Colombian Exposition in Chicago (Illinois). This lesson focuses on petitioning the federal government, peaceably assembling, and exercising freedom of speech and religion, all of which are protected by the First Amendment to the U.S.…

  13. Attachment of human C5a des Arg to its cochemotaxin is required for maximum expression of chemotactic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Perez, H D; Chenoweth, D E; Goldstein, I M

    1986-01-01

    The chemotactic activity of human C5a des Arg is enhanced significantly by an anionic polypeptide (cochemotaxin) in normal human serum and plasma. We have found that the cochemotaxin attaches to the oligosaccharide chain of native C5a des Arg to form a complex with potent chemotactic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Although capable of enhancing the chemotactic activity of native C5a des Arg, the cochemotaxin had no effect on the chemotactic activity of either deglycosylated C5a des Arg, native C5a, or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Of the known components of the oligosaccharide chain, only sialic acid prevented enhancement by the cochemotaxin of the chemotactic activity exhibited by native C5a des Arg. Sialic acid also prevented the formation of C5a des Arg-cochemotaxin complexes, detected by acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, molecular sieve chromatography on polyacrylamide gels, and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. Images PMID:3782473

  14. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  15. Choice of DES: is there a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, U; Bhatia, V

    2009-01-01

    Restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions has been a major limitation of this otherwise very well-accepted method of coronary revascularisation. Coronary stents work by scaffolding the intimal flaps and preventing elastic recoil, which was a major problem after balloon angioplasty. The neointimal growth response to stenting contributes significantly to the restenotic process. Randomised studies comparing coronary artery bypass surgery with coronary stenting especially in multivessel disease clearly highlighted this problem. The problem has been greater in magnitude in special subgroups: diabetics, patients with small vessels (≤2.5 mm in diameter), long segments of disease (≥20 mm in length), etc. These limitations of Bare metal stents have been addressed by drug-eluting stents (DESs). Third-generation stents with bioabsorbable polymers like the Biolimus releasing Biomatrix stent have already become available in Europe and parts of Asia. A longer follow-up will prove their long-term safety vis-à-vis first-generation DES. The polymer-free stent with capability of using more than one drug, though very attractive, needs larger multicentric studies before gaining wider acceptance. The fully bioabsorbable stent is yet another promising concept. The feasibility has already been demonstrated, and finer refinements are under way. The future of newer DES thus is very promising, and most of the issues related to first-generation DES are at the threshold of being solved.

  16. In Vivo and In Vitro Arsenic Exposition Induces Oxidative Stress in Anterior Pituitary Gland.

    PubMed

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Bianchi, María S; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is at the top of toxic metalloids. Inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption is one of the greatest environmental health threats worldwide. Human iAs exposure has been associated with cancers of several organs, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems. Nevertheless, there are no reports describing how iAs affects the anterior pituitary gland. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in iAs-mediated anterior pituitary toxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We showed that iAs administration (from 5 to 100 ppm) to male rats through drinking water increased messenger RNA expression of several oxidative stress-responsive genes in the anterior pituitary gland. Serum prolactin levels diminished, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were only affected at the higher dose tested. In anterior pituitary cells in culture, 25 µmol/L iAs significantly decreased prolactin release in a time-dependent fashion, whereas LH levels remained unaltered. Cell viability was significantly reduced mainly by apoptosis evidenced by morphological and phosphatidylserine externalization studies. This process is characterized by early depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Expression of some key oxidative stress-responsive genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 and metallothionein-1, was also stimulated by iAs exposure. The antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine prevented iAs-induced effects on the expression of oxidative stress markers, prolactin release, and apoptosis. In summary, the present work demonstrates for the first time that iAs reduces prolactin release both in vivo and in vitro and induces apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells, possibly resulting from imbalanced cellular redox status. PMID:27151894

  17. Work function measurements during plasma exposition at conditions relevant in negative ion sources for the ITER neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Gutser, R.; Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2011-02-15

    Cesium seeded sources for surface generated negative hydrogen ions are major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER. The stability and delivered current density depend highly on the work function during vacuum and plasma phases of the ion source. One of the most important quantities that affect the source performance is the work function. A modified photocurrent method was developed to measure the temporal behavior of the work function during and after cesium evaporation. The investigation of cesium exposed Mo and MoLa samples under ITER negative hydrogen ion based neutral beam injection relevant surface and plasma conditions showed the influence of impurities which result in a fast degradation when the plasma exposure or the cesium flux onto the sample is stopped. A minimum work function close to that of bulk cesium was obtained under the influence of the plasma exposition, while a significantly higher work function was observed under ITER-like vacuum conditions.

  18. A noninvasive test of exposition to toxicants: quantitative analysis of cytochrome P4501A expression in fish scales.

    PubMed

    Quirós, Laia; Raldúa, Demetrio; Navarro, Anna; Casado, Marta; Barceló, Damià; Piña, Benjamin

    2007-10-01

    Elevated expression of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) is an established biomarker for exposition to a wide range of toxicants, particularly for dioxin and structurally similar compounds. Expression of CYP1A usually is analyzed in internal organs, which involves dissection of the specimen. To avoid unnecessary animal killing, we present here an alternative method based on the monitoring of CYP1A expression in fish scales. Using beta-naphthoflavone (BNF; 50 mg/kg body wt, intraperitoneal injection) as inducer in goldfish (Carassius auratus), we monitored levels of CYP1A mRNA both in scales and liver of treated and control specimens. Treatment with BNF resulted in a similar induction of CYP1A gene in both tissues, although scales responded faster (at 8 h after treatment) than liver (between 24 and 48 h). The scale-based test has the unique advantage of allowing sequential testing in the same specimen, which facilitates analysis of the time course of CYP1A induction and allows the study of individual variability. The method implies minimal suffering of the animals, because it only requires removal of a moderate (n = 1-3) number of scales for each time point. This nondestructive, fast, and relatively inexpensive test for toxic exposure therefore is suitable for environmental monitoring and food safety control programs in which specimen preservation is required. PMID:17867895

  19. Healing process of dog teeth after post space preparation and exposition of the filling material to the oral environment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Henrian Gonzaga; Holland, Roberto; de Souza, Valdir; Dezan, Eloi Júnior; Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Otoboni, José Arlindo Filho; Nery, Mauro Juvenal

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the influence of coronal leakage on the behavior of periapical tissues after root canal filling and post space preparation. Forty root canals of dogs' teeth were instrumented and filled by the lateral condensation technique with gutta percha points and the cements Sealer 26 and Roth. After post space preparation, the remaining filling material was either protected or not protected with a plug of the temporary cement Lumicon. After root canal exposition to the oral environment for 90 days, the animals were killed and specimens were removed and prepared for histomorphological analysis. The Brown and Brenn technique showed 70% of cases with microorganism leakage for Roth cement, and 20% with Sealer 26. When a plug of Lumicon was employed, there was 30% leakage for Roth cement and 0% for Sealer 26. A chronic inflammatory reaction was more frequently observed with Roth cement than with Sealer 26. It was concluded that a plug of Lumicon was efficient in controlling microorganism coronal leakage (p = 0.05), and that Sealer 26 was more biocompatible and sealed root canals better than Roth sealer (p = 0.01). PMID:12964653

  20. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  1. [Prevention in sexology--some critical issues].

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, Göran

    2010-03-24

    The high number of divorces could partly be attributed to a lack of sexual desire in the couples linked to the prevailing sexual hyperstimulation in society. Sexual harassment on the internet and the exposition of abuse incidents in the mass media contribute to the increased numbers of child sexual abuse. Enhanced awareness among adults about the potential dangers of television and the internet, as well as psychotherapeutic treatment of abusers and their victims would be of preventative importance. Psychotherapeutic treatment of adolescents in situations of developmental "break-down" could result in a more mature sexuality contributing to fewer cases of sexual abuse and to the stabilisation of future couples on the long-term. PMID:20408361

  2. Human pathogenic hantaviruses and prevention of infection

    PubMed Central

    Schönrich, Günther; Klempa, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging viruses which are hosted by small mammals. When transmitted to humans, they can cause two clinical syndromes, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The review compiles the current list of hantaviruses which are thought to be pathogenic in humans on the basis of molecular or at least serological evidence. Whereas induction of a neutralizing humoral immune response is considered to be protective against infection, the dual role of cellular immunity (protection versus immunopathogenicity) is discussed. For immunization, inactivated virus vaccines are licensed in certain Asian countries. Moreover, several classical and molecular vaccine approaches are in pre-clinical stages of development. The development of hantavirus vaccines is hampered by the lack of adequate animal models of hantavirus-associated disease. In addition to active immunization strategies, the review summarizes other ways of infection prevention, as passive immunization, chemoprophylaxis and exposition prophylaxis. PMID:21508676

  3. Rachitisme patent révélé par la perte du contrôle des convulsions chez un garçon infirme moteur cérébral

    PubMed Central

    Awa, Hubert Désiré Mbassi; Chelo, David; Kinkela, Mina Njiki; Ndombo, Paul Olivier Koki

    2013-01-01

    La perte du contrôle des crises chez un patient compliant au traitement est toujours source de préoccupations diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques. Nous rapportons un cas de rachitisme chez un patient de 4 ans, infirme moteur cérébral et épileptique sous traitement par phénobarbital depuis 2 ans; rachitisme découvert à la faveur d'une perte du contrôle épileptique. Le patient était admis pour des convulsions répétées en contexte afébrile. L'observance thérapeutique était bonne, et aucune convulsion n'avait été observée pendant les 12 mois précédents. Il ne recevait pas de vitamine D. Le rachitisme était suspecté cliniquement, et confirmé par les trouvailles radiologiques et biologiques. Le contrôle des crises était retrouvé dès le 3ème jour d'hospitalisation après apports de calcium intraveineux et de vitamine D. Les convulsions étaient imputées à une hypocalcémie sur rachitisme. La prise prolongée de phénobarbital sans supplémentation en vitamine D, ainsi qu'une exposition solaire insuffisante étaient incriminées. Avant toute escalade thérapeutique, des convulsions hypocalcémiques et un rachitisme doivent toujours être exclus devant une perte du contrôle des crises chez tout patient épileptique à mobilité réduite. Par ailleurs, une supplémentation en vitamine D et une exposition suffisante au soleil devront être recommandées pour certains traitements antiépileptiques au long cours. PMID:23503922

  4. Preventing Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... The top three methods used in suicides include firearms (49.9%), suffocation (26.7%), and poisoning (15. ... Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention Page maintained by: Office ...

  5. Drowning Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drowning Prevention: Information for Parents Page Content Article Body Drowning ... in very cold water for lengthy periods. Drowning Prevention: Know the Warning Signs These signs may signal ...

  6. Results of studies on long-term exposition of dormant forms of various organisms in outer space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, Nataliya; Gusev, Oleg; Sugimoto, Manabu; Deshevaya, Elena; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi; Orlov, Oleg; Alekseev, Victor; Poddubko, Svetlana; Polikarpov, Nikolay

    The planetary quarantine is one of the key problems of deep space exploration. Risks of the possible transfer of biological objects across interplanetary space should be necessarily assessed during space exploration. The risks associated with a possible transfer of biological objects and primarily microorganisms in interplanetary space is a priority for space studies We can assume, that on the exterior side of both unmanned and manned space stations there can be millions of microbial cells, many of which are in spore forms, the stability of which towards the unfavorable factors is extremely high. However, direct evidence to support this assumption, obtained only in recent years. “Biorisk” is an apparatus designed for conduction of space experiments focused on long-term exposition of latent stages of different forms of organism on the outer side of Russian Segment of International Space Station was developed and used in SSC RF - Institute for Biomedical Problems RAS. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the principle capability of preservation of life capacity in test-cultures of microorganisms during long-term exposure (comparable with the term of interplanetary flight) in space. The first experiment was performed using spores of bacteria (Bacillus) and fungi (Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium) housed in 3 boxes that were exposed to outer space for 7, 12 or 18 months. It was for the first time demonstrated that bacterial and fungal spores could survive an exposure to outer space during the time period comparable with the duration of a return mission to Mars. Moreover, the microbial strains proved viable and highly active. The second experiment was expanded by flying, in addition to the above spores, dormant forms of higher plants, insects, lower crustaceans and vertebrates. The 31-month experiment showed that, in spite of harsher than in the first study temperatures, some specimens remained viable and capable of further multiplication. In

  7. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  8. Towards a Dynamic DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbareddy, Pramod; Candler, Graham

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES methods are being increasingly used for turbulent flow simulations in complex geometries. Spalart's detached eddy simulation (DES) model is one of the more popular ones. We are interested in examining the behavior of the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model in its ``LES mode.'' The role of the near-wall functions present in the equations is analyzed and an explicit analogy between the S-A and a one-equation LES model based on the sub-grid kinetic energy is presented. A dynamic version of the S-A DES model is proposed based on this connection. Validation studies and results from DES and LES applications will be presented and the effect of the proposed modification will be discussed.

  9. Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Louis

    En 1984 Belavin, Polyakov et Zamolodchikov revolutionnent la theorie des champs en explicitant une nouvelle gamme de theories, les theories quantiques des champs bidimensionnelles invariantes sous les transformations conformes. L'algebre des transformations conformes de l'espace-temps presente une caracteristique remarquable: en deux dimensions elle possede un nombre infini de generateurs. Cette propriete impose de telles conditions aux fonctions de correlations qu'il est possible de les evaluer sans aucune approximation. Les champs des theories conformes appartiennent a des representations de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Virasoro, une extension centrale de l'algebre conforme du plan. Ces representations sont etiquetees par h, le poids conforme de leur vecteur de plus haut poids, et par la charge centrale c, le facteur de l'extension centrale, commune a toutes les representations d'une meme theorie. Les theories conformes minimales sont constituees d'un nombre fini de representations. Parmi celles-ci se trouvent des theories unitaires dont les representation forment la serie discrete de l'algebre de Virasoro; leur poids h a la forme h_{p,q}(m)=[ (p(m+1) -qm)^2-1] (4m(m+1)), ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs et p+q<= m+1. L'entier m parametrise la charge centrale: c(m)=1 -{6over m(m+1)} avec n>= 2. Ces representations possedent un sous-espace invariant engendre par deux sous-representations avec h_1=h_{p,q} + pq et h_2=h_{p,q} + (m-p)(m+1-q) dont chacun des vecteurs de plus haut poids portent le nom de vecteur singulier et sont notes respectivement |Psi _{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+1-q}>. . Les theories super-conformes sont une version super-symetrique des theories conformes. Leurs champs appartiennent a des representation de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz, une des deux extensions super -symetriques de l'algebre de Virasoro. Les theories super -conformes minimales possedent la meme structure que les theories conformes minimales. Les representations

  10. Preventing Rejection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Assistance Lifestyle Changes Back to Work or School Physical Changes Relationship Changes Pregnancy Precautions Fertility Labor & Delivery Breastfeeding Risks Cancer Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection ...

  11. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  12. Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... from osteoporosis. Lower-body strength exercises and balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid the disability that may result from falling. Here are some fall prevention tips from Go4Life : l Have your eyes and hearing tested often. Always wear your glasses when you ...

  13. Switching types of drug-eluting stents does not prevent repeated in-stent restenosis in patients with coronary drug-eluting stent restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Yasuoka, Yoshinori; Kume, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Hidenori; Hattori, Susumu; Matsutera, Ryo; Kohama, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We treated patients experiencing drug-eluting stent (DES) restenosis with plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA), implantation of the same type of DES [homogeneous drug-eluting stent (HOMO-DES)], or implantation of a different type of DES [heterogeneous drug-eluting stent (HETERO-DES)], and compared the efficacy and safety of these procedures for the prevention of repeated in-stent restenosis (ISR). Background In patients with de-novo coronary lesions, DES implantation is associated with a markedly reduced restenosis rate as compared with that associated with a bare metal stent and POBA. However, the optimal management strategy for patients with DES ISR remains unknown. Patients and methods We identified 191 consecutive DES ISR lesions from 183 patients who required clinically driven revascularization and divided them into three groups according to the treatment: 38 lesions were treated with POBA, 38 with HOMO-DES, and 115 with HETERO-DES. Results The incidence of target lesion revascularization (TLR) was 42.1% (16/38), 15.8% (6/38), and 16.5% (19/115) in the POBA, HOMO-DES, and HETERO-DES groups (POBA vs. HOMO, HETERO-DES; P=0.002, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that diabetes [odds ratio (OR), 3.4], hemodialysis (OR, 7.74), nonfocal ISR patterns (OR, 3.35), previous myocardial infarction (OR, 3.26), and POBA (OR, 8.84) were independent predictors of TLR. Conclusion A strategy involving repeated DES implantation was superior to POBA for preventing recurrent restenosis. Treatment with a different type or generation of DES does not appear to reduce the incidence of TLR. Moreover, we identified certain useful factors for facilitating appropriate and early triage in the patients with repeated DES ISR. PMID:25076360

  14. Identification des risques professionnels dans l'industrie textile en République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kitronza, Panda Lukongo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude est de mettre en évidence les facteurs de risques professionnels liés aux conditions de travail. Méthodes Cette étude qualitative basée sur les entretiens de groupe a été réalisée par une équipe pluridisciplinaire dans l'industrie textile de la région du Est de la RDC; comprenant un médecin de travail, un médecin de santé publique, un toxicologue, deux infirmiers du centre hospitalier de l'usine, un représentant du comité d'hygiène et un technicien de prévention. La démarche méthodologique a consisté en des entretiens en groupe, des observations et visites guidées de lieux de travail de l'entreprise. Résultats Dans la culture du coton, les effets d'une forte exposition aux pesticides peuvent entraîner des intoxications aiguës, chroniques et voire le décès. Les autres risques sont les accidents de travail, les maladies professionnelles, les troubles psychologiques. Dans l'industrie, les travailleurs sont exposés aux risques liés à l'empoussiérage des fibres de coton, aux facteurs des risques traumatiques, physiques (bruits, vibration) et chimiques (acides forts, bases fortes, solvants et colorants minéraux), ainsi qu'aux risques psychosociaux. La pollution de l'environnement et l’écotoxicité inhérente à ces activités restent l'effet de l'usage des grandes quantités d'intrants agricoles, engrais et produits phytosanitaires. Conclusion Cette étude a permis de mettre en évidence les différents facteurs de risques auxquelles sont soumis les travailleurs textiles; ainsi que les risques environnementaux liés à cette activité. Cela est de nature à permettre la mise sur pied d'une stratégie efficace de prévention et de protection des travailleurs. PMID:25977736

  15. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  16. Sécurité de la plus récente classe d’antagonistes des opioïdes durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Shirley; Pupco, Anna; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’ai une patiente dont 6 semaines de grossesse viennent d’être confirmées. Depuis 6 mois, elle suit une thérapie pour une dépendance aux opioïdes à l’aide d’une combinaison de buprénorphine et de naloxone. Devrais-je m’inquiéter qu’elle ait été exposée à cette combinaison de médicaments jusqu’à ce stade de sa grossesse? Faudrait-il que je change sa médication pour de la méthadone maintenant qu’elle est enceinte? Réponse Les données limitées sur l’exposition à la buprénorphine durant la grossesse ne révèlent pas d’augmentation du risque de résultats indésirables chez le nouveau-né. Il y a peu de données sur la naloxone durant la grossesse; par ailleurs, on ne s’attendrait pas à ce que l’administration par voie orale soit associée avec un risque accru de résultats de grossesse défavorables. On conseille aux médecins qui traitent des femmes enceintes ou qui deviennent enceintes et dont l’état est stable en prenant une thérapie à la buprénorphine et naloxone de continuer ce traitement mais d’envisager une transition à une monothérapie à la buprénorphine.

  17. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... worsened. Improving your vision will help reduce falls. Images ... for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: ...

  18. Dengue Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Compartir This photograph shows a mother applying mosquito repellent to her child's skin in order to prevent ... the lights are on. To protect yourself, use repellent on your skin while indoors or out. When ...

  19. Preventing Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread in respiratory droplets distributed by coughing and sneezing, they readily spread from person to person. Additionally, ... and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing, you may help prevent those around you from ...

  20. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  1. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  2. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  3. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  4. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  5. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  6. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention ... Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the emergency list next to every phone in your home and in your cell phone. A toddler or preschooler who vomits may ...

  7. Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  8. Preventing Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    The Navajo supervisor in the Office of Environmental Health in New Mexico identifies diseases and their risk factors, administers an injury prevention program, and ensures compliance with various health-related codes. She assists in the planning and direction of environmental health programs and public health education for local Navajo…

  9. La santé des pasteurs mobiles au Sahel - Bilan de 15 années de recherches et développement.

    PubMed

    Montavon, A; Jean-Richard, V; Bechir, M; Daugla, D M; Abdoulaye, M; Bongo Naré, R N; Diguimbaye-Djaibé, C; Alfaroukh, I O; Schelling, E; Wyss, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2013-07-13

    Dans le Sahel, entre la Mauritanie et la Somalie incluant le Nord Kenya, environ 20 à 30 millions de personnes vivent en transhumance. Le rythme de leur migration suit l'évolution saisonnière du climat et la disponibilité des ressources, telle que l'eau, le pâturage et le sel. Malgré une exposition élevée à certaines maladies comme les zoonoses et les problèmes conditionnés liés au climat, les pasteurs mobiles sont parmi les populations quasiment exclues du système de santé, car la mise à disposition des services sociaux adaptés à un mode de vie mobile est difficile. Suivant l'objectif de recherche d'un meilleur accès aux soins des pasteurs mobiles, l'Institut Tropical et de Santé Publique Suisse, en partenariat avec plusieurs institutions dans la région, est actif au Sahel depuis 15 ans, aussi bien dans le domaine de la recherche, que celui des actions de développement. Basées sur une approche orientée vers les besoins des pasteurs mobiles pour leur développement, des recherches interdisciplinaires ont contribué à mieux comprendre la situation et les problèmes des éleveurs. En relation de la proximité entre l'homme et son bétail, une approche unissant la santé humaine et animale s'est avérée bonne et la valeur ajoutée d'une meilleure collaboration entre médecine humaine, animale et l'environnement a été démontrée. Ces approches utiles devraient être poursuivies et consolidées dans les recherches et le développement des actions futurs. PMID:23848258

  10. Preeclampsia prevention

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Pineda, Lucia M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is the main complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Calcium starting at 14 weeks of pregnancy is indicated to prevent the disease. Recent advances in prevention of preeclampsia endorse the addition of conjugated linoleic acid. Objective: To estimate the protective effect from calcium alone, compared to calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid in nulliparous women at risk of preeclampsia. Methods: A case-control design nested in the cohort of nulliparous women attending antenatal care from 2010 to 2014. The clinical histories of 387 cases of preeclampsia were compared with 1,054 normotensive controls. The exposure was prescriptions for calcium alone, the first period, or calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid, the second period, from 12 to 16 weeks of gestational age to labor. Confounding variables were controlled, allowing only nulliparous women into the study and stratifying by age, education and ethnic group. Results: The average age was 26.4 yrs old (range= 13-45), 85% from mixed ethnic backgrounds and with high school education. There were no differences between women who received calcium carbonate and those who did not (OR= 0.96; 95% CI= 0.73-1.27). The group of adolescents (13 to 18 years old) in the calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid was protected for preeclampsia (OR= 0.00; 95% CI= 0.00-0.44) independent of the confounder variables. Conclusions: 1. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy did not have preventive effects on preeclampsia. 2. Calcium plus Conjugated Linoleic acid provided to adolescents was observed to have preventive effect on Preeclampsia. PMID:26848195

  11. A dynamic process of health risk assessment for business continuity management during the World Exposition Shanghai, China, 2010.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Keim, Mark; Dong, Chen; Mahany, Mollie; Guo, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Reports of health issues related to mass gatherings around the world have indicated a potential for public health and medical emergencies to occur on a scale that could place a significant impact on business continuity for national and international organisations. This paper describes a risk assessment process for business continuity management that was performed as part of the planning efforts related to the World Expo 2010 Shanghai China (Expo), the world's largest mass gathering to date. Altogether, 73 million visitors attended the Expo, generating over US$2bn of revenue. During 2008 to 2010, the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention performed a dynamic series of four disaster risk assessments before and during the Expo. The purpose of this assessment process was to identify, analyse and evaluate risks for public health security during different stages of the Expo. This paper describes an overview of the novel approach for this multiple and dynamic process of assessment of health security risk for ensuring business continuity. PMID:24854735

  12. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  13. Allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  14. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  15. La décorporation des éléments transuraniens selon leur forme chimique et le mode de contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramounet, B.; Matton, S.; Verry, M.; Grillon, G.; Rateau, G.; Poncy, J. L.; Fritsch, P.

    1998-04-01

    We have mesured the efficacy of a local DTPA treatment after intramuscular administration of Np(IV) and Np(V) into rats. A significant decorporation was only observed after contamination with Np(IV) when the chelator was administered within minutes after contamination. We have also performed a chronic DTPA treatment after exposition of rats to MOX aerosols. This treatment decreased the extrapulmonary retention of α emitters by a factor of 3 5. These results point out the need of biokinetics studies concerning the chelators and the actinides to improve the efficacy of decorporation. L'efficacité, d'un traitement local par le DTPA a ,été, mesurée après administration par voie intra-musculaire de Np(IV) et de Np(V) chez le rat. Une décorporation significative n'a ,été, obtenue que pour le Np(IV) lorsque le traitement est réalisé, de façon précoce. Un traitement chronique par le DTPA a ,également ,été, effectué, après inhalation d'oxydes mixtes (U, Pu)O2. Une diminution d'un facteur de 3 à? 5 des rétentions extra-pulmonaires des ,émetteurs α, a ,été, observée. Ces résultats soulignent l'importance de la connaissance de la biocinétique des actinides et des agents chélateurs pour améliorer l'efficacité, de la décorporation.

  16. Histological study of hamster buccal mucosa following topical application of DMBA and exposition to low-power 337-nm laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Rego, Christmas M. V.; Munin, Egberto; Redigolo, Marcela L.; Salgado, Miguel C.; de Souza, Hanriete P.; Colombo, C. E. D.; Nicolau, Renata A.; Alves, Leandro P.; Zangaro, Renato A.

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to analyze the histological changes on hamster buccal mucosa caused by the topical use of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and exposition to a 220 ´J/pulse nitrogen laser light (@ 337 nm) at an average power of 2,3 mW. Twenty-one hamsters divided into two experimental groups were treated six times with DMBA. One hamster was kept as control. Group I was composed by ten hamsters and was submitted only to DMBA. Group II, also with ten hamsters, received the same treatment as group I and was exposed to the laser radiation. The time duration of each irradiation section was 10 seconds. All the treatment happened in alternated days. The histological analysis took place twice, after the end of the treatment and after sixty days. Both experimental groups presented dilatation of vessels, thickening of the epithelial tissue and the presence of inflammatory infiltrates. The preliminary results indicates that in group II the number of dilated vessels and its new area are much more significant than in group I.

  17. Ranking the 'balance' of state long-term care systems: a comparative exposition of the SMARTER and CaRBS Techniques.

    PubMed

    Beynon, Malcolm; Kitchener, Martin

    2005-05-01

    The use of attribute sets to rank units of health provision (e.g., states, organizations) against policy goals is an essential task within decision-making and analysis. This paper elucidates and compares two techniques, SMARTER (Simple Multiattribute Rating Technique Exploiting Ranks) and CaRBS (Classification and Ranking Belief Simplex), within an expositional ranking of US states' long-term care (LTC) systems against the policy goal of providing a balance between (traditionally dominant) institutional care, and alternative home and community-based services (HCBS). While the (more established) SMARTER technique is used primarily for comparative purposes, greater emphasis is placed on elucidating CaRBS which is based on the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. It is shown that CaRBS offers four appealing features for health policy analysis: (1) the capacity to rank using either of two confidence measures (DST-related belief and plausibility values), (2) a systematic approach to managing missing data, (3) the production of stable rankings, and (4) the simplex plot method of data representation. In addition to discussing the LTC policy implications of the study findings, the issues of rank order stability and the management of missing data are discussed with respect to the two techniques employed. PMID:15952612

  18. Ampleur et impact des évènements indésirables graves liés aux soins: étude d'incidence dans un hôpital du Centre-Est tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Bouafia, Nabiha; Bougmiza, Iheb; Bahri, Fathi; Letaief, Mondher; Astagneau, Pascal; Njah, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La prévention des événements indésirables représente une priorité de santé du fait de leur fréquence et de leur gravité potentielle. Ce travail a été mené afin d'avoir un diagnostic de la situation épidémiologique relative aux événements indésirables survenant dans notre hôpital. Méthodes Une étude prospective a été menée auprès de tous les patients qui ont été hospitalisés au CHU Farhat Hached - Sousse (Tunisie) sur une période d'un mois dans quatorze services de l'hôpital. La détection d'évènement indésirable grave (EIG) était basée sur les critères adoptés dans différentes études. Les tests T et Chi 2 ont été utilisés pour identifier les facteurs contribuant à l'apparition d'évènements indésirables. Résultats Au total, 162 EIG ont été identifiés pendant la période. 45% de ces évènements étaient des infections nosocomiales. Ces EIG ont eu comme conséquences un décès chez 9,2% des patients, la mise en jeu du pronostic vital de 26% des patients et la prolongation de la durée de séjour chez 61,7% d'entre eux. L'admission dans des circonstances particulières et l'exposition à des soins invasifs étaient identifiés comme des facteurs de risque potentiels EIG. Conclusion Le renforcement de la stratégie de gestion des risques sanitaires en ciblant préférentiellement le risque infectieux constitue une étape fondamentale dans l'amélioration de la sécurité des patients au sein de notre établissement de santé. PMID:24711868

  19. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  20. Etude de l'influence de la temperature et de l'humidite sur les proprietes mecaniques en traction des fibres de chanvre et de coco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho Thi, Thu Nga

    L'objectif de cette etude fut d'etablir l'effet de l'humidite et de la temperature sur la resistance en traction et le module elastique des fibres de chanvre et de coco. Deux etudes ont ete realisees afin d'atteindre cet objectif. La premiere vise l'absorption de l'humidite dans ces fibres en exposition dans l'air (de 0%RH a 80%RH) ainsi que l'absorption de l'eau dans ces fibres immergees dans l'eau aux differentes temperatures. La deuxieme consiste a mesurer la resistance en traction et le module elastique de ces fibres sous differentes conditions d'humidite et de temperature. En basant sur les resultats experimentaux obtenus, les methodes semi empiriques et de reseaux de neurones ont ete utilisees pour but de predire les proprietes en traction (resistance et module d'elasticite) des fibres de chanvre et de coco sous l'influence de l'humidite et de la temperature.

  1. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  2. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  3. Copernic: la piste des influences arabes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalatbari, A.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    Copernic a-t-il connu le travail des astronomes du Moyen-Orient ? S'en est-il inspiré pour élaborer sa théorie de l'héliocentrisme ? C'est l'hypothèse avancée par certains historiens des sciences pour comprendre le génie de celui qui, le premier, a placé le Soleil au centre du monde. Enquête.

  4. Etude des defauts apparaissant dans les amenagements interieurs des avions d'affaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charette, Emilie

    The evolution of the aeronautic industry led to the development of new materials for these high performance applications. Among other examples, composite sandwich structures are increasingly used for interior body panels of business airplanes. These structures are assembled and fixed to the fuselage using metallic inserts bonded inside the sandwich panels with an epoxy resin adhesive. A thin film of wood veneer covers the visible side of interior furniture in order to bring sophistication and esthetic to the interior design. However, due to multiple factors, surface defects frequently appear on the veneered side of the panel where inserts are located. Moreover the defects tend to appear months after the airplane delivery causing costly reparations. The sources of defects can be mechanical ( deformation due to an excessive tightening), chemical (shrinkage of the epoxy adhesive) or the result of hygrothermal exposition. It is therefore important to understand the source of such surface defects and ultimately prevent or control their appearance. The present thesis deals with defects from chemical and hygrothermal sources appearing on the composite panels used on the interior body of business jets after aging. The main objective was to identify and quantify phenomena causing the defects on the interior panels of business planes. This research project is the first part of a project sponsored by CRIAQ and NSERC. The interaction of several materials can lead to various phenomena causing the apparition of surface defects. The project was thus divided into three parts in order to study an increasingly complex problem. the first study deals with the characterization of the different constitutive materials taken separately. This first part focused on thermal, rheological and mechanical aspects of epoxy adhesives. It was shown that the two adhesives used have different mechanical properties and cure kinetic reactions. In addition, the mechanical properties of sandwich

  5. Influence of feeding and UVB exposition on the absorption mechanisms of calcium in the gastrointestinal tract of veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus)

    PubMed Central

    Haxhiu, D; Hoby, S; Wenker, C; Boos, A; Kowalewski, M P; Lewis, F; Liesegang, A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of feeding and UVB exposition on the occurrence and distribution patterns of vitamin D receptors (VDR) and calbindin D28k (Cb-D28k) in the gastrointestinal tract of veiled chameleons. Thus, 56 veiled chameleon hatchlings were divided into six treatment groups: UV (with UVB exposure); No (no supplements, no UVB exposure); CaAUV (with calcium (Ca), vitamin A supplementation, UVB exposure); CaA (with Ca, vitamin A supplementation); CaADUV (with Ca, vitamin A, vitamin D supplementation, UVB exposure); and CaAD (with Ca, vitamin A, vitamin D supplementation). Animals were reared under the suspected conditions for 6 months on locust-based diets. Tissue samples of stomach, duodenum, ileum and colon were taken, and semi-quantitative immunohistochemical methods (IHC) were performed to detect Cb-D28k and VDR. VDR immunoreactions were higher in the luminal epithelium of the duodenum than in that of the ileum. VDR immunoreactions in the luminal epithelium were higher at the base of the villi of the duodenum as compared to the tip. Cb-D28k immunoreactions were mainly observed in the luminal epithelium of the duodenum. The two groups treated with all dietary supplements (CaADUV, CaAD) exhibited a higher Cb-D28k immunoreaction as those with no supplements and UVB exposure only. No immunoreaction for both proteins could be detected in the stomach. This study suggests that the duodenum plays an important role in the active transcellular absorption of Ca in veiled chameleons as shown by the immunohistochemical detection of VDR and Cb-D28k. Expression of Cb-D28k, in particular, appears to be regulated by dietary supplementation of vitamin D and vitamin A. VDRs, however, tended to be upregulated when animals were not supplemented with Ca, vitamin D and vitamin A. This may be due to the decreased Ca concentrations which caused vitamin D activation in the skin without any supplementation, but UVB exposure. PMID:24848550

  6. Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sylvain

    Nous presentons dans cette these des modeles d'evolution stellaire incorporant la diffusion microscopique de maniere consistante. Pour la premiere fois, on a calcule l'evolution d'etoiles en tenant compte en detail de l'impact des variations d'abondances sur leur structure. Nous utilisons des spectres monochromatiques pour chacun des elements les plus abondants dans un melange solaire pour recalculer l'opacite pour les abondances et les conditions locales dans l'interieur d'une etoile au cours de son evolution. Nos modeles montrent que la diffusion atomique des metaux a un effet important sur les opacites dan les etoiles de plus de 1.3Msolar ou l'abondance du fer et des autres elements du pic du fer varient substantiellement. Ces etoiles, sans rotation ou champ magnetique, sont proches des etoiles de type Fm-Am dans lesquelles on observe une legere surabondance d'elements du pic du fer en plus d'une sous-abondance de calcium, sous-abondance que l'on obtient egalement. Nous obtenons cependant des surabondances depassant un facteur 10 pour les etoiles de plus de 1.4Msolar ce qui suggere qu'il existe un ou plusieurs mecanismes limitant la diffusion microscopique. La surabondance du fer en surface cause une augmentation, qui peut atteindre un facteur sept, de l'opacite a la limite de la zone convective. Ceci cause un accroissement de la temperature effective et de la masse de la zone convective comparativement aux modeles n'incluant que la diffusion de l'helium. Il s'agit la du principal effet de la diffusion sur la structure interne de ces etoiles. La diffusions n'a pas d'influence sur l'evolution de coeur stellaire dans les etoiles significativement plus massives quie le Soleil. Nous avons verife que l'utilisation de modeles consistants avec diffusion n'apporte pas d'amelioration sensible aux modeles solaires. Les forces radiatives calculees a partir des spectres d'OPAL pour les elements du pic du fer representent une fraction importante de la gravite. On obtient des

  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to ...

  8. H.R. 1801, To Reauthorize the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Des Moines, Iowa, December 4, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document presents a hearing on the reauthorization of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, H.R. 1801. Opening statements are given by Representatives Dale E. Kildee and Thomas J. Tauke. The hearing was held in Iowa and all witnesses giving statements are from Iowa. Witnesses include: (1) Alan Allbee, juvenile court referee,…

  9. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  10. The mangement of DES-exposed patients at the Medical College of Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, A W

    1976-06-01

    Since diethylstilbestrol (DES)-exposed offspring are mostly asymptomatic the 1st problem is finding these patients. Maternity charts have been examined to determine if DES was taken when the patient was pregnant. New patients in the range of possible DES mothers are questioned regarding DES history. Referring physicians are sent a history of any DES exposure. Where a doubt exists colposcopic examination is made. At the 1st visit Papanicolaou (Pap) smears are taken from the cervix and vaginal walls and colposcopy is done to rule out carcinoma. Intensive colposcopy is done after admission to the hospital. General anesthesia is then used. Areas for excisional biopsies are determined and 8 or 10 excisional biopsies may be taken. Biopsy wounds may be sutured. or Monsel's solution applied to stop bleeding of lesser lesions. Schiller's iodine is applied to determine the extent of cauterization. All abnormal areas are cauterized. After intensive colposcopy a dilatation and curettage may be done. A 2-inch pack is placed in the vagina after application of Sultrin cream. Each piece of removed tissue is put in a separate jar and a sketch is drawn to inform the pathologist of its original site. Glandular tissue from the vagina means adenosis but from the cervix it may be a common finding. The next morning the vaginal pack is removed and the patient is discharged. 2-4 weeks later, a colposcopic examination is made to ensure healing. A repeat Pap smear is made after 6 months. After 12 months the patient is reevaluated, Vaginal tampons are advised at menstruation to prevent vaginal adhesions. If a carcinoma is found colposcopy is needed to determine the extent of indicated surgery or irradiation therapy. Others report doing colposcopy at shorter intervals with no therapy until changes are found. This method is advised only when follow-up is complete. PMID:957353

  11. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  12. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  13. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  14. The GBT-SerDes ASIC prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, P.; Baron, S.; Bonacini, S.; Cobanoglu, O.; Faccio, F.; Feger, S.; Francisco, R.; Gui, P.; Li, J.; Marchioro, A.; Paillard, C.; Porret, D.; Wyllie, K.

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of the GigaBit Transceiver project (GBT), a prototype, the GBT-SerDes ASIC, was developed, fabricated and tested. To sustain high radiation doses while operating at 4.8Gb/s, the ASIC was fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS technology employing radiation tolerant techniques and circuits. The transceiver serializes-deserializes the data, Reed-Solomon encodes and decodes the data and scrambles and descrambles the data for transmission over optical fibre links. This paper describes the GBT-SerDes architecture, and presents the test results.

  15. Recipes for Prevention. Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…

  16. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des

  17. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  18. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  19. The "Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The overall mission of the Conservatoire national des arts et metiers--(CNAM) [National Conservatory of Industrial Arts and Trades] is outlined. One of its centers, the "Centre national de l'entrepreneuriat"--(CNE) [National Center for Entrepreneurship] is described in greater detail. In particular, this center offers various services, notably…

  20. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  1. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  2. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  3. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  4. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... or home modification programs to help older people prevent falls. Check with your local health department, senior ...

  5. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  6. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  7. Research Areas: Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's prevention research has a broad focus—from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and testing ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  8. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education FAQs Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  9. Measles -- Recommendations for Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevent News and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Measles - Recommendations for Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... safest protection you can give your child against measles. Children should be given the first dose of ...

  10. The Suicide Prevention Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how it contributes to prevention knowledge, capacity building, and policy development. PMID:20835376

  11. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7) "Prevention Activities"; (8) "Sample Prevention Strategies"; and (9)…

  12. Can I Prevent Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print A A A Text Size What's ... too. Although there is no surefire way to prevent acne, try these tips to help reduce the ...

  13. FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has developed the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide for those who are interested in and responsible for pollution prevention in industrial or service facilities. t summarizes the benefits of a company-wide pollution prevention...

  14. Fire Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehmann, Jeanne; Claus, William C.

    The fire prevention education bulletin helps schools continue their work to make the home, school, and community safe places in which to live and to help children and young people live in safe ways without developing undue fears. Briefly discussed are the goals of a fire prevention program, who should be concerned with fire prevention education,…

  15. Suicide Prevention Triangle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter, Fred

    This manual provides resource tools and strategies to enhance the suicide prevention capabilities of health professionals and the health care setting in which care is provided. In the first section, terms are defined and the suicide prevention triangle model is described. Applications of the model and good practices for suicide prevention in any…

  16. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  17. Murals Reflecting Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Safe and Drug Free Schools Program.

    This document is used in a collaborative project that engages children and adolescents in alcohol, tobacco, and drug prevention activities through the arts. The project offers an innovative teaching resource that uses the universal language of the arts for drug prevention. By creating murals with drug prevention themes, elementary and secondary…

  18. Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2016-08-01

    There are a number of arguments in support of early measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low- and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed. PMID:27440823

  19. Profil epidemiologique des brulures d'enfants admis au Centre National des Brules, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, A.; Atannaz, J.; Alaoui, M.; Rafik, A.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Chlihi, A.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Ce travail rétrospectif analyse les particularités épidémiologiques de 543 cas de brûlures d'enfants, représentant 45,7% des admissions de notre centre, en vue de déterminer les éléments pouvant contribuer à renforcer la prévention, qui reste le traitement de choix de cette pathologie. La moyenne d'âge est de 4,25 ans avec une prédilection pour la tranche d'âge d'un à cinq ans, avec 42,5% des cas. Une atteinte masculine est retrouvée dans 63,5% des cas. La brûlure survient à domicile dans 85,1% et accidentellement dans 95% des cas. Les brûlures thermiques représentent 96,5% des causes dominées par les liquides dans 69,3% des cas. La surface cutanée brûlée est ≥ 20% dans 52,3%. La brûlure intéresse essentiellement les membres supérieurs (79,1%). 56,8% des enfants sont transférés par d'autres hôpitaux et le délai de prise en charge hospitalière est supérieur à 6 heures dans 65,5%. Le taux de mortalité a été de 13,2%. PMID:22639559

  20. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  1. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  2. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report. Fort Des Moines, Des Moines, Iowa. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.; Rausch, K.; Kang, J.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) investigation conducted by The Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) at the Fort Des Moines, a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA Federal agencies are required to identify real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. Fort Des Moines is a 53.28-acre site located in Polk County, Iowa, within the city limits of Des Moines. The installation's primary mission is to provide support and shelter for the U.S. Army Reserve. Activities associated with the property that have environmental significance are photographic processing, vehicle maintenance, printing, and fuel storage. TETC reviewed existing investigation documents; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), State, and county regulatory records; environmental data bases; and title documents pertaining to Fort Des Moines during this investigation. In addition, TETC conducted interviews and visual inspections of Fort Des Moines as well as visual inspections and data base searches for the surrounding properties. Information in this CERFA Report was current as of April 1994.

  3. [Prevention of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Dambacher, M A; Kissling, R; Neff, M

    1998-11-01

    The European Parliament presented June 10th in Brussels the 'Osteoporosis Report in EU--Means for Prevention'. It was emphasized that in the EU more than 3500 million Ecu have to be spent for hospitalization and that more than 500,000 hospitals beds are being used by osteoporotic patients. According to some calculations this number will double within the next 50 years. The EU has set up eight steps to be considered, e.g. have densitometric measurements available for persons with high risk and have these measurement paid by the insurances to further finance and support research for the very important areas of prevention and treatment. One distinguishes between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of osteoporosis. Primary prevention aims at reaching at adolescent age a peak bone mass as high as possible. Secondary prevention aims at reducing bone loss peri- and postmenopausal. The tertiary prevention with manifest osteoporosis aims at preventing fractures. Emphasis of the primary prevention is, besides a sufficient calcium intake, to omit risk factors; with secondary prevention the use of medical treatments such as estrogens/gestagens, bisphosphonates, and recently also SERMs is applied. The tertiary prevention tries mostly to reduce the femur fractures. In addition to drugs such as vitamin D/calcium, vitamin D metabolites and bisphosphonates it is very important to create 'a fall-proof home'. Also very useful are hip protectors. PMID:9865147

  4. Etude des phenomenes de penetration des especes chimiques dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisson, Pierre-Yves

    Cette these decrit l'etude effectuee sur les phenomenes d'insertion du sodium et de penetration du bain electrolytique dans les revetements cathodiques des cuves d'electrolyse de l'aluminium. L'etude fut effectuee a l'aide d'un montage permettant d'effectuer l'electrolyse en laboratoire. Trois types de revetement cathodiques furent etudies : des blocs semi-graphitique, des blocs graphitiques et des blocs graphitises. L'insertion du sodium dans les trois differents types de blocs fut etudiee a l'aide de la spectrometrie des photoelectrons X (XPS). L'analyse a permis de mettre en evidence deux formes de sodium dans l'anthracite et la phase liante des materiaux semi-graphitiques et graphitiques, indiquant qu'une fraction du sodium se retrouve sous forme adsorbee dans les micropores des materiaux alors que l'autre fraction est inseree dans la structure cristalline du carbone. Dans les phases graphitiques (materiaux graphitises et graphitiques), seuls les micropores sont occupes par le sodium Ce resultat explique la tendance observee selon laquelle l'ajout de graphite dans les blocs permet d'abaisser le gonflement sodique. Les mecanismes de penetration du bain dans le reseau poreux des materiaux furent etudies en microscopie electronique et en diffraction des rayons X sur des echantillons apres differents temps d'electrolyses et en variant l'atmosphere (soit sous argon ou sous azote). Ces analyses ont permis d'identifier le mecanisme conduisant a la mouillabilite du bain sur le carbone en fonction de l'atmosphere entourant l'electrolyse. Ainsi, sous azote, la formation de NaCN dans les pores des materiaux par reactions entre le sodium et l'azote permet une mouillabilite accrue du bain alors qu'en absence d'azote (sous argon), le carbure d'aluminium, formes a la surface des pores, joue un role similaire. Dans ce dernier cas, la penetration du bain est moins rapide etant donnee la necessite de toujours amener des especes contenant de l'aluminium en tete du front de

  5. TRANSPLANTATION EN MASSE DES ORGANES ABDOMINAUX

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, T.

    2010-01-01

    Les transplantations multi-organes, comprenant les blocs foie-duodénum-pancréas, foie-estomac-duodénum-pancréas, et foie-intestin sont réalisées avec un succés croissant Ces techniques et leurs combinaisons variées de transplantation monobloc ne sont pas de pratique courante. Les techniques de prélévement, de conservation et de soins post-opératoires sont décrites pour la transplantation multi-organes compléte ainsi que pour les variantes incomplétes. Le probléme particulier à ce type de transplantation est celui de la transplantation intestinale, c’est-à-dire la transplantation d’un organe à composante lymphoréticulaire complexe ce qui peut provoquer un syndrome greffon contre hôte. Par erreur de conception, et un peu par esprit de systéme, les efforts par le passé étaient dirigés sur la modification et la destruction des systémes lymphoréticulaires grâce au traitement préalable du donneur ou des organes transplantés, par médicaments, radiation ou autres moyens. Actuellement, I’idée directrice est de garder intacte les systémes lymphoréticulaires qui deviennent alors le site d’une circulation à double sens aprés transplantation. Avec la puissante immunodépression que fournit le FK 506, les cellules lymphoréticulaires du donneur peuvent circuler chez le receveur sans créer de syndrome du greffon contre hôte clinique et les cellules de la greffe s’assimilent à celles du receveur (chimérisme local) sans provoquer de rejet. Même si I’on évite le rejet ou le syndrome greffon contre hôte, il existe, à côté de ces entités, des relations métaboliques entre les organes greffés ainsi qu’entre les organes greffés et les viscéres du receveur laissés en place, qui peuvent influencer I’avenir soit des organes greffés, soit des organes laissés en place. Parmi les échanges métaboliques les mieux connus actuellement, il y a les facteurs splanchniques hépatotrophes endogénes, dont I’insuline est la mieux

  6. A Magellanic origin of the DES dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-09-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves, and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of sub-haloes in Λ cold dark matter, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95) per cent confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Marginalizing over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011 M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  7. Early Results from the DES SN Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolnic, Daniel; Dark Energy Survey

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES SN) has already discovered over 1000 Type Ia supernovae with well-sampled multi-color light curves in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.2. I will present an overview of the survey and show recent advances in our detection, photometry, calibration and spectroscopic follow-up pipelines. I will go over initial results from photometric classification of our sample and discuss methods used to reach measurements of cosmological parameters.

  8. A Magellanic Origin of the DES Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-06-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of subhaloes in ΛCDM, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95)% confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the LMC. Marginalising over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  9. Ideology and Violence Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major problem in US society in terms of the death and destruction it causes, the fear it generates, and the attention it receives. A recent trend has been to regard the problem of violence as an epidemic and to shape ideas of violence prevention according to public-health formulations. This process does not take into account the ideological nature of the proposed violence-prevention measures. Problems arise because this ideology is relevant to the potential effectiveness of violence prevention. This paper delineates several ideological issues involved in violence prevention and discusses how they interact with frequently employed public-health prevention strategies. Based upon this discussion, a general perspective for violence prevention is proposed and guiding principles that emerge from this perspective are presented. PMID:3404554

  10. Sonderverfahren des Spritzgießens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaeli, Walther; Lettowsky, Christoph

    Das Spritzgießen ist neben der Extrusion das wichtigste Verarbeitungsverfahren für Kunststoffe [1]. Das Verfahren hat sich seit seinen Ursprüngen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts bis heute stetig weiterentwickelt [2]. In neuerer Zeit steigt die Anzahl komplexer Anwendungen, die die gezielte Kombination verschiedener Funktionalitäten in einem Formteil erfordern. Das Standard-Spritzgießen kann diese Anforderungen immer weniger befriedigen. Daher gewinnen die Sonderverfahren des Spritzgießens zunehmend an Bedeutung [3]. Ihre Anzahl beträgt inzwischen über 100. Die Aufgabe des Anwenders ist es, aus der Vielzahl der möglichen Verfahren, ein anforderungsgerechtes auszuwählen, das sowohl unter technischen wie wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten die optimale Lösung darstellt. Dies setzt die ständige Auseinandersetzung mit Entwicklungstendenzen im Bereich der Spritzgießtechnologie voraus. Daher soll im folgenden Abschnitt ein Überblick über die wichtigsten Spritzgieß-Sonderverfahren gegeben werden.

  11. Profil anthropometrique des enfants scolarises tananariviens

    PubMed Central

    Razafimanantsoa, Fetralinjiva; Razafindramaro, Notahiana; Raherimandimby, Hasina; Robinson, Annick; RakotoAlson, Olivat; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry

    2013-01-01

    Les enfants tananariviens sont en état de malnutrition chronique. Notre objectif est d’évaluer l'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) pour estimer les enfants apparemment "sains". Une enquête et une mesure de la taille et du poids des enfants scolarisés tananariviens de 6 à 11 ans ont été réalisées. Après leur accord, la taille et l'indice de masse corporelle des 442 enfants tirés au hasard ont été ainsi obtenus. L'analyse de la moyenne de la taille a révélé une différence significative à 8 ans, une différence non évidente sur l'indice de masse corporelle. La comparaison avec les valeurs de référence (OMS 2006) a montré un retard statural de 34% avec une tendance globale à la hausse et un déficit pondéral égal à 5,5% selon le z score. Ainsi, au sein d'une population malnutrie, l'indice de masse corporelle pourrait être utilisé comme un des paramètres à considérer dans l’évaluation de l’état de santé pour classer ces enfants en bonne santé apparente. PMID:24711862

  12. Dermatomyosite et panniculite: place des immunoglobulines

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhafidh, Nadia Ben; Toujeni, Sana; Kefi, Asma; Bousetta, Najeh; Sayhi, Sameh; Gharsallah, Imen; Othmani, Salah

    2016-01-01

    La panniculite est une maladie inflammatoire du tissu adipeux sous-cutané rarement associée à la dermatomyosite. Elle peut survenir avant, après ou en même temps que l'atteinte musculaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l’évolution de la panniculite et des autres atteintes de la dermatomyosite est favorable sous traitement corticoïde et/ou immunosuppresseur. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 48 ans ayant présenté des lésions de panniculite précédant de 2 mois les signes musculaires. L'atteinte cutanée était résistante au traitement corticoïde associés aux immunosuppresseurs ce qui a nécessité le recours au traitement par Immunoglobulines polyvalentes permettant ainsi une amélioration à la fois de l'atteinte cutanée et musculaire.

  13. Newtons Universum. Materialien zur Geschichte des Kraftbegriffes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mit einem Vorwort von E. Seibold und einer Einführung von W. Neuser. This book is a selection of 15 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Impetustheorie und Intuition in der Physik (M. McCloskey). 2. Mittelalterliche Ursprünge der industriellen Revolution (T. S. Reynolds). 3. Leonardo da Vincis Beiträge zur theoretischen Mechanik (V. Foley, W. Soedel). 4. Nikolaus Kopernikus und Tycho Brahe (O. Gingerich). 5. Keplers Entdeckung der ersten beiden Planetengesetze (C. Wilson). 6. Galileis Entdeckung des Fallgesetzes (S. Drake). 7. Galileis Beobachtung des Neptun (S. Drake, C. T. Kowal). 8. Galileo Galilei und der Schatten des Giordano Bruno (L. S. Lerner, E. A. Gosselin). 9. Der Fall Galilei (O. Gingerich). 10. Newtons Apfel und Galileis "Dialog" (S. Drake). 11. Newtons Gravitationsgesetz - aus Formeln wird eine Idee (I. B. Cohen). 12. Christopher Wren: Astronom und Architekt (H. Dorn, R. Mark). 13. Atomismus und Kräfte in der Geschichte (L. Holliday). 14. Ein Elitezirkel vor 200 Jahren: Die Lunar Society von Birmingham (L. Ritchie-Calder). 15. Sadi Carnot: Technik und Theorie der Dampfmaschine (S. S. Wilson).

  14. Values in Preventive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmaster, Barry

    1992-01-01

    We know how lifestyle affects health, yet concern for preventing illness by promoting healthy lifestyles remains marginal in medical practice. Effective preventive strategies can raise daunting moral and political problems about the extent to which individual freedoms may be infringed, particularly on paternalistic grounds. Evaluative questions also arise about more specific matters, such as identifying risk and causal factors, determining what level of risk is acceptable, and deciding how compelling the evidence must be to take preventive action. PMID:11651426

  15. Sécurité au-delà des mythes et des croyances

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Présentation orale en français, support visuel en français et en anglais. La pire des failles de sécurité est l'impression de sécurité. Le décalage entre la compréhension que l?on a des technologies utilisées, et leurs potentiels réels, ainsi que l'impact potentiellement négatif qu'elles peuvent avoir sur nos vies, n'est pas toujours compris, ou pris en compte par la plupart d'entre-nous. On se contente de nos perceptions pour ne pas avoir à se confronter à la réalité... Alors qu'en est-il vraiment ? En matière de sécurité qui de l'humain ou des technologies a le contrôle ?

  16. Modelisation numerique et algebrique des joints labyrinthe des turbines francis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouderlique, Remi

    There are various types of hydraulic turbines. Regarding the operating conditions, geometries and technologies differ. Hydraulic seals are only used in Francis turbines, which are widely used. The role of hydraulic seals is not to be waterproof. Their main aim is to prevent contact between the rotating and static parts of the turbine. Although necessary, hydraulic seals create energetic losses : some fluid does not flow through the runner (leakage loss) and exerts a torque on the rotor (friction loss). In a context of constant progression towards still more efficient turbines, the optimization of each part of the turbine is necessary. Our study is a part of this research seeking to decrease the losses in turbines as much as possible. In order to understand fully the problem, and to ensure an optimal seal exists, an analytical study has been lead in the first place. It establishes the analytical expressions of the speeds, pressure, losses and optimal seal length for laminar flows in straight seals. Various tests were then lead with the ANSYS CFX solver in order to highlight aspects which necessitate a particular attention. For example, the issues of boundary conditions and dimensionless simulations were adressed. A CFD model has then been validated. The results of the experiences lead in the sixties by Dominion Engineering Works, which later became Andritz Hydro Limited, were used in this process. Even if all the tests were not useable, some of them were reproduced numerically. The CFD model which was used features SST turbulence modeling, 2D axisymmetric geometries, parabolic mesh distributions, smooth walls, and a outlet headloss based on the normal speed. For the various tests which were considered, the average discrepancy between numerical and experimental results is 6.5%. More than 60% of the discrepancies of those simulations are below the empirical uncertainty. That is why this model can be used for numerical experiences : as long as these experiences are in

  17. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  18. Preventing Suicides in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Suicides Preventing Suicides in the Military Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... Family Hotline 1-800-984-8523 Read More "Preventing Suicides" Articles Preventing Suicides in the Military / Who's ...

  19. Roles in Suicide Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training & Events Online Training Courses Assessing and Managing Suicide Risk (AMSR) News & Highlights SPARK Talks Organizations States National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention National ...

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  1. Preventive treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2006-08-01

    Migraine is a common episodic pain disorder, the treatment of which can be acute to stop an attack or preventive to reduce the frequency, duration or severity of attacks. Preventive treatment is used when attacks are frequent or disabling. Many different medication groups are used for preventive treatment, including beta-blockers, antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs. Their mechanisms of action include raising the threshold to migraine activation, enhancing antinociception, inhibiting cortical spreading depression, inhibiting peripheral and central sensitization, blocking neurogenic inflammation and modulating sympathetic, parasympathetic or 5-HT tone. In this article, I review evidence of the effectiveness of migraine preventive drugs. I also discuss the setting of treatment priorities. PMID:16820222

  2. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  3. Prevention at Community Colleges. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to "Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches," community colleges have traditionally had a threefold mission that includes preparing students for transfer to four-year colleges, developmental education, and workforce preparation. The researchers point out that the demographic…

  4. Traitement des fractures des plateaux externes par vissage percutané assisté par arthroscopie

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Belmoubarik, Amine; Benameur, Hamza; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude est d'évaluer les résultats de fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes traitées par ostéosynthèse percutanée assistée par arthroscopie. Dix patients (8 hommes et 2 femmes) de 32 ans en moyenne ont subi cette intervention afin de réparer des fractures des plateaux tibiaux Schatzker I-III. Après avoir appliqué un garrot pneumatique, nous avons réduit et fixé la fracture au moyen de vis cannelées souschondrales. Lésions associées retrouvent deux lésions partielles du ménisque externe ont été retrouvé, traitées par résection partielle. Une orthèse de genou été de mise à but antalgique et protectrice pendant six semaines avec béquillage et interdiction de l'appui pour une durée de douze semaines avec reprise d'appui partiel au delà. La durée d'hospitalisation été d'une moyenne de cinq jours. La rééducation passive a été commence le lendemain de l'intervention et continuait dans chez un kinésithérapeute à la sortie du patient du service. Le suivi été à J7, J15, 1mois, 3mois, 6 mois puis tous les 6 mois. Neuf de nos patients ont été revu régulièrement sauf un perdu de vue. Le recul moyen de notre série été de 16 mois (10 et 24 mois). Le score de Lysholm a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats cliniques chez nos neuf patients: excellent chez trois patients bons chez trois moyen chez un seul et mauvais chez deux patients. Tous nos neuf patients ont consolidé (figure 10 contrôle scopique d un article). Aucune gonarthrose n'a été note chez nos neuf patients due essentiellement au recul moyen faible de 16 mois. Le traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes assisté par arthroscopie produit des résultats satisfaisants et peut être accepté comme solution de rechange efficace au traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux causées par un choc de faible énergie. PMID:26587137

  5. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of stomach cancer. Some studies show that eating fruits and vegetables that are high in vitamin C and beta carotene may lower the risk ... take can prevent cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, ... vitamins, minerals, or food supplements. New ways to prevent ...

  6. DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...

  7. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to…

  8. Teaching Prevention in Pediatrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tina L.; Greenberg, Larrie; Loeser, Helen; Keller, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews methods of teaching preventive medicine in pediatrics and highlights innovative programs. Methods of teaching prevention in pediatrics include patient interactions, self-directed learning, case-based learning, small-group learning, standardized patients, computer-assisted instruction, the Internet, student-centered learning, and lectures.…

  9. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... site at http://prevention.cancer.gov on the Internet. More information on cholesterol-lowering drugs can be obtained from the FDA Web site at http://www.fda.gov on the Internet. Related Resources Causes and Prevention Posted: June 2, ...

  10. Preventing Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  11. Prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Bartalena, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Smoking is the most important risk factor for the occurrence/progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), as well as for its lower/slower response to immunosuppression. Accordingly, refrain from smoking should be urged, both as primary prevention (removal of risk factors in Graves' patients without GO), secondary prevention (early detection and treatment of asymptomatic/very mild GO) and tertiary prevention (reduction of complications/disability of overt GO). A 6-month course of 200 μg/day sodium selenite can prevent progression of mild GO to more severe GO and is, therefore, a form of secondary prevention and, probably, primary prevention. Correction of thyroid dysfunction and stable maintenance of euthyroidism are important preventive measures. The optimal treatment for hyperthyroidism in patients with GO is uncertain, because evidence demonstrating the superiority of antithyroid drugs over thyroid ablation (radioiodine, thyroidectomy, or both) is lacking. If radioiodine is used, low-dose steroid prophylaxis is recommended, particularly in smokers, to prevent radioiodine-associated GO progression. PMID:22632372

  12. MEASURING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The workshop, "Measuring Pollution Prevention Progress," was held in Salem, MA, March 31 - April 2, 1993. he purpose of this workshop was to present the latest significant research and practical findings related to pollution prevention measurement from ongoing and recently comple...

  13. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  14. Prevention of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Flood, Karen; Malone, Fergal D

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem. PMID:21893439

  15. [Atorvastatin in primary prevention].

    PubMed

    Kültürsay, Hakan

    2009-03-01

    Statins are one of the most widely used drugs in medical treatment and have been shown to prevent cardiovascular disease or reduce risk in a large number of studies. Although there is a general class effect, there are differences with regard to structure and efficacy between these agents. Among these agents, atorvastatin is a potent statin whose efficacy has been demonstrated in many clinical trials. Despite the presence of numerous clinical studies, data on atorvastatin related to primary prevention are limited compared to secondary prevention. In this article, clinical results of primary prevention trials with atorvastatin and data on its cost-effectiveness are reviewed. It is concluded that atorvastatin has a role in primary prevention and the cost of its use seems to be lower than commonly accepted cost-effectiveness thresholds. PMID:19404046

  16. Vers des boites quantiques a base de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchaud, Simon

    Le graphene est un materiau a base de carbone qui est etudie largement depuis 2004. De tres nombreux articles ont ete publies tant sur les proprietes electroniques, qu'optiques ou mecaniques de ce materiel. Cet ouvrage porte sur l'etude des fluctuations de conductance dans le graphene, et sur la fabrication et la caracterisation de nanostructures gravees dans des feuilles de ce cristal 2D. Des mesures de magnetoresistance a basse temperature ont ete faites pres du point de neutralite de charge (PNC) ainsi qu'a haute densite electronique. On trouve deux origines aux fluctuations de conductance pres du PNC, soit des oscillations mesoscopiques provenant de l'interference quantique, et des fluctuations dites Hall quantique apparaissant a plus haut champ (>0.5T), semblant suivre les facteurs de remplissage associes aux monocouches de graphene. Ces dernieres fluctuations sont attribuees a la charge d'etats localises, et revelent un precurseur a l'effet Hall quantique, qui lui, ne se manifeste pas avant 2T. On arrive a extraire les parametres caracterisant l'echantillon a partir de ces donnees. A la fin de cet ouvrage, on effectue des mesures de transport dans des constrictions et ilots de graphene, ou des boites quantiques sont formees. A partir de ces mesures, on extrait les parametres importants de ces boites quantiques, comme leur taille et leur energie de charge.

  17. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A.; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  18. Altération des sulfures des granulats dans les chaussées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jigorel, A.; Jauberthie, R.

    2002-07-01

    Sulfides present in hornsfeld aggregates, used in light pavanent construction in contact with humid air alter rapidly. Crystallisation of sulfates at the interface of bitumastic material and sub-base creates serious problems (intumescence and crazing) that can lead to a total reconstruction of the project (roads, sidewalks, sports areas, etc). The sulfides in the aggregates and the sulfates produced due to alteration are studied by SEM and XRD. The results show that the intensity of this phenomenon is linked to the nature and the crystallinity of the sulfides. The evolution of the sulfates formed during this alteration process is slow and complex. In new pavements (3 years) the sulfates have a pulverised appearance and consist mostly of epsomite, associated with pickeringite and halotrichite. In older pavements (20 years) the sulfates form a fibrous concretion consisting of pickeringite and small quantities of halotrichite. Les sulfures présents dans les granulats élaborés à partir de cornéen nes s'altèrent rapidement dans les chaussées légères en présence d'air humide. La cristallisation des sulfates à l'interface enrobé-couche de fondation crée des désordres si importants (intumescences, faiençage) qu'il est bien souvent nécessaire d'assurer la réfection totale des ouvrages (routes, trottoirs, plateaux sportifs...). Les sulfures des granulats et les sulfates issus du processus d'altération ont été étudiés par diffractométrie X et examen su Microscope Electronique à Balayage équipé de microanalyse X. Les résultats montrent que !intensité des désordres est liée à la nature et à la cristallinité des sulfures. Les sulfates formés évoluent su cours du processus d'altération qui est long et complexe. Dans les chaussées récentes (3 ans) ils ont un aspect pulvérulent et sont constitués d'epsomite dominante associée à de la pickeringite et à de l'halotrichite. Dans les chaussées plus anciennes (20 ans) ils forment des concr

  19. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  20. Prevention of food allergy.

    PubMed

    du Toit, George; Tsakok, Teresa; Lack, Simon; Lack, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    The past few decades have witnessed an increase in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy (FA). For prevention strategies to be effective, we need to understand the causative factors underpinning this rise. Genetic factors are clearly important in the development of FA, but given the dramatic increase in prevalence over a short period of human evolution, it is unlikely that FA arises through germline genetic changes alone. A plausible hypothesis is that 1 or more environmental exposures, or lack thereof, induce epigenetic changes that result in interruption of the default immunologic state of tolerance. Strategies for the prevention of FA might include primary prevention, which seeks to prevent the onset of IgE sensitization; secondary prevention, which seeks to interrupt the development of FA in IgE-sensitized children; and tertiary prevention, which seeks to reduce the expression of end-organ allergic disease in children with established FA. This review emphasizes the prevention of IgE-mediated FA through dietary manipulation, among other strategies; in particular, we focus on recent interventional studies in this field. PMID:27059727

  1. Fissuration en relaxation des aciers inoxydables austénitiques au voisinage des soudures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzoux, Q.; Allais, L.; Gourgues, A. F.; Pineau, A.

    2003-03-01

    Des fissures intergranulaires peuvent se développer au voisinage des soudures des aciers inoxydables austénitiques lorsqu'ils sont réchauffés dans le domaine de température compris entre 500^{circ}C et 700^{circ}C. A ces températures, les contraintes résiduelles post-soudage se relaxent par déformation viscoplastique. Il peut arriver que ces zones proches de la soudure soient tellement fragiles, qu'elles ne puissent accommoder cette faible déformation. Afin de préciser quelles peuvent être les modifications microstructurales qui conduisent à une telle fragilisation, on a examiné les microstructures de ces zones et révélé ainsi un écrouissage résiduel, responsable d'une forte élévation de la dureté. On a pu reproduire par hypertrempe puis laminage entre 400^{circ}C et 600^{circ}C une microstructure similaire. Des essais mécaniques (traction, fluage, relaxation, sur éprouvettes lisses et pré-fissurées) ont été réalisés à 550^{circ}C et à 600^{circ}C sur ces zones affectées simulées et sur un état de référence hypertrempé. Ils ont montré que l'écrouissage diminuait la ductilité dans le domaine de rupture intergranulaire, sans modifier qualitativement le mécanisme d'endommagement. Pendant la pré-déformation les incompatibilités de déformation entre grains conduiraient à l'existence de contraintes locales élevées qui favoriseraient la germination des cavités intergranulaires.

  2. The limits of prevention.

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, J M

    1985-01-01

    Recent years have been marked by unprecedented accomplishments in preventing disease and reducing mortality. More gains can be expected, but there are limits. The forces shaping the nature and potential of prevention programs can be characterized as points falling along a spectrum ranging from the purely scientific to the purely social. This paper focuses on four elements of that spectrum, discussing some of the limitations to prevention that are presented by biological, technical, ethical, and economic factors. The author concludes with an essentially optimistic perspective on the prospects, special opportunities, and imperatives inherent in each of the categories of limitations discussed. PMID:3923530

  3. Guideline Implementation: Preventing Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-03-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of unplanned patient hypothermia" provides guidance for identifying factors associated with intraoperative hypothermia, preventing hypothermia, educating perioperative personnel on this topic, and developing relevant policies and procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which addresses performing a preoperative assessment for factors that may contribute to hypothermia, measuring and monitoring the patient's temperature in all phases of perioperative care, and implementing interventions to prevent hypothermia. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:26924369

  4. Prevention of lipohypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Kumar, Arun; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2016-07-01

    Lipohypertrophy is an important insulin injection site reaction, which has clinically significant sequelae, including a greater risk of glycaemic variability and higher insulin dose requirement. This article describes the prevention of lipohypertrophy, using the concept of levels of prevention. It enumerates methods of primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary prevention of lipohypertrophy. Focus on patient education, site rotation, avoidance of needle reuse, and dose titration when shifting from injection in lipohypertrophic lesions to normal subcutaneous tissue, helps minimize the development and impact of lipohypertrophy. PMID:27427150

  5. [Preventive medicine in geriatrics].

    PubMed

    Namias, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of check-up and preventive recommendations for elderly. It concerns screening, vaccination, chemoprophylaxy, and counseling. It is mainly based on the recommendations of the U.S. Preventive services Task force. It approaches the screening of hypertention, visual and auditive impairment, breast, colorectal, cervical, prostate cancers, about dyslipidemia, depression, osteoporosis, vaccination against influenza, pneumococcal infection,and chemoprophylaxy by estrogen, raloxifene, acetyisalicyclic acid. There is also counseling in the prevention of falls, exercises, and diet. This summary underlines the multiple recent changes compared with the 1996 recommendations. PMID:14983902

  6. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  7. Le traitement familial des enfants et des adolescents anorexiques : Des lignes directrices pour le médecin communautaire

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, S; Pinzon, J; Taddeo, D; Katzman, DK

    2010-01-01

    L’anorexie mentale (AM) est une maladie grave qui met la vie en danger et qui fait généralement son apparition pendant l’adolescence. Les données probantes au sujet du traitement optimal de l’AM chez les enfants et les adolescents sont en croissance, mais il reste beaucoup à apprendre. Même si les démarches thérapeutiques actuelles varient au Canada et ailleurs, les données jusqu’à présent indiquent que le traitement familial (TF) est le plus efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents anorexiques. Un élément essentiel du modèle de TF, c’est que les parents sont investis de la responsabilité de rétablir la santé physique de leur enfant et de s’assurer de la reprise complète de son poids. Le médecin qui comprend les principes fondamentaux et la philosophie du TF peut mettre en place les éléments de cette intervention fondée sur des faits probants auprès des jeunes patients anorexiques et de leur famille.

  8. Prevent Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous section Overview 2 of 5 sections Take Action! Take Action: Get Active Take care of your back to ... I at Risk? 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Prevent Injuries Focus on good posture. Good posture ...

  9. Osteoporosis: Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... next to your bed Free NIH Videos About Osteoporosis The NIHSeniorHealth Web site features five brief, informative ...

  10. Preventive Antepartum Care

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    As the role of the obstetrician-gynecologist evolves to include primary care, the obstetrician must assume greater responsibility for providing prenatal preventive care, particularly regarding the STORCH5 pathogens. PMID:18475371

  11. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Cases A recent report from the Indianapolis Star has revealed multiple occasions in which allegations of ... Gymnastics. In many of the cases that the Star investigated, complaint… Read more Who we are Prevent ...

  12. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Head Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...

  13. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  14. Profiting from pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    LoPilato, A.J.; Eng, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    In the case of pollution prevention, national environmental goals coincide with industry`s economic interests. Most, if not all businesses have strong incentives to reduce the toxicity and quantities of wastes generated. These incentives include not only the ever increasing cost of compliance within a growing framework of regulations, but may include a firms desire to reduce the risk of criminal and civil liability, reduce overall operating costs, improve employee morale and participation, enhance corporate image in the community and insure protection of both public health and the environment. Although some businesses may invest in a pollution prevention program because it is the green thin to do, most businesses will weight their initial and long-term pollution prevention program investments on sound economic analyses. An effective pollution prevention program can provide cost savings that will more than offset the initial development and implementation costs.

  15. Household Safety: Preventing Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... room a child shouldn't enter to prevent wandering into places that haven't been properly childproofed. ... the activities that develop your child's body and mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  16. Prevent Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back Pain Print This Topic En español Prevent Back Pain Browse Sections The Basics Overview Am I at ... Health: Back Pain . There are different types of back pain. Back pain can be acute or chronic. It ...

  17. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates that about one in four U.S. ... to learn more about the study's long-term effects through the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS), ...

  18. Preventive treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    Migraine preventive therapy, even in the absence of a headache, is given in an attempt to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include disabling migraine attacks, the overuse of acute medications or failure of or contraindication to acute medications, troublesome side effects from medication, hemiplegic migraine, or very frequent headaches (more than 2 a week). The major medication groups for preventive treatment include anticonvulsants, antidepressants, b-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel antagonists, serotonin antagonists, neurotoxins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and others. If preventive medication is indicated, the agent preferentially should be chosen from one of the first-line categories, based on the drug's side-effect profile and the patient's coexistent and comorbid conditions. PMID:16622394

  19. Migraine preventive treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Migraine is a chronic neurological disease. Preventive therapy is given in an attempt to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include recurring migraine attacks that significantly interfere with the patient's daily routines, despite appropriate acute treatment; frequent headaches; contraindication to, failure of, overuse of, or intolerance to acute therapies; patient preference; frequent, very long, or uncomfortable auras; and presence of uncommon migraine conditions. The major medication groups for preventive migraine treatment include beta-adrenergic blockers, antidepressants, calcium channel antagonists, serotonin antagonists, and anticonvulsants. The choice of preventive treatment depends on the individual drug's efficacy and adverse events, the patient's clinical features, frequency, and response to prior treatment, and the presence of any comorbid or coexistent disease. PMID:20816433

  20. Preventive migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2009-05-01

    The pharmacologic treatment of migraine may be acute (abortive) or preventive (prophylactic), and patients with frequent severe headaches often require both approaches. Preventive therapy is used to try to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. The preventive medications with the best-documented efficacy are amitriptyline, divalproex, topiramate, and the beta-blockers. Choice is made based on a drug's proven efficacy, the physician's informed belief about medications not yet evaluated in controlled trials, the drug's adverse events, the patient's preferences and headache profile, and the presence or absence of coexisting disorders. Because comorbid medical and psychologic illnesses are prevalent in patients who have migraine, one must consider comorbidity when choosing preventive drugs. Drug therapy may be beneficial for both disorders; however, it is also a potential confounder of optimal treatment of either. PMID:19289224

  1. Oral Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... South Asia and Southeast Asia, including China and India. Personal history of head and neck cancer A ... such as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: [ ...

  2. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  3. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Cancer.gov

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  4. Prevent Blindness America

    MedlinePlus

    ... to eNews Close Donate A Lifetime of Healthy Vision See well to learn, work, play, and live ... the sight-saving work of
 Prevent Blindness. Donate Vision Problems in the U.S. Prevalence of Adult Vision ...

  5. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  6. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  7. Infection Prevention in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pergam, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation are increasing every year, as are the number of centers both transplanting and caring for these patients. Improvements in transplant procedures, immunosuppressive regimens, and prevention of transplant-associated complications have led to marked improvements in survival in both populations. Infections remain one of the most important sources of excess morbidity and mortality in transplant, and therefore, infection prevention strategies are a critical element for avoiding these complications in centers caring for high-risk patients. This manuscript aims to provide an update of recent data on prevention of major healthcare-associated infections unique to transplantation, reviews the emergence of antimicrobial resistant infections, and discusses updated strategies to both identify and prevent transmission of these pathogens in transplant recipients. PMID:26820654

  8. Automating Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshier, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the following aspects of the State University of New York-Brockport's preventive maintenance computerization project: (1) software selection, (2) project implementation; and (3) problems and benefits of the system. (MCG)

  9. Preventability of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Graham A.; Wei, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas models of cancer disparities and variation in cancer burden within population groups now specify multiple levels of action from biologic processes to individual risk factors and social and physical contextual factors, approaches to estimating the preventable proportion of cancer use more traditional direct models often from single exposures to cancer at specific organ sites. These approaches are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations are presented. The need for additional multilevel data and approaches to estimation of preventability are identified. International or regional variation in cancer may offer the most integrated exposure assessment over the life course. For the four leading cancers, which account for 50% of incidence and mortality, biologic, social, and physical environments play differing roles in etiology and potential prevention. Better understanding of the interactions and contributions across these levels will help refine prevention strategies. PMID:22224878

  10. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kew, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Because of its frequency and grave prognosis, preventing hepatocellular carcinoma is an urgent priority. Prevention should be possible because environmental carcinogens-chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections, dietary exposure to aflatoxins, and iron overload-cause the great majority of these tumors. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection accounts for 55% of global hepatocellular carcinomas and 80% of those in the high-incidence Asia Pacific and sub-Saharan African regions. In these regions the infection that becomes chronic is predominantly acquired very early in life. A safe and effective vaccine against this virus is available and its universal inclusion in the immunization of infants has already resulted in a marked reduction of chronic infection and a 70% decrease in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in those immunized. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in industrialized countries. The infection is mainly acquired in adulthood and, until a vaccine becomes available, prevention will consist mainly of identifying, counselling, and treating chronically infected individuals, preventing spread of the virus by the use of safe injection practices (particularly in intravenous drug abusers), and screening all donated blood for the presence of the virus. 4.5 billion of the world.s population are exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Prevention involves treating susceptible crops to prevent fungal contamination, and handling the foodstuffs in such a way as to prevent contamination during storage. Iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis can be prevented by repeated venesection and in African dietary iron overload by fermenting the home-brewed beer in iron-free containers. PMID:20526004

  11. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  12. IS SUICIDE PREVENTABLE?

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Ralph B.

    1959-01-01

    Among 500 cases of suicide analyzed in Stockholm, fewer than a third were associated with depression. Most forms of psychiatric disease were represented. Nevertheless, most persons give some warning before attempting suicide, and these warnings should be the signal for preventive action. Centers with trained personnel could prevent many suicides, if the potential victims were recognized and referred early enough. Laymen too should be educated to recognize potential suicide and help avert it. PMID:13629348

  13. Preventing Obesity through Schools

    PubMed Central

    Nihiser, Allison; Merlo, Caitlin; Lee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    PRÉCIS This paper describes highlights from the Weight of the Nation™ 2012 Schools Track. Included is a summary of 16 presentations. Presenters shared key actions for obesity prevention through schools. The information provided at the Weight of the Nation™ can help school health practitioners access tools, apply evidence-based strategies, and model real-world examples to successfully start obesity prevention initiatives in their jurisdiction. PMID:24446995

  14. Compliance through pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, B.D.; Coyle, S.; Kachel, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Decreased budgetary resources have caused the Air Force Materiel Command to look for a better way to target pollution prevention investments. The new paradigm, Compliance through Pollution Prevention (CTP2), is based upon the Code of Environmental Management Principles (CEMP) for federal facilities. It provides a procedure to assure that all future AFMC P2 investments result in the greatest reduction in environmental compliance burden possible. This paper describes the evolution of this new environmental management system, both past and future.

  15. Delivery of preventive care

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Alan; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Miller, Anthony; Kaminsky, Barbara; Enns, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine family physicians’ practice of, knowledge about, and attitudes toward delivering preventive care during periodic health examinations (PHEs). Design A stratified sample of 5013 members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada were randomly selected to receive a questionnaire by mail. Descriptive analysis was performed on a national data set of 1010 respondents. Setting Canada. Participants A sample of family physicians from each Canadian province. Main outcome measures Physicians were asked questions about whether they addressed aspects of preventive care, such as tobacco smoking, nutrition, physical activity, alcohol intake, and sun exposure with patients during PHEs. The questions were designed to gauge attitudes and identify barriers to the provision of preventive care. Results Most respondents (87% to 89%) indicated that they were comfortable counseling their patients about issues such as nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol consumption; however, many of these respondents did not refer their patients to specialists or provide them with additional resources to educate patients about the health risks of their conditions. While tobacco smoking risks and cessation were addressed by most family physicians (79%) during PHEs, other topics, such as sun exposure, were often overlooked. Conclusion The results of this survey indicate that while many family physicians follow the evidence-based guidelines for preventive care, current levels of preventive care in the primary care setting are below national standards. It is critical that Canadians receive optimal preventive care to improve the outlook of the chronic disease burden on the health care system. PMID:22267643

  16. Primary prevention of asthma.

    PubMed

    Becker, Allan B; Chan-Yeung, Moira

    2002-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of asthma over the last quarter century, particularly in the industrialized world. Although our understanding of asthma continues to improve, there is no cure for the disease. Primary prevention of asthma is the focus of this review. Asthma is a disease with multiple gene-environment interactions. Candidate genes for asthma are considered, and potential interaction between one of those genes, CD14, and an environmental factor, endotoxin, is reviewed as it relates to the hygiene hypothesis. Environmental risk factors for asthma including allergens, pollutants, infectious factors, and dietary modifications are considered, particularly their potential for primary prevention of asthma. Ongoing cohort studies including the Canadian Allergy and Asthma Prevention Study, the Manchester Allergy and Asthma Study, the Children's Asthma Prevention Study from Australia, and the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy Study from the Netherlands are briefly reviewed. A more definitive understanding of genetic background and environmental triggers and their interactions is required before any specific approach to the primary prevention of asthma can be championed aggressively. PMID:11753119

  17. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident. PMID:26983186

  18. Stroke prevention: an update.

    PubMed

    Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2012-03-01

    Stroke is a personal, familial, and social disaster. It is the third cause of death worldwide, the first cause of acquired disability, the second cause of dementia, and its cost is astronomic. The burden of stroke is likely to increase given the aging of the population and the growing incidence of many vascular risk factors. Prevention of stroke includes--as for all other diseases--a "mass approach" aiming at decreasing the risk at the society level and an individual approach, aiming at reducing the risk in a given subject. The mass approach is primarily based on the identification and treatment of vascular risk factors and, if possible, in the implementation of protective factors. These measures are the basis of primary prevention but most of them have now been shown to be also effective in secondary prevention. The individual approach combines a vascular risk factor modification and various treatments addressing the specific subtypes of stroke, such as antiplatelet drugs for the prevention of cerebral infarction in large and small artery diseases of the brain, carotid endarterectomy or stenting for tight carotid artery stenosis, and oral anticoagulants for the prevention of cardiac emboli. There is a growing awareness of the huge evidence-to-practice gap that exists in stroke prevention largely due to socio-economic factors. Recent approaches include low cost intervention packages to reduce blood pressure and cheap "polypills" combining in a single tablet aspirin and several drugs to lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Polypill intake should however not lead to abandon the healthy life-style measures which remain the mainstay of stroke prevention. PMID:22460445

  19. Diabetes mellitus prevention.

    PubMed

    Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review lifestyle modification interventions and pharmacological clinical studies designed to prevent diabetes and provide evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of Diabetes Mellitus. A review of relevant literature compiled via a literature search (PUBMED) of English-language publications between 1997 and 2010 was conducted. It is found that people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus can halt the development of the disease. Lifestyle modification intervention with reduction of 5%-10% of excess body weight and increase in moderate physical activity by 150 min/wk has consistently proven to reduce the appearance of diabetes in different at-risk populations. Pharmacologic interventions have also demonstrated the prevention of the appearance of diabetes in persons at risk. Bariatric surgery has decreased the appearance of diabetes patients in a select group of individuals. The progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus can be prevented. Lifestyle modification intervention changes with weight loss and increased physical activity are currently recommended for the prevention of diabetes. PMID:22020084

  20. JNCI and Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmistha; Kramer, Barnett S.

    2015-01-01

    The Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI), with its broad coverage of bench research, epidemiologic studies, and clinical trials, has a long history of publishing practice-changing studies in cancer prevention and public health. These include studies of tobacco cessation, chemoprevention, and nutrition. The landmark Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT)—the first large trial to prove efficacy of a preventive medication for a major malignancy—was published in the Journal, as were key ancillary papers to the BCPT. Even when JNCI was not the publication venue for the main trial outcomes, conceptual and design discussions leading to the trial as well as critical follow-up analyses based on trial data from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the Selenium and Vitamin E Chemoprevention Trial (SELECT) were published in the Journal. The Journal has also published important evidence on very charged topics, such as the purported link between abortion and breast cancer risk. In summary, JNCI has been at the forefront of numerous major publications related to cancer prevention. PMID:25713150

  1. [Preventive treatment for migraine].

    PubMed

    Mulleners, Wim M; Haan, Joost; Dekker, Frans; Ferrari, Michel D

    2010-01-01

    Migraine patients who experience an average of 2 or more attacks per month are eligible for preventive treatment as well as treatment for acute attacks. The decision to offer preventative treatment is also made on the basis of the average attack duration, severity of the attacks, and response to attack treatment. Prior to initiating preventive treatment, the average attack frequency per month should be assessed, preferably by means of a headache diary over a number of months, as attack frequency is extremely variable. None of the currently available preventive drugs, such as beta-blockers, sodium valproate, topiramate and candesartan, were developed specifically for treating migraine, but were all originally intended for other indications. 50% of the migraine patients receiving preventive treatment can expect a 50% reduction in attacks, and the remaining attacks often seem to be less severe. The effects of the drugs are often unpredictable per individual, and side-effects frequently lead to early discontinuation of treatment. Drugs usually prescribed for cardiovascular disorders are often used. In the case of a disorder such as migraine with a high burden of disability, patients with cardiovascular or pulmonary comorbidity should receive medication that is optimally adjusted for both indications. PMID:20699036

  2. OzDES Spectroscopic Classification of DES13X3woy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Childress, M.; Sharp, R.; Lidman, C.; Parkinson, D.; Mould, J.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Smith, M.; Barbary, K.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biswas, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Kim, A.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Thomas, R. C.; Foley, R. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Cane, R.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report spectroscopic classification by OzDES of a supernova discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (370-885nm) was obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell and Wang, 2002, BAAS, 34, 1256), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  3. Prevention strategies for trichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Aldred, David; Magan, Naresh

    2004-10-10

    Contamination of cereal commodities with mycotoxins represents a significant hazard to consumer health and has thus received increasing attention from food safety authorities and legislators. For trichothecenes, and deoxynivalenol (DON) in particular, the imminent implementation of legislative limits has focused attention on ways to prevent entry of such mycotoxin contaminants into the food and feed chains. Knowledge of the pre- and post-harvest stages in the cereal production chain and in particular information on where prevention strategies can be implemented is being used to develop quality assurance systems for improving food safety. Information on the ecology of Fusarium species, breeding for resistance, more effective fungicides, potential for biological control and effective drying and storage and preservation systems, are all helping to develop effective preventative strategies for minimising consumer exposure to trichothecenes and other mycotoxins. PMID:15342093

  4. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  5. Prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick; Mitra, Dipayan; Gregson, Barbara A; Mendelow, A David

    2007-07-01

    Nontraumatic intracerebral haemorrhages arise from a wide range of causes falling into two broad groups: discreet vascular "ictohaemorrhagic" lesions such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas, tumours, and dural fistulae; and more generalised amyloid or hypertension related conditions. It is now possible using family history, associated risk factors and gradient echo MRI to predict cases at high risk of hypertensive or amyloid related haemorrhage. There is considerable potential for prevention of hypertensive haemorrhages by treatment of high risk cases with antihypertensive medication. As yet no effective preventative treatment for amyloid angiopathy related ICH has emerged although a variety of drugs are under investigation. Prevention of haemorrhage from ictohaemorrhagic lesions revolves around removal or obliteration of the lesion. Although there is a wide range of such lesions available treatments come down to three modalities. These are surgical excision, stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular embolisation. PMID:17630936

  6. [Prevention of infant obesity].

    PubMed

    Hernández Cordero, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem, demanding urgent and clear defined actions in order to stop the rapid increase on its prevalence and all health consequences associated. The best strategy to stop the rapid increase in childhood obesity is to prevent it. In order to do so, multiple defined actions between government, industry, community organizations, schools, families and health-care professionals. The general and family physicians, pediatricians, nurses, dieticians and other clinicians should be engaged, as a key actor, in the prevention of childhood obesity. The health-care professionals have frequent opportunities to inform to children, youth and their parents about the importance of prevention of obesity and to promote and engage them in healthy life styles, particularly, a healthy diet and regular physical activity. PMID:22352128

  7. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury. PMID:20463502

  8. Nutrition and melanoma prevention.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J Daniel; Wing, Gregory J; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma has continued to rise in incidence despite public efforts to promote sun protection behaviors. Because sunscreen use does not completely prevent skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation, additional chemopreventive methods for protecting against and reversing the effects of ultraviolet photodamage need evaluation. Recent years have brought increased interest in dietary factors, such as natural botanicals and vitamins, for the prevention of melanoma. This contribution provides a narrative review of the relevant, nutrition-related literature found by searching the keywords "melanoma chemoprevention," "nutrition and melanoma," "dietary botanicals and melanoma prevention," "green tea and melanoma," "vitamin D and melanoma," and "vitamin E and melanoma" in the PubMed database. Although randomized controlled trials of humans are lacking, basic science and epidemiologic studies show promising benefits of many natural products in chemoprevention for melanoma. Future studies, hopefully, will yield concrete answers and clarify the role of commonly available dietary nutrients in melanoma chemoprevention. PMID:21034988

  9. Prevention of Ill Health

    PubMed Central

    Muir, D. C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose and possibilities of prevention in the workplace are described. A problem solving approach begins by identifying physical, chemical or organizational factors in the work environment and personal health factors in the individual worker. Consulting experts may be required to assist in the process. Methodical assessment of the value of collecting data or of intervention policies will be required as increasing emphasis is placed on the development of truly effective preventive health policies. Major success so far must be credited to engineering and industrial hygiene endeavors. However, the occupational health professional is the only member of the team with knowledge of individual workers' health and who can thus render appropriate advice. With the employment of handicapped, disabled or recently ill workers, the physician's role will become increasingly important in the prevention of ill health at work. PMID:21289686

  10. Prevention of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    DuPont, G A

    1998-09-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common disease affecting adult dogs and cats. It is also a very preventable disease. The insidious nature of the disease and requirement for the pet owner to be actively involved make client and public education absolutely vital. Although clients are commonly aware of their pets' bad breath, they rarely notice gingivitis, fractured teeth, and traumatic malocclusions. The annual National Pet Dental Health Month program has resulted in a tremendous increase in public awareness. Veterinarians must carry this further in their everyday practices, convincing our clients of the need for preventive dental care. It is only through clients' ongoing desire and persistence that a long-term preventive program can be successful. This requires a coordinated effort by the entire hospital staff. When successful, clients' pets will live healthier and longer lives. PMID:9779544

  11. Prevention in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Black, R E

    1990-01-01

    Developing countries have implemented primary health care programs directed primarily at prevention and management of important infectious and nutritional problems of children. Successful programs have emphasized the need for individual and community involvement and have been characterized by responsible government policies for equitable implementation of efficacious and cost-effective health interventions. Unfortunately, developing countries must also face increases in the chronic disease and social problems commonly associated with industrialized countries. Prevention efforts, for example, to reduce tobacco smoking, to modify the diet, to reduce injuries, or to avert environmental contamination, are needed to contain future morbidity and rapidly increasing medical care costs. Developing countries can build on their successful approaches to program implementation and add other measures directed at preservation of health and prevention of disease in adult as well as child populations. PMID:2231055

  12. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing anticipatory guidance and child maltreatment risk factor screening will be described. The modalities and strengths and weaknesses of community-based prevention programs will be discussed, and providers will be given tools to identify the effectiveness of available community-based programs. At a broader level, the article will describe ways that pediatricians can advocate at the local, state, and national level for policies and programs that support families and children. PMID:25242703

  13. Prise en compte des ``courants de London'' dans la modélisation des supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossavit, Alain

    1997-10-01

    A model is given, in variational form, in which volumic “Bean currents”, ruled by Bean's law, and surface “London currents” coexist. This macroscopic model generalizes Bean's one, by appending to the critical density j_c a second parameter, with the dimension of a length, similar to London's depth λ. The one-dimensional version of the model is investigated, in order to link this parameter with the standard observable H-M characteristics On propose un modèle, sous forme variationnelle, associant des “courants de Bean” volumiques, décrits par la loi de Bean, et des “courants de London”, surfaciques. Ce modèle macroscopique généralise celui de Bean, caractérisé par le courant critique j_c, et fait intervenir un second paramètre, homogène à une longueur, analogue au λ de London. La version unidimensionnelle du modèle est étudiée en détail de manière à relier ce paramètre à l'observation des caractéristiques H-M usuelles.

  14. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Prevention & Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    Underage drinking prevention has two goals: prevent harm to the individual drinker and prevent harm to society. Modern prevention programs should be measured not by their intentions, but by their consequences: reducing the number of criminal events, reducing the amount of harm to individuals, and reducing the harm to society. This guide discusses…

  15. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  16. Adolescent preventive services.

    PubMed

    Reif, C J; Elster, A B

    1998-03-01

    Today, there are significant risks to the health of teenagers. Drugs (tobacco, alcohol, steroids and others), sex (pregnancy, STDs, date rape), nutrition (obesity and eating disorders), and violence (abuse, fighting) are unfortunately a part of many teens' lives. These risks increase throughout the teen years. Since each risk has a strong behavioral component, we hope to modify the behavior and minimize the risk. Prevention and health promotion are an important part of health care for teens. Primary care providers, such as family physicians, are in an excellent position to provide teen preventative care that is comprehensive and specific to the needs of each teen. PMID:9469914

  17. Preventing jailhouse suicides.

    PubMed

    Felthous, A R

    1994-01-01

    Psychiatric consultants to city and county jails are confronted with the challenge of preventing jailhouse suicides, a problem of national scope. Suicide prevention programs in jails must emphasize screening and identification, psychological support, observation, disarmament, clarity and consistency, and diagnosis, treatment, and/or hospitalization. Exactly how these principles are formulated and implemented will depend on the unique circumstances of each jail. Finally information is presented as evidence that a program that embodies these principles can effectively reduce the number of suicides in a jail where the average daily census has increased from fewer than 400 to greater than 900 in the past six years. PMID:7718921

  18. Preventing and Recognizing Embezzlement.

    PubMed

    Phairas, Debra

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately one in six physicians will be the victim of embezzlement at least once during his or her lifetime. This may be due to the trusting nature of physicians, a lack of business training about separating duties in transactions involving money, or employees' feeling overworked, underpaid, or underappreciated. The best protection against embezzlement is prevention. This article informs the reader of the steps to take to prevent stealing in the medical office, how to recognize if it is occurring, and how to obtain restitution or prosecution. PMID:27039633

  19. Preventing 30-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sherri

    2015-03-01

    Preventing 30-day readmissions to hospitals is a top priority in the era of health care reform. New regulations will be costly to health care facilities because of payment guidelines. The most frequently readmitted medical conditions are acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The transition from the hospital and into the home has been classified as a vulnerable time for many patients. During this time of transition patients may fail to fully understand their discharge instructions. Ineffective communication, low health literacy, and compliance issues contribute to readmissions. Telehealth and the use of technology may be used to prevent some readmissions. PMID:25680492

  20. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  1. Characterization of the Glycosyltransferase DesVII and Its Auxiliary Partner Protein DesVIII in the Methymycin/Pikromycin Biosynthetic Pathway†

    PubMed Central

    Borisova, Svetlana A.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro characterization of the catalytic activity of DesVII, the glycosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the macrolide antibiotics methymycin, neomethymycin, narbomycin, and pikromycin in Streptomyces venezuelae, is described. DesVII is unique among glycosyltransferases in that it requires an additional protein component, DesVIII, for activity. Characterization of the metabolites produced by a S. venezuelae mutant lacking desVIII gene confirmed that desVIII is important for the biosynthesis of glycosylated macrolides, but can be replaced by at least one of the homologous genes from other pathways. The addition of recombinant DesVIII protein significantly improves the glycosylation efficiency of DesVII in the in vitro assay. When affinity-tagged DesVII and DesVIII proteins were co-produced in E. coli, they formed a tight (αβ)3 complex that is at least 103-fold more active than DesVII alone. The formation of the DesVII/DesVIII complex requires co-expression of both genes in vivo and cannot be fully achieved by mixing the individual protein components in vitro. The ability of DesVII/DesVIII system to catalyze the reverse reaction with the formation of TDP-desosamine was also demonstrated in a transglycosylation experiment. Taken together, our data suggest that DesVIII assists the folding of DesVII during protein production and remains tightly bound during catalysis. This requirement must be taken into consideration in the design of combinatorial biosynthetic experiments of new glycosylated macrolides. PMID:20695498

  2. HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda.

    PubMed

    Padian, Nancy S; McCoy, Sandra I; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Hasen, Nina; Kim, Julia; Bartos, Michael; Katabira, Elly; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Schwartländer, Bernhard; Cohen, Myron S

    2011-07-16

    We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic. PMID:21763938

  3. Organisation des gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutzes auf Bundesebene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschiersky-Schöneburg, Helmut; Büttner, Antje

    Zahlreiche Krisen wie Dioxin belastete Futtermittel, die missbräuchliche Verwendung von Antibiotika in der Schweinemast und nicht zuletzt das Auftreten von BSE in Deutschland erschütterten Ende der neunziger Jahre das Vertrauen der Bürger in die Sicherheit der Lebensmittel. Mit dem Weißbuch zur Lebensmittelsicherheit, das im Januar 2000 herausgegeben wurde, hatte die Europäische Kommission ihre Erfahrungen aus dem BSE-Geschehen in ein neues Konzept für den Verbraucherschutz eingearbeitet. Kernstücke des Konzepts sind die ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Lebensmittelsicherheit von der landwirtschaftlichen Erzeugung bis zum Verzehr und der Anspruch nach Transparenz und Unabhängigkeit der Risikobewertung.

  4. Formation et Evolution des Quasars et Contraintes cosmologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia

    2000-06-01

    Cette thèse porte sur l'étude de l'évolution des quasars. Elle en aborde certains aspects théoriques et observationnels, ainsi que la construction des grands échantillons de quasars dans le but à long terme de combiner le tout dans un test cosmologique géométrique pour déterminer les valeurs des paramètres cosmologiques Omega et Lambda. Les paramètres cosmologiques Omegaspan>et Lambdaspan>décrivent la géométrie globale de l'Univers. En faisant des hypothèses raisonnables sur la distribution spatiale et l'évolution des objets astrophysiques (galaxies, amas des galaxies, quasars), on peut déterminer les valeurs de ces paramètres qui sont cohérentes avec ces hypothèses. Les tests cosmologiques traditionnels ont besoin de ''chandelles standards'', objets dont les propriétés intrinsèques sont indépendantes des distances. De tels objets sont probablement fictifs. Néanmoins, certains de ces tests cosmologiques peuvent être adaptés si l'évolution individuelle, ou au moins l'évolution statistique d'une population d'objets est connue. La question de la nature de l'évolution des quasars a très vite été posée et des réponses ''phénoménologiques'' ont d'abord été données. Ces réponses ne faisaient que donner une forme mathématique à l'évolution mais n'expliquaient rien de la physique duphénomène. Les premières tentatives de construction d'un modèle physique, liées au processus d'accrétion sur un trou noir et à la théorie de la formation de l'Univers ont commencé à la fin des années 80. Depuis, des dizaines de modèles tentent d'expliquer les observations, qui sont les résultats de l'étude d'objets de plus en plus nombreux. Au cours de cette thèse, le test V/Vmax a été appliqué sur l'échantillon du Large Bright Quasar Survey en montrant 1) que l'échantillon était biaisé à cause des critères de sélection et 2) que la (simple) loi de Pure Evolution en Luminosité n'était pas une bonne approximation à tout

  5. Influence du débit et de la répartition de dose sur l'incidence des cancers pulmonaires après inhalation d'émetteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, P.; Dudoignon, N.; Morlier, J. P.; Monchaux, G.; Morin, M.

    1998-04-01

    We have discussed experimental results reported on the influence of dose rate and dose distribution on the incidence of lung tumors after inhalation exposure to α emitters. New experiments have been carried out to characterize the range of tumor risk which could vary over more than a factor 20 depending on the α activity of the inhaled particles. Long term effects induced in rats after inhalation of poorly soluble 237NpO2 and industrial PuO2 with a similar granulometry will be compared, the specific activities of which varying within a factor 500. Nous avons rapporté les différentes données expérimentales de cancérogenèse pulmonaire qui montrent une variation du risque d'induction des tumeurs après inhalation de radionucléides émetteurs α selon le débit et la répartition de dose. De nouvelles expérimentations ont été initiées afin de préciser ces variations qui s'étalent sur plus d'un facteur 20. Elles consistent à comparer les effets induits chez le rat après exposition à des aérosols de 237NpO2 et de PuO2 d'origine industrielle peu solubles et de granulométrie analogue dont les activités spécifiques diffèrent d'un facteur 500.

  6. La détermination des distances: Sol, Hipparcos, GAIA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turon, C.

    Les parallaxes trigonométriques des étoiles les plus proches du soleil sont la base de la détermination des distances dans l'Univers. Elles permettent, par la calibration en luminosité des différents indicateurs de distance d'étalonner les distances d'abord dans notre Galaxie, puis dans les galaxies du Groupe Local, puis pour les galaxies plus lointaines. Cette base est, actuellement, très mince, et peu de types d'étoiles y sont représentés. Hipparcos va déjà apporter une amélioration sensible. Avec GAIA une révision complète des calibrations de luminosité de tous les indicateurs "primaires" serait directement possible.

  7. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2kqw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Kniazev, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2kqw discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (380-820nm) was obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  8. Delinquency Prevention Works. Program Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilchik, Shay

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiled this summary in order to assist states and jurisdictions in their delinquency prevention efforts. The summary provides a synthesis of current information on a broad range of programs and strategies which seek to prevent delinquency. The theory of risk-focused prevention is…

  9. Handbook of Youth Prevention Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Beth, Ed.; Pfohl, William, Ed.; Yoon, Jina S., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The "Handbook of Youth Prevention Science" describes current research and practice in mental health preventive interventions for youth. Traditional prevention research focused on preventing specific disorders, e.g. substance abuse, conduct disorders, or criminality. This produced "silos" of isolated knowledge about the…

  10. The Prevention Researcher, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    As a service of Integrated Research Services, a non-profit organization, this newsletter reports on many facets of prevention research. Written in direct, accessible language, each issue provides a "snapshot" update on a specific topic. Some articles are reprinted (often in a briefer format) from other publications; others provide a synthesis of…