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Sample records for prevention early detection

  1. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  2. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W; Brown, Powel H; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A; Ford, Leslie G; Hamdy, Freddie C; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L; Minasian, Lori M; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J; Schröder, Fritz H; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-10-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5α-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  3. Prevention and early detection of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugaratnam, K.

    1985-01-01

    The axiom that prevention is better than cure is especially true for a serious disease such as cancer for which therapy is expensive and seldom fully effective. However, it is only for some cancers that the major determinants are known and for which primary prevention programs are likely to result in substantial reduction in incidence. Past efforts at primary prevention have not been very successful where avoidance of cancer determinants involves changing pleasurable personal habits or has major economic effects. Control of the disease is now largely based on therapy. Because successful therapy is influenced by the stage of the disease at diagnosis there is increasing interest in early detection through the application of various screening techniques. Only some of these have been demonstrably effective in reducing cancer mortality. The introduction of any mass screening program should be based on an assessment of its costs, risks, and effectiveness in reducing mortality from the disease.

  4. Early Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technolog | Research on the effectiveness and clinical impact of early detection technologies and practices.

  5. Prevention and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A.; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W.; Brown, Powel H.; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Ford, Leslie G.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L.; Minasian, Lori M.; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L.; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J.; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the global burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, exercise and weight control offer opportunities to decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by PSA screening remains controversial; yet, changes in PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and addition of other biomarkers have potential to minimise overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers appear promising in individuals with elevated PSA levels or those diagnosed with prostate cancer, these are likely to guide in separating individuals who can be spared of aggressive treatment from those who need it. Several pharmacological agents like 5α-reductase inhibitors, aspirin etc. have a potential to prevent development of prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  6. Early Detection Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. [Prevention, early detection and monitoring of cutaneous melanoma].

    PubMed

    Thomas, Luc

    2016-03-01

    In parallel to the development of new treatments, considerable work remains to be done with regard on the one hand to early detection, and on the other, to the prevention of the main extrinsic risk factor, namely ultraviolet rays. Caregivers have an important educational role to play with patients and their families concerning these different aspects. PMID:26944640

  8. Preventing neonaticide by early detection and intervention in student pregnancy. .

    PubMed

    Platt, Lois M

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant students are the population group most likely to commit neonaticide, murder of an infant younger than 24 hours old. Denial by the student, lack of early pregnancy detection, and poor social support contribute to this disorder. As the health care professionals with whom the student has the most contact, school nurses are in an excellent position to prevent neonaticide through provision of health education, early detection of pregnancy, and intervention with students and their families to assist them in making healthy choices. PMID:25417331

  9. Early detection of occult atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Keach, Joseph Walker; Bradley, Steven M; Turakhia, Mintu P; Maddox, Thomas M

    2015-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common arrhythmia and significantly increases stroke risk. This risk can be mitigated with oral anticoagulation, but AF is often asymptomatic, or occult, preventing timely detection and treatment. Accordingly, occult AF may cause stroke before it is clinically diagnosed. Currently, guidelines for the early detection and treatment of occult AF are limited. This review addresses recent advancements in occult AF detection methods, identification of populations at high risk for occult AF, the treatment of occult AF with oral anticoagulation, as well as ongoing trials that may answer critically important questions regarding occult AF screening. PMID:25935765

  10. Views of oral cancer prevention and early detection: Maryland physicians.

    PubMed

    Canto, Maria Teresa; Horowitz, Alice M; Child, Wendy L

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain in-depth information on Maryland physicians' knowledge, opinions and practices about oral cancer examinations. The qualitative descriptive study used one focus group conducted in a conference facility and nine one-on-one interviews at private medical offices. A criterion-purposeful sampling was used for selection of participants. Generally, we found low awareness of, and surprise about, Maryland's high oral cancer mortality rates. Physicians were not surprised that they detect more lesions than dentists, although most physicians did not provide oral cancer examinations on a routine basis. Physicians were interested in attending continuing medical education (CME) courses on oral cancer prevention and early detection but only if worked into other CME programs on cancer. They were very interested in having hands-on training on performing an oral cancer examination. These findings will be used to implement educational interventions for Maryland physicians to help increase early detection of oral cancers. PMID:12076702

  11. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.  The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  12. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data reproducibility, and adapt to the changing landscape of biomarker science.  | Comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection.

  13. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  14. The Right to Prevention, Early Detection and Medical Rehabilitation under National and International Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greza, Gerhard

    1987-01-01

    Important aspects of legislation establishing the right of individuals to health protection and health promotion are highlighted. Examples from the Federal Republic of Germany are used to illustrate efforts to implement systematic measures for the prevention, early detection, early treatment, and medical rehabilitation of disabilities. (Author/JDD)

  15. Eating disorders in elementary and middle school children: risk factors, early detection, and prevention.

    PubMed

    White, J H

    2000-04-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are significant problems that are typically diagnosed during adolescence. However, the risk factors for and early symptoms of EDs often develop in the elementary and middle school years. Dieting, body dissatisfaction, obesity, parental attitudes, and the influence of the media are some of the significant identifiable risk factors. Prevention programs need to be developed that focus on education, consultation, and consciousness-raising. Early detection involves screening, assessment, and referral for appropriate treatment. School nurses are skilled, educated, and positioned to develop programs for the prevention and early detection of EDs. PMID:11151539

  16. Active Early Detection Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Active Early Detection Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. An overview of prevention and early detection of cervical cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gauravi A.; Pimple, Sharmila A.; Shastri, Surendra S.

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer still remains the most common cancer affecting the Indian women. India alone contributes 25.41% and 26.48% of the global burden of cervical cancer cases and mortality, respectively. Ironically, unlike most other cancers, cervical cancer can be prevented through screening by identifying and treating the precancerous lesions, any time during the course of its long natural history, thus preventing the potential progression to cervical carcinoma. Several screening methods, both traditional and newer technologies, are available to screen women for cervical precancers and cancers. No screening test is perfect and hence the choice of screening test will depend on the setting where it is to be used. Similarly, various methods are available for treatment of cervical precancers and the selection will depend on the cost, morbidity, requirement of reliable biopsy specimens, resources available, etc. The recommendations of screening for cervical cancer in the Indian scenario are discussed. PMID:22557777

  19. Noninvasive Real-Time Automated Skin Lesion Analysis System for Melanoma Early Detection and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Abuzaghleh, Omar; Barkana, Buket D.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma spreads through metastasis, and therefore, it has been proved to be very fatal. Statistical evidence has revealed that the majority of deaths resulting from skin cancer are as a result of melanoma. Further investigations have shown that the survival rates in patients depend on the stage of the cancer; early detection and intervention of melanoma implicate higher chances of cure. Clinical diagnosis and prognosis of melanoma are challenging, since the processes are prone to misdiagnosis and inaccuracies due to doctors’ subjectivity. Malignant melanomas are asymmetrical, have irregular borders, notched edges, and color variations, so analyzing the shape, color, and texture of the skin lesion is important for the early detection and prevention of melanoma. This paper proposes the two major components of a noninvasive real-time automated skin lesion analysis system for the early detection and prevention of melanoma. The first component is a real-time alert to help users prevent skinburn caused by sunlight; a novel equation to compute the time for skin to burn is thereby introduced. The second component is an automated image analysis module, which contains image acquisition, hair detection and exclusion, lesion segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. The proposed system uses PH2 Dermoscopy image database from Pedro Hispano Hospital for the development and testing purposes. The image database contains a total of 200 dermoscopy images of lesions, including benign, atypical, and melanoma cases. The experimental results show that the proposed system is efficient, achieving classification of the benign, atypical, and melanoma images with accuracy of 96.3%, 95.7%, and 97.5%, respectively. PMID:27170906

  20. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neha; Om, Hari

    2015-01-01

    In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural network (PNN/GRNN) for early detection and prevention of oral malignancy. The model is built using the oral cancer database which has 35 attributes and 1025 records. All the attributes pertaining to clinical symptoms and history are considered to classify malignant and non-malignant cases. Subsequently, the model attempts to predict particular type of cancer, its stage and extent with the help of attributes pertaining to symptoms, gross examination and investigations. Also, the model envisages anticipating the survivability of a patient on the basis of treatment and follow-up details. Finally, the performance of the PNN/GRNN model is compared with that of other classification models. The classification accuracy of PNN/GRNN model is 80% and hence is better for early detection and prevention of the oral cancer. PMID:26171415

  1. Fifty years of tobacco carcinogenesis research: from mechanisms to early detection and prevention of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Szabo, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the 1964 Surgeon General's Report initiated definitive and comprehensive research on the identification of carcinogens in tobacco products and the relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The resultant comprehensive data clearly illustrate established pathways of cancer induction involving carcinogen exposure, metabolic activation, DNA adduct formation, and consequent mutation of critical genes along with the exacerbating influences of inflammation, cocarcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. This mechanistic understanding has provided a framework for the regulation of tobacco products and for the development of relevant tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers that can be applied in cancer prevention. Simultaneously, the recognition of the link between smoking and lung cancer paved the way for two additional critical approaches to cancer prevention that are discussed here: detection of lung cancer at an early, curable stage, and chemoprevention of lung cancer. Recent successes in more precisely identifying at-risk populations and in decreasing lung cancer mortality with helical computed tomography screening are notable, and progress in chemoprevention continues, although challenges with respect to bringing these approaches to the general population exist. Collectively, research performed since the 1964 Report demonstrates unequivocally that the majority of deaths from lung cancer are preventable. PMID:24403288

  2. Incidental diffuse low-grade gliomas: from early detection to preventive neuro-oncological surgery.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme Lucas de Oliveira; Zanello, Marc; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Taillandier, Luc; Pallud, Johan; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    Although a large amount of data supports early surgical resection for symptomatic diffuse low-grade glioma, the therapeutic strategy is still a matter of debate regarding incidentally discovered diffuse low-grade glioma. Indeed, early and "preventive" surgery has recently been proposed in asymptomatic patients with silent diffuse low-grade glioma with better outcomes. The present review discusses the importance of an early diagnosis and of a preventive surgical treatment to improve the outcomes of incidental diffuse low-grade glioma and suggests the possible relevance of a tailored screening policy. PMID:26610909

  3. Early detection and prevention of pancreatic cancer: Is it really possible today?

    PubMed Central

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Segersvärd, Ralf; Lohr, Matthias; Verbeke, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the 4th leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. Considering the low incidence of pancreatic cancer, population-based screening is not feasible. However, the existence of a group of individuals with an increased risk to develop pancreatic cancer has been well established. In particular, individuals suffering from a somatic or genetic condition associated with an increased relative risk of more than 5- to 10-fold seem to be suitable for enrollment in a surveillance program for prevention or early detection of pancreatic cancer. The aim of such a program is to reduce pancreatic cancer mortality through early or preemptive surgery. Considering the risk associated with pancreatic surgery, the concept of preemptive surgery cannot consist of a prophylactic removal of the pancreas in high-risk healthy individuals, but must instead aim at treating precancerous lesions such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms, or early cancer. Currently, results from clinical trials do not convincingly demonstrate the efficacy of this approach in terms of identification of precancerous lesions, nor do they define the outcome of the surgical treatment of these lesions. For this reason, surveillance programs for individuals at risk of pancreatic cancer are thus far generally limited to the setting of a clinical trial. However, the acquisition of a deeper understanding of this complex area, together with the increasing request for screening and treatment by individuals at risk, will usher pancreatologists into a new era of preemptive pancreatic surgery. Along with the growing demand to treat individuals with precancerous lesions, the need for low-risk investigation, low-morbidity operation and a minimally invasive approach becomes increasingly pressing. All of these considerations are reasons for preemptive pancreatic surgery programs to be undertaken in specialized centers only. PMID:25232247

  4. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  5. Ultrasound Elastography Used for Preventive Non-Invasive Screening in Early Detection of Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Florian; Stahmeyer, Jona T.; Rossol, Siegbert

    2016-01-01

    Background Early discovery of liver fibrosis is becoming more popular because of enhanced incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Ultrasound-based liver elastography is a method used to approve suspected liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. We assessed the clinical usefulness of acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elasticity imaging (ARFI-SWEI) as a preventive screening method to uncover fibrosis. Methods We screened 382 patients by native routine sonography for abnormal liver results and divided them into six groups: group 1: normal liver, groups 2-4: fatty liver grade I-III, group 5: liver cirrhosis, and group 6: inhomogenic liver tissue. Then ARFI-SWEI was performed and the results were compared with published shear wave velocity cut-off values that were predictive of each fibrosis stage (F0-4). A control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers. Results The part of liver fibrosis ≥ F2 was in groups 1-4: 20-32%, group 5: 100%, and group 6: 91%. Main causes for fibrosis stage ≥ F2 were (non)-alcoholic steatohepatitis, chronic viral or autoimmune hepatitis and chronic heart failure. Conclusions Screening of the liver tissue in b-mode ultrasound can underestimate possible liver fibrosis; by using ARFI-SWEI, liver fibrosis can be uncovered early. It is a suitable preventive method comparable to colonoscopy for colon cancer. PMID:27540438

  6. Approaches to prevention and early detection of cardiomyopathies: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A meeting on cardiomyopathies was held in Geneva on 25-27 March 1985 to review the state of understanding concerning these diseases and to update the information and recommendations contained in the published report of the WHO Expert Committee on Cardiomyopathies which had met in 1983. Particular emphasis was given to discussing new scientific knowledge, priorities for etiological research, proposals for cooperation between research centres in developed and developing countries, early detection of cardiomyopathies, and possible population studies related to the disease. PMID:3533298

  7. Translating the transcriptome into tools for the early detection and prevention of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Gesthalter, Yaron B; Vick, Jessica; Steiling, Katrina; Spira, Avrum

    2015-05-01

    Despite advances in the management of lung cancer, this disease remains a significant global health burden with survival rates that have not significantly improved in decades. The mortality reduction achieved by low-dose helical CT (LDCT) screening of select high-risk patients is challenged by the high false positive rate of this screening modality and the potential for morbidity associated with follow-up diagnostic evaluation in patients with high risk for iatrogenic complications. The diagnostic dilemma of the indeterminate nodule incidentally identified on diagnostic or screening CT has created a need for reliable biomarkers capable of distinguishing benign from malignant disease. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to develop molecular biomarkers to supplement clinical risk models in order to identify patients at highest risk for having an early stage lung cancer that may derive the greatest benefit from LDCT screening, as well as identifying patients at high-risk for developing lung cancer that may be candidates for emerging chemopreventive strategies. Evolving bioinformatic techniques and the application of these algorithms to analyse the transcriptomic changes associated with lung cancer promise translational discoveries that can bridge these large clinical gaps. The identification of lung cancer associated transcriptomic alterations in readily accessible tissue sampling sites offers the potential to develop early diagnostic and risk stratification strategies applicable to large populations. This review summarises the challenges associated with the early detection, screening and chemoprevention of lung cancer with an emphasis on how genomic information encapsulated by the transcriptome can facilitate future innovations in these clinical settings. PMID:25628310

  8. Preventing breast cancer in LMICs via screening and/or early detection: The real and the surreal

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Subhojit

    2014-01-01

    To review the present status of breast cancer (BC) screening/early detection in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and identify the way forward, an open focused search for articles was undertaken in PubMed, Google Scholar and Google, and using a snowball technique, further articles were obtained from the reference list of initial search results. In addition, a query was put up on ResearchGate to obtain more references and find out the general opinion of experts on the topic. Experts were also personally contacted for their opinion. Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women in the world. The rise in incidence is highest in LMICs where the incidence has often been much lower than high-income countries. In spite of more women dying of cancer than pregnancy or childbirth related causes in LMICs, most of the focus and resources are devoted to maternal health. Also, the majority of women in LMICs present at late stages to a hospital to initiate treatment. A number of trials have been conducted in various LMICs regarding the use of clinical breast examination and mammography in various combinations to understand the best ways of implementing a population level screening/early detection of BC; nevertheless, more research in this area is badly needed for different LMIC specific contexts. Notably, very few LMICs have national level programs for BC prevention via screening/early detection and even stage reduction is not on the public health agenda. This is in addition to other barriers such as lack of awareness among women regarding BC and the presence of stigma, inappropriate attitudes and lack of following proper screening behavior, such as conducting breast self-examinations. The above is mixed with the apathy and lack of awareness of policy makers regarding the fact that BC prevention is much more cost-effective and humane than BC treatment. Implementation of population level programs for screening/early detection of BC, along with use of ways to improve

  9. Glycomics Laboratory for the Early Detection of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Ovarian cancer is a silent killer with few early symptoms and advanced disease present at the time of diagnosis. This cancer is the most lethal of all gynecologic malignancies with over 20,000 new cases diagnosed each year. The 5 year survival rates for ovarian cancer dramatically improve when the disease is diagnosed at an early stage. |

  10. [Skin cancer and sun radiation: peruvian experience in the prevention and early detection of skin cancer and melanoma].

    PubMed

    Sordo, Carlos; Gutiérrez, César

    2013-03-01

    The excessive exposure to sun radiation, especially to ultraviolet radiation (UV), has led to various diseases, in particular to skin cancer. In 1995, the Peruvian Dermatological Association conducted the first "Campaign for Education, Prevention and Early Detection of Skin Cancer and Melanoma" called "Mole's Day". The Ministry of Health has turned it into an official event, and the Health Social Security (EsSalud) also participates. This is a free campaign that takes place every year nationwide. 118,092 people attended from 1995 to 2011 in 76 sites distributed in 18 cities throughout the country. A cutaneous lesion were malignancy was suspected was identified in 2.8% of people attending, out of which 64.9% corresponded to basal cell carcinoma, 26.7% to cutaneous melanoma, and 8.4% to squamous cell carcinoma. These campaigns are highly important not only because of the assistance given, but also because of the educational activities aimed at promoting a prevention culture in favor of the most vulnerable populations. Finally, we believe it is important to continue educating the population on skin cancer prevention, to build awareness among the authorities so that they actively participate in the performance of these activities, and to ask all physicians to coordinately join this initiative, in order to continue growing, and to improve all that has been attained for the benefit of our country. PMID:23612823

  11. [Early detection and prevention of oral precancer. An enquiry among dentists in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Kolesarić, Natasa; Börner, Britt-Isabelle; Sader, Robert; Meyer, Jürg; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian

    2007-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma ranks eighth among the most common tumors worldwide. In many cases, these tumors develop from a preliminary phase (precancerosis). For different reasons, these preinitial carcinomas are recognised too late or not at all. The aim of this study was to find out about the dentists' state of knowledge, their management of these tumors and their readiness for a prevention campaign among Swiss dentists. 800 questionnaires were mailed or handed out to dentists nationwide. 22% of the questionnaires were returned. 64% of the dentists stated to be highly motivated for further education and 81% were willing to participate in a prevention campaign. 94% of the dentists examine the oral mucosa inclusive the (palatine) tonsil bed at least once a year, but only 15% of the participating dentists discuss the risk factors like alcohol or tobacco consumption with their patients. The most common factors which inhibit prevention in daily routine are the patients' refusal, a lack of education in that field, absence of information flyers and lack of time. A primary and secondary prevention program would be preferable to achieve a decrease in the incidence rate of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:17966929

  12. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, A.; Jarnevich, C.; Madsen, J.; Westbrooks, R.; Fournier, C.; Mehrhoff, L.; Browne, M.; Graham, J.; Sellers, E.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate occurrence data at local and regional levels within the United States, which are shared through the US National Institute of Invasive Species Science. The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network's Invasives Information Network (I3N), facilitates cooperation on sharing invasive species occurrence data throughout the Western Hemisphere. The I3N and other national and regional networks expose their data globally via the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN). International and interdisciplinary cooperation on data sharing strengthens cooperation on strategies and responses to invasions. However, limitations to effective collaboration among invasive species networks leading to successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species include: lack of interoperability; data accessibility; funding; and technical expertise. This paper proposes various solutions to these obstacles at different geographic levels and briefly describes success stories from the invasive species information networks mentioned above. Using biological informatics to facilitate global information sharing is especially critical in invasive species science, as research has shown that one of the best indicators of the invasiveness of a species is whether it has been invasive elsewhere. Data must also be shared across disciplines because natural history information (e.g. diet, predators, habitat requirements, etc.) about a species in its native range is vital for effective prevention, detection, and rapid response to an invasion. Finally, it has been our

  13. National Programme for Prevention and Early Detection of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Golusiński, Wojciech; Kubiak, Anna; Trojanowski, Maciej; Korytowska, Aleksandra; Pietrysiak, Aldona; Manasterski, Jerzy; Pychyński, Tomasz; Golusiński, Paweł; Majchrzak, Ewa; Sówka, Marcin; Szewczyk, Mateusz; Łuczewski, Łukasz; Szybiak, Bartosz; Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    550,000 new cases of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx and 160,000 of larynx are diagnosed each year worldwide. It is estimated that each year because of head and neck cancer 400,000 of patients will die. Head and neck neoplasms are the tumors which, because of their location, secretly develop and produce uncharacteristic symptoms identical to those that accompany the banal infections of the upper respiratory tract. Results of treatment of patients with head and neck cancer in Poland are highly unsatisfactory. This is due to significant advancement of tumor at the moment of diagnosis. Therefore, raising awareness and improving knowledge of health care workers on head and neck cancers by creating access to prevention research is a priority that will ensure improvement in treatment outcomes in this group of tumors in Poland and abroad. PMID:26388354

  14. NCI Awards 18 Grants to Continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Biomarkers Effort | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI has awarded 18 grants to continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), a national infrastructure that supports the integrated development, validation, and clinical application of biomarkers for the early detection of cancer. The awards fund 7 Biomarker Developmental Laboratories, 8 Clinical Validation Centers, 2 Biomarker Reference Laboratories, and a Data Management and Coordinating Center (DMCC). |

  15. Clinical practice guideline for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, management and follow up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Oscar Mauricio; Girón, Diana; García, Olga Milena; Fernández-Ávila, Daniel Gerardo; Casas, Luz Ángela; Bohórquez, Luisa Fernanda; Arango T, Clara María; Carvajal, Liliana; Ramírez, Doris Amanda; Sarmiento, Juan Guillermo; Colon, Cristian Alejandro; Correa G, Néstor Fabián; Alarcón R, Pilar; Bustamante S, Álvaro Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In Colombia, diabetes mellitus is a public health program for those responsible for creating and implementing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up that are applicable at all care levels, with the objective of establishing early and sustained control of diabetes. A clinical practice guide has been developed following the broad outline of the methodological guide from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with the aim of systematically gathering scientific evidence and formulating recommendations using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. The current document presents in summary form the results of this process, including the recommendations and the considerations taken into account in formulating them. In general terms, what is proposed here is a screening process using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire adapted to the Colombian population, which enables early diagnosis of the illness, and an algorithm for determining initial treatment that can be generalized to most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and that is simple to apply in a primary care context. In addition, several recommendations have been made to scale up pharmacological treatment in those patients that do not achieve the objectives or fail to maintain them during initial treatment. These recommendations also take into account the evolution of weight and the individualization of glycemic control goals for special populations. Finally, recommendations have been made for opportune detection of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes. PMID:27546934

  16. Clinical practice guideline for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, management and follow up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults.

    PubMed

    Aschner, Pablo M; Muñoz, Oscar Mauricio; Girón, Diana; García, Olga Milena; Fernández-Ávila, Daniel Gerardo; Casas, Luz Ángela; Bohórquez, Luisa Fernanda; Arango T, Clara María; Carvajal, Liliana; Ramírez, Doris Amanda; Sarmiento, Juan Guillermo; Colon, Cristian Alejandro; Correa G, Néstor Fabián; Alarcón R, Pilar; Bustamante S, Álvaro Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In Colombia, diabetes mellitus is a public health program for those responsible for creating and implementing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up that are applicable at all care levels, with the objective of establishing early and sustained control of diabetes. A clinical practice guide has been developed following the broad outline of the methodological guide from the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, with the aim of systematically gathering scientific evidence and formulating recommendations using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology. The current document presents in summary form the results of this process, including the recommendations and the considerations taken into account in formulating them. In general terms, what is proposed here is a screening process using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire adapted to the Colombian population, which enables early diagnosis of the illness, and an algorithm for determining initial treatment that can be generalized to most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and that is simple to apply in a primary care context. In addition, several recommendations have been made to scale up pharmacological treatment in those patients that do not achieve the objectives or fail to maintain them during initial treatment. These recommendations also take into account the evolution of weight and the individualization of glycemic control goals for special populations. Finally, recommendations have been made for opportune detection of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes. PMID:27546934

  17. Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2016-08-01

    There are a number of arguments in support of early measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low- and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed. PMID:27440823

  18. Preventing Early Learning Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornson, Bob, Ed.

    Noting that thousands of young children with the capacity to experience school success do not because they are unprepared for school learning activities, have experienced physical or emotional setbacks that cause them to be at risk for early learning failure, have never experienced limits on their behavior, or have mild sensory or motor deficits,…

  19. Prevention of early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A I

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods used for the prevention of early childhood caries (ECC). The education of mothers or caregivers to promote healthy dietary habits in infants has been the main strategy used for the prevention of ECC. This review found that education has a modest impact on the development of ECC. While education should be promoted especially in high risk communities and population groups (low-income families and native populations), it should not be the only preventive strategy of ECC. Early screening for signs of caries development, starting from the first year of life, could identify infants and toddlers who are at risk of developing ECC and assist in providing information to parents about how to promote oral health and prevent the development of tooth decay. High risk children include those with early signs of ECC, poor oral hygiene, limited exposure to fluorides, and frequent exposure to sugary snacks and drinks. These children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes fluoride varnish application, fluoridated dentifrices, fluoride supplements, sealants, diet counseling, and chlorhexidine. Prevention of ECC also requires addressing the social and economic factors that face many families where ECC is endemic. PMID:9671200

  20. Improving Early Seizure Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jouny, Christophe C.; Franaszczuk, Piotr J.; Bergey, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the search for a method able to reliably predict seizures hours in advance has been largely replaced by a more realistic goal of very early detection of seizure onset which would allow therapeutic or warning devices to be triggered prior to the onset of disabling clinical symptoms. We explore in this article the steps along the pathway from data acquisition to closed loop applications that can and should be considered to design the most efficient early seizure detection. Microelectrodes, high-frequency oscillations, high sampling rate, high-density arrays, and modern analysis techniques are all elements of the recording and detection process that in combination with modeling studies can provide new insights into the dynamics of seizure onsets. Each of these step needs to be considered if one wants to implement improved detection devices that will favorably impact the quality of life of patients. PMID:22078518

  1. Early markers of occult megaloblastosis for low-cost detection of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with ischaemic stroke: preventive approach for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Neogi, Sohini Sengupta; Thomas, Monica; Sharma, Archna; Kumar, Jaishree; Khanduri, Uma

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have focussed on the association between elevated homocysteine levels with megaloblastic changes and thromboembolic events, but the relationship between occult megaloblastosis (with normal haemoglobin levels) and ischaemic stroke has not been widely explored. The objective of this study is to establish a simple and economical marker for the detection of occult megaloblastosis at the community health care level in developing countries. A hundred patients who met the inclusion criteria were studied. At the 5% level of significance, the levels of cobalamin and folate were significantly lower, while the number of hypersegmented neutrophils on the peripheral smear was higher in patients from Group A (70 patients with high homocysteine) compared with the patients in Group B (30 patients with normal homocysteine). Forty-five (64.2%) of the 70 patients in Group A showed hypersegmentation of neutrophils in the peripheral smear. The high cost and difficulty in performing the vitamin assays limit their use as early markers of megaloblastosis. Hence, we conclude that in developing countries, the detection of hypersegmented neutrophils can be used at the primary healthcare level for early diagnosis of occult megaloblastosis, so that early therapeutic interventions with vitamins can prevent attacks of hyperhomocysteinemia-induced ischaemic stroke. PMID:25068715

  2. Early detection and rapid response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Prevention is the first line of defense against introduced invasive species - it is always preferable to prevent the introduction of new invaders into a region or country. However, it is not always possible to detect all alien hitchhikers imported in cargo, or to predict with any degree of certainty which introduced species will become invasive over time. Fortunately, the majority of introduced plants and animals don't become invasive. But, according to scientists at Cornell University, costs and losses due to species that do become invasive are now estimated to be over $137 billion/year in the United States. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) is the second line of defense against introduced invasive species - EDRR is the preferred management strategy for preventing the establishment and spread of invasive species. Over the past 50 years, there has been a gradual shift away from large and medium scale federal/state single-agency-led weed eradication programs in the United States, to smaller interagency-led projects involving impacted and potential stakeholders. The importance of volunteer weed spotters in detecting and reporting suspected new invasive species has also been recognized in recent years.

  3. [Early assessment of overweight for preventing obesity].

    PubMed

    Négre, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    The overweight child should be detected as soon as possible to avoid the occurrence of a more severe obesity, source of early complications. Thus, it is essential to carefully follow the BMI curve in all children with particular attention to the age of the early adiposity rebound (between 1 and 5 years). Early rebound indicates predisposition, and represents a risk factor for later obesity. The announcement is not harmless and should avoid unnecessary judging or blaming the family outside rare situations of abuse. Overweight results from an energy imbalance favored by many risk factors often entangled. These predisposing factors are specific to the child (especially genetic and epigenetic origin) and environmental. Among these environmental factors, those occurring during pregnancy and the nutritional education (too permissive or too restrictive) represent targets for primary prevention. PMID:26979017

  4. Clinical Practice Guideline for the prevention and early detection of breast and ovarian cancer in women from HBOC (hereditary breast and ovarian cancer) families.

    PubMed

    Singer, C F; Tea, M K; Pristauz, G; Hubalek, M; Rappaport, C; Riedl, C C; Helbich, T H

    2015-12-01

    An estimated 10% of breast cancer cases exhibit a higher familial incidence, and functional mutations in BRCA (breast cancer-gene) 1 or 2 are responsible for the development of malignant tumors in approximately half of these cases. Women with a germline mutation in either of the two genes have a lifetime risk of up to 85% to develop breast cancer, and of up to 60% risk to develop ovarian cancer. This clinical practice guideline defines the individual and familial tumor constellations that represent an indication for BRCA germline testing. It also describes the therapeutic options (early detection programme vs prophylactic surgery) that arise from the result of a BRCA mutational analysis. This guideline further includes recommendations regarding the use of multigene panels and therapeutic aspects that arise from the selective use of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in patients with known BRCA1 or 2 mutations. It replaces the previous version of the "Clinical Practice Guideline for the Prevention and Early Detection of Breast- and Ovarian Cancer in women from HBOC (hereditary breast and ovarian cancer) families" which was published in 2012. PMID:26525377

  5. Early detection and prevention of domestic violence using the Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) in primary health care clinics in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2008-01-01

    Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia. PMID:19124304

  6. Prevention, early detection and containment of invasive, nonnative plants in the Hawaiian Islands: current efforts and needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christoph Kueffer; Loope, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    Some of these new introductions may quickly become serious pests. Fireweed, first recorded in Hawaii on the Big Island in the early 1980s, is now considered one of the Kueffer & Loope 2009 5/48 worst weeds of pastures and is also invading natural areas from near sea level to above 10,000 feet. Although the cultivated and as yet non-invasive Cortaderia selloana has been present in Hawaii for 50 years or more, the morphologically similar Cortaderia jubata was simultaneously found to be present on Maui and invading on a large scale in 1989. It played an important role in inspiring the establishment of the Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC) in 1997, and MISC now spends roughly $200,000 per year removing and containing C. jubata to keep it from becoming widespread in high elev

  7. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado Granados, H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lübcke, P.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Cárdenas Gonzáles, L.; Platt, U.

    2011-09-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3°) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection limit. In

  8. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: A feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado, Granados H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lubcke, P.; Alvarez, Nieves J.M.; Cardenas, Gonzales L.; Platt, U.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized 5 since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in 10 volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to vol- 15 canic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3◦) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to 25 the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection

  9. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado Granados, H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lübcke, P.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Cárdenas Gonzáles, L.; Platt, U.

    2011-05-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ± 40 mrad (2.3°) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection limit. In

  10. Gastric cancer: Prevention, screening and early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach. PMID:25320521

  11. Prevention Starts in Early Childhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  12. Early Childhood Violence Prevention. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Marilyn S.

    Noting that all Americans are stakeholders in the quest to prevent violence in the critical early years, this Digest focuses on preventing violence in children's lives and suggests ways caregivers, parents, and teachers can reduce the damaging effects of violence. Even before a child is born, violence can have a profound effect upon its life.…

  13. NID2 and HOXA9 promoter hypermethylation as biomarkers for prevention and early detection in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma tissues and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Preston, R; Soudry, E; Acero, J; Orera, M; Moreno-López, L; Macía-Colón, Germán; Jaffe, A; Berdasco, M; Ili-Gangas, C; Brebi-Mieville, P; Fu, Y; Engstrom, C; Irizarry, R; Esteller, M; Westra, W; Koch, W; Califano, J; Sidransky, D

    2011-01-01

    Differentially methylated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) biomarkers, identified in-vitro and validated in well-characterized surgical specimens, have shown poor clinical correlation in cohorts with different risk profiles. To overcome this lack of relevance we used the HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, publicly available methylation and expression array data, and Quantitative Methylation Specific PCR to uncover differential methylation in OSCC clinical samples with heterogeneous risk profiles. A two stage-design consisting of Discovery and Prevalence screens was used to identify differential promoter methylation and deregulated pathways in patients diagnosed with OSCC and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Promoter methylation of KIF1A (κ = 0.64), HOXA9 (κ = 0.60), NID2 (κ = 0.60), and EDNRB (κ = 0.60) had a moderate to substantial agreement with clinical diagnosis in the Discovery screen. HOXA9 had 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity and a 0.81 AUC. NID2 had 71% sensitivity, 100% specificity and a 0.79 AUC. In the Prevalence screen HOXA9 (κ = 0.82) and NID2 (κ = 0.80) had an almost perfect agreement with histologic diagnosis. HOXA9 had 85% sensitivity, 97% specificity and a 0.95 AUC. NID2 had 87% sensitivity, 95% specificity and a 0.91 AUC. A HOXA9 and NID2 gene panel had 94% sensitivity, 97% specificity and a 0.97 AUC. In saliva from OSCC cases and controls HOXA9 had 75% sensitivity, 53% specificity and a 0.75 AUC. NID2 had 87% sensitivity, 21% specificity and a 0.73 AUC. This Phase I Biomarker Development Trial identified a panel of differentially methylated genes in normal and OSCC clinical samples from patients with heterogeneous risk profiles. This panel may be useful for early detection and cancer prevention studies. PMID:21558411

  14. NID2 and HOXA9 promoter hypermethylation as biomarkers for prevention and early detection in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma tissues and saliva.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Preston, R; Soudry, E; Acero, J; Orera, M; Moreno-López, L; Macía-Colón, G; Jaffe, A; Berdasco, M; Ili-Gangas, C; Brebi-Mieville, P; Fu, Y; Engstrom, C; Irizarry, R A; Esteller, M; Westra, W; Koch, W; Califano, J; Sidransky, D

    2011-07-01

    Differentially methylated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) biomarkers, identified in vitro and validated in well-characterized surgical specimens, have shown poor clinical correlation in cohorts with different risk profiles. To overcome this lack of relevance, we used the HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, publicly available methylation and expression array data, and quantitative methylation specific PCR to uncover differential methylation in OSCC clinical samples with heterogeneous risk profiles. A two stage design consisting of discovery and prevalence screens was used to identify differential promoter methylation and deregulated pathways in patients diagnosed with OSCC and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Promoter methylation of KIF1A (κ = 0.64), HOXA9 (κ = 0.60), NID2 (κ = 0.60), and EDNRB (κ = 0.60) had a moderate to substantial agreement with clinical diagnosis in the discovery screen. HOXA9 had 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and a 0.81 Area Under the Curve (AUC). NID2 had 71% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and a 0.79 AUC. In the prevalence screen, HOXA9 (κ = 0.82) and NID2 (κ = 0.80) had an almost perfect agreement with histologic diagnosis. HOXA9 had 85% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and a 0.95 AUC. NID2 had 87% sensitivity, 95% specificity, and a 0.91 AUC. A HOXA9 and NID2 gene panel had 94% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and a 0.97 AUC. In saliva, from OSCC cases and controls, HOXA9 had 75% sensitivity, 53% specificity, and a 0.75 AUC. NID2 had 87% sensitivity, 21% specificity, and a 0.73 AUC. This phase I Biomarker Development Trial identified a panel of differentially methylated genes in normal and OSCC clinical samples from patients with heterogeneous risk profiles. This panel may be useful for early detection and cancer prevention studies. PMID:21558411

  15. Special Section: Preventing, Detecting, and Treating Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... husband Jay Monahan first learned that he had colon cancer. Monahan died nine months after that, at age ... time, Couric has become a tireless advocate for colon cancer screening, early detection, and prevention to try to ...

  16. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  17. Prevention of Early-onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marió, M. J. Soto; Valenzuela, I; Vásquez, A. E; Illanes, S. E

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of up to 50% of healthy adults and newborns; it is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Early detection can be used to establish the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to significantly reduce neonatal sepsis. This article reviews methods of detection and prevention of GBS infection in the neonate. PMID:24358406

  18. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Eun; Kwak, Ju-Won; Park, Joon Won

    2010-01-01

    Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment. PMID:22315549

  19. Nanotechnology for early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Eun; Kwak, Ju-Won; Park, Joon Won

    2010-01-01

    Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment. PMID:22315549

  20. Early detection of contagious diseases

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Estacio, Pedro; Chang, John

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides an electronic proximity apparatus and a surveillance method using such an apparatus for alerting individuals that are exposed to a contagious disease. When a person becomes symptomatic and is diagnosed as positive for a given contagious agent, individuals that have recently maintained a threshold proximity with respect to an infected individual are notified and advised to seek immediate medial care. Treatment of individuals in the very early phases of infection (pre-symptomatic) significantly reduces contagiousness of the infected population first exposed to the contagious disease, thus preventing spread of the disease throughout the general population.

  1. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saslow, Debbie; Solomon, Diane; Lawson, Herschel W.; Killackey, Maureen; Kulasingam, Shalini; Cain, Joanna; Garcia, Francisco A. R.; Moriarty, Ann; Waxman, Alan; Wilbur, David; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Downs, Levi; Spitzer, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Saraiya, Mona; Franco, Eduardo L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.; Myers, Evan R.

    2013-01-01

    An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from six working groups, and a recent symposium co-sponsored by the ACS, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), which was attended by 25 organizations. The new screening recommendations address age-appropriate screening strategies, including the use of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, follow-up (e.g., management of screen positives and screening interval for screen negatives) of women after screening, age at which to exit screening, future considerations regarding HPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, and screening strategies for women vaccinated against HPV16 and HPV18 infections. PMID:22418039

  2. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saslow, Debbie; Solomon, Diane; Lawson, Herschel W.; Killackey, Maureen; Kulasingam, Shalini; Cain, Joanna; Garcia, Francisco A. R.; Moriarty, Ann; Waxman, Alan; Wilbur, David; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Downs, Levi; Spitzer, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Franco, Eduardo L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.; Myers, Evan R.

    2013-01-01

    An update to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guideline regarding screening for the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer is presented. The guidelines are based on a systematic evidence review, contributions from six working groups, and a recent symposium cosponsored by the ACS, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), which was attended by 25 organizations. The new screening recommendations address age-appropriate screening strategies, including the use of cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, follow-up (e.g., management of screen positives and screening interval for screen negatives) of women after screening, age at which to exit screening, future considerations regarding HPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, and screening strategies for women vaccinated against HPV16 and HPV18 infections. PMID:22422631

  3. Early neuropsychological detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Salmon, E

    2014-11-01

    Lifestyle modification offers a promising way of preventing or delaying Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, nutritional interventions can contribute to decrease the risk of dementia. The efficacy of such interventions should be assessed in individuals thought to be prone to AD. It is therefore necessary to identify markers that may help detecting AD as early as possible. This review will focus on subtle neuropsychological changes that may already exist in the predementia phase, and that could point to individuals at risk of dementia. Episodic memory decline appears consistently as the earliest sign of incipient typical AD. An episodic memory test that ensures deep encoding of information and assesses retrieval with free as well as cued recall appears as a useful tool to detect patients at an early stage of AD. Beyond the memory domain, category verbal fluency has been shown to decline early and to predict progression to AD. Moreover, in line with current diagnosis criteria for prodromal AD, combining neuropsychological scores and neuroimaging data allows a better discrimination of future AD patients than neuroimaging or neuropsychological data alone. Altogether, the detection of cognitive changes that are predictive of the typical form of probable AD already in the predementia stage points to at risk people who are the best target for therapeutic interventions, such as nutrition or physical exercise counseling or dietary interventions. PMID:25182019

  4. Early detection of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a low-incident but highly mortal disease. It accounts for only 3% of estimated new cancer cases each year but is currently the fourth common cause of cancer mortality. By 2030, it is expected to be the 2nd leading cause of cancer death. There is a clear need to diagnose and classify pancreatic cancer at earlier stages in order to give patients the best chance at a definitive cure through surgery. Three precursor lesions that distinctly lead to pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified, and we have increasing understanding the non-genetic and genetic risk factors for the disease. With increased understanding about the risk factors, the familial patters, and associated accumulation of genetic mutations involved in pancreatic cancer, we know that there are mutations that occur early in the development of pancreatic cancer and that improved genetic risk-based strategies in screening for pancreatic cancer may be possible and successful at saving or prolonging lives. The remaining challenge is that current standards for diagnosing pancreatic cancer remain too invasive and too costly for widespread screening for pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, the promises of noninvasive methods of detection such as blood, saliva, and stool remain underdeveloped or lack robust testing. However, significant progress has been made, and we are drawing closer to a strategy for the screening and early detection of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26361402

  5. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: A feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado Granados, H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Luebcke, P.; Alvarez Nieves, J.; Cárdenas Gonzáles, L.; Platt, U.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanic ash is a hazard to aviation mainly due to its threat to jet engines with the risk of total engine failure. Other hazards consist of abrasion of windshields and damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ashes provoked severe incidents of engine failure of jet aircrafts (e.g. Mt. St. Helens, USA, 1980; Mt. Galunggung, Indonesia, 1982 and Redoubt volcano, USA, 1989). In addition to volcanic ash, also volcanic gases pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure of sulfur dioxide (SO2) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and provokes damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention because its presence above the lower troposphere atmosphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic plume and indicates that fine ash could also be present. One of the most recent examples of volcanic ash impairing aviation is the eruption of Eyjafjallajoküll, Iceland, between March and May 2010, which lead to temporal closure of the European air space. Although no severe incidents were reported, it affected an unprecedented number of people and had a considerable negative economic impact on carriers. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has primarily been used to measure volcanic clouds from satellites and ground-based platforms. Here we present a set of experimental and model data, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 distributions in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove the concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements were conducted at Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, in April 2010. These observations were combined with radiative transfer studies modelling the conditions at hand. The ground based measurements were made by two stationary instruments, a further, mobile instrument was used to perform vehicle traverses below the plume

  6. Early detection of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  7. Early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Midthun, David E

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  8. Understanding Cancer Prevention, Detection, Treatment, Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Special Section Understanding Cancer Prevention, Detection, Treatment, Control Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... to this special section on cancer research and treatment. August 5 of this year marks the 70th ...

  9. Adolescent Suicide: Detection, Intervention, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popenhagen, Mark P.; Qualley, Roxanne M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents six myths of suicide are discussed. Risk factors, methods of detection of suicidal behavior, intervention techniques, and prevention of adolescent suicide. Characteristics of school-based suicide-prevention programs and appropriate teacher interventions are presented. A list of warning signs and two "no suicide" contracts are appended.…

  10. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, J; Dooms, C; Mascaux, C; Nackaerts, K

    2012-09-01

    The greatest news of the past year in this field was the first large-scale early detection trial that could prove a 20% reduction in lung cancer-related mortality by screening high-risk individuals with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Several expert groups and medical societies have assessed the data and concluded that LDCT screening for lung cancer is, however, not ready for large-scale population-based implementation. Too many open questions remain, such as definition of the at-risk population, timing and intervals of screening, optimal method of acquisition and interpretation of the images, how to handle (false) positive findings, and especially cost-effectiveness in relation to other lung cancer prevention strategies, mainly smoking cessation. Further analyses and several ongoing European trials are eagerly awaited. Much hope also resides in the use of biomarkers, as their use in, e.g., blood or exhaled air may provide more easy-to-use tests to better stratify high-risk populations for screening studies. While exciting research is ongoing in this domain--e.g. with microRNAs--none of the tests has yet reached sufficient validation for clinical use. Early central lung cancers are more difficult to visualise by CT. For these patients, standard bronchoscopy, complemented by autofluoresence endoscopy, has been studied in different screening and follow-up settings. PMID:22987984

  11. Detection and Prevention of Learning Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahraes, Herbert; Prestwich, Sherry

    The document provides an overview of learning disabilities and described are various approaches to the detection and prevention of these handicapping conditions. Discussed in the introduction are definitions of learning disorders, the multiple nature of the handicap, and maturational lag as a cause. A section on clinical approaches covers research…

  12. Early Detection of Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating illness, although its autosomal dominant genetic transmission allows a unique opportunity to study apparently healthy individuals before manifest disease. Attempts to study early disease are not unique in neurology (e.g., Mild Cognitive Impairment, Vascular Cognitive Impairment), but studying otherwise-healthy appearing individuals who will go on with nearly 99% certainty to manifest the symptoms of brain disease does provide distinct but valuable information about the true natural history of the disease. The field has witnessed an explosion of research examining possible early indicators of HD during what is now referred to as the “prodrome” of HD. A NIH study in its ninth year (PREDICT-HD) has offered a glimpse into the transition from an apparently healthy state to an obviously diseased state, and can serve as a model for many other genetic diseases, both neurological and non-neurological. PMID:24348095

  13. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Suresh T.; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Thayer, Sarah P.; Ahlquist, David A.; Andersen, Dana K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Firpo, Matthew A.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W.; Hines, O. Joe; Kenner, Barbara J.; Klimstra, David S.; Lerch, Markus M.; Levy, Michael J.; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Rhim, Andrew D.; Simeone, Diane M.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I.; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  14. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  15. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2008 ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, which ...

  16. [Preterm delivery: detection of risks and preventive treatment].

    PubMed

    Althabe, F; Carroli, G; Lede, R; Belizán, J M; Althabe, O H

    1999-06-01

    Every year around the world some 13 million premature children are born. Most of these children are born in developing countries, and they account for the largest share of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This review study analyzed scientifically validated data on interventions to prevent at least some portion of these preterm deliveries and to lessen their impact on neonatal health. The Cochrane and MEDLINE bibliographic databases were consulted. Fifty review pieces and research articles were studied, relating to the following aspects of preterm delivery: risk factors and early detection of the risk of preterm delivery; preventing the risk of preterm delivery; treating preterm delivery once it has begun; and preventing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. There were few successful approaches to the prediction, prevention, or early detection of the threat of preterm delivery. The only measures that can be recommended for all pregnant women are screening for and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria as a part of prenatal check-ups. Screening for bacterial vaginosis and treating it reduce the incidence of preterm births in pregnant women with a history of premature delivery. In addition, prophylactic cerclage decreases the incidence of premature births in pregnant women who have had more than three preterm births. To treat a delivery that starts early, with or without premature membrane rupture, the interventions that have proved to be effective are administering betamimetics to the parturient woman in order to delay delivery for 48 hours, and using indomethacin for the same purpose, as the second-choice drug. The prenatal administration of corticosteroids to the pregnant woman can induce lung maturation in the fetus and reduce respiratory distress syndrome and ventricular hemorrhage, thus decreasing neonatal mortality. There is a need to continue and support basic and epidemiological research in order to develop new knowledge on the causes and mechanisms of preterm

  17. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention.

    PubMed

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2016-03-18

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828

  18. Preventing Early Reading Failure: An Argument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    Across the pendulum-like changes in beginning reading instruction over the past 30 years, three interrelated ideas emerge as the key to preventing reading failure in kindergarten and first grade: (1) an interesting, carefully-leveled book curriculum; (2) a leveled phonics curriculum; and (3) a well-trained teacher who knows how to integrate guided…

  19. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  20. Nucleic acid detection in the diagnosis and prevention of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Song, Lan-Gui; Xie, Hui; Liang, Jin-Yi; Yuan, Dong-Ya; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lv, Zhi-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease that causes serious harms to humans and animals. Surveillance and diagnosis play key roles in schistosomiasis control, however, current techniques for surveillance and diagnosis of the disease have limitations. As genome data for parasites are increasing, novel techniques for detection incorporating nucleotide sequences are receiving widespread attention. These sensitive, specific, and rapid detection methods are particularly important in the diagnosis of low-grade and early infections, and may prove to have clinical significance. This paper reviews the progress of nucleic acid detection in the diagnosis and prevention of schistosomiasis, including such aspects as the selection of target genes, and development and application of nucleic acid detection methods. PMID:27025210

  1. Early Childhood Health--Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lawrence S.

    The Maimonides Early Childhood Health-Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program is described. The program provides a broad range of preventive services to children who are five years of age and younger. Services are organized into Post-Natal and Pre-School Programs. The Post-Natal Program offers group education and counseling, individual…

  2. Early Adverse Care, Stress Neurobiology, and Prevention Science: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that some of the difficulties observed among children who have experienced early adverse care (e.g., children internationally adopted from institutional care and maltreated children in foster care) involve experience-induced alterations in stress-responsive neurobiological systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Thus, incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research could aid in identifying the children most in need of preventive intervention services, elucidating the mechanisms of change in effective interventions, and providing insight into the differential responses of children to effective interventions. However, integrating stress neurobiology and prevention research is challenging. In this paper, the results of studies examining HPA system activity in children who have experienced early adverse care are reviewed, the implications of these results for prevention research are discussed, and critical steps for successfully incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research are identified. PMID:23420476

  3. Prevention of medication errors: detection and audit.

    PubMed

    Montesi, Germana; Lechi, Alessandro

    2009-06-01

    1. Medication errors have important implications for patient safety, and their identification is a main target in improving clinical practice errors, in order to prevent adverse events. 2. Error detection is the first crucial step. Approaches to this are likely to be different in research and routine care, and the most suitable must be chosen according to the setting. 3. The major methods for detecting medication errors and associated adverse drug-related events are chart review, computerized monitoring, administrative databases, and claims data, using direct observation, incident reporting, and patient monitoring. All of these methods have both advantages and limitations. 4. Reporting discloses medication errors, can trigger warnings, and encourages the diffusion of a culture of safe practice. Combining and comparing data from various and encourages the diffusion of a culture of safe practice sources increases the reliability of the system. 5. Error prevention can be planned by means of retroactive and proactive tools, such as audit and Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA). Audit is also an educational activity, which promotes high-quality care; it should be carried out regularly. In an audit cycle we can compare what is actually done against reference standards and put in place corrective actions to improve the performances of individuals and systems. 6. Patient safety must be the first aim in every setting, in order to build safer systems, learning from errors and reducing the human and fiscal costs. PMID:19594533

  4. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  5. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical...

  6. Detection and Characterization of Early Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, R. W.; Bond, M. G.; Riley, W. A.; Czapla, L.; Mazzola, C. J.; Birdwell, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Early stages of atherosclerosis in human subjects can be detected by lumen diameter and the pressure-strain elastic modulus. Results from non-human primate studies show that the intima thickens increasing the area enclosed by the elastic lamina. During this time the artery dilates so that the lumen area remains essentially constant. Only after the artery reaches its elastic limit does the lumen area decrease. Accurate measurements of arterial wall thickness and lumen diameter at diastole are important to the early detection of atherosclerosis. Axial resolutions of less than 0.1mm are required to detect tissue layers within the arterial wall itself. Two approaches and results of high axial resolution, deconvolution and high axial pulse generation, meeting range resolution requirements are presented.

  7. Early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: definition, assessment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Rennard, Stephen I; Drummond, M Bradley

    2015-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. COPD, however, is a heterogeneous collection of diseases with differing causes, pathogenic mechanisms, and physiological effects. Therefore a comprehensive approach to COPD prevention will need to address the complexity of COPD. Advances in the understanding of the natural history of COPD and the development of strategies to assess COPD in its early stages make prevention a reasonable, if ambitious, goal. PMID:25943942

  8. Early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: definition, assessment, and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rennard, Stephen I; Drummond, M Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. COPD, however, is a heterogeneous collection of diseases with differing causes, pathogenic mechanisms, and physiological effects. Therefore a comprehensive approach to COPD prevention will need to address the complexity of COPD. Advances in the understanding of the natural history of COPD and the development of strategies to assess COPD in its early stages make prevention a reasonable, if ambitious, goal. PMID:25943942

  9. [Screening programs for early detection of psychosis?].

    PubMed

    Cougnard, Audrey; Verdoux, Hélène

    2006-03-01

    Programs for the early detection of psychosis are currently underway in most developed countries. Their aim is to improve the outcome of subjects with psychotic disorders, but neither their feasibility nor their usefulness was assessed before their implementation. The postulate underlying these programs - that early treatment improves the prognosis of psychosis - has not yet been demonstrated. The absence of effective and adequately specific screening tests implies that a substantial number of the subjects evaluated may be incorrectly diagnosed with and treated for psychoses (false positives). Development of facilities specializing in the assessment and care of subjects with early psychosis often implies a decrease in funding for facilities caring for patients with chronic psychoses. Educational and information campaigns aimed at the general public and health professionals, on the other hand, may help reduce the stigma associated with psychosis and improve access to care for subjects in early stages of psychosis. Risk/benefit and cost/benefit analyses of programs for the early detection of psychosis must be evaluated before promoting their development. PMID:16550146

  10. Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) is a component of the PLCO Trial. By collecting biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before the diagnosis of disease, PLCO EEMS adds substantial value to the trial, providing a resource for cancer research, focused, in particular, on cancer etiology and early markers. Etiologic studies investigate the environmental, biochemical and genetic risk factors for cancer. Early detection studies aim to develop reproducible, diagnostics-ready biomarkers of early disease. | Risk factor data and biospecimens collected before the diagnosis of disease from participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial.

  11. [Early detection and treatment of strabismus].

    PubMed

    Mojon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An early diagnosis of strabismus is important in order to rule out treatable organic causes and in children, if indicated, to start as early as possible with an amblyopia treatment. Early detection will also decrease the risk for accidents secondary to diplopia, to the loss of binocular vision and to the restriction of the binocular visual field in case of esodeviations. The following therapeutic options exist: in some cases the prescription of the correct refraction will be sufficient, for small deviations a prismatic correction may allow a longstanding treatment, for larger or incomitant deviations strabismus surgery will be necessary, which nowadays can be performed using minimal-invasive technique on an outpatient base. PMID:26982644

  12. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Lisa; Brys, Miroslaw; Glodzik-Sobanska, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J

    2007-01-01

    Neuroimaging is being increasingly used to complement clinical assessments in the early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and metabolic positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are the most clinically used and promising modalities to detect brain abnormalities in individuals who might be at risk for AD but who have not yet developed symptoms. The knowledge of established risk factors for AD enabled investigators to develop enrichment strategies for longitudinal imaging studies to reduce the sample sizes and study duration. The present review focuses on the results obtained by MRI and FDG-PET studies that examined the preclinical AD stages in several at risk populations: (1) individuals from families with autosomal dominant early-onset AD (FAD), (2) patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), particularly in memory, who are at very high risk for declining to AD with an estimated decline rate of 10-30% per year, (3) normal young and middle-age subjects carriers of known susceptibility genes for late-onset AD such as the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) E4 allele, and (4) as age is the main risk factor for AD, normal elderly individuals followed to the onset of MCI and AD. Overall, these studies show that the use of imaging for the early detection of AD is successful even in the earlier stages of disease when clinical symptoms are not fully expressed and the regional brain damage may be limited. PMID:16839732

  13. A concept for early cancer detection and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waynant, Ronald W.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Mitra, Kunal

    2003-06-01

    Early detection and treatment of breast cancer is least costly in terms of dollars, morbidity and mortality. With new early detection x-ray technology, tumors can be found, diagnosed and treated at a much smaller size than is currently possible. This paper proposes the development of a high resolution, high quality imaging system. It is a laser-driven x-ray system with time-gated detection that removes scattering noise in the image and produces resolution on the order of 10 μm. This higher resolution and higher image quality will enable the detection of one or two millimeter tumors hopefully detecting them before metastasis. We also propose that tumor detection should be followed by an immediate needle-directed, optical fiber biopsy to instantly determine if cancer is present and, if present, the tumor should immediately be given a lethal treatment of laser or x-radiation through the same needle using fiber optics or hollow waveguides. This technology will help prevent multiple interventions resulting in both the lowest overall cost and a more efficacious therapy. The approach can be stopped at the first negative (benign) indication and will help forestall repeated examination as well as reduce patient anxiety.

  14. Mortality modeling of early detection programs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sandra J; Zelen, Marvin

    2008-06-01

    Consider a group of subjects who are offered an opportunity to receive a sequence of periodic special examinations for the purpose of diagnosing a chronic disease earlier relative to usual care. The mortality for the early detection group is to be compared with a group receiving usual care. Benefit is reflected in a potential reduction in mortality. This article develops a general probability model that can be used to predict cumulative mortality for each of these groups. The elements of the model assume (i) a four-state progressive disease model in which a subject may be in a disease-free state (or a disease state that cannot be detected), preclinical disease state (capable of being diagnosed by a special exam), clinical state (diagnosis by usual care), and a death state; (ii) age-dependent transitions into the states; (iii) age-dependent examination sensitivity; (iv) age-dependent sojourn time in each state; and (v) the distribution of disease stages on diagnosis conditional on modality of detection. The model may be used to (i) compare mortality rates for different screening schedules; (ii) explore potential benefit of subpopulations; and (iii) compare relative reductions in disease-specific mortality due to advances and dissemination of both treatment and early detection screening programs. PMID:17725809

  15. Endometrial cancer. Prevention, detection, management, and follow up.

    PubMed Central

    Elit, L.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review risk factors for uterine cancer; to discuss strategies for detecting uterine cancer; to outline prognostic factors and treatment; and to review the role of follow up for patients who have completed primary therapy. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1996 to June 1998 using the terms endometrial neoplasms, estrogen replacement therapy, hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen, and screening. Only English language articles were reviewed. Study types included reviews. Bibliographies of articles found were searched for further relevant titles. Causation literature is available from well conducted cohort trials. Treatment recommendations are based in part on prognostic information and a few randomized controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Risk factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, are associated with uterine cancer. Family physicians have a role in preventing disease by ensuring that all women with uteri in situ using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have progesterone therapy as part of the HRT regimen. Detection is crucial; abnormal uterine bleeding or undiagnosed postmenopausal bleeding warrants investigation with endometrial biopsy. The goal of surgery is to remove the uterus and ovaries and identify factors that make the disease at high risk of recurrence. Although adjuvant radiation therapy does not prolong survival, it does alter the pattern of disease recurrence. The goal of follow up after primary therapy is to identify recurrent disease while it is still curable. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians play an important role in preventing uterine cancer, initiating early diagnosis of disease, and in the future, might be more actively involved in caring for patients following primary therapy. PMID:10790821

  16. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La nutrizione svolge un ruolo

  17. Kidney diseases in children - early diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Polenakovic, Momir; Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric kidney diseases were in the focus of the World Kidney Day 2016. Macedonian pediatric nephrologists gave their contribution with public appearance in kindergartens, primary and secondary schools, with interactive lectures and discussion with the youngest about the kidney function, healthy life style and simple measures to prevent kidney and urinary tract diseases. Besides promotive appearance in the media, series of lectures were presented in front of the health professionals. The aim was to attract the attention of the professionals for early diagnosis and prevention of kidney disease. The action starts in utero, followed by early postnatal imaging and assessment, conservative treatment and in selected cases surgical treatment. The emphasis is on the multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach to children and adolescents with kidney diseases. PMID:27442411

  18. BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCER EARLY DETECTION PROGRAM OR MINIMUM DATA ELEMENTS (MDE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help improve access to early detection screening for breast and cervical cancers for underserved women, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act of 1990, which created the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Breast and Cer...

  19. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis

    DOEpatents

    Willard, K.E.

    1982-08-10

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  20. Incidence and prevention of early parturition in sows.

    PubMed

    Vanderhaeghe, C; Dewulf, J; Jourquin, J; De Kruif, A; Maes, D

    2011-06-01

    A retrospective study, based on 60,990 farrowing records from 35 commercial herds, was performed to determine the incidence of early parturition (<114 d) and to investigate the relationship between early parturition and total number of piglets born, number of piglets born alive and percentage of stillborn piglets per litter. The mean gestation length was 115.4 ± 1.62 d, and early parturition occurred in 10% of all farrowing records. Sows with early parturition had significantly more stillborn piglets and a larger litter size compared to sows with a normal gestation length (114-117 d). Sows with a gestation length <114 d were 1.2 times (95% CI: 1.19-1.21; p<0.001) more likely to have an early parturition at the subsequent parity. A second study was performed in four herds (n=329) to investigate the efficacy of altrenogest administration on 110-112 d (T112) or 111-113 d (T113) of gestation for preventing early parturition and to investigate the effect of this treatment on the reproductive performance of sows. The interval between the last altrenogest treatment and the onset of parturition was 3.3 ± 1.32 (T112) or 2.0 ± 0.89 (T113) days. The gestation length of sows of the altrenogest group (T112 + T113) (115.3 ± 1.23 d) was significantly longer compared to gestation length of the non-treated sows (114.7 ± 1.69d) (p<0.01). Altrenogest treatment had no negative effect on the reproductive performances of the sows. In conclusion, the administration of altrenogest in late gestation is an effective and safe method to prevent early parturition and can counteract the reproductive losses because of premature farrowing, which may occur in a substantial part of the farrowing events. PMID:20825588

  1. Noninvasive strategies for breast cancer early detection.

    PubMed

    Trecate, Giovanna; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Orlandi, Rosaria

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer screening and presurgical diagnosis are currently based on mammography, ultrasound and more sensitive imaging technologies; however, noninvasive biomarkers represent both a challenge and an opportunity for early detection of cancer. An extensive number of potential breast cancer biomarkers have been discovered by microarray hybridization or sequencing of circulating DNA, noncoding RNA and blood cell RNA; multiplex analysis of immune-related molecules and mass spectrometry-based approaches for high-throughput detection of protein, endogenous peptides, circulating and volatile metabolites. However, their medical relevance and their translation to clinics remain to be exploited. Once they will be fully validated, cancer biomarkers, used in combination with the current and emerging imaging technologies, represent an avenue to a personalized breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:27044539

  2. A developmental approach to pregnancy prevention with early adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Proctor, S E

    1986-10-01

    Traditional pregnancy prevention strategies employed with adults and older teens do not recognize significant developmental differences between early adolescents and other age groups. Methods that compliment, reflect, and are consistent with developmental needs of the young teen provide cogent approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. Particular emphasis should be placed on interpersonal relationships and their importance in the young woman's life, especially the relationship between the young teen and her parents. Developing and improving all relationships instrumental in positively affecting teen decision-making represent potent approaches to pregnancy prevention. The axioms of Piaget, Erikson, and Mercer are examined in regard to cognitive, social, emotional, and psychosexual development in the 12-14 year old. Young teens' responses to sex education as well as their use of contraception are reviewed in relation to developmental theory. PMID:3534458

  3. Early Prevention of Severe Neurodevelopmental Behavior Disorders: An Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Stephen R.; Courtemanche, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    There is a very substantial literature over the past 50 years on the advantages of early detection and intervention on the cognitive, communicative, and social-emotional development of infants and toddlers at risk for developmental delay due to premature birth or social disadvantage. Most of these studies excluded children with severe delays or…

  4. The Family Physician's Role in Preventing Early Termination of Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Verity H.

    1986-01-01

    Despite the high rate of breastfeeding among mothers as they leave the hospital, early termination of breastfeeding continues to be a problem. A new mother needs considerable education, support and, often, early intervention, not only to initiate breastfeeding successfully, but also to prevent breastfeeding problems occurring and to continue breastfeeding successfully for several months. Knowledgeable health-care providers are the key to promoting and protecting breastfeeding, yet in the community, many of these mothers, lacking the support of such knowledgeable advisers, often terminate early. Family physicians are in a key position to help the nursing dyad. This article looks at the role that family physicians can play in advising and helping mothers, and discusses the management of common breastfeeding difficulties. PMID:21267318

  5. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  6. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  7. Early Detection of Tsunami Scales using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This talk reviews how tsunamis form from earthquakes and how GPS technologies can be used to detect tsunami energy scales in real time. Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. Related reference: 1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. 2. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. 3. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han (2011) Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  8. Early detection of local buckling in composite bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Mannur J.; Ali, Bashir; Ferguson, Frederick; Schulz, Mark J.

    2002-11-01

    Most structural health monitoring analyses to date have focused on the determination of damage in the form of crack growth in metallic materials or delamination or other types of damage growth in composite materials. However, in many applications local instability in the form of buckling can be the precursor to more extensive damage and unstable failure of the structure. If buckling could be detected in the very early stages, there is a possibility of taking preventive measures to stabilize and save the structure. Relatively few investigations have addressed this type of damage initiation in structures. Recently, during the structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades, local buckling was identified as the cause of premature failure. Results from this investigation suggested that stress waves could be used for detecting the early signs of change in the local curvature that precedes buckling type of failure in this structure. These conditions have been replicated in the laboratory and detailed investigation on the ability of low frequency vibrations to detect the buckling displacement has been carried out. The experiment was performed on a composite bar. The results clearly show that low frequency vibrations could be used to detect the onset of buckling in which the local deflection is only of the order of 0.25 inches.

  9. Detection and prevention of mycoplasma hominis infection

    DOEpatents

    DelVecchio, Vito G.; Gallia, Gary L.; McCleskey, Ferne K.

    1997-01-21

    The present invention is directed to a rapid and sensitive method for detecting Mycoplasma hominis using M. hominis-specific probes, oligonucleotides or antibodies. In particular a target sequence can be amplified by in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, detected by nucleic acid hybridization using the subject probes and oligonucleotides or detected by immunoassay using M. hominis-specific antibodies. M. hominis-specific nucleic acids which do not recognize or hybridize to genomic nucleic acid of other Mycoplasma species are also provided.

  10. Epidemiology and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hillemanns, Peter; Soergel, Phillip; Hertel, Hermann; Jentschke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The new German S3 guideline 'Prevention of Cervical Cancer' published in 2016 is based on the latest available evidence about cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical precancer. Large randomized controlled trials indicate that human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening may provide better protection against cervical cancer than cytology alone through improved detection of premalignant disease in the first screening round prior to progression. Therefore, women aged 30 years and older should preferably be screened with HPV testing every 3-5 years (cytology alone every 2 years is an acceptable alternative). Co-testing is not recommended. Screening should start at 25 years using cytology alone every 2 years. The preferred triage test after a positive HPV screening test is cytology. Women positive for HPV 16 and HPV 18 should receive immediate colposcopy. Another alternative triage method is p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology. The mean yearly participation rate in Germany is between 45 and 50%. Offering devices for HPV self-sampling has the potential to increase participation rates in those women who are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer. Regarding primary prevention, the 9-valent vaccine may provide protection against up to 85% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 and 90% of cervical cancer, and is available in Europe as a 2-dose schedule from May 2016. PMID:27614953

  11. Probiotics in early life: a preventative and treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Ashkan; Villa, Christopher R; Comelli, Elena M

    2016-04-20

    Microbial colonization of the infant gut plays a key role in immunological and metabolic pathways impacting human health. Since the maturation of the gut microbiota coincides with early life development, failure to develop a health compatible microbiota composition may result in pathology and disease in later life. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Maternal transfer of microorganisms is possible during pregnancy and lactation, and the mother's diet and microbiota can influence that of her offspring. Furthermore, pre-term birth, Caesarean section birth, formula feeding, antibiotic use, and malnutrition have been linked to dysbiosis, which in turn is associated with several pathologies such as necrotizing enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, antibiotic associated diarrhea, colic, and allergies. Thus, early life should represent a preferred stage of life for probiotic interventions. In this context, they could be regarded as a means to 'program' the individual for health maintenance, in order to prevent pathologies associated with dysbiosis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of probiotic administration, pre-clinical studies have been conducted and found an array of positive results such as improved microbial composition, intestinal maturation, decreased pathogenic load and infections, and improved immune response. Moreover, specific probiotic strains administered during the perinatal period have shown promise in attenuating severity of necrotizing enterocolitis. The mechanisms elucidated suggest that probiotic interventions in early life can be envisaged for disease prevention in both healthy offspring and offspring at risk of chronic disease. PMID:26979945

  12. Collaborating for impact: a multilevel early childhood obesity prevention initiative.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Tara; Hoffman, Jessica A; Ahl, Marilyn; Bhaumik, Urmi; Healey, Christine; Carter, Sonia; Dickerson, Deborah; Nethersole, Shari; Griffin, Daphne; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures, a multilevel initiative in Boston, Massachusetts, which brings major institutions' missions and resources together to address early childhood obesity prevention. Programming is designed to facilitate healthy eating and physical activity in preschool children's home, school, and community environments by engaging parents and early childhood educators in the places where they live, learn, and play. This article describes how established interventions were implemented in a novel setting to engage the parents of children attending Head Start and staff, and presents pilot data from the first 2 years of the initiative. Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures is a feasible initiative, which has shown concrete, positive results that can be replicated. PMID:22617410

  13. Eating Issues and Body Image in Elementary School: Detection and Prevention Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Sarah I.; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2016-01-01

    Body image disturbance continues to be recognized in increasingly younger populations. Eating issues among elementary school children have become more overt and statistically prevalent in recent years. Elementary school counselors are in important positions to provide their communities with early detection information and prevention strategies.…

  14. Shedding New Light on Early Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Dong, Cecilia C.S.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Hewko, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a common chronic disease among various population groups. Patient care can be improved with detection at the earliest stage. However, current techniques do not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. We discuss 2 new methods — optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS) — that are potentially useful for early caries detection and monitoring. OCT produces morphologic depth images of near-surface tissue structures with a resolution that is an order of magnitude greater than ultrasound imaging. Based on measurement of back-scattered near infrared light, OCT shows that sound enamel causes high-intensity back-scattering at the tooth surface that decreases rapidly with depth. In contrast, incipient lesions cause higher light back-scattering at the tooth surface and subsurface scattering indicative of porosity caused by demineralization. The scatter region within the enamel correlates well with the classical triangular shape of subsurface lesions observed in histologic sections. OCT imaging not only allows identification of incipient lesions, but also provides information on surface integrity and lesion depth. PRS furnishes biochemical information about the tooth's composition, mineral content and crystallinity. The depolarization ratio derived from the dominant phosphate peak of hydroxyapatite in sound teeth is consistently lower than that from incipient caries. This difference is attributed to the change in enamel crystallite morphology or orientation that occurs with acid demineralization. Thus, PRS can be used to confirm suspect lesions determined by OCT and rule out false-positive signals from non-carious anomalies. The combination of OCT and PRS provides a new detection method with high sensitivity and specificity that will improve caries management and patient care. Future studies are aimed at developing intraoral probes to validate the findings in vivo. PMID:19126361

  15. Thermal Acoustic Oscillation: Causes, Detection, Analysis and Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.; Hartwig, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation discusses the causes of Thermal Acoustic Oscillations, how it can be detected, analyzed and prevented. It also discusses where it can occur, where it doesn't occur and practical mitigation techniques.

  16. Preventing Rejection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Assistance Lifestyle Changes Back to Work or School Physical Changes Relationship Changes Pregnancy Precautions Fertility Labor & Delivery Breastfeeding Risks Cancer Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection ...

  17. Screening for prevention and early diagnosis of cancer.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Jane; Robb, Kathryn; Vernon, Sally; Waller, Jo

    2015-01-01

    The poor outcomes for cancers diagnosed at an advanced stage have been the driver behind research into techniques to detect disease before symptoms are manifest. For cervical and colorectal cancer, detection and treatment of "precancers" can prevent the development of cancer, a form of primary prevention. For other cancers-breast, prostate, lung, and ovarian-screening is a form of secondary prevention, aiming to improve outcomes through earlier diagnosis. International and national expert organizations regularly assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening technologies, issuing clinical guidelines for population-wide implementation. Psychological research has made important contributions to this process, assessing the psychological costs and benefits of possible screening outcomes (e.g., the impact of false positive results) and public tolerance of overdiagnosis. Cervical, colorectal, and breast screening are currently recommended, and prostate, lung, and ovarian screening are under active review. Once technologies and guidelines are in place, delivery of screening is implemented according to the health care system of the country, with invitation systems and provider recommendations playing a key role. Behavioral scientists can then investigate how individuals make screening decisions, assessing the impact of knowledge, perceived cancer risk, worry, and normative beliefs about screening, and this information can be used to develop strategies to promote screening uptake. This article describes current cancer screening options, discusses behavioral research designed to reduce underscreening and minimize inequalities, and considers the issues that are being raised by informed decision making and the development of risk-stratified approaches to screening. PMID:25730719

  18. Early detection of local buckling in structural members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Bashir; Sundaresan, Mannur J.; Schulz, Mark J.; Hughes, Derke

    2005-05-01

    Most structural health monitoring analyses to date have focused on the determination of damage in the form of crack growth in metallic materials or delamination or other types of damage growth in composite materials. However, in many applications, local instability in the form of buckling can be the precursor to more extensive damage and unstable failure of the structure. If buckling could be detected in the very early stages, there is a possibility of taking preventive measures to stabilize and save the structure. Relatively few investigations have addressed this type of damage initiation in structures. Recently, during the structural health monitoring of a wind turbine blade, local buckling was identified as the cause of premature failure. A stress wave propagation technique was used in this test to detect the precursor to the buckling failure in the form of early changes in the local curvature of the blade. These conditions have also been replicated in the laboratory and results are reported in this paper. A composite column was subjected to axial compression to induce various levels of buckling deformation. Two different techniques were used to detect the precursors to buckling in this column. The first identifier is the change in the vibration shapes and natural frequencies of the column. The second is the change in the characteristics of diagnostic Lamb waves during the buckling deformation. Experiments indicate that very small changes in curvature during the initial stages of buckling are detectable using the structural health monitoring techniques. The experimental vibration characteristics of the column with slight initial curvatures compared qualitatively with finite element results. The finite element analysis is used to identify the frequencies that are most sensitive to buckling deformation, and to select suitable locations for the placement of sensors that can detect even small changes in the local curvature.

  19. Cardiovascular prevention: components, levels, early origins, and metrics.

    PubMed

    Kones, Richard; Rumana, Umme

    2014-08-01

    This article presents core epidemiological studies that establish the basis for cardiovascular prevention strategies. The results of the classic INTERHEART and INTERSTROKE studies that delineated population-attributed risk for myocardial infarction and stroke are described. Differences in the levels or types of prevention-primordial, primary, and secondary-lead to the concept that risk occurs on a continuum throughout life with great variability, beginning in infancy. Any meaningful and sustained reduction in cardiovascular risk must begin in childhood, as habits formed early in life have an impact for decades. Although it is never too late to improve unhealthy habits, interventions early in life are more likely to be effective in preventing disease from developing, in delaying manifestations, or in reversing pathology through evidence-based therapies that are applied later. There is compelling evidence that coronary atherosclerosis, heart disease related to diabetes, and hypertension begin with endothelial activation. Oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide availability are also among the earliest of events, from which a self-amplifying web of events proceed. The American Heart Association, even prior to its now-validated and classic definition of risk metrics, developed a strategic plan to improve health habits in the population and at the community level for promoting and monitoring behavior change and patients' self-reported health status. Other initiatives for improving cardiovascular health are in place as well. Despite improvements in treatment of risk factors, there has been minimal, if any, success in reversing the dual epidemics of obesity and diabetes. These 2 factors continue to drive the high burden of cardiovascular risk, and now lead current public health issues. Because treatment alone cannot fully address this tsunami of risk, it has been suggested that all physicians assume an unprecedented and aggressive role as advocates for behavior change to

  20. [Strategies for early diagnosis and prevention of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Valeri, A; Malavaud, B; Desrichard, O; Cornu, J-N; Blanchet, P; Dervaux, B; Puech, P; Villers, A; Cancel-Tassin, G; Cussenot, O

    2010-12-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) has become the most frequent cancer in France and represents the 4th cause of mortality by cancer. Main risk factors include age, family history, black ethnic origin and carcinogenesis results from interaction between environmental and endogen factors. This work aimed to review main data and strategic trends about evolution of prevention and early diagnosis of CaP. Research topics considered as priorities results from the main objective including definition of most efficient medico-economic strategies according to epidemiology, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and ethno-sociologic particularities, including in the schema presently used (PSA/biopsies): 1) new markers (genetic, serum and urinary), measurable environmental risk factors and potential prevention actions; 2) functional imaging (new techniques including contrast echography, dynamic MRI, spectro-MRI) in order to avoid unnecessary biopsies (60-70% biopsies are negative); 3) optimization of biopsies technique in identifying tumor zones in order to decrease false negative biopsies (about 15% of CaP < 0,5 cm3 but of high grade are missed in the first set of biopsies) and in improving the representativity of the tumor sample biopsied (discordance of about 40% between biopsy data and complete pathological analysis of prostatectomy specimen); 4) development of predictive models in order to perform individual prediction taking into account several risk factors (clinical and molecular) and genes/environment interactions in order to offer rational help in diagnostic and primary prevention procedures. PMID:21220227

  1. Early detection of ovarian cancer: background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, P. E.; Chambers, J. T.; Taylor, K. J.; Pellerito, J.; Hammers, L.; Cole, L. A.; Yang-Feng, T. L.; Smith, P.; Mayne, S. T.; Makuch, R.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has received national attention as a highly virulent disease. Its lack of early warning symptoms and the failure to develop highly sensitive screening tests have led some physicians to recommend prophylactic oophorectomies to women with relatives who have had ovarian cancer. Others have recommended routine screening of otherwise normal women for CA 125, a circulating tumor marker, and ultrasound examinations. Each of these techniques is associated with substantial false-positive rates that could lead to unnecessary surgery. A review of epidemiologic data suggests that familial ovarian cancer kindreds are rare, but women with first-degree relatives who have had ovarian cancer have a significant risk themselves for developing ovarian cancer. In addition, women with a great number of ovulatory cycles are at an increased risk for the disease. Circulating tumor markers are frequently elevated in women with advanced ovarian cancer, but their value in early detection of ovarian cancer has yet to be established. Advances in endovaginal ultrasound and color Doppler flow technology have significantly improved our ability to assess pelvic organs. This article presents the background, rationale, and structure of the Yale Early Detection Program for ovarian cancer, whose goals are to identify the best techniques for diagnosing ovarian cancer in an early stage, to determine the frequency with which such tests should be employed, to assess false-positive results, and to identify women who might benefit from prophylactic oophorectomies. PMID:1810100

  2. Early-initiated zidovudine therapy prevents disease but not low levels of persistent retrovirus in mice.

    PubMed

    Morrey, J D; Okleberry, K M; Sidwell, R W

    1991-01-01

    An F1 hybrid mouse strain containing the Rfv-3r/s genotype was inoculated with Friend virus complex (FV) and treated with zidovudine (ZDV) intraperitoneally three times daily for 20 days beginning as early as 10 min after initial viral exposure. This strain of mice develops FV-specific neutralizing antibodies that aid in reducing viremia and splenic virus titers but do not prevent splenomegaly and eventual FV-associated death. The virally exposed mice treated with ZDV did not develop splenomegaly or have detectable viremia after the last drug treatment. On day 21, a single animal had demonstrable virus in the spleen as determined by a focal immunoenzyme assay; 57% had detectable virus at 5 weeks, but non displayed splenic virus after 35 weeks. None of the animals died after the 35-week holding period, compared to 38% dying in placebo-treated mice. To detect low levels of the virus, or potentially latent virus, splenocytes were cocultivated with a cell line known to readily propagate FV, and the cells were subsequently passaged four times to amplify replication of the virus. After amplification, a significant increase was seen in the number of mice testing positive for virus. Thus, ZDV treatment initiated early after virus exposure was effective in preventing FV-induced splenomegaly and death, but did not prevent low levels of persistent retrovirus in the mice. PMID:2016687

  3. Early lung cancer: detection, treatment outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Balchum, O.J.; Huth, G.C.; Saccomanno, G.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a room temperature mercuric iodide x-ray detector was investigated as a function of detector bias, amplifier time constant, and detector temperature. A Mn K/sub ..cap alpha../ line of 200 eV FWHM was obtained by using low noise electronics developed for Si(Li) detectors, including a cooled input FET. Measurements of the detector's resolution at various x-ray energies result in a Fano factor of 0.20. Fluorescence bronchoscopy with a violet laser and image intensifier has been developed for imaging the red fluorescence of a tumor-specific agent, hematoporphyrin derivative, that has been injected before the examination. The instrument was developed to localize carcinoma in situ and early, small bronchogenic tumors diagnosed by sputum cytology but invisible on chest x-ray and conventional bronchoscopy, in underground uranium miners and others at risk for lung cancer. In addition to the imaging devices, a video system including a processor and electronics for digital background image subtraction has been developed to enhance contrast. A ratio fluorometer and a rapid-scan spectrum analyzer have been designed for quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensity and dependence on dosage and time after injection of the fluorescent agent. Clinical trials demonstrate detection of carcinoma in situ, and the true positive rate should be improved by the new instrumentation and optimization of time delay and dosage.

  4. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  5. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  6. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  7. Early Detection and Treatment of Hemodialysis Access Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego Beuter, Juan Jose; Hernandez Lezana, Antonio

    2000-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the usefulness of a program for the early detection of hemodialysis graft dysfunction and the impact on graft survival of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent implantation to correct venous stenosis.Methods: A program for the early detection of hemodialysis access graft dysfunction was carried out in 110 patients over a period of 80 months. Detection was based on physical examination, flow rate measurements, venous pressure, and analytical determinations performed at dialysis. The stenoses detected were treated by PTA or PTA plus stent deployment. Survival curves compared primary and assisted patency rates for the different graft types.Results: The most important indicators of dysfunction were increased venous pressure and difficulty in cannulation of the graft. Significant stenoses were revealed by 227 (92.2%) of the 246 fistulography procedures performed. PTA results were satisfactory in 100% of the Thomas grafts, 74% of the Brescia-Cimino (BC) grafts, and 53% of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. Technical success rates for stent deployment were 92% for BC grafts and 100% for PTFE grafts, while functional success rates were 96% and 97%, respectively. The difference in the primary patency (P1) and assisted patency (AP) values was statistically significant for all three graft types. There was no significant difference in the patency rates for grafts treated by PTA alone or by PTA and stent deployment.Conclusion: A surveillance program helped prevent graft thrombosis, and intervention as required achieved excellent primary and assisted patency rates. Stent deployment salvaged a considerable number of accesses but did not significantly extend access survival time.

  8. The early childhood caries prevention program in Palau.

    PubMed

    Larson, A Keith

    2003-03-01

    Early Childhood Caries is a significant public health problem in Palau. Data have shown that nearly 80% of children ages 3-5 years of age in Palau experience dental caries and a significant number of these children require general anesthesia to treat or remove painful or infected carious teeth. In response to this growing problem, the Division of Oral Health has systematically developed a prevention program in collaboration with the Maternal and Child Health Unit under the Ministry of Health. The core program involves integrating preventive oral health services into all regular prenatal and postnatal care programs and improving the capacities of health professionals to provide such services. The program promotes the idea that oral health is an important component to overall health and all efforts are made to integrate oral health into broader public health initiatives. Both health and process outcomes are being monitored by an oral health surveillance system, while preliminary data show improved oral health among young children. This paper takes a closer look at the development of the Palau program. PMID:16276951

  9. Early childhood obesity prevention in low-income, urban communities.

    PubMed

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Theise, Rachelle; Palamar, Joseph J; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Barajas, R Gabriela; Calzada, Esther J

    2014-01-01

    Given the disproportionately high rates of obesity-related morbidity among low-income, ethnic minority youth, obesity prevention in this population is critical. Prior efforts to curb childhood obesity have had limited public health impact. The present study evaluates an innovative approach to obesity prevention by promoting foundational parenting and child behavioral regulation. This pre-post intervention study evaluated an enhanced version of ParentCorps with 91 families of pre-Kindergarten students in low-income, urban communities. Assessments included tests of knowledge and parent report. Consistent with findings from two randomized controlled trials of ParentCorps, parent knowledge and use of foundational parenting practices increased and child behavior problems decreased. Child nutrition knowledge and physical activity increased and television watching decreased; for boys, sleep problems decreased. Comparable benefits occurred for children at high risk for obesity based on child dysregulation, child overweight, and parent overweight. Results support a "whole child," family-centered approach to health promotion in early childhood. PMID:24702665

  10. [Early diagnosis and prevention of severe forms of epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Boldyriew, A I

    1976-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment are the basis of prevention of severe forms of epilepsy. In order to determine the beginning of the process the author studied 400 cases in which the duration of epilepsy ranged from several weeks to 3 years. The investigations demonstrated that epilepsy develops in subjects presenting certain premorbid symptoms and signs. The "epileptic process" develops frequently as a result of past infections and craniocerebral injuries followed by residual neurological signs and cerebrasthenia. Seizure attacks, if no additional releasing factors are present, are preceded by various clinically weakly expressed seizure phenomena. They include peculiar,very vivid dreams, sudden awakenings with partly obnubilated consciouness and a feeling of fear, abortive psychomotor and other seizure. The "microseizures" include also myoclonic twitches preceding sleep and during sleep, auras, brief viscerovegatative attacks, opercular symptoms, symptoms of dream-like states, twitches of isolated muscles without consciousness disturbances. In 44% of cases asthenic symptoms were present in connection with microseizures. They served as background for development long-standing irritative foci manifesting themselves clinically with sluggishness of thinking and affect and compulsive features. Presence of these microseizures may suggest epilepsy long before appearance of typical seizures and may be an indication to beginning of treatment which may prevent the development of severe epilepsy. The syndrome of seizure-like microsymptoms makes it possible to recognize the prodromal stage of epilepsy and to change our views on its sudden onset. PMID:1264328

  11. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  12. [Pros and cons of early cancer detection in breast carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Callies, R; Oberhoff, C

    2005-04-01

    Mammography is an appropriate method for the detection of early forms of cancer of the breast, and for reducing mortality. Whether this actually succeeds depends upon the quality of the early detection strategies employed. Currently the data on reduction of mortality by mammographic screening remain ambivalent. PMID:15887680

  13. 77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register...

  14. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463)...

  15. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers...

  16. Trends in the use of preconditioning to hypoxia for early prevention of future life diseases.

    PubMed

    Basovich, Simon N

    2013-02-01

    Environmental factors during fetal life program the health outcomes regarding many diseases in future life. This idea has been supported by worldwide epidemiological studies, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Three questions should be answered. (i) Does a common underlying cause of ordinary pathological fetal development exist? (ii) If such a cause exists, which mechanism might develop disease in later life? (iii) Is it possible to prevent this underlying cause and therefore the associated obstetric complications to primarily prevent future life diseases? The objective of this review is to attempt to answer these three questions by using PubMed (extending to October 2012) and other sources. Three data-based answers corresponding to these questions were found: (i) hypoxia, (ii) excessive stimulation of neurogenesis, and (iii) preconditioning/adaptation to hypoxia. The method for such preconditioning/adaptation is intermittent hypoxic training (IHT), in which air with low oxygen concentration is breathed through a mask to protect against subsequent strong adverse influences. Data are cited for IHT applications for the prevention/treatment of diseases in different fields, particularly in obstetrics. Data suggested that all common fetal origins of adult diseases are likely predetermined by changes in the fetal brain; therefore, early detection of these changes must be very important. The use of IHT may be a real means to primarily prevent obstetric complications and therefore, prevent future life diseases. PMID:23524890

  17. Early airway pressure release ventilation prevents ARDS-a novel preventive approach to lung injury.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shreyas; Habashi, Nader; Sadowitz, Benjamin; Andrews, Penny; Ge, Lin; Wang, Guirong; Roy, Preyas; Ghosh, Auyon; Kuhn, Michael; Satalin, Joshua; Gatto, Louis A; Lin, Xin; Dean, David A; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) afflicts 200,000 patients annually with a mortality rate of 30% to 60% despite wide use of low tidal volume (LTV) ventilation, the present standard of care. High-permeability alveolar edema and instability occur early in the development of ARDS, before clinical signs of lung injury, and represent potential targets for therapy. We hypothesize that early application of a protective ventilation strategy (airway pressure release ventilation [APRV]) will stabilize alveoli and reduce alveolar edema, preventing the development of ARDS. Yorkshire pigs (30-40 kg) were anesthetized and subjected to two-hit injury: (a) intestinal ischemia-reperfusion, (b) peritoneal sepsis, or sham surgery. Following surgery, pigs were randomized into APRV (n = 4), according to current published guidelines for APRV; LTV ventilation (n = 3), using the current published ARDS Network guidelines (6 mL/kg); or sham (n = 5). The clinical care of all pigs was administered per the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. Animals were killed, and necropsy performed at 48 h. Arterial blood gases were measured to assess for the development of clinical lung injury. Lung tissue epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) was measured to assess alveolar permeability. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) surfactant protein A was measured to assess alveolar stability. Lung edema content and histopathology were analyzed at 48 h. Airway pressure release ventilation pigs did not develop ARDS. In contrast, pigs in the LTV ventilation met ARDS criteria (PaO2/FIO2 ratio) (APRV: baseline = 471 ± 16; 48 h = 392 ± 8; vs. LTV ventilation: baseline = 551 ± 28; 48 h = 138 ± 88; P < 0.001). Airway pressure release ventilation preserved alveolar epithelial integrity demonstrated by higher levels of E-cadherin in lung tissue as compared with LTV ventilation (P < 0.05). Surfactant protein A levels were higher in BALF from the APRV group, suggesting APRV preserved alveolar stability

  18. “Greenlight Study”: A Controlled Trial of Low-Literacy, Early Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician–parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population. PMID:24819570

  19. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: summative review.

    PubMed

    Chari, Suresh T; Kelly, Kimberly; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Thayer, Sarah P; Ahlquist, David A; Andersen, Dana K; Batra, Surinder K; Brentnall, Teresa A; Canto, Marcia; Cleeter, Deborah F; Firpo, Matthew A; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Go, Vay Liang W; Hines, O Joe; Kenner, Barbara J; Klimstra, David S; Lerch, Markus M; Levy, Michael J; Maitra, Anirban; Mulvihill, Sean J; Petersen, Gloria M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Srivastava, Sudhir; Tanaka, Masao; Vinik, Aaron I; Wong, David

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is estimated to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2020. Early detection is the key to improving survival in PC. Addressing this urgent need, the Kenner Family Research Fund conducted the inaugural Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference in 2014 in conjunction with the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society. This seminal convening of international representatives from science, practice, and clinical research was designed to facilitate challenging interdisciplinary conversations to generate innovative ideas leading to the creation of a defined collaborative strategic pathway for the future of the field. An in-depth summary of current efforts in the field, analysis of gaps in specific areas of expertise, and challenges that exist in early detection is presented within distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. In addition, an overview of efforts in familial PC is presented in an addendum to this article. It is clear from the summit deliberations that only strategically designed collaboration among investigators, institutions, and funders will lead to significant progress in early detection of sporadic PC. PMID:25931254

  20. A new system for early chloride detection in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laferrière, Francine; Inaudi, Daniele; Kronenberg, Pascal; Smith, Ian F. C.

    2008-08-01

    In a national and worldwide context, countless reinforced concrete structures are in an advanced state of deterioration. A principal cause of such degradation is chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement bars. This phenomenon is accentuated in countries where de-icing salts are used for road safety, as well as in maritime zones. To date, no non-destructive method quantifying chloride content during the corrosion initiation phase has been established. Measurement of such a parameter is important for the development of a better understanding of the complexity of corrosion phenomena and, more practically, for better management of existing structures. This paper proposes a new method for non-destructive measurement, for monitoring continuously and in real time free chloride content in concrete pores. In this context, a chemical sensor that employs optical fibers was developed and tested. The sensor functions using the fluorescence of an indicator dye that is sensitive to chlorides. Through fluorescence spectroscopy, variations in the concentration of free chlorides are related to intensity fluctuations of fluorescence. The use of optical fibers also provides an advantage compared with existing electric non-destructive detection systems due to superior electromagnetic stability. Theoretical and experimental studies calibrated and validated the sensor for implementation within mortar samples. Free chloride concentrations between 30 and 350 mM can be detected. Two experiments reproduced climatic variations in a controlled environment. The first test simulated a hot maritime climate and the second test simulated a cold continental climate. These tests confirmed that it is possible to determine with precision the free chloride content. Also, fluorescence spectroscopy with optical fibers offers an innovative means for early and non-destructive detection of free chloride content in concrete. As a result, this new method has potential for improving the science of corrosion

  1. Coverage methods for early groundwater contamination detection.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Luís Miguel; da Conceição Cunha, Maria; Ribeiro, Luís

    2013-05-01

    A method based on space-filling coverage designs to optimize groundwater monitoring networks for plume detection and quantification is proposed. Space-filling objective functions are then compared with more classical functions. The method was applied to a hypothetical case-study with 160 candidate locations, resulting in final optimal design monitoring networks with 40 locations. Results show that the method is superior to those based strictly on the probability of contamination detection for quantifying maximum and mean values. In the light of these results fractal properties of space-filling coverage methods and of simulated annealing are also discussed. PMID:23435904

  2. Innovative design for early detection of invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-native aquatic species impose significant ecological impacts and rising financial costs in marine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Early detection of invasive species, as they enter a vulnerable ecosystem, is critical to successful containment and eradication. ORD, at t...

  3. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing, Detecting, and Managing Disordered Eating in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bonci, Christine M; Bonci, Leslie J; Granger, Lorita R; Johnson, Craig L; Malina, Robert M; Milne, Leslie W; Ryan, Randa R; Vanderbunt, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention, detection, and comprehensive management of disordered eating (DE) in athletes. Background: Athletes with DE rarely self-report their symptoms. They tend to deny the condition and are often resistant to referral and treatment. Thus, screenings and interventions must be handled skillfully by knowledgeable professionals to obtain desired outcomes. Certified athletic trainers have the capacity and responsibility to play active roles as integral members of the health care team. Their frequent daily interactions with athletes help to facilitate the level of medical surveillance necessary for early detection, timely referrals, treatment follow-through, and compliance. Recommendations: These recommendations are intended to provide certified athletic trainers and others participating in the health maintenance and performance enhancement of athletes with specific knowledge and problem-solving skills to better prevent, detect, and manage DE. The individual biological, psychological, sociocultural, and familial factors for each athlete with DE result in widely different responses to intervention strategies, challenging the best that athletics programs have to offer in terms of resources and expertise. The complexity, time intensiveness, and expense of managing DE necessitate an interdisciplinary approach representing medicine, nutrition, mental health, athletic training, and athletics administration in order to facilitate early detection and treatment, make it easier for symptomatic athletes to ask for help, enhance the potential for full recovery, and satisfy medicolegal requirements. Of equal importance is establishing educational initiatives for preventing DE. PMID:18335017

  4. Early detection of CLas infections in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Early” detection of CLas infection is essential to minimize the risk of Huanglongbing (HLB) epidemics in areas where the pathogen has been recently introduced. Any delay in confirmation of CLas infection results in delays of regulatory and management actions, and increased spread of the pathogen ev...

  5. Multisensor configurations for early sniper detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, D.; Bank, D.; Carlsson, L.; Dulski, R.; Duval, Y.; Fournier, G.; Grasser, R.; Habberstad, H.; Jacquelard, C.; Kastek, M.; Otterlei, R.; Piau, G.-P.; Pierre, F.; Renhorn, I.; Sjöqvist, L.; Steinvall, O.; Trzaskawka, P.

    2011-11-01

    This contribution reports some of the fusion results from the EDA SNIPOD project, where different multisensor configurations for sniper detection and localization have been studied. A project aim has been to cover the whole time line from sniper transport and establishment to shot. To do so, different optical sensors with and without laser illumination have been tested, as well as acoustic arrays and solid state projectile radar. A sensor fusion node collects detections and background statistics from all sensors and employs hypothesis testing and multisensor estimation programs to produce unified and reliable sniper alarms and accurate sniper localizations. Operator interfaces that connect to the fusion node should be able to support both sniper countermeasures and the guidance of personnel to safety. Although the integrated platform has not been actually built, sensors have been evaluated at common field trials with military ammunitions in the caliber range 5.56 to 12.7 mm, and at sniper distances up to 900 m. It is concluded that integrating complementary sensors for pre- and postshot sniper detection in a common system with automatic detection and fusion will give superior performance, compared to stand alone sensors. A practical system is most likely designed with a cost effective subset of available complementary sensors.

  6. Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Chieh; Lau, Condon; O'Donoghue, Geoffrey; Mirkovic, Jelena; McGee, Sasha; Galindo, Luis; Elackattu, Alphi; Stier, Elizabeth; Grillone, Gregory; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S

    2008-09-29

    We report a fully quantitative spectroscopy imaging instrument for wide area detection of early cancer (dysplasia). This instrument provides quantitative maps of tissue biochemistry and morphology, making it a potentially powerful surveillance tool for objective early cancer detection. We describe the design, construction, calibration, and first clinical application of this new system. We demonstrate its accuracy using physical tissue models. We validate its diagnostic ability on a resected colon adenoma, and demonstrate feasibility of in vivo imaging in the oral cavity. PMID:18825262

  7. Lemierre's syndrome: the importance of early detection.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Dorothy; Linney, Michael John; Wilkinson, Rachel; Paul, Siba Prosad

    Sore throat is a common complaint, generally thought to be viral in origin, for which there may be a reluctance to prescribe antibiotics. This, combined with the emergence of antibiotic resistance, may explain the recent rise in the number of reports of Lemierre's syndrome (LS). LS characterises a postanginal septicaemia that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not recognised and treated early. This article describes the management of a 17-year-old boy diagnosed with LS to illustrate its classical presentation, common pitfalls in diagnosis and optimal management. PMID:24121852

  8. Early detection of acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, John Lynn; Devarajan, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a common problem in children undergoing cardiac surgery, with well documented increases in morbidity and mortality in both the short and the long term. Traditional approaches to the identification of AKI such as changes in serum creatinine have revealed a large incidence in this population with significant negative impact on clinical outcomes. However, the traditional diagnostic approaches to AKI diagnosis have inherent limitations that may lead to under-diagnosis of this pathologic process. There is a dearth of randomized controlled trials for the prevention and treatment of AKI associated with cardiac surgery, at least in part due to the paucity of early predictive biomarkers. Novel non-invasive biomarkers have ushered in a new era that allows for earlier detection of AKI. With these new diagnostic tools, a more consistent approach can be employed across centers that may facilitate a more accurate representation of the actual prevalence of AKI and more importantly, clinical investigation that may minimize the occurrence of AKI following pediatric cardiac surgery. A thoughtful management approach is necessary to mitigate the effects of AKI after cardiac surgery, which is best accomplished in close collaboration with pediatric nephrologists. Long-term surveillance for improvement in kidney function and potential development of chronic kidney disease should also be a part of the comprehensive management strategy. PMID:27429538

  9. Radiation detection and wireless networked early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, David A.; Litz, Marc S.; Carroll, James J.; Katsis, Dimosthenis

    2012-06-01

    We have designed a compact, wireless, GPS-enabled array of inexpensive radiation sensors based on scintillation counting. Each sensor has a scintillator, photomultiplier tube, and pulse-counting circuit that includes a comparator, digital potentiometer and microcontroller. This design provides a high level of sensitivity and reliability. A 0.2 m2 PV panel powers each sensor providing a maintenance-free 24/7 energy source. The sensor can be mounted within a roadway light-post and monitor radiological activity along transport routes. Each sensor wirelessly transmits real-time data (as counts per second) up to 2 miles with a XBee radio module, and the data is received by a XBee receive-module on a computer. Data collection software logs the information from all sensors and provides real-time identification of radiation events. Measurements performed to-date demonstrate the ability of a sensor to detect a 20 μCi source at 3.5 meters when packaged with a PVT (plastic) scintillator, and 7 meters for a sensor with a CsI crystal (more expensive but ~5 times more sensitive). It is calculated that the sensor-architecture can detect sources moving as fast as 130 km/h based on the current data rate and statistical bounds of 3-sigma threshold detection. The sensor array is suitable for identifying and tracking a radiation threat from a dirty bomb along roadways.

  10. Enhanced endoscopic detection of early colon cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, Gowra; Trowers, Eugene A.

    1999-06-01

    Enhanced endoscopic detection of small flat adenomas is becoming increasingly important as they have a reported 14 percent incidence of dysplasia when compared with 5% incidence in polypod adenomas of the same size. These lesions even when invasive do not show up against the translucent surrounding mucosa making endoscopic detection difficult. Dye spraying with indigo carmine makes their morphology clear, with well-circumscribed borders. Dye spraying and magnifying endoscopes can be used to observe pit patterns on the surface of the bowel. Combining dye spraying and high-resolution video endoscopy demonstrates well the colorectal epithelial surface. Scanning immersion video endoscopy visualizes the epithelial surface of the colorectal mucosa by high-resolution endoscopy after filling the lumen with water. Endoscopic ultrasound can be used to see if the lesion is intramucosal or not and assess the depth of invasion if malignancy is presented. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to detect colonic dysplasia in vivo. Combining such technologies with conventional colonoscopy can help in the surveillance of large areas of colonic mucosa for the presence of dysplasia. Guided biopsy can replace random biopsy based on information provided at the time of colonoscopic examination.

  11. The Early Impact Program: An Early Intervention and Prevention Program for Children and Families At-Risk of Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmar, Stephen; Gatfield, Terry

    2007-01-01

    The Early Impact (EI) program is an early intervention and prevention program for reducing the incidence of conduct problems in pre-school aged children. The EI intervention framework is ecological in design and includes universal and indicated components. This paper delineates key principles and associated strategies that underpin the EI program.…

  12. [Early jejunal feeding in acute pancreatitis: prevention of septic complications and multiorgan failure].

    PubMed

    Oláh, A; Pardavi, G; Belágyi, T

    2000-02-01

    Authors evaluate the effect of early jejunal feeding on septic complications and mortality in acute pancreatitis, based on the results of a two-phase, prospective, randomized study. In the first part of the study they compared the conventional parenteral nutrition with early (started within 24 hours) enteral nutrition in a prospective, randomized trial on 89 patients. Forty-eight patients were randomized into the parenteral group "A" (Rindex 10, Infusamin S, Intralipid 10%: 30 kcal/kg) and 41 patients into the enteral group "B" (fed by nasogastric jejunal tube Survimed OPD, 30 kcal/kg). The rate of septic complications (infected necrosis, abscess, infected pseudocyst) were significantly lower in the enteral group (p = 0.08 chi-square test). In the second phase of the study early jejunal feeding was combined with imipenem prophylaxis (Tienam, 2 x 500 mg i.v.) in the necrotizing cases detected by CT scan. According to the results of 92 patients the rate of septic complications (p = 0.03), multiple organ failure (p = 0.14), and mortality (p = 0.13) were further reduced in this group. Authors believe that combination of early enteral nutrition and a selective, adequate antibiotic therapy may give a chance for prevention of multiple organ failure. PMID:11299593

  13. Automated System for Early Breast Cancer Detection in Mammograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankman, Isaac N.; Kim, Dong W.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Weinberg, Irving N.; Gatewood, Olga B.; Brody, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand on mammographic screening for early breast cancer detection, and the subtlety of early breast cancer signs on mammograms, suggest an automated image processing system that can serve as a diagnostic aid in radiology clinics. We present a fully automated algorithm for detecting clusters of microcalcifications that are the most common signs of early, potentially curable breast cancer. By using the contour map of the mammogram, the algorithm circumvents some of the difficulties encountered with standard image processing methods. The clinical implementation of an automated instrument based on this algorithm is also discussed.

  14. Preventive Intervention for Anxious Preschoolers and Their Parents: Strengthening Early Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Warner, Carrie Masia; Lerner, Amy B.; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L.; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P.; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent-child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent-child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate…

  15. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  16. Evidence-based medical perspectives: the evolving role of PSA for early detection, monitoring of treatment response, and as a surrogate end point of efficacy for interventions in men with different clinical risk states for the prevention and progression of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Following FDA approval and introduction into the clinic in the mid-1980s, PSA testing has become arguably the most versatile serum tumor marker in urologic oncology with clinical use for early detection (screening) of prostate cancer (PC), risk stratification for clinical staging, prognosis, intermediate biomarker for monitoring tumor recurrence, and more recently as an intermediate biomarker for assessing therapeutic response to antiandrogens, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. PSA now routinely guides health care providers for the clinical management of PC over a wide range of clinical risk states for men at risk of PC, after local definitive therapy and after systemic therapy to prevent progression to metastatic bone disease, and to palliate men with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). To further assess the evidence that supports these clinical applications, this commentary reviews and critically evaluates the emerging body of new data focusing on several recently published seminal articles by D'Amico et al and Thompson et al, the new National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2004 recommendations for starting PSA testing at the age of 40 years old, the latest results from 2 phase 3 randomized, controlled trials of taxane-based regimens showing improved survival for men with HRPC, and the recent US FDA Public Workshop on Clinical Trial Endpoints in Prostate Cancer that helped to distill and synthesize the current state of the art and the progress toward validation of PSA metrics (eg, PSA velocity) as a surrogate end point (SE) for treatment efficacy with taxane-based regimens. Furthermore, several randomized, controlled chemoprevention trials in progress evaluating agents such as selenium and vitamin E in high-risk cohorts are well poised to confirm the validity of PSA as an SE for clinical efficacy for the prevention and progression of PC. Although there continues to be a need to validate better biomarkers before diagnosis of PC (more sensitive and specific

  17. EARLY DETECTION AND PROGRAMING FOR CHILDREN WITH SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGAHAN, F.E.

    THE GALENA PARK SPECIAL PROGRAM IS AN EFFORT ON THE PART OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION TO DETECT, AT THE EARLIEST TIME, ANY STUDENT PROBLEM WHICH MAY LEAD TO DIFFICULTIES IN SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT. ALL PHASES OF PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES ARE PLACED UNDER ONE COORDINATOR TO EXPEDITE SERVICES TO THE CHILD IN DIFFICULTY. EARLY DETECTION OF POTENTIAL PROBLEM…

  18. Detection and minimally invasive treatment of early squamous lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The majority of patents presenting with NSCLC have advanced disease, which precludes curative treatment. Early detection and treatment might result in the identification of more patients with early central lung cancer and improve survival. In addition, the study of early lung cancer improves understanding of lung carcinogenesis and might also reveal new treatment targets for advanced lung cancer. Bronchoscopic investigation of the central airways can reveal both early central lung cancer in situ (stage 0) and other preinvasive lesions such as dysplasia. In the current review we discuss the detection of early squamous lung cancer, the natural history of preinvasive lesions and whether biomarkers can be used to predict progression to cancer. Finally we will review the staging and management of preinvasive lung cancer lesions and the different therapeutic modalities that are available. PMID:23858332

  19. Obesity Prevention in Early Adolescence: Student, Parent, and Teacher Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Thomas G.; Bindler, Ruth C.; Goetz, Summer; Daratha, Kenneth B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a significant health problem among today's youth; however, most school-based prevention programs in this area have had limited success. Focus groups were conducted with seventh- to eighth-grade students, parents, and teachers to provide insight into the development of a comprehensive program for the prevention of adolescent…

  20. Prevention of Bullying in Early Educational Settings: Pedagogical and Organisational Factors Related to Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repo, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that bullying behaviour begins at an early age (three to six years) and that preventive practices should target early educational settings. However, no previous studies focus on early educational settings (kindergartens) as an arena for bullying behaviour. The aim of this study was to find what kind of organisational and…

  1. Ultrasonography for early detection of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Andolf, E; Svalenius, E; Astedt, B

    1986-12-01

    Ultrasound scan for detection of ovarian enlargements was performed in a target group of out-patients attending the clinic for various reasons in the 40-70 years range. Overall 805 women were examined, in 99% of whom the ovaries and/or their vessels could be identified. Pathological findings were suspected in 83 patients at the first scan, and were confirmed in 50 after a repeat scan, 39 of whom subsequently underwent surgery. Various ovarian lesions were found in 35 women, including five mucinous and serous cystadenomas, one carcinoma, two borderline tumours, and a cancer of the caecum. None of the borderline or malignant ovarian lesions were found by manual pelvic examination. Ultrasound screening appears to be a useful diagnostic aid, though its usefulness might be further improved if other risk factors such as heredity and period of ovulatory activity are taken into consideration. PMID:3542015

  2. Using prefrailty to detect early disability

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Benito, Miguel A.; Sevilla-Machuca, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In an aging population, new strategies are required to identify individuals at risk of adverse health outcomes. Frailty syndrome is related to negative health events. This increased risk may be used to identify individuals in which interventions can delay the onset of physical and functional complications. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the onset of frailty and the beginning of functional disability. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study with consecutive sampling to analyze 146 patients aged seventy and older who come to the primary care center. The level of frailty was registered according to fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and loss of weight scale. Disability for Instrumental Activities of Daily Live dependency, comorbidity, and social risk factors was registered too. Results: The prevalence of frailty and prefrailty was 17.8% and 39%, respectively, and were associated with age, level of disability, and the presence of gastrointestinal disease. Prefrail patients had initial levels of dependency, while those who were not frail were mostly independent. Conclusion: Frailty syndrome is easily detectable. The intermediate stage known as prefrailty is related to the start of the functional disability. The syndrome screening identifies individuals at risk in whom we can potentially intervene to delay the onset of the syndrome and delay functional disability. Control of comorbidity in frail patients must be studied. Screening age could be set in patients between 75 and 81 years old.

  3. Prevention, Detection, and Management of Chemotherapy-Related Cardiac Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Qadir, Husam; Amir, Eitan; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh

    2016-07-01

    Cancer treatment-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) occurs with many agents used in the treatment of cancer. This is most relevant in patients receiving cancer treatment with curative intent as opposed to those treated with a palliative intent where lifespan is more likely to be limited by the cancer diagnosis. Clinicians need to be aware of methods to prevent, detect, and manage CTRCD. This article frames an approach to CTCRD based on the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association stages of heart failure (HF). In patients who are at risk for CTRCD (stage A HF), risk reduction methods may be warranted, including management of cardiovascular risk factors, modification of cancer treatment, and universal preventive therapy. Once cancer therapy begins, it is prudent to detect and promptly treat myocardial dysfunction (stage B HF). This can be achieved by careful monitoring during therapy using echocardiography, multigated acquisition scans, or cardiac MRI. Subclinical myocardial systolic dysfunction (ie, without a drop in ejection fraction) can be identified using either echocardiography measured peak systolic global longitudinal strain or cardiac troponin I. At present, there is insufficient evidence to institute preventive interventions based on changes in these preclinical markers. Finally, in patients with stage C/D HF, management strategies should follow existing guidelines. Advanced treatment including cardiac transplantation and mechanical circulatory support may be considered in appropriate circumstances. PMID:27118058

  4. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented with early pharmacological intervention.

    PubMed

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad

    2011-05-01

    In the U.S., ∼ 21 × 10(6) individuals have type 2 diabetes, and twice as many have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Approximately 40-50% of individuals with IGT will progress to type 2 diabetes over their lifetime. Therefore, treatment of high-risk individuals with IGT to prevent type 2 diabetes has important medical, economic, social, and human implications. Weight loss, although effective in reducing the conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes, is difficult to achieve and maintain. Moreover, 40-50% of IGT subjects progress to type 2 diabetes despite successful weight reduction. In contrast, pharmacological treatment of IGT with oral antidiabetic agents that improve insulin sensitivity and preserve β-cell function--the characteristic pathophysiological abnormalities present in IGT and type 2 diabetes--uniformly have been shown to prevent progression of IGT to type 2 diabetes. The most consistent results have been observed with the thiazolidinediones (Troglitazone in the Prevention of Diabetes [TRIPOD], Pioglitazone in the Prevention of Diabetes [PIPOD], Diabetes Reduction Assessment with Ramipril and Rosiglitazone Medication [DREAM], and Actos Now for the Prevention of Diabetes [ACT NOW]), with a 50-70% reduction in IGT conversion to diabetes. Metformin in the U.S. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) reduced the development of type 2 diabetes by 31% and has been recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for treating high-risk individuals with IGT. The glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, which augment insulin secretion, preserve β-cell function, and promote weight loss, also would be expected to be efficacious in preventing the progression of IGT to type 2 diabetes. Because individuals in the upper tertile of IGT are maximally/near-maximally insulin resistant, have lost 70-80% of their β-cell function, and have an ∼ 10% incidence of diabetic retinopathy, pharmacological intervention, in combination with diet plus exercise, should be instituted. PMID

  5. Anicteric early bile duct carcinoma detection with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Oshikiri, Taro; Morita, Takayuki; Fujita, Miyoshi; Miyasaka, Yuji; Senmaru, Naoto; Yamada, Hidehisa; Kondo, Satoshi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The poor prognosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma makes early detection and diagnosis essential for positive patient outcomes. We describe 2 cases of jaundice-free early extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma detected by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma was discovered incidentally in patient 1 by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography during evaluation of a gallbladder stone. In patient 2, extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma was found during a routine health maintenance exam. Both patients underwent radical surgical intervention. Both patient 1 and 2 have remained in good health for over one year, 3.5 and one year, respectively, and have not exhibited any signs or symptoms of relapse or cancer recurrence. Based on these cases, it appears that magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography can play a significant role in the early detection of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma and improve disease prognosis. PMID:15816438

  6. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  7. Na(+)-H(+) exchanger inhibitor prevents early death in hereditary cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bkaily, Ghassan; Chahine, Mirna; Al-Khoury, Johny; Avedanian, Levon; Beier, Norbert; Scholz, Wolfgang; Jacques, Danielle

    2015-11-01

    Using the UM-X7.1 hereditary cardiomyopathic and muscular dystrophy hamsters (HCMH), we tested the effects of lifelong preventive or curative treatments during the heart failure phase with the NHE-1 inhibitor EMD 87580 (EMD) or with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor cilazapril on the intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) overloads, elevated level of NHE-1, necrosis, hypertrophy, heart failure, and early death. Our results showed that 310-day pretreatment of 30-day-old HCMHs with EMD significantly prevented cardiac necrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and reduced the heart to body mass ratio. This treatment significantly prevented Na(+) and Ca(2+) overloads and the increase in NHE-1 protein level observed in HCMHs. Importantly, this lifelong preventive treatment significantly decreased the levels of creatine kinase and prevented early death of HCMHs. Curative treatment of hypertrophic 275-day-old HCMHs for 85 days with EMD significantly prevented hypertrophy and early death of HCMHs. However, treatments with cilazapril did not have any significant effects on the cardiac parameters studied or on early death of HCMHs. Our results suggest that the increase in the NHE-1 level and the consequent Na(+) and Ca(2+) overloads are implicated in the pathological process leading to heart failure and early death in HCMHs, and treatment with the NHE-1 inhibitor is promising for preventing early death in hereditary cardiomyopathy. PMID:26291649

  8. Thermal Acoustic Oscillation: Causes, Detection, Analysis, and Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, R. J.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Acoustic Oscillations (TAO) can occur in cryogenic systems and produce significant sources of heat. This source of heat can increase the boil off rate of cryogenic propellants in spacecraft storage tanks and reduce mission life. This paper discusses the causes of TAO, how it can be detected, what analyses can be done to predict it, and how to prevent it from occurring.The paper provides practical insight into what can aggravate instability, practical methods for mitigation, and when TAO does not occur. A real life example of a cryogenic system with an unexpected heat source is discussed, along with how TAO was confirmed and eliminated.

  9. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    PubMed

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer. PMID:25898957

  10. Dutasteride May Slow the Growth of Early-Stage Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    For men who are undergoing active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer, the drug dutasteride (Avodart) could help control the disease and prevent the need for more aggressive treatments. |

  11. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  12. Multistatic adaptive microwave imaging for early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yao; Guo, Bin; Xu, Luzhou; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre

    2006-08-01

    We propose a new multistatic adaptive microwave imaging (MAMI) method for early breast cancer detection. MAMI is a two-stage robust Capon beamforming (RCB) based image formation algorithm. MAMI exhibits higher resolution, lower sidelobes, and better noise and interference rejection capabilities than the existing approaches. The effectiveness of using MAMI for breast cancer detection is demonstrated via a simulated 3-D breast model and several numerical examples. PMID:16916099

  13. Preventive Screening for Early Readers: Predictive Validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffreda, Catherine T.; Diperna, James Clyde; Pedersen, Jason A.

    2009-01-01

    Current empirical evidence indicates poor learning trajectories for students with early literacy skill deficits. As such, reliable and valid detection of at-risk students through regular screening and progress monitoring is imperative. This study investigated the predictive validity of scores on the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  14. Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    Fefferman, NH; Naumova, EN

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old ones—health threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorism—call for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance. PMID:22460396

  15. Early Intervention and Prevention--Issues and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopfstein, Rosalind

    This paper reviews the American Association on Mental Retardation's (AAMR's) presentation of issues surrounding the field of early intervention. AAMR's publications are the primary sources of information in the paper. Specific sections address: (1) the impact of public laws on the rights of children and families to a free and appropriate public…

  16. Defect Prevention and Detection in Software for Automated Test Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    E. Bean

    2006-11-30

    Software for automated test equipment can be tedious and monotonous making it just as error-prone as other software. Active defect prevention and detection are also important for test applications. Incomplete or unclear requirements, a cryptic syntax used for some test applications—especially script-based test sets, variability in syntax or structure, and changing requirements are among the problems encountered in one tester. Such problems are common to all software but can be particularly problematic in test equipment software intended to test another product. Each of these issues increases the probability of error injection during test application development. This report describes a test application development tool designed to address these issues and others for a particular piece of test equipment. By addressing these problems in the development environment, the tool has powerful built-in defect prevention and detection capabilities. Regular expressions are widely used in the development tool as a means of formally defining test equipment requirements for the test application and verifying conformance to those requirements. A novel means of using regular expressions to perform range checking was developed. A reduction in rework and increased productivity are the results. These capabilities are described along with lessons learned and their applicability to other test equipment software. The test application development tool, or “application builder”, is known as the PT3800 AM Creation, Revision and Archiving Tool (PACRAT).

  17. Consortium for Molecular Characterization of Screen-Detected Lesions Created: Eight Grants Awarded | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI has awarded eight grants to create the Consortium for Molecular Characterization of Screen-Detected Lesions. The consortium has seven molecular characterization laboratories (MCLs) and a coordinating center, and is supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention and the Division of Cancer Biology. | 7 laboratories and a coordinating center focused on identifying screening-detected pre-cancers and early cancers, including within the tumor microenvironment.

  18. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP). The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease), by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS). Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of infectious disease may lead to

  19. 28 CFR 104.71 - Procedures to prevent and detect fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures to prevent and detect fraud. 104.71 Section 104.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM... prevent and detect fraud. (a) Review of claims. For the purpose of detecting and preventing the payment...

  20. 28 CFR 104.71 - Procedures to prevent and detect fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures to prevent and detect fraud. 104.71 Section 104.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM... prevent and detect fraud. (a) Review of claims. For the purpose of detecting and preventing the payment...

  1. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: Opportunities and Challenges for Preventing Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asawa, Lindsay E.; Hansen, David J.; Flood, Mary Fran

    2008-01-01

    Due to the destructive impact of child maltreatment and limited available funding to address its consequences, the value of preventive measures is evident. Early Childhood Intervention Programs (ECIPs) provide excellent opportunities to prevent and identify cases of child maltreatment, among other varied objectives. These programs are typically…

  2. Sports and Marfan Syndrome: Awareness and Early Diagnosis Can Prevent Sudden Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salim, Mubadda A.; Alpert, Bruce S.

    2001-01-01

    Physicians who work with athletes play an important role in preventing sudden death related to physical activity in people who have Marfan syndrome. Flagging those who have the physical stigmata and listening for certain cardiac auscultation sounds are early diagnostic keys that can help prevent deaths. People with Marfan syndrome should be…

  3. Illumina Spin-off to Develop Early-Detection Test.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Janet

    2016-04-01

    DNA-sequencing giant Illumina has formed a new company, called Grail, to develop liquid biopsies capable of spotting cancer before symptoms arise. The start-up is working on a low-cost "pan-cancer" test that can detect multiple cancer types early, which it hopes to introduce by 2019. PMID:26873346

  4. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » More Information » Prostate Cancer Early Detection » American ... Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News ...

  5. The Early Risers Preventive Intervention: Testing for Six-year Outcomes and Mediational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernat, Debra H.; August, Gerald J.; Hektner, Joel M.; Bloomquist, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" early-age-targeted prevention program on serious conduct problems following 5 years of continuous intervention and one year of follow-up. We also examined if intervention effects on proximally-targeted variables found after 3 years mediated intervention effects on conduct problems found…

  6. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  7. Early Childhood Malaria Prevention and Children's Patterns of School Leaving in the Gambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…

  8. Early Development of Delinquency within Divorced Families: Evaluating a Randomized Preventive Intervention Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGarmo, David S.; Forgatch, Marion S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an experimental test of coercion theory early onset model of delinquency. Results are from the Oregon Divorce Study-II, a randomized preventive intervention trial with a sample of 238 recently separated mothers and their sons in early elementary school. The objective was to experimentally manipulate parenting variables…

  9. A Theater-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Sexual Behavior for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lisa D.; Berlin, Cydelle; Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a crucial period for preventing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This study evaluated STAR LO, a theater-based intervention designed to affect antecedents of sexual activity among urban early adolescents (N = 1,143). Public elementary/middle schools received the intervention or served as a wait-listed…

  10. Topics and sources of memorable breast cancer messages and their impact on prevention and detection behaviors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sandi W; Nazione, Samantha; Laplante, Carolyn; Kotowski, Michael R; Atkin, Charles; Skubisz, Christine M; Stohl, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Often, people are able to recall a message on a particular topic for a long period of time. These memorable messages have the ability to influence behavior when they are recalled from memory long after initial exposure. Knowing the topics and sources of the messages that are remembered about breast cancer can improve the efficacy of future breast cancer outreach. To this end, 359 women completed an online survey about memorable breast cancer messages. Most women (60%) recalled a memorable message, described it, identified its source, and noted whether it had resulted in prevention or detection behaviors. Four categories of message topics emerged: early detection (37.3%), awareness (30.9%), treatment (25.8%), and prevention (6%). Furthermore, five categories of sources of these memorable messages were found: media (35.5%), friends (22.2%), family (21.6%), medical professionals (15.2%), and others (5.5%). The media were a major source of all four topics of messages, although family members, friends, and the medical community were major sources for particular message topics as well. Memorable messages originating from medical professionals were substantially more likely to motivate detection behaviors than prevention behaviors. This research demonstrates that message topic and source both play roles in determining message recall as well as in determining how memorable messages impacted behavior. PMID:19440911

  11. [From early detection to early care: intervention strategies based on prospective screening].

    PubMed

    Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; García-Primo, Patricia; Hernández-Fabián, Aránzazu; Magán-Maganto, María; Sánchez, Ana B; Posada-De la Paz, Manuel

    2015-02-25

    INTRODUCTION. The challenge of early detection can be tackled from an evolutionary perspective. Early intervention treatments have shown themselves to be effective provided that they are applied systematically as part of the strategic planning of the treatment. AIMS. The aim of this study is to provide an updated review in response to the criticism targeted towards early detection and to offer some considerations on the intervention strategy. Our research is based on a review of the early care techniques that are commonly used within the field of autism and it intends to reflect the most significant aspects that can be deduced from the experiments and studies carried out to date. CONCLUSIONS. From the findings of the review it can be concluded that early detection may be more efficient if carried out within the framework of developmental surveillance, which also offers the opportunity to provide guidance on the child's development. Early care is an effective resource for attending to the needs of children with autism. Professionals have the duty to assess the work they do on available treatments with a reflexive, judicious attitude, taking into account the values and preferences of the families. Programmes must focus on the core symptoms and apply the active ingredients of the treatment. PMID:25726819

  12. Early detection of rogue waves by the wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayındır, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possible advantages of using the wavelet transform over the Fourier transform for the early detection of rogue waves. We show that the triangular wavelet spectra of the rogue waves can be detected at early stages of the development of rogue waves in a chaotic wave field. Compared to the Fourier spectra, the wavelet spectra are capable of detecting not only the emergence of a rogue wave but also its possible spatial (or temporal) location. Due to this fact, wavelet transform is also capable of predicting the characteristic distances between successive rogue waves. Therefore multiple simultaneous breaking of the successive rogue waves on ships or on the offshore structures can be predicted and avoided by smart designs and operations.

  13. Health responsibility and workplace health promotion among women: early detection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, T; Rabinowitz, S; Melamed, S; Weisberg, E; Ribak, J

    1995-01-01

    The importance of health responsibility as one aspect of a health-promoting lifestyle has been emphasized repeatedly. Yet there are only a few empirical studies of its role in preventive behavior. We examined the relationship between health responsibility and early-detection practices for breast and cervical cancer. A group of 253 women employees of a large industrial company participated in a cancer screening program subsidized by the employer. They completed questionnaires assessing health responsibility and reported early-detection practices: frequency of breast self-examination and physician breast examinations, frequency of Pap tests, and time lapsed since last Pap test and breast examinations. Health responsibility was a significant independent predictor of breast examination indicators but not of Pap tests. Education level was an important predictor for Pap tests, and age predicted most early-detection practices. The findings lend some support to the role of health responsibility in initiating breast examinations. Better prediction of early-detection practices could be achieved by adding cognitive and emotional components to the existing responsibility scale and by distinguishing between retrospective and prospective responsibility. PMID:7649890

  14. Starting young: sexual initiation and HIV prevention in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Mueller, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others. PMID:18389362

  15. Molecular MRI enables early and sensitive detection of brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Serres, Sébastien; Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Hamilton, Alastair; McAteer, Martina A; Carbonell, W Shawn; Robson, Matthew D; Ansorge, Olaf; Khrapitchev, Alexandre; Bristow, Claire; Balathasan, Lukxmi; Weissensteiner, Thomas; Anthony, Daniel C; Choudhury, Robin P; Muschel, Ruth J; Sibson, Nicola R

    2012-04-24

    Metastasis to the brain is a leading cause of cancer mortality. The current diagnostic method of gadolinium-enhanced MRI is sensitive only to larger tumors, when therapeutic options are limited. Earlier detection of brain metastases is critical for improved treatment. We have developed a targeted MRI contrast agent based on microparticles of iron oxide that enables imaging of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Our objectives here were to determine whether VCAM-1 is up-regulated on vessels associated with brain metastases, and if so, whether VCAM-1-targeted MRI enables early detection of these tumors. Early up-regulation of cerebrovascular VCAM-1 expression was evident on tumor-associated vessels in two separate murine models of brain metastasis. Metastases were detectable in vivo using VCAM-1-targeted MRI 5 d after induction (<1,000 cells). At clinical imaging resolutions, this finding is likely to translate to detection at tumor volumes two to three orders of magnitude smaller (0.3-3 × 10(5) cells) than those volumes detectable clinically (10(7)-10(8) cells). VCAM-1 expression detected by MRI increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with tumor progression, and tumors showed no gadolinium enhancement. Importantly, expression of VCAM-1 was shown in human brain tissue containing both established metastases and micrometastases. Translation of this approach to the clinic could increase therapeutic options and change clinical management in a substantial number of cancer patients. PMID:22451897

  16. Molecular MRI enables early and sensitive detection of brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Serres, Sébastien; Soto, Manuel Sarmiento; Hamilton, Alastair; McAteer, Martina A.; Carbonell, W. Shawn; Robson, Matthew D.; Ansorge, Olaf; Khrapitchev, Alexandre; Bristow, Claire; Balathasan, Lukxmi; Weissensteiner, Thomas; Anthony, Daniel C.; Choudhury, Robin P.; Muschel, Ruth J.; Sibson, Nicola R.

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis to the brain is a leading cause of cancer mortality. The current diagnostic method of gadolinium-enhanced MRI is sensitive only to larger tumors, when therapeutic options are limited. Earlier detection of brain metastases is critical for improved treatment. We have developed a targeted MRI contrast agent based on microparticles of iron oxide that enables imaging of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Our objectives here were to determine whether VCAM-1 is up-regulated on vessels associated with brain metastases, and if so, whether VCAM-1–targeted MRI enables early detection of these tumors. Early up-regulation of cerebrovascular VCAM-1 expression was evident on tumor-associated vessels in two separate murine models of brain metastasis. Metastases were detectable in vivo using VCAM-1–targeted MRI 5 d after induction (<1,000 cells). At clinical imaging resolutions, this finding is likely to translate to detection at tumor volumes two to three orders of magnitude smaller (0.3–3 × 105 cells) than those volumes detectable clinically (107–108 cells). VCAM-1 expression detected by MRI increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with tumor progression, and tumors showed no gadolinium enhancement. Importantly, expression of VCAM-1 was shown in human brain tissue containing both established metastases and micrometastases. Translation of this approach to the clinic could increase therapeutic options and change clinical management in a substantial number of cancer patients. PMID:22451897

  17. [Prevention of bacterial risk: pathogen inactivation/detection of bacteria].

    PubMed

    Morel, P; Naegelen, C; Deschaseaux, M; Bardiaux, L

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood products remains the most important infectious risk of blood transfusion in 2013. Platelet concentrates (PC) are in cause in the majority of the transfusion reaction due to bacterial contaminations. A lot of prevention methods have been developed over the last 10 years (pre-donation interview, skin decontamination, diversion of the first 30 mL of the donation, leuko-reduction...), they have focused on limiting the contamination of the donations and prevent the bacterial growth in donations and/or in the blood products. These measures were effective and led to significantly reducing the risk of adverse effects associated with bacterial growth. However, every year there are about six accidents (with a high level of imputability) and one death. The reduction of the bacterial risk remains a priority for the French Blood Establishment (EFS). The procedure for skin disinfection is going to be improved in order to further strengthen this crucial step to avoid the contamination of donation. Methods of pathogen inactivation applied to plasma and PC are available in France and their effectiveness is demonstrated on the bacterial risk. Methods for bacterial detection of PC are used in many countries now. Automated culture is the most common. Alternatives are now available in the form of rapid tests able to analyze the PC just before the delivery and avoid false negatives observed with automated culture. Assessments are under way to confirm these benefits in 2013. PMID:23622837

  18. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  19. Access control violation prevention by low-cost infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Andrew N.

    2004-09-01

    A low cost 16x16 un-cooled pyroelectric detector array, allied with advanced tracking and detection algorithms, has enabled the development of a universal detector with a wide range of applications in people monitoring and homeland security. Violation of access control systems, whether controlled by proximity card, biometrics, swipe card or similar, may occur by 'tailgating' or 'piggybacking' where an 'approved' entrant with a valid entry card is accompanied by a closely spaced 'non-approved' entrant. The violation may be under duress, where the accompanying person is attempting to enter a secure facility by force or threat. Alternatively, the violation may be benign where staff members collude either through habit or lassitude, either with each other or with third parties, without considering the security consequences. Examples of the latter could include schools, hospitals or maternity homes. The 16x16 pyroelectric array is integrated into a detector or imaging system which incorporates data processing, target extraction and decision making algorithms. The algorithms apply interpolation to the array output, allowing a higher level of resolution than might otherwise be expected from such a low resolution array. The pyroelectric detection principle means that the detection will work in variable light conditions and even in complete darkness, if required. The algorithms can monitor the shape, form, temperature and number of persons in the scene and utilise this information to determine whether a violation has occurred or not. As people are seen as 'hot blobs' and are not individually recognisable, civil liberties are not infringed in the detection process. The output from the detector is a simple alarm signal which may act as input to the access control system as an alert or to trigger CCTV image display and storage. The applications for a tailgate detector can be demonstrated across many medium security applications where there are no physical means to prevent this

  20. Early fault detection in automotive ball bearings using the minimum variance cepstrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choon-Su; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-07-01

    Ball bearings in automotive wheels play an important role in a vehicle. They enable an automobile to run and simultaneously support the vehicle. Once faults are generated, even if they are small, they often grow fast even under normal driving condition and cause vibration and noise. Therefore, it is critical to detect faults as early as possible to prevent bearings from generating harsh noise and vibration. How early faults can be detected is associated with how well a detecting method finds the information of early faults from measured signal. Incipient faults are so small that the fault signal is inherently buried by noise. Minimum variance cepstrum (MVC) has been introduced for the observation of periodic impulse signal under noisy environments. We are particularly focusing on the definition of MVC that goes back to the original definition by Bogert et al. in comparison with the recently prevalent definition of cepstral analysis. In this work, the MVC is, therefore, obtained by liftering a logarithmic power spectrum, and the lifter bank is designed by the minimum variance algorithm. Furthermore, it is also shown how efficient the method is for detecting periodic fault signal made by early faults by using automotive ball bearings, with which an automobile is equipped under running conditions. We were able to detect incipient faults in 4 out of 12 normal bearings which passed acceptance test as well as in bearings that were recalled due to noise and vibration. In addition, we compared the results of the proposed method with results obtained using other older well-established early fault detection methods that were chosen from 4 groups of methods which were classified by the domain of observation. The results demonstrated that MVC determined bearing fault periods more clearly than other methods under the given condition.

  1. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Dudleson, B. ); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. )

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  2. Early detection in head and neck cancer – current state and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Andreas O. H.

    2010-01-01

    Survival and quality of life in head and neck cancer are directly linked to the size of the primary tumor at first detection. In order to achieve substantial gain at these issues, both, primary prevention and secondary prevention, which is early detection of malignant lesions at a small size, have to be improved. So far, there is not only a lack in the necessary infrastructure not only in Germany, but rather worldwide, but additionally the techniques developed so far for early detection have a significance and specificity too low as to warrant safe implementation for screening programs. However, the advancements recently achieved in endoscopy and in quantitative analysis of hypocellular specimens open new perspectives for secondary prevention. Chromoendoscopy and narrow band imaging (NBI) pinpoint suspicious lesions more easily, confocal endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography obtain optical sections through those lesions, and hyperspectral imaging classifies lesions according to characteristic spectral signatures. These techniques therefore obtain optical biopsies. Once a “bloody” biopsy has been taken, the plethora of parameters that can be quantified objectively has been increased and could be the basis for an objective and quantitative classification of epithelial lesions (multiparametric cytometry, quantitative histology). Finally, cytomics and proteomics approaches, and lab-on-the-chip technology might help to identify patients at high-risk. Sensitivity and specificity of these approaches have to be validated, yet, and some techniques have to be adapted for the specific conditions for early detection of head and neck cancer. On this background it has to be stated that it is still a long way to go until a population based screening for head and neck cancer is available. The recent results of screening for cancer of the prostate and breast highlight the difficulties implemented in such a task. PMID:22073093

  3. Combined Screening for Early Detection of Pre-Eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jin; Shim, Sung Shin; Cha, Dong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Although the precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown, this condition continues to be a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for timely initiation of preventive therapy. A combination of biophysical and biochemical markers are superior to other tests for early prediction of the development of pre-eclampsia. Apart from the use of parameters in first-trimester aneuploidy screening, cell-free fetal DNA quantification is emerging as a promising marker for prediction of pre-eclampsia. This article reviews the current research of the most important strategies for prediction of pre-eclampsia, including the use of maternal risk factors, mean maternal arterial pressure, ultrasound parameters, and biomarkers. PMID:26247944

  4. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  5. Early stage management of ovarian endometrioma to prevent infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brosens, I.; Puttemans, P.; Gordts, Sy.; Campo, R.; Gordts, S.; Benagiano, G.

    2013-01-01

    There are now convincing data showing that cystectomy of the endometrioma is not only no cure of infertility, but may harm follicle reserve. The question arises why is cystectomy for an endometrioma, in contrast with other benign cysts, a risk for follicle reserve and how can ovarian damage be prevented. Surgical specimens of ovaries with endometrioma in situ show in the majority of cases manifestly a combined extra-ovarian and intra-ovarian pathology with the cortex invaginated to form a pseudocyst. The extra-ovarian pathology includes endometrial lining of the cortex, bleeding and adhesions with surrounding tissues. The intra-ovarian pathology is characterized by microscopic stromal implants, fibrosis, smooth muscle metaplasia and arteriosclerosis, all affecting follicle reserve in the endometrioma bed. Clinically, ovarioscopy allows differential diagnosis (e.g. luteal cyst) and evaluation of the degree of fibrosis and darkening of the cortical wall. Transvaginal colour Doppler sonography can demonstrate the presence and extent of devascularisation in the endometrioma bed. Given this reality, surgery should be based on evaluation of the pathology of the endometrioma bed, but not on the mere size of the chocolate cyst. The main clinical problem is indeed the delayed diagnosis and consequently advanced irreversible cortical damage. Therefore, the sooner endometriomas are diagnosed, the better, because it increases the chances that vascularisation of the endometrioma bed is preserved. Finally, ablation, but not excision is the treatment of choice. The diagnosis of endometriosis is traditionally based on laparoscopy, but in a sexually active adolescent transvaginal endoscopy can be proposed. PMID:24753958

  6. Peroxiredoxin1 Prevents Excessive Endothelial Activation and Early Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kisucka, Janka; Chauhan, Anil K.; Patten, Ian S.; Yesilaltay, Ayce; Neumann, Carola; Van Etten, Richard A.; Krieger, Monty; Wagner, Denisa D.

    2016-01-01

    The peroxiredoxin (Prdx) family of antioxidant enzymes uses redox-active cysteines to reduce peroxides, lipid hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrites. Prdx1 is known to be important to protect red blood cells against reactive oxygen species and in tumor prevention. In this study, the role of Prdx1 in inflammation, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis was investigated. Using intravital microscopy, we showed that the number of leukocytes rolling per minute in unstimulated veins was increased by 2.5-fold in Prdx1−/− compared to Prdx1+/+ mice. In Prdx1−/− mice, 50% of leukocytes rolled at a velocity <10 μm/sec compared with 10% in Prdx1+/+ mice, suggesting that adhesion molecule density on the endothelium may have been increased by Prdx1 deficiency. Indeed, endothelial P-selectin, soluble P-selectin, and von Willebrand factor in plasma were increased in Prdx1−/− mice compared to Prdx1+/+ mice, indicating elevated Weibel–Palade body release. In contrast to this excessive endothelial activation, Prdx1−/− platelets showed no sign of hyperreactivity, and their aggregation both in vitro and in vivo was normal. We also examined the role of Prdx1 in the apoE−/− murine spontaneous model of atherosclerosis. Prdx1−/−/apoE−/− mice fed normal chow developed larger, more macrophage-rich aortic sinus lesions than Prdx1+/+/apoE−/− mice, despite similar amounts and size distributions of cholesterol in their plasma lipoproteins. Thus, Prdx1 protects against excessive endothelial activation and atherosclerosis, and the Prdx1−/− mice could serve as an animal model susceptible to chronic inflammation. PMID:18689572

  7. Detection of early seizures by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Hajihashemi, M. Reza; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2015-03-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Besides, preclinical seizure experiments need to be conducted in awake animals with images reconstructed and displayed in real-time. We demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We developed methods to conduct seizure experiments in fully awake rats using a subject-specific helmet and a restraining mechanism. For the first time, we detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state both in anesthetized and awake rats. Using a novel time-series analysis of scattering images, we show that the analysis of scattered diffuse light is a sensitive and reliable modality for detecting changes in neural activity associated with generalized seizure. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  8. [Early detection of pancreatic cancer by novel proteomic technique].

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazufumi; Ono, Masaya; Shitashige, Miki; Yamada, Tesshi

    2006-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Japan. Early detection in pancreatic cancer is one of the most feasible strategies to improve outcome. We compared plasma proteome between pancreatic cancer patients and healthy controls using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization coupled with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Proteomic spectra were generated from a total of 245 plasma samples obtained from two institutes. A discriminating proteomic pattern was built from training cohort using machine learning algorithm and was applied two validation cohorts. This set discriminating cancer patients in the first validation cohort with a sensitivity of 90.9% and a specificity of 91.9%, and was further validated in an independent cohort at a second institution. When combined with CA19-9, 100% tumor of pancreatic cancers, including early stage tumors, were detected. In this report, we describe a possible detection of early pancreatic cancer using novel proteomic technique. PMID:16972690

  9. Detectable Blood Lead Level and Body Size in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Havstad, Suzanne; Basu, Niladri; Ownby, David R; Park, Sung Kyun; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole; Wegienka, Ganesa

    2016-05-01

    Rates of childhood obesity have risen at the same time rates of high blood lead levels (BLLs) have fallen. Recent studies suggest that higher BLL is inversely associated with body size in older children (ages 3-19 years). No contemporaneous studies have examined if having a detectable BLL is associated with body size in very early childhood. We examined if detectable BLL is associated with body size in early childhood. A total of 299 birth cohort participants completed a study visit at ages 2-3 years with weight and height measurements; prior to this clinic visit, a BLL was drawn as part of routine clinical care. Body mass index (BMI) percentile and Z-score were calculated; children with BMI ≥85th percentile were considered overweight/obese at age of 2 years. Detectable BLL was defined as BLL ≥1 μg/dL. A total of 131 (43.8 %) children had a detectable BLL measured at mean aged 15.4 ± 5.5 months. Mean age at body size assessment was 2.2 ± 0.3 years (53.2 % male, 68.6 % African-American). After adjusting for race, sex, and birth weight, children with a detectable BLL had a 43 % lower risk of BMI ≥85th percentile (P = 0.041) and a 0.35-unit lower BMI Z-score (P = 0.008) compared to children without a detectable BLL. Neither race nor sex modified this association (all interactions P > 0.21). Consistent with recent studies in older children, having a detectable BLL was associated with smaller body size at ages 2-3 years. Additional research on the mechanism of this association is needed but may include mechanisms of appetite suppression via lead. PMID:26358768

  10. Early detection of foot ulcers through asymmetry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaabouch, Naima; Chen, Yi; Hu, Wen-Chen; Anderson, Julie; Ames, Forrest; Paulson, Rolf

    2009-02-01

    Foot ulcers affect millions of Americans annually. Areas that are likely to ulcerate have been associated with increased local skin temperatures due to inflammation and enzymatic autolysis of tissue. Conventional methods to assess skin, including inspection and palpation, may be valuable approaches, but usually they do not detect changes in skin integrity until an ulcer has already developed. Conversely, infrared imaging is a technology able to assess the integrity of the skin and its many layers, thus having the potential to index the cascade of physiological events in the prevention, assessment, and management of foot ulcers. In this paper, we propose a technique, asymmetry analysis, to automatically analyze the infrared images in order to detect inflammation. Preliminary results show that the proposed technique can be reliable and efficient to detect inflammation and, hence, predict potential ulceration.

  11. Genetics and Early Detection in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Rachel K.; Rosas, Ivan O.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies hold promise in helping to identify patients with early idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Recent studies using chest computed tomograms (CTs) in smokers and in the general population have demonstrated that imaging abnormalities suggestive of an early stage of pulmonary fibrosis are not uncommon and are associated with respiratory symptoms, physical examination abnormalities, and physiologic decrements expected, but less severe than those noted in patients with IPF. Similarly, recent genetic studies have demonstrated strong and replicable associations between a common promoter polymorphism in the mucin 5B gene (MUC5B) and both IPF and the presence of abnormal imaging findings in the general population. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the definition of early-stage IPF remains unclear, limited data exist to definitively connect abnormal imaging findings to IPF, and genetic studies assessing early-stage pulmonary fibrosis remain in their infancy. In this perspective we provide updated information on interstitial lung abnormalities and their connection to IPF. We summarize information on the genetics of pulmonary fibrosis by focusing on the recent genetic findings of MUC5B. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings and suggest a roadmap for the use of genetics in the detection of early IPF. PMID:24547893

  12. A nationwide web-based automated system for outbreak early detection and rapid response in China

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yajia; Wang, Jinfeng; Ma, Jiaqi; Jin, Lianmei; Sun, Qiao; Lv, Wei; Lai, Shengjie; Liao, Yilan; Hu, Wenbiao

    2011-01-01

    Timely reporting, effective analyses and rapid distribution of surveillance data can assist in detecting the aberration of disease occurrence and further facilitate a timely response. In China, a new nationwide web-based automated system for outbreak detection and rapid response was developed in 2008. The China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) was developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention based on the surveillance data from the existing electronic National Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System (NIDRIS) started in 2004. NIDRIS greatly improved the timeliness and completeness of data reporting with real-time reporting information via the Internet. CIDARS further facilitates the data analysis, aberration detection, signal dissemination, signal response and information communication needed by public health departments across the country. In CIDARS, three aberration detection methods are used to detect the unusual occurrence of 28 notifiable infectious diseases at the county level and transmit information either in real time or on a daily basis. The Internet, computers and mobile phones are used to accomplish rapid signal generation and dissemination, timely reporting and reviewing of the signal response results. CIDARS has been used nationwide since 2008; all Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China at the county, prefecture, provincial and national levels are involved in the system. It assists with early outbreak detection at the local level and prompts reporting of unusual disease occurrences or potential outbreaks to CDCs throughout the country. PMID:23908878

  13. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection.

    PubMed

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F M J; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error's extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  14. Differential neural mechanisms for early and late prediction error detection

    PubMed Central

    Malekshahi, Rahim; Seth, Anil; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Mathews, Zenon; Birbaumer, Niels; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Caria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that prediction, instantiated at different perceptual levels, facilitate visual processing and enable prompt and appropriate reactions. Until now, the mechanisms underlying the effect of predictive coding at different stages of visual processing have still remained unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate early and late processing of spatial prediction violation by performing combined recordings of saccadic eye movements and fast event-related fMRI during a continuous visual detection task. Psychophysical reverse correlation analysis revealed that the degree of mismatch between current perceptual input and prior expectations is mainly processed at late rather than early stage, which is instead responsible for fast but general prediction error detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that conscious late detection of deviant stimuli is elicited by the assessment of prediction error’s extent more than by prediction error per se. Functional MRI and functional connectivity data analyses indicated that higher-level brain systems interactions modulate conscious detection of prediction error through top-down processes for the analysis of its representational content, and possibly regulate subsequent adaptation of predictive models. Overall, our experimental paradigm allowed to dissect explicit from implicit behavioral and neural responses to deviant stimuli in terms of their reliance on predictive models. PMID:27079423

  15. Optimizing the Detection of Circulating Markers to Aid in Early Lung Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Ramnath, Nithya; Nagrath, Sunitha; Reddy, Rishindra M.

    2016-01-01

    Improving early detection of lung cancer is critical to improving lung cancer survival. Studies have shown that computerized tomography (CT) screening can reduce mortality from lung cancer, but this involves risks of radiation exposure and can identify non-cancer lung nodules that lead to unnecessary interventions for some. There is a critical need to develop alternative, less invasive methods to identify patients who have early-stage lung cancer. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising area of research, but current technology is limited by a low yield of CTCs. Alternate studies are investigating circulating nucleic acids and proteins as possible tumor markers. It is critical to develop innovative methods for early lung cancer detection that may include CTCs or other markers that are low-risk and low-cost, yet specific and sensitive, to facilitate improved survival by diagnosing the disease when it is surgically curable. PMID:27367729

  16. Optimizing the Detection of Circulating Markers to Aid in Early Lung Cancer Detection.

    PubMed

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Ramnath, Nithya; Nagrath, Sunitha; Reddy, Rishindra M

    2016-01-01

    Improving early detection of lung cancer is critical to improving lung cancer survival. Studies have shown that computerized tomography (CT) screening can reduce mortality from lung cancer, but this involves risks of radiation exposure and can identify non-cancer lung nodules that lead to unnecessary interventions for some. There is a critical need to develop alternative, less invasive methods to identify patients who have early-stage lung cancer. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising area of research, but current technology is limited by a low yield of CTCs. Alternate studies are investigating circulating nucleic acids and proteins as possible tumor markers. It is critical to develop innovative methods for early lung cancer detection that may include CTCs or other markers that are low-risk and low-cost, yet specific and sensitive, to facilitate improved survival by diagnosing the disease when it is surgically curable. PMID:27367729

  17. Melanoma screening: A plan for improving early detection.

    PubMed

    Shellenberger, Richard; Nabhan, Mohammed; Kakaraparthi, Sweta

    2016-05-01

    Malignant melanoma ranks fifth in the number of new cases annually in the United States (US). Despite increasing incidence and lack of recent improvement in mortality, national melanoma screening guidelines are currently not in existence. Our purpose was to review the evidence regarding screening whole-body skin examinations for early detection and a possible mortality benefit for malignant melanoma. Data sources for our review were MEDLINE Complete, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Study selection included: epidemiologic data from the US and European cancer surveillance registries, population-based case-control screening trials, computer-simulated Markov model trials, and survey trials. Studies were limited to those published in the English language. Data was extracted using a dual extraction method. Data from studies have shown that the mortality of malignant melanoma is highly predicated on the tumor thickness at the time of diagnosis. Our data review is in support of the implementation of whole-body skin examinations, performed by primary care physicians, for the purpose of early detection of melanoma. A large national population-based, case-control, skin cancer screening trial in Germany has shown a reduction in melanoma-specific mortality. In conclusion, our review of the evidence supports physicians performed whole-body skin examination can lead to the detection of earlier stage melanomas as well as to a reduction in disease-specific mortality. We found a paucity of randomized trials to be a limitation of screening studies for many cancers, including melanoma. To improve screening rates and early detection of malignant melanoma, we propose making skin cancer education part of the curriculum in US primary care residency programs to become the genesis for widespread melanoma screening. Our study had no funding. Key messages Malignant melanoma is the fifth leading cancer in the United States (US). In the

  18. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during the past three decades; however, many challenges remain in understanding the development of early conduct problems for girls, the contribution of poverty across variations in community urbanicity, and developing cascading models of conduct problems that incorporate prenatal risk. Significant advances in early prevention and intervention are also described, as well as challenges for identifying and engaging parents of at-risk children in nontraditional community settings. PMID:23534691

  19. 28 CFR 104.71 - Procedures to prevent and detect fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures to prevent and detect fraud. 104.71 Section 104.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM... and detect fraud. (a) Review of claims. For the purpose of detecting and preventing the payment...

  20. 28 CFR 104.71 - Procedures to prevent and detect fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedures to prevent and detect fraud. 104.71 Section 104.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM... and detect fraud. (a) Review of claims. For the purpose of detecting and preventing the payment...

  1. Trajectories of Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Early Substance Use in the Fast Track Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children who exhibit early-starting conduct problems are more likely than their peers to initiate sexual activity and substance use at an early age, experience pregnancy, and contract a sexually-transmitted disease [STD], placing them at risk for HIV/AIDS. Hence, understanding the development of multi-problem profiles among youth with early-starting conduct problems may benefit the design of prevention programs. In this study, 1,199 kindergarten children (51 % African American; 47 % European American; 69 % boys) over-sampled for high rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior problems were followed through age 18. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to define developmental profiles associated with the timing of initiation of sexual activity, tobacco and alcohol/drug use and indicators of risky adolescent sex (e.g. pregnancy and STD). Half of the high-risk children were randomized to a multi-component preventive intervention (Fast Track). The intervention did not significantly reduce membership in the classes characterized by risky sex practices. However, additional analyses examined predictors of poor outcomes, which may inform future prevention efforts. PMID:23417666

  2. Video comparator system for early detection of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, Brian L.

    1992-05-01

    The recognized incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma in the United States is now rising faster than any other cancer, increasing by 83% from 1980 to 1987. Recent revelations that depletion of the earth's ozone layer is accelerating at a more rapid rate than previously believed can only exacerbate current projections for the increased incidence of this deadly disease. Because there is no good treatment for metastatic melanoma even small cancers often prove fatal if not detected early. Melanoma allowed to invade the subcutaneous tissue is associated with a five-year survival rate of only 44%. Ironically, few cancers provide a greater opportunity for early discovery and cure. Cutaneous melanoma is not only located where it is readily observed, but typically undergoes a `radial growth' phase prior to metastasis. During this phase the net growth is superficial and circumferential, gradually increasing the area of the lesion and changing its coloration. Screening measures for the early detection of melanoma must concentrate on two primary tasks: (1) detection of lesion changes indicative of the radial growth stage of malignancy and (2) alerting the patient and physician to the existence of a new or changed lesion on the skin. To accomplish these goals we have experimented with the applicability of a microcomputer based video imaging system which stores an image archive of historical reference images for each patient. With the acquisition of new images of the patient, easily registered with the archival images through a technique we have developed we are able to perform a blink comparison of the image pairs. This technique appears to be far more effective than currently used techniques for detecting changed lesions on a comprehensive basis.

  3. Computer aided detection of surgical retained foreign object for prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir Marentis, Theodore C.; Rondon, Lucas; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chaudhury, Amrita R.; Chronis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Surgical retained foreign objects (RFOs) have significant morbidity and mortality. They are associated with approximately $1.5 × 10{sup 9} annually in preventable medical costs. The detection accuracy of radiographs for RFOs is a mediocre 59%. The authors address the RFO problem with two complementary technologies: a three-dimensional (3D) gossypiboma micro tag, the μTag that improves the visibility of RFOs on radiographs, and a computer aided detection (CAD) system that detects the μTag. It is desirable for the CAD system to operate in a high specificity mode in the operating room (OR) and function as a first reader for the surgeon. This allows for fast point of care results and seamless workflow integration. The CAD system can also operate in a high sensitivity mode as a second reader for the radiologist to ensure the highest possible detection accuracy. Methods: The 3D geometry of the μTag produces a similar two dimensional (2D) depiction on radiographs regardless of its orientation in the human body and ensures accurate detection by a radiologist and the CAD. The authors created a data set of 1800 cadaver images with the 3D μTag and other common man-made surgical objects positioned randomly. A total of 1061 cadaver images contained a single μTag and the remaining 739 were without μTag. A radiologist marked the location of the μTag using an in-house developed graphical user interface. The data set was partitioned into three independent subsets: a training set, a validation set, and a test set, consisting of 540, 560, and 700 images, respectively. A CAD system with modules that included preprocessing μTag enhancement, labeling, segmentation, feature analysis, classification, and detection was developed. The CAD system was developed using the training and the validation sets. Results: On the training set, the CAD achieved 81.5% sensitivity with 0.014 false positives (FPs) per image in a high specificity mode for the surgeons in the OR and 96

  4. The rationale for preventive treatments for early post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea in persistent otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad; Roosta, Sareh; Shishegar, Mahmood; Abbasi, Rohollah; Atighechi, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Some studies have shown that post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea (PTTO) is a common complication after tympanostomy tube insertion. There are wide range of controversies about the incidence of PTTO and different methods of preventive treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of early PTTO in persistent otitis media with effusion in our centers. We also investigated the effect of preventive treatments on the incidence of early PTTO in children with persistent otitis media with effusion. This multi-central study comprised 536 ears belonging to children with otitis media and effusion for at least 3 months, referred for complications arising from post-tympanostomy tube insertion. The patients were randomly divided into three treatment and control groups. In the first group of patients, the middle ear cavity was irrigated with isotonic saline after myringotomy. The second group received oral amoxicillin three times a day for 7 days postoperatively. The third group had similar treatment as the second group, in addition to topical ciprofloxacin drop, 4 drops three times a day for 3 days after operation. The control group did not undergo any treatment. Early post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea was detected in 6 ears (1.1 %), including 3 (2.2 %) from the control group and 3 (2.3 %) from the first group. There was no statistically significant difference in early PTTO between integrated treatment groups and control group (P = 0.111). As the total rate of early post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea was very low, there was no significant difference between the 3 treatment groups and control group. Our study did not support the routine use of preventive therapy. A period of at least 3 months watchful waiting before tympanostomy tube insertion may help reduce the incidence of PTTO. PMID:26153378

  5. [Brief questionnaires for the early detection of alcoholism in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Díez Martínez, S; Martín Moros, J M; Altisent Trota, R; Aznar Tejero, P; Cebrián Martín, C; Imaz Pérez, F J; del Castillo Pardo, M

    1991-05-01

    The utility of two tests for the early detection of alcoholism (CBA and CAGE) is studied in a group of 247 adult patients of both sexes at the primary care environment. For the definition of the "problem drinker case", the Münchner alkoholismus test (MALT) protocol is used as "gold standard". A sensitiveness of 79 and 75% is obtained for the CBA and CAGE respectively, a specifity of 94 and 96%, and predictive positive value of 63 and 73%, with a prevalence of "problematic drinkers" of 12%. Both questionnaires are shown as efficient instruments for the secundary prevention of alcoholism in the primary care consulting rooms. PMID:1912225

  6. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khochikar, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions: Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less) the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program is certainly

  7. Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Lauren J; Panas, Michael W; Mao, Rong; Delanoy, Michelle; Flanagan, John J; Binder, Steven R; Rebman, Alison W; Montoya, Jose G; Soloski, Mark J; Steere, Allen C; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M; Aucott, John N; Robinson, William H

    2015-12-01

    The current standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in the United States is serologic detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tiered testing algorithm; however, this scheme has limited sensitivity for detecting early Lyme disease. Thus, there is a need to improve diagnostics for Lyme disease at the early stage, when antibiotic treatment is highly efficacious. We examined novel and established antigen markers to develop a multiplex panel that identifies early infection using the combined sensitivity of multiple markers while simultaneously maintaining high specificity by requiring positive results for two markers to designate a positive test. Ten markers were selected from our initial analysis of 62 B. burgdorferi surface proteins and synthetic peptides by assessing binding of IgG and IgM to each in a training set of Lyme disease patient samples and controls. In a validation set, this 10-antigen panel identified a higher proportion of early-Lyme-disease patients as positive at the baseline or posttreatment visit than two-tiered testing (87.5% and 67.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Equivalent specificities of 100% were observed in 26 healthy controls. Upon further analysis, positivity on the novel 10-antigen panel was associated with longer illness duration and multiple erythema migrans. The improved sensitivity and comparable specificity of our 10-antigen panel compared to two-tiered testing in detecting early B. burgdorferi infection indicates that multiplex analysis, featuring the next generation of markers, could advance diagnostic technology to better aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating early Lyme disease. PMID:26447113

  8. Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Panas, Michael W.; Mao, Rong; Delanoy, Michelle; Flanagan, John J.; Binder, Steven R.; Rebman, Alison W.; Montoya, Jose G.; Soloski, Mark J.; Steere, Allen C.; Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Arnaboldi, Paul M.; Aucott, John N.

    2015-01-01

    The current standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in the United States is serologic detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tiered testing algorithm; however, this scheme has limited sensitivity for detecting early Lyme disease. Thus, there is a need to improve diagnostics for Lyme disease at the early stage, when antibiotic treatment is highly efficacious. We examined novel and established antigen markers to develop a multiplex panel that identifies early infection using the combined sensitivity of multiple markers while simultaneously maintaining high specificity by requiring positive results for two markers to designate a positive test. Ten markers were selected from our initial analysis of 62 B. burgdorferi surface proteins and synthetic peptides by assessing binding of IgG and IgM to each in a training set of Lyme disease patient samples and controls. In a validation set, this 10-antigen panel identified a higher proportion of early-Lyme-disease patients as positive at the baseline or posttreatment visit than two-tiered testing (87.5% and 67.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Equivalent specificities of 100% were observed in 26 healthy controls. Upon further analysis, positivity on the novel 10-antigen panel was associated with longer illness duration and multiple erythema migrans. The improved sensitivity and comparable specificity of our 10-antigen panel compared to two-tiered testing in detecting early B. burgdorferi infection indicates that multiplex analysis, featuring the next generation of markers, could advance diagnostic technology to better aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating early Lyme disease. PMID:26447113

  9. FUMEPOC: Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently is not feasible using conventional spirometry as a screening method in Primary Care especially among smoking population to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in early stages. Therefore, the FUMEPOC study protocol intends to analyze the validity and reliability of Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer as simpler tool to aid screening and diagnosis of this disease in early stages in primary care surgery. Methods / Design Study design: An observational, descriptive study of diagnostic tests, undertaken in Primary Care and Pneumology Outpatient Care Centre at San Juan Hospital and Elda Hospital. All smokers attending the primary care surgery and consent to participate in the study will undergo a test with Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer. Subsequently, a conventional spirometry will be performed in the hospital and the results will be compared with those of the Vitalograph COPD-6 test. Discussion It is difficult to use the spirometry as screening for early diagnose test in real conditions of primary care clinical practice. The use of a simpler tool, Vitalograph COPD-6 spirometer, can help in the early diagnose and therefore, it could improve the clinical management of the disease. PMID:21627787

  10. Dynamic linear models using the Kalman filter for early detection and early warning of malaria outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkord, C. L.; Liu, Y.; DeVos, M.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria early detection and early warning systems are important tools for public health decision makers in regions where malaria transmission is seasonal and varies from year to year with fluctuations in rainfall and temperature. Here we present a new data-driven dynamic linear model based on the Kalman filter with time-varying coefficients that are used to identify malaria outbreaks as they occur (early detection) and predict the location and timing of future outbreaks (early warning). We fit linear models of malaria incidence with trend and Fourier form seasonal components using three years of weekly malaria case data from 30 districts in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. We identified past outbreaks by comparing the modeled prediction envelopes with observed case data. Preliminary results demonstrated the potential for improved accuracy and timeliness over commonly-used methods in which thresholds are based on simpler summary statistics of historical data. Other benefits of the dynamic linear modeling approach include robustness to missing data and the ability to fit models with relatively few years of training data. To predict future outbreaks, we started with the early detection model for each district and added a regression component based on satellite-derived environmental predictor variables including precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and land surface temperature (LST) and spectral indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We included lagged environmental predictors in the regression component of the model, with lags chosen based on cross-correlation of the one-step-ahead forecast errors from the first model. Our results suggest that predictions of future malaria outbreaks can be improved by incorporating lagged environmental predictors.

  11. Detection of early plant stress responses in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmann, Jan; Steinrücken, Jörg; Plümer, Lutz

    2014-07-01

    Early stress detection in crop plants is highly relevant, but hard to achieve. We hypothesize that close range hyperspectral imaging is able to uncover stress related processes non-destructively in the early stages which are invisible to the human eye. We propose an approach which combines unsupervised and supervised methods in order to identify several stages of progressive stress development from series of hyperspectral images. Stress of an entire plant is detected by stress response levels at pixel scale. The focus is on drought stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Unsupervised learning is used to separate hyperspectral signatures into clusters related to different stages of stress response and progressive senescence. Whereas all such signatures may be found in both, well watered and drought stressed plants, their respective distributions differ. Ordinal classification with Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used to quantify and visualize the distribution of progressive stages of senescence and to separate well watered from drought stressed plants. For each senescence stage a distinctive set of most relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) is identified. The method has been applied on two experiments involving potted barley plants under well watered and drought stress conditions in a greenhouse. Drought stress is detected up to ten days earlier than using NDVI. Furthermore, it is shown that some VIs have overall relevance, while others are specific to particular senescence stages. The transferability of the method to the field is illustrated by an experiment on maize (Zea mays).

  12. On early detection of strong infections in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Xiao, Gaoxi

    2014-02-01

    Various complex systems are exposed to different kinds of infections ranging from computer viruses to rumors. An intuitive solution for limiting the damages caused by such infections is to detect the infection spreading as early as possible and then take necessary actions. In this paper, we study on how much we may expect to achieve in infection control by deploying a number of monitors in complex networks for detecting the outbreak of a strong infection at its early stage. Specifically, we consider the problem of finding the optimal locations for a given number of monitors in order to minimize the worst-case infection size. The NP-hardness of the problem is proved and a heuristic algorithm is proposed. Extensive simulations on both synthetic and real-life networks show that the worst-case infection size may be put under control by deploying a moderate number of monitors in a large complex network. Effects of a few different factors, including transmissibility of the infection, network topology and probability of detection failure, are also evaluated.

  13. National Assessment of Early Elementary Teachers' Perceived Self-Efficacy for Teaching Tobacco Prevention Based on the CDC Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Casler, Suzanne M.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Chesney, Barbara K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from nationwide surveys of early elementary educators (N=505) that examined training status on tobacco prevention, level of teaching about tobacco prevention, and perceived self-efficacy for teaching tobacco prevention. Most respondents had no formal tobacco prevention training but had high efficacy and outcome expectation…

  14. Drugs: A Preventive Approach in Early Childhood. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Rob; And Others

    This booklet provides a guide for adults, parents, older siblings, and caregivers to help children develop constructive attitudes about present and future drug use. The first part of the guide focuses on role models in early childhood and implications of their behavior for children's future drug use, noting that parents, family, and the community…

  15. Early Attempts to Detect the Neutrino at the Cavendish Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Jaume

    2006-03-01

    In the 1920s and early 1930s the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge was preeminent in experimental research on radioactivity and nuclear physics, with theoretical physics playing a subsidiary role in guiding, but not determining the course of experimental research. Soon after Wolfgang Pauli (1900 1958) proposed his neutrino hypothesis in 1930 to preserve conservation of energy and momentum in beta decay, experiments the first of their kind were carried out in the Cavendish Laboratory to detect Pauli’s elusive particle, but they were abandoned in 1936. I trace these early attempts and suggest reasons for their abandonment, which may contribute to an understanding of the complex way in which theoretical entities are accepted by physicists.

  16. Early detection of invasive plants: principles and practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Bradley A.; Geissler, Paul H.; Latham, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Invasive plants infest an estimated 2.6 million acres of the 83 million acres managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in the United States. The consequences of these invasions present a significant challenge for the NPS to manage the agency’s natural resources “unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” More NPS lands are infested daily despite diligent efforts to curtail the problem. Impacts from invasive species have been realized in most parks, resulting in an expressed need to control existing infestations and restore affected ecosystems. There is a growing urgency in the NPS and other resource management organizations to be proactive. The NPS I&M Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends Program, compiled this document to provide guidance and insight to parks and other natural areas engaged in developing early-detection monitoring protocols for invasive plants. While several rapid response frameworks exist, there is no consistent or comprehensive guidance informing the active detection of nonnative plants early in the invasion process. Early-detection was selected as a primary focus for invasive-species monitoring because, along with rapid response, it is a key strategy for successful management of invasive species. Eradication efforts are most successful on small infestations (that is less than 1 hectare) and become less successful as infestation size increases, to the point that eradication is unlikely for large (that is greater than 1,000 hectares) populations of invasive plants. This document provides guidance for natural resource managers wishing to detect invasive plants early through an active, directed monitoring program. It has a Quick-Start Guide to direct readers to specific chapters and text relevant to their needs. Decision trees and flow charts assist the reader in deciding what methods to choose and when to use them. This document is written in a modular format to accommodate use of

  17. Application of a novel confocal imaging technique for early the detection of dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Christel; Girkin, John M.; Vaidya, Shilpa; Hall, Andrew F.; Whitters, C. J.; Creanor, Steve L.

    2002-06-01

    In order to stop or prevent the progression of dental disease, early detection and quantification of decay are crucially important. Dental decay (caries) detection methods have traditionally involved clinical examination by eye, using probes and dental radiography, but up to 60% of lesions are missed. What the dentist requires is a cheap, reliable method of detection of early disease, ideally with information on the depth and rate of growth or healing. Conventional commercial scanning confocal microscopes are unsuitable for use on dental patients. We report on a fibre optic based confocal microscope designed for in vivo examination of caries lesions. The system utilizes a common fibre both as the source and to detect the reflected confocal signal. The initial system has been optimized using dielectric mirrors and the thickness of the stack has been measured with high precision. Dental samples have been examined and the system has been demonstrated to provide information on the depth and mineral loss of a lesion. Fibre optic microscopy (FOCM) demonstrates a practical route to developing an in vivo caries profiler. In this paper, the FOCM and its applications in caries detection are described and the potential of this scheme as a practical dental probe is discussed.

  18. Early detection of Alzheimer disease: methods, markers, and misgivings.

    PubMed

    Green, R C; Clarke, V C; Thompson, N J; Woodard, J L; Letz, R

    1997-01-01

    There is at present no reliable predictive test for most forms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although some information about future risk for disease is available in theory through ApoE genotyping, it is of limited accuracy and utility. Once neuroprotective treatments are available for AD, reliable early detection will become a key component of the treatment strategy. We recently conducted a pilot survey eliciting attitudes and beliefs toward an unspecified and hypothetical predictive test for AD. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 176 individuals, aged 22-77, which was 75% female, 30% African-American, and of which 33% had a family member with AD. The survey revealed that 69% of this sample would elect to obtain predictive testing for AD if the test were 100% accurate. Individuals were more likely to desire predictive testing if they had an a priori belief that they would develop AD (p = 0.0001), had a lower educational level (p = 0.003), were worried that they would develop AD (p = 0.02), had a self-defined history of depression (p = 0.04), and had a family member with AD (p = 0.04). However, the desire for predictive testing was not significantly associated with age, gender, ethnicity, or income. The desire to obtain predictive testing for AD decreased as the assumed accuracy of the hypothetical test decreased. A better short-term strategy for early detection of AD may be computer-based neuropsychological screening of at-risk (older aged) individuals to identify very early cognitive impairment. Individuals identified in this manner could be referred for diagnostic evaluation and early cases of AD could be identified and treated. A new self-administered, touch-screen, computer-based, neuropsychological screening instrument called Neurobehavioral Evaluation System-3 is described, which may facilitate this type of screening. PMID:9348421

  19. Detection of smoke plume for a land-based early forest fire detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John; Jacobs, John; Davenport, Tim; Garges, David

    2015-09-01

    A promising daytime smoke plume detection for a land-based early forest fire detection system is proposed. The visible video imagery from a land-based monitoring camera is processed to detect the smoke which likely rises in an early stage of a forest fire. Unlike the fire core and its surrounding heat which are detected via day/night infrared imaging, the relatively cold smoke plume can only be captured in the visible spectrum of light. The smoke plume is detected via exploitation of its temporal signature. This is accomplished via Principal Component Transformation (PCT) operations on consecutive sequences of visible video frames followed by spatial filtering of one of the resulting low-order Principal Component (PC) images. It is shown that the blue channel of the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) color camera is most effective in detecting the smoke plume. Smoke plume is clearly detected and isolated via simple blurring, thresholding, and median filtering of one of the resulting low-order principle component (PC) images. The robustness of this PCA-based method relative to simple temporal frame differencing and use of color, i.e., visible spectral signature of smoke, are discussed. Various parameters of the system including the required observation time and number of frames to retain for PCT, selection of which low-order PC to use, and types and sizes of the filters applied to the selected PC image to detect and isolate the smoke plume, are discussed.

  20. Growth monitoring as an early detection tool: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Scherdel, Pauline; Dunkel, Leo; van Dommelen, Paula; Goulet, Olivier; Salaün, Jean-François; Brauner, Raja; Heude, Barbara; Chalumeau, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Growth monitoring of apparently healthy children aims at early detection of serious underlying disorders. However, existing growth-monitoring practices are mainly based on suboptimal methods, which can result in delayed diagnosis of severe diseases and inappropriate referrals. We did a systematic review to address two key and interconnected questions underlying growth monitoring: which conditions should be targeted, and how should abnormal growth be defined? We systematically searched for studies reporting algorithms for growth monitoring in children and studies comparing the performance of new WHO growth charts with that of other growth charts. Among 1556 identified citations, 69 met the inclusion criteria. Six target conditions have mainly been studied: Turner syndrome, coeliac disease, cystic fibrosis, growth hormone deficiency, renal tubular acidosis, and small for gestational age with no catch-up after 2 or 3 years. Seven algorithms to define abnormal growth have been proposed in the past 20 years, but their level of validation is low, and their overall sensitivities and specificities vary substantially; however, the Grote and Saari clinical decision rules seem the most promising. Two studies reported that WHO growth charts had poorer performance compared with other existing growth charts for early detection of target conditions. Available data suggest a large gap between the widespread implementation of growth monitoring and its level of evidence or the clinical implications of early detection of serious disorders in children. Further investigations are needed to standardise the practice of growth monitoring, with a consensus on a few priority target conditions and with internationally validated clinical decision rules to define abnormal growth, including the selection of appropriate growth charts. PMID:26777129

  1. Detection of Treponema pallidum in early syphilis by DNA amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Wicher, K; Noordhoek, G T; Abbruscato, F; Wicher, V

    1992-01-01

    By using experimentally infected rabbits as a model for early syphilis, the applicability of in vitro DNA amplification was explored for detection of Treponema pallidum. It was determined that whole blood in heparin or EDTA (but not serum), lesion exudate, and punch biopsy as well as swabs of lesions are useful specimens for examination by the polymerase chain reaction. Swabs do not require special diluents, and the specimens, whether kept at room temperature or frozen, are well suited for use in the polymerase chain reaction. Images PMID:1537923

  2. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  3. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  4. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-06-30

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  5. Exosomes: potential for early detection in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingeng; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    Progress in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer at earlier stages has motivated research in identifying novel noninvasive or minimally invasive biomarkers for early detection. Exosomes, which contain bioactive molecules (such as proteins, RNAs and lipids), are membrane-structured nanovesicles that are secreted from living cells and are found in human body fluids. As functional mediators, exosomes play key roles in cell-cell communications, regulating diverse biological processes. Here we aim to examine recent findings in the potential diagnostic value of serum exosomes in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26860951

  6. Cross-National Perspectives on Early Adolescence: Implications and Strategies for Public Health Prevention and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swahn, Monica H.

    2012-01-01

    The current special issue brings together intriguing and important cross-country comparisons of issues pertinent to early adolescence that can inform the design and implementation of broader and relevant public health prevention strategies. The findings illustrate the importance of cross-country analyses for better understanding a range of…

  7. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  8. Systematic Review of School-Based Prevention and Early Intervention Programs for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calear, Alison L.; Christensen, Helen

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify and describe school-based prevention and early intervention programs for depression and to evaluate their effectiveness in reducing depressive symptoms. Forty-two randomised controlled trials, relating to 28 individual school-based programs, were identified through the Cochrane Library, PsycInfo and…

  9. Early Detection of and Screening for Colorectal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There are approximately one million new cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) per year worldwide, with substantial associated morbidity and mortality. The long natural history of colorectal neoplasia affords the opportunity to use preventive measures to improve survival in this disease. Currently screening for adenomatous polyps and early-stage cancers is the best methodology for improving survival. The increasing knowledge of CRC pathogenesis and its natural history is allowing the development of new tools to identify patients who will benefit most from colon cancer screening and the defining of appropriate surveillance intervals. The guidelines for screening for colorectal neoplasia have recently been substantially revised by several organizations based on developing technologies and a growing body of data on the efficacy of CRC screening. PMID:20431727

  10. Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salkind, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials by nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques has been demonstrated for glass/epoxy, graphite/glass/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composites. Modulus and temperature were monitored and a correlation between them observed. Axial modulus and torsional modulus changes were a function of the laminate orientation. Torsional modulus measurements and coin tap tests were performed at 0, 1 million, 5 million, and 10 million cycles, on axial fatigue specimens. Three distinct regions were noted. In the primary region a small but rapid change in stiffness was noted in the first few thousand cycles. This was followed by a secondary region of little or no stiffness change. The tertiary region was characterized by an increasing rate of stiffness change leading to fracture. NDI procedures including holographic interferometry, ultrasonics, penetrant, and X-ray radiography were evaluated for fatigue damage detection.

  11. Recommendations for screening and early detection of common cancers in India.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, Preetha; Anderson, Benjamin O; Basu, Partha; Belinson, Jerome L; Cruz, Anil D'; Dhillon, Preet K; Gupta, Prakash; Jawahar, Tenkasi S; Joshi, Niranjan; Kailash, Uma; Kapambwe, Sharon; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Krishnan, Suneeta; Panda, Dharitri; Sankaranarayanan, R; Selvam, Jerard M; Shah, Keerti V; Shastri, Surendra; Shridhar, Krithiga; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Sivaram, Sudha; Seth, Tulika; Srivastava, Anurag; Trimble, Edward; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2015-07-01

    Cancers of the breast, uterine cervix, and lip or oral cavity are three of the most common malignancies in India. Together, they account for about 34% of more than 1 million individuals diagnosed with cancer in India each year. At each of these cancer sites, tumours are detectable at early stages when they are most likely to be cured with standard treatment protocols. Recognising the key role that effective early detection and screening programmes could have in reducing the cancer burden, the Indian Institute for Cytology and Preventive Oncology, in collaboration with the US National Cancer Institute Center for Global Health, held a workshop to summarise feasible options and relevant evidence for screening and early detection of common cancers in India. The evidence-based recommendations provided in this Review are intended to act as a guide for policy makers, clinicians, and public health practitioners who are developing and implementing strategies in cancer control for the three most common cancers in India. PMID:26149887

  12. Leveraging biospecimen resources for discovery or validation of markers for early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Schully, Sheri D; Carrick, Danielle M; Mechanic, Leah E; Srivastava, Sudhir; Anderson, Garnet L; Baron, John A; Berg, Christine D; Cullen, Jennifer; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Goddard, Katrina A B; Hankinson, Susan E; Kushi, Lawrence H; Larson, Eric B; McShane, Lisa M; Schilsky, Richard L; Shak, Steven; Skates, Steven J; Urban, Nicole; Kramer, Barnett S; Khoury, Muin J; Ransohoff, David F

    2015-04-01

    Validation of early detection cancer biomarkers has proven to be disappointing when initial promising claims have often not been reproducible in diagnostic samples or did not extend to prediagnostic samples. The previously reported lack of rigorous internal validity (systematic differences between compared groups) and external validity (lack of generalizability beyond compared groups) may be effectively addressed by utilizing blood specimens and data collected within well-conducted cohort studies. Cohort studies with prediagnostic specimens (eg, blood specimens collected prior to development of clinical symptoms) and clinical data have recently been used to assess the validity of some early detection biomarkers. With this background, the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) and the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) held a joint workshop in August 2013. The goal was to advance early detection cancer research by considering how the infrastructure of cohort studies that already exist or are being developed might be leveraged to include appropriate blood specimens, including prediagnostic specimens, ideally collected at periodic intervals, along with clinical data about symptom status and cancer diagnosis. Three overarching recommendations emerged from the discussions: 1) facilitate sharing of existing specimens and data, 2) encourage collaboration among scientists developing biomarkers and those conducting observational cohort studies or managing healthcare systems with cohorts followed over time, and 3) conduct pilot projects that identify and address key logistic and feasibility issues regarding how appropriate specimens and clinical data might be collected at reasonable effort and cost within existing or future cohorts. PMID:25688116

  13. Leveraging Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, Danielle M.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Anderson, Garnet L.; Baron, John A.; Berg, Christine D.; Cullen, Jennifer; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Doria-Rose, V. Paul; Goddard, Katrina A. B.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Larson, Eric B.; McShane, Lisa M.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Shak, Steven; Skates, Steven J.; Urban, Nicole; Kramer, Barnett S.; Khoury, Muin J.; Ransohoff, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Validation of early detection cancer biomarkers has proven to be disappointing when initial promising claims have often not been reproducible in diagnostic samples or did not extend to prediagnostic samples. The previously reported lack of rigorous internal validity (systematic differences between compared groups) and external validity (lack of generalizability beyond compared groups) may be effectively addressed by utilizing blood specimens and data collected within well-conducted cohort studies. Cohort studies with prediagnostic specimens (eg, blood specimens collected prior to development of clinical symptoms) and clinical data have recently been used to assess the validity of some early detection biomarkers. With this background, the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) and the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) held a joint workshop in August 2013. The goal was to advance early detection cancer research by considering how the infrastructure of cohort studies that already exist or are being developed might be leveraged to include appropriate blood specimens, including prediagnostic specimens, ideally collected at periodic intervals, along with clinical data about symptom status and cancer diagnosis. Three overarching recommendations emerged from the discussions: 1) facilitate sharing of existing specimens and data, 2) encourage collaboration among scientists developing biomarkers and those conducting observational cohort studies or managing healthcare systems with cohorts followed over time, and 3) conduct pilot projects that identify and address key logistic and feasibility issues regarding how appropriate specimens and clinical data might be collected at reasonable effort and cost within existing or future cohorts. PMID:25688116

  14. Next steps in obesity prevention: altering early life systems to support healthy parents, infants, and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Nader, Philip R; Huang, Terry T-K; Gahagan, Sheila; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Hammond, Ross A; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer

    2012-06-01

    There is an urgent need for effective, sustainable child obesity prevention strategies. Progress toward this goal requires strengthening current approaches to add a component that addresses pregnancy onward. Altering early-life systems that promote intergenerational transmission of obesity holds promise for interrupting the continuing cycle of the obesity epidemic. A 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report emphasizes the need for interventions early in life to prevent obesity. A 2010 IOM report called for addressing gaps in existing obesity research evidence by using a systems perspective, simultaneously addressing interacting obesity promoting factors in multiple sectors and at multiple societal levels. A review of evidence from basic science, prevention, and systems research supports an approach that (1) begins at the earliest stages of development, and (2) uses a systems framework to simultaneously implement health behavior and environmental changes in communities. PMID:22799545

  15. WHO guidelines on preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Camacho, Alma Virginia; Michaud, Pierre-André

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and its consequences represent a major public health concern in many low-middle income countries of the world. The World Health Organization has recently developed evidence-based guidelines addressing six areas: preventing early marriage; preventing early pregnancy through sexuality education, increasing education opportunities and economic and social support programs; increasing the use of contraception; reducing coerced sex; preventing unsafe abortion; and increasing the use of prenatal care childbirth and postpartum care. In each of these areas, World Health Organization recommends directions for future research. The summary concludes with a brief look at global and regional initiatives that provide a window of opportunity for stepping up action in this important area. PMID:23608717

  16. Early Cretaceous climate change (Hauterivian - Early Aptian): Learning from the past to prevent modern reefs decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, Alexis; Bodin, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2010-05-01

    In the last decades, the anthropogenic increase pCO2atm has been considered as one of the main contributors for the decline of modern coral reefs, and nearly 60% of these marine ecosystems are presently threatened (Bryant et al., 1998). Interactions between anthropogenic change and reef growth can, however, not be reduced to a single factor, and it is essential to look at the Earth's history to understand and counterbalance. During the Early Cretaceous, enhanced pCO2atm may have been responsible, at least in part, for the demise of the carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys through climatic feedback mechanisms. From the Hauterivian to the Early Aptian, increased rainfalls are documented from the clay-mineral association, by a change from a smectite-dominated (most of the Hauterivian), to a kaolinite-dominated assemblage (latest Hauterivian up to the early Late Barremian). This switch is dated to the Pseudothurmannia ohmi ammonozone in the Vocontian Trough of southeastern France (Angles section, Godet et al., 2008). It is immediately followed in time by major nutrient input, as is illustrated by the substantial increase in phosphorus accumulation rates (PAR), not only in this section, but also in the Ultrahelvetic area of Switzerland and in the Umbria-Marche basin of Italy (Bodin et al., 2006). On the other hand, the remainder of the Hauterivian is characterized by PAR mean values characteristic of mesotrophic conditions, whereas the Late Barremian witnesses the return to oligotrophic environments (lower PAR values). Synchronously, these perturbations are mirrored on the platform by changes in the type of carbonate ecosystems. Indeed, a stronger continental runoff, and a subsequent input in the oceanic domain of nutrients (e.g., phosphorus) and clastic material modified marine palaeoenvironmental conditions and triggered changes in ecosystems. A unique archive of the Early Cretaceous carbonate platform is preserved in the Helvetic Alps, where the

  17. Enhancement of Visual Motion Detection Thresholds in Early Deaf People

    PubMed Central

    Shiell, Martha M.; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions. PMID:24587381

  18. Enhancement of visual motion detection thresholds in early deaf people.

    PubMed

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    In deaf people, the auditory cortex can reorganize to support visual motion processing. Although this cross-modal reorganization has long been thought to subserve enhanced visual abilities, previous research has been unsuccessful at identifying behavioural enhancements specific to motion processing. Recently, research with congenitally deaf cats has uncovered an enhancement for visual motion detection. Our goal was to test for a similar difference between deaf and hearing people. We tested 16 early and profoundly deaf participants and 20 hearing controls. Participants completed a visual motion detection task, in which they were asked to determine which of two sinusoidal gratings was moving. The speed of the moving grating varied according to an adaptive staircase procedure, allowing us to determine the lowest speed necessary for participants to detect motion. Consistent with previous research in deaf cats, the deaf group had lower motion detection thresholds than the hearing. This finding supports the proposal that cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation will occur for supramodal sensory features and preserve the output functions. PMID:24587381

  19. Detection and Proportion of Very Early Dental Caries in Independent Living Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S.; Kohanchi, Daniel; Biren-Fetz, John; Fontana, Margherita; Ramchandani, Manisha; Osann, Kathryn; Hallajian, Lucy; Mansour, Stephanie; Nabelsi, Tasneem; Chung, Na Eun; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Dental caries is an important healthcare challenge in adults over 65 years of age. Integration of oral health screening into non-dental primary care practice may improve access to preventive dental care for vulnerable populations such as the elderly. Such integration would require easy, fast, and accurate early caries detection tools. Primary goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for detecting very early caries in the elderly living in community-based settings. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) served as gold standard. Secondary goal of this study was to provide baseline prevalence data of very early caries lesions in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Materials and Methods Seventy-two subjects were recruited from three sites in Southern California: a retirement community, a senior health fair, and a convalescent hospital. Clinical examination was performed using the ICDAS visual criteria and this was followed by OCT imaging. The two-dimensional OCT images (B-scan) were analyzed with simple software. Locations with a log of back-scattered light intensity (BSLI) below 2.9 were scored as sound, and areas equaling or exceeding 2.9 BSLI were considered carious. Diagnostic performance of OCT imaging was compared with ICDAS score. Results OCT-based diagnosis demonstrated very good sensitivity (95.1%) and good specificity (85.8%). 54.7% of dentate subjects had at least one tooth with very early coronal caries. Conclusions Early coronal decay is prevalent in the unrestored pits and fissures of coronal surfaces of teeth in independent living adults aged 65+ years. Though OCT imaging coupled with a simple diagnostic algorithm can accurately detect areas of very early caries in community-based settings, existing devices are expensive and not well-suited for use by non-dental health care providers. Simple, inexpensive, fast, and accurate tools

  20. Readability of the public education literature on cancer prevention and detection.

    PubMed

    Michielutte, R; Bahnson, J; Beal, P

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the readability level of the educational literature on cancer prevention and early detection. Cancer education brochures and pamphlets were obtained from the American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute, private companies, public nonprofit agencies, and state health departments. A total of 183 brochures and pamphlets were examined and reading level (SMOG) scores were computed for 159 of them. The average reading level of the printed cancer education materials was found to be between 10th and 11th grade, with little overall variation by publishing agency, topic, cancer site, focus, or target population. In general, the results suggest that much of the cancer education literature may be of limited value in providing information to the low-income, low-education population. PMID:2400672

  1. Missed, Misused, or Mismanaged: Improving Early Detection Systems to Optimize Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Marisa; Marks, Kevin; Towle, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Early detection efforts have been shown to vary greatly in practice, and there is a general lack of systematic accountability built into monitoring early detection effort impact. This article reviews current early detection practices and the drawbacks of these practices, with particular attention given to prevalent issues of mismeasurement,…

  2. The role of early detection and treatment in malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Landier, Jordi; Parker, Daniel M; Thu, Aung Myint; Carrara, Verena I; Lwin, Khin Maung; Bonnington, Craig A; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Delmas, Gilles; Nosten, François H

    2016-01-01

    Falciparum malaria persists in hard-to-reach areas or demographic groups that are missed by conventional healthcare systems but could be reached by trained community members in a malaria post (MP). The main focus of a MP is to provide uninterrupted and rapid access to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) too all inhabitants of a village. RDTs allow trained community members to perform malaria diagnosis accurately and prescribe appropriate treatment, reducing as much as possible any delay between the onset of fever and treatment. Early treatment with ACT and with a low-dose of primaquine prevents further transmission from human to mosquito. A functioning MP represents an essential component of any malaria elimination strategy. Implementing large-scale, high-coverage, community-based early diagnosis and treatment through MPs requires few technological innovations but relies on a very well structured organization able to train, supervise and supply MPs, to monitor activity and to perform strict malaria surveillance. PMID:27421656

  3. Autism spectrum disorders: early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological management.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Susan E; Rogers, Sally J; Fombonne, Eric

    2003-09-01

    Our understanding and treatment of children with autism have changed dramatically since Leo Kanner first formally documented the disorder in 1943. With reference to the historical context, this paper reviews recent research addressing 4 major issues: early detection, intervention, education, and psychopharmacological management of children with autism and related (autistic) spectrum disorders (hereafter, "autism"). We conclude from our review of the evidence that, in the absence of additional, more compelling data, the clinical usefulness of existing screening instruments remains questionable. However, the potential importance of such research is underscored by the clear benefits of early behavioural intervention: despite differences in orientation, outcomes for children with autism can be significantly enhanced with early intensive intervention. Although many questions remain (notably, What are the critical therapeutic components? For whom? For what domains of development? For what level of intensity and duration?), interventions shown to be effective are all carefully planned, engineered, monitored, and designed to target specific skill domains. Including children with autism in regular classes within the public school system poses several challenges, the most pressing of which is the large number of school personnel who need to be trained in evidence-based teaching and behavioural management practices. Finally, psychotropic drugs may help to reduce some symptoms, but they are neither curative nor a substitute for other forms of support and intervention. PMID:14574826

  4. Early detection of cancer: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Joshua D; Fisher, Paul G; Gibbs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Screening in both healthy and high-risk populations offers the opportunity to detect cancer early and with an increased opportunity for treatment and curative intent. Currently, a defined role for screening exists in some cancer types, but each screening test has limitations, and improved screening methods are urgently needed. Unfortunately, many cancers still lack effective screening recommendations, or in some cases, the benefits from screening are marginal when weighed against the potential for harm. Here we review the current status of cancer screening: we examine the role of traditional tumor biomarkers, describe recommended imaging for early tumor surveillance, and explore the potential of promising novel cancer markers such as circulating tumor cells (CTC) and circulating tumor DNA. Consistent challenges for all of these screening tests include limited sensitivity and specificity. The risk for overdiagnosis remains a particular concern in screening, whereby lesions of no clinical consequence may be detected and thus create difficult management decisions for the clinician and patient. If treatment is pursued following overdiagnosis, patients may be exposed to morbidity from a treatment that may not provide any true benefit. The cost-effectiveness of screening tests also needs to be an ongoing focus. The improvement of genomic and surveillance technologies, which leads to more precise imaging and the ability to characterize blood-based tumor markers of greater specificity, offers opportunities for major progress in cancer screening. PMID:25993143

  5. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer: significance of early detection.

    PubMed

    Ulery, Maryann; Carter, Linnette; McFarlin, Barbara L; Giurgescu, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is defined as cancer of the breast diagnosed during pregnancy and up to 1 year postpartum. Delays in diagnosis are frequently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this article is to determine the significance of early detection of PABC and to alert health care providers to include PABC in the differential diagnosis when evaluating a breast mass in the perinatal period. This integrative literature review evaluated 15 research studies by using the hypothetical deductive model of clinical reasoning to determine factors related to diagnosis of PABC. As women delay childbearing, the incidence of PABC increases with age. In the reviewed studies, breast cancer was diagnosed with greater frequency in the postpartum period than during any trimester in pregnancy. Delay in diagnosis is complicated by axillary lymph node metastasis, high-grade tumors at diagnosis, and poor outcomes. Early detection is a significant predictor of improved outcomes. Diagnostic modalities such as ultrasound, mammography, and biopsy can be safely used for diagnostic purposes in the evaluation of potential cases of PABC during pregnancy. PMID:19720336

  6. Visual change detection recruits auditory cortices in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Davide; Heimler, Benedetta; Caclin, Anne; Dalmolin, Anna; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    Although cross-modal recruitment of early sensory areas in deafness and blindness is well established, the constraints and limits of these plastic changes remain to be understood. In the case of human deafness, for instance, it is known that visual, tactile or visuo-tactile stimuli can elicit a response within the auditory cortices. Nonetheless, both the timing of these evoked responses and the functional contribution of cross-modally recruited areas remain to be ascertained. In the present study, we examined to what extent auditory cortices of deaf humans participate in high-order visual processes, such as visual change detection. By measuring visual ERPs, in particular the visual MisMatch Negativity (vMMN), and performing source localization, we show that individuals with early deafness (N=12) recruit the auditory cortices when a change in motion direction during shape deformation occurs in a continuous visual motion stream. Remarkably this "auditory" response for visual events emerged with the same timing as the visual MMN in hearing controls (N=12), between 150 and 300 ms after the visual change. Furthermore, the recruitment of auditory cortices for visual change detection in early deaf was paired with a reduction of response within the visual system, indicating a shift from visual to auditory cortices of part of the computational process. The present study suggests that the deafened auditory cortices participate at extracting and storing the visual information and at comparing on-line the upcoming visual events, thus indicating that cross-modally recruited auditory cortices can reach this level of computation. PMID:24636881

  7. Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group conducts and supports prevention and early detection research on colorectal, esophageal, liver, pancreatic, and hematolymphoid ca | Prevention and early detection of colorectal, esophageal, liver, pancreas and hematolymphoid cancers.

  8. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  9. Prostate and Urologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate and bladder cancer. | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate, bladder, and skin cancers.

  10. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

  11. 76 FR 74017 - Empowering Consumers to Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (“Cramming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ...] Empowering Consumers to Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (``Cramming''); Consumer...) seeking comment on various proposals designed to assist consumers in detecting and preventing the... FCC 11-106, published at 76 FR 52625, August 23, 2011. The full text of document DA 11-1860 and...

  12. 77 FR 41955 - Empowering Consumers To Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (“Cramming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ...] Empowering Consumers To Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (``Cramming''); Consumer... (FNPRM) proposing additional rules to help consumers prevent and detect the placement of unauthorized... deadline established in the FNPRM, FCC 12-42, published at 77 FR 30972, May 24, 2012. The full text...

  13. 12 CFR 571.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. 571.90 Section 571.90 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Identity Theft Red Flags § 571.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 334 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft... Part 334—Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation Section 334.90... administration of a written Program to detect, prevent, and mitigate identity theft in connection with...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 334 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft... Part 334—Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation Section 334.90... administration of a written Program to detect, prevent, and mitigate identity theft in connection with...

  16. Potential utility of environmental DNA for early detection of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Jeremy; Sepulveda, Adam; Sylvester, K; Thum, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    EWM invasions have negative impacts on native biodiversity, recreational boating, fishing, and other types of aquatic tourism (e.g., Eiswerth et al. 2000). On a broader scale, EWM can also be harmful to man-made aquatic infrastructure, such as hydroelectric dams. If an EWM invasion can be detected in an early stage where eradication is still a possibility, many of these negative consequences can be limited or prevented altogether (e.g., Madsen et al. 2002). The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of pure and hybridized EWM DNA using both laboratory and field experiments. We performed a pilot experiment in outdoor tanks to determine the basic functionality and sensitivity of the assay. Following this initial test, we collected field samples from Michigan and Montana lakes with and without known EWM populations. Taken together, our findings suggest that eDNA techniques have potential to be a useful strategy for the early detection of EWM.

  17. In vitro prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa early biofilm formation with antibiotics used in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García-Castillo, María; Maiz, Luis; Lamas, Adelaida; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2012-08-01

    The ability of antibiotics used in bronchopulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa early biofilm formation was studied using a biofilm microtitre assay with 57 non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates (44 first colonisers and 13 recovered during the initial intermittent colonisation stage) obtained from 35 CF patients. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (BICs) of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramycin, colistin and azithromycin were determined by placing a peg lid with a formed biofilm onto microplates containing antibiotics. A modification of this protocol consisting of antibiotic challenge during biofilm formation was implemented in order to determine the biofilm prevention concentration (BPC), i.e. the minimum concentration able to prevent biofilm formation. The lowest BPCs were for fluoroquinolones, tobramycin and colistin and the highest for ceftazidime and imipenem. The former antibiotics had BPCs identical to or only slightly higher than their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined by standard Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilution and were also active on formed biofilms as reflected by their low BIC values. In contrast, ceftazidime and imipenem were less effective for prevention of biofilm formation and on formed biofilms. In conclusion, the new BPC parameter determined in non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates recovered during early colonisation stages in CF patients supports early aggressive antimicrobial treatment guidelines in first P. aeruginosa-colonised CF patients. PMID:22727530

  18. Surface engineered biosensors for the early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Muhymin

    Cancer commences in the building block of human body which is cells and in most of the cases remains silent at early stage. Diseases are only expressed at molecular and cellular level at primary stages. Recognition of diseases at this micro and nano level might reduce the mortality rate of cancer significantly. This research work aimed to introduce novel electronic biosensors for for identification of cancer at cellular level. The dissertation study focuses on 1) Label-Free Isolation of Metastatic Tumor Cells Using Filter Based Microfluidic device; 2) Nanotextured Polymer Substrates for Enhanced Cancer Cell Isolation and Cell Growth; 3) Nanotextured Microfluidic Channel for Electrical Profiling and Detection of Tumor Cells from Blood; and 4) Single Biochip for the Detection of Tumor Cells by Electrical Profile and Surface Immobilized Aptamer. Standard silicon processing techniques were followed to fabricate all of the biosensors. Nantoextruing and surface functionalizon were also incorporated to elevate the efficiency of the devices. The first approach aimed to detect cancer cells from blood based on their mechanophysical properties. Cancer cells are larger than blood cells but highly elastic in nature. These cells can squeeze through small microchannels much smaller than their size. The cross sectional area of the microchannels was optimized to isolate tumor cells from blood. Nanotextured polymer substrates, a platform inspired from the natural basement membrane was used to enhance the isolation and growth of tumor cells. Micro reactive ion etching was performed to have better control on features of nantoxtured surfaces and did not require any template. Next, electrical measurement of ionic current was performed across single microchannel to detect tumor cells from blood. Later, nanotexturing enhanced the efficiency of the device by selectively altering the translocation profile of cancer cells. Eventually aptamer functionalized nanotextured polymer surface was

  19. Early detection of RFI in SMOS radiometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anterrieu, Eric

    2011-10-01

    The SMOS mission is a European Space Agency (ESA) project aimed at global monitoring of surface Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity from radiometric L-band observations. The single payload of the mission is MIRAS, the very first Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis ever launched into space. This work is concerned with the contamination of the data collected by MIRAS by radio frequency interferences (RFI) which degrade the performance of the mission. RFI events are evidenced and it is explained why well-known standard RFI detection methods cannot be used. Accounting for specificities of MIRAS, an early detection method tailored to SMOS measurements is presented and illustrated with data acquired with the reference radiometers during the first year of the mission. The aim of this method is not to localize nor to quantify the RFI sources but only to detect, to quantify and possibly to mitigate the corresponding RFI effects in the signals measured by these radiometers. This is done as soon as possible in the processing pipeline so that the propagation of such undesirable effects is known and under control from measurements to final products.

  20. Diagnosis and early detection of COPD using spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David P.

    2014-01-01

    The standard respiratory function test for case detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is spirometry. The criterion for diagnosis defined in guidelines is based on the FEV1/FVC ratio forced expiratory ratio (FER) and its severity is based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from measurements obtained during maximal forced expiratory manoeuvres. Spirometry is a safe and practical procedure, and when conducted by a trained operator using a spirometer that provides quality feedback, the majority of patients can be coached to provide acceptable and repeatable results. This allows potentially wide application of testing to improve recognition and diagnosis of COPD, such as for case finding in primary care. However, COPD remains substantially under diagnosed in primary care and a major reason for this is underuse of spirometry. The presence of symptoms is not a reliable indicator of disease and diagnosis is often delayed until more severe airflow obstruction is present. Early diagnosis is worthwhile, as it allows risk factors for COPD such as smoking to be addressed promptly and treatment optimised. Paradoxically, investigation of the patho-physiology in COPD has shown that extensive small airway disease exists before it is detectable with conventional spirometric indices, and methods to detect airway disease earlier using the flow-volume curve are discussed. PMID:25478197

  1. Early detection of cervical cancer among Native American women: a qualitative supplement to a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Messer, L; Steckler, A; Dignan, M

    1999-08-01

    The North Carolina Native American Cervical Cancer Prevention Project was a 5-year (1989-1995) National Cancer Institute-funded, community-based, early detection of cervical cancer intervention implemented among two Native American tribes in North Carolina: the eastern band of the Cherokee Indians and the Lumbee. The initial quantitative analysis of the intervention showed modest effects and found that the intervention had different effects in the two communities. Due to the equivocal findings, a retrospective qualitative study was conducted. The qualitative study found that two types of factors influenced the intervention's results. The first were project and intervention characteristics, and the second were community and cultural factors over which the project had no control. The community and cultural factors took two forms: enhancers, which contributed to greater intervention effect, and attenuators, which created barriers to success. Examples of each factor are presented, and implications for cervical cancer detection among Native American women are discussed. PMID:10435237

  2. Epigenetic Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Min; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer and colorectal cancer, the two most frequent cancers within the gastrointestinal tract, account for a large proportion of human malignancies worldwide. The initiation and progression of gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) is controlled by both genetic and epigenetic events. Epigenetic alterations, including changes in DNA methylation, specific histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and noncoding RNA-mediated gene silencing, are potentially reversible and heritable. Summary In this article, we summarize the current advances in epigenetic biomarkers as potential substrates for GIC detection. The combined screening of a panel of methylated genes, hyperacetylated histones, microRNAs or other noncoding RNAs is currently under evaluation to improve sensitivity. Key Message Current studies concentrated on the development of cost-effective epigenetic diagnostic biomarkers for GIC based on noninvasive blood or stool samples. The combined blood or stool test with a relatively high sensitivity could be a cost-effective screening tool for the detection of patients with asymptomatic cancers who could therefore choose whether or not to go for further examinations, such as endoscopy or colonoscopy. Practical Implications A better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms has not only offered new insights into a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis, but has also allowed identification of clinically relevant putative biomarkers for the early detection, disease monitoring, prognosis and risk assessment of GIC. In particular, noninvasive biomarkers in serum or fecal samples for the detection of GIC could have potential for better compliance and can be incorporated into routine clinical practice in the foreseeable future, pending their validation in large-scale prospective trials. PMID:26674521

  3. Rethinking Positron Emission Technology for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosetto, D. B.

    2006-04-01

    Current PET technology, which detects cancer indirectly by measuring the size of tumors, is contrasted with a new technology that emphasizes measuring directly the abnormal metabolic activity characteristic of the very first cancerous cells by improving the efficiency of the medical imaging device hundreds of times. Rather than maximizing spatial resolution, this approach minimizes the abnormal metabolic threshold needed for early cancer diagnosis. A redesigned detector assembly takes full advantage of innovations in electronics to implement real-time algorithms that allow the use of economical crystal detectors. The tradeoffs inherent in choosing components, such as crystals, sensors, and electronics, for achieving the largest reduction in cancer deaths is discussed and justified. Theoretical calculations and prototype data are provided in references that demonstrate that all this can be achieved at a significantly lower radiation dosage and per exam cost to the patient.

  4. Salivary Antimicrobial Peptides in Early Detection of Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Güncü, Güliz N.; Yilmaz, Dogukan; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.

    2015-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of periodontitis, an infection-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, there is a complex interaction between the subgingival microbiota and host tissues. A periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting the initiation and progression of the disease, monitoring the response to therapy, or measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression has been of interest for a long time. The value of various enzymes, proteins, and immunoglobulins, which are abundant constituents of saliva, as potential biomarkers has been recognized and extensively investigated for periodontal diseases. Gingival defensins and cathelicidins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune response. However, their applicability as salivary biomarkers is still under debate. The present review focuses on proteomic biomarkers and antimicrobial peptides, in particular, to be used at early phases of periodontitis. PMID:26734583

  5. [Clinical relevance of the early detection of arthrosis].

    PubMed

    Willauschus, W; Herrmann, J; Wirtz, P; Weseloh, G

    1995-01-01

    In the years 1989 to 1992 615 local persons underwent yearly examinations for analysis of osteoarthrosis of the hip and knee by means of comprehensive documentation of orthopaedic health history and clinical findings. Of special interest in our investigation were the Altman ACR criteria for osteoarthrosis of the hip and knee over the years. We can show, that finding the diagnosis is as accurate with the ACR criteria as well as the far more extensive Lequesne and Tegner-Lysholm score. Analysis of the investigations over the years revealed clearly different results in the frequency of osteoarthrosis. The reason is the nature of osteoarthrosis changing between silent and active phases especially during time of onset. Our investigations show, that valuable criteria exists for detection of early osteoarthrosis, however apparent are deficits for observing its course. PMID:8571651

  6. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  7. Early detection of intentional harm in the human amygdala.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Eugenia; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Decety, Jean; Sigman, Mariano; Garcia, María del Carmen; Silva, Walter; Ciraolo, Carlos; Vaucheret, Esteban; Baglivo, Fabricio; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Manes, Facundo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    A decisive element of moral cognition is the detection of harm and its assessment as intentional or unintentional. Moral cognition engages brain networks supporting mentalizing, intentionality, empathic concern and evaluation. These networks rely on the amygdala as a critical hub, likely through frontotemporal connections indexing stimulus salience. We assessed inferences about perceived harm using a paradigm validated through functional magnetic resonance imaging, eye-tracking and electroencephalogram recordings. During the task, we measured local field potentials in three patients with depth electrodes (n = 115) placed in the amygdala and in several frontal, temporal, and parietal locations. Direct electrophysiological recordings demonstrate that intentional harm induces early activity in the amygdala (<200 ms), which--in turn--predicts intention attribution. The amygdala was the only site that systematically discriminated between critical conditions and predicted their classification of events as intentional. Moreover, connectivity analysis showed that intentional harm induced stronger frontotemporal information sharing at early stages. Results support the 'many roads' view of the amygdala and highlight its role in the rapid encoding of intention and salience--critical components of mentalizing and moral evaluation. PMID:26608745

  8. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  9. Multispectral fundus imaging for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James M.; Tiedeman, James S.; Hopkins, Mark F.; Sabharwal, Yashvinder S.

    1999-04-01

    Functional imaging of the retina and associated structures may provide information for early assessment of risks of developing retinopathy in diabetic patients. Here we show results of retinal oximetry performed using multi-spectral reflectance imaging techniques to assess hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen saturation (OS) in blood vessels of the inner retina and oxygen utilization at the optic nerve in diabetic patients without retinopathy and early disease during experimental hyperglycemia. Retinal images were obtained through a fundus camera and simultaneously recorded at up to four wavelengths using image-splitting modules coupled to a digital camera. Changes in OS in large retinal vessels, in average OS in disk tissue, and in the reduced state of cytochrome oxidase (CO) at the disk were determined from changes in reflectance associated with the oxidation/reduction states of Hb and CO. Step to high sugar lowered venous oxygen saturation to a degree dependent on disease duration. Moderate increase in sugar produced higher levels of reduced CO in both the disk and surrounding tissue without a detectable change in average tissue OS. Results suggest that regulation of retinal blood supply and oxygen consumption are altered by hyperglycemia and that such functional changes are present before clinical signs of retinopathy.

  10. Modelling the economics and efficacy of early adoption of preventative practices for managing trunk diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trunk diseases pose one of the most significant threats to vineyard longevity, since the introduction of Phylloxera. Research on resistant germplasm and detection tools will help in the long term. In the short term, we aim to promote preventative practices. Experimental trials show three practices t...

  11. Prevention of early episodes of otitis media by pneumococcal vaccines might reduce progression to complex disease.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Ron; Pelton, Stephen; Bakaletz, Lauren; Cohen, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Otitis media is a common childhood infection of the middle ear and a major cause of morbidity. This multifactorial disease manifests as a spectrum of clinical syndromes from uncomplicated acute otitis media to more complex recurrent and chronic cases (frequently polymicrobial), with the major pathogens involved being Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) target only a few serotypes that cause otitis media; however, results from studies suggest that existing PCVs can prevent early episodes of disease associated with vaccine serotypes, resulting in a reduction of subsequent complex cases caused by non-vaccine serotypes and other otopathogens, which contribute considerably to the disease burden. In this Review, we discuss the role of pneumococcus in the disease continuum and assess clinical evidence showing the effect of prevention of early episodes on the complex interplay between bacterial species implicated in otitis media. PMID:27036355

  12. [Does early detection of non-motor symptoms facilitate early treatment of Parkinson's disease?].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kazuko

    2012-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. The risk of developing of PD increases with age, it is estimated that the prevalence rate is approximately 150/100,000 in Japan. Recently, non-motor symptoms such as anosmia, autonomic failure, sleep disorders, sensory problems, depression, anxiety, cognitive disorders (including dementia), and psychosis are interested in the pathogenetic process of PD. According to the Braak's hypothesis, these non-motor symptoms precede the onset of the classic motor symptoms of PD. Many studies have shown that the number of neurons in the substantia nigra is decreased to approximately -40 to -60% in number when the motorsymptoms of PD are developed. In this article, review of special references regarding the natural history of PD shows that non-motor symptoms are the prodromal signs of PD. If disease modification therapy and/or disease prevention therapy is approved in the future, an early and accurate diagnosis of PD is needed. Accurate early diagnostic biomarkers including symptoms, some compounds, and radiological markers need to be identified. PMID:22481518

  13. Early detection of cardiac involvement in thalassemia: From bench to bedside perspective

    PubMed Central

    Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial siderosis is known as the major cause of death in thalassemia major (TM) patients since it can lead to iron overload cardiomyopathy. Although this condition can be prevented if timely effective intensive chelation is given to patients, the mortality rate of iron overload cardiomyopathy still remains high due to late detection of this condition. Various direct and indirect methods of iron assessment, including serum ferritin level, echocardiogram, non-transferrin-bound iron, cardiac magnetic resonance T2*, heart rate variability, and liver biopsy and myocardial biopsy, have been proposed for early detection of cardiac iron overload in TM patients. However, controversial evidence and limitations of their use in clinical practice exist. In this review article, all of these iron assessment methods that have been proposed or used to directly or indirectly determine the cardiac iron status in TM reported from both basic and clinical studies are comprehensively summarized and presented. Since there has been growing evidence in the past decades that cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as well as cardiac autonomic status known as the heart rate variability can provide early detection of cardiac involvement in TM patients, these two methods are also presented and discussed. The existing controversy regarding the assessment of cardiac involvement in thalassemia is also discussed. PMID:24009816

  14. Preventing weight gain and obesity: indirect effects of the family check-up in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin D; Montaño, Zorash; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-04-01

    The early signs of obesity are observable in early childhood. Although the most promising prevention approaches are family-centered, few relevant early prevention programs exist. This study evaluated the effects of an evidence-based, home-visiting intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on the trajectory of children's weight gain. The FCU was designed to prevent the development of behavior problems by improving family management practices; children's weight has not been an explicit target. On the basis of previous research and conceptual models, we hypothesized that intervention effects on parenting practices, specifically caregivers' use of positive behavior support (PBS) strategies in toddlerhood, would mediate improvements in children's weight trajectories. A total of 731 indigent caregiver-child dyads from a multisite randomized intervention trial were examined. Observational assessment of parenting and mealtime behaviors occurred from age 2-5 years. The child's body mass index (BMI) was assessed yearly from age 5-9.5 years. Path analysis with a latent growth model revealed a significant indirect effect of the FCU on the trajectory of BMI in later childhood. Improvements in caregivers' PBS in toddlerhood, which was related to the nutritional quality of the meals caregivers served to the child during the mealtime task, served as the intervening process. Furthermore, findings indicate that the FCU prevents progression to overweight and obese status amongst at-risk children. These study results add to existing evidence that has demonstrated that family-based interventions aimed at improving general family management skills are effective at preventing weight gain. Future directions are discussed. PMID:25263212

  15. Preventing Weight Gain and Obesity: Indirect Effects of the Family Check-Up in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Montaño, Zorash; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2014-01-01

    The early signs of obesity are observable in early childhood. Although the most promising prevention approaches are family centered, few relevant early prevention programs exist. This study evaluated the effects of an evidence-based, home-visiting intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on the trajectory of children’s weight gain. The FCU was designed to prevent the development of behavior problems by improving family management practices; children’s weight has not been an explicit target. On the basis of previous research and conceptual models, we hypothesized that intervention effects on parenting practices, specifically caregivers’ use of positive behavior support (PBS) strategies in toddlerhood, would mediate improvements in children’s weight trajectories. A total of 731 indigent caregiver–child dyads from a multisite randomized intervention trial were examined. Observational assessment of parenting and mealtime behaviors occurred from age 2 to 5. The child’s body mass index (BMI) was assessed yearly from age 5 to 9.5. Path analysis with a latent growth model revealed a significant indirect effect of the FCU on the trajectory of BMI in later childhood. Improvements in caregivers’ PBS in toddlerhood, which was related to the nutritional quality of the meals caregivers served to the child during the mealtime task, served as the intervening process. Further, findings indicate that the FCU prevents progression to overweight and obese status amongst at-risk children. These study results add to existing evidence that has demonstrated that family-based interventions aimed at improving general family management skills are effective at preventing weight gain. Future directions are discussed. PMID:25263212

  16. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  17. Early Detection of Mycobacteria Using a Novel Hydrogel Culture Method

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mi Hee; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, Chang-Ki; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Eun Yup

    2014-01-01

    Background Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency. Methods Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 µL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37℃ for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status. Results The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; P<0.0001). Conclusions The hydrogel scaffold culture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. PMID:24422192

  18. Blood based cell biopsy for early detection of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Cha-Mei; Adams, Daniel; Adams, Diane; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Martin, Stuart; Chumsri, Saranya; Marks, Jeffrey

    Early detection (ED) of cancer holds the promise for less aggressive treatments and better outcome. However, there are few accepted methods for ED. We report on a previously unknown blood cell found specifically in the peripheral blood of many solid tumors. They are defined as Cancer Associated Macrophage-Like cells (CAMLs) and are characterized by large size (25-300 μm) and expression of cancer markers. CAMLs were isolated on precision filters during blood filtration. We conducted prospective studies in breast cancer (BC) to ascertain CAML prevalence, specificity and sensitivity in relation to disease status at clinical presentation. We report on two related but separate studies: 1) the isolation of CAMLs from patients with known invasive BC, compared to healthy volunteers and, 2) a double blind study conducted on women undergoing core needle biopsy to evaluate suspicious breast masses. The studies show that CAMLs are found in all stages of BC and suggest that detection of CAMLs can differentiate patients with BC from those with benign breast conditions and healthy individuals. This non-invasive blood test can be potentially used for ED of BC and other malignancies after validation studies with the advantage of a minimally invasive procedure and longitudinal monitoring. This work was supported by Grants from Maryland TEDCO MTTCF, R01-CA154624 from NIH, KG100240 from Susan G. Komen Foundation, Era of Hope Scholar award from DoD (BC100675), and U01-CA084955 from NCI EDRN.

  19. Preventive Intervention for Anxious Preschoolers and Their Parents: Strengthening Early Emotional Development

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Lerner, Amy B.; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L.; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P.; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent–child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent–child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate anxiety symptoms. Sixteen children (ages 3–5) and at least one of their parents participated in Strengthening Early Emotional Development (SEED), a new 10-week intervention with concurrent groups for parents and children. Outcome measures included clinician-rated and parent-rated assessments of anxiety symptoms, as well as measures of emotion knowledge, parent anxiety, and parental attitudes about children’s anxiety. Participation in SEED was associated with reduced child anxiety symptoms and improved emotion understanding skills. Parents reported decreases in their own anxiety, along with attitudes reflecting enhanced confidence in their children’s ability to cope with anxiety. Reductions in child and parent anxiety were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Findings suggest that a parent–child cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention may hold promise for young children with mild to moderate anxiety. Improvements in parent anxiety and parental attitudes may support the utility of intervening with parents. Fostering increased willingness to encourage their children to engage in new and anxiety-provoking situations may help promote continued mastery of new skills and successful coping with anxiety. PMID:22331442

  20. Early enteral feeding in severe acute pancreatitis: can it prevent secondary pancreatic (super) infection?

    PubMed

    Lehocky, P; Sarr, M G

    2000-01-01

    Sepsis continues to account for a second peak in mortality in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. The prevention of these septic complications and subsequent development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome remains a major focus for investigators, yet despite considerable clinical and experimental work addressing its etiology, septic complications remain high. Several studies have been designed to demonstrate the mechanism of origin of these septic complications with an attempt to define strategies for their prevention to improve patient outcomes. There is clear evidence that the origin of this secondary bacterial infection arises from enteric bacterial translocation secondary to disruption of the gut mucosal barrier during acute pancreatitis. Strategies designed to prevent secondary pancreatic infection include aggressive fluid resuscitation to maximize organ perfusion, early systemic antibiotic treatment or selective gut decontamination, and recently attempts to block mediators of the systemic inflammatory response. This discussion will summarize our present understanding of the etiopathogenesis of secondary bacterial 'superinfection' of necrotizing pancreatitis and how the initiation of enteral feeding early in the course of acute pancreatitis may prove to be an effective means of preventing and/or reversing the breakdown of the gut mucosal defense barrier. PMID:11155001

  1. Do Early Childhood Interventions Prevent Child Maltreatment? A Review of Research

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Topitzes, James W.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the empirical evidence on whether early-childhood primary prevention programs can reduce rates of child abuse and neglect. Fifteen studies of 14 programs for children ages birth to 5 years were completed from 1990 to 2007 and assessed impacts with methodological rigor. All but one of the programs intervened from birth to age 3 through home visits, parent education classes, or the provision of health services. The weighted average effect size of program participation was a 2.9 percentage-point reduction in maltreatment (6.6% vs. 9.5%), which is equivalent to a 31% reduction in the rate of maltreatment and a fifth of a standard deviation. Of the five programs showing significant reductions in substantiated rates of child maltreatment, three provide strong evidence of preventive effects. Only the Child-Parent Centers and the Nurse Family Partnership assessed longer-term preventive effects. Common elements of these effective programs included implementation by professional staff, relatively high dosage and intensity, and comprehensiveness of scope. The major conclusion is that the evidence base for programs in early childhood to prevent child maltreatment remains relatively weak. To advance the field, more longer term studies of a variety of intervention models are needed. PMID:19240245

  2. Rope can help with early detection of zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, C.

    1993-06-01

    Many of the waters in the western US meet all the ecological requirements of suitable habitat for zebra mussels, which can spread to new bodies of water by attaching to boats. With that in mind, Reclamation has launched Zebra Mussel Watch, a program aimed at early detection of the mussel in western waters. As part of the watch program, Reclamation suggests attaching one end of a rope to a weight such as a brock, rick, or cinder block, and placing the weight in shallow water to detect the arrival of zebra mussels. Any kind of rope will do, but nylon is preferred because small mussels are easier to distinguish on nylon's smooth surface than on ropes with rough surfaces. Young mussels smaller than the head of a common straight pin are transparent when they first settle and probably will not be visible to the naked eye for several weeks, when they are larger and they take on the appearance of small, dark-colored clams. [Note: over time, algae, bacteria, and debris will cause the rope to darken. So the color of the rope used doesn't make much difference.] Hang a rope in 8 feet or less of well-oxygenated water where wave action will not move the bottom of the rope to any great degree. (Zebra mussels like slow currents and will not attach where the current is moving 4 to 5 feet per second or faster.) Leave the rope in the water two or three weeks to allow microorganisms to grow on it. Young mussels will settle on surfaces that are coated with algae and other microscopic organisms. Then, at two- to three-week intervals, lift the rope and examine it for young mussels. If adults are around, the young eventually will show up. Reclamation believes that by detecting the first arrival of the mussels, it can implement plans to control the spread of the mussels and alert nearby projects to the approaching menace.

  3. Cyclooxygenase inhibition targets neurons to prevent early behavioural decline in Alzheimer's disease model mice.

    PubMed

    Woodling, Nathaniel S; Colas, Damien; Wang, Qian; Minhas, Paras; Panchal, Maharshi; Liang, Xibin; Mhatre, Siddhita D; Brown, Holden; Ko, Novie; Zagol-Ikapitte, Irene; van der Hart, Marieke; Khroyan, Taline V; Chuluun, Bayarsaikhan; Priyam, Prachi G; Milne, Ginger L; Rassoulpour, Arash; Boutaud, Olivier; Manning-Boğ, Amy B; Heller, H Craig; Andreasson, Katrin I

    2016-07-01

    Identifying preventive targets for Alzheimer's disease is a central challenge of modern medicine. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in normal ageing populations. This preventive effect coincides with an extended preclinical phase that spans years to decades before onset of cognitive decline. In the brain, COX-2 is induced in neurons in response to excitatory synaptic activity and in glial cells in response to inflammation. To identify mechanisms underlying prevention of cognitive decline by anti-inflammatory drugs, we first identified an early object memory deficit in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 mice that preceded previously identified spatial memory deficits in this model. We modelled prevention of this memory deficit with ibuprofen, and found that ibuprofen prevented memory impairment without producing any measurable changes in amyloid-β accumulation or glial inflammation. Instead, ibuprofen modulated hippocampal gene expression in pathways involved in neuronal plasticity and increased levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. The gene most highly downregulated by ibuprofen was neuronal tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (Tdo2), which encodes an enzyme that metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine. TDO2 expression was increased by neuronal COX-2 activity, and overexpression of hippocampal TDO2 produced behavioural deficits. Moreover, pharmacological TDO2 inhibition prevented behavioural deficits in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate broad effects of cyclooxygenase inhibition on multiple neuronal pathways that counteract the neurotoxic effects of early accumulating amyloid-β oligomers. PMID:27190010

  4. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter ... don't have to consider themselves doomed to lung cancer. They can have early detection, get treated early, and hopefully live a ... Volume 7 Number 4 Page 5

  5. Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents?

    PubMed

    Odgers, Candice L; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S; Piquero, Alex R; Slutske, Wendy S; Milne, Barry J; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents' future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  6. Is It Important to Prevent Early Exposure to Drugs and Alcohol Among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S.; Piquero, Alex R.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Milne, Barry J.; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents’ future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  7. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction). Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction. PMID:25019084

  8. Integrated strategies needed to prevent iron deficiency and to promote early child development.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M

    2012-06-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are global public health problems that differentially impact pregnant women and infants in low and middle income countries. IDA during the first 1000 days of life (prenatally through 24 months) has been associated with long term deficits in children's socio-emotional, motor, cognitive, and physiological functioning. Mechanisms linking iron deficiency to children's development may include alterations to dopamine metabolism, myelination, and hippocampal structure and function, as well as maternal depression and unresponsive caregiving, potentially associated with maternal ID. Iron supplementation trials have had mixed success in promoting children's development. Evidence suggests that the most effective interventions to prevent iron deficiency and to promote early child development begin early in life and integrate strategies to ensure adequate iron and nutritional status, along with strategies to promote responsive mother-child interactions and early learning opportunities. PMID:22664336

  9. Influenza in long-term care facilities: preventable, detectable, treatable.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Influenza in long-term care facilities is an ever more challenging problem. Vaccination of residents and health care workers is the most important preventive measure. Although vaccine efficacy has been questioned, the preponderance of data favors vaccination. Antiviral resistance complicates postexposure chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Factors that limit the choice of antiviral agents in this patient population include limited vaccine supplies and impaired dexterity and confusion in long-term care residents. PMID:19726556

  10. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management: Meeting Report

    PubMed Central

    Mulshine, James L.; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M.; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in pre-competitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality CT imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of CT imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensure its quality are critical to ensuring continued progress against this most lethal cancer. PMID:25898957

  11. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Local tsunami early warning: the case of Rhodes island, Greece, and the NEARTOWARN (EU-DG ECHO) prevention project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Argyris, Ilias; Fokaefs, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Local, that is near-field, tsunamis occur in the global ocean including the Mediterranean Sea and its connected seas. For such tsunamis the first wave has very short travel time of arrival (less than 30 min.) to the closest coastal zone thus making the early warning a very difficult task. An efficient, end-to-end early tsunami warning system in local conditions should fulfill the condition that the time needed for the earthquake detection, plus the time needed for the warning message transmission to the authorities and afterwards to the general public and/or other task groups, plus the time needed for response and real evacuation is less than the travel time of the first wave. In the physiographic conditions of the Mediterranean Sea it is extremely hard to satisfy such a condition unless the total time needed to response in early warning is drastically minimized. The project Near-Field Tsunami Warning and Emergency Planning (NEARTOWARN, which is supported by the EU DG-ECHO prevention programme, aims, among others, to establish a system in Rhodes island, Greece, with the purpose to meet needs for local early tsunami warning. To minimize the time for emergency in less than 30 sec, seismic alert devices (SED's) make the core component of the system. SED's are activated and send alerting signals as soon as a P-phase of seismic wave is detected in the near-field but for a predetermined threshold of ground motion. Then, emergency starts while SED's activate remotely other devices, such as computers with data bases of pre-calculated tsunami simulations, surveillance cameras etc. The system is completed with tide-gauges, simulated tsunami scenarios and emergency planning supported by a Geographical Management System. Rhodes island in Dodecanese, South Aegean Sea, Greece, has been selected as a test-area for the development of the prototype system given that it was hit by large tsunamigenic earthquakes several times in the past.

  13. Effort and Potential Efficiencies for Aquatic Non-native Species Early Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript is based on the early aquatic non-native species detection research in the Duluth-Superior harbor. The problem of early detection is essentially that of a "needle in a haystack" - to detect a newly arrived and presumably rare non-native species with a high probabi...

  14. "Basal Cell Blanche": A Diagnostic Maneuver to Increase Early Detection of Basal Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Quach, Olivia Leigh; Barry, Megan; Roberts Cruse, Allison; Wilson, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas represent one of the most common skin cancers and often present initially in the primary care setting. Subtle basal cell carcinomas may be difficult to detect, and early detection of these carcinomas remains important in limiting patient morbidity. In this article, we present a simple diagnostic maneuver, "basal cell blanche," to increase early detection of basal cell carcinomas. PMID:27170799

  15. Raising sun protection and early detection awareness among Florida high schoolers.

    PubMed

    Geller, Alan C; Shamban, Jill; O'Riordan, David L; Slygh, Carolyn; Kinney, John P; Rosenberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Changing adolescents' sun protection behaviors remains a challenge, and the need for effective interventions targeting this group is a priority, particularly in warmer climates where emphasis on appropriate sun protection remains a year-round concern. However, there has been little prospective research on the effect of school-based sun protection interventions, particularly on adolescents, especially teens aged 15 to 18. High school science students in Palm Beach County, Florida, received a seven-lesson sun protection and early detection curriculum preceded by pretests and followed with post-tests 6 months later. The main outcome measures were student knowledge and sun protection practices, including adherence to sunscreen recommendations. Of 344 students completing the baseline surveys, 184 students completed the postintervention questionnaire. Overall, there were significant improvements from baseline to follow-up for many of the knowledge questions. Greatest change scores were seen in the children's ability to correctly define the five rules of early detection of skin cancer (27-60%, p<0.001) with improved change scores by gender and race persisting after 6 months. No significant differences were found in reported use of sunscreen, hat wearing, or sunglasses, although there was a slight decrease in the reported use of always wearing sun protective clothing (p=0.03). In conclusion, in this study, a skin cancer prevention and detection curriculum integrated into high school biology, resulted in knowledge gains maintained at least 6 months after classroom teaching. For example, procedural knowledge (e.g., knowing ways to identify early malignant moles) obtained in this study improved in 6 months, and may lay the foundation for future behavioral change. Sun protection activities in the United States have met with many challenges and obstacles and thus, further work is needed to better understand what combination of knowledge-based information, activity

  16. Detection, removal and prevention of calculus: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Deepa G.; Umesh Nayak, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    Dental plaque is considered to be a major etiological factor in the development of periodontal disease. Accordingly, the elimination of supra- and sub-gingival plaque and calculus is the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Dental calculus is mineralized plaque; because it is porous, it can absorb various toxic products that can damage the periodontal tissues. Hence, calculus should be accurately detected and thoroughly removed for adequate periodontal therapy. Many techniques have been used to identify and remove calculus deposits present on the root surface. The purpose of this review was to compile the various methods and their advantages for the detection and removal of calculus. PMID:24526823

  17. mga genosensor for early detection of human rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Swati; Kaushal, Ankur; Khare, Shashi; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-05-01

    The 5' amino-labeled DNA probe complementary to mga gene of Streptococcus pyogenes was immobilized on carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes electrode and hybridized with 0.1-100 ng/6 μl single-stranded genomic DNA (ssG-DNA) of S. pyogenes from throat swab of suspected rheumatic heart disease (RHD) patients. Electrochemical response was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical impedance (EI). The sensitivity of the sensor was 106.03 (μA/cm(2))/ng and limit of detection (LOD) was found 0.014 ng/6 μl with regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.921 using DPV. The genosensor was characterized by FTIR and SEM, and electrode was found stable for 6 months on storage at 4 °C with 5-6 % loss in initial DPV current. mga genosensor is the first report on RHD sensor which can save life of several suspected patients by early diagnosis in 30 min. PMID:24639090

  18. A National Virtual Specimen Database for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Kincaid, Heather; Kelly, Sean; Thornquist, Mark; Johnsey, Donald; Winget, Marcy

    2003-01-01

    Access to biospecimens is essential for enabling cancer biomarker discovery. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) comprises and integrates a large number of laboratories into a network in order to establish a collaborative scientific environment to discover and validate disease markers. The diversity of both the institutions and the collaborative focus has created the need for establishing cross-disciplinary teams focused on integrating expertise in biomedical research, computational and biostatistics, and computer science. Given the collaborative design of the network, the EDRN needed an informatics infrastructure. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the National Cancer Institute,and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) teamed up to build an informatics infrastructure creating a collaborative, science-driven research environment despite the geographic and morphology differences of the information systems that existed within the diverse network. EDRN investigators identified the need to share biospecimen data captured across the country managed in disparate databases. As a result, the informatics team initiated an effort to create a virtual tissue database whereby scientists could search and locate details about specimens located at collaborating laboratories. Each database, however, was locally implemented and integrated into collection processes and methods unique to each institution. This meant that efforts to integrate databases needed to be done in a manner that did not require redesign or re-implementation of existing system

  19. Nondestructive methods for early detection of damage to living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateyeva, Natalya L.; Matvienko, Gennadii G.; Shul'gina, Lidia A.

    2004-10-01

    As a result of the accomplish experiments determine, that by a method of a laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll it is possible to spot for cedar an early stage of the stressful factor, bound with presence in ground <>. In our case the laboratory researches provided learning a quantitative contents chlorophyll for plants found in normal and stressful conditions on a basis spectrophotometrical of a method. Natural measurement the observations behind dynamics of a photosynthetic state means of wood plants in vivo enable. For an estimation of this state the fluorescence of chlorophyll on wavelength 685 and 740 nm was used. The optical model of a green leaf was developed for methods of a laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll. A experiments series on remote research of processes violation of mineral power supply and exchange in plants is carried spent. Was considered the change of the ratios of intensity of a fluorescence of chlorophyll and carotenoids at deficiency. Was designed technique for detection infringement processes of mineral nutrition and change surveyed acidity grounds on laser-induce fluorescent responses of deciduous plants.

  20. Bone turnover markers for early detection of fracture healing disturbances: A review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cristina P; Dias, Isabel R; Lopez-Peña, Mónica; Camassa, José A; Lourenço, Paulo J; Judas, Fernando M; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L

    2015-01-01

    Imaging techniques are the standard method for assessment of fracture healing processes. However, these methods are perhaps not entirely reliable for early detection of complications, the most frequent of these being delayed union and non-union. A prompt diagnosis of such disorders could prevent prolonged patient distress and disability. Efforts should be directed towards the development of new technologies for improving accuracy in diagnosing complications following bone fractures. The variation in the levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs) have been assessed with regard to there ability to predict impaired fracture healing at an early stage, nevertheless the conclusions of some studies are not consensual. In this article the authors have revised the potential of BTMs as early predictors of prognosis in adult patients presenting traumatic bone fractures but who did not suffer from osteopenia or postmenopausal osteoporosis. The available information from the different studies performed in this field was systematized in order to highlight the most promising BTMs for the assessment of fracture healing outcome. PMID:25993365

  1. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. PMID:24504211

  2. Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Rahaei, Zohreh; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors applying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Iran and a researcher designed questionnaire was completed through interviews for each of the respondents. PMT theoretical variables and CED behaviors were the basis of data collection procedure. Results: Participants acquired 64.47% of the protection motivation, 30.97% of the passive and 45.64% of the active behaviors‟ possible scores. Theory constructs predicted 19.8%, 15.6% and 9.6% of the variations for protection motivation, passive and active behavior respectively. Protection motivation was responsible for 3.6% of passive and 8% of active behaviors‟ variations. Conclusion: Considering the scarceness of CED behaviors and the applicability of PMT in predicting these behaviors, utilization of the PMT‟s constructs in any interventional programs to accelerate CED behaviors could be an alternate methodological choice in the cancer control initiatives. PMID:26290829

  3. 77 FR 30972 - Empowering Consumers to Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (“Cramming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission or FCC) proposes additional rules to help consumers prevent and detect the placement of unauthorized charges on their telephone bills, an unlawful and fraudulent practice commonly referred to as ``cramming.'' Several commenters in this proceeding support additional measures to prevent cramming, including requiring wireline......

  4. 78 FR 61250 - Empowering Consumers To Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (“Cramming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Empowering Consumers To Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges... whether it should take additional steps to prevent cramming, including ``opt-in'' and possible solutions..., adopted April 27, 2012, released April 27, 2012, and published at 77 FR 30972, May 24, 2012, in which...

  5. 77 FR 30915 - Empowering Consumers To Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (“Cramming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC or Commission) adopts rules to help consumers prevent and detect the placement of unauthorized charges on their telephone bills, an unlawful and fraudulent practice commonly referred to as ``cramming.'' The rules amend the Commission's existing Truth-in-Billing (TiB) rules, build on existing industry efforts to prevent cramming, and......

  6. 17 CFR 162.30 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. 162.30 Section 162.30 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... REPORTING ACT Identity Theft Red Flags § 162.30 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a) Scope of this subpart. This section applies to financial institutions...

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Early Prevention of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Disease: A Focus on Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J.; Thomas, C. J.; Radcliffe, J.; Itsiopoulos, C.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and the most common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. Furthermore, AD has provided the most positive indication to support the fact that inflammation contributes to neurodegenerative disease. The exact etiology of AD is unknown, but environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute, such as advancing age, family history, presence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, and poor diet and lifestyle. It is hypothesised that early prevention or management of inflammation could delay the onset or reduce the symptoms of AD. Normal physiological changes to the brain with ageing include depletion of long chain omega-3 fatty acids and brains of AD patients have lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels. DHA supplementation can reduce markers of inflammation. This review specifically focusses on the evidence in humans from epidemiological, dietary intervention, and supplementation studies, which supports the role of long chain omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention or delay of cognitive decline in AD in its early stages. Longer term trials with long chain omega-3 supplementation in early stage AD are warranted. We also highlight the importance of overall quality and composition of the diet to protect against AD and dementia. PMID:26301243

  8. Early antibiotic administration prevents cognitive impairment induced by meningitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Tatiana; Silva, Geruza Z; Batista, Ana L; Savi, Geovana D; Feier, Gustavo; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2009-11-01

    Neurological deficit and alterations in the hippocampus still frequently occur following bacterial meningitis in children, despite the antibiotic treatment. We investigated the long-term outcomes using early versus late antibiotic therapy in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. To this aim, male Wistar rats underwent a basilar cistern tap receiving either sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of a Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension. Antibiotics were started 8 or 16 h after infection and the animals were followed for 10 days to the determination of long-term cognitive outcomes. The animals were submitted to the habituation of an open-field as an index of long-term cognitive function. Early antibiotic administration (8 h after inoculation) when compared to late antibiotic administration (16 h after inoculation) prevented cognitive impairment induced by pneumococcal meningitis in Wistar rats. The findings from this study suggest that early antibiotic administration is an effective strategy to prevent long-term cognitive impairment in a meningitis animal model. PMID:19733213

  9. [Integrative neuroimaging for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP)].

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kiyoto

    2010-11-01

    The editorial of the new-year issue of Nature 2010 features "A decade for psychiatric disorders". The DALY estimation clearly shows that psychiatric disorders are the top source for burden of diseases to the individual life and society. Schizophrenia is a most devastating psychiatric disorder in which the onset is usually at youth and the cognitive dysfunction persists for life-long in some patients. Schizophrenia is associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. It has been unknown whether post-onset progressive pathology is also present in schizophrenia until the recent sophistication of in vivo neuroimaging techniques. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies on first-episode schizophrenia have shown a progressive deterioration of structure and function of neocortical regions in the early stage of the disorder. Insult to dendritic spines through glutamatergic dysfunction may underlie this process, which may in turn be a promising molecular target for intervention to improve the functional outcome of schizophrenia. More recently, the question of whether early intervention can be targeted at prodromal stage of schizophrenia has called special attention in psychiatry. In University of Tokyo, the integrative neuroimaging studies for schizophrenia targeting early intervention and prevention (IN-STEP) is ongoing. Through these efforts, we would like to contribute to the establishment of "youth mental health", where every youth in the community can know, prevent, and have easy access to needs- and value-based services, and pursue mental well-being and recovery. PMID:21921453

  10. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Discussion Although few

  11. Guideline implementation for breast healthcare in low- and middle-income countries: early detection resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Yip, Cheng-Har; Smith, Robert A; Anderson, Benjamin O; Miller, Anthony B; Thomas, David B; Ang, Eng-Suan; Caffarella, Rosemary S; Corbex, Marilys; Kreps, Gary L; McTiernan, Anne

    2008-10-15

    A key determinant of breast cancer outcome in any population is the degree to which cancers are detected at early stages of disease. Populations in which cancers are detected at earlier stages have lower breast cancer mortality rates. The Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) held its third Global Summit in Budapest, Hungary in October 2007, bringing together internationally recognized experts to address the implementation of breast healthcare guidelines for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs). A multidisciplinary panel of experts specifically addressed the implementation of BHGI guidelines for the early detection of disease as they related to resource allocation for public education and awareness, cancer detection methods, and evaluation goals. Public education and awareness are the key first steps, because early detection programs cannot be successful if the public is unaware of the value of early detection. The effectiveness and efficiency of screening modalities, including screening mammography, clinical breast examination (CBE), and breast self-examination, were reviewed in the context of resource availability and population-based need by the panel. Social and cultural barriers should be considered when early detection programs are being established, and the evaluation of early detection programs should include the use of well developed, methodologically sound process metrics to determine the effectiveness of program implementation. The approach and scope of any screening program will determine the success of any early detection program as measured by cancer stage at diagnosis and will drive the breadth of resource allocation needed for program implementation. PMID:18837017

  12. Early Life Viral Infections and the Development of Asthma – A Target for Asthma Prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Review To discuss recent insights into the relationships between viral respiratory infections and asthma inception in the context of a long-term goal of moving towards prevention strategies for childhood asthma. Recent Findings There is strong evidence for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illnesses as important risk factors for asthma inception. The mechanisms underlying these relationships have been an intense area of study. Novel approaches for the prevention of virus infections and/or lessening the severity of associated illnesses are at various stages of development, and are important potential tools in efforts aimed at primary and secondary prevention of asthma. Summary Viral respiratory infections in early life are a major source of morbidity and critical in the development of asthma. Mechanisms by which these infections lead to asthma inception in susceptible individuals are emerging. Further, there are promising potential interventions currently available that should be tested in clinical trials. The goal of prevention of disease inception is clearly on the horizon. PMID:24569522

  13. Intraoperative peripheral anterior capsulotomy to prevent early postoperative capsular block syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yepez, Juan B; de Yepez, Jazmin Cedeño; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2004-09-01

    We describe a new surgical technique, intraoperative peripheral anterior capsulotomy (IPAC), to prevent early postoperative capsular block syndrome (CBS). Eighty consecutive patients (80 eyes) had phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation with IPAC in the presence of a small (4.5 to 5.0 mm) anterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC). Patients were followed for a mean of 16 months (range 6 to 24 months), and none developed CBS or other complications. Our series suggests that IPAC may be an alternative to prevent CBS in high-risk eyes, including those with a small anterior CCC or ophthalmic viscosurgical device material trapped in the capsular bag. This surgical technique is safe, effective, inexpensive, and easy to perform. PMID:15342044

  14. Early detection of glaucoma using fully automated disparity analysis of the optic nerve head (ONH) from stereo fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Archie; Corona, Enrique; Mitra, Sunanda; Nutter, Brian S.

    2006-03-01

    Early detection of structural damage to the optic nerve head (ONH) is critical in diagnosis of glaucoma, because such glaucomatous damage precedes clinically identifiable visual loss. Early detection of glaucoma can prevent progression of the disease and consequent loss of vision. Traditional early detection techniques involve observing changes in the ONH through an ophthalmoscope. Stereo fundus photography is also routinely used to detect subtle changes in the ONH. However, clinical evaluation of stereo fundus photographs suffers from inter- and intra-subject variability. Even the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) has not been found to be sufficiently sensitive for early detection. A semi-automated algorithm for quantitative representation of the optic disc and cup contours by computing accumulated disparities in the disc and cup regions from stereo fundus image pairs has already been developed using advanced digital image analysis methodologies. A 3-D visualization of the disc and cup is achieved assuming camera geometry. High correlation among computer-generated and manually segmented cup to disc ratios in a longitudinal study involving 159 stereo fundus image pairs has already been demonstrated. However, clinical usefulness of the proposed technique can only be tested by a fully automated algorithm. In this paper, we present a fully automated algorithm for segmentation of optic cup and disc contours from corresponding stereo disparity information. Because this technique does not involve human intervention, it eliminates subjective variability encountered in currently used clinical methods and provides ophthalmologists with a cost-effective and quantitative method for detection of ONH structural damage for early detection of glaucoma.

  15. Parent-Child Interaction, Self-Regulation, and Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah E; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the epidemiologic evidence linking parent-child relationships, self-regulation, and weight status with a focus on early childhood. The emotional quality of parent-child interactions may influence children's risk for obesity through multiple pathways. Prospective studies linking observer ratings of young children's self-regulation, particularly inhibitory control, to future weight status are discussed. Although findings are preliminary, promoting positive relationships between parents/caregivers and young children holds promise as a component of efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between researchers with training in developmental science and child health should be encouraged. PMID:27037572

  16. Early intervention for preventing posttraumatic stress disorder: an Internet-based virtual reality treatment

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Sara A.; Dayan, Ehud; Kimelman, Yael Bleich; Weissman, Heidi; Eitan, Renana

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in approximately 20% of people exposed to a traumatic event, and studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective as a treatment for chronic PTSD. It has also been shown to prevent PTSD when delivered early after a traumatic event. However, studies have shown that uptake of early treatment is generally low, and therefore, the need to provide interventions through other mediums has been identified. The use of technology may overcome barriers to treatment. Objective This paper describes a randomized controlled trial that will examine an early CBT intervention for PTSD. The treatment incorporates virtual reality (VR) as a method for delivering exposure-based elements of the treatment. The intervention is Internet based, such that the therapist and patient will “meet” in a secure online site. This site will also include multi-media components of the treatment (such as videos, audios, VR) that can be accessed by the patient between sessions. Method Two hundred patients arriving to a Level 1 emergency department following a motor vehicle accident will be randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. Inclusion criteria are age 18–65, PTSD symptoms 2 weeks posttrauma related to current trauma, no suicidality, no psychosis. Patients will be assessed by telephone by a team blind to the study group, on four occasions: before and after treatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. The primary outcome is PTSD symptoms at follow up. Secondary outcomes include depression and cost effectiveness. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions, in general, and Internet-based early interventions, in particular, on PTSD, in an injured population, during the acute phase after trauma. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations. PMID:25843345

  17. Early detection of ocean acidification effects on marine calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyina, T.; Zeebe, R. E.; E. Maier-Reimer; C. Heinze

    2009-02-19

    Ocean acidification is likely to impact calcification rates in many pelagic organisms, which may in turn cause significant changes in marine ecosystem structure. We examine effects of changes in marine CaCO3 production on total alkalinity (TA) in the ocean using the global biogeochemical ocean model HAMOCC. We test a variety of future calcification scenarios because experimental studies with different organisms have revealed a wide range of calcification sensitivities to CaCO3 saturation state. The model integrations start at a preindustrial steady state in the year 1800 and run until the year 2300 forced with anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Calculated trends in TA are evaluated taking into account the natural variability in ocean carbonate chemistry, as derived from repeat hydrographic transects. We conclude that the data currently available does not allow discerning significant trends in TA due to changes in pelagic calcification caused by ocean acidification. Given different calcification scenarios, our model calculations indicate that the TA increase over time will start being detectable by the year 2040, increasing by 5–30 umol/kg compared to the present-day values. In a scenario of extreme reductions in calcification, large TA changes relative to preindustrial conditions would have occurred at present, which we consider very unlikely. However, the time interval of reliable TA observations is too short to disregard this scenario. The largest increase in surface ocean TA is predicted for the tropical and subtropical regions. In order to monitor and quantify possible early signs of acidification effects, we suggest to specifically target those regions during future ocean chemistry surveys.

  18. Early detection of Candida albicans biofilms at porous electrodes.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Robert B; Feldberg, Alexander S; Ben-Yakar, Natalie; McGee, Dennis; Ober, Christopher; Sammakia, Bahgat; Sadik, Omowunmi A

    2013-02-15

    We describe the development of an electrochemical sensor for early detection of biofilm using Candida albicans. The electrochemical sensor used the ability of biofilms to accept electrons from redox mediators relative to the number of metabolically active cells present. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques were used to monitor the redox reaction of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) at porous reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) (238.7 cm(2)) working electrodes versus Ag/AgCl reference. A shift in the peak potential occurred after 12 h of film growth, which is attributed to the presence of C. albicans. Moreover, the intensity of the ferricyanide reduction peak first increased as C. albicans deposited onto the porous electrodes at various growth times. The peak current subsequently decreased at extended periods of growth of 48 h. The reduction in peak current was attributed to the biofilm reaching its maximum growth thickness, which correlated with the maximum number of metabolically active cells. The observed diffusion coefficients for the bare RVC and biofilm-coated electrodes were 2.2 × 10(-3) and 7.0 × 10(-6) cm(2)/s, respectively. The increase in diffusivity from the bare electrode to the biofilm-coated electrode indicated some enhancement of electron transfer mediated by the biofilm to the porous electrode. Verification of the growth of biofilm was achieved using scanning electron microcopy and laser scanning confocal imaging microscopy. Validation with conventional plating techniques confirmed that the correlation (R(2) = 0.9392) could be achieved between the electrochemical sensors data and colony-forming units. PMID:23107627

  19. Detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions amenable to prevention

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Gingivitis and chronic periodontitis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases. Gingivitis affects the majority of people, and advanced periodontitis is estimated to affect 5-15% of adults. The detection and diagnosis of these common diseases is a fundamentally important component of oral health care. All patients should undergo periodontal assessment as part of routine oral examination. Periodontal screening using methods such as the Basic Periodontal Examination/Community Periodontal Index or Periodontal Screening Record should be performed for all new patients, and also on a regular basis as part of ongoing oral health care. If periodontitis is identified, full periodontal assessment is required, involving recording of full mouth probing and bleeding data, together with assessment of other relevant parameters such as plaque levels, furcation involvement, recession and tooth mobility. Radiographic assessment of alveolar bone levels is driven by the clinical situation, and is required to assess bone destruction in patients with periodontitis. Risk assessment (such as assessing diabetes status and smoking) and risk management (such as promoting smoking cessation) should form a central component of periodontal therapy. This article provides guidance to the oral health care team regarding methods and frequencies of appropriate clinical and radiographic examinations to assess periodontal status, to enable appropriate detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions. PMID:26390822

  20. Detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions amenable to prevention.

    PubMed

    Preshaw, Philip M

    2015-01-01

    Gingivitis and chronic periodontitis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases. Gingivitis affects the majority of people, and advanced periodontitis is estimated to affect 5-15% of adults. The detection and diagnosis of these common diseases is a fundamentally important component of oral health care. All patients should undergo periodontal assessment as part of routine oral examination. Periodontal screening using methods such as the Basic Periodontal Examination/Community Periodontal Index or Periodontal Screening Record should be performed for all new patients, and also on a regular basis as part of ongoing oral health care. If periodontitis is identified, full periodontal assessment is required, involving recording of full mouth probing and bleeding data, together with assessment of other relevant parameters such as plaque levels, furcation involvement, recession and tooth mobility. Radiographic assessment of alveolar bone levels is driven by the clinical situation, and is required to assess bone destruction in patients with periodontitis. Risk assessment (such as assessing diabetes status and smoking) and risk management (such as promoting smoking cessation) should form a central component of periodontal therapy. This article provides guidance to the oral health care team regarding methods and frequencies of appropriate clinical and radiographic examinations to assess periodontal status, to enable appropriate detection and diagnosis of periodontal conditions. PMID:26390822

  1. Affinity fluorescence-labeled peptides for the early detection of cancer in Barrett's esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Lu, Shaoying; Piraka, Cyrus; Appelman, Henry; Kwon, Rich; Soetikno, Roy; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Wang, Thomas D.

    2009-02-01

    Fluorescence-labeled peptides that affinity bind to neoplastic mucsosa are promising for use as a specific contrast agent in the detection of pre-malignant tissue in the esophagus. This method is can be used to identify expression of biological markers associated with dysplasia on endoscopic imaging as a guide for biopsy and represents a novel method for the early detection and prevention of cancer. We demonstrate the use of phage display to select affinity peptides and identify the sequence "ASYNYDA" that binds with high target-to-background ratio to dysplastic esophageal mucosa compared to that of intestinal metaplasia. Validation of preferential binding is demonstrated for neoplasia in the setting of Barrett's esophagus. An optimal tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 85% was found at the relative threshold of 0.60 with a target-to-background ratio of 1.81 and an area under the ROC curve of 0.87. Peptides are a novel class of ligand for targeted detection of pre-malignant mucosa for purposes of screening and surveillance.

  2. Parent Participation within Community Center or In-Home Outreach Delivery Models of the Early Risers Conduct Problems Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Michael L; August, Gerald J.; Lee, Susanne S.; Piehler, Timothy F.; Jensen, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    A variety of predictors of parent participation in prevention programming have been identified in past research, but few studies have investigated how those predictors may vary by implementation context. Patterns of parent participation were examined in the Early Risers Conduct Problems Prevention Program using two family-focused service delivery…

  3. Prevention of and Early Intervention for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Systems to Support Data-Based Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Mitchell, Barbara S.

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders are at great risk for long-term negative outcomes. Researchers and practitioners alike acknowledge the need for evidence-based, preventive, and early intervention strategies. Accordingly, in this chapter an expanded view of prevention is presented as a series of data driven decisions to guide…

  4. A method for the early health technology assessment of novel biomarker measurement in primary prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Postmus, Douwe; de Graaf, Gimon; Hillege, Hans L; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Buskens, Erik

    2012-10-15

    Many promising biomarkers for stratifying individuals at risk of developing a chronic disease or subsequent complications have been identified. Research into the potential cost-effectiveness of applying these biomarkers in actual clinical settings has however been lacking. Investors and analysts may improve their venture decision making should they have indicative estimates of the potential costs and effects associated with a new biomarker technology already at the early stages of its development. To assist in obtaining such estimates, this paper presents a general method for the early health technology assessment of a novel biomarker technology. The setting considered is that of primary prevention programs where initial screening to select high-risk individuals eligible for a subsequent intervention occurs, for example, prevention of type 2 diabetes. The method is based on quantifying the health outcomes and downstream healthcare consumption of all individuals who get reclassified as a result of moving from a screening variant based on traditional risk factors to a screening variant based on traditional risk factors plus a novel biomarker. As these individuals form well-defined subpopulations, a combination of disease progression modeling and sensitivity analysis can be used to perform an initial assessment of the maximum increase in screening cost for which the use of the new biomarker technology is still likely to be cost effective. PMID:22806952

  5. Moving from Science to Service: Transposing and Sustaining the Early Risers Prevention Program in a Community Service System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Michael L.; August, Gerald J.; Horowitz, Jason L.; Lee, Susanne S.; Jensen, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes an effort to transpose and sustain the evidence-based Early Risers "Skills for Success" conduct problems prevention program in a real world community service system. The Early Risers program had previously been implemented by a local agency within the context of research-based operations. In the current initiative,…

  6. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  7. Feeding Blueberry Diets in Early Life Prevent Senescence of Osteoblasts and Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Adult Female Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  8. Feeding blueberry diets during early development is sufficient to prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in adulthood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  9. Preventive intervention for early psychosis in adolescents--the Palau Youth at Risk Project.

    PubMed

    Ngiralmau, Hilda; Blailes, Francisca; Myles-Worsley, Marina; Ord, Lisa M

    2005-03-01

    We have studied a total of 393 adolescents 14 to 19 years from Palau, where the lifetime morbid risk for broadly defined schizophrenia is 2.67% and cases cluster in large extended families. These Palauan adolescents included 52 offspring of a schizophrenic parent designated as "Genetically Highest Risk" or GHR+ and 61 nieces/nephews of affected sib-pairs/trios, designated "Genetically High Risk" or GHR. The remaining 280 subjects were recruited based on the results of a survey of Palauan high school students that was designed to screen for clinically HR and normal control adolescents with no close affected relatives. Among the selected high school students were 60 adolescents with one affected second or third degree relative who were designated as "Genetically Moderate Risk" (GMR). The remaining 220 subjects with no close affected relatives were designated as "Genetically Low Risk" (GLR). Based on a comprehensive clinical assessment using the K-SADS, we identified a total of 230 Palauan adolescents with early psychosis, 48 or 21% of whom had already transitioned to a DSM-IV psychotic disorder, predominantly schizophrenia. Together, the two highest genetic risk groups contributed 35% of the adolescent-onset DSM-IV psychosis cases and 26% of the prodromals. More than half of the early psychosis cases (55%) had no close affected relatives, indicating that genetic liability provides only a partial explanation of elevated risk. Our results support the value of screening for early psychosis in the high schools, conducting a full-scale clinical assessment to identify adolescents with early "prodromal" symptoms, and initiating a family-based intervention program designed to delay or even prevent the onset of florid psychosis. This intervention program comprises regular symptom reassessments so that referrals for treatment can be made as needed plus family psycho-education designed to engage the family in a program of care and support for the early psychosis patient. PMID

  10. Intrusion Prevention and Detection in Grid Computing - The ALICE Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Andres; Lara, Camilo; Kebschull, Udo

    2015-12-01

    Grids allow users flexible on-demand usage of computing resources through remote communication networks. A remarkable example of a Grid in High Energy Physics (HEP) research is used in the ALICE experiment at European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. Physicists can submit jobs used to process the huge amount of particle collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Grids face complex security challenges. They are interesting targets for attackers seeking for huge computational resources. Since users can execute arbitrary code in the worker nodes on the Grid sites, special care should be put in this environment. Automatic tools to harden and monitor this scenario are required. Currently, there is no integrated solution for such requirement. This paper describes a new security framework to allow execution of job payloads in a sandboxed context. It also allows process behavior monitoring to detect intrusions, even when new attack methods or zero day vulnerabilities are exploited, by a Machine Learning approach. We plan to implement the proposed framework as a software prototype that will be tested as a component of the ALICE Grid middleware.

  11. Diet for the prevention of asthma and allergies in early childhood: much ado about something?

    PubMed

    Torres-Borrego, Javier; Moreno-Solís, Gloria; Molina-Terán, Ana Belén

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades there has been an increase in allergic disease throughout the world, particularly in children. Attempts have been made to identify the causes of this "allergy epidemic" in environmental changes and changes in population hygiene, lifestyle, socioeconomic level, and eating habits that would exert epigenetic effects. Dietetic hypotheses have been mainly focussed in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, antioxidants, Mediterranean diet, and fruits, vegetables and fish consumption. Although the data suggest a certain association between diet and the development of asthma/allergy, there is no evidence that diet has an impact upon the prevalence of such diseases after early infancy. If indeed there is such an impact, it is likely to be confined to the prenatal period and the first months of life - when it is still possible to modulate the development of the respiratory, digestive and immune systems. Thus, once the most appropriate preventive measures have been defined, these should be implemented during pregnancy and lactation. The existing scientific evidence is unable to recommend any primary preventive measure in the general population or in different population subgroups. Special or restrictive diets in pregnant or nursing women are not indicated. Exclusive breastfeeding for six months is questioned, since solid foods should begin to be introduced at around four months of age. Once the atopic process has started, no nutritional strategies have been found to be effective as secondary or tertiary preventive measures. Longitudinal studies in cohorts of pregnant women or newborn infants could help clarify these issues. PMID:22425606

  12. Early intervention and prevention of anxiety disorders in children: results at 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dadds, M R; Holland, D E; Laurens, K R; Mullins, M; Barrett, P M; Spence, S H

    1999-02-01

    The Queensland Early Intervention and Prevention of Anxiety Project evaluated a child- and family-focused group intervention for preventing anxiety problems in children. This article reports on 12- and 24-month follow-up data to previously reported outcomes at posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. A total of 1,786 7- to 14-year-olds were screened for anxiety problems using teacher nominations and children's self-report. After diagnostic interviews, 128 children were selected and assigned to either a 10-week school-based child- and parent-focused psychosocial intervention or a monitoring group. Both groups showed improvements immediately at postintervention and at 6-month follow-up; the improvement was maintained in the intervention group only reducing the rate of existing anxiety disorder and preventing the onset of new anxiety disorders. At 12 months, the groups converged, but the superiority of the intervention group was evident again at 2-year follow-up. Severity of pretreatment diagnoses, gender, and parental anxiety predicted poor initial response to intervention, whereas pretreatment severity was the only predictor of chronicity at 24 months. Overall, follow-up results show that a brief school-based intervention for children can produce durable reductions in anxiety problems. PMID:10028219

  13. Rural Family Perspectives and Experiences with Early Infant Hearing Detection and Intervention: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Elpers, Julia; Lester, Cathy; Shinn, Jennifer B; Bush, Matthew L

    2016-04-01

    Infant hearing loss has the potential to cause significant communication impairment. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential to preventing permanent deficits. Many infants from rural regions are delayed in diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. The purpose of this study is to characterize the barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare for rural families following newborn newborn hearing screening (NHS) testing. Using stratified purposeful sampling, the study design involved semi-structured phone interviews with parents/guardians of children who failed NHS testing in the Appalachian region of Kentucky between 2012 and 2014 to describe their experiences with early hearing detection and intervention program. Thematic qualitative analysis was performed on interview transcripts to identify common recurring themes in content. 40 parents/guardians participated in the study and consisted primarily of mothers. Demographic data revealed limited educational levels of the participants and 70 % had state-funded insurance coverage. Participants reported barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare that included poor communication of hearing screening results, difficulty in obtaining outpatient testing, inconsistencies in healthcare information from primary care providers, lack of local resources, insurance-related healthcare delays, and conflict with family and work responsibilities. Most participants expressed a great desire to obtain timely hearing healthcare for their children and expressed a willingness to use resources such as telemedicine to obtain that care. There are multiple barriers to timely rural infant hearing healthcare. Minimizing misinformation and improving access to care are priorities to prevent delayed diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. PMID:26316007

  14. Implementation of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy C.; Wong, Faye L.; Jamison, Patricia M.; Jones, Sandra F.; Galaska, Louise; Brady, Kevin T.; Wethers, Barbara; Stokes-Townsend, George-Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 1990, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act because of increases in the number of low-income and uninsured women being diagnosed with breast cancer. This act authorized the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to establish the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) to provide high-quality and timely breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income, uninsured women. The program started in 1991, and, in 1993, Congress amended the act to allow the CDC to fund American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and tribal organizations. By 1996, the program was providing cancer screening across the United States. To ensure appropriate delivery and monitoring of services, the program adopted detailed policies on program management, evidence-based guidelines for clinical services, a systematized clinical data system to track service quality, and key partnerships that expand the program’s reach. The NBCCEDP currently funds 67 programs, including all 50 states, the District of Columbia, 5 US territories, and 11 tribes or tribal organizations. PMID:25099896

  15. Traumatic brain injury: considering collaborative strategies for early detection and interventional research.

    PubMed

    Charleswell, Cherise; Ross, Brian; Tran, Thao; Walsh, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a graded sequence of injuries, which is clinically defined based on subjective symptoms observed by clinicians and/or those reported by patients. Much of the focus on research and prevention of mTBI has been on professional or collegiate-level athletes, despite children and young teenagers being at greatest risk for mTBI. Further, continued involvement in sports across the lifespan, increases the likelihood that youth athletes may sustain repetitive brain trauma, which may result in permanent neurological and psychological deficits. Thus, there is a clear need for a population health initiative and research efforts that focus on the juvenile athlete population; in order to fill in the gap in knowledge about the long-term physiological effects of injury and social outcomes, as well as devise strategies that can help in early detection, prevention and treatment; and in the setting of evidence-based Return-To-Play guidelines. PMID:24839298

  16. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    in frequency as well as in the therapeutic problems raised. In the face and oral cavity cancer catagory, lip represents 2% of all cases and 19-25% of the total facial cancer area. Lip cancer is one of the localizations that, when detected early, can benefit from an effective therapy with high chances of healing. In order to achieve a complex treatment, interdisciplinary collaboration is required, only thus being able to determine both the therapeutic methods as well as their association.

  17. Detection and Prevention of Cardiac Arrhythmias During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pillai, Dilip; Rosenbaum, David S.; Liszka, Kathy J.; York, David W.; Mackin, Michael A.; Lichter, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    There have been reports suggesting that long-duration space flight might lead to an increased risk of potentially serious heart rhythm disturbances. If space flight does, in fact, significantly decrease cardiac electrical stability, the effects could be catastrophic, potentially leading to sudden cardiac death. It will be important to determine the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in order to prepare for long-term manned lunar and interplanetary missions and to develop appropriate countermeasures. Our hypothesis is that prolonged exposure to microgravity will alter T wave alternans measurements, decrease heart rate variance, increase QT dispersion, decrease heart rate recovery and alter QT restitution curve. A recently published study has shown that long duration spaceflights prolong cardiac conduction and repolarization. They concluded that long duration flight is associated with QT interval prolongation and may increase arrhythmia susceptibility. We propose using computer technology as a noninvasive clinical tool to detect and study clinically significant TWA during standard exercise testing using electrode systems specifically adapted for the purpose of obtaining and measuring TWA. A population of approximately 15 healthy men and 5 healthy women subjects, representative of the astronaut cohort will be asked to voluntarily participate in this study. Their blood pressure and ECG/TWA will be measured pre-flight and in-flight. Prior to flight, subjects will be asked to participate in an orientation session. Still photos will be taken of the skin where the conductive gel is used for the multi-segment sensors. Photos will be recorded preflight, immediately postflight, and several times during the proceeding week until it has been determined that any skin reaction has disappeared or that no rash is present and will not appear.

  18. Smartphone-Based Solutions for Fall Detection and Prevention: Challenges and Open Issues

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Mohammad Ashfak; Mohktar, Mas S.; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Lim, Kheng Seang; Pin, Tan Maw; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of smartphone (SP)-based solutions for fall detection and prevention. Falls are considered as major health hazards for both the elderly and people with neurodegenerative diseases. To mitigate the adverse consequences of falling, a great deal of research has been conducted, mainly focused on two different approaches, namely, fall detection and fall prevention. Required hardware for both fall detection and prevention are also available in SPs. Consequently, researchers' interest in finding SP-based solutions has increased dramatically over recent years. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no published review on SP-based fall detection and prevention. Thus in this paper, we present the taxonomy for SP-based fall detection and prevention solutions and systematic comparisons of existing studies. We have also identified three challenges and three open issues for future research, after reviewing the existing articles. Our time series analysis demonstrates a trend towards the integration of external sensing units with SPs for improvement in usability of the systems. PMID:24759116

  19. Smartphone-based solutions for fall detection and prevention: challenges and open issues.

    PubMed

    Habib, Mohammad Ashfak; Mohktar, Mas S; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Lim, Kheng Seang; Pin, Tan Maw; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of smartphone (SP)-based solutions for fall detection and prevention. Falls are considered as major health hazards for both the elderly and people with neurodegenerative diseases. To mitigate the adverse consequences of falling, a great deal of research has been conducted, mainly focused on two different approaches, namely, fall detection and fall prevention. Required hardware for both fall detection and prevention are also available in SPs. Consequently, researchers' interest in finding SP-based solutions has increased dramatically over recent years. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no published review on SP-based fall detection and prevention. Thus in this paper, we present the taxonomy for SP-based fall detection and prevention solutions and systematic comparisons of existing studies. We have also identified three challenges and three open issues for future research, after reviewing the existing articles. Our time series analysis demonstrates a trend towards the integration of external sensing units with SPs for improvement in usability of the systems. PMID:24759116

  20. Recruitment for Health Disparities Preventive Intervention Trials: The Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers

    PubMed Central

    Casciello, Alana; Gansky, Stuart A.; Henshaw, Michelle; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Rasmussen, Margaret; Garcia, Raul I.; Albino, Judith; Batliner, Terrence S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Four trials of interventions designed to prevent early childhood caries are using community-engagement strategies to improve recruitment of low-income, racial/ethnic minority participants. The trials are being implemented by 3 centers funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research and known as the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers (EC4): the Center for Native Oral Health Research at the University of Colorado, the Center to Address Disparities in Children’s Oral Health at the University of California San Francisco, and the Center for Research to Evaluate and Eliminate Dental Disparities at Boston University. Community Context The community contexts for the EC4 trials include urban public housing developments, Hispanic communities near the US–Mexican border, and rural American Indian reservations. These communities have a high prevalence of early childhood caries, suggesting the need for effective, culturally acceptable interventions. Methods Each center’s intervention(s) used community-based participatory research approaches, identified community partners, engaged the community through various means, and developed communication strategies to enhance recruitment. Outcome All 3 centers have completed recruitment. Each center implemented several new strategies and approaches to enhance recruitment efforts, such as introducing new communication techniques, using media such as radio and newspapers to spread awareness about the studies, and hosting community gatherings. Interpretation Using multiple strategies that build trust in the community, are sensitive to cultural norms, and are adaptable to the community environment can enhance recruitment in underserved communities. PMID:25101490

  1. Light adaptation does not prevent early retinal abnormalities in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kur, Joanna; Burian, Michael A.; Newman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology of diabetic retinopathy (DR), the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, remains controversial. One hypothesis holds that retinal hypoxia, exacerbated by the high O2 consumption of rod photoreceptors in the dark, is a primary cause of DR. Based on this prediction we investigated whether early retinal abnormalities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats are alleviated by preventing the rods from dark adapting. Diabetic rats and their non-diabetic littermates were housed in a 12:12 hour light-dim light photocycle (30 lux during the day and 3 lux at night). Progression of early retinal abnormalities in diabetic rats was assessed by monitoring the ERG b-wave and oscillatory potentials, Müller cell reactive gliosis, and neuronal cell death, as assayed by TUNEL staining and retinal thickness at 6 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction. Maintaining diabetic animals in a dim-adapting light did not slow the progression of these neuronal and glial changes when compared to diabetic rats maintained in a standard 12:12 hour light-dark photocycle (30 lux during the day and 0 lux at night). Our results indicate that neuronal and glial abnormalities in early stages of diabetes are not exacerbated by rod photoreceptor O2 consumption in the dark. PMID:26852722

  2. Early Enteral Feeding After Living Donor Liver Transplantation Prevents Infectious Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Man; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sung-Hye; Rha, Miyong; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Cho, Young Yun; Suh, Jeong-Meen; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infectious complications, including bacteria, virus, and fungus, often occur after liver transplantation and are the most frequent causes of in-hospital mortality. The current study prospectively analyze the effect of early enteral feeding in patients after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) Between January 2013 and August 2013, 36 patients underwent LDLT. These patients were randomly assigned to receive enteral formula via nasointestinal feeding tubes [enteral feeding (EN) group, n = 17] or maintenance on intravenous fluid until oral diets were initiated (control group, n = 19). All patients completed the study. The pretransplant and perioperative characteristics of patients did not differ between the 2 groups. The incidence of bacterial infection was significantly lower in the EN group (29.4%) than in the control group (63.2%) (P = 0.043). In addition, the incidence of bile duct complications in the EN group was lower than in the control group (5.9% versus 31.6%, P = 0.041). Multivariate analysis showed that early enteral feeding was closely associated with bacterial infections (odds ratio, 0.178; P = 0.041). There was no statistically significant difference in nutritional status between the 2 groups. There were no cases of in-hospital mortality. Early enteral feeding after LDLT prevents posttransplant bacterial infection, suggesting the possibility of a reduction of in-hospital mortality as a result of decreased infectious complications. PMID:26554774

  3. NCCN Guidelines Insights: Prostate Cancer Early Detection, Version 2.2016.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Peter R; Parsons, J Kellogg; Andriole, Gerald; Bahnson, Robert R; Castle, Erik P; Catalona, William J; Dahl, Douglas M; Davis, John W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Etzioni, Ruth B; Farrington, Thomas; Hemstreet, George P; Kawachi, Mark H; Kim, Simon; Lange, Paul H; Loughlin, Kevin R; Lowrance, William; Maroni, Paul; Mohler, James; Morgan, Todd M; Moses, Kelvin A; Nadler, Robert B; Poch, Michael; Scales, Chuck; Shaneyfelt, Terrence M; Smaldone, Marc C; Sonn, Geoffrey; Sprenkle, Preston; Vickers, Andrew J; Wake, Robert; Shead, Dorothy A; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2016-05-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer Early Detection provide recommendations for prostate cancer screening in healthy men who have elected to participate in an early detection program. The NCCN Guidelines focus on minimizing unnecessary procedures and limiting the detection of indolent disease. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Prostate Cancer Early Detection Panel's most significant discussions for the 2016 guideline update, which included issues surrounding screening in high-risk populations (ie, African Americans, BRCA1/2 mutation carriers), approaches to refine patient selection for initial and repeat biopsies, and approaches to improve biopsy specificity. PMID:27160230

  4. [Clinical guidelines for detection, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of systemic arterial hypertension in Mexico (2008)].

    PubMed

    Rosas, Martín; Pastelín, Gustavo; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Martínez-Reding, Jesús; Lomelí, Catalina; Mendoza-González, Celso; Lorenzo, José Antonio; Méndez, Arturo; Franco, Martha; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Verdejo, Juan; Sánchez, Noé; Ruiz, Rocío; Férez-Santander, Sergio Mario; Attie, Fause

    2008-01-01

    The multidisciplinary Institutional Committee of experts in Systemic Arterial Hypertension from the National Institute of Cardiology "Ignacio Chávez" presents its update (2008) of "Guidelines and Recommendations" for the early detection, control, treatment and prevention of Hypertension. The boarding tries to be simple and realistic for all that physicians whom have to face the hypertensive population in their clinical practice. The information is based in the most recent scientific evidence. These guides are principally directed to hypertensive population of emergent countries like Mexico. It is emphasized preventive health measures, the importance of the no pharmacological actions, such as good nutrition, exercise and changes in life style, (which ideally it must begin from very early ages). "We suggest that the changes in the style of life must be vigorous, continuous and systematized, with a real reinforcing by part of all the organisms related to the health education for all population (federal and private social organisms). It is the most important way to confront and prevent this pandemic of chronic diseases". In this new edition the authors amplifies the information and importance on the matter. The preventive cardiology must contribute in multidisciplinary entailment. Based mainly on national data and the international scientific publications, we developed our own system of classification and risk stratification for the carrying people with hypertension, Called HTM (Arterial Hypertension in Mexico) index. Its principal of purpose this index is to keep in mind that the current approach of hypertension must be always multidisciplinary. The institutional committee of experts reviewed with rigorous methodology under the principles of the evidence-based medicine, both, national and international medical literature, with the purpose of adapting the concepts and guidelines for a better control and treatment of hypertension in Mexico. This work group recognizes

  5. The Cool Little Kids randomised controlled trial: Population-level early prevention for anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 internalising problems (e.g. depression and anxiety) will be second only to HIV/AIDS in international burden of disease. Internalising problems affect 1 in 7 school aged children, impacting on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, relationships and employment. The development of early childhood prevention for internalising problems is in its infancy. The current study follows two successful 'efficacy' trials of a parenting group intervention to reduce internalising disorders in temperamentally inhibited preschool children. Cool Little Kids is a population-level randomised trial to determine the impacts of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition then offering a parenting group intervention, on child internalising problems and economic costs at school entry. Methods/Design This randomised trial will be conducted within the preschool service system, attended by more than 95% of Australian children in the year before starting school. In early 2011, preschool services in four local government areas in Melbourne, Australia, will distribute the screening tool. The ≈16% (n≈500) with temperamental inhibition will enter the trial. Intervention parents will be offered Cool Little Kids, a 6-session group program in the local community, focusing on ways to develop their child's bravery skills by reducing overprotective parenting interactions. Outcomes one and two years post-baseline will comprise child internalising diagnoses and symptoms, parenting interactions, and parent wellbeing. An economic evaluation (cost-consequences framework) will compare incremental differences in costs of the intervention versus control children to incremental differences in outcomes, from a societal perspective. Analyses will use the intention-to-treat principle, using logistic and linear regression models (binary and continuous outcomes respectively) to compare outcomes between the trial arms

  6. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  7. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  8. Computational chemistry approach for the early detection of drug-induced idiosyncratic liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Cordeiro, M Natália D S; Borges, Fernanda

    2008-03-01

    Idiosyncratic drug toxicity (IDT), considered as a toxic host-dependent event, with an apparent lack of dose response relationship, is usually not predictable from early phases of clinical trials, representing a particularly confounding complication in drug development. Albeit a rare event (usually <1/5000), IDT is often life threatening and is one of the major reasons new drugs never reach the market or are withdrawn post marketing. Computational methodologies, like the computer-based approach proposed in the present study, can play an important role in addressing IDT in early drug discovery. We report for the first time a systematic evaluation of classification models to predict idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA), artificial neural networks (ANN), and machine learning algorithms (OneR) in conjunction with a 3D molecular structure representation and feature selection methods. These modeling techniques (LDA, feature selection to prevent over-fitting and multicollinearity, ANN to capture nonlinear relationships in the data, as well as the simple OneR classifier) were found to produce QSTR models with satisfactory internal cross-validation statistics and predictivity on an external subset of chemicals. More specifically, the models reached values of accuracy/sensitivity/specificity over 84%/78%/90%, respectively in the training series along with predictivity values ranging from ca. 78 to 86% of correctly classified drugs. An LDA-based desirability analysis was carried out in order to select the levels of the predictor variables needed to trigger the more desirable drug, i.e. the drug with lower potential for idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Finally, two external test sets were used to evaluate the ability of the models in discriminating toxic from nontoxic structurally and pharmacologically related drugs and the ability of the best model (LDA) in detecting potential idiosyncratic hepatotoxic drugs, respectively. The computational

  9. [Application of hyperspectral fluorescence image technology in detection of early rotten oranges].

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang-bo; Wang, Fu-jie; Ying, Yi-bin; Rao, Xiu-qin

    2012-01-01

    Rottenness is most prevalent and devastating disease that threats citrus fruit. Automatic detection of early rottenness can enhance the competitiveness and profitability of the citrus industry. However, there is no efficient automatic detection technology at this time that could detect this disease. The navel orange was selected as research objective. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was used to detect early rottenness in orange. Optimum index factor (OIF) method was applied to identify the optimal band combination. 100% detection rate was achieved based on the optimal bands ratio image and two threshold values. The research showed that the proposed method can effectively overcome the affect from florescence effect because stem damage area and stem also can produce florescence under ultraviolet light. This study will lay a foundation for developing multispectral detection system used in on-line detection of early rottenness fruit. PMID:22497146

  10. Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

  11. Patient-Specific Early Seizure Detection from Scalp EEG

    PubMed Central

    Minasyan, Georgiy R.; Chatten, John B.; Chatten, Martha Jane; Harner, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Develop a method for automatic detection of seizures prior to or immediately after clinical onset using features derived from scalp EEG. Methods This detection method is patient-specific. It uses recurrent neural networks and a variety of input features. For each patient we trained and optimized the detection algorithm for two cases: 1) during the period immediately preceding seizure onset, and 2) during the period immediately following seizure onset. Continuous scalp EEG recordings (duration 15 – 62 h, median 25 h) from 25 patients, including a total of 86 seizures, were used in this study. Results Pre-onset detection was successful in 14 of the 25 patients. For these 14 patients, all of the testing seizures were detected prior to seizure onset with a median pre-onset time of 51 sec and false positive rate was 0.06/h. Post-onset detection had 100% sensitivity, 0.023/hr false positive rate and median delay of 4 sec after onset. Conclusions The unique results of this study relate to pre-onset detection. Significance Our results suggest that reliable pre-onset seizure detection may be achievable for a significant subset of epilepsy patients without use of invasive electrodes. PMID:20461014

  12. Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence for Early Breast Cancer Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Brian T.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces offer a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics. Through the complementary processes of photonic crystal enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction, a periodic dielectric-based nanostructured surface can simultaneously increase the electric field intensity experienced by surface-bound fluorophores and increase the collection efficiency of emitted fluorescent photons. Through the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal surfaces over substantial surface areas, they are amenable to single-use applications in biological sensing, such as disease biomarker detection in serum. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity, multiplexed biomarker detection in the context of breast cancer diagnosis. We will summarize recent efforts to improve the detection limits of such assays though the use of photonic crystal surfaces. Reduction of detection limits is driven by low autofluorescent substrates for photonic crystal fabrication, and detection instruments that take advantage of their unique features. PMID:22736539

  13. Effect of early detection Huanglongbing on juice flavor and chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

  14. Effect of early detection greening on juice flavor and chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

  15. Dendrobium officinale Prevents Early Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shao-Zhen; Liang, Chu-Yan; Liu, Hua-Zhen; Zhu, Dong-Mei; Wu, Ya-Yun; Liang, Jian; Zhao, Ya; Guo, Jian-Ru; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dendrobium officinale (DO) Kimura et Migo is a precious Chinese herb that is considered beneficial for health due to its antioxidant and antidiabetes properties, and so on. In this research, we try to determine the preventive effect of DO on the early complications of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods. Type 1 diabetic rats were produced with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). DO (1 g/kg/day) was then orally administered for 5 weeks. Blood glucose, TC, TG, BUN, CREA, and GSH-PX levels were determined, and electroretinographic activity and hypoalgesia were investigated. Pathological sections of the eyes, hearts, aortas, kidneys, and livers were analyzed. Results. Treatment with DO significantly attenuated the serum levels of TC, TG, BUN, and CREA, markedly increased the amplitudes of ERG a- and b-waves and Ops, and reduced the hypoalgesia and histopathological changes of vital organs induced by hyperglycemia. The protective effect of DO in diabetic rats may be associated with its antioxidant activity, as evidenced by the marked increase in the serum level of glutathione peroxidase. However, DO had no significant effect on blood glucose levels and bodyweight of diabetic rats. Conclusions. DO supplementation is an effective treatment to prevent STZ-induced diabetic complications. PMID:27034693

  16. Prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of substance use in young people.

    PubMed

    Stockings, Emily; Hall, Wayne D; Lynskey, Michael; Morley, Katherine I; Reavley, Nicola; Strang, John; Patton, George; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2016-03-01

    We did a systematic review of reviews with evidence on the effectiveness of prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of problem use in young people for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis, opioids, amphetamines, or cocaine). Taxation, public consumption bans, advertising restrictions, and minimum legal age are effective measures to reduce alcohol and tobacco use, but are not available to target illicit drugs. Interpretation of the available evidence for school-based prevention is affected by methodological issues; interventions that incorporate skills training are more likely to be effective than information provision-which is ineffective. Social norms and brief interventions to reduce substance use in young people do not have strong evidence of effectiveness. Roadside drug testing and interventions to reduce injection-related harms have a moderate-to-large effect, but additional research with young people is needed. Scarce availability of research on interventions for problematic substance use in young people indicates the need to test interventions that are effective with adults in young people. Existing evidence is from high-income countries, with uncertain applicability in other countries and cultures and in subpopulations differing in sex, age, and risk status. Concerted efforts are needed to increase the evidence base on interventions that aim to reduce the high burden of substance use in young people. PMID:26905481

  17. Dendrobium officinale Prevents Early Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shao-zhen; Liang, Chu-yan; Liu, Hua-zhen; Zhu, Dong-mei; Wu, Ya-yun; Liang, Jian; Zhao, Ya; Guo, Jian-ru; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dendrobium officinale (DO) Kimura et Migo is a precious Chinese herb that is considered beneficial for health due to its antioxidant and antidiabetes properties, and so on. In this research, we try to determine the preventive effect of DO on the early complications of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods. Type 1 diabetic rats were produced with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). DO (1 g/kg/day) was then orally administered for 5 weeks. Blood glucose, TC, TG, BUN, CREA, and GSH-PX levels were determined, and electroretinographic activity and hypoalgesia were investigated. Pathological sections of the eyes, hearts, aortas, kidneys, and livers were analyzed. Results. Treatment with DO significantly attenuated the serum levels of TC, TG, BUN, and CREA, markedly increased the amplitudes of ERG a- and b-waves and Ops, and reduced the hypoalgesia and histopathological changes of vital organs induced by hyperglycemia. The protective effect of DO in diabetic rats may be associated with its antioxidant activity, as evidenced by the marked increase in the serum level of glutathione peroxidase. However, DO had no significant effect on blood glucose levels and bodyweight of diabetic rats. Conclusions. DO supplementation is an effective treatment to prevent STZ-induced diabetic complications. PMID:27034693

  18. An Effective Psychoeducational Intervention for Early Childhood Caries Prevention: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Ghosheh, Natalie; Warren, Joh J.; Drake, David R.; Kramer, Katherine W.O.; Dawson, Deborah V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to compare whether mothers exposed to an autonomy-supportive psychoeducational videotaped message, informed by the self-determination theory (SDT), demonstrated greater changes in oral health knowledge and behavioral intentions as a preventive means for early childhood caries (ECC) than mothers exposed to a neutral message delivered by brochure. Methods Data were collected at baseline, one-, and six-month follow-ups from 415 12- to 49-month-old WIC-enrolled children and their mothers: 283 in the video intervention group and 132 in the brochure control group. Mothers completed questionnaires on maternal knowledge and behavioral intentions for oral health care. Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data (P<.05). Results Relative to their baseline scores, the intervention group showed a greater increase in knowledge than the control group, both at one-month (P=.002) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). The video group also demonstrated a greater increase in behavioral intentions than controls, both at one-month (P<.05) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). Knowledge and behavioral intention levels at six-month follow-up did not differ significantly from those at one-month follow-up, indicating that intervention-based increases in these measures were maintained over time. Conclusions Data provided evidence of the effectiveness of the autonomy-supportive psychoeducational intervention for ECC prevention relative to a neutral brochure. PMID:23756308

  19. Music therapy as an early intervention to prevent chronification of tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Grapp, Miriam; Hutter, Elisabeth; Argstatter, Heike; Plinkert, Peter K; Bolay, Hans V

    2013-01-01

    In the present study a music therapeutic intervention according to the ‘Heidelberg Model’ was evaluated as a complementary treatment option for patients with acute tinnitus whom medical treatment only brought minimal or no improvement. The central question was if music therapy in an early phase of tinnitus was able to reduce tinnitus symptoms and to prevent them from becoming chronical. 23 patients with acute tinnitus (6-12 weeks) were included in this study and took part in our manualized short term music therapeutic treatment which lasted ten consecutive 50-minutes sessions of individualized therapy. Tinnitus severity and individual tinnitus related distress were assessed by the Tinnitus Beeinträchtigungs-Fragebogen (i.e. Tinnitus Impairment Questionnaire, TBF-12) at baseline, start of treatment, and end of treatment. Score changes in TBF-12 from start to end of the treatment showed significant improvements in tinnitus impairment. This indicates that this music therapy approach applied in an initial stage of tinnitus can make an important contribution towards preventing tinnitus from becoming a chronic condition. PMID:23936599

  20. Music therapy as an early intervention to prevent chronification of tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Grapp, Miriam; Hutter, Elisabeth; Argstatter, Heike; Plinkert, Peter K; Bolay, Hans V

    2013-01-01

    In the present study a music therapeutic intervention according to the 'Heidelberg Model' was evaluated as a complementary treatment option for patients with acute tinnitus whom medical treatment only brought minimal or no improvement. The central question was if music therapy in an early phase of tinnitus was able to reduce tinnitus symptoms and to prevent them from becoming chronical. 23 patients with acute tinnitus (6-12 weeks) were included in this study and took part in our manualized short term music therapeutic treatment which lasted ten consecutive 50-minutes sessions of individualized therapy. Tinnitus severity and individual tinnitus related distress were assessed by the Tinnitus Beeinträchtigungs-Fragebogen (i.e. Tinnitus Impairment Questionnaire, TBF-12) at baseline, start of treatment, and end of treatment. Score changes in TBF-12 from start to end of the treatment showed significant improvements in tinnitus impairment. This indicates that this music therapy approach applied in an initial stage of tinnitus can make an important contribution towards preventing tinnitus from becoming a chronic condition. PMID:23936599

  1. A longitudinal evaluation of the Resilient Families randomized trial to prevent early adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, Jason P; Shortt, Alison L; Slaviero, Tania M; Hutchinson, Delyse; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John W

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether an intervention prevented the development of depressive symptoms through the early years of secondary school (Grades 7 to 9 - mean ages 12.3 to 14.5 years) in Victoria, Australia. Twelve schools were randomized to a universal preventative intervention (including a student social relationship/emotional health curriculum, and parent/caregiver parenting education); 12 were randomized as control schools. Multivariate regression analyses used student self-report to predict depressive symptoms at 26-month follow-up (13-months after intervention completion) from baseline measures and intervention status (N = 2027). There was no overall intervention effect on depressive symptoms. However, intervention students with moderate symptoms whose parents attended parent education events had a significantly reduced risk of depressive symptoms at follow-up. Future evaluations of interventions of this type should investigate: therapeutic processes; methods to increase recruitment into effective parent education events; and the potential to target assistance to students with high depressive symptoms. PMID:26298674

  2. Prevention of organophosphate-induced chronic epilepsy by early benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed

    Shrot, Shai; Ramaty, Erez; Biala, Yoav; Bar-Klein, Guy; Daninos, Moshe; Kamintsky, Lyn; Makarovsky, Igor; Statlender, Liran; Rosman, Yossi; Krivoy, Amir; Lavon, Ophir; Kassirer, Michael; Friedman, Alon; Yaari, Yoel

    2014-09-01

    Poisoning with organophosphates (OPs) may induce status epilepticus (SE), leading to severe brain damage. Our objectives were to investigate whether OP-induced SE leads to the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs), the hallmark of chronic epilepsy, and if so, to assess the efficacy of benzodiazepine therapy following SE onset in preventing the epileptogenesis. We also explored early changes in hippocampal pyramidal cells excitability in this model. Adult rats were poisoned with the paraoxon (450μg/kg) and immediately treated with atropine (3mg/kg) and obidoxime (20mg/kg) to reduce acute mortality due to peripheral acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Electrical brain activity was assessed for two weeks during weeks 4-6 after poisoning using telemetric electrocorticographic intracranial recordings. All OP-poisoned animals developed SE, which could be suppressed by midazolam. Most (88%) rats which were not treated with midazolam developed SRSs, indicating that they have become chronically epileptic. Application of midazolam 1min following SE onset had a significant antiepileptogenic effect (only 11% of the rats became epileptic; p=0.001 compared to non-midazolam-treated rats). Applying midazolam 30min after SE onset did not significantly prevent chronic epilepsy. The electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal cells, assessed electrophysiologically in hippocampal slices, were not altered by OP-induced SE. Thus we show for the first time that a single episode of OP-induced SE in rats leads to the acquisition of chronic epilepsy, and that this epileptogenic outcome can be largely prevented by immediate, but not delayed, administration of midazolam. Extrapolating these results to humans would suggest that midazolam should be provided together with atropine and an oxime in the immediate pharmacological treatment of OP poisoning. PMID:24881594

  3. Endothelial function in women of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Kling, J. M.; Lahr, B. A.; Bailey, K. R.; Harman, S. M.; Mulvagh, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endothelial dysfunction occurs early in the atherosclerotic disease process, often preceding clinical symptoms. Use of menopausal hormone treatment (MHT) to reduce cardiovascular risk is controversial. This study evaluated effects of 4 years of MHT on endothelial function in healthy, recently menopausal women. Methods Endothelial function was determined by pulse volume digital tonometry providing a reactive hyperemia index (RHI) in a subset of women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. RHI was measured before and annually after randomization to daily oral conjugated equine estrogen (oCEE, 0.45 mg), weekly transdermal 17β-estradiol (tE2, 50 μg) each with intermittent progesterone (200 mg daily 12 days of the month) or placebo pills and patch. Results At baseline, RHI averaged 2.39 ± 0.69 (mean ± standard deviation; n = 83), and over follow-up did not differ significantly among groups: oCEE, 2.26 ± 0.48 (n = 26); tE2, 2.26 ± 0.45 (n = 24); and placebo, 2.37 ± 0.37 (n = 33). Changes in RHI did not correlate with changes in traditional cardiovascular risk factors, but may inversely correlate with carotid intima medial thickness (Spearman correlation coefficient ρ = −0.268, p = 0.012). Conclusion In this 4-year prospective assessment of recently menopausal women, MHT did not significantly alter RHI when compared to placebo. PMID:25417709

  4. The microbial environment and its influence on asthma prevention in early life.

    PubMed

    von Mutius, Erika

    2016-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that the environmental microbiome plays a significant role in asthma development. The very low prevalence of asthma in populations highly exposed to microbial environments (farm children and Amish populations) highlights its preventive potential. This microbial diversity might be necessary to instruct a well-adapted immune response and regulated inflammatory responses to other inhaled and ingested environmental elements, such as allergens, particles, and viruses. Like the internal gut microbiome, which is increasingly recognized as an important instructor of immune maturation, the external environmental microbiome might shape immune responses on the skin, airway mucosal surfaces, and potentially also the gut early in life. The diversity of the external microbial world will ensure that of the many maladapted pathways leading to asthma development, most, if not all, will be counterbalanced. Likewise, important contributors to asthma, such as allergen sensitization and allergic manifestations early in life, are being suppressed. Thus the facets of innate immunity targeted by microbes and their compounds and metabolites might be the master switch to asthma and allergy protection, which has been found in environments rich in microbial exposures. PMID:26806048

  5. Does early use of bilevel positive airway pressure (bipap) in cardiothoracic intensive care unit prevent reintubation?

    PubMed Central

    Sağıroğlu, G; Baysal, A; Çopuroğlu, E; Gül, YG; Karamustafaoğlu, YA; Dogukan, M

    2014-01-01

    Introductıon: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a preferred treatment in acute respiratory failure after operations. Our aim is to investigate the success of early use of bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) after cardiac or thoracic surgeries to prevent reintubation. Methods: In a prospective randomized study, 254 patients were divided into two groups depending on the time period between extubation and the application of BIPAP. In Group 1 BIPAP was applied after extubation within 48 hours after surgery following fulfilling of acute respiratory failure criterias whereas, in Group 2, BIPAP was applied one hour after extubation for two episodes of 20 minute duration and 3 hours apart. Arterial blood gas values (pH, PaO2, PaCO2) at first and fourth hour after BIPAP were collected. Results: In comparison between groups, no significant differences were observed for arterial blood gas values of pH and PaCO2 at baseline, one and four hours after BIPAP (p > 0.05) however, the PaO2 values at one and four hours after BIPAP were significantly better in Group 1 in comparison to Group 2 (p < 0.001, p < 0.001; respectively). Reintubation rate was 14 patients (11%) in Group 1 and 7 patients (5.5%) in Group 2 (p = 0.103). Conclusıons: The early and prophylactic use of BIPAP after cardiac or thoracic operations did not provide diminished rates in the postoperative complications such as reintubation. PMID:25419380

  6. Physiotherapeutic stimulation: Early prevention of lymphedema following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    SARRI, ALMIR JOSÉ; MORIGUCHI, SONIA MARTA; DIAS, ROGÉRIO; PERES, STELA VERZINHASSE; DA SILVA, EDUARDO TINÓIS; KOGA, KÁTIA HIROMOTO; ZUCCA MATTHES, ÂNGELO GUSTAVO; DOS SANTOS, MARCELO JOSÉ; DA ROCHA, EUCLIDES TIMÓTEO; HAIKEL, RAPHAEL LUIZ

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of early physiotherapeutic stimulation for lymphatic flow progression in patients with breast cancer undergoing axillary dissection. This was a randomized experimental study on 22 patients who underwent lymphoscintigraphy in their arms on two different occasions, firstly without stimulation and secondly after randomization into two groups: without physiotherapeutic stimulation (WOPS; n=10) and with physiotherapeutic stimulation (WPS; n=12). The lymphoscintigraphy scan was performed with 99mTc-phytate administered into the second interdigital space of the hand, ipsilaterally to the dissected axilla, in three phases: dynamic, static, and delayed whole body imaging. Physiotherapeutic stimulation was carried out using Földi's technique. In both groups, images from the two examinations of each patient were compared. Flow progression was considered positive when, on the second examination, the radiopharmaceutical reached areas more distant from the injection site. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate frequencies, percentages and central trend measurements, and non-parametric tests were conducted. Descriptive analysis showed that the WPS and WOPS groups were similar in terms of mean age, weight, height, body mass index and number of lymph nodes removed. There were statistically significant associations between physiotherapeutic stimulation and radiopharmaceutical progression at all three phases of the study (p<0.0001). Early physiotherapeutic stimulation in breast cancer patients undergoing radical axillary dissection is effective, and can therefore be indicated as a preventive measure against lymphedema. PMID:23136607

  7. Exposure to interparental violence and psychosocial maladjustment in the adult life course: advocacy for early prevention

    PubMed Central

    Roustit, C; Renahy, E; Guernec, G; Lesieur, S; Parizot, I; Chauvin, P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Early family-level and social-level stressors are both assumed to be the components of two main path models explaining the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and its long-term consequences on mental health explored through life-course epidemiological studies. Aims: To investigate the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and mental health outcomes in adulthood when taking into account early family and social stressors. Methods: A retrospective French cohort study of 3023 adults representative of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area was conducted in 2005 through at-home, face-to-face interviews. The outcomes measures were current depression and lifetime suicide attempt, intimate partner violence, violence against children and alcohol dependence. Results: The adults exposed to interparental violence during childhood had a higher risk of psychosocial maladjustment. After adjusting for family- and social-level stressors in childhood, this risk was, respectively, 1.44 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.00) for depression, 3.17 (1.75 to 5.73) for conjugal violence, 4.75 (1.60 to 14.14) for child maltreatment and 1.75 (1.19 to 2.57) for alcohol dependence. Conclusions: The adult consequences of parental violence in childhood—and this independently of the other forms of domestic violence and the related psychosocial risks—should lead to intensifying the prevention of and screening for this form of maltreatment of children. PMID:19477880

  8. [Immunocorrection in combined prevention of early postoperative complications in patients with systemic vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Andrievskikh, I A; Omel'ianiuk, M Iu

    2015-01-01

    The authors studied peculiarities of the immune status in angiosurgical patients with systemic vasculitis, as well as possibilities of immunodiagnosis and immunocorrection in prevention of early coagulopathic and reparative complications after angiosurgical interventions in this cohort of patients. A total of 172 angiosurgical patients presenting with systemic vasculitis were subdivided into two groups depending on the preoperative preparation methods used. In Group One (Study Group) comprising 81 patients preoperative preparation was carried out using immunosuppressive therapy with hormones and cytostatics according to the rheumatologist's indications. In Group Two (n=91) hormones and/or cytostatics were replaced by the proposed four-component immunocorrection including various combinations of correcting the lifestyle, use of antioxidative-activity immunomodulators, plasmapheresis and intravenous administration of immunoglobulins. It was determined that using this method of correction made it possible to achieve a good anti-inflammatory effect in angiosurgical patients with systemic vasculitis, thus avoiding negative aftermaths of immunosuppression. The developed method of immunocorrection makes it possible to decrease the rate of early postoperative coagulopathic and reparative complications in angiosurgical patients as compared to therapy with hormones and/or cytostatics. PMID:26673291

  9. Early detection of open fires and spontaneous combustion in mines.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, C D; Makower, A D

    1983-01-01

    Until fairly recently the detection of heatings was based on men seeing or smelling smoke and the laboratory analysis of mine air samples. Continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide by means of tube bundle systems has been a big step forward in detecting spontaneous combustion of coal and has found widespread acceptance in U.K. mines; general fire detection relies on shaft monitors. Both are based on infra-red analysers like the Unor CO-analysers that can be installed underground. In recent years British laboratories have developed and adapted several devices based on other principles: ionisation, semi-conductors, electro-chemical cells, thermistors, detection "thermal noise", infra-red imagers. All these instruments are briefly described by the authors in this paper presented by Mr. Makower. PMID:6414069

  10. Early membrane damage during coronary reperfusion in dogs. Detection by radiolabeled anticardiac myosin (Fab')2.

    PubMed Central

    Frame, L H; Lopez, J A; Khaw, B A; Fallon, J T; Haber, E; Powell, W J

    1983-01-01

    which hyperosmotic mannitol was infused during reflow the mean increase in (Fab')2 binding using the first protocol was only 80 +/- 40 vs. 170 +/- 30% without mannitol (P less than 0.05). Thus, membrane damage develops early during coronary reperfusion following 1 h of circumflex coronary artery occlusion, and part of this membrane damage can be prevented by altering the conditions of reflow. A method involving brief exposure of the myocardium to antimyosin (Fab')2 is promising for detecting changes in membrane integrity during evolving ischemic injury. PMID:6223942

  11. Why Wait? Early Determinants of School Dropout in Preventive Pediatric Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Theunissen, Marie-José; Bosma, Hans; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Background To answer the question of what bio-psychosocial determinants in infancy, early and middle childhood, and adolescence predict school drop-out in young adulthood, we approached the complex process towards school dropout as a multidimensional, life-course phenomenon. The aim is to find signs of heightened risks of school dropout as early as possible which will eventually help public health workers in reducing these risks. Methods In a case-control design, we used data from both the Preventive Pediatric Primary Care (PPPC) files (that contain information from birth onwards) and additional questionnaires filled out by 529 youngsters, aged 18–23 years, and living in the South-east of the Netherlands. We first conducted univariate logistic regression analyses with school-dropout as the dependent variable. Backward and forward stepwise analyses with the significant variables were done with variables pertaining to the 0 to 4 year period. Remaining significant variables were forced into the next model and subsequently variables pertaining to respectively the 4 to 8, 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 year period were introduced in a stepwise analysis. All analyses were cross-validated in an exploratory and confirmatory random half of the sample. Results One parent families and families with a non-Western background less often attended the health examinations of the PPPC and such less attendance was related to school dropout. The birth of a sibling (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43–0.93) in infancy and self-efficacy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38–0.74) in adolescence decreased the odds of school dropout; externalizing behavior (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.53–5.14) in middle childhood and (sickness) absence (OR 5.62, 95% CI 2.18–14.52) in adolescence increased the risks. Conclusion To prevent school dropout, PPPC professionals should not wait until imminent dropout, but should identify and tackle risk factors as early as possible and actively approach youngsters who withdraw from public health care

  12. Strategies for early melanoma detection: approaches to the patient with nevi

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Agnessa G.; Grossman, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Given its propensity to metastasize, and lack of effective therapies for most patients with advanced disease, early detection of melanoma is a clinical imperative. Although there are no non-invasive techniques for definitive diagnosis of melanoma, and the “gold standard” remains biopsy with histologic examination, a variety of modalities may facilitate early melanoma diagnosis and the detection of new and changing nevi. This article reviews general clinical principles of early melanoma detection, and various modalities that are currently available or on the horizon, providing the clinician with an up-to-date understanding of management strategies for their patients with numerous or atypical nevi. Learning objectives At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should: 1) understand the clinical importance of early melanoma detection; 2) appreciate the challenges of early melanoma diagnosis and which patients are at highest risk; 3) know general principles of early melanoma detection; 4) be familiar with current and emerging modalities that may facilitate early melanoma diagnosis and the detection of new and changing nevi; 5) know the advantages and limitations of each modality; and 6) be able to practice a combined approach to the patient with numerous or clinically atypical nevi. PMID:19389517

  13. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. PMID:26443498

  14. Mouse colorectal cancer an early detection approach using nonlinear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Mariana; Adur, Javier; Ruff, Silvana Y; Izaguirre, María F; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Cesar, Carlos L; Casco, Víctor H

    2014-01-01

    Murine induced colon cancer has been used to demonstrate that Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy images, combined with Two-Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF) and specific quantization scoring methods allow distinguishing early alterations in colon mucosa. TPEF was used only to identified crypts and submucosa regions, whereas the image analysis was used to get quantitative data (Integrated Intensity and Aspect Ratio scoring) of different cancer stages. The submucosa amount of collagen fibers was significant and their orientation suffering proportional changes with the development of the pathological processes. Both after the fourth and eighth weeks after colon cancer induction, integrated intensity and aspect ratio values have shown significant statistical differences compared with control samples. Thus, SHG microscopy has proved to be a useful quantitative tool to highlight early changes of submucosa and the progression of these through the cancer development. PMID:25227053

  15. Classification Models for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wichard, Joerg D.; Cammann, Henning; Stephan, Carsten; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the performance of different classification models and their ability to recognize prostate cancer in an early stage. We build ensembles of classification models in order to increase the classification performance. We measure the performance of our models in an extensive cross-validation procedure and compare different classification models. The datasets come from clinical examinations and some of the classification models are already in use to support the urologists in their clinical work. PMID:18464915

  16. A dynamic social systems model for considering structural factors in HIV prevention and detection

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl; Weeks, Margaret; Glasman, Laura; Galletly, Carol; Albarracin, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    We present a model for HIV-related behaviors that emphasizes the dynamic and social nature of the structural factors that influence HIV prevention and detection. Key structural dimensions of the model include resources, science and technology, formal social control, informal social influences and control, social interconnectedness, and settings. These six dimensions can be conceptualized on macro, meso, and micro levels. Given the inherent complexity of structural factors and their interrelatedness, HIV prevention interventions may focus on different levels and dimensions. We employ a systems perspective to describe the interconnected and dynamic processes of change among social systems and their components. The topics of HIV testing and safer injection facilities are analyzed using this structural framework. Finally, we discuss methodological issues in the development and evaluation of structural interventions for HIV prevention and detection. PMID:20838871

  17. Risk reduction using DDP (Defect Detection and Prevention): Software support and software applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Risk assessment and mitigation is the focus of the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) process, which has been applied to spacecraft technology assessments and planning, both hardware and software. DDP's major elements and their relevance to core requirement engineering concerns are summarized. The accompanying research demonstration illustrates DDP's tool support, and further customizations for application to software.

  18. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 571 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Customer Identification Program rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); and (b... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft...—Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation Section 571.90 of this...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 222 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Program rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); and (b) Authenticating customers... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft..., App. J Appendix J to Part 222—Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention,...

  20. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 681 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Program rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); and (b) Authenticating customers... Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation A Appendix A to Part 681 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT IDENTITY THEFT RULES Pt. 681, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  1. 77 FR 37105 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...The Department of Justice (Department) is issuing a final rule adopting national standards to prevent, detect, and respond to prison rape, as required by the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA). In addition, the Department is requesting comment on one issue relating to staffing in juvenile facilities. Further discussion of the final rule is found in the Executive...

  2. 28 CFR 104.71 - Procedures to prevent and detect fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures to prevent and detect fraud. 104.71 Section 104.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND Measures To Protect the Integrity of the Compensation Program § 104.71 Procedures to...

  3. 17 CFR 248.201 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. 248.201 Section 248.201 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P, S-AM, AND S-ID Regulation S-ID:...

  4. 12 CFR 391.22 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... U.S.C. 1681a(t). (8) Identity theft has the same meaning as in 16 CFR 603.2(a). (9) Red Flag means a... mitigation of identity theft. 391.22 Section 391.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... Reporting § 391.22 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a)...

  5. 12 CFR 334.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... mitigation of identity theft. 334.90 Section 334.90 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Identity Theft Red Flags § 334.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a) Scope. This section applies to...

  6. 12 CFR 571.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... mitigation of identity theft. 571.90 Section 571.90 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Identity Theft Red Flags § 571.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a) Scope. This section applies to a...

  7. 12 CFR 334.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... mitigation of identity theft. 334.90 Section 334.90 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Identity Theft Red Flags § 334.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a) Scope. This section applies to...

  8. 12 CFR 41.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... mitigation of identity theft. 41.90 Section 41.90 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Identity Theft Red Flags § 41.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a) Scope. This section applies to a financial institution...

  9. 12 CFR 391.22 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... U.S.C. 1681a(t). (8) Identity theft has the same meaning as in 16 CFR 603.2(a). (9) Red Flag means a... mitigation of identity theft. 391.22 Section 391.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... Reporting § 391.22 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a)...

  10. 12 CFR 391.22 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... U.S.C. 1681a(t). (8) Identity theft has the same meaning as in 16 CFR 603.2(a). (9) Red Flag means a... mitigation of identity theft. 391.22 Section 391.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... Reporting § 391.22 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a)...

  11. 12 CFR 334.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... mitigation of identity theft. 334.90 Section 334.90 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Identity Theft Red Flags § 334.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a) Scope. This section applies to...

  12. 12 CFR 41.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... mitigation of identity theft. 41.90 Section 41.90 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Identity Theft Red Flags § 41.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a) Scope. This section applies to a financial institution...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix to Subpart C of... - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft... Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation Section 391.22 requires each financial... mitigate identity theft in connection with the opening of a covered account or any existing covered...

  14. 12 CFR 571.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... mitigation of identity theft. 571.90 Section 571.90 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Identity Theft Red Flags § 571.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a) Scope. This section applies to a...

  15. 12 CFR 41.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... mitigation of identity theft. 41.90 Section 41.90 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Identity Theft Red Flags § 41.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a) Scope. This section applies to a financial institution...

  16. 12 CFR 571.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... mitigation of identity theft. 571.90 Section 571.90 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Identity Theft Red Flags § 571.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a) Scope. This section applies to a...

  17. 12 CFR 334.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... mitigation of identity theft. 334.90 Section 334.90 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Identity Theft Red Flags § 334.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a) Scope. This section applies to...

  18. 12 CFR 41.90 - Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... mitigation of identity theft. 41.90 Section 41.90 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Identity Theft Red Flags § 41.90 Duties regarding the detection, prevention, and mitigation of identity theft. (a) Scope. This section applies to a financial institution...

  19. 75 FR 11077 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Part 115 RIN 1105-AB34 National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape AGENCY... abuse in confinement settings that were prepared by the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission (Commission) pursuant to the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) and recommended by the Commission...

  20. 76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) The... the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC...

  1. Lung Cancer: Early Detection is the Key | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Early Detection is the Key Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Lung cancer survivor Dusty Donaldson helps to spread the word ...

  2. Early Detection Monitoring for Invasive Fish: St. Louis River (SLR) Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early detection of aquatic invasive species is necessary to develop and implement timely management responses. Predicting species introductions, however, is difficult and resources are typically limited. Therefore, monitoring strategies should be designed to effectively and eff...

  3. Use of digital PCR to improve early detection of CLas infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing is a devastating disease of citrus caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Huanglongbing has devastated the Florida citrus industry and is threatening citrus in Texas and California. Detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus infections as early as possible is ...

  4. Comparison of Breast Cancer to Healthy Control Tissue Discovers Novel Markers with Potential for Prognosis and Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Schummer, Michèl; Green, Ann; Beatty, J. David; Karlan, Beth Y.; Karlan, Scott; Gross, Jenny; Thornton, Sean; McIntosh, Martin; Urban, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This study was initiated to identify biomarkers with potential value for the early detection of poor-outcome breast cancer. Two sets of well-characterized tissues were utilized: one from breast cancer patients with favorable vs. poor outcome and the other from healthy women undergoing reduction mammaplasty. Over 46 differentially expressed genes were identified from a large list of potential targets by a) mining publicly available expression data (identifying 134 genes for quantitative PCR) and b) utilizing a commercial PCR array. Three genes show elevated expression in cancers with poor outcome and low expression in all other tissues, warranting further investigation as potential blood markers for early detection of cancers with poor outcome. Twelve genes showed lower expression in cancers with poor outcome than in cancers with favorable outcome but no differential expression between aggressive cancers and most healthy controls. These genes are more likely to be useful as prognostic tissue markers than as serum markers for early detection of aggressive disease. As a secondary finding was that, when histologically normal breast tissue was removed from a distant site in a breast with cancer, 7 of 38 specimens displayed a cancer-like expression profile, while the remaining 31 were genetically similar to the reduction mammaplasty control group. This finding suggests that some regions of ipsilateral histologically ‘normal’ breast tissue are predisposed to becoming malignant and that normal-appearing tissue with malignant signature might warrant treatment to prevent new primary tumors. PMID:20161755

  5. Early intervention with epoetin beta prevents severe anaemia in lung cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy: a subgroup analysis of the NeoPrevent study.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Javier; Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; Isla, Dolores; Dómine, Manuel; Sánchez, Alfredo; Batiste, Eduard; Barón, Manuel González

    2008-02-01

    The NeoPrevent study showed that early intervention with epoetin beta could prevent severe anaemia in patients with solid tumours receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. An early intervention strategy may be particularly warranted in patients with lung cancer, as anaemia is very common in these patients and can be severe. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of epoetin beta in the subpopulation of patients with lung cancer included in the NeoPrevent study. Patients were enrolled if baseline haemoglobin (Hb) levels were prevention response was measured as the proportion of patients with an Hb response (Hb increase of >1g/dl) plus the proportion whose Hb was maintained at +/-1g/dl of baseline. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the linear analogue scale assessment. The NeoPrevent study included 255 patients in total, and the results for the 102 patients with lung cancer (non-small-cell lung cancer 64%; small-cell lung cancer 36%) are presented here. The overall anaemia prevention response was 90%, with Hb response in 60% of patients and maintenance of baseline Hb level in 30%. Only 9% of patients required transfusions. QoL improved significantly in patients with Hb response (p<0.01) and was maintained in non-responders (p>or=0.578). Epoetin beta was effective in preventing severe anaemia in lung cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:17875340

  6. Cancer of the cervix: Early detection and cost-effective solutions.

    PubMed

    Denny, Lynette; Prendiville, Walter

    2015-10-01

    Cervical cancer is known to be a preventable disease through the detection of cervical cancer precursors, historically using cytology of the cervix as the primary screening test. Over 85% of cervical cancer cases and deaths occur in low-resource countries. Alternatives to cytology have been investigated with the strongest possibilities being visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and HPV DNA testing. HPV DNA testing has been shown in randomized trials to be significantly more sensitive for the detection of cervical cancer precursors than either cytology or VIA. In this paper we argue that prevention really does cost less than cure, or that prevention and treatment of cancer costs less than no prevention, in effect just treatment, of cancer. The true cost savings of prevention will include a more difficult assessment of the socioeconomic savings associated with longer, healthier lives for women in their prime who have a major role in supporting their families. PMID:26433500

  7. Detecting the Ambiguity of Sentences: Relationship to Early Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Helen Smith; Waltzman, Dava; Schlisselberg, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a preliminary study of 18, 4- and 5-year-old children, followed by a longitudinal study of 44 children, who were tested in the first, second, and third grades. The children's ability to detect the ambiguity of lexically ambiguous sentences (e. g., "The children saw the bat lying by the fence") and structurally…

  8. Early detection network design and search strategy issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a series of field and related modeling studies (2005-2012) to evaluate search strategies for Great Lakes coastal ecosystems that are at risk of invasion by non-native aquatic species. In developing a network, we should design to achieve an acceptable limit of detect...

  9. Early Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology Detected by Proton MR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Melissa E.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Lesnick, Timothy G.; Liesinger, Amanda M.; Spychalla, Anthony; Zhang, Bing; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is sensitive to early neurodegenerative processes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although 1H-MRS metabolite ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), NAA/myoinositol (mI), and mI/Cr measured in the posterior cingulate gyrus reveal evidence of disease progression in AD, pathologic underpinnings of the 1H-MRS metabolite changes in AD are unknown. Pathologically diagnosed human cases ranging from no likelihood to high likelihood AD (n = 41, 16 females and 25 males) who underwent antemortem 1H-MRS of the posterior cingulate gyrus at 3 tesla were included in this study. Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed on the posterior cingulate gyrus using antibodies to synaptic vesicles, hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau), neurofibrillary tangle conformational-epitope (cNFT), amyloid-β, astrocytes, and microglia. The slides were digitally analyzed using Aperio software, which allows neuropathologic quantification in the posterior cingulate gray matter. MRS and pathology associations were adjusted for time from scan to death. Significant associations across AD and control subjects were found between reduced synaptic immunoreactivity and both NAA/Cr and NAA/mI in the posterior cingulate gyrus. Higher pTau burden was associated with lower NAA/Cr and NAA/mI. Higher amyloid-β burden was associated with elevated mI/Cr and lower NAA/mI ratios, but not with NAA/Cr. 1H-MRS metabolite levels reveal early neurodegenerative changes associated with AD pathology. Our findings support the hypothesis that a decrease in NAA/Cr is associated with loss of synapses and early pTau pathology, but not with amyloid-β or later accumulation of cNFT pathology in the posterior cingulate gyrus. In addition, elevation of mI/Cr is associated with the occurrence of amyloid-β plaques in AD. PMID:25471565

  10. Probing Alzheimers Disease Pathology and Early Detection at the NSLS with Infrared, XRF, and DEI

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong,Z.; Bennett, D.; Chapman, D.; Chen, J.; Connor, D.; Dilmanian, A.; Faulconer, L.; Kao, T.; Leskovjan, A.; et al

    2008-01-01

    We explored diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) in both planar and computed tomography (CT) modes for early detection of beta amyloid deposition, a hallmark feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since amyloid plaques precede clinical symptoms by years, their early detection is of great interest. These findings were correlated with results from synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy, to determine the secondary structure of the amyloid beta protein and metal concentration in the amyloid plaques, respectively.

  11. Dual-mode microwave system to enhance early detection of cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, K. L.; El-Mahdi, A. M.; Shaeffer, J.

    1981-01-01

    A dual-mode microwave system has been developed that will permit early detection of cancer. The system combines the use of the passive microwave radiometer with an active transmitter. The active transmitter will provide localized heating to enhance early detection by taking advantage of the differential heating (i.e., tumor temperature with respect to surrounding tissue) associated with the thermal characteristics of tumors.

  12. Early Hearing Detection and Intervention in Developing Countries: Current Status and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2006-01-01

    Infant hearing screening is emerging rapidly as a silent global revolution for the early detection of children with congenital or early onset hearing loss to ensure timely enrollment in family-oriented intervention programs for the development of spoken language. This article examines the overriding and interrelated scientific, ethical and…

  13. Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…

  14. Detection and prevention of highly pathogenic avian influenza in communities with high poultry disease burdens.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Carol J; Byarugaba, Denis; Mbuthia, Paul; Aning, George; Sourou, Sabi; Bunn, David A; Msoffe, Peter L

    2010-03-01

    The implementation of strategies to detect, prevent, and control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in developing countries presents several challenges, one of which is the presence of other diseases in poultry populations. Training workshops in developing countries using the Avian Flu School have revealed that in areas with heavy Newcastle disease burdens, smallholder poultry keepers do not recognize HPAI as an immediate threat. We have developed a strategy to address the more proximal needs and priorities of communities with free-ranging poultry flocks as a means to create value in poultry, and thus to improve disease detection and prevention overall. To this end, we have created the Poultry Health and Well-Being for Development project, which trains graduate veterinarians and paraprofessionals in poultry disease diagnosis, control, and treatment. These trainees then serve their local communities to improve poultry health and to implement disease detection and management programs. PMID:20521727

  15. Managing population health to prevent and detect cancer and non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Heather; Shin, Hai Rim; Forman, David; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Park, Sohee; Burton, Robert; Varghese, Cherian; Ullrich, Andreas; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The goals of cancer control strategies are generally uniform across all constituencies and are to reduce cancer incidence, reduce cancer mortality, and improve quality of life for those affected by cancer. A well-constructed strategy will ensure that all of its elements can ultimately be connected to one of these goals. When a cancer control strategy is being implemented, it is essential to map progress towards these goals; without mapping progress, it is impossible to assess which components of the strategy require more attention or resources and which are not having the desired effect and need to be re-evaluated. In order to monitor and evaluate these strategies, systems need to be put in place to collect data and the appropriate indicators of performance need to be identified. Session 2 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on how to manage population health to prevent and detect cancers and non-communicable diseases through two plenary presentations and four interactive workshop discussions: 1) registries, measurement, and management in cancer control; 2) use of information for planning and evaluating screening and early detection programs; 3) alternative models for promoting community health, integrated care and illness management; and 4) control of non-communicable diseases. Workshop discussions highlighted that population based cancer registries are fundamental to understanding the cancer burden within a country. However, many countries in Africa, Asia, and South/ Central America do not have them in place. A new global initiative is underway, which brings together several international agencies, and aims to establish six IARC regional registration resource centres over the next five years. These will provide training, support, infrastructure and advocacy to local networks of cancer registries, and, it is hoped, improve the host countries' ability to assess and act on cancer issues within their jurisdictions. Multiple methods of

  16. Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer—a Defined Future Using Lessons From Other Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Maitra, Anirban; Srivastava, Sudhir; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.; Rothschild, Laura J.; Goldberg, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The implementation of effective early detection programs has significantly improved treatment, prognosis, and life expectancy in breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. Early-detection methods need to be developed for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), where progress during the past decades has remained slow. Addressing this need, the forum “Early Detection: Lessons Learned from Other Cancers” was held in November 2015 and presented by the Kenner Family Research Fund in partnership with the American Pancreatic Association. Leading experts from breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers described the development of early detection methods in their respective fields. Emerging opportunities for scientific advancement were subsequently identified that hold the greatest promise for the future of early detection in PDAC, including a 4-part strategic map of necessary actionable items. Knowledge from other fields must be applied to achieve large-scale change within the arena of PDAC. A major breakthrough in early detection of PDAC will occur only through a definitive interdisciplinary collaborative effort involving a critical mass of committed academic research institutions, government agencies, industry leaders, and philanthropies. PMID:27518362

  17. Toward primary prevention of asthma. Reviewing the evidence for early-life respiratory viral infections as modifiable risk factors to prevent childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Amy S; He, Yuan; Moore, Martin L; Hershenson, Marc B; Hartert, Tina V

    2015-01-01

    A first step in primary disease prevention is identifying common, modifiable risk factors that contribute to a significant proportion of disease development. Infant respiratory viral infection and childhood asthma are the most common acute and chronic diseases of childhood, respectively. Common clinical features and links between these diseases have long been recognized, with early-life respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) being strongly associated with increased asthma risk. However, there has long been debate over the role of these respiratory viruses in asthma inception. In this article, we systematically review the evidence linking early-life RSV and RV LRTIs with asthma inception and whether they could therefore be targets for primary prevention efforts. PMID:25369458

  18. Detection of fetal structural abnormalities with US during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fong, Katherine W; Toi, Ants; Salem, Shia; Hornberger, Lisa K; Chitayat, David; Keating, Sarah J; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Johnson, Jo-Ann

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is performed during early pregnancy for dating, determination of the number of fetuses, assessment of early complications, and increasingly for evaluation of the fetus, including measurement of the thickness of the nuchal translucency (NT). Measurement of NT thickness between 11 and 14 weeks gestation, combined with maternal age and maternal serum biochemistry, can be an effective method of screening for trisomy 21 and other chromosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, an increased NT thickness in the presence of a normal karyotype is associated with an increased frequency of structural defects and genetic syndromes. Therefore, this finding is an indication for a more detailed anatomic survey of the fetus. Besides nuchal abnormalities, a wide range of other congenital anomalies can be diagnosed with US at 11-14 weeks gestation, including defects of the central nervous system, heart, anterior abdominal wall, urinary tract, and skeleton. The anatomic survey can be performed with a standardized protocol by using transabdominal US and, when necessary, transvaginal US. A thorough knowledge of the US features of normal fetal development is necessary to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:14730044

  19. Consensus on the Prevention, Screening, Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Tumors in China: Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, October 14-15, 2011, Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jing-Yuan; Zheng, Shu; Jiang, Bo; Lai, Mao-De; Fang, Dian-Chun; Han, Ying; Sheng, Qian-Jiu; Li, Jing-Nan; Chen, Ying-Xuan; Gao, Qin-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is steadily increasing in China. Colorectal adenoma (CRA) is the most important precancerous disease of CRC. Screening for colorectal tumors can aid early diagnosis. Advances in endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection can aid the early treatment of colorectal tumors. Furthermore, because of high risk of recurrence after removal of adenomas under endoscopy, factors contributing to recurrence, the follow-up mode and the interval established, and the feasibility of application and the time of various chemical preventions should be concerned. However, a relevant consensus on the screening, early diagnosis and treatment, and prevention of colorectal tumors in China is lacking. Summary The consensus recommendations include epidemiology, pathology, screening, early diagnosis, endoscopic treatment, monitoring and follow-up, and chemoprevention of colorectal tumors in China. Key Message This is the first consensus on the prevention, screening, early diagnosis and treatment of CRA and CRC in China based on evidence in the literature and on local data. Practical Implications Through reviewing the literature, regional data and passing the consensus by an anonymous vote, gastroenterology experts from all over China launch the consensus recommendations in Shanghai. The incidence and mortality of CRC in China has increased, and the incidence or detection rate of CRA has increased rapidly. Screening for colorectal tumors should be performed at age 50-74 years. Preliminary screening should be undertaken to find persons at high risk, followed by colonoscopy. A screening cycle of 3 years is recommended for persistent interventions. Opportunistic screening is a mode suitable for the current healthcare system and national situation. Colonoscopy combined with pathological examination is the standard method for the diagnosis of colorectal tumors. CRA removal under endoscopy can prevent CRC to some extent, but CRA has an obvious

  20. Replication RCT of Early Universal Prevention Effects on Young Adult Substance Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol

    2014-01-01

    Objective For many substances, more frequent and problematic use occurs in young adulthood; these types of use are predicted by the timing of initiation during adolescence. We replicated and extended an earlier study examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal preventive interventions implemented in middle school, reduces problematic use in young adulthood. Method Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10–14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires were collected at 11 time points, including four during young adulthood. The intercept (average level) and rate of change (slope) in young adult frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, and illicit drugs) across ages 19–22 were modeled as outcomes influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Analyses entailed testing a two-step hierarchical latent growth curve model; models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction. Results Analyses showed significant indirect intervention effects on the average levels of all young adult outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors, along with intervention by risk interaction effects favoring the higher-risk subsample. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed in some cases. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher-risk subsample at age 22, ranging from 5.8% to 36.4% on outcomes showing significant intervention effects. Conclusions Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance use and associated problems, into young adulthood. PMID:24821095

  1. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    TESTI, D.; NARDONE, M.; MELONE, P.; CARDELLI, P.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%–90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before “sexual puberty”. The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  2. “Caregiver Acceptability and Preferences for Early Childhood Caries Preventive Treatments for Hispanic Children”

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sally H.; Hyde, Susan; Gansky, Stuart A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine caregiver treatment acceptability and preferences for five preventive dental treatments for early childhood caries (ECC) in young Hispanic children. Methods We interviewed 211 parents/caregivers of Hispanic children attending Head Start programs regarding their acceptability of and preferences for five standard preventive dental treatments for young children. Treatments assessed were: toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish, xylitol in food for children; and xylitol gum and chlorhexidine rinse for mothers. The interview assessment included presentation of: illustrated cards with verbal description of treatment; picture/video clip; and treatment samples. Parents rated the acceptability of each treatment (1-5 scale) and treatment preferences within each of 10 possible pairs. Individual treatment preferences were summed to create overall preference scores (range 0–4). Results All treatments were rated as highly acceptable, however there were differences (range 4.6-4.9; Friedman Chi Square = 23.4, p< 0.001). Chlorhexidine, toothbrushing, and varnish were most acceptable, not different from each other, but more acceptable than xylitol in food (p< 0.05). Summed treatment preferences revealed greater variability (means ranged 1.4-2.6; Friedman Chi Square=128.2, p< 0.001). Fluoride varnish (2.6) and toothbrushing (2.5) were most highly preferred, and differences between preferences for xylitol in food (1.4), xylitol gum (1.5) and chlorhexidine (2.1) were all significant, p < 0.001. Preferences for chlorhexidine were also significantly greater than those for the xylitol products (p < 0.001). Conclusions All 5 treatments were highly acceptable, however when choosing among treatments overall, fluoride varnish and toothbrushing were favored over other treatments. PMID:19486461

  3. Internalizing symptoms: effects of a preventive intervention on developmental pathways from early adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Randall, G Kevin; Mason, W Alex; Shin, Chungyeol

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the mediated and moderated effects of a universal family-focused preventive intervention, delivered during young adolescence, on internalizing symptoms assessed in young adulthood. Sixth grade students (N=446; 52% female; 98% White) and their families from 22 rural Midwestern school districts were randomly assigned to the experimental conditions in 1993. Self-report questionnaires were administered at seven time points (pre-test to young adulthood-age 21) to those receiving the Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP) and to the control group. Results showed that growth factors of adolescent internalizing symptoms (grades 6-12) were predicted by ISFP condition and risk status (defined as early substance initiation). Moderation of the condition effect by risk status was found, with higher-risk adolescents benefitting more from the ISFP. Results also supported the hypothesis that the ISFP's effect on internalizing symptoms in young adulthood was mediated through growth factors of adolescents' internalizing symptoms; risk moderation, however, was only marginally significant in young adulthood. The relative reduction rate on clinical or subclinical levels of young adult internalizing symptoms was 28%, indicating that for every 100 young adults displaying clinical or subclinical levels of internalizing symptoms from school districts not offering an intervention, there could be as few as 72 displaying those levels of symptoms in school districts that offered middle school prevention programming. These findings highlight how the positive effects of family-focused universal interventions can extend to non-targeted outcomes and the related potential public-health impact of scaling up these interventions. PMID:22160441

  4. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Testi, D; Nardone, M; Melone, P; Cardelli, P; Ottria, L; Arcuri, C

    2015-01-01

    The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%-90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before "sexual puberty". The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  5. Ovarian Cancer: Prevention, Detection and Treatment of the Disease and Its Recurrence. Molecular Mechanisms and Personalized Medicine Meeting Report

    PubMed Central

    Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the current understanding of the underlying molecular, biologic and genetic mechanisms involved in ovarian cancer development and how these mechanisms can be targets for prevention, detection and treatment of the disease and its recurrence. Methods In May 2012, we convened a meeting of researchers, clinicians and consumer advocates to review the state of current knowledge on molecular mechanisms and identify fruitful areas for further investigations. Results The meeting consisted of seven scientific sessions, ranging from Epidemiology, Early Detection, and Biology to Therapeutics and Quality of Life. Sessions consisted of talks and panel discussions by international leaders in ovarian cancer research. A special career-development session by the CDMRP Department of Defense Ovarian Cancer Academy as well as an oral abstract and poster session showcased promising new research by junior scientists. Conclusions Technological advances in the last decade have increased our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in a host of biological activities related to ovarian cancer. Understanding the role these mechanisms play in cancer initiation and progression will help lead to the development of prevention and treatment modalities that can be personalized to each patient, thereby helping to overcome this highly-fatal malignancy. PMID:23013733

  6. Early detection of insulation failure in electric motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homce, G. T.

    A system capable of monitoring mine electrical power systems and detecting impending component failure could significantly improve power system safety and reduce unscheduled equipment downtime. Such monitoring would require a method of evaluating electrical parameters, calculated from terminal values, for indications of component deterioration. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has targeted electrical failure of squirrel cage induction motors and examined the use of mathematical models to aid in the evaluation. The initial stage of the work is complete and has produced polynomial networks called adaptive learning networks (ALN's) that can detect and quantify winding insulation leakage simulated on laboratory motors. In the modeling process, empirical data from laboratory motors were used to select the electrical parameters most significant for assessing motor conditions, and mathematical expressions relating these parameters to simulated deterioration were formed.

  7. miRNAs as potential biomarkers in early breast cancer detection following mammography.

    PubMed

    Fu, Sidney W; Lee, Woojin; Coffey, Caitrin; Lean, Alexa; Wu, Xiaoling; Tan, Xiaohui; Man, Yan-Gao; Brem, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women, except for skin cancers. About 12 % women in the United States will develop invasive breast cancer during their lifetime. Currently one of the most accepted model/theories is that ductal breast cancer (most common type of breast cancer) follows a linear progression: from normal breast epithelial cells to ductal hyperplasia to atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and finally to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Distinguishing pure ADH diagnosis from DCIS and/or IDC on mammography, and even combined with follow-up core needle biopsy (CNB) is still a challenge. Therefore subsequent surgical excision cannot be avoided to make a definitive diagnosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a highly abundant class of endogenous non-coding RNAs, which contribute to cancer initiation and progression, and are differentially expressed between normal and cancer tissues. They can function as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes. With accumulating evidence of the role of miRNAs in breast cancer progression, including our own studies, we sought to summarize the nature of early breast lesions and the potential use of miRNA molecules as biomarkers in early breast cancer detection. In particular, miRNA biomarkers may potentially serve as a companion tool following mammography screening and CNB. In the long-term, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the miRNA signatures associated with breast cancer development could potentially result in the development of novel strategies for disease prevention and therapy. PMID:26819702

  8. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lutaif, N.A.; Palazzo, R.; Gontijo, J.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile. PMID:24519093

  9. Early detection of metabolic and energy disorders by thermal time series stochastic complexity analysis.

    PubMed

    Lutaif, N A; Palazzo, R; Gontijo, J A R

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of thermal homeostasis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with changes in their thermal balance. The thermodynamic relationship between heat dissipation and energy storage is altered by the ingestion of high-energy diet content. Observation of thermal registers of core temperature behavior, in humans and rodents, permits identification of some characteristics of time series, such as autoreference and stationarity that fit adequately to a stochastic analysis. To identify this change, we used, for the first time, a stochastic autoregressive model, the concepts of which match those associated with physiological systems involved and applied in male HFD rats compared with their appropriate standard food intake age-matched male controls (n=7 per group). By analyzing a recorded temperature time series, we were able to identify when thermal homeostasis would be affected by a new diet. The autoregressive time series model (AR model) was used to predict the occurrence of thermal homeostasis, and this model proved to be very effective in distinguishing such a physiological disorder. Thus, we infer from the results of our study that maximum entropy distribution as a means for stochastic characterization of temperature time series registers may be established as an important and early tool to aid in the diagnosis and prevention of metabolic diseases due to their ability to detect small variations in thermal profile. PMID:24519093

  10. Raman spectroscopy: a diagnostic tool for detection of early malignant changes in the larynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Nicholas; Stavroulaki, Pelagia; Kendall, Catherine A.; Birchall, Martin; Barr, Hugh

    2000-05-01

    The incidence of laryngeal cancer has risen progressively over the last 25 years. Early diagnosis and treatment of premalignant lesions of the larynx is vital to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. In the larynx, it has long been recognized that histological evidence of maturation abnormality is associated with a higher risk of transformation to malignancy. Currently, it is extremely difficult if not impossible for the clinician to ascertain the level of abnormality present without removing a biopsy sample and sending it for histopathological analysis. Inherent risks with this technique include damage to vocal chords and loss of speech quality as well as possible selection of unrepresentative biopsy samples. Raman spectroscopy, incorporated into an endoscopic system, has the potential to provide a real-time, non-invasive diagnostic technique able to detect biochemical changes that accompany abnormal pathology. Likely outcomes would be improved biopsy targeting and patient management by providing immediate result of tissue pathology. This paper demonstrates the capacity of near IR Raman spectroscopy combine with statistical data analysis techniques to discriminate between normal, dysplastic and cancerous laryngeal tissue.

  11. Identifying promising practices for evaluation: the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    DeGroff, Amy; Cheung, Karen; Dawkins-Lyn, Nicola; Hall, Mary Ann; Melillo, Stephanie; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a systematic screening and assessment process to identify promising practices implemented by grantees of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and its partners that were appropriate for rigorous evaluation. Methods The systematic screening and assessment (SSA) process was conducted from September 2010 through March 2012 and included five steps: (1) nominations of promising practices; (2) a first rating by subject matter experts; (3) field-based evaluability assessments; (4) a second rating by experts; and (5) use of results. Nominations were sought in three program areas including health education and promotion, quality assurance and quality improvement, and case management/patient navigation. Results A total of 98 practices were nominated of which 54 % were eligible for the first review by the experts. Fifteen practices were selected for evaluability assessment with ten forwarded for the second review by the experts. Three practices were ultimately recommended for rigorous evaluation, and one evaluation was conducted. Most nominated practices were based on evidence-based strategies rather than representing new, innovative activities. Issues were identified through the process including inconsistent implementation and lack of implementation fidelity. Conclusion While the SSA was successful in identifying several programs for evaluation, the process also revealed important shortcomings in program implementation. Training and technical assistance could help address these issues and support improved programming. PMID:25701247

  12. Early pest detection in soy plantations from hyperspectral measurements: a case study for caterpillar detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailanián, Matías; Castiglioni, Enrique; Musé, Pablo; Fernández Flores, Germán.; Lema, Gabriel; Mastrángelo, Pedro; Almansa, Mónica; Fernández Liñares, Ignacio; Fernández Liñares, Germán.

    2015-10-01

    Soybean producers suffer from caterpillar damage in many areas of the world. Estimated average economic losses are annually 500 million USD in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Designing efficient pest control management using selective and targeted pesticide applications is extremely important both from economic and environmental perspectives. With that in mind, we conducted a research program during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 planting seasons in a 4,000 ha soybean farm, seeking to achieve early pest detection. Nowadays pest presence is evaluated using manual, labor-intensive counting methods based on sampling strategies which are time consuming and imprecise. The experiment was conducted as follows. Using manual counting methods as ground-truth, a spectrometer capturing reflectance from 400 to 1100 nm was used to measure the reflectance of soy plants. A first conclusion, resulting from measuring the spectral response at leaves level, showed that stress was a property of plants since different leaves with different levels of damage yielded the same spectral response. Then, to assess the applicability of unsupervised classification of plants as healthy, biotic-stressed or abiotic-stressed, feature extraction and selection from leaves spectral signatures, combined with a Supported Vector Machine classifier was designed. Optimization of SVM parameters using grid search with cross-validation, along with classification evaluation by ten-folds cross-validation showed a correct classification rate of 95%, consistently on both seasons. Controlled experiments using cages with different numbers of caterpillars--including caterpillar-free plants--were also conducted to evaluate consistency in trends of the spectral response as well as the extracted features.

  13. Preformed confluent endothelial cell monolayers prevent early platelet deposition on vascular prostheses in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, P.A.; Hanson, S.R.; Price, T.M.; Harker, L.A.

    1988-09-01

    We assessed the capacity of preformed confluent endothelial cell (EC) monolayers on small-caliber prosthetic grafts to prevent early platelet deposition in a baboon model. Cultured human umbilical vein ECs were attached to expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex, 4 mm inner diameter, 3 cm length) precoated with type I collagen and perfused in vitro for 2 hours at 15 ml/min with serum-containing culture medium to achieve cell spreading into confluent monolayers. Cell numbers were quantified by deoxyribonucleic acid assay or isotopic counting of indium 111-labeled ECs. Saturation density for cell attachment was 3.55 +/- 0.29 x 10(5) cells per square centimeter of graft. After 1 hour of in vitro perfusion at 100 ml/min, 92.8% +/- 1.8% of cells remained attached and the flow surface was morphologically confluent. When grafts were inserted as extension segments into arteriovenous silicone rubber (Silastic) shunts in baboons, thereby exposing the endothelialized grafts to native flowing blood (100 ml/min) for 1 hour, the EC monolayers remained confluent with 81.05% +/- 5.88% of the cells attached. Indium 111-labeled platelet deposition onto grafts was quantified by dynamic scintillation camera imaging. Platelet deposition on 10 endothelialized grafts was markedly reduced (0.16 +/- 0.04 x 10(9) platelets per graft) compared with 10 untreated control grafts (1.84 +/- 0.59 x 10(9) platelets, p less than 0.02), eight grafts with early attached unspread ECs (2.38 +/- 0.66 x 10(9) platelets, p less than 0.005), and 11 grafts treated with collagen alone (5.93 +/- 0.72 x 10(9) platelets, p less than 0.002).

  14. Early detection of postoperative residual tumor using image subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Suresh B.; Dhawan, Atam P.; Taha, Jamal M.; Gaskill-Shipley, Mary; Lamba, Michael; Sarwal, Alok; Chitre, Yateen S.

    1995-05-01

    The detection after surgery of residual tumor from magnetic resonance (MR) images is difficult due to the low contrast level of the images. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging has been found valuable in detecting residual enhancing tumor when performed within 72 hours after surgery. The patient is scanned by the MR scanner with and without infusion of gadolinium, a contrast agent. Usually, the estimation of post-operative tumor volume is done by visual comparison of the T1 MR images obtained with and without gadolinium infusion. The T1 MR images, in most cases, without contrast demonstrates areas of hyper intensities (high brightness levels), consistent with hemorrhage. These hyper intense areas often make it difficult to detect residual tumor in post contrast images. This is due to the presence of both acute hemorrhage and gadolinium enhancement which have high brightness levels in T1 MR images. Even in MR images taken within 72 hours after surgery, detection of tumor enhancement in areas of increased T1 signal produced by blood products or by postoperative changes can be difficult when performed by the naked eye. Due to these problems, the quantification of residual tumor becomes a subjective issue among neuro-radiologists. Thus to reduce errors produced by the human factor, an automated procedure to detect residual tumor is required. We have developed a technique to differentiate tumor enhancement from postoperative changes and blood products on MR imaging. The technique involves fusion of pre- and post-gadolinium MR images performed in the immediate postoperative period. Computerized slice based substraction is then done on the corresponding fused images of the two sets. The subtraction process results in a composite slice, which is examined for differences between pre- and post-gadolinium studies. The presented technique was tested on 14 cases in which MR images were obtained from brain tumor patients within 72 hours after surgery. The subtraction technique easily

  15. Turing Revisited: Decoding the microRNA Messages in Brain Extracellular Vesicles for Early Detection of Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Virginie; Hunting, Darel John; Takser, Larissa

    2016-09-01

    The prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) of prenatal origin suffers from the lack of objective tools for early detection of susceptible individuals and the long time lag, usually in years, between the neurotoxic exposure and the diagnosis of mental dysfunction. Human data on the effects of alcohol, lead, and mercury and experimental data from animals on developmental neurotoxins and their long-term behavioral effects have achieved a critical mass, leading to the concept of the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD). However, there is currently no way to evaluate the degree of brain damage early after birth. We propose that extracellular vesicles (EVs) and particularly exosomes, released by brain cells into the fetal blood, may offer us a non-invasive means of assessing brain damage by neurotoxins. We are inspired by the strategy applied by Alan Turing (a cryptanalyst working for the British government), who created a first computer to decrypt German intelligence communications during World War II. Given the growing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs), which are among the molecules carried by EVs, are involved in cell-cell communication, we propose that decrypting messages from EVs can allow us to detect damage thus offering an opportunity to cure, reverse, or prevent the development of NDD. This review summarizes recent findings on miRNAs associated with selected environmental toxicants known to be involved in the pathophysiology of NDD. PMID:27301443

  16. Application of multispectral reflectance for early detection of tomato disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    Automatic diagnosis of plant disease is important for plant management and environmental preservation in the future. The objective of this study is to use multispectral reflectance measurements to make an early discrimination between the healthy and infected plants by the strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-U1) infection. There were reflectance changes in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) between the healthy and infected plants. Discriminant models were developed using discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) and Mahalanobis distance (MD). The DPLS models had a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.397 and correlation coefficient (r) of 0.59 and the MD model correctly classified 86.7% healthy plants and up to 91.7% infected plants.

  17. Detecting early stage osteoarthritis by optical coherence tomography?

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Holger; Brill, Nicolai; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of our joints, manifested by a dynamically increasing degeneration of hyaline articular cartilage (AC). While currently no therapy can reverse this process, the few available treatment options are hampered by the inability of early diagnosis. Loss of cartilage surface, or extracellular matrix (ECM), integrity is considered the earliest sign of OA. Despite the increasing number of imaging modalities surprisingly few imaging biomarkers exist. In this narrative review, recent developments in optical coherence tomography are critically evaluated for their potential to assess different aspects of AC quality as biomarkers of OA. Special attention is paid to imaging surface irregularities, ECM organization and the evaluation of posttraumatic injuries by light-based modalities. PMID:26862954

  18. Early Detection of Illicit Drug Use in Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Mouton, Charles P.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Ofoemezie, Ejike Kingsley; Bailey, Rhan K.; Shahid, Madiha; Zeng, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The illicit use of drugs, including alcohol, by teenagers has been extensively studied and documented. It is not uncommon for teenagers to be involved in illicit drug use before exhibiting signs and symptoms of drug use. Unsuspecting parents may be unaware of drug use in their children. The authors’ objective in this article is to review the literature on illicit drug use in teenagers and highlight the risk factors for teen involvement. The authors also review the warning signs that a teen is using illicit drugs. The aim of this article is to assist parents and healthcare workers involved in substance use intervention programs to be more aware of these risk factors and warning signs in order to adopt early screening and intervention measures. PMID:22247815

  19. Gold-mercaptopropionic acid-polyethylenimine composite based DNA sensor for early detection of rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Singh, Swati; Kaushal, Ankur; Khare, Shashi; Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-07-21

    The first gold-mercaptopropionic acid-polyethylenimine composite based electrochemical DNA biosensor was fabricated for the early detection of Streptococcus pyogenes infection in humans causing rheumatic heart disease (heart valve damage). No biosensor is available for the detection of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Therefore, the mga gene based sensor was developed by the covalent immobilization of a 5'-carboxyl modified single stranded DNA probe onto the gold composite electrode. The immobilized probe was hybridized with the genomic DNA (G-DNA) of S. pyogenes from throat swabs and the electrochemical response was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance (EI). Covalent immobilization of the probe onto the gold composite and its hybridization with G-DNA was characterized by FTIR and SEM. The sensitivity of the sensor was 110.25 μA cm(-2) ng(-1) with DPV and the lower limit of detection was 10 pg per 6 μL. The sensor was validated with patient throat swab samples and results were compared with available methods. The sensor is highly specific to S. pyogenes and can prevent damage to heart valves by the early detection of the infection in only 30 min. PMID:24875529

  20. A state-wide campaign for the early detection of cancer in Sabah.

    PubMed

    Oommen, R M

    1994-01-01

    The Medical Department of Sabah, in collaboration with various governmental and non-governmental agencies and 'Surgeons International' conducted a state-wide campaign for the 'Early Detection of Cancer' over a period of 3 months from July 1992. The purpose of the campaign was to educate the population about the early signs and symptoms of common cancers, to remove the myth that cancer was incurable and to impress on the public the need to detect cancer early for a possible cure and a better prognosis. PMID:8267532

  1. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  2. Bringing basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology to bear on preventive interventions for neglected and maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Gunnar, Megan R; Fisher, Philip A

    2006-01-01

    A major focus in developmental psychopathology is on understanding developmental mechanisms and, armed with this information, intervening to improve children's outcomes. Translational research attempts to bridge the distance between understanding and intervention. In the collaborations that have formed the core of our research network on early experience, stress, and prevention science, we have focused on translating basic research on early experiences and stress neurobiology into preventive interventions for neglected and abused children. Our experiences in attempting to move from bench to bedside have led us to recognize the many challenges that face translational researchers. This review provides a brief synopsis of the animal model literature on early experience and stress neurobiology from which we glean several key bridging issues. We then review what is currently known about the impact of childhood neglect and abuse on stress neurobiology in human adults and children. Next, we describe how this work has informed the evaluation of our preventive interventions with maltreated children. Finally, we discuss several considerations that should facilitate a more complete integration of basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology into preventive intervention strategies. PMID:17152395

  3. Early, But Not Late Onset Estrogen Replacement Therapy Prevents Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Alterations Caused by Ovariectomy

    PubMed Central

    López-Grueso, Raúl; Gambini, Juan; Abdelaziz, Kheira M.; Monleón, Daniel; Díaz, Ana; El Alami, Marya; Bonet-Costa, Vicent; Borrás, Consuelo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The usefulness of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in preventing oxidative stress associated with menopause is controversial. We aimed to study if there is a critical time window for effective treatment of the effects of ovariectomy with estrogens at the molecular, metabolic, and cellular level. Results: Our main finding is that early, but not late onset of ERT prevents an ovariectomy-associated increase in mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide levels, oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in rats. This may be due to a change in the estrogen receptor (ER) expression profile: ovariectomy increases the ER α/β ratio and immediate estrogen replacement prevents it. Positron emission tomography analysis shows that ovariectomy decreases the brain glucose uptake in vivo and that estrogen administration is beneficial, but only if administered immediately after deprivation. Ovariectomy decreases GLUT-1 and 3 glucose transporters in the brain, and only early onset estrogen administration prevents it. Plasma from rats treated with estrogens immediately after ovariectomy show similar metabolomics profiles as controls. Innovation: We provide molecular basis for the recommendation of early onset ERT and explain its lack of effectiveness if a significant time period elapses after ovariectomy and probably after the onset of menopause. Conclusion: Only early, but not late onset administration of estrogens after ovariectomy has beneficial effects at molecular levels on oxidative stress, brain glucose uptake, and metabolomic profiles. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 236–246. PMID:23725100

  4. Gender-Specific HIV Prevention with Urban Early-Adolescent Girls: Outcomes of the Keepin' It Safe Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Schinke, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of Keepin' It Safe, a theory-based, gender-specific, CD-ROM-mediated HIV prevention program for urban, early adolescent girls. Intervention effects were examined in a randomized, pretest-posttest wait-list control-group design. Changes in HIV/AIDS knowledge, protective attitudes, and skills for reducing HIV…

  5. Domestic Violence and Abuse Prevention Programmes in the Early Years Classroom: A Pastoral, Academic and Financial Priority?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Mason, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Prevention programmes underpin every child's right to "feel" safe and to "be" safe from all forms of harm. Delivered in schools across the globe, they aim to equip children with knowledge about safety and the skills to seek help early. By drawing upon international prevalence and impact research, as well as the legal, policy…

  6. Evaluation of California's Statewide Mental Health Prevention and Early Intervention Programs: Summary of Key Year 2 Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhart, Nicole K.; Burnam, M. Audrey; Berry, Sandra H.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ebener, Patricia A.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Stein, Bradley D.; Woodbridge, Michelle W.

    2015-01-01

    In California, the passage of Proposition 63 set aside funds for prevention and early intervention (PEI) and allowed for local and statewide activities. Recognizing the importance of including evidence-based PEI approaches into a comprehensive spectrum of care for mental disorders, the California Mental Health Services Authority (CalMHSA)--a…

  7. Prevention of neonatal early onset GBS sepsis: A clear protocol is better than none--or several.

    PubMed

    Wise, Michelle; Campbell, Norma; Darlow, Brian

    2015-11-20

    Revised New Zealand consensus guidelines on the prevention of early-onset group B streptococcus sepsis in the newborn are presented in this issue of the Journal. We provide some context for these recommendations and discuss issues considered by the multidisciplinary group in formulating the guidelines. PMID:26905981

  8. [Therapeutic education in adrenal insufficiency: A tool insufficiently used to prevent or treat early acute adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Guignat, Laurence

    2014-04-01

    Acute adrenal insufficiency is a rare, unknown, and life-threatening emergency. It seems therefore essential to help patients gain or maintain the skills they need to prevent or treat early acute adrenal insufficiency, which is the goal of therapeutic education. A program has been implemented within the service focused on patient empowerment. PMID:24613067

  9. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls: A Pilot Study of All Girls Versus Co-Ed Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested…

  10. Fluorescence video endoscopic system for early cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, A. Charles; Dunn, J. B.; Paspa, Paul M.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Balchum, Oscar J.

    1990-06-01

    A video system is being developed to allow the detection of cancerous lesions that are too small to be accurately identified visually or with x-ray. The system makes use of standard endoscopes and provides a video display of both the color image and a false color fluorescence image, with automated switching between the two views. Excitation of the fluorescence marker, Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) , or it ' 5 purified form , diheinatoporphyrin ether! ester (DHE) , is provided by a krypton ion laser operating in the violet. A brief discussion of fluorescence diagnostic theory and a description of the prototype system, its clinical use , and performance is reviewed.

  11. Early detection, PSA screening, and management of overdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Borza, Tudor; Konijeti, Ramdev; Kibel, Adam S

    2013-12-01

    Prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment rates have increased significantly since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Although it was initially thought that most prostate cancers would lead to death or significant morbidity, recent randomized trials have demonstrated that many patients with screening-detected cancer will not die of their disease. Modifications to PSA screening, screening guideline statements, and novel screening markers have been developed to minimize the risk and morbidity associated with overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Less aggressive management strategies such as active surveillance may lead to lower treatment rates in men who are unlikely to benefit while maintaining cure rates. PMID:24188254

  12. Early detection of pedicle screw-related spinal cord injury by continuous intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM).

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Faisal R; Sheryar, Muhammad; Al Behairy, Yaser

    2014-12-01

    Pedicle screw placement has a high risk of damaging the motor and sensory pathways due to the close proximity to the spinal cord and nerve roots. Early detection and prevention of injury can be achieved by utilizing Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEP) and Transcranial electrical Motor Evoked Potentials (TCeMEP) during a scoliosis surgery. A 19-year-old female presented for correction of scoliosis. After intubation, electrodes were placed for upper and lower SSEPs, EMGs and TCeMEPs. Total intravenous anesthesia was used. Baseline SSEP and TCeMEP responses were present in all limbs. Eight pedicle screws were placed. After placing the last screw, TCeMEP signals were lost bilaterally in lower extremities. Surgery was paused. After removing all the screws TCeMEP responses returned to baseline in left lower limb but remained absent in right lower limb. A wake-up test was performed which was positive in her right leg. Blood pressure was increased and bolus of steroids was given. There was no improvement in right lower limb TCeMEP responses. Surgeon was advised to stop the surgery and proceed for MRI and follow-up. SSEP signals remained stable in all four-extremities. The surgical correction was cancelled. MRI revealed intramedullary spinal cord ischemic changes at T11. After extubation, patient was unable to move her right lower extremity with flaccid paralysis. She also complained about severe burning in her left lower extremity. The patient was taken for rehabilitation exercises. One week post-op, she was moving hip flexors and two weeks later had afull motor function, bilaterally. Real-time IONM was useful in early identification of spinal cord injury. Significant changes were seen in TCeMEP, without any change in SSEP. We highly recommend utilizing continuous TCeMEP and SSEP monitoring during pedicle screw placement for prevention of injury to the spinal cord. In this case, the patient would have been paralyzed post-operatively without the use of IONM. PMID

  13. Wrong Detection Preventive Method of Fast Islanding Detector using Inter-harmonics Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Shoji; Hada, Yoshihiro; Orui, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Fumio; Kobayashi, Hiromu; Matsumura, Toshiro

    This paper describes the wrong detection preventive method, which is useful to the inter-harmonics injection type islanding detector that detects a ground fault of primary distribution line within 0.1 seconds indirectly. The results are as follows. Injection of single-phase inter-harmonics current equals to injection of inter-harmonics current which consists of the same quantity of positive-phase-sequence and negative-phase-sequence components. Therefore, the quantity of inter-harmonics positive-phase-sequence admittance, which is calculated by inter-harmonics positive-phase-sequence current and voltage, equals to the quantity of inter-harmonics negative-phase-sequence admittance. Islanding phenomena which is three-phase-circuit breaking phenomena causes to the same change between the inter-harmonics positive-phase-sequence admittance and the negative-phase-sequence admittance. But the transient phenomena causes to the different change between the inter-harmonics positive-phase-sequence admittance and the negative-phase-sequence admittance. This paper proposes the wrong detection preventive method using this relation (the different change or the same change) between the inter-harmonics positive-phase-sequence admittance and the negative-phase-sequence admittance. This paper shows that this method is appropriate for the wrong detection prevention through simulation and experiment.

  14. Early detection of soybean plant injury from glyphosate by measuring chlorophyll reflectance and fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of crop injury from off-target drift of herbicide is critical in crop production. Subtle changes in canopy reflectance could present useful information to detect the onset of crop stress. This study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate a portable spectroradiometer and a portable...

  15. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

  16. Early detection monitoring of aquatic invasive species: Measuring performance success in a Lake Superior pilot network

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Annex 6 calls for a U.S.-Canada, basin-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network by 2015. The objective of our research is to explore survey design strategies that can improve detection efficiency, and to develop performance me...

  17. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resist...

  18. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  19. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Exotic Aquatic Species in Great Lakes Harbors and Embayments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species pose a significant ecological and economic threat in the Great Lakes basin. Early detection of invaders is desirable so as to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this detection in a consistent, cost-effective...

  20. Sampling design for early detection of aquatic invasive species in Great Lakes ports

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated a pilot adaptive monitoring program for aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection in Lake Superior. The monitoring program is designed to detect newly-introduced fishes, and encompasses the lake’s three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thund...

  1. Selective intestinal decontamination for the prevention of early bacterial infections after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Resino, Elena; San-Juan, Rafael; Aguado, Jose Maria

    2016-07-14

    Bacterial infection in the first month after liver transplantation is a frequent complication that poses a serious risk for liver transplant recipients as contributes substantially to increased length of hospitalization and hospital costs being a leading cause of death in this period. Most of these infections are caused by gram-negative bacilli, although gram-positive infections, especially Enterococcus sp. constitute an emerging infectious problem. This high rate of early postoperative infections after liver transplant has generated interest in exploring various prophylactic approaches to surmount this problem. One of these approaches is selective intestinal decontamination (SID). SID is a prophylactic strategy that consists of the administration of antimicrobials with limited anaerobicidal activity in order to reduce the burden of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and/or yeast in the intestinal tract and so prevent infections caused by these organisms. The majority of studies carried out to date have found SID to be effective in the reduction of gram-negative infection, but the effect on overall infection is limited due to a higher number of infection episodes by pathogenic enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci. However, difficulties in general extrapolation of the favorable results obtained in specific studies together with the potential risk of selection of multirresistant microorganisms has conditioned controversy about the routinely application of these strategies in liver transplant recipients. PMID:27468189

  2. Selective intestinal decontamination for the prevention of early bacterial infections after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Resino, Elena; San-Juan, Rafael; Aguado, Jose Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection in the first month after liver transplantation is a frequent complication that poses a serious risk for liver transplant recipients as contributes substantially to increased length of hospitalization and hospital costs being a leading cause of death in this period. Most of these infections are caused by gram-negative bacilli, although gram-positive infections, especially Enterococcus sp. constitute an emerging infectious problem. This high rate of early postoperative infections after liver transplant has generated interest in exploring various prophylactic approaches to surmount this problem. One of these approaches is selective intestinal decontamination (SID). SID is a prophylactic strategy that consists of the administration of antimicrobials with limited anaerobicidal activity in order to reduce the burden of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and/or yeast in the intestinal tract and so prevent infections caused by these organisms. The majority of studies carried out to date have found SID to be effective in the reduction of gram-negative infection, but the effect on overall infection is limited due to a higher number of infection episodes by pathogenic enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci. However, difficulties in general extrapolation of the favorable results obtained in specific studies together with the potential risk of selection of multirresistant microorganisms has conditioned controversy about the routinely application of these strategies in liver transplant recipients. PMID:27468189

  3. An 'Early Warning System' for the prevention of dredging potential impacts on sensitive areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, Viviana; Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Bonamano, Simone; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Albani, Marta; Stefanì, Chiara; Madonia, Alice; Fersini, Giorgio; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems are increasingly subject to multiple pressures and stressors produced by the effects of human activities. Intense and frequent disturbances which affect marine environment can derive from dredging activity, which is a fundamental management for most ports and harbours. The potential environmental effects of dredging procedures are generally due to the excavation of material from the sea bottom and the relocation elsewhere for disposal, overflow from the dredger and loss of material from pipelines during transport. Depending on the location and the intensity of these activities the marine environment, particularly sensitive areas, may be affected by dredging. The main environmental effects can be associated with suspended sediments and increases in turbidity into the water column, which can have adverse effects on marine animals and plants by reducing light penetration and by physical disturbance. For this reason it is fundamental to implement a real time monitoring system to control and prevent negative effects, enabling a rapid response to adverse water quality conditions and a fast activation of mitigation procedures, in agreement with all the reference authorities. In this work we present the development of an innovative 'Early Warning System' based on fixed stations, ad hoc in situ surveys and forecasting models, which was applied to a dredging activity carried out in the Gulf of Gaeta (Latium, Italy). It represents an extension of the C-CEMS (Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System) network, which is operative in the Tyrrhenian sea since 2005.

  4. [The NETWASS prevention model for early identification and assessment of adolescents in psychosocial crisis].

    PubMed

    Sommer, Friederike; Fiedler, Nora; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research-based NETWASS prevention model aims to enable school staff to identify students experiencing a psychosocial crisis that could lead to severe targeted school violence and to initiate appropriate support measures. A detailed analysis of the adolescent psychosocial crisis is conducted at an early stage by evaluating possible warning behaviors, crisis symptoms, a student’s individual and social background, and resources. The model was implemented in 98 schools. During the project duration of seven months staff from 59 schools reported 99 cases of a student’s psychosocial crisis. Three experts conducted a content analysis of the reported qualitative data focusing on crisis symptoms of the students as well as the initiated measures. Results show a broad spectrum of risk factors, whereas aggressive behavior of students was reported most frequently. On the basis of theoretical assumptions, the reported cases were divided into three distinct risk groups. A total of eight high-risk cases were observed and reported by the school staff. The school staff mostly reacted to the student crisis by initiating resource-orientated measures, the expertise of child and youth therapists was mostly requested for the high risk cases. By describing the impact of cases and choice of measures undertaken, the study aims to give an overview of incidents schools as well as clinical psychologists and therapists are confronted with. PMID:27216326

  5. [Trauma due to blank cartridges and fireworks. Early and correct treatment prevents tattooing and scarring].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, A; Wohlrab, J; Marsch, W C

    2004-01-01

    Traumata secondary to blank cartridges and fireworks are not harmless at all. They can cause cosmetic disfigurement due to permanent tattooing and scars. Often the face and hands are injured. Fourteen patients with blast injuries were treated between 1992 and 2002 in our clinic. The average age was 20.4 years (range: 13-41 years, median: 17.5 years). Eight patients were aged under 18 years. Most of the victims were males (11 of 14). According to the extent of the powder tattooing we removed the particles under local or general anesthesia within 24 h. We used sterile tooth and hand brushes. After the operation we treated the wounds with local antibiotics. We describe two cases to illustrate our procedure. Early correct treatment of tattooing caused by fireworks or gun powder explosions within 24 h up to a maximum of 72 h prevents the development of permanent cosmetic disfigurement. The technique is simple, effective, and saves the cost of later removal of traumatic tattoos by laser or dermabrasion. PMID:14749849

  6. The early detection of osteoporosis by Compton gamma ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hazan, G; Leichter, I; Loewinger, E; Weinreb, A; Robin, G C

    1977-11-01

    The density of the distal end of the radius is one of the parameters used to determine the presence and degree of osteoporosis in patients. In this work the bone density has been determined by measuring the intensity of the Compton scattered photons, since this is proportional to the absolute density of the scatterer, in materials for which Z/A is constant. A collimated beam from a 500 mCi 137Cs source was used and the intensity of the scattered radiation measured at an angle of 90 degrees. The exact point of measurement was determined by a two-dimensional scanning technique. A plastic water phantom was used to calculate the correction needed for absorption and backscatter by the surrounding tissue. Bone density was measured by this method in 50 subjects. A good correlation was found between density of the radius and the degree of morphological change in the vertebrae. In a number of cases a low bone density was discovered without signs of osteoporosis in the spine. These findings were considered indicative of early osteoporotic change, not definable by routine X-ray techniques. This technique may be of value in the follow-up of patients and in controlling the effect of various treatment schedules. PMID:594139

  7. Use of dynamic light scattering and Scheimpflug imaging for the early detection of cataracts.

    PubMed

    Ansari, R R; Datiles, M B

    1999-01-01

    Cataract is a leading cause of blindness. Diabetes and glycemic conditions enhance the chances of developing cataracts early. At clinical stage cataracts are detected and documented by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and Scheimpflug photography. A compact fiber optic probe, developed for space experiments, was mounted on a Scheimpflug imaging system. The probe detects and documents cataracts at pre-clinical stage noninvasively and quantitatively. The early detection at the molecular level may lead to medical treatment of cataracts, better control of glycemia, and diabetes mellitus. PMID:11475288

  8. Current Approaches and Challenges in Early Detection of Breast Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Schneble, Erika J.; Graham, Lindsey J.; Shupe, Matthew P.; Flynt, Frederick L.; Banks, Kevin P.; Kirkpatrick, Aaron D.; Nissan, Aviram; Henry, Leonard; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shumway, Nathan M.; Avital, Itzhak; Peoples, George E.; Setlik, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer recurrence is a key element of follow-up care and surveillance after completion of primary treatment. The goal is to improve survival by detecting and treating recurrent disease while potentially still curable assuming a more effective salvage surgery and treatment. In this review, we present the current guidelines for early detection of recurrent breast cancer in the adjuvant setting. Emphasis is placed on the multidisciplinary approach from surgery, medical oncology, and radiology with a discussion of the challenges faced within each setting. PMID:24790656

  9. Breast cancer prevention: lessons to be learned from mechanisms of early pregnancy-mediated breast cancer protection.

    PubMed

    Meier-Abt, Fabienne; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rochlitz, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy at early, but not late age, has a strong and life-long protective effect against breast cancer. The expected overall increase in breast cancer incidence demands the development of a pharmaceutical mimicry of early-age pregnancy-mediated protection. Recently, converging results from rodent models and women on molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of early-age pregnancy have opened the door for translational studies on pharmacologic prevention against breast cancer. In particular, alterations in Wnt and TGFβ signaling in mammary stem/progenitor cells reveal new potential targets for preventive interventions, and thus might help to significantly reduce the incidence of breast cancer in the future. PMID:25660950

  10. 78 FR 8987 - Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Sexual Abuse and Assault in Confinement Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 6 CFR Part 115 RIN 1653-AA65 Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to..., DHS proposed to issue regulations setting standards to prevent, detect, and respond to sexual abuse... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section in the NPRM (77 FR 75300) for further information on how to comment on...

  11. Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

  12. Detection criteria and preventive measures for occupational disease in the mines of Almaden (Spain).

    PubMed

    Tejero-Manzanares, J; Español-Cano, S; Montes-Tubio, F P

    2013-11-01

    This research focuses on the metallurgy and underground mining job positions in the historic mines of Almaden (Spain). We introduce a preventive methodology for hydrargyrism in work environments known by the name of Methodology for Operational Units Action Levels for Health Indicators (MUONAIS). The methodology allows critical levels to be established using environmental and clinical-biological indicators. The prevention plan concentrated on 15 job positions in the metallurgy department that employed more than 100 workers between the years 1986 and 1997. The development of this preventive methodology managed to keep workers' mercury levels below 60 μg/l in blood and 200 μg/l in urine, values that present no negative effects on human health. MUONAIS has proven very effective in protecting workers' health. During this period, some cases of micro-mercurialism were detected, yet were completely reversible, allowing us to affirm that the terrible disease of hydrargyrism was totally eradicated. PMID:23657737

  13. Ebola in West Africa—CDC’s Role in Epidemic Detection, Control, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Damon, Inger K.

    2015-01-01

    Since Ebola virus disease was identified in West Africa on March 23, 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has undertaken the most intensive response in the agency’s history; >3,000 staff have been involved, including >1,200 deployed to West Africa for >50,000 person workdays. Efforts have included supporting incident management systems in affected countries; mobilizing partners; and strengthening laboratory, epidemiology, contact investigation, health care infection control, communication, and border screening in West Africa, Nigeria, Mali, Senegal, and the United States. All efforts were undertaken as part of national and global response activities with many partner organizations. CDC was able to support community, national, and international health and public health staff to prevent an even worse event. The Ebola virus disease epidemic highlights the need to strengthen national and international systems to detect, respond to, and prevent the spread of future health threats. PMID:26484940

  14. Ebola in West Africa--CDC's Role in Epidemic Detection, Control, and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Frieden, Thomas R; Damon, Inger K

    2015-11-01

    Since Ebola virus disease was identified in West Africa on March 23, 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has undertaken the most intensive response in the agency's history; >3,000 staff have been involved, including >1,200 deployed to West Africa for >50,000 person workdays. Efforts have included supporting incident management systems in affected countries; mobilizing partners; and strengthening laboratory, epidemiology, contact investigation, health care infection control, communication, and border screening in West Africa, Nigeria, Mali, Senegal, and the United States. All efforts were undertaken as part of national and global response activities with many partner organizations. CDC was able to support community, national, and international health and public health staff to prevent an even worse event. The Ebola virus disease epidemic highlights the need to strengthen national and international systems to detect, respond to, and prevent the spread of future health threats. PMID:26484940

  15. Editorial: Early detection of mental health and neurodevelopmental disorders: the ethical challenges of a field in its infancy.

    PubMed

    Ozonoff, Sally

    2015-09-01

    The signs of many mental health and neurodevelopmental conditions first appear in childhood and diagnosis can reliably be made by school age for most. Such conditions can be chronically disabling and confer significant long-term impairment. Determining early risk signs and first emerging symptoms of disorder is imperative to enhance early detection and to identify targets and ideal time points for prevention and intervention efforts. This Special Issue of JCPP focuses on the prospect of earlier identification of conditions that are traditionally diagnosed later in childhood. Ten invited empirical articles cover topics related to the science of early detection. Several are focused on prediction of later diagnosis, of functional impairment, and of future service utilization, while others cover instrument development and topics related to screening. The papers span the conditions of ADHD, ASD, dyslexia, mood dysregulation, disruptive behavior disorders, and anxiety disorders. This Editorial provides an overview of the invited contributions and the perspectives they provide on the ethical challenges and choices of a field still in its infancy. PMID:26257104

  16. Applications in Bioastronautics and Bioinformatics: Early Radiation Cataracts Detected by Noninvasive, Quantitative, and Remote Means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; King, James F.; Giblin, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars is a key goal in NASA's exploration planning in the next 20 years. Maintaining crew health and good vision is certainly an important aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts because radiation exposure in space travel has the potential of accelerating the aging process (ref. 1). A patented compact device (ref. 2) based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) was designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An Internet web-based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (teleophthalmology) is currently being developed. The new technology detects cataracts very early (at the molecular level). Cataract studies onboard the International Space Station will be helpful in quantifying any adverse effect of radiation to ocular health. The normal lens in a human eye, situated behind the cornea, is a transparent tissue. It contains 35 wt % protein and 65 wt % water. Aging, disease (e.g., diabetes), smoking, dehydration, malnutrition, and exposure to ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation can cause agglomeration of the lens proteins. Protein aggregation can take place anywhere in the lens, causing lens opacity. The aggregation and opacification could produce nuclear (central portion of the lens) or cortical (peripheral) cataracts. Nuclear and posterior subcapsular (the membrane's capsule surrounds the whole lens) cataracts, being on the visual optical axis of the eye, cause visual impairment that can finally lead to blindness. The lens proteins, in their native state, are small in size. As a cataract develops, this size grows from a few nanometers

  17. Clinical comparison of two assays for rapid detection of cytomegalovirus early nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Woods, G L; Johnson, A M; Thiele, G M

    1990-03-01

    Three methods for detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 218 clinical specimens were compared: (1) shell vial assay to detect the early nuclear antigen after incubation for 16 hours and 40 hours (Syva Company); (2) 24-well plate assay to detect the early nuclear antigen after incubation for 16 hours (DuPont); and (3) convention tissue cell culture. CMV was detected in 26 specimens (12%) by one or more of these methods. With the shell vial assay, 12 (46%) and 15 (58%) specimens were positive after incubation for 16 hours and 40 hours, respectively. CMV was detected in 17 specimens (65%) by the 24-well plate assay. There was no significant difference in the detection of CMV between these assays. CMV was identified by conventional tissue culture in 15 of 22 (68%) evaluable cultures after an average of 14.2 days. More specimens were positive by conventional culture than by the 16-hour shell vial assay (P = 0.035). For optimal detection of CMV in clinical specimens, both conventional tissue cell culture and an early antigen assay should be performed. The two early antigen assays evaluated in this study yielded comparable results. However, the 24-well plates are more easily manipulated, and the 24-well plate assay, as performed, was easier to interpret and more cost efficient. PMID:2155527

  18. Acute osteomyelitis: advantage of white cell scans in early detection

    SciTech Connect

    Raptopoulos, V.; Doherty, P.W.; Goss, T.P.; King, M.A.; Johnson, K.; Gantz, N.M.

    1982-12-01

    Acute osteomyelitis was induced in 18 rabbits after direct injection of a solution of Staphylococcus aureus culture into a proximal tibial metaphysis. Serial plain radiographs and radionuclide studies with /sup 111/In oxide labeled while blood cells and /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate were performed over the next 4 weeks. Visual and quantitative analysis by measuring the isotope activity of /sup 111/In and /sup 99m/Tc over the infected tibias as compared with the opposite bones revealed that the white blood cell scans were positive in 15 (83%) of the 18 rabbits during the first week after injection of the microorganism. During the same period, the /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were positive in only 22% of the animals (p less than 0.005). In the animals that survived, both white blood cell and bone scans were positive during the second week, and thereafter, the bone scans revealed consistently higher activity than was observed with white blood cell scans. Computed tomography performed in six rabbits revealed an increased attenuation coefficient of the medullary cavities in the infected bones of four animals during the first week and of one more during the second week. Plain radiographs became positive after the 12th day. Results indicate that in patients with suspected acute osteomyelitis, white blood cell scans and probably computed tomography can detect the disease earlier than /sup 99m/Tc bone scans and plain radiographs.

  19. Enhanced visualization of oral cavity for early inflamed tissue detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Chen, Yung-Tsan; Lin, Jui-Teng; Chiang, Chun-Ping; Cheng, Fang-Hsuan

    2010-05-24

    We describe a color image reconstruction method that enables both direct visualization and direct digital image acquisition from one oral tissue by using various light sources and color compensating filters. In this method, the image of the oral tissue with white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue color compensating filter has a larger color difference between the normal and inflamed tissues. The enhanced visualization comes from the white light color mixing between the red normal tissue and bluish white light from the LEDs. With our method, we evaluate the perceived tissue reflectance in each pixel of the image and color reproduction with different illuminated spectra. Our approach to enhancement of visually perceived color difference between normal and inflamed oral tissue involves optimization of illumination and observation conditions by allowing a significant optical contrast of illuminated spectrum to reach the observer's eyes. In comparison with a conventional daylight LED flashlight, a LED with blue filter as the illuminant for oral cavity detection enhances the color difference between normal and inflamed tissues by 32%. PMID:20589041

  20. Early detection of Toxoplasma gondii-infected cats by interferon-gamma release assay.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qing; El-Ashram, Saeed; Liu, Xian-Yong; Suo, Xun

    2015-10-01

    Felines, the only definitive hosts that shed the environmentally-durable oocysts, are the key in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to all warm-blooded animals. They seroconvert as late as the third week and begin to shed oocysts as early as 3-8 days after being fed tissue cysts. Early detection of Toxoplasma-infected cats is crucial to evaluate Toxoplasma-contaminated environment and potential risks to public health. Moreover, it is fundamental for Toxoplasma infection control. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is a blood-based test assessing the presence of IFN-γ released by the T-lymphocytes directed against specific antigens, which is an ideal assay for early detection of Toxoplasma-infected cats. Here, cats were orally infected with the tissue cysts and blood was collected for toxoplasmic antigen stimulation, and the released IFN-γ was measured by ELISA. Results showed that Toxoplasma-infection was detected by IGRA as early as 4 days post-infection (dpi); while serum Toxoplasma IgM and IgG were detected by ELISA at 10 dpi and 14 dpi, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that IGRA-positive and ELISA-negative samples revealed an early Toxoplasma infection in cats, indicating a new strategy for the early diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection by combining IGRA and ELISA. Therefore, IGRA could emerge as a reliable diagnostic tool for the exploration of cat toxoplasmosis prevalence and its potential risks to public health. PMID:26297953