Mendelsohn, Harold; O'Keefe, Garrett J.
This summary report highlights the results of a study that examined the effects of the first phase of a nationwide, multimedia, crime prevention campaign featuring a trench-coated, animated dog named McGruff. Following an introduction explaining the purpose of the two surveys that comprised the study, the eight remaining sections of the report…
Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A.
This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants'…
Kandra, K. L.; McCullough, A.; Summerlin-Long, S.; Agans, R.; Ranney, L.; Goldstein, A. O.
In 2003, the state of North Carolina (NC) implemented a multi-component initiative focused on teenage tobacco use prevention and cessation. One component of this initiative is "Tobacco.Reality.Unfiltered." ("TRU"), a tobacco prevention media campaign, aimed at NC youth aged 11-17 years. This research evaluates the first 5 years of the TRU media…
Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A
This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants' attitudes and opinions regarding the campaign and the unique effects of ethnic or cultural norms on participants' acceptance of the media materials. Six groups, established based on participant ethnicity (i.e., three Caucasian groups, two African American groups, one Hispanic group), met at two sites in the Charleston, South Carolina, area. Quantitative data suggest that participants reported increased CSA knowledge and low levels of discomfort or anxiety related to exposure to the materials. Focus group results suggest that study participants, regardless of ethnic background, agreed that the media campaign can have a positive impact on public knowledge of CSA. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:18378812
Jiang, Shaohai; Beaudoin, Christopher E
The China Tobacco Control Media Campaign on Sina Weibo is novel in the context of smoking prevention and cessation in China and has not to date been evaluated. This study draws on health behavior theories and dialogic theory in public relations to analyze microblog campaign postings and their relationships with the outcome of online audience engagement. Microblog postings from May 2011 to January 2015 were content analyzed, showing that the most common persuasive content characteristic was perceived risk, followed by subjective norms and self-efficacy. Perceived risk and self-efficacy postings positively influenced online audience engagement, whereas subjective norm postings was a nonsignificant predictor. Postings were more likely to share information than aim to interact with audience members. However, both information sharing and audience interaction postings were positive predictors of online audience engagement. There was also evidence of main and interactive effects of message originality on online audience engagement. The current study has, to the best of our knowledge, broken new ground in 2 regards: (a) using health behavior theories as a basis for analyzing the content of an anti-smoking social media campaign and (b) examining the content of an anti-smoking media campaign of any type in China. PMID:27232655
with information to help prevent transmission of HIV and to address increasing motivation and changing norms towards precautionary behaviours. However, the limitations of mass media in imparting skills in effecting behaviour change should be recognised, and campaigns supplemented by additional components may be better-suited to achieving these goals. PMID:24939013
Jenner, Eric; Jenner, Lynne Woodward; Matthews-Sterling, Maya; Butts, Jessica K.; Williams, Trina Evans
Research on the efficacy of mediated suicide awareness campaigns is limited. The impacts of a state-wide media campaign on call volumes to a national hotline were analyzed to determine if the advertisements have raised awareness of the hotline. We use a quasi-experimental design to compare call volumes from ZIP codes where and when the campaign is…
Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P.; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah
Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to…
Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E; Higgs, Peter; Asselin, Jason; Batrouney, Colin; Stoovè, Mark
We qualitatively examined gay men's reactions to the national "Drama Downunder" HIV/STI social marketing campaign targeting gay men in Australia to identify key campaign elements that underpinned the demonstrated effectiveness of the campaign. We present findings from six qualitative focus groups held with 49 participants as part of the evaluation of the sexual-health-promotion campaign over 2008-2009. Participants identified attention-grabbing images, a humorous approach, positive and simple tailored messaging, and the use of mainstream media as campaign features crucial in normalizing sexual health testing, driving campaign engagement, and ensuring high message exposure. Our results suggest that designers of future campaigns should strive to balance positive and negative campaign images and messages, and find new ways to engage men with sexual health topics, particularly younger gay men. We discuss the implications of our findings about campaign effectiveness for future health-promotion campaigns and message design. PMID:24699904
Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L; Connolly, Scott W; Ashikaga, Takamaru
Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American, Hispanic, and White youth participated. Impact of audience characteristics on message appeal ratings was assessed to provide guidance for audience segmentation strategies. Age had a strong effect on individual message appeal. The effect of gender also was significant. Message ratings were similar among the younger racial/ethnic groups, but differences were found for older African American youth. Lower academic achievement was associated with lower appeal scores for some messages. Age should be a primary consideration in developing and delivering smoking-prevention messages to youth audiences. The unique needs of boys and girls and older African American adolescents should also be considered. PMID:17507689
Reininger, Belinda M.; Barroso, Cristina S.; Mitchell-Bennett, Lisa; Cantu, Ethel; Fernandez, Maria E.; Gonzalez, Dora Alicia; Chavez, Marge; Freeberg, Diamantina; McAlister, Alfred
Background and Methods To address obesity and related morbidities, community-based participatory research (CBPR) strategies were employed to design / evaluate a Spanish language media campaign promoting physical activity and healthful food choices among Mexican Americans. Qualitative evaluation strategies including content analyses on types and focus of media messages were conducted. Focus groups assessed appeal and trustworthiness of messages. Results All media campaign products feature role models and experts. Campaign messages primarily (98%) appear in TV morning show segments. Newsletters present individual and family role model stories. Majority of newsletters (68%) are distributed through churches and “promotora” outreach efforts. Conclusions CBPR lends itself to the selection and tailoring of evidence-based media campaigns. Moreover, CBPR guidance resulted in media messages that are credible and appealing to audience. Process evaluation strategies that gather information from the community provide solid evidence for how to modify the campaign to best meet audience expectations. PMID:19131541
Allara, Elias; Ferri, Marica; Bo, Alessandra; Gasparrini, Antonio; Faggiano, Fabrizio
Objective To determine whether there is evidence that mass-media campaigns can be effective in reducing illicit drug consumption and the intent to consume. Design Systematic review of randomised and non-randomised studies. Methods We searched four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I and CENTRAL) and further explored seven additional resources to obtain both published and unpublished materials. We appraised the quality of included studies using standardised tools. We carried out meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and a pooled analysis of interrupted time-series and controlled before-and-after studies. Results We identified 19 studies comprising 184 811 participants. Pooled analyses and narrative synthesis provided mixed evidence of effectiveness. Eight interventions evaluated with randomised controlled trials leaned towards no evidence of an effect, both on drug use (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.02; 95% CI −0.15 to 0.12) and the intention to use drugs (SMD −0.07; 95% CI −0.19 to 0.04). Four campaigns provided some evidence of beneficial effects in preventing drug use and two interventions provided evidence of iatrogenic effects. Conclusions Studies were considerably heterogeneous in type of mass-media intervention, outcome measures, underlying theory, comparison groups and design. Such factors can contribute to explaining the observed variability in results. Owing to the risk of adverse effects, caution is needed in disseminating mass-media campaigns tackling drug use. Large studies conducted with appropriate methodology are warranted to consolidate the evidence base. PMID:26338836
Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah
Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to increase parents' awareness of childhood lead poisoning, ways to protect their children, and property owners' legal responsibility to fix peeling lead paint safely, and increase awareness of regulatory changes and encourage enforcement of New York City's Local Law 1 of 2004. Campaign materials were focus group tested and the campaign was refined annually. The campaign ran city-wide and in targeted high-risk neighborhoods. Neighborhoods and media venue (bus, train, kiosk, and store) changed annually, based on population risk factors and venue availability. Exposure to the campaign, campaign-related knowledge, and behavior were assessed using pre- and postcampaign street intercept surveys. Results showed that campaign reached the targeted population, and had an impact on knowledge of lead poisoning prevention measures as evidenced by increased knowledge of lead paint exposures sources in one year and increased knowledge of preventive behaviors in another year; these improvements were observed for both genders and most ethnic, primary language, educational attainment, and age groups in each year. Lessons learned indicate that well-targeted media campaigns, designed with audience participation, can reach parents through various venues, and improve key knowledge areas. Evaluation challenges faced include high levels of knowledge at baseline, competing media messages, and balancing between program needs and evaluation design. PMID:25558876
Keating, Joseph; Meekers, Dominique; Adewuyi, Alfred
Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo) Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1) discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2) awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3) condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16) times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25) as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on
Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M; Cust, Anne E; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian
Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The 'Dark Side of Tanning' (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of 13- to 44-year-olds living in New South Wales in the summer months of 2007-2010 (n = 7490). Regression models were used to determine predictors of recall of DSOT and to investigate associations between exposure to the campaign and tanning attitudes. The campaign achieved consistently high recall (unprompted recall 42-53% during campaign periods; prompted recall 76-84%). Those who recalled DSOT advertisements had a higher likelihood of reporting negative tanning attitudes compared with those who reported no recall, after adjusting for other factors (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.27 for unprompted recall; OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36 for prompted recall). Being interviewed in later campaign years was also a significant predictor of negative tanning attitudes (e.g. fourth year of campaign versus first year: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). These results suggest that mass media campaigns have potential to influence tanning-related attitudes and could play an important role in skin cancer prevention. PMID:25697580
Beaudoin, Christopher E
This study evaluates a media campaign that targeted posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. Evaluation data come from telephone survey interviews of African Americans (N = 968), who were the target audience of the media campaign. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression indicates over-time improvements in campaign attention, PTSD beliefs, and PTSD preventive behaviors, whereas PTSD remained constant. Structural equation modeling offers support for a multistep model in which campaign attention influences PTSD beliefs, which influence PTSD preventive behaviors, which, in turn, influence PTSD. There is one across-step path from campaign attention directly to PTSD preventive behaviors. These two sets of findings signify the media campaign's positive role in influencing beliefs and preventive behaviors. Although PTSD remained unchanged, the improvements in PTSD beliefs and preventive behaviors may have been a means to subsequent abatement in PTSD. PMID:19735029
Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.
This report highlights the findings of the 2001 National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign Summit. Because the campaigns entire strategy acknowledges the power and influence of the media on Americas youth, it is important and appropriate for the initiative to help young people develop their critical thinking skills by further investigating media…
Evans, W Douglas
Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the sale of products. Increasingly savvy social marketers have begun to make extensive use of the same techniques and strategies used by commercial marketers to promote healthful behaviors and to counter some of the negative effects of conventional media marketing to children and adolescents. Evans points out that social marketing campaigns have been effective in helping to prevent and control tobacco use, increase physical activity, improve nutrition, and promote condom use, as well as other positive health behaviors. He reviews the evidence from a number of major recent campaigns and programming in the United States and overseas and describes the evaluation and research methods used to determine their effectiveness. He begins his review of the field of social marketing by describing how it uses many of the strategies practiced so successfully in commercial marketing. He notes the recent development of public health brands and the use of branding as a health promotion strategy. He then goes on to show how social marketing can promote healthful behavior, how it can counter media messages about unhealthful behavior, and how it can encourage discussions between parents and children. Evans concludes by noting some potential future applications to promote healthful media use by children and adolescents and to mitigate the effects of exposure to commercial marketing. These include adapting lessons learned from previous successful campaigns, such as delivering branded messages that promote healthful alternative behaviors. Evans also outlines a message strategy to promote "smart media use" to parents, children, and adolescents and
Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M.; Cust, Anne E.; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C.; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian
Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The "Dark Side of Tanning" (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of…
DeJong, W; Wallack, L
The US government's Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) launched its new antidrug media campaign in July 1998. The campaign is likely to increase awareness of the youth drug problem, but shortcomings in the campaign's early implementation raise questions about its potential for changing behavior. Shortcomings include: a) The first wave of ONDCP's television advertisements are focused on reinforcing problem awareness but do not model skills or provide other information necessary for behavior change; b) the campaign provides insufficient focus on promoting drug treatment and citizen involvement in local prevention activities, including political action; c) the campaign is being implemented without a major new investment in drug-treatment programs or community-based prevention programs; d) The campaign does not substantively address alcohol and tobacco, which pose a clear threat to health and serve as a "gateway" to illicit drug use; and e) the first wave of television advertisements use exaggerated fear appeals, a strategy shown by research rarely to be successful. Only time will tell whether the ONDCP media campaign will succeed or fail. Using past research as a guide, there is legitimate reason for concern that the campaign will not live up to expectations. PMID:10977283
A Tennessee health care system is reducing overcrowding in its EDs with a media campaign that urges patients with nonurgent needs to seek other care options. The campaign has contributed to a 5% decrease in ED volume at one hospital in the first few months. Advertising spots urge patients to go to primary care physicians and urgent care clinics. ED staff help educate patients while treating them for nonurgent needs. PMID:15077530
Grieshop, James I.; Grajales-Hall, Myriam; Ortiz, Lupe
A Spanish-language program was developed to educate California migrant farmworker families about motor vehicle safety using a bingo-like game similar to one popular in Mexico. The game disseminated safe-driving information in weekly bilingual newspapers and on Spanish radio and television. Assessments suggest that the media campaigns favorably…
Zanutto, Elaine; Lu, Bo; Hornick, Robert
In 1998, the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy launched a national media campaign in an effort to reduce and prevent drug use among young Americans. Because the campaign was implemented nationwide, there is no control group available for use in evaluating the effects of the campaign. Nevertheless, it is possible to use propensity score…
Ibrahim, Jennifer K.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Extensive research has demonstrated that public education through media campaigns is an effective means to reduce smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. Aggressive media campaigns that confront the tobacco industry’s deceptive practices are most effective and are therefore a prime target for attack. The tobacco industry has attacked public tobacco control media campaigns since 1967, when the first public tobacco control media advertisements ran. Through studying tobacco control media campaigns in Arizona, California, Florida, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Oregon, and of the American Legacy Foundation, we identified industry strategies to prevent a campaign’s creation, limit the target audience and the content of the messages, limit or eliminate the campaign’s funding, and pursue litigation against the campaigns. Tobacco control advocates must learn from the past and continue to confront the tobacco industry and its third-party allies to defend antitobacco media campaigns or, despite evidence of their effectiveness, they will be eliminated. PMID:17600257
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily
In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV) broadcasters. Over 789…
Wallack, L M
The use of mass media has long been an attractive method for implementing and discharging institutional responsibility for the promotion of good health practices and the prevention of various social and health problems. Although there is a long history of such efforts, relatively little is known about the effects such campaigns might have. The large number of programs currently being conceived and implemented on local, state, and federal levels have not benefited as much as they might have from the experience of past mass media efforts. This paper reviews the history, commonalities, assumptions, and effects of planned largescale campaigns to communicate information to the general population to encourage moderation or abstinence in the use of alcohol, drugs, or tobacco. The concept of experimental design is critiqued regarding the appropriateness of such a model for evaluation of mass media campaigns. Suggestions are offered for making evaluations of such campaigns more able to generate useful information for program and planning purposes. This includes expanding evaluation questions through additional forms of inquiry rather than constricting the information obtained through methods based on assumptions of experimental design. PMID:7037686
Oliver, Richard J; Spilsbury, James C; Osiecki, Scott S; Denihan, William M; Zureick, Joel L; Friedman, Steve
Little information is currently available concerning the effects of suicide awareness and prevention campaigns. This brief report provides preliminary information about the influence of such a media campaign on the number of suicide-related telephone calls to an emergency mental health service in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Examination of the pattern of calls before, during, and between phases of the campaign suggests that the media campaign significantly increased telephone calls to the emergency service. We provide this information to catalyze similar sharing of data and experiences among those organizations and agencies working to prevent suicide. PMID:18444781
Ware, Julie L; Mzayek, Fawaz; Levy, Marian
Breastfeeding is well accepted as the optimal nutrition for babies. The American Academy of Pediatrics states that infant feeding should no longer be thought of as a lifestyle choice, but rather as a public health issue. In Shelby County, Tennessee, rates of breastfeeding continue to be disparately low. To address this public health problem, a focus group study was conducted with the Shelby County population least likely to breastfeed. Following participants' suggestion to use a billboard campaign with pictures of local mothers and families, one highway billboard and ten bus stop signs were placed around the city in areas of the lowest breastfeeding rates. Self-administered surveys were completed by convenience sampling in target population areas with women least likely to breastfeed, both before placing the signs and 6 months later. No significant differences were noted in knowledge, attitudes, or practices after the media campaign, but trends toward increased intention to breastfeed were noted among expectant mothers. With collapsed data (pre and post), a majority of participants believed that breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby and they were significantly more likely to plan to breastfeed if they knew about health benefits to the baby and to themselves. If they had heard about breastfeeding on the TV or radio, they were more likely to believe breastfeeding is important for long-term health. These findings suggest that a media campaign could have a complementary role in promoting breastfeeding among women with low initiation rates. PMID:27463248
Sly, David F.; Hopkins, Richard S.; Trapido, Edward; Ray, Sarah
Assessed the short-term effects of a television counteradvertising media campaign, the Florida "truth" campaign, on rates of adolescents' smoking initiation. Followup surveys of adolescents interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign indicated that exposure to the "truth" campaign lowered the risk of youth smoking initiation.…
Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A
Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406
Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.
The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…
Sly, D F; Hopkins, R S; Trapido, E; Ray, S
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the short-term effects of television advertisements from the Florida "truth" campaign on rates of smoking initiation. METHODS: A follow-up survey of young people aged 12 to 17 years (n = 1820) interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign was conducted. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the independent effects of the campaign on smoking initiation while other factors were controlled for. RESULTS: Youths scoring at intermediate and high levels on a media effect index were less likely to initiate smoking than youths who could not confirm awareness of television advertisements. Adjusted odds ratios between the media index and measures of initiation were similar within categories of age, sex, susceptibility, and whether a parent smoked. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to the "truth" media campaign lowered the risk of youth smoking initiation. However, the analysis did not demonstrate that all such media programs will be effective. PMID:11211631
Popham, W J; Potter, L D; Bal, D G; Johnson, M D; Duerr, J M; Quinn, V
As part of an evaluation of the 1990-91 anti-tobacco media campaign carried out by the California Department of Health Services, a study was conducted among 417 regular smokers who had quit during the period of the media campaign. In brief telephone interviews, all respondents identified up to three events or experiences that had influenced them to quit. In response to uncued questions, 6.7 percent of those interviewed indicated that they had been influenced to quit by an advertisement they had seen or heard on radio, television, or billboards. In response to direct questions about the media campaign, 34.3 percent of the respondents indicated that the media campaign's advertisement had played a part in their decision to quit. Applying the 6.7 percentage to the number of Californians who quit smoking in 1990-91, it can be estimated that for 33,000 former smokers, the anti-tobacco media advertisements were an important stimulus in their quit decision. Multiplying the 34.3 percent by the number of former California smokers who quit in 1990-91, the estimate of former smokers for whom the media campaign's advertisements played at least some part in their decision to quit rises to 173,000 persons. While causal attributions from such investigations should be made with caution, the evidence suggests that the 1990-91 campaign did influence substantial number of smokers in California to quit. PMID:8341788
Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.
Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…
Perkins, Donald R.
Alumni media experts were asked to donate their time and talents to the Wittenberg fund raising campaign. A Communications Advisory Committee was formed and a comprehensive public relations plan was proposed to penetrate media in selected areas. Some committee suggestions included faculty interviews, editorial support, public service time. (MLW)
Larson, Charles U.
Some of the similarities and differences in the news media coverage of the United States presidential campaign of 1980 are discussed in this paper. Among the differences related are the loss of the symbolic power of tbe primary elections, which forced the media to look for significant trends elsewhere; the mixture of politics with the…
Evans, W. Douglas
Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the…
Beaudoin, Christopher E; Stephenson, Michael T; Agha, Sohail
Although prior research has tested the nomological validity of media campaign exposure, including the related comparative validity of some measures, it has not well studied predictive validity or made extensions to other types of media campaign exposure. To help build on research in this area, the current study tested the nomological and predictive validity of 5 ad recall and recognition measures specific to the Touch condom media campaign in Pakistan. Between-effects regression of panel survey data confirmed the nomological validity of each of the 5 measures of Touch ad exposure. In addition, 2 sets of panel regression models (i.e., fixed-effects models and fixed-effects with lag models) confirmed the predictive validity of each of the 5 ad exposure measures. Results on comparative validity were quite similar for nomological and predictive validity, indicating that confirmed ad recall and recognition measures tend to have greater validity than unconfirmed measures. PMID:27337154
Gadomski, Anne M.; Tripp, Maria; Wolff, Debra A.; Lewis, Carol; Jenkins, Paul
A 7-month public health information campaign used radio advertising, mass media articles, mailings, and posters to address attitudes and behavioral intentions toward domestic violence in a rural county. The campaign raised public awareness, particularly among men; increased stated intentions to intervene in a neighbor's domestic violence; and…
Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E.
Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may…
Glik, Deborah; Prelip, Michael; Myerson, Amy; Eilers, Katie
Preventing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) by encouraging pregnant women to abstain from drinking alcohol competes with commercial alcohol marketing. Two FAS-prevention campaigns using a narrowcast approach among young women of childbearing age in two disadvantaged Southern California communities are compared. The design, implementation process, and degree to which campaigns reached the priority populations are the focus of this article. Formative research shows that young women in disadvantaged communities receive mixed messages about dangers of drinking during pregnancy. A social norms approach using positive role models was the most acceptable message strategy based on materials pretesting. Differences in campaign implementation and distribution strategies between communities were documented through program monitoring. Survey research indicated the more viable messaging and implementation strategies. Findings show that low-cost community campaigns are feasible; however, variations in messaging, distribution strategies, and saturation levels determine whether such campaigns succeed or fail to reach priority populations. PMID:18166669
Babinski, Leslie M; Corra, Ashley J; Gifford, Elizabeth J
Many advocacy organizations devote time and resources to increasing community awareness and educating the public in an effort to gain support for their issue. One such effort, the Dropout Prevention Campaign by America's Promise Alliance, aimed to increase the visibility of the high school dropout problem and mobilize the community to take action. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the framing of the Dropout Prevention Campaign in television news media. To evaluate this campaign, television news coverage about high school dropout in 12 U.S. communities (N = 982) was examined. A content analysis of news transcripts was conducted and coded to determine the definition of the problem, the reasons for dropout and the possible solutions. Findings indicated that the high school dropout problem was most often framed (30 % of news segments) in terms of the economic and societal implications for the community. Individual student factors as well as broader societal influences were frequently discussed as possible reasons for dropout. The most commonly mentioned solutions were school-based interventions. News segments that mentioned America's Promise Alliance were more likely to frame the issue as a crisis and to use statistics to illustrate that point. Solutions that were more likely to appear in America's Promise segments promoted community and cross-sector involvement, consistent with the messages promoted by the Dropout Prevention Campaign. The findings suggest that a media content analysis can be an effective framework for analyzing a prevention campaign. PMID:27357504
Spallek, Melanie; Nixon, Jim; Bain, Chris; Purdie, David M; Spinks, Anneliese; Scott, Debbie; McClure, Rod J
The aim of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of the Queensland "Hot Water Burns Like Fire" campaign. Cross-section temperature sampling of households' bathroom hot water taps was conducted in Brisbane in 1990 before the intervention (n = 872) and in 2002 to 2003 after the intervention (n = 871). In both surveys, temperature was measured with thermometers held under running water from the bathroom hot tap until the reading stabilized (2 minutes). In 2002 to 2003 the interviewer also recorded whether or not the householder believed a tempering valve was installed in the home. The main injury outcome measure was all scald injury-related admissions at hospitals in Queensland from July 1990 to June 2003. The difference between the mean hot water tap temperature in 1990 and in 2002 to 2003 was determined with independent sample t-tests (P < .05). Rates of hospital admissions were grouped into two categories: scald injuries per year prior to the introduction of the hot water tempering valve legislation (April 1998) and scald injuries per year post-legislation. The difference between the preintervention and postintervention mean rates was determined with t-tests (P < .05). Additionally, the rates were plotted on a scatter plot by year, and a linear regression analysis was used to quantify the relationship with rates of scald-related injuries and year. The temperature in homes where the occupants reported having a tempering valve (mean = 55.5 degrees C) was significantly lower than in homes whose occupants reported not having a tempering valve (mean = 60.1 degrees C) or did not know whether they had a tempering valve (mean = 61.8 degrees C) (P < .01). However, the comparison of the hot water temperature between 1990 and 2002 to 2003 showed a significantly higher mean hot water temperature in 2002 to 2003 (P < .01). There was a significantly higher mean scald injury rate after the introduction of the "Hot Water Burns Like Fire" campaign (170.36/100,000) than
Kuramoto, F; Nakashima, J
This article provides an overview of the Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in the United States as it relates to developing targeted alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention media. Although APIs represent several ethnic subgroups, many API communities face the same risk factors including pressure on youth to achieve, immigration and acculturation stressors, shame and denial in addressing substance abuse, and racism and discrimination. The authors recommend that media prevention campaigns targeting API communities emphasize cultural and family strengths and the active involvement of parents. The article concludes with an introduction to eight API communities in the United States. PMID:10848484
Apollonio, D. E.; Malone, R. E.
Literature suggests that ‘negative advertising’ is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation’s “truth” campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy’s “truth” campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry’s own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of ‘vilifying’ it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the “truth” campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion. PMID:18948569
Almendarez, Isabel S; Boysun, Michael; Clark, Kathleen
The prevalence rates of diabetes in communities of color are higher than in Caucasian populations. Social marketing can be an effective approach to educating communities and encouraging visits to health care providers. This article describes Thunder and Lightning and Rain, a diabetes media awareness campaign implemented in a 5-county area in central Washington State with a large Latino/Hispanic population. The Washington State Department of Health's Diabetes Prevention and Control Program, along with national and community partners and focus groups, used a social marketing model to reach those with uncontrolled diabetes. A telephone survey-based evaluation, conducted in Spanish, provided data on demographics, media access, calls to a toll-free information line, provider visits, and recall of the campaign's central message: "Control your diabetes. For Life." PMID:15596978
Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.
The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child’s developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. PMID:24711483
Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W; Taylor, Catherine A
The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child's developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. PMID:24711483
Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns. PMID:25157305
This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences. PMID:12349449
Hall, Ingrid J.; Rim, Sun Hee; Johnson-Turbes, C. Ashani; Vanderpool, Robin; Kamalu, Ngozi N.
For decades, black radio has reached African American communities with relevant, culturally appropriate information, and it continues to be an ideal communication channel to use for contemporary health promotion. In an effort to combat excess breast cancer mortality rates and help eliminate cancer disparities among low-income African American women, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Division of Cancer Prevention and Control designed, implemented, and evaluated the African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) pilot campaign. The AAMM campaign uses black radio, radio stations with broad African American listenership, as a platform for targeted, culturally competent health promotion and outreach to low-income, African American women. The AAMM campaign uses radio advertisements and print materials disseminated in predominantly African American neighborhoods to promote awareness of breast cancer, early detection, and the CDC’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Evaluation of the AAMM campaign found that the campaign successfully reached its target audience of low-income, African American women and increased women’s awareness of breast cancer screening services through the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in Savannah and Macon, Georgia. PMID:23072329
Dubois-Arber, F; Lehmann, P; Hausser, D; Gutzwiller, F
Since 1985 the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health and the Swiss AIDS Foundation have been promoting AIDS prevention campaigns. A multi-media information campaign with the main slogan "STOP-AIDS" began in February 1987 and is still underway. Multiplying effects are stimulated. The evaluation of that strategy, based on 13 complementary studies, confirms its efficiency and feasibility. The evaluation process will continue in 1988. The campaign and its objectives reached the general population and the target groups. Noticeable changes in attitudes and behaviours are taking place in the way of better protection in various observed groups, moderately or strongly exposed to HIV infection. Condom sales have increased by nearly 60% in 1987 compared with 1986. PMID:2799012
Gadomski, A M; Tripp, M; Wolff, D A; Lewis, C; Jenkins, P
Domestic violence is a prevalent health problem that in rural areas is further complicated by limited services, social isolation and the lack of privacy. Little is known about the impact of public health education on awareness, attitudes and behavior of the general public regarding domestic violence. This study sought to measure change in societal attitudes and behavioral intention in response to a seven-month public health education campaign targeting domestic violence in a rural county. From October 1998 to April 1999, the campaign used radio advertisements, posters, mailings to libraries and clergy, printed media articles, printed advertisements and health facility modifications. A random-digit-dialing telephone survey was used to evaluate attitudinal and behavioral changes in the intervention and comparison counties before and after the campaign. The response rates for the pre- (n =378) and postcampaign (n=633) surveys were 73 percent and 65 percent, respectively. Statistically significant increases in slogan and advertising recognition occurred in the intervention county (P=0.03), particularly among men recalling the campaign slogan (P=0.006). In a vignette regarding actions to be taken if the neighbor next door was abusing a partner, significant increases occurred in the intervention county in the percentage of respondents who thought that most people would talk to the victim (P=0.04), consult with friends (P=0.002) or talk to a doctor (P=0.004). Domestic violence agency hotline calls in the intervention county doubled following the campaign. Local public health education campaigns in a rural setting may be a valuable adjunct to national efforts, especially in reaching men. PMID:11765891
Lambert, Danielle N; Bishop, Lauren E; Guetig, Stephanie
Background The Emory Jane Fonda Center implemented the Start Strong Atlanta social marketing campaign, “Keep It Strong ATL”, in 2007 to promote the development of healthy adolescent relationships and to foster the prevention of adolescent dating abuse among 11-14 year olds. Objective A formative evaluation was conducted to understand whether messages directed at the target audience were relevant to the program’s relationship promotion and violence prevention goals, and whether the “Web 2.0” social media channels of communication (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Tumblr, and Pinterest) were reaching the intended audience. Methods Mixed methodologies included qualitative interviews and a key informant focus group, a cross-sectional survey, and web analytics. Qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparative methodology informed by grounded theory. Descriptive statistics were generated from survey data, and web analytics provided user information and traffic patterns. Results Results indicated that the Keep It Strong ATL social marketing campaign was a valuable community resource that had potential for broader scope and greater reach. The evaluation team learned the importance of reaching adolescents through Web 2.0 platforms, and the need for message dissemination via peers. Survey results indicated that Facebook (ranked 6.5 out of 8) was the highest rated social media outlet overall, and exhibited greatest appeal and most frequent visits, yet analytics revealed that only 3.5% of “likes” were from the target audience. These results indicate that the social media campaign is reaching predominantly women (76.5% of viewership) who are outside of the target age range of 11-14 years. Conclusions While the social media campaign was successfully launched, the findings indicate the need for a more focused selection of communication channels, timing of media updates to maximize visibility, balancing message tone and delivery, and incorporating
Fakolade, R; Adebayo, S B; Anyanti, J; Ankomah, A
People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) often face stigma and discrimination, especially in developing countries. HIV-related stigma is expressed through social ostracism, personal rejection, direct and indirect discrimination, and denial from families and friends. Consequently, it is associated with reduced adoption of preventive and care behaviours, including condom use, seeking for HIV test and care-seeking behaviour subsequent to diagnosis. Ignorance about the epidemiology of the disease on modes of transmission and prevention aggravates HIV-related stigma in Nigeria. Behaviour change communication activities through mass media have been shown to be an effective approach in improving people's knowledge about the disease. This paper monitors trends in the level of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs in Nigeria between 2003 and 2007. It also evaluates the impact of exposure to mass media and social support on the levels of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs. A significant and positive trend was evident between 2003 and 2007 (p<0.0001). Furthermore, exposure to mass media communications on HIV and AIDS issues and social support were significantly related to the reduced stigma and discrimination against PLWHAs (p<0.0001). PMID:20018118
Yoruk, Baris K.
Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…
Villanti, Andrea C.; Cullen, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.
Sustained mass media campaigns have been recommended to stem the tobacco epidemic in the United States. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to estimate the effect of awareness of a national smoking cessation media campaign (EX[R]) on quit attempts and cessation-related cognition. Participants were 4,067 smokers and recent quitters aged 18-49…
Hausser, D; Lehmann, P; Dubois, F; Gutzwiller, F
The evaluation of the "Stop-Aids" campaign is based upon a model of behaviour modification (McAlister) which includes the communication theory of McGuire and the social learning theory of Bandura. Using this model, it is possible to define key variables that are used to measure the impact of the campaign. Process evaluation allows identification of multipliers that reinforce and confirm the initial message of prevention (source) thereby encouraging behaviour modifications that are likely to reduce the transmission of HIV (condom use, no sharing of injection material, monogamous relationship, etc.). Twelve studies performed by seven teams in the three linguistic areas contribute to the project. A synthesis of these results will be performed by the IUMSP. PMID:3687209
Vriniotis, Mary; Barber, Catherine; Frank, Elaine; Demicco, Ralph
A spate of suicides involving a just-purchased firearm led a statewide coalition of firearm dealers, firearm rights advocates, and suicide prevention professionals to discuss the role of gun shops in preventing suicide. The group developed and mailed materials for (1) firearm retailers on avoiding sales to suicidal customers and (2) their customers on suicide and firearm safety. All storefront retailers were identified (n = 65), visited unannounced 6 months after receiving materials, and asked to complete a survey. Nearly half (48%) had at least one campaign product on display. Belief that reducing a suicidal person's access to firearms might save a life was associated with displaying materials (69% vs. 41%, p = .06). Public health and gun groups can successfully collaborate on suicide prevention activities. PMID:25348506
Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian
Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…
Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L
Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed
Macaskill, P; Pierce, J P; Simpson, J M; Lyle, D M
This study investigated whether the effective mass media-led antismoking campaigns in Australia had the traditional differential effect across educational levels. Our population surveys included random samples of 12,851 people before the campaign and 11,609 several years after the campaign had started. No statistically significant differences were found in quitting across education levels in three of the four subgroups. Mass media-led antismoking campaigns may play an important role in getting the antismoking message to the less educated. PMID:1536344
Perl, Rebecca; Stebenkova, Ludmila; Morozova, Irina; Murukutla, Nandita; Kochetova, Veronika; Kotov, Alexey; Voylokova, Tatiana; Baskakova, Julia
Mass media campaigns, while often expensive, are proven, cost-effective interventions and should not be considered out-of-reach, especially where governments have some sway over media markets, where large media discounts are possible or where other novel strategies can be employed. PMID:21685490
Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.
This publication presents the findings from an evaluation of Phase II of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. The number one goal of the campaign was to educate youth to reject illegal drugs. This report evaluates Phase II and focuses on the effect of paid television advertising on awareness of anti-drug messages among youth, teens, and…
Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.
The Western Australian (WA) "LiveLighter" (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ("why" change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier…
Summerlin-Long, Shelley K.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Davis, James; Shah, Vandana
Background: Comprehensive, enforced tobacco-free school (TFS) policies lead to significant reductions in youth tobacco use. North Carolina is the first state in the United States to develop a statewide mass media campaign to promote the adoption of and compliance with TFS policies. Methods: In order to guide campaign development, researchers…
Davis, Kevin C; Patel, Deesha; Rodes, Robert; Beistle, Diane
Background In 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched Tips From Former Smokers (Tips), the first federally funded national tobacco education campaign. In 2013, a follow-up Tips campaign aired on national cable television networks, radio, and other channels, with supporting digital advertising to drive traffic to the Tips campaign website. Objective The objective of this study was to use geographic and temporal variability in 2013 Tips campaign television media doses and ad tagging to evaluate changes in traffic to the campaign website in response to specific doses of campaign media. Methods Linear regression models were used to estimate the dose-response relationship between weekly market-level television gross rating points (GRPs) and weekly Web traffic to the Tips campaign website. This relationship was measured using unique visitors, total visits, and page views as outcomes. Ad GRP effects were estimated separately for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL and 1-800-QUIT-NOW. Results In the average media market, an increase of 100 television GRPs per week for ads tagged with the Tips campaign website URL was associated with an increase of 650 unique visitors (P<.001), 769 total visits (P<.001), and 1255 total page views (P<.001) per week. The associations between GRPs for ads tagged with 1-800-QUIT-NOW and each Web traffic measure were also statistically significant (P<.001), but smaller in magnitude. Conclusions Based on these findings, we estimate that the 16-week 2013 Tips television campaign generated approximately 660,000 unique visitors, 900,000 total visits, and 1,390,000 page views for the Tips campaign website. These findings can help campaign planners forecast the likely impact of targeted advertising efforts on consumers’ use of campaign-specific websites. PMID:26887959
Bahkali, Salwa; Alkharjy, Nora; Alowairdy, Maryam; Househ, Mowafa; Da'ar, Omar; Alsurimi, Khaled
Prolonged breastfeeding can prevent or limit the severity of a variety of diseases and conditions. Although evidence clearly shows that there are health benefits for breastfeeding, adherence to breastfeeding remains a key challenge facing maternal health providers in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of a social media platform (Twitter) to promote breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. Between February 10 and March 25, 2015, a web-based questionnaire was administered to evaluate the impacts of a Twitter based educational campaign on the awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior for women in Saudi Arabia. The overall response rate among mothers with a newborn child was 83% (n=484). The results showed an increase in the knowledge and awareness of breastfeeding practices and adherence among Twitter followers. The initiation rate of breastfeeding had slightly increased among women who never had previously breastfed. More women reported their willingness to continue exclusive breastfeeding and to stop bottle-feeding. Results also show that an integration of professional breastfeeding support, public health education programs through social media could be an effective tool in promoting breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on designing and implementing a social media based educational outreach program to increase women's awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26153006
Real, Michael R.
Argues that the majority of the voting public is only vaguely aware of the vast resources and professional expertise marshalled to persuade voters, and presents the 1972 Presidential campaign as an example. See CS 702 316 for availability information. (RB)
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke; Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane; Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily; Tucker, Heidi Toms
In 2002 MTV launched a global multicomponent HIV prevention campaign, "Staying Alive," reaching over 166 countries worldwide. An evaluation of this campaign focused on three diverse sites: Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal. Data were collected before and after campaign implementation through population-based household…
Atusingwize, Edwinah; Lewis, Sarah; Langley, Tessa
Background International evidence shows that mass media campaigns are effective tobacco control interventions. However, they require substantial investment; a key question is whether their costs are justified by their benefits. The aim of this study was to systematically and comprehensively review economic evaluations of tobacco control mass media campaigns. Methods An electronic search of databases and grey literature was conducted to identify all published economic evaluations of tobacco control mass media campaigns. The authors reviewed studies independently and assessed the quality of studies using the Drummond 10-point checklist. A narrative synthesis was used to summarise the key features and quality of the identified studies. Results 10 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. All the studies included a cost effectiveness analysis, a cost utility analysis or both. The methods were highly heterogeneous, particularly in terms of the types of costs included. On the whole, studies were well conducted, but the interventions were often poorly described in terms of campaign content and intensity, and cost information was frequently inadequate. All studies concluded that tobacco control mass media campaigns are a cost effective public health intervention. Conclusions The evidence on the cost effectiveness of tobacco control mass media campaigns is limited, but of acceptable quality and consistently suggests that they offer good value for money. PMID:24985730
Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine
Introduction Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. Methods and analysis The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. Ethics and dissemination This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. PMID:27207621
Background Mass media campaigns are frequently used to influence the health behaviors of various populations. There are currently no quantitative meta-analyses of the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. Methods We searched six electronic databases from their inception to August 2012 and selected prospective studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. We excluded studies that did not have a proper control group or did not report the uncertainties of the effect estimates. Two reviewers independently screened the title/abstracts and full articles. We used random-effects models to pool effect estimates across studies for 3 selected outcomes. Results Nine prospective cohorts and before-after studies that followed-up 27,601 people over 8 weeks to 3 years met the inclusion criteria. Based on the pooled results from these studies, mass media campaigns had a significant effect on promoting moderate intensity walking (pooled relative risk (RR) from 3 studies=1.53, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.25 to 1.87), but did not help participants achieve sufficient levels of physical activity [4 studies pooled RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.14)]. The apparent effect of media campaigns on reducing sedentary behavior (pooled RR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.30) was lost when a relatively low-quality study with large effects was excluded in a sensitivity analysis. In subgroup analyses, campaigns that promoted physical activity as a ‘social norm’ seemed to be more effective in reducing sedentary behavior. Conclusion Mass media campaigns may promote walking but may not reduce sedentary behavior or lead to achieving recommended levels of overall physical activity. Further research is warranted on different campaign types and in low- and middle- income countries. PMID:23915170
Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie
Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…
Goodman, Jordi; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Springgate, Benjamin F
Barack Obama's successful campaign for the presidency has been widely attributed to the use of social networking sites, mobile devices, and interactive websites to engage previously hard-to-reach populations in political activity. Campaign communication strategies may be applicable for youth health promotion efforts, particularly for the highly stigmatized issue of mental health. In this article, we examine elements of the 2008 Obama presidential campaign's use of social media technologies and content designed to foster effective political participation among youth. We outline how the same social media technologies may be applied to public health efforts focused on reaching and providing services to the 20% of young people who have a diagnosable mental disorder. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the application of these media to date, and raise questions about the future use of these media for engaging hard-to-reach populations in addressing stigmatized public health issues. PMID:22352086
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily
In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV) broadcasters. Over 789 million households in over 166 countries had access to some or all of the campaign. To understand the level of actual exposure and the types of young people exposed, data were analyzed from population-based household surveys in three diverse urban areas where a campaign evaluation was conducted: Kathmandu, Nepal; São Paulo, Brazil and Dakar, Senegal. Exposure rates ranged from 12% in Kathmandu, 23% in São Paulo, and 82% in Dakar, reaching an estimated 32,000, 400,000, 220,000 16- to 25-year-olds in each city, respectively. A number of personal, social and economic characteristics found to predict campaign exposure were identified in each site; in general, these were related to economic status and use of "new" media technologies. Though this skew toward more exposure by those with greater resources existed, we found that the campaign audience was in no way composed only of "elite" young people. (For example, although more of those exposed to the campaign had used the Internet compared with those not exposed, this was not the majority of those exposed in most countries.) The possibility of reaching millions of young people through global networks with minimal marginal costs after production, creates a new paradigm for reaching an important segment of young people. PMID:17411388
Szczypka, Glen; Wakefield, Melanie A; Emery, Sherry; Terry‐McElrath, Yvonne M; Flay, Brian R; Chaloupka, Frank J
Objective To describe the nature and timing of, and population exposure to, Philip Morris USA's three explicit corporate image television advertising campaigns and explore the motivations behind each campaign. Methods : Analysis of television ratings from the largest 75 media markets in the United States, which measure the reach and frequency of population exposure to advertising; copies of all televised commercials produced by Philip Morris; and tobacco industry documents, which provide insights into the specific goals of each campaign. Findings Household exposure to the “Working to Make a Difference: the People of Philip Morris” averaged 5.37 ads/month for 27 months from 1999–2001; the “Tobacco Settlement” campaign averaged 10.05 ads/month for three months in 2000; and “PMUSA” averaged 3.11 ads/month for the last six months in 2003. The percentage of advertising exposure that was purchased in news programming in order to reach opinion leaders increased over the three campaigns from 20%, 39% and 60%, respectively. These public relations campaigns were designed to counter negative images, increase brand recognition, and improve the financial viability of the company. Conclusions Only one early media campaign focused on issues other than tobacco, whereas subsequent campaigns have been specifically concerned with tobacco issues, and more targeted to opinion leaders. The size and timing of the advertising buys appeared to be strategically crafted to maximise advertising exposure for these population subgroups during critical threats to Philip Morris's public image. PMID:17897994
Presents a series of principles which foster an integrated approach to prevention, and places the role of mass communications in that framework. Television programming, advertising, and mass media campaigns can all be used in an effort to change the message environment in which individuals behave. (Author)
Anderson, Jenny O; Mullins, Robyn M; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J; Wakefield, Melanie
Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data were obtained from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry for each Pap test registered during 2005 and categorized into SES quintiles using the Index of Socio-Economic Advantage/Disadvantage. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the impact of the campaign on the weekly number of Pap tests and whether the media campaign had a differential effect by SES, after adjusting for the number of workdays per week, age group and time since previous test. Cervical screening increased 27% during the campaign period and was equally effective in encouraging screening across all SES groups, including low-SES women. Mass media campaigns can prompt increased rates of cervical screening among all women, not just those from more advantaged areas. Combining media with additional strategies targeted at low-SES women may help lessen the underlying differences in screening rates across SES. PMID:19342422
Lombardo, Anthony P; Léger, Yves A
The Canadian "Think Again" social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, adapted from an American effort, encourages gay men to rethink their assumptions about their partners' HIV statuses and the risks of unsafe sex with them. To improve future efforts, existing HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives require critical reflection. While a formal evaluation of this campaign has been carried out elsewhere, here we use the campaign as a social marketing case study to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses, as a learning tool for other campaigns. After describing the campaign and its key results, we assess how it utilized central tenets of the social marketing process, such as formative research and the marketing mix. We then speak to the importance of theoretical influence in campaign design and the need to account for social-contextual factors in safer sex decision making. We conclude with a summary of the lessons learned from the assessment of this campaign. PMID:17558789
Gibson, Laura A.; Parvanta, Sarah A.; Jeong, Michelle; Hornik, Robert C.
Background Although there is evidence that promoting individual cessation aids increases their utilization, mass media campaigns highlighting the benefit of using help to quit have not been evaluated. Purpose To analyze the effects of a Philadelphia adult smoking–cessation media campaign targeting using help in ad taglines from March–November 2012. This study distinctively analyzed the campaign’s impact at both the population level (effects on the average person) and the individual level (effects among those who reported exposure). Methods The 16-month mass media campaign aired in Philadelphia PA from December 2010 to March 2012. A representative sample of adult Philadelphia smokers was interviewed by telephone at baseline (n=491) and new samples were interviewed monthly throughout the campaign (n=2786). In addition, a subsample of these respondents was reinterviewed 3 months later (n=877). Results On average, participants reported seeing campaign ads four times per week. Among individual respondents, each additional campaign exposure per week increased the likelihood of later reporting using help (OR=1.08, p<0.01), adjusting for baseline use of help and other potential confounders. This corresponded to a 5% increase in the use of help for those with average exposure relative to those with no exposure. Cross-sectional associations between individual campaign exposure and intentions to use help were consistent with these lagged findings. However, there was no evidence of population-level campaign effects on use of help. Conclusions Although the campaign was effective at the individual level, its effects were too small to have a population-detectable impact. PMID:24745639
Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M
The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P < 0.05) and physical activity intentions (P < 0.05). Endorsement of stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039
Owen, N; Bauman, A; Booth, M; Oldenburg, B; Magnus, P
Changes associated with two serial, nationwide, mass-media-based campaigns to promote physical activity conducted by the National Heart Foundation of Australia in 1990 and 1991 were examined. Surveys conducted before and after each campaign found statistically significant differences in message awareness (46% vs 71% in 1990; 63% vs 74% in 1991). In 1990, there were significant increases in walking, particularly among older people, and in intentions to exercise. No such changes were apparent in 1991. In the case of these two campaigns, conducted 1 year apart, the second may have been redundant. PMID:7856786
Hess, L L
In Guinea, jingles promoting Prudence condoms are heard on radio and television in 4 different national languages 5 times a day. This has produced an attitudinal change through an intense national media campaign orchestrated by the USAID-financed Social Marketing of Contraceptives Project carried out by Population Services International (PSI), which provides family planning information, products and services through public and private outlets for 500,000 sexually active couples. PSI's paid media campaign has sponsored call-in talk shows on women and AIDS and religion and AIDS at the rural radio station in Labe. Billboards placed in key locations remind people that using condoms helps prevent AIDS. PSI organized a team of 10 Prudence condom marketing agents in March 1992 to establish 400 nontraditional retail and 50 traditional retail and wholesale outlets for condoms. Outlets include pharmacies, restaurants, hotels, grocery stores, and nightclubs. The distributors sell the condoms at a profit. In the first 6 months, PSI distributed 2.3 million condoms. Young women want to space their children and limit the number of children, said the chief midwife for the Guinean Association for Family Well Being clinic in Conakry. Guinea's population growth rate is 2.8%, which will result in a doubling of the population in 25 years. In May 1992, Guinea's government ratified a national population policy supporting family planning. One of the primary goals is to increase contraceptive use to 25% of all couples. PSI works with the Ministry of Health and the Guinean Association for Family Well Being to integrate family planning and sexually transmitted disease prevention activities into 32 primary health care centers in Guinea's Forest Region. To combat the spread of HIV infection, PSI provides technical assistance to the National AIDS Committee to carry out AIDS information activities throughout the country, targeting the military, police, truck drivers, and students. PMID:12288836
Cotter, Trish; Perez, Donna; Dunlop, Sally; Hung, Wai Tak; Dessaix, Anita; Bishop, James F
Effective mass media campaigns are hard to come by. A delicate blend of art and science is required to ensure content is technically accurate as well as being creatively engaging for the target audience. However, the most expensive component of a media campaign is not its development but its placement at levels that allow smokers to see, engage and respond to its content. This paper uses two examples to illustrate the process of adapting existing effective material to maximise the expenditure of precious resources on the placement of material. PMID:20852321
Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others
To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…
Bossarte, Robert M.; Lu, Naiji; Tu, Xin; Stephens, Brady; Draper, John; Kemp, Janet E.
Objective The Transit Authority Suicide Prevention (TASP) campaign was launched by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in a limited number of U.S. cities to promote the use of crisis lines among veterans of military service. Methods We obtained the daily number of calls to the VCL and National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (NSPL) for six implementation cities (where the campaign was active) and four control cities (where there was no TASP campaign messaging) for a 14-month period. To identify changes in call volume associated with campaign implementation, VCL and NSPL daily call counts for three time periods of equal length (pre-campaign, during campaign, and post-campaign) were modeled using a Poisson log-linear regression with inference based on the generalized estimating equations. Results Statistically significant increases in calls to both the VCL and the NSPL were reported during the TASP campaign in implementation cities, but were not reported in control cities during or following the campaign. Secondary outcome measures were also reported for the VCL and included the percentage of callers who are veterans, and calls resulting in a rescue during the study period. Conclusions Results from this study reveal some promise for suicide prevention messaging to promote the use of telephone crisis services and contribute to an emerging area of research examining the effects of campaigns on help seeking. PMID:25364053
To determine whether an AIDS prevention mass media campaign influenced risk perception, self-efficacy and other behavioural predictors. We used household survey data collected from 2,213 sexually experienced male and female Kenyans aged 15-39. Respondents were administered a questionnaire asking them about their exposure to branded and generic mass media messages concerning HIV/AIDS and condom use. They were asked questions concerning their personal risk perception, self-efficacy, condom effectiveness, condom availability, and their embarrassment in obtaining condoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the impact of exposure to mass media messages on these predictors of behaviour change. Those exposed to branded advertising messages were significantly more likely to consider themselves at higher risk of acquiring HIV and to believe in the severity of AIDS. Exposure to branded messages was also associated with a higher level of personal self-efficacy, a greater belief in the efficacy of condoms, a lower level of perceived difficulty in obtaining condoms and reduced embarrassment in purchasing condoms. Moreover, there was a dose-response relationship: a higher intensity of exposure to advertising was associated with more positive outcomes. Exposure to generic advertising messages was less frequently associated with positive health beliefs and these relationships were also weaker. Branded mass media campaigns that promote condom use as an attractive lifestyle choice are likely to contribute to the development of perceptions that are conducive to the adoption of condom use. PMID:14617497
Linkenbach, Jeffrey W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton
This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. PMID:20619177
Goodman, Jordi; Wennerstrom, Ashley; Springgate, Benjamin F.
Barack Obama’s successful campaign for the presidency has been widely attributed to the use of social networking sites, mobile devices, and interactive websites to engage previously hard-to-reach populations in political activity. Campaign communication strategies may be applicable for youth health promotion efforts, particularly for the highly stigmatized issue of mental health. In this article, we examine elements of the 2008 Obama presidential campaign’s use of social media technologies and content designed to foster effective political participation among youth. We outline how the same social media technologies may be applied to public health efforts focused on reaching and providing services to the 20% of young people who have a diagnosable mental disorder. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the application of these media to date, and raise questions about the future use of these media for engaging hard-to-reach populations in addressing stigmatized public health issues. PMID:22352086
Wittmeier, Kristy; Holland, Cindy; Hobbs-Murison, Kendall; Crawford, Elizabeth; Beauchamp, Chad; Milne, Brodie; Morris, Melanie
Background Social media can be particularly useful for patients or families affected by rare conditions by allowing individuals to form online communities across the world. Objective Our aim in this study was to conduct a descriptive and quantitative analysis of the use of a social media community for Hirschsprung’s Disease (HD). Methods In July 2011, a mother of a child with HD launched the “Shit Happens” campaign. The campaign uses social media (blogs, Twitter, and Facebook) to engage other families affected by HD. Internet analytics including Google Analytics and Facebook Insights were used to evaluate the reach and responsiveness of this campaign. Results On the day the HD campaign was launched, 387 people viewed the blog “Roo’s Journey”. Blog views have now exceeded 5400 views from 37 countries. The Facebook page extends to 46 countries, has an average post reach of 298 users, 1414 “likes”, and an overall reach of 131,032 users. The campaign has 135 Twitter followers and 344 tweets at the time of writing. The most common question posted on the Facebook page is related to treatment for extreme diaper rash. Responsiveness assessment demonstrated that within 2 hours of posting, a question could receive 143 views and 20 responses, increasing to 30 responses after 5 hours. Conclusions Social media networks are well suited to discussion, support, and advocacy for health-related conditions and can be especially important in connecting families affected by rare conditions. The HD campaign demonstrates the reach and responsiveness of a community that primarily relies on social media to connect families affected by HD. Although responsive, this community is currently lacking consistent access to evidence-based guidance for their common concerns. We will explore innovative consumer-researcher partnerships to offer a solution in future research. PMID:25499427
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta
This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…
Duke, Jennifer C; Davis, Kevin C; Alexander, Robert L; MacMonegle, Anna J; Fraze, Jami L; Rodes, Robert M; Beistle, Diane M
In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched a national tobacco education campaign, Tips From Former Smokers, that consisted of graphic, emotionally evocative, testimonial-style advertisements. This longitudinal study examines changes in beliefs, tobacco-related cognitions and intentions to quit smoking among U.S. adult smokers after a 12-week airing of the campaign (n = 4040 adult smokers pre- and post-campaign). Exposure to the campaign was associated with greater odds of intending to quit within the next 30 days [odds ratio (OR) = 1.28, P < 0.01] and within the next 6 months (OR = 1.12, P < 0.05), and quit intentions were stronger among respondents with greater campaign exposure (OR = 1.12, P < 0.01). Campaign exposure was also associated with significant changes in beliefs about smoking-related risks (ORs = 1.15-2.40) and increased worries about health (b = 0.30, P < 0.001). Based on study change rates applied to U.S. census data, an estimated 566 000 additional U.S. smokers reported their intention to quit smoking within the next 6 months as a result of viewing campaign advertisements. Campaign effects were consistent with the theory of reasoned action and an expanding body of research demonstrating that graphic, emotional advertisements are highly effective for prompting positive cessation-related cognitions and behavioral intentions. PMID:25976009
Duke, Jennifer C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Alexander, Robert L.; MacMonegle, Anna J.; Fraze, Jami L.; Rodes, Robert M.; Beistle, Diane M.
In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched a national tobacco education campaign, Tips From Former Smokers, that consisted of graphic, emotionally evocative, testimonial-style advertisements. This longitudinal study examines changes in beliefs, tobacco-related cognitions and intentions to quit smoking among U.S. adult smokers after a 12-week airing of the campaign (n=4040 adult smokers pre- and post-campaign). Exposure to the campaign was associated with greater odds of intending to quit within the next 30 days [odds ratio (OR)=1.28, P < 0.01] and within the next 6 months (OR=1.12, P < 0.05), and quit intentions were stronger among respondents with greater campaign exposure (OR=1.12, P < 0.01). Campaign exposure was also associated with significant changes in beliefs about smoking-related risks (ORs=1.15–2.40) and increased worries about health (b=0.30, P < 0.001). Based on study change rates applied to U.S. census data, an estimated 566 000 additional U.S. smokers reported their intention to quit smoking within the next 6 months as a result of viewing campaign advertisements. Campaign effects were consistent with the theory of reasoned action and an expanding body of research demonstrating that graphic, emotional advertisements are highly effective for prompting positive cessation-related cognitions and behavioral intentions. PMID:25976009
Valente, T W; Saba, W P
To strengthen awareness of the National Reproductive Health Program, the Bolivian Government launched a mass media campaign aimed at low- and middle-income males and females 18-35 years of age. Specific objectives of the campaign were to increase positive attitudes toward reproductive health, knowledge of at least one benefit of reproductive health and where to obtain these services, knowledge of where to obtain family planning services, partner communication about reproductive health, and use of reproductive health services at health centers. To facilitate understanding of family planning decision making in Bolivia, 16 focus groups were conducted and all campaign materials were pretested. The campaign included 11 television spots, 44 radio spots, leaflets and posters, videos for clinic waiting rooms, and audiotapes for use on city buses. A survey conducted immediately after the communication campaign of 2354 men and women from seven urban areas indicated 85% had been exposed to the campaign; family planning was the most frequently remembered message. A positive attitude toward reproductive health increased from 86% at baseline to 91% after the campaign. The percentage of women 18-35 years old who reported speaking to someone other than their partner about reproductive health in the past 6 months increased from 71% to 82%, while the percentage of male respondents who stated they definitely intended to use or continue to use contraception in the future rose from 25% to 60%. Family planning use among those most exposed to the campaign increased from 5.4% to 8.7%. Given the success of this campaign, the challenge is to meet the increased demand for quality services. PMID:12347727
Evans, W Douglas; Falconer, Mary Kay; Khan, Munziba; Ferris, Christie
Public awareness campaigns have been included in universal, communitywide, and programmatic approaches aimed at preventing child abuse and neglect. More evaluation of campaign effects is needed to identify their place on the continuum of evidence-based programs. This article reports on an efficacy study of the Florida Winds of Change campaign using a randomized experimental design. Investigators conducted an online survey of a web-based panel of Florida residents with children 18 years of age or younger living in the home. Six outcomes were measured at baseline and a 30-day follow-up. Three outcomes referred to knowledge of child development, child disciplinary techniques, and community resources for parents. Prevention attitudes or beliefs, motivation, and action were also assessed. Respondents were exposed to three public service announcements and a selection of parent resource material. Logistic regression models revealed that exposure to campaign messages was associated with significant increases in all but one of the campaign outcomes. PMID:22206348
King, E L; Grunseit, A C; O'Hara, B J; Bauman, A E
In 2008, the Australian Government launched a mass-media campaign 'Measure-Up' to reduce lifestyle-related chronic disease risk. Innovative campaign messages linked waist circumference and chronic disease risk. Communication channels for the campaign included television, press, radio and outdoor advertising and local community activities. This analysis examines the impact of the campaign in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (n = 1006 adults pre- and post-campaign) covered self-reported diet and physical activity, campaign awareness, knowledge about waist circumference, personal relevance of the message, perceived confidence to make lifestyle changes and waist-measuring behaviours. The campaign achieved high unprompted (38%) and prompted (89%) awareness. From pre- to post-campaign, knowledge and personal relevance of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease and waist measuring behaviour increased, although there were no significant changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake nor in physical activity. Knowledge of the correct waist measurement threshold for chronic disease risk increased over 5-fold, adjusted for demographic characteristics. 'Measure-Up' was successful at communicating the new campaign messages. Continued long-term investment in campaigns such as 'Measure-Up', supplemented with community-based health promotion, may contribute to population risk factor understanding and behaviour change to reduce chronic disease. PMID:23962490
Taguri, Masataka; Ishikawa, Yoshiki
Background The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs. Methods Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500), conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control) based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status). To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model. Results Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls) after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, “I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it” suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02–0.23). Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action. Conclusions This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health
Mackenzie, Isla S; Wei, Li; Rutherford, Daniel; Findlay, Evelyn A; Saywood, Wendy; Campbell, Marion K; Macdonald, Thomas M
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Recruitment is key to the success of clinical trials. * Many clinical trials fail to achieve adequate recruitment. * Public understanding and engagement in clinical research could be improved. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS * 'Get Randomised' is the first campaign of its kind in the UK. * It is possible to improve public awareness of clinical research using the media. * Further work is needed to determine whether improved public awareness leads to increased participation in clinical research in the future. AIM To increase public awareness and understanding of clinical research in Scotland. METHODS A generic media campaign to raise public awareness of clinical research was launched in 2008. The 'Get Randomised' campaign was a Scotland-wide initiative led by the University of Dundee in collaboration with other Scottish universities. Television, radio and newspaper advertising showed leading clinical researchers, general practitioners and patients informing the public about the importance of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). 'Get Randomised' was the central message and interested individuals were directed to the http://www.getrandomised.org website for more information. To assess the impact of the campaign, cross-sectional surveys were conducted in representative samples of 1040 adults in Scotland prior to campaign launch and again 6 months later. RESULTS There was an improvement in public awareness of clinical trials following the campaign; 56.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 51.8, 61.6] of the sample recalled seeing or hearing advertising about RCTs following the campaign compared with 14.8% (10.8, 18.9) prior to the campaign launch (difference = 41.4%; 95% CI for difference 35.6, 48.3; P < 0.01). Of those who recalled the advertising, 49% felt that the main message was that people should take part more in medical research. However, on whether they would personally take part in a clinical trial if asked, there was little difference
Modayil, Mary V; Stevens, Colleen
Background The relation between aided ad recall and level of television ad placement in a public health setting is not well established. We examine this association by looking back at 8 years of the California's Tobacco Control Program's (CTCP) media campaign. Methods Starting in July 2001, California's campaign was continuously monitored using five telephone series of surveys and six web-based series of surveys immediately following a media flight. We used population-based statewide surveys to measure aided recall for advertisements that were placed in each of these media flights. Targeted rating points (TRPs) were used to measure ad placement intensity throughout the state. Results Cumulative TRPs exhibited a stronger relation with aided ad recall than flight TRPs or TRP density. This association increased after log-transforming cumulative TRP values. We found that a one-unit increase in log-cumulative TRPs led to a 13.6% increase in aided ad recall using web-based survey data, compared to a 5.3% increase in aided ad recall using telephone survey data. Conclusions In California, the relation between aided ad recall and cumulative TRPs showed a diminishing return after a large volume of ad placements These findings may be useful in planning future ad placement for CTCP's media campaign. PMID:20382649
Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L
We respond to Morgan and Feeley's critique on our article "Mass Media in Organ Donation: Managing Conflicting Messages and Interests." We noted that Morgan and Feeley agree with the position that the primary aims of media campaigns are: "to educate the general public about organ donation process" and "help individuals make informed decisions" about organ donation. For those reasons, the educational messages in media campaigns should not be restricted to "information from pilot work or focus groups" but should include evidence-based facts resulting from a comprehensive literature research. We consider the controversial aspects about organ donation to be relevant, if not necessary, educational materials that must be disclosed in media campaigns to comply with the legal and moral requirements of informed consent. With that perspective in mind, we address the validity of Morgan and Feeley's claim that media campaigns have no need for informing the public about the controversial nature of death determination in organ donation. Scientific evidence has proven that the criteria for death determination are inconsistent with the Uniform Determination of Death Act and therefore potentially harmful to donors. The decision by campaign designers to use the statutory definition of death without disclosing the current controversies surrounding that definition does not contribute to improved informed decision making. We argue that if Morgan and Feeley accept the important role of media campaigns to enhance informed decision making, then critical controversies should be disclosed. In support of that premise, we will outline: (1) the wide-spread scientific challenges to brain death as a concept of death; (2) the influence of the donor registry and team-huddling on the medical care of potential donors; (3) the use of authorization rather than informed consent for donor registration; (4) the contemporary religious controversy; and (5) the effects of training desk clerks as organ
Background In late 2007, Canada's ParticipACTION national physical activity mass media campaign was re-launched, with an initial campaign targeting parents of elementary school-aged children. The campaign informed them about the risks of physical inactivity for children and youth. The purpose of this study was to assess campaign awareness and understanding following the campaign, and to identify whether exposure to this campaign was likely associated with behaviour change. Methods A convenience sample of 1,500 adults was recruited though an existing panel (n = 60,000) of Canadian adults to participate in online surveys. Initial campaign exposure included "prompted" and "unprompted" recall of specific physical activity messages from the 2007 ParticipACTION campaign, knowledge of the benefits of PA, saliency, and initial trial behaviours to help their children become more active. Results One quarter of respondents showed unprompted recall of specific message content from the ParticipACTION campaign, and prompted recall was 57%. Message recall and understanding was associated with knowledge about physical activity, and that in turn was related to high saliency. Saliency was associated with each of the physical activity-related trial behaviours asked. Conclusion Campaign awareness and understanding was high following this ParticipACTION campaign, and was associated with intermediate campaign outcomes, including saliency and trial behaviours. This is relevant to campaign evaluations, as it suggests that an initial focus on influencing awareness and understanding is likely to lead to more substantial change in campaign endpoints. PMID:19995459
Peterson, Michael; Chandlee, Margaret; Abraham, Avron
A cost-effectiveness analysis of a statewide social marketing campaign was performed using a statewide surveillance survey distributed to 6th through 12th graders, media production and placement costs, and 2000 census data. Exposure to all three advertisements had the highest impact on both intent and behavior with 65.6% of the respondents considering becoming more active and 58.3% reporting becoming more active. Average cost of the entire campaign was $4.01 per person to see an ad, $7.35 per person to consider being more active, and $8.87 per person to actually become more active, with billboards yielding the most positive cost-effectiveness. Findings highlight market research as an essential part of social marketing campaigns and the importance of using multiple marketing modalities to enhance cost-effectiveness and impact. PMID:18367641
Tucker, Lauren R.
Deconstructs the "kiddie porn" media frame used by the industry and mainstream media to characterize Klein's ad campaign. Extends scholarship on the construction of youth in the media, showing how the kiddie-porn frame produces and reproduces common-sense beliefs about the nature of youth. Suggests a metadiscourse encompassing the politicized…
Ankomah, A.; Adebayo, S. B.; Arogundade, E. D.; Anyanti, J.; Nwokolo, E.; Inyang, U.; Ipadeola, Oladipupo B.; Meremiku, M.
Background. Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2,348 pregnant women were interviewed during the survey across 21 of Nigeria's 36 states. Respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents who knew that sleeping under ITN prevents malaria were 3.2 times more likely to sleep under net (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 2.28 to 4.33; P < 0.0001). Those who listened to radio are also about 1.6 times more likely to use ITN (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28; P = 0.020), while respondents who had heard of a specific sponsored radio campaign on ITN are 1.53 times more likely to use a bed net (P = 0.019). Conclusion. Pregnant women who listened to mass media campaigns were more likely to adopt strategies to protect themselves from malaria. Therefore, behavior change communication messages that are aimed at promoting net use and antenatal attendance are necessary in combating malaria. PMID:24778895
Duke, Jennifer C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Alexander, Robert L.; MacMonegle, Anna J.; Fraze, Jami L.; Rodes, Robert M.; Beistle, Diane M.
In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched a national tobacco education campaign, "Tips From Former Smokers," that consisted of graphic, emotionally evocative, testimonial-style advertisements. This longitudinal study examines changes in beliefs, tobacco-related cognitions and intentions to quit smoking among U.S.…
Helme, Donald W.; Noar, Seth M.; Allard, Suzanne; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Palmgreen, Philip; McClanahan, Karen J.
We know from theory and limited research that people talk about campaign messages—and that these conversations may play an important role in campaign reach and possibly even efficacy. We know very little, however, about what individuals talk about and with whom they talk. The current study seeks to fill this gap by reporting qualitative and descriptive quantitative data from interviews conducted with 139 young adults about conversations that took place in the context of a large, televised safer sex mass media campaign. Results indicated that public service announcements (PSAs) were often viewed in the company of friends and significant others, and that it was not uncommon for conversations about the PSAs to take place. Three broad categories of conversations that took place involved discussions about PSA realism, the seriousness of the message, and humor. While in some cases conversations seemed to advance the goal of the campaign (e.g., participants discussed sexually transmitted disease [STD] risk and condom use), in other cases they did not (e.g., participants discussed the lack of realism in a particular PSA). Implications for campaign theory, design, and implementation are discussed. PMID:21409674
Barros, Ana; Moreira, Luís; Santos, Helena; Ribeiro, Nuno; Carvalho, Luís; Santos-Silva, Filipe
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test) and immediately after (post-test). The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions) and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted targets (students
National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.
One of the most effective ways to raise awareness about a problem and generate support for solutions is through the media. This guide describes the basic principles of media relations that can help organizations develop an effective media strategy for underage drinking prevention. The tools that are necessary for this strategy, including news…
Stephenson, Michael T; Quick, Brian L
The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign aims not only to reduce drug use by teens and preteens, but also to arm parents with knowledge about specific parenting practices known to reduce the risk of teen drug use. Among the documented successes of the campaign to date was a small, but direct effect on some parenting practices, including parent-child discussions about drug use. To reach a deeper understanding about the substance of the parental ads, we content analyzed the message strategies employed in the campaign's parent ads over the inaugural 5 years of the campaign. Each ad was coded for its major theme, minor subtheme, and featured drug. Among seven possible major themes, the parental anti-drug ads largely featured four: enhance the risk of their child's drug use, encourage monitoring practices, promote parent-child discussions about drug use, or advocate positive involvement behaviors. Moreover, most parental messages addressed marijuana use or addressed drug use in general. Marijuana and inhalant ads largely were risk based, while general drug messages focused on monitoring, parent-child discussions or positive involvement practices. PMID:16316934
Brawley-Martinez, Emilia E.; Brawley, Edward A.
Demonstrates how rural news media can be used effectively and without substantial cost for consultation, education, and prevention activities in mental health care. Offers suggestions on packaging free rural mental health activities, lists categories of prevention activities readily accomplished through media, and provides specific rural examples.…
Noar, Seth M
Mass media campaigns have long been a tool for promoting public health. How effective are such campaigns in changing health-related attitudes and behaviors, however, and how has the literature in this area progressed over the past decade? The purpose of the current article is threefold. First, I discuss the importance of health mass media campaigns and raise the question of whether they are capable of effectively impacting public health. Second, I review the literature and discuss what we have learned about the effectiveness of campaigns over the past 10 years. Finally, I conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for the health campaign literature over the next 10 years. The overriding conclusion is the following: The literature is beginning to amass evidence that targeted, well-executed health mass media campaigns can have small-to-moderate effects not only on health knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, but on behaviors as well, which can translate into major public health impact given the wide reach of mass media. Such impact can only be achieved, however, if principles of effective campaign design are carefully followed. PMID:16546917
Kornfield, Rachel; Szczypka, Glen; Vera, Lisa; Emery, Sherry
Background In March 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the first-ever paid national tobacco education campaign. At a cost of US $54 million, “Tips from Former Smokers” (Tips) ran for 3 months across multiple media, depicting the suffering experienced by smokers and their families in graphic detail. The potential impact and reach of the Tips campaign was not limited to that achieved through paid media placements. It was also potentially extended through “earned media”, including news and blog coverage of the campaign. Such coverage can shape public understanding of and facilitate public engagement with key health issues. Objective To better understand the contribution of earned media to the public’s engagement with health issues in the current news media environment, we examined the online “earned media” and public engagement generated by one national public health campaign. Methods We constructed a purposive sample of online media coverage of the CDC’s 2012 Tips from Former Smokers television campaign, focusing on 14 influential and politically diverse US news outlets and policy-focused blogs. We identified relevant content by combining campaign and website-specific keywords for 4 months around the campaign release. Each story was coded for content, inclusion of multimedia, and measures of audience engagement. Results The search yielded 36 stories mentioning Tips, of which 27 were focused on the campaign. Story content between pieces was strikingly similar, with most stories highlighting the same points about the campaign’s content, cost, and potential impact. We saw notable evidence of audience engagement; stories focused on Tips generated 9547 comments, 8891 Facebook “likes”, 1027 tweets, and 505 story URL shares on Facebook. Audience engagement varied by story and site, as did the valence and relevance of associated audience comments. Comments were most oppositional on CNN and most supportive on Yahoo
Leonardo Alves, Teresa; Martins de Freitas, Auramarina F.; van Eijk, Martine E. C.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.
Background The European legislation prohibits prescription-only medicines' advertising but allows pharmaceutical companies to provide information to the public on health and diseases, provided there is no direct or indirect reference to a pharmaceutical product. Various forms of promotion have become increasingly common in Europe including “disease-oriented” campaigns. Objectives To explore examples of disease awareness campaigns by pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, by assessing their compliance with the World Health Organization (WHO) Ethical Criteria for medicinal drug promotion and the Dutch guidelines for provision of information by pharmaceutical companies. Methods Materials referring to health/disease and treatments published in the most widely circulated newspapers and magazines were collected from March to May 2012. An evaluation tool was developed based on relevant underlying principles from the WHO ethical criteria and Dutch self-regulation guidelines. Collected disease awareness advertisements were used to pilot the evaluation tool and to explore the consistency of information provided with the WHO and Dutch criteria. Findings Eighty materials met our inclusion criteria; 71 were published in newspapers and 9 in magazines. The large majority were news items but 21 were disease awareness advertisements, of which 5 were duplicates. Fifteen out of the 16 disease awareness campaigns were non-compliant with current guidelines mainly due to lack of balance (n = 12), absence of listed author and/or sponsor (n = 8), use of misleading or incomplete information (n = 5) and use of promotional information (n = 5). None mentioned a pharmaceutical product directly. Conclusion Disease Awareness Campaigns are present in Dutch printed media. Although no brand names were mentioned, the lack of compliance of disease awareness campaigns with the current regulations is alarming. There were information deficiencies and evidence of information
mass media campaigns in improving sexual health outcomes. This suggests that a role for mass media campaigns remains within combination HIV prevention. PMID:23923977
Saito, H; Kawaguchi, Y
A local dental association, Hakodate Dental Association, has been conducting an oral health promotion campaign, 'Good-bye Bad Breath', in a local community since April 1998. The purpose of this campaign was not only to prevent oral malodour but also to raise people's awareness about oral health. Oral health education has been provided at schools and through television commercials, radio programmes and newspaper articles. Campaign posters and leaflets on bad breath have also been distributed to drug stores, medical clinics and schools, as well as dental clinics. It has been emphasised that oral malodour is a preventable condition and that the dentist can provide adequate advice and suitable treatment. Medical and pharmaceutical associations have cooperated with the Dental Association in running the campaign. Dental care was provided free of charge to the local residents. The free services provided included the assessment of oral malodour using a portable sulphide detector, instructional programmes, and consultations with dentists. This campaign offered a good opportunity to encourage people to visit the dentist for regular check-ups. The number of regular check-ups and halitosis patients has increased in 70% of the clinics belonging to the Dental Association. PMID:12090452
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly M.; Johnson, Laura; Liku, Jennifer; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Niang, Cheikh
To examine young people's reactions to and understanding of HIV prevention messages developed for MTV's global HIV prevention campaign Staying Alive, videotaped campaign materials were shown to focus group discussion (FGD) participants living in urban areas of Brazil, Kenya, Nepal, and Senegal. Responses related to "personal involvement" with the…
Jawad, Mohammed; Abass, Jooman; Hariri, Ahmad; Akl, Elie A.
Introduction. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing worldwide despite its documented health effects. A general belief that it is less harmful than cigarettes may be fuelled by the lack of media campaigns highlighting its health effects. We aimed to create and assess the impact of a social media campaign about dangers of waterpipe smoking. Methods. The “ShishAware” campaign included three social media (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) and a website. Nine months after launch we collected data to assess use of, and reaction to, our media accounts. Results. Requiring limited maintenance resources, Facebook attracted campaign supporters but YouTube attracted opposers. Twitter enabled the most organisation-based contact but Facebook was the most interactive medium. Facebook users were more likely to “like” weekday than weekend statuses and more likely to comment on “shisha fact” than “current affairs” statuses. Follower subscription increased as our posting rate increased. Our YouTube video gained 19,428 views (from all world continents) and 218 comments (86% from pro-waterpipe smokers). Conclusions. Social media campaigns can be created and maintained relatively easily. They are innovative and have the potential for wide and rapid diffusion, especially towards target audiences. There is a need for more rigorous evaluation of their effects, particularly among the youth. PMID:26273631
Wakefield, Melanie A.; Durkin, Sarah; Spittal, Matthew J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Simpson, Julie A.; Chapman, Simon; White, Victoria; Hill, David
Objectives. We sought to assess the impact of several tobacco control policies and televised antismoking advertising on adult smoking prevalence. Methods. We used a population survey in which smoking prevalence was measured each month from 1995 through 2006. Time-series analysis assessed the effect on smoking prevalence of televised antismoking advertising (with gross audience rating points [GRPs] per month), cigarette costliness, monthly sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, and smoke-free restaurant laws. Results. Increases in cigarette costliness and exposure to tobacco control media campaigns significantly reduced smoking prevalence. We found a 0.3-percentage-point reduction in smoking prevalence by either exposing the population to televised antismoking ads an average of almost 4 times per month (390 GRPs) or by increasing the costliness of a pack of cigarettes by 0.03% of gross average weekly earnings. Monthly sales of NRT and bupropion, exposure to NRT advertising, and smoke-free restaurant laws had no detectable impact on smoking prevalence. Conclusions. Increases in the real price of cigarettes and tobacco control mass media campaigns broadcast at sufficient exposure levels and at regular intervals are critical for reducing population smoking prevalence. PMID:18556601
Grunseit, Anne C.; O’Hara, Blythe J.; Chau, Josephine Y.; Briggs, Megan; Bauman, Adrian E.
Background Obesity campaign evaluations have used campaign awareness to assess impact, yet have not compared unprompted campaign recallers, with prompted recallers and those with no campaign recall. Using data from an Australian mass-media obesity prevention campaign linking waist circumference and chronic disease we examined whether those with different degrees of campaign recall are distinct groups demographically and for subsequent campaign effects. Methods A national cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected adults aged 18 to 65 years was conducted post- campaign (n = 2812) covering campaign recall, self-reported diet and physical activity (PA) and waist-measuring knowledge, behaviours and intentions to make lifestyle changes. Respondents were divided into three groups indicating campaign recall: Unprompted Recallers (n=1154); Prompted Recallers (n=1284); and No Recallers (n=374) and compared on demographic, knowledge, and behavioural risk factors for obesity/chronic disease. Results Unprompted Recallers were more likely to speak English at home (p<.001), be in the primary campaign target group (25-45 years with children) (p<0.001) than the other two groups and to be university educated and female than the Prompted Recall group only (p=0.001). Unprompted Recallers had better knowledge about recommended waist circumference (p<.001), fruit (p=0.004), vegetable (p<0.001) and PA guidelines (p<0.001) than both the other groups. The No Recall group was less likely than the other two to be overweight/obese (46% vs 55%, p=0.020 and 54%, p=0.037), comparable on meeting fruit consumption and PA guidelines but more likely to meet vegetable intake recommendations (than Unprompted Recallers only). Conclusions Unprompted recallers were more knowledgeable about campaign messages; behaviour change and intentions to change were stronger for the two recall groups compared with the No Recall group but not different between them. The current analysis revealed subtle
Keller, Sarah N; Honea, Joy C
This article examines how differences in male and female views about intimate partner violence (IPV) contributed to divergent responses to a prevention campaign conducted in the western USA. The study examines focus groups (n = 22) and in-depth interview data (n = 13) collected during campaign development to shed light on quantitative results indicating that women (but not men) increased their perceived severity of domestic violence and awareness of services from pre-test to post-test, while male attitudes moved in the opposite direction. Results of the qualitative study provide the basis for the authors' conclusions about why reactions differed: (1) men's unwillingness to view abuse within a gender context limits men's ability to accept the inequity in statistically demonstrated male and female roles as perpetrators and victims; (2) male resentment of existing gender stereotypes contributed to a rejection of campaign messages that utilised gender prevalence statistics to depict images showing men as perpetrators and women as victims; and (3) victim blaming attitudes contributed to resistance to empathy for victims depicted in the campaign. The authors offer suggestions for future campaigns that foster agency among both perpetrators and survivors while confronting the structural barriers to enacting change. PMID:25995024
Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.
The Western Australian (WA) ‘LiveLighter’ (LL) mass media campaign ran during June–August and September–October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual (‘why’ change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier (‘how’ to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25–49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N = 2012) and following the two media waves (N = 2005 and N = 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The ‘why’ message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than ‘how’ messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P < 0.05) and physical activity intentions (P < 0.05). Endorsement of stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039
Vallone, Donna M; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth
Mass media campaigns have been found to shape the public's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior around tobacco. This study examines the influence of contextual factors with respect to awareness of the national truth® campaign, a mass media, branded tobacco use prevention campaign, among a sample of young adults (n = 2,804) aged 24-34 years old; these respondents were within the age range for both the primary and secondary targets of the campaign during the period (2000-2007) when the campaign was airing television advertising at consistently high levels. Mulitvariable models reveal lower educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity as significant contextual factors predictive of lower campaign awareness, controlling for media use. In contrast, gender, state tobacco control policy, sensation-seeking, current smoking status, and community-level SES variables were not significantly associated with campaign awareness. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which public education campaigns operate, particularly among disadvantaged communities. PMID:26332933
Morley, Belinda; Wakefield, Melanie; Dunlop, Sally; Hill, David
A mass media campaign aired in the Australian state of Victoria aimed to increase awareness and encourage identification of the abdominal circumference for men and women that placed them at increased risk of cancer. The evaluation assessed the extent to which ad exposure was associated with improvement in awareness, intentions and behaviours with respect to weight and cancer. Respondents were overweight or obese adults aged 30-69 years and exposure to the advertisement occurred via commercial television programmes in a natural setting. Questionnaire assessment occurred before, immediately after and 2 weeks following exposure to the advertising, and a comparison group who did not recall the ad completed the same interviews. For the main analyses, the exposure group was those who recalled the advertisement at post-exposure and follow-up (n = 101). Those who did not recall it at either stage comprised the unexposed group (n = 81). The campaign achieved its primary objective of increased awareness of the link between obesity and cancer and the specific waist sizes indicative of risk, as well as increased behavioural intentions with respect to weight and cancer. However, it did not have an effect on self-awareness of weight status, perceived personal risk of cancer or weight loss behaviour. PMID:19570919
Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Amos, Amanda
Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 "Right Outside" mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding), motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS)) and opportunities to act (barriers) was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances. PMID:27618085
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
Tobacco control efforts in the early 1990s, such as the ASSIST program, recognized the importance of mass media intervention in the environmental model, along with community organization and mobilization through coalition building and policy advocacy. Since 1998, the Higher Education Center has recommended that colleges and universities embrace an…
Background Social marketing campaigns offer a promising approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Change4Life (C4L) is a national obesity prevention campaign in England. It included mass media coverage aiming to reframe obesity into a health issue relevant to all and provided the opportunity for parents to complete a brief questionnaire (‘How are the Kids’) and receive personalised feedback about their children’s eating and activity. Print and online C4L resources were available with guidance about healthy eating and physical activity. The study aims were to examine the impact of personalised feedback and print material from the C4L campaign on parents’ attitudes and behaviours about their children’s eating and activity in a community-based cluster-randomised controlled trial. Methods Parents of 5–11 year old children were recruited from 40 primary schools across England. Schools were randomised to intervention or control (‘usual care’). Basic demographic data and brief information about their attitudes to their children’s health were collected. Families in intervention schools were mailed the C4L print materials and the ‘How are the Kids’ questionnaire; those returning the questionnaire were sent personalised feedback and others received generic materials. Outcomes included awareness of C4L, attitudes to the behaviours recommended in C4L, parenting behaviours (monitoring and modelling), and child health behaviours (diet, physical activity and television viewing). Follow-up data were collected from parents by postal questionnaire after six months. Qualitative interviews were carried out with a subset of parents (n = 12). Results 3,774 families completed baseline questionnaires and follow-up data were obtained from 1,419 families (37.6%). Awareness was high in both groups at baseline (75%), but increased significantly in the intervention group by follow-up (96% vs. 87%). Few parents (5.2% of the intervention group) returned the
Glider, Peggy; Midyett, Stephen J.; Mills-Novoa, Beverly; Johannessen, Koreen; Collins, Carolyn
A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. Two surveys provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors…
Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006–2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010–11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006–2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006–2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:26824695
Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna
Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006-2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010-11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006-2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006-2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:26824695
Lalonde, Jeffrey; Jeambey, Zeinab; Starkey, Linda Jacobs
The Media and the Message - Promoting Healthy Eating and Active Living for Diabetes Prevention was a project aimed at raising awareness of diabetes risk factors and enhancing the public's access to credible, up-to-date, healthy eating and active living messages in the media. Cross-country workshops were held to teach media strategies and key diabetes prevention messages to multidisciplinary groups of health professionals. Evaluation was integral to the project; both the process and outcomes were assessed using Health Canada's Population Health Approach. Timeline and budget were tracked. Questionnaires were created to evaluate advisory committee conference calls and to determine participants' perceptions of the 19 workshops and resources. A pre-workshop/post-workshop and three-month follow-up questionnaire format, along with an online media-tracking tool, was used to collect outcome data and to measure changes in confidence and media behaviour. Sixty-three percent of participants (150 of 238) reported that multidisciplinary workshops were very valuable. Three-month follow-up revealed a significant increase in confidence in all media activities taught at the workshops, although this failed to translate into increased media activity. Sixty-eight percent (78 of 115) of responding participants disseminated workshop learning. Detailed evaluation revealed that multidisciplinary workshops are valued and effective in increasing confidence. However, eliciting behaviour change following a workshop remains a challenge. PMID:17784971
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…
Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi
The aim of the current systematic review was to monitor and provide an overview of the research performed about the roles of media in suicide prevention in order to find out possible effects media reporting on suicidal behaviours might have on actual suicidality (completed suicides, attempted suicides, suicidal ideation). The systematic review was performed following the principles of the PRISMA statement and includes 56 articles. Most of the studies support the idea that media reporting and suicidality are associated. However, there is a risk of reporting bias. More research is available about how irresponsible media reports can provoke suicidal behaviours (the ‘Werther effect’) and less about protective effect media can have (the ‘Papageno effect’). Strong modelling effect of media coverage on suicide is based on age and gender. Media reports are not representative of official suicide data and tend to exaggerate sensational suicides, for example dramatic and highly lethal suicide methods, which are rare in real life. Future studies have to encounter the challenges the global medium Internet will offer in terms of research methods, as it is difficult to define the circulation of news in the Internet either spatially or in time. However, online media can provide valuable innovative qualitative research material. PMID:22470283
Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi
The aim of the current systematic review was to monitor and provide an overview of the research performed about the roles of media in suicide prevention in order to find out possible effects media reporting on suicidal behaviours might have on actual suicidality (completed suicides, attempted suicides, suicidal ideation). The systematic review was performed following the principles of the PRISMA statement and includes 56 articles. Most of the studies support the idea that media reporting and suicidality are associated. However, there is a risk of reporting bias. More research is available about how irresponsible media reports can provoke suicidal behaviours (the 'Werther effect') and less about protective effect media can have (the 'Papageno effect'). Strong modelling effect of media coverage on suicide is based on age and gender. Media reports are not representative of official suicide data and tend to exaggerate sensational suicides, for example dramatic and highly lethal suicide methods, which are rare in real life. Future studies have to encounter the challenges the global medium Internet will offer in terms of research methods, as it is difficult to define the circulation of news in the Internet either spatially or in time. However, online media can provide valuable innovative qualitative research material. PMID:22470283
Rubio-Valera, M; Fernández, A; Evans-Lacko, S; Luciano, J V; Thornicroft, G; Aznar-Lou, I; Serrano-Blanco, A
Reducing public stigma could improve patients' access to care, recovery and social integration. The aim of the study was to evaluate a mass media intervention, which aimed to reduce the mental health, related stigma among the general population in Catalonia (Spain). We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of a representative sample of the Catalan non-institutionalized adult population (n=1019). We assessed campaign awareness, attitudes to people with mental illness (CAMI) and intended behaviour (RIBS). To evaluate the association between campaign awareness and stigma, multivariable regression models were used. Over 20% of respondents recognized the campaign when prompted, and 11% when unprompted. Campaign aware individuals had better attitudes on the benevolence subscale of the CAMI than unaware individuals (P=0.009). No significant differences in authoritarianism and support for community mental health care attitudes subscales were observed. The campaign aware group had better intended behaviour than the unaware group (P<0.01). The OBERTAMENT anti-stigma campaign had a positive impact to improve the attitudes and intended behaviour towards people with mental illness of the Catalan population. The impact on stigma was limited to attitudes related to benevolence. A wider range of anti-stigma messages could produce a stronger impact on attitudes and intended behaviour. PMID:26675784
Beaudoin, Christopher E; Chen, Hongliang; Agha, Sohail
Rapid population growth in Pakistan poses major risks, including those pertinent to public health. In the context of family planning in Pakistan, the current study evaluates the Touch condom media campaign and its effects on condom-related awareness, attitudes, behavioral intention, and behavior. This evaluation relies on 3 waves of panel survey data from men married to women ages 15-49 living in urban and rural areas in Pakistan (N = 1,012): Wave 1 was March 15 to April 7, 2009; Wave 2 was August 10 to August 24, 2009; and Wave 3 was May 1 to June 13, 2010. Analysis of variance provided evidence of improvements in 10 of 11 condom-related outcomes from Wave 1 to Wave 2 and Wave 3. In addition, there was no evidence of outcome decay 1 year after the conclusion of campaign advertising dissemination. To help compensate for violating the assumption of random assignment, propensity score modeling offered evidence of the beneficial effects of confirmed Touch ad recall on each of the 11 outcomes in at least 1 of 3 time-lagged scenarios. By using these different time-lagged scenarios (i.e., from Wave 1 to Wave 2, from Wave 1 to Wave 3, and from Wave 2 to Wave 3), propensity score modeling permitted insights into how the campaign had time-variant effects on the different types of condom-related outcomes, including carryover effects of the media campaign. PMID:26855176
Herlitz, J; Blohm, M; Hartford, M; Karlson, B W; Luepker, R; Holmberg, S; Risenfors, M; Wennerblom, B
In order to reduce the delay times from onset of symptoms to arrival in hospital, and increase the use of ambulance in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a media campaign was initiated in an urban area. An initial 3-week intense campaign was followed by a maintenance phase of 1 year. Delay times and ambulance use during the campaign were compared with the previous 21 months. Among patients admitted to a coronary care unit (CCU) due to suspected AMI, the median delay time was reduced from 3 h to 2 h 40 min and the mean delay time was reduced from 11 h 33 min to 7 h 42 min (P less than 0.001). Among patients with confirmed AMI the median delay time was reduced from 3 h to 2 h 20 min and the mean delay time from 10 h to 6 h 27 min (P less than 0.001). We conclude that a 1-year media campaign can reduce delay times in suspected AMI, and that this effect appears to continue at 1 year, but ambulance use seems to be more difficult to influence. PMID:1555612
Glider, P; Midyett, S J; Mills-Novoa, B; Johannessen, K; Collins, C
A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, on a large, southwestern university campus has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. The Core Alcohol and Drug Survey and the Health Enhancement Survey provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding alcohol and binge drinking. This study represents the first in-depth research on the impact of a media approach, based on a normative social influence model, to reduce binge drinking on a large university campus and has yielded promising initial results. PMID:11487995
GetWell:)Network, a Bethesda, MD-based interactive patient care provider, had the right tool. What it didn't have was the means to get the word out about that tool. So in September 2006, the provider tapped Waltham, MA-based healthcare public relations agency Schwartz Communications to design and execute a national media relations campaign about the PatientLife:)System, GetWell's interactive educational bedside tool. PMID:17361789
Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L
The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237
Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru
Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…
Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Elder, Randy W.; Robinson, Maren N.; Tansil, Kristin A.; Soler, Robin E.; Labre, Magdala P.; Mercer, Shawna L.
Context The objective of this systematic review was to determine the costs, benefits, and overall economic value of communication campaigns that included mass media and distribution of specified health-related products at reduced price or free of charge. Evidence Acquisition Economic evaluation studies from a literature search from January 1980–December 2009 were screened and abstracted following systematic economic review methods developed by The Community Guide. Data were analyzed in 2011. Evidence Synthesis The economic evidence was grouped and assessed by type of product distributed and health risk addressed. A total of 15 evaluation studies were included in the economic review, involving campaigns promoting the use of child car seats or booster seats, pedometers, condoms, recreational safety helmets, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Conclusion Economic merits of the intervention could not be determined for health communication campaigns associated with use of recreational helmets, child car seats, and pedometers, primarily because available economic information and analyses were incomplete. There is some evidence that campaigns with free condom distribution to promote safer sex practices were cost-effective among high-risk populations and the cost per quit achieved in campaigns promoting tobacco cessation with NRT products may translate to a cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) less than $50,000. Many interventions were publicly funded trials or programs, and the failure to properly evaluate their economic cost and benefit is a serious gap in the science and practice of public health. PMID:25145619
NOAR, SETH M.; ZIMMERMAN, RICK S.; PALMGREEN, PHILIP; CUPP, PAMELA K.; FLOYD, BRENIKKI R.; MEHROTRA, PURNIMA
Reducing new HIV/STD infections among at-risk adolescents requires developing and evaluating evidence-based health communication approaches. Research over-whelmingly supports the conclusion that early sexual initiation is associated with STDs and other negative outcomes in later years (e.g., unintended pregnancy). The authors’ research group secured funding from the National Institute of Mental Health to develop, implement, and rigorously evaluate televised mass media campaigns to delay initiation of sexual intercourse among African American and White adolescents in two cities in the Southeastern United States. The focus of the present study is on the development and implementation of the campaigns, including (a) rationale and theoretical underpinnings; (b) collection, screening, and assessment of existing public service announcements; (c) development of new public service announcements; (d) study design and campaign airing plan; and (e) message exposure achieved in the campaigns. Health communication campaigns hold much promise in reaching at-risk adolescent populations with targeted, timely, and relevant risk-reduction messages. PMID:24093220
Kindsvatter, Peter S.
Presidential campaigns in the last decade have provided evidence of the rising influence of the mass media campaign and of campaign consultants. The media, through their power of access to the people, manipulate the public's recognition of a candidate by the amount of coverage given. Newspaper endorsements and the reporting of media-conducted…
In predominantly rural Thailand, television is a primary source of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Since 1990, HIV/AIDS warning messages have been aired regularly and repeatedly on television as part of the national strategy to minimize transmission of HIV. The education and prevention messages chosen do more than suggest measures to avoid infection. Within a logic of risk, these messages also define characteristics of people who are signified as threatening agents of infection. In Thailand, prostitutes and drug users are portrayed as the feared Other. Because commercial sex is so widespread, the demarcation of prostitutes as a high risk group signals a diffuse threat not easily subject to conceptual distancing. It is the pervasive and often fear-based associations born of the media material that, in large part, establish the basis for emergent practice when thoughts or actions are triggered by consideration of HIV/AIDS. PMID:8628119
Leavy, Justine E.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Shilton, Trevor; Maitland, Clover; Barnes, Rosanne
Background: Internationally, over the last four decades large-scale mass media campaigns have been delivered to promote physical activity and its associated health benefits. In 2002-2005, the first Western Australian statewide adult physical activity campaign "Find Thirty. It's Not a Big Exercise" was launched. In 2007, a new…
Berner, Jeanne; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Christoph D; Nendaz, Mathieu
The incidence of acute iodine contrast media reactions, appearing within the first hour after the procedure, is low but clinically important due to their daily use. Previous adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media, asthma and a history of allergic reaction are the most recognized risk factors, but the identification of patients at risk remains difficult. The efficacy of preventive measures such as corticosteroid and/or antihistaminic administration rests on low-level evidence. Practical recommendations are presented in this article. Rather than relying on the sole administration of a premedication, the importance of other measures must be stressed: assessing the relevance of the indication to the radiologic exam, use of low osmolarity contrast media, and ensuring a proper monitoring of the patient during and after the procedure. PMID:19911686
Chaffee, Steven H.; Choe, Sun Yuel
Data from a series of surveys of voters in the Midwest, conducted during the 1976 presidential election campaign, were used to explore the effects of the campaign in relation to when people decided for whom to vote. A second purpose was to consider the adequacy of the traditional dichotomous model of voters: people who make up their minds early…
Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; Alexander, Robert; Rowland, Amy; Mitchko, Jane
Background Measuring the impact of online health campaigns is challenging. Ad click-through rates are traditionally used to measure campaign reach, but few Internet users ever click on ads. Alternatively, self-reported exposure to digital ads would be prone to recall bias. Furthermore, there may be latency effects whereby people do not click on ads when exposed but visit the promoted website or conduct campaign-related searches later. Online panels that unobtrusively collect panelists’ Web behavior data and link ad exposure to website visits and searches can more reliably assess the impact of digital ad exposure. From March to June 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention aired the national Tips From Former Smokers (Tips 2012) media campaign designed to encourage current smokers to quit. Advertisements ran across media channels, and the digital ads directed users to the Tips 2012 campaign website. Objective Our aim was to examine whether exposure to Tips 2012 digital ads influenced information-seeking behaviors online. Methods ComScore mined its panelists’ Web behavior data for unique codes that would indicate exposure to Tips 2012 ads, regardless of whether panelists clicked the ad or not. A total of 15,319 US adults were identified as having been exposed to a Tips 2012 campaign ad. An equal number of unexposed adults (N=15,319) were identified and matched on demographics and Internet use behavior to the exposed group. Panelists’ Web behavior data were mined for up to 4 weeks after initial Tips 2012 ad exposure to determine whether they visited the Tips 2012 campaign website or other cessation-related websites (eg, nicotine replacement therapy site) or conducted searches for campaign-related topics (eg, quit smoking). Results The proportion of exposed adults visiting the Tips 2012 sites increased from 0.4% in Week 1 to 0.9% 4 weeks after ad exposure, and these rates were significantly higher than in the unexposed group (0.1% in Week 1 to 0.4% in
The effect of the 2005 British Columbia (BC) smoking cessation mass media campaign on a panel (N = 1,341) of 20-30-year-old smokers' attitudes is evaluated. The 5-week campaign consisted of posters, television, and radio ads about the health benefits of cessation. Small impacts on the panel's attitudes toward the adverse impacts of smoking were found, with greater impacts found for those who had no plans to quit smoking at the initial interview. As smokers with no plans to quit increasingly recognized the adverse impacts of smoking, they also increasingly agreed that they use smoking as a coping mechanism. Smokers with plans to quit at the initial interview already were well aware of smoking's adverse impacts. Respondents recalling the campaign poster, which presented a healthy alternative to smoking, decreased their perception of smoking as a coping mechanism and devalued their attachment to smoking. Evidence was found that media ad recall mediates unobserved predictors of attitudes toward smoking. PMID:18300065
Lim, Megan S C; Gold, Judy; Bowring, Anna L; Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E
In 2009, the Australian Government's National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program launched a multi-million dollar sexual health campaign targeting young people. We assessed campaign recognition among a community sample of young people. Individuals aged 16-29 years self-completed a questionnaire at a music festival. Participants were asked whether they recognised the campaign image and attempted to match the correct campaign message. Recognition of two concurrent campaigns, GlaxoSmithKline's The Facts genital herpes campaign (targeting young women) and the Drama Downunder campaign (targeting gay men) were assessed simultaneously. Among 471 participants, just 29% recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. This compared to 52% recognising The Facts and 27% recognising Drama Downunder. Of 134 who recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign, 27% correctly recalled the campaign messages compared to 61% of those recognising the Facts campaign, and 25% of those recognising the Drama Downunder campaign. There was no difference in National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign recognition by gender or age. Campaign recognition and message recall of the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign was comparatively low. Future mass media sexual health campaigns targeting young people can aim for higher recognition and recall rates than that achieved by the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. Alternative distribution channels and message styles should be considered to increase these rates. PMID:25006041
Background In 2011, Cameroon and its health partners distributed over eight million free long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in an effort to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality burden of malaria in the country. A national communications campaign was launched in July 2011 to ensure that as the nets were delivered, they would be used consistently to close a net use gap: only 51.6% of adults and 63.4% of their children in households with at least one net were sleeping under nets before the distribution. Even in households with at least one net for every two people, over 35% of adults were not sleeping under a net. Malaria No More (MNM) adapted its signature NightWatch communications programme to fit within the coordinated “KO Palu” (Knock Out Malaria) national campaign. This study evaluates the impact of KO Palu NightWatch activities (that is, the subset of KO Palu-branded communications that were funded by MNM’s NightWatch program) on bed net use. Methods Using national survey data collected at baseline (in March/April 2011, before the national LLIN distribution and KO Palu NightWatch launch) and post-intervention (March/April 2012), this study evaluates the impact of exposure to KO Palu NightWatch activities on last-night net use by Cameroonian adults and their children under five. First, a plausible case for causality was established by comparing net use in 2011 and 2012 and measuring exposure to KO Palu NightWatch; next, a propensity score matching (PSM) model was used to estimate the impact of exposure on net use by simulating a randomized control trial; finally, the model was tested for sensitivity to unmeasured factors. Results The PSM model estimated that among Cameroonians with at least one net in their household, exposure to KO Palu NightWatch activities was associated with a 6.6 percentage point increase in last-night net use among respondents (65.7% vs 59.1%, p < 0.05) and a 12.0 percentage point increase in last-night net
Barros, Ana; Moreira, Luís; Santos, Helena; Ribeiro, Nuno; Carvalho, Luís; Santos-Silva, Filipe
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, “Cancer, Educate to Prevent” was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation – questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test) and immediately after (post-test). The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program “Cancer, Educate to Prevent” and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions) and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted targets
Lee, Susan; Lehman, B. Matty; Castillo, Marné; Mollen, Cynthia
A youth-driven, social media-based campaign aimed at improving knowledge about and increasing testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV among youth 13–17 years old was assessed by: tracking website/social media use throughout the campaign; online survey of knowledge of and attitudes towards STI testing 9 months after campaign launch; and comparing rates of STI testing at affiliated family planning clinics during the 1 year period immediately prior versus 1 year immediately after campaign launch. Over 1,500 youth were reached via social media. Survey results showed 46 % of youth had never been tested, but 70 % intended to test in the next 6 months. While the total number of GC/CT tests conducted and positive results were not significantly different pre- and post-campaign, there was a large increase in the proportion of visits at which Syphilis (5.4 vs. 18.8 %; p <0.01) and HIV (5.4 vs. 19.0 %; p <0.01) testing was conducted post-campaign launch. Future campaigns should incorporate lessons learned about engaging younger adolescents, social media strategies, and specific barriers to testing in this age group. PMID:25563502
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly M; Johnson, Laura; Liku, Jennifer; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Niang, Cheikh
To examine young people's reactions to and understanding of HIV prevention messages developed for MTV's global HIV prevention campaign Staying Alive, videotaped campaign materials were shown to focus group discussion (FGD) participants living in urban areas of Brazil, Kenya, Nepal, and Senegal. Responses related to "personal involvement" with the message were identified in the data from these FGDs and were examined in relationship to the emerging message themes, the message format (public service announcements [PSAs] vs. documentary), cultural context (site), and participant gender. Across groups, greater personal involvement (measured by personal connections, emotional reactions, and lessons learned) was found in responses about the documentary format compared to the PSA format. Exceptions were found for specific PSAs that were considered more relevant within specific gender or cultural contexts. Implications of findings for global campaigns were considered. PMID:17114332
Andrews, A B; McLeese, D G; Curran, S
Developed because of the need to promote public understanding of the link between addictions and child maltreatment, a multimedia campaign helped to increase by 62% the average monthly number of people who called a telephone service for information about how to aid abused and neglected children. The campaign was supported by market research and professional experience that indicated the campaign should focus on easy action a citizen could take, avoid inducing fear or blame, and target third party helpers and younger families-at-risk. Campaign exposure was promoted through the support of corporate partners. A random household survey found that 61% of the general population had seen or heard the campaign slogan. The average monthly calls to the child maltreatment information service regarding alcohol and other drug abuse tripled and the requests regarding at-risk children almost doubled. An auxiliary project provided interprofessional education to increase the probability that people seeking help would get it when referrals were made. The project yielded several lessons for future public awareness campaigns: focus on helping action rather than the problem; use of client-based market research; a strategic plan to assure necessary exposure; reliance on public-private-nonprofit sector partnerships; preparation of the service system; promotion of personal ways of helping. PMID:7583751
Andreucci, Michele; Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Sabbatini, Massimo; Michael, Ashour
It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24-72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639
Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Michael, Ashour
It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24–72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639
Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira; Hecht, Michael L
Media literacy intervention efficacy literature has focused on media-relevant (e.g., knowledge and realism) and behavior-relevant outcomes (e.g., attitudes and behaviors), without much attention paid to interpersonal communication outcomes. This project examined interpersonal communication after participation in two versions (analysis plus analysis and analysis plus planning) of the Youth Message Development (YMD) intervention, a brief media literacy curriculum targeted at preventing high school student alcohol use. Participants attended a 75-mins media literacy YMD workshop and completed a delayed posttest questionnaire 3 to 4 months later. Overall, 68 % participants replied affirmatively to interpersonal communication about the YMD intervention. Communication about the workshop moderated the effects of the type of workshop (analysis plus analysis or analysis plus planning) on self-efficacy to counter-argue (but not critical thinking). Interpersonal communication moderated the effects of the YMD intervention on self-efficacy to counter-argue, thereby signaling the importance of including interpersonal communication behaviors in intervention evaluation. PMID:26622915
Marchisio, Paola; Nazzari, Erica; Torretta, Sara; Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common pediatric diseases; almost all children experience at least one episode, and a third have two or more episodes in the first three years of life. The disease burden of AOM has important medical, social and economic effects. AOM requires considerable financial assistance due to needing at least one doctor visit and a prescription for antipyretics and/or antibiotics. AOM is also associated with high indirect costs, which are mostly related to lost days of work for one parent. Moreover, due to its acute symptoms and frequent recurrences, AOM considerably impacts both the child and family's quality of life. AOM prevention, particularly recurrent AOM (rAOM), is a primary goal of pediatric practice. In this paper, we review current evidence regarding the efficacy of medical treatments and vaccines for preventing rAOM and suggest the best approaches for AOM-prone children. PMID:24678887
Marseille, Elliot; Jiwani, Aliya; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Walson, Judd; Kahn, James G
Objective This study estimated the health impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV in 70 countries ranked by per capita disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden for the three diseases. Methods We constructed a deterministic cost-effectiveness model portraying an IPC combining counselling and testing, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, referral to treatment and condom distribution for HIV prevention; bed nets for malaria prevention; and provision of household water filters for diarrhoea prevention. We developed a mix of empirical and modelled cost and health impact estimates applied to all 70 countries. One-way, multiway and scenario sensitivity analyses were conducted to document the strength of our findings. We used a healthcare payer's perspective, discounted costs and DALYs at 3% per year and denominated cost in 2012 US dollars. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness expressed as net cost per DALY averted. Other outcomes included cost of the IPC; net IPC costs adjusted for averted and additional medical costs and DALYs averted. Results Implementation of the IPC in the 10 most cost-effective countries at 15% population coverage would cost US$583 million over 3 years (adjusted costs of US$398 million), averting 8.0 million DALYs. Extending IPC programmes to all 70 of the identified high-burden countries at 15% coverage would cost an adjusted US$51.3 billion and avert 78.7 million DALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ranged from US$49 per DALY averted for the 10 countries with the most favourable cost-effectiveness to US$119, US$181, US$335, US$1692 and US$8340 per DALY averted as each successive group of 10 countries is added ordered by decreasing cost-effectiveness. Conclusions IPC appears cost-effective in many settings, and has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of disease in resource-poor countries. This study increases confidence that IPC
Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.
Behavioral willingness is conceptualized as a pathway to behavior that is non-deliberative, yet traditional measures require thoughtful deliberation to complete. This study explored non-deliberative measures of alcohol-related willingness to complement recent work on marijuana-related willingness. The study also examined whether ads from a field-tested drug-and-alcohol prevention campaign may have operated by influencing alcohol-related willingness. Participants viewed campaign ads or consumer ads (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make speeded judgments about whether one would engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors. Results showed that campaign ads lowered willingness to play drinking games and (for males) to drive while intoxicated. PMID:21646292
McKillip, Jack; Baldwin, Kimm
A multimedia sexually transmitted disease (STD) education campaign was evaluated for 8 weeks on a college campus. Subjects who were interviewed included 560 Southern Illinois University students. The program and evaluation covered condom use, moderate alcohol use, and regular exercise. Results indicate increased power for a control construct…
Brown, Jamie; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; Stapleton, John; Walmsley, Matthew; West, Robert
Background A national smoking cessation campaign based on behaviour change theory and operating through both traditional and new media was launched across England during late 2012 (‘Stoptober’). In addition to attempting to start a movement in which smokers would quit at the same time in response to a positive mass quitting trigger, the campaign set smokers the goal of being smoke-free for October and embodied other psychological principles in a range of tools and communications. Methods Data on quit attempts were obtained from 31,566 past-year smokers during nationally representative household surveys conducted monthly between 2007 and 2012. The effectiveness of the campaign was assessed by the increase in national quit attempt rate in October relative to other months in 2012 vs. 2007–2011. Results Relative to other months in the year, more people tried to quit in October in 2012 compared with 2007–2011 (OR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.20–2.68). In 2012 there was an approximately 50% increase in quitting during October compared with other months of the same year (9.6% vs. 6.6%; OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.05–2.15), whereas in 2007–2011 the rate in October was non-significantly less than in other months of the same period (6.4% vs. 7.5%; OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.70–1.00). Stoptober is estimated to have generated an additional 350,000 quit attempts and saved 10,400 discounted life years (DLY) at less than £415 per DLY in the modal age group. Conclusions Designing a national public health campaign with a clear behavioural target (making a serious quit attempt) using key psychological principles can yield substantial behaviour change and public health impact. PMID:24322004
Minezawa, Satoshi; Ishibashi, Yutaka; Psannis, Kostas E.
This paper assesses the media synchronization quality of preventive control schemes employed at media sources and media destinations for voice and video over a network. Preventive control is required to try to avoid asynchrony (i.e., out of synchronization). We here deal with two preventive control techniques employed at sources: Advancement of transmission timing of media units (MUs), each of which is the information unit for media synchronization (e.g., a video picture), with network delay estimation and temporal resolution control of video. We also handle three preventive control techniques employed at destinations: Change of buffering time with network delay estimation, preventive pausing, and preventive shortening of output duration. By experiment, we make a performance comparison among preventive control schemes which employ the preventive control techniques at sources and destinations. We also clarify the relations between subjective and objective assessment results.
Scheier, Lawrence M.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Holtz, Kristen D.
This study evaluated the efficacy of "Above the Influence" (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall…
Mann, Nathan; Davis, Kevin C.; MacMonegle, Anna; Allen, Jane; Porter, Lauren
Introduction Most US smokers do not use evidence-based interventions as part of their quit attempts. Quitlines and Web-based treatments may contribute to reductions in population-level tobacco use if successfully promoted. Currently, few states implement sustained media campaigns to promote services and increase adult smoking cessation. This study examines the effects of Florida’s tobacco cessation media campaign and a nationally funded media campaign on telephone quitline and Web-based registrations for cessation services from November 2010 through September 2013. Methods We conducted multivariable analyses of weekly media-market–level target rating points (TRPs) and weekly registrations for cessation services through the Florida Quitline (1-877-U-CAN-NOW) or its Web-based cessation service, Web Coach (www.quitnow.net/florida). Results During 35 months, 141,221 tobacco users registered for cessation services through the Florida Quitline, and 53,513 registered through Web Coach. An increase in 100 weekly TRPs was associated with an increase of 7 weekly Florida Quitline registrants (β = 6.8, P < .001) and 2 Web Coach registrants (β = 1.7, P = .003) in an average media market. An increase in TRPs affected registrants from multiple demographic subgroups similarly. When state and national media campaigns aired simultaneously, approximately one-fifth of Florida’s Quitline registrants came from the nationally advertised portal (1-800-QUIT-NOW). Conclusion Sustained, state-sponsored media can increase the number of registrants to telephone quitlines and Web-based cessation services. Federally funded media campaigns can further increase the reach of state-sponsored cessation services. PMID:25539129
Johnson, Thomas J.; Braima, Mahmoud A. M.; Sothirajah, Jayanthi
Contributes to scholarship on political communication by examining the extent to which heavy users of the Internet and other non-traditional media differ from heavy users of traditional media in their knowledge of issue stances of Bill Clinton and Bob Dole. Finds that non-traditional media had little influence on political knowledge; and few…
Harrington, E.; Hammonds, C.
It has long been recognized that incorporation of pollution prevention (P2) into projects during the design phase yields superior results as compared to modification of facilities after construction. Generation of waste during construction can be minimized, products containing recycled materials can be incorporated into the facility, and the processes or systems can be optimized for P2 from the beginning. However, design engineers must have the proper mindset and training in order to achieve this, since standard engineering practice does not necessarily lead to construction of systems that are optimized for P2. It was determined that incorporation of P2 principles and methods into command media that govern the conduct of design and construction was one way of achieving P2 objectives during design. This would incorporate certain P2 elements into criteria and standard designs so that these elements are automatically incorporated into the designs. The Central Engineering Services (CES) Command Media, which provide direction, methodology, and criteria for performance of engineering design and construction, consist of Engineering Procedures, Master Design Criteria, Technical Specifications, and Engineering Standards. Incorporated in these documents are regulatory requirements, national consensus codes and standards, accepted and proven practices and designs, as well as DOE Orders governing design and construction. The documents were reviewed to identify potential areas into which P2 principles, practices, and methodologies could be incorporated.
Chung, Jae Eun
The current study examined the use of online social media for a health campaign. Collecting tweets (N = 1,790) about the recent smoking cessation campaign by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the current study investigated the dissemination of health campaign messages on Twitter and answered questions from the process evaluation of health campaigns: who tweeted about the campaign, who played central roles in disseminating health campaign messages, and how various features of Twitter were used for sharing of campaign messages. Results showed that individuals and nonprofit organizations posted frequently about the campaign: Individuals and nonprofit organizations posted about 40% and 30% of campaign-related tweets, respectively. Although the campaign under investigation was steered by a government agency, nonprofit organizations played a vital role as mediators who disseminated campaign messages. The culture of retweeting demonstrated its particular usefulness for the dissemination of campaign messages. Despite the expectation that the use of social media would expand opportunities for engagement, actual two-way interactions were few or minimal. Drawn from the results, practical suggestions on how to strategize the use of Twitter for future health campaigns are discussed. PMID:27115179
...,” and its implementing directive at 32 CFR parts 2001 and 2004. (b) Any attempt by news media... ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.106 Preventing release of classified... interviews, audio/visual) to the news media is prohibited. The disclosure of classified information...
...,” and its implementing directive at 32 CFR parts 2001 and 2004. (b) Any attempt by news media... ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.106 Preventing release of classified... interviews, audio/visual) to the news media is prohibited. The disclosure of classified information...
...,” and its implementing directive at 32 CFR parts 2001 and 2004. (b) Any attempt by news media... ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.106 Preventing release of classified... interviews, audio/visual) to the news media is prohibited. The disclosure of classified information...
Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Levi, Fabio; Panizzon, Renato G
As part of the national skin cancer prevention programme coordinated by the Swiss League against Cancer, a mobile unit visited 29 Swiss towns to inform people on skin type, skin cancer risk and sun protection behaviour. In the summer of 2003, among 6725 visitors, 3662 took the offered possibility of having a cutaneous lesion checked free of charge by a dermatologist present in the mobile unit. The campaign satisfactorily covered, albeit to various degrees, its 3 fields of activity, i.e. (1) primary prevention, (2) secondary prevention and (3) clinical examination. Participants were predominantly females (60%), except for visits on work sites (firms and universities), half were aged 15-44 years, and 40% were considered at increased risk for skin cancer. Sociodemographic and regional differences in the profile of visitors were observed and could largely be attributed to variations in daily availability of the mobile unit. 108 malignant lesions were observed, including 21 cutaneous melanomas. Relative to the number of examinations performed, more cancers were detected in men, those aged 65 or over, and visitors who experienced a prior skin screening and severe sunburns during childhood. Limitations and prospects of this type of preventive campaigns are briefly discussed. PMID:15209058
Kam, Jennifer A; Lee, Chul-Joo
To extend past research on interpersonal communication and campaign effects, we hypothesized that anti-drug mass media campaign message exposure indirectly affects visiting anti- and pro-drug websites through targeted parent-child and friend-to-friend communication against drugs, as well as through having drug-related discussions during organized group activities. Second, we posited that engaging in anti-drug interpersonal communication indirectly affects adolescents' drug use through two intervening variables: visiting anti-drug websites and visiting pro-drug websites. Using self-reported longitudinal data from 2,749 youth, we found that as youth reported higher levels of anti-drug mass media campaign message exposure, they were more likely to talk to friends about the bad consequences of drugs, how to avoid drugs, and anti-drug ads. In turn, however, they were more likely to visit pro-drug websites, and subsequently, to smoke cigarettes. PMID:22816432
Sznitman, Sharon; DiClemente, Ralph; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Fortune, Thierry; Juzang, Ivan
The evidence base and theoretical frameworks for mass media HIV-prevention campaigns in the United States are not well-developed. We describe an intervention approach using culturally sensitive mass media messages to enhance protective beliefs and behavior of African American adolescents at risk for HIV. This approach exploits the potential that mass media messages have, not only to reach a large segment of the adolescent population and thereby support normative change, but also to engage the most vulnerable segments of this audience to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors. The results from an ongoing HIV-prevention trial implemented in 2 medium-sized cities in the United States illustrate the effectiveness of this intervention approach. PMID:19833995
Rogers, Elizabeth A; Fine, Sarah; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, Hodari; Kass, James; Schillinger, Dean
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rapidly rising, especially among minority and low-income youth. There is an unmet need to engage youth in identifying solutions to reverse this trajectory. Social marketing campaigns and entertainment education are effective forms of health communication for engaging populations in health-promoting behaviors. Critical to curbing the epidemic is moving the diabetes conversation away from individual behavior alone and toward a socioecologic perspective using a public health literacy framework. The authors developed an academic-community partnership to develop, implement, and evaluate a type 2 diabetes prevention campaign targeting minority and low-income youth. The Bigger Picture campaign uses hard-hitting, youth-generated spoken-word messages around key environmental and social drivers of the type 2 diabetes epidemic. Campaign goals included promoting health capacity and civic engagement. This article focuses on the development and implementation of the campaign, including (a) rationale and theoretical underpinnings, (b) steps in campaign creation, (c) testing the campaign messaging, and (d) campaign dissemination and evaluation planning. A youth-created health communication campaign using a public health literacy framework with targeted, relevant, and compelling messaging appears to be a promising vehicle for reaching at-risk youth to increase knowledge of and attitudes about preventing type 2 diabetes, change social norms, and motivate participation in health-promoting initiatives. PMID:25315590
Richardson, Sol; Langley, Tessa; Szatkowski, Lisa; Sims, Michelle; Gilmore, Anna; McNeill, Ann; Lewis, Sarah
Objective To investigate the effects of different types of televised mass media campaign content on calls to the English NHS Stop Smoking helpline. Method We used UK government-funded televised tobacco control campaigns from April 2005 to April 2010, categorised as either “positive” (eliciting happiness, satisfaction or hope) or “negative” (eliciting fear, guilt or disgust). We built negative binomial generalised additive models (GAMs) with linear and smooth terms for monthly per capita exposure to each campaign type (expressed as Gross Ratings Points, or GRPs) to determine their effect on calls in the same month. We adjusted for seasonal trends, inflation-adjusted weighted average cigarette prices and other tobacco control policies. Results We found non-linear associations between exposure to positive and negative emotive campaigns and quitline calls. The rate of calls increased more than 50% as exposure to positive campaigns increased from 0 to 400 GRPs (rate ratio: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.25–2.01). An increase in calls in response to negative emotive campaigns was only apparent after monthly exposure exceeded 400 GRPs. Conclusion While positive campaigns were most effective at increasing quitline calls, those with negative emotive content were also found to impact on call rates but only at higher levels of exposure. PMID:25197004
Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Fernández-Cerdeño, Araceli; Sañudo, Fernando; Hovell, Melbourne F; Sipan, Carol L; Engelberg, Moshe; Ji, Ming
This study examined the reach and impact of a social marketing intervention to reduce HIV risk among heterosexually identified (HI) Latino men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Repeated cross-sectional intercept surveys were conducted in selected community venues during and after the campaign with 1,137 HI Latino men. Of them, 6% were classified as HI Latino MSMW. On average, 85.9% of the heterosexual respondents and 86.8% of the HI MSMW subsample reported exposure to the campaign. Responses to the campaign included having made an appointment for a male health exam that included HIV testing and using condoms. Campaign exposure was significantly associated with HIV testing behavior and intentions and with knowledge of where to get tested. The campaign reached its underserved target audience and stimulated preventive behaviors. Social marketing represents a promising approach for HIV prevention among HI Latinos, in general, and HI Latino MSMW, in particular. PMID:19824840
Keller, Sarah N.; Otjen, A. J.
This article describes an interdisciplinary, experiential learning project that combined marketing and communications courses at a state university. Two professors from different colleges partnered with a domestic violence center to enable students to create a community-based social marketing campaign. Student assessments indicated success in…
Lugada, Eric; Millar, Debra; Haskew, John; Grabowsky, Mark; Garg, Navneet; Vestergaard, Mikkel; Kahn, James; Muraguri, Nicholas; Mermin, Jonathan
Background Integrated disease prevention in low resource settings can increase coverage, equity and efficiency in controlling high burden infectious diseases. A public-private partnership with the Ministry of Health, CDC, Vestergaard Frandsen and CHF International implemented a one-week integrated multi-disease prevention campaign. Method Residents of Lurambi, Western Kenya were eligible for participation. The aim was to offer services to at least 80% of those aged 15–49. 31 temporary sites in strategically dispersed locations offered: HIV counseling and testing, 60 male condoms, an insecticide-treated bednet, a household water filter for women or an individual filter for men, and for those testing positive, a 3-month supply of cotrimoxazole and referral for follow-up care and treatment. Findings Over 7 days, 47,311 people attended the campaign with a 96% uptake of the multi-disease preventive package. Of these, 99.7% were tested for HIV (87% in the target 15–49 age group); 80% had previously never tested. 4% of those tested were positive, 61% were women (5% of women and 3% of men), 6% had median CD4 counts of 541 cell/µL (IQR; 356, 754). 386 certified counselors attended to an average 17 participants per day, consistent with recommended national figures for mass campaigns. Among women, HIV infection varied by age, and was more likely with an ended marriage (e.g. widowed vs. never married, OR.3.91; 95% CI. 2.87–5.34), and lack of occupation. In men, quantitatively stronger relationships were found (e.g. widowed vs. never married, OR.7.0; 95% CI. 3.5–13.9). Always using condoms with a non-steady partner was more common among HIV-infected women participants who knew their status compared to those who did not (OR.5.4 95% CI. 2.3–12.8). Conclusion Through integrated campaigns it is feasible to efficiently cover large proportions of eligible adults in rural underserved communities with multiple disease preventive services simultaneously achieving various
Choleau, C; Maitre, J; Elie, C; Barat, P; Bertrand, A M; de Kerdanet, M; Le Tallec, C; Nicolino, M; Tubiana-Rufi, N; Levy-Marchal, C; Cahané, M; Robert, J-J
of an information campaign decreased it. The results have also helped better define the strategy and targets of the continuing prevention campaign, to more efficiently reduce the morbidity and mortality of T1D at diagnosis in children and adolescents in France. PMID:25497364
ROGERS, ELIZABETH; FINE, SARAH; HANDLEY, MARGARET A.; DAVIS, HODARI; KASS, JAMES; SCHILLINGER, DEAN
The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes (DM2) is rapidly rising, especially among minority and low-income youth. There is an unmet need to engage youth in identifying solutions to reverse this trajectory. Social marketing campaigns and entertainment education are effective forms of health communication for engaging populations in health-promoting behaviors. Critical to curbing the epidemic is moving the diabetes conversation away from individual behavior alone and toward a socio-ecologic perspective using a public health literacy framework. We developed an academic-community partnership to develop, implement, and evaluate a DM2 prevention campaign targeting minority and low-income youth. The Bigger Picture uses hard-hitting, youth-generated “spoken-word” messages around key environmental and social drivers of the DM2 epidemic. Campaign goals included promoting health capacity and civic engagement. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of the campaign, including (a) rationale and theoretical underpinnings; (b) steps in campaign creation; (c) testing the campaign messaging; and (d) campaign dissemination and evaluation planning. A youth-created health communication campaign using a public health literacy framework with targeted, relevant, and compelling messaging appears to be a promising vehicle for reaching at-risk youth to increase knowledge of and attitudes about preventing DM2, change social norms, and motivate participation in health promotion initiatives. PMID:25315590
Nagelhout, Gera E.; Osman, Amira; Yong, Hua-Hie; Huang, Li-Ling; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F.
Background Population-level interventions can possibly enhance each other’s effects when they are implemented simultaneously. When the plain packaging policy was implemented in Australia, pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages were also updated and a national mass media campaign was aired. This study examined whether smokers who recalled the media campaign reported more attention to and talking about HWLs. Methods Longitudinal survey data was obtained among Australian adult smokers, aged 18 years and older, from an online consumer panel. One survey wave was conducted before (September 2012) and two waves were conducted after (January 2013 and May 2013) the interventions. The sample was replenished to maintain a sample size of 1000 participants at each wave. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. Results Compared to wave 1, attention to HWLs increased at wave 2 (b = 0.32, SE = 0.06, p < 0.001), but not at wave 3 (b = 0.10, SE = 0.08, p = 0.198). Talking about HWLs increased over time (IRR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.58–2.09 and IRR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05–1.47, at wave 2 and wave 3 respectively). Campaign recall was significantly associated with more attention to HWLs (b = 0.29, SE = 0.05, p < 0.001) and with more talking about HWLs (IRR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.29) with similar effects across waves 2 and 3. Conclusions Recall of the campaign was associated with more attention to and talking about HWLs. When adjusting for campaign recall, there was still an increasing trend in attention and talking. This suggests that the media campaign and the new packaging and labeling policies had independent and positive effects on attention to and talking about HWLs. PMID:26050643
O'Hara, Blythe J; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Gebel, Klaus; Banovic, Debbie; Buffett, Kym M; Bauman, Adrian E
The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) was introduced in New South Wales in February 2009. It used mass reach media advertising and direct mail and/or proactive marketing to recruit participants. This article reports on the long-term impact of the campaign on GHS participation from July 2011 to June 2012. A stand-alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge, and behavioral variables before the first advertising phase, (n = 1,544, August-September 2010), during the advertising period (n = 1,500, February-March 2011; n = 1,500, June-July 2011; n = 1,500, February 2012), and after the advertising period (n = 1,500, June-July 2012). GHS usage data (n = 6,095) were collated during July 2011-June 2012. Unprompted and prompted awareness of GHS mass media significantly increased (0% to 8.0%, p < .001; and 14.1% to 43.9%, p < .001, respectively) as well as knowledge and perceived effectiveness of the GHS. Those from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic disadvantage and respondents who were overweight or obese were significantly more likely to report prompted campaign awareness. The majority (84.4%) of new GHS calls occurred when television advertising was present. Participants who cited mass media as their referral source were significantly more likely to enroll in the intensive coaching program. Mass media campaigns remain an effective method of promoting a telephone-based statewide lifestyle program. PMID:24662895
Introduction: Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). Methods: A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Results: Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. Conclusion: A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up. PMID:23042986
This commentary describes a national bullying prevention effort, called Stop Bullying Now!, which aims to increase awareness of the problem of bullying and related research findings, and disseminate evidence-based approaches to prevention. Drawing on the special issue's main theme of the social context of bullying, the author describes the process…
Dixon, Helen G; Scully, Maree L; Miller, Jessica R; Patterson, Carla; Hood, Rebecca; Slevin, Terry J
Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of a population-based, statewide public health intervention designed to improve women's awareness and knowledge of the link between alcohol and cancer. Design Cross-sectional tracking surveys conducted pre-intervention and post-intervention (waves I and III of campaign). Setting Western Australia. Participants Cross-sectional samples of Western Australian women aged 25–54 years before the campaign (n=136) and immediately after wave I (n=206) and wave III (n=155) of the campaign. Intervention The ‘Alcohol and Cancer’ mass media campaign ran from May 2010 to May 2011 and consisted of three waves of paid television advertising with supporting print advertisements. Main outcome measures Campaign awareness; knowledge of drinking guidelines and the link between alcohol and cancer; intentions towards drinking. Results Prompted recognition of the campaign increased from 67% following wave I to 81% following wave III (adjusted OR (adj OR)=2.31, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.00, p=0.003). Improvements in women's knowledge that drinking alcohol on a regular basis increases cancer risk were found following wave I (adj OR=2.60, 95% CI 1.57 to 4.30, p<0.001) and wave III (adj OR=4.88, 95% CI 2.55 to 9.36, p<0.001) compared with baseline. Knowledge of the recommended number of standard drinks for low risk in the long term increased between baseline and wave I (adj OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.76, p=0.041), but not baseline and wave III (adj OR=1.42, 95% CI 0.84 to 2.39, p=0.191). Among women who drink alcohol, the proportion expressing intentions to reduce alcohol consumption increased significantly between baseline and wave III (adj OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.11 to 5.12, p=0.026). However, no significant reductions in recent drinking behaviour were found following the campaign. Conclusions Results indicate a population-based mass media campaign can reach the target audience and raise awareness of links between alcohol and cancer, and knowledge of
Zimmerman, Rick S; Palmgreen, Philip M; Noar, Seth M; Lustria, Mia Liza A; Lu, Hung-Yi; Lee Horosewski, Mary
This study evaluates the ability of a safer sex televised public service announcement (PSA) campaign to increase safer sexual behavior among at-risk young adults. Independent, monthly random samples of 100 individuals were surveyed in each city for 21 months as part of an interrupted-time-series design with a control community. The 3-month high-audience-saturation campaign took place in Lexington, KY, with Knoxville, TN, as a comparison city. Messages were especially designed and selected for the target audience (those above the median on a composite sensation-seeking/impulsive-decision-making scale). Data indicate high campaign exposure among the target audience, with 85%-96% reporting viewing one or more PSAs. Analyses indicate significant 5-month increases in condom use, condom-use self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions among the target group in the campaign city with no changes in the comparison city. The results suggest that a carefully targeted, intensive mass media campaign using televised PSAs can change safer sexual behaviors. PMID:17602097
Bray, Janet E; Stub, Dion; Ngu, Philip; Cartledge, Susie; Straney, Lahn; Stewart, Michelle; Keech, Wendy; Patsamanis, Harry; Shaw, James; Finn, Judith
Background The aim of this study was to examine the awareness of a recent mass media campaign, and its influence on knowledge and prehospital times, in a cohort of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients admitted to an Australian hospital. Methods and Results We conducted 199 semistructured interviews with consecutive ACS patients who were aged 35 to 75 years, competent to provide consent, and English speaking. Questions addressed the factors known to predict prehospital delay, awareness of the campaign, and whether it increased knowledge and influenced actions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between campaign awareness and a 1-hour delay in deciding to seek medical attention (patient delay) and a 2-hour delay in presenting to hospital (prehospital delay). The median age was 62 years (IQR=53 to 68 years), and 68% (n=136) were male. Awareness of the campaign was reported by 127 (64%) patients, with most of these patients stating the campaign (1) increased their understanding of what is a heart attack (63%), (2) increased their awareness of the signs and symptoms of heart attack (68%), and (3) influenced their actions in response to symptoms (43%). After adjustment for other predictors, awareness of the campaign was significantly associated with patient delay time of ≤1 hour (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.25, 95% CI: 1.03 to 4.91, P=0.04) and prehospital delay time ≤2 hours (AOR=3.11, 95% CI: 1.36 to 7.08, P=0.007). Conclusions Our study showed reasonably high awareness of the warning signs campaign, which was significantly associated with shorter prehospital decision-making and faster presentation to hospital. PMID:26150478
Effectiveness of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (July 11, 2000).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.
This hearing focuses on the evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Specifically, the subcommittee was interested in measuring whether significant taxpayer investment has been effective in accomplishing the objectives of the campaign-- reaching the target audience, changing young peoples attitudes about drugs, encouraging…
HIV/AIDS are affecting increasingly complex, more diverse populations, particularly communities of color. Despite National prevention efforts designed to speak to marginal experience, these communities continue to be disproportionately affected, especially in rural areas of the country which are difficult to access with communication about HIV. A…
The National Safety Stand-Down to Prevent Falls in Construction* will be observed May 2-6, 2016, and is hosted by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration and stakeholders, including CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. During the voluntary stand-down, construction employers are asked to speak directly to their employees about fall hazards to reinforce the importance of adhering to fall prevention measures. Employers are encouraged to have a Spanish speaker deliver the stand-down message to Spanish-speaking employees (simultaneous translation is an alternative). Across the United States, state agencies, public health practitioners, and private contractors will promote participation in the event. PMID:27100265
Despite the availability of a range of Australian self-management support programs targeting the individual patient and/or health professional, three-quarters of Australians have at least one long-term medical condition, suggesting that a more comprehensive public health approach is needed. Use of mass media to deliver community health messages is a well established public health strategy. It may enhance more targeted approaches with its ability to reach large numbers of people simultaneously, including those difficult to identify, high-risk groups and those difficult to reach through traditional medical delivery. By simultaneously influencing large numbers of people, well designed health messages have the potential to promote and maintain behavioural change over time. Back Pain: Don't Take It Lying Down (1997-1999), a mass media campaign of the Victorian WorkCover Authority, can be seen as a prototype of a successful public health strategy designed to enhance people's self-management abilities. One of the main messages of the campaign was that there is a lot you can do to help yourself, which emphasises shifting the responsibility of control onto the individual. The success of the campaign makes a compelling evidence-based case for using a similar strategy to enhance the self-management abilities of the population. PMID:19143582
Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.
The interactions of amateur astronomers with professional astronomers have changed significantly in the digital era, from an occasional interaction of exchanging individual images to a sustained collaboration to coordinated global networks of amateur astronomers. Today, amateur astronomers, with sophisticated equipment and software, provide several valuable resources to the professional observers/astronomers: a large source of manpower, or extension of the professional astronomer's group; a vast collection of data that provides both legacy and temporal information and finally, as ambassadors of science, help build bridges between the scientific and public communities. From the professional astronomer/scientist's perspective, given the vast amounts of data acquired through various projects, the natural progression to interactive collaborations between these two communities is tremendously beneficial. The inclusion of the public in this exciting format of interactions between the professional and amateur community is the third component of synergistic science. The concept of Citizen Science, of allowing the public to perform simple visual examination of vast data sets according to a set of guidelines, is now becoming multi-dimensional, corresponding to the experience level of participants in the project. I will highlight a current project that leverages the collaboration between professional and amateur astronomers; and the use of social media to include various components of the public: Comet ISON Observing Campaign (CIOC). From the initial discovery of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) by Russian amateur astronomers in September 2012, to the present day, amateur astronomers provide valuable resources of global coverage, data, and legacy knowledge to the professional community. The Comet ISON Observing Campaign (CIOC) goals (http://www.isoncampaign.org) are: (i) a detailed characterization of a subset of comets (sun grazers) that are usually difficult to identify and study in
Dignan, M B; Michielutte, R; Jones-Lighty, D D; Bahnson, J
The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project was a 5-year community-based health education program funded by the National Cancer Institute. The program was developed to reduce cervical cancer mortality among black women in Forsyth County, and it was targeted to those ages 18 and older. The program tried to educate the target population through a combination of mass media and direct education. This paper reports on an experiment conducted to investigate sources of influence on the effectiveness of direct mail, a technique used to augment mass media health education. Direct mail has shown promise as a method for reaching target populations that are difficult to reach with other mass media approaches. Using commercially prepared mailing lists sorted by zip code and other characteristics of the resident, health-related materials can be targeted to persons at their homes. A randomized experiment involving 1,000 households was carried out to estimate the influence of type of postage and address (name versus "resident or occupant") on the response rate to direct mail. Results indicated that there was no significant advantage from use of first class over bulk rate postage, but the return was significantly greater when the envelope bore a name rather than "resident or occupant." PMID:8041850
Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Foerster, Susan B.; Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy
Objective: To gain opinions from low-income, limited-English-speaking Hispanic and Asian immigrants for formative research in a social marketing campaign. Design: Nineteen questions on obesity prevention-related topics were embedded into a larger random digit-dial survey investigating the effects of language and cultural barriers on health care…
Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A
Dr. Howard Riley Raper (1886-1978) was an early oral health pioneer and dental roentgenology faculty member of the Indiana Dental College (IDC) who single-handedly introduced key concepts in radiology to dentistry. Due to his efforts, IDC became in 1910-11 the first dental school to have a regular course in dental radiology. Virtually all American dental schools soon added this subject to their regular curriculum. Raper's text, Elementary and Dental Radiography (1913) became the first comprehensive student textbook of dental X-ray diagnosis. In his 1933 Blue Book entitled, The New Aim in the Care of the Teeth, Raper elaborated upon his mission to prevent caries, by comparing the insidious damages of tooth decay with the threat of insect-borne disease. PMID:20968230
Dagan, Ron; Pelton, Stephen; Bakaletz, Lauren; Cohen, Robert
Otitis media is a common childhood infection of the middle ear and a major cause of morbidity. This multifactorial disease manifests as a spectrum of clinical syndromes from uncomplicated acute otitis media to more complex recurrent and chronic cases (frequently polymicrobial), with the major pathogens involved being Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) target only a few serotypes that cause otitis media; however, results from studies suggest that existing PCVs can prevent early episodes of disease associated with vaccine serotypes, resulting in a reduction of subsequent complex cases caused by non-vaccine serotypes and other otopathogens, which contribute considerably to the disease burden. In this Review, we discuss the role of pneumococcus in the disease continuum and assess clinical evidence showing the effect of prevention of early episodes on the complex interplay between bacterial species implicated in otitis media. PMID:27036355
Barnes, Rosanne; Bauman, Adrian E.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Rosenberg, Michael; Leyden, Kevin M.; Abildso, Christiaan G.; Reger-Nash, Bill
Objective Built environment attributes are associated with walking but little is known about how the impact of walking campaigns varies across different environments. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of a campaign on changes in walking between respondents with a high versus low mix of local destinations. Methods Pre- and post-campaign data from a quasi-experimental study were used to compare changes in walking for residents aged 40–65 with high and low destination mix in a West Virginia community campaign (March–May 2005). Results Overall samples consisted of 777 intervention community respondents and 388 comparison community respondents with pre- and post-campaign data. Among insufficiently active intervention respondents, those with high destination mix increased their walking by 0.64 days more than those with low mix (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed among the comparison community. Conclusion The walking response to campaigns in those insufficiently active may be influenced by neighborhood attributes. PMID:26844097
This article analyzes a series of health education projects that used the mass media to change behavior. First, the article describes how persuasion theories are used to maximize impact in mass communication campaigns. Second, this paper discusses theories of social psychology used in such campaigns. One such theory, cognitive dissonance, explains changes at the level of attitudes, beliefs and opinion. Another theory, social learning, defines strategies of behavior changes. A third theory, concerning diffusion of innovations, helps understand the network of interpersonal relationships essential for the adoption of any innovation. McGuire's inoculation theory suggests strategies to aid resistance to harmful environmental influences (e.g. smoking, excessive drinking, etc.). Third, this work reviews public health campaigns that have used one or more of these theories of social psychology. The first project, dealing with smoking behavior cessation and prevention, mainly used strategies of interpersonal communication for inoculating and modeling useful behavior in order to resist social pressures favorable to smoking. The second project, designed to prevent alcoholism, used the mass media primarily. The objective of this campaign was to obtain changes in knowledge, attitude and behavior in the public through modeling desirable behaviors over public service announcements. The third campaign, a heart disease prevention program, used a combination of mass media and interpersonal communication to achieve changes in lifestyle of the population. Finally, this article describes limitations in using mass media in behavior change health programs. PMID:6836345
Willis, E; Strasburger, V C
American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials. PMID:9568012
Tambashe, B Oleko; Speizer, Ilene S; Amouzou, Agbessi; Djangone, A M Rachelle
This study assesses the impact of the Prevention du SIDA sur les Axes Migratoires de l'Afrique de l'Ouest Roulez Protege mass media campaign in Burkina Faso on truckers' likelihood of talking with colleagues about HIV/AIDS, using condoms with an occasional sexual partner, and intending to use a condom in the future. A total of 764 and 1,032 truckers were interviewed in 1997 and 2000 along the Ouagadougou-Niangoloko trucking route. Truckers' exposure to the program has been high and the main message promoted has been greatly understood among those exposed. Logistic regression analyses suggest that the campaign did not have direct behavioral impacts. Exposure to radio spots and participation in group discussions were found to be significantly associated with truckers discussing AIDS with peers or reporting intentions to use a condom in the future. Exposure to Roulez Protege messages through television or billboards was not found to be significantly associated with interpersonal discussion or condom use intentions. Programs should seek to sustain and expand the indirect effects of these types of programs in West Africa. Reinforcing interpersonal counseling interventions should, down the road, lead to overall knowledge and behavior changes among the high-risk trucker population. PMID:12627742
Turk, Tahir; Murukutla, Nandita; Gupta, Shefali; Kaur, Jagdish; Mullin, Sandra; Saradhi, Ranjana; Chaturvedi, Pankaj
The burden of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in India is substantial, with smokeless tobacco being the predominant form of tobacco use. Use of smokeless tobacco (for example gutkha, paan, khaini, and pan masala) is linked to a host of socioeconomic and cultural factors including gender, regional differences, educational level, and income disparities. Given the scale of the problem, a national social marketing campaign was developed and implemented. The creative approach used testimonials from a surgeon and patients at Tata Memorial Hospital in Mumbai. The communication message approach was designed to reflect the realities of disfiguring, disabling, and fatal cancers caused by smokeless tobacco. Evaluation of the campaign identified significant differences across a range of campaign behavioral predictors by audience segments aware of the campaign versus those who were "campaign unaware". Significant findings were also identified regarding vulnerable groups by gender (female/male) and rural/urban disparities. Findings are discussed in relation to the powerful impact of using graphic, emotive, and testimonial imagery for tobacco control with socially disadvantaged groups. PMID:22350861
Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Silverman, Jay G.
This chapter discusses a three-month statewide mass media campaign to prevent teen dating violence, "See It and Stop It." The Massachusetts campaign reached out--using television, radio, and print advertising--and also encouraged anti-violence activism in select high schools. The objective was to drive thirteen- to seventeen-year-olds to a Web…
Solorio, Rosa; Norton-Shelpuk, Pamela; Forehand, Mark; Montaño, Daniel; Stern, Joshua; Aguirre, Joel; Martinez, Marcos
Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and delayed diagnosis in the United States. This paper describes the evaluation of a pilot of the Tu Amigo Pepe, a multimedia HIV testing campaign aimed at Latino MSM in Seattle, WA particularly targeting immigrants who may not identify as gay, ages 18-30 years old. The 16-week campaign included Spanish-language radio public service announcements (PSAs), a Web site, social media outreach, a reminder system using mobile technology, print materials and a toll-free hotline. In developing the PSAs, the Integrated Behavioral Model was used as a framework to reframe negative attitudes, beliefs and norms towards HIV testing with positive ones as well as to promote self-efficacy towards HIV testing. The campaign had a significant and immediate impact on attitudes, beliefs, norms and self-efficacy towards HIV testing as well as on actual behavior, with HIV testing rates increasing over time. PMID:26850101
Azagba, Sunday; Burhoo, Premduth; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T
Background Mauritius has made great strides in adopting evidence-based tobacco control measures, including an increase in its cigarette excise tax and anti-tobacco mass media (Sponge) campaign. The primary objective of this study is to examine the combined effect of these measures on smoking behavior. Methods This study used longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Mauritius Survey, 2009–2011. Waves 1 and 2 were conducted before the tax increase and wave 3 was conducted shortly after the Sponge campaign and six months after the cigarette excise tax increase. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the effects of these two key tobacco control measures on smoking prevalence and the quantity of cigarettes smoked. Results The results showed that the combination of cigarette tax increase and the Sponge campaign had a significant negative effect on the prevalence of smoking in Mauritius and the number of cigarettes smoked among continuing smokers. Specifically, the measures significantly reduced the odds of being a smoker (AOR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81–0.97). For average daily cigarettes smoked, the measures had a significant reduction in cigarettes per day by about 6% (Incidence-rate ratios 0.94, 95% CI 0.89–0.99). Conclusions The combination of policy measures significantly reduced the consumption of cigarettes in Mauritius. While these results are encouraging, these efforts must be part of a sustained effort to further reduce the smoking prevalence in Mauritius. PMID:25701857
Chaux, Enrique; Velásquez, Ana María; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Scheithauer, Herbert
There is considerable debate over whether cyberbullying is just another form of bullying, or whether it is a problem distinct enough to require specific intervention. One way to explore this issue is to analyze whether programs designed to prevent traditional bullying help prevent cyberbullying, and whether programs designed to prevent cyberbullying prevent traditional bullying. The main goal of the current study was to analyze the spillover effects of the cyberbullying prevention program Media Heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying. Media Heroes promotes empathy, knowledge of risks and consequences, and strategies that allow bystanders to defend victims from cyberbullying. Mixed ANOVAs were conducted comparing pretest and post-test (6 months after intervention) measures of 722 students (ages 11-17) assigned to a long (15 sessions) intervention, a short (1 day) intervention, and a control group. In addition to confirming the previously reported effects on cyberbullying, Media Heroes was found to reduce traditional bullying. Effects were larger for the long-version of the program than for the short 1-day version. No effects were found on victimization by either cyberbullying or traditional bullying. Strategies to complement traditional and cyberbullying prevention efforts are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:157-165, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26879895
Corwin, Michael J.; Vezina, Richard M.; Pelton, Steven I.; Feldman, Henry A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Mitchell, Allen A.
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common childhood illness and the leading indication for antibiotic prescriptions for US children. Xylitol, a naturally occurring sugar alcohol, can reduce AOM when given 5 times per day as a gum or syrup, but a more convenient dosing regimen is needed for widespread adoption. METHODS: We designed a pragmatic practice-based randomized controlled trial to determine if viscous xylitol solution at a dose of 5 g 3 times per day could reduce the occurrence of clinically diagnosed AOM among otitis-prone children 6 months through 5 years of age. RESULTS: A total of 326 subjects were enrolled, with 160 allocated to xylitol and 166 to placebo. In the primary analysis of time to first clinically diagnosed AOM episode, the hazard ratio for xylitol versus placebo recipients was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61 to 1.3). In secondary analyses, the incidence of AOM was 0.53 episodes per 90 days in the xylitol group versus 0.59 in the placebo group (difference 0.06; 95% CI –0.25 to 0.13); total antibiotic use was 6.8 days per 90 days in the xylitol group versus 6.4 in the placebo group (difference 0.4; 95% CI –1.8 to 2.7). The lack of effectiveness was not explained by nonadherence to treatment, as the hazard ratio for those taking nearly all assigned xylitol compared with those taking none was 0.93 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.57). CONCLUSIONS: Viscous xylitol solution in a dose of 5 g 3 times per day was ineffective in reducing clinically diagnosed AOM among otitis-prone children. PMID:24394686
James, Katie J.; Albrecht, Julie A.; Litchfield, Ruth E.; Weishaar, Christopher A.
Foodborne illnesses remain a common problem in the United States. Focus group results indicated that lack of knowledge and improper handling of leftovers were common among food preparers in families with young children. The USDA-recommended storage time for leftovers was used to develop and conduct a food safety social marketing campaign, "4…
...,” and its implementing directive at 32 CFR parts 2001 and 2004. (b) Any attempt by news media representatives to obtain classified information will be reported through the Headquarters Office of Public... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preventing release of...
Bier, Melinda C.; Schmidt, Spring J.; Shields, David; Zwarun, Lara; Sherblom, Stephen; Pulley, Cynthia; Rucker, Billy
School-based tobacco prevention programs have had limited success reducing smoking rates in the long term. Media literacy programs offer an innovative vehicle for delivery of potentially more efficacious anti-tobacco education. However, these programs have been neither widely implemented nor well evaluated. We conducted a pre-post evaluation of a…
The United States is a violent nation. This report reviews current school, community, and mass media strategies; describes promising programs now in operation; and offers recommendations for how police and other criminal justice professionals can get involved. By introducing the basic concepts and strategies of violence prevention, the report…
Background Use of information campaigns and educational interventions directed to citizens and supported by physicians, aimed at promoting the appropriate use of medicines, have been evaluated by several studies with conflicting results. These interventions are potentially relevant, favouring the reduction of unnecessary use of medicines and related risks. Several studies have specifically evaluated the promotion of the appropriate use of antibiotics in adults and children, with variable results. A controlled study is proposed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention aimed at reducing antibiotic prescription by increasing awareness on risks of their unnecessary use. Methods/design Information will be provided to citizens through several media (posters, local TV, radio and newspapers, video terminals, websites of Local Health Authorities). Brochures with information on expected benefits and risks of antibiotics will be also available, either with direct access in waiting rooms and pharmacies or handed out and mediated by doctors. Physicians and pharmacists will get specific data on local antibiotic resistance. A small group of representative doctors have also actively participated in defining the campaign key messages. A sample of general practitioners and paediatricians will be trained in patient counselling strategies. The information campaign will be implemented in two Provinces of Emilia-Romagna during the fall-winter season (November 2011-February 2012). Change in the overall prescribing rate of antibiotics (expressed as DDD per 1000 inhabitants/day) in the intervention area will be compared versus other areas in the same Region. Knowledge and attitudes of the general population will be evaluated through a phone and internet survey on a representative sample. Discussion While the campaign messages will be mainly directed to the general population, doctors' prescribing will be assessed. The main rationale for this apparent
The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284
Fernández Cerdeño, Araceli; Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Sañudo, Fernando; Carrillo, Héctor; Engelberg, Moshe; Sipan, Carol; Hovell, Melbourne
This article describes the development process of Hombres Sanos, a social marketing campaign to promote HIV testing and condom use for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women. The steps included qualitative formative research and a social marketing analytic framework to understand our target audience better, identify incentives and barriers to risk reduction, guide product development, define an optimal promotional campaign, and inform the selection of campaign platforms. A better grasp of the authors' target beneficiaries' needs and values led to an innovative dual strategy for audience segmentation and targeting. The campaign had consumer-centered, culturally sensitive, and theory-driven communication materials. The authors found communication materials and events to be appealing and effective. The campaign was well received among the wider community, and evaluation showed promising results among Latino men in general and among heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women in particular. The authors provide a step-by-step overview of the project's formative research, including research methods and findings, and how these were translated into a social marketing campaign. In addition, the authors discuss the challenges encountered in this process and the potential of social marketing to reduce HIV risk among Latinos. PMID:22500921
McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H
This study examined in young adolescent girls the fit of a theoretical model of the contribution of media literacy to body dissatisfaction via the mediating influences of internalisation of media ideals and appearance comparisons. Female Grade 7 students (N=469) completed self-report assessments of media literacy, internalisation, appearance comparisons, body dissatisfaction, and media exposure. Strong, significant inverse associations between media literacy and body dissatisfaction, internalisation, and appearance comparisons were observed. Path analysis revealed that a slightly modified revision of the model provided a good fit to the data. Specifically, body dissatisfaction was influenced directly by appearance comparisons, internalisation, and body mass index, and indirectly by media literacy and media exposure. Indirect pathways were mediated by appearance comparisons and internalisation. Thus, a relationship between media literacy and eating disorder risk factors was observed. Findings may explain positive outcomes of media literacy interventions in eating disorder prevention. PMID:23465878
Signes-Soler, Isabel; Javaloy, Jaime; Muñoz, Gonzalo; Moya, Tomas; Montalbán, Raúl; Albarrán, César
Purpose: To compare the safety and the visual outcomes of two experienced cataract surgeons who converted from extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) to manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) during a campaign for the prevention of blindness. Methods: Two surgeons used the ECCE technique (ECCE group) during a campaign in Burkina Faso on 93 consecutive cataract patients with a corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) <20/80 in the best eye. Both surgeons used MSICS for the first time on 98 consecutive cases in another campaign in Kenya after theoretical instructional courses. Results: There were no significant differences in CDVA at 3 months postoperatively. There were 69% of eyes with uncorrected distance visual acuity ≥20/60 in the MSICS group and 49% eyes in the ECCE group. Spherical equivalents ranged between −1D and +1D in 55% of the MSICS group versus 43% in the ECCE group. There were significant differences in the changes in the vertical component of astigmatism (J45) but not the horizontal (J0) component. There were no significant differences in the intraoperative complications. The most common postoperative complication was corneal edema on the first day in 40.86% and 19.38% of the ECCE and MSICS groups, respectively. Conclusion: Transitioning from ECCE to MSICS for experienced cataract surgeons in surgical campaigns is safe. The rate of complications is similar for both techniques. Slightly better visual and refractive outcomes can be achieved due to the decreased induction of corneal astigmatism. PMID:27162451
Khan, M Nadeem; Ren, Dabin; Kaur, Ravinder; Basha, Saleem; Zagursky, Robert; Pichichero, Michael E
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a predominant organism of the upper respiratory nasopharyngeal microbiota. Its disease spectrum includes otitis media, sinusitis, non-bacteremic pneumonia and invasive infections. Protein-based vaccines to prevent NTHi infections are needed to alleviate these infections in children and vulnerable populations such as the elderly and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One NTHi protein is included in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and has been shown to provide efficacy. Our lab has been interested in understanding the immunogenicity of NTHi vaccine candidates P6, protein D and OMP26 for preventing acute otitis media in young children. We expect that continued investigation and progress in the development of an efficacious protein based vaccine against NTHi infections is achievable in the near future. PMID:26894630
Rice, Simon; Robinson, Jo; Bendall, Sarah; Hetrick, Sarah; Cox, Georgina; Bailey, Eleanor; Gleeson, John; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario
Objective: Suicide remains a major global public health issue for young people. The reach and accessibility of online and social media-based interventions herald a unique opportunity for suicide prevention. To date, the large body of research into suicide prevention has been undertaken atheoretically. This paper provides a rationale and theoretical framework (based on the interpersonal theory of suicide), and draws on our experiences of developing and testing online and social media-based interventions. Method: The implementation of three distinct online and social media-based intervention studies, undertaken with young people at risk of suicide, are discussed. We highlight the ways that these interventions can serve to bolster social connectedness in young people, and outline key aspects of intervention implementation and moderation. Results: Insights regarding the implementation of these studies include careful protocol development mindful of risk and ethical issues, establishment of suitably qualified teams to oversee development and delivery of the intervention, and utilisation of key aspects of human support (i.e., moderation) to encourage longer-term intervention engagement. Conclusions: Online and social media-based interventions provide an opportunity to enhance feelings of connectedness in young people, a key component of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Our experience has shown that such interventions can be feasibly and safely conducted with young people at risk of suicide. Further studies, with controlled designs, are required to demonstrate intervention efficacy. PMID:27274743
Wu, Yi Wei; Leow, Kheng Song; Zhu, Yujin; Tan, Cher Heng
Iodinated radiocontrast media (IRCM) is widely used in current clinical practice. Although IRCM is generally safe, serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may still occur. IRCM-induced ADRs may be subdivided into chemotoxic and hypersensitivity reactions. Several factors have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of ADRs, including previous contrast media reactions, history of asthma and allergic disease, etc. Contrast media with lower osmolality is generally recommended for at-risk patients to prevent ADRs. Current premedication prophylaxis in at-risk patients may reduce the risk of ADRs. However, there is still a lack of consensus on the prophylactic role of premedication. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is another component of IRCM-related ADRs. Hydration remains the mainstay of CIN prophylaxis in at-risk patients. Despite several preventive measures, ADRs may still occur. Treatment strategies for potential contrast reactions are also summarised in this article. This article summarises the pathophysiology, epidemiology and risk factors of ADRs with emphasis on prevention and treatment strategies. This will allow readers to understand the rationale behind appropriate patient preparation for diagnostic imaging involving IRCM. PMID:27292007
Notredame, Charles-Édouard; Pauwels, Nathalie; Walter, Michel; Danel, Thierry; Vaiva, Guillaume
Media coverage of suicide can result in increased morbi-mortality suicidal rates, due to an imitation process in those who are particularly vulnerable. This phenomenon is known as "Werther effect". Werther effect's magnitude depends on several qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the media coverage, in a dose-effect relationship. An extensive (in terms of audience and history repetition) and salient coverage (glorification of suicide, description of the suicidal method, etc.) increases the risk of contagion. Celebrities' suicide is particularly at risk of Werther effect. Media may also have a preventive role with respect to suicide. Indeed, according to "Papageno effect", journalists could, under certain conditions, help preventing suicide when reporting suicide stories. Two main theories in the field of social psychology have been proposed to account for Werther and Papageno effects: social learning theory and differential identification. Identification of Werther and Papageno effects uncovers new responsibilities and potentialities for the journalists in terms of public health. Their description provides a basis for promising targeted prevention actions. PMID:26358670
Cavallo, David N; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; McQueen, Amy; Ramirez, Amelie; Riley, William T
Social media are now used by a majority of American internet users. Social media platforms encourage participants to share information with their online social connections and exchange user-generated content. Significant numbers of people are already using social media to share health-related information. As such, social media provide an opportunity for "user-generated" cancer control and prevention interventions that employ users' behavior, knowledge, and existing social networks for the creation and dissemination of interventions. These interventions also enable novel data collection techniques and research designs that will allow investigators to examine real-time behavioral responses to interventions. Emerging social media-based interventions for modifying cancer-related behaviors have been applied to such domains as tobacco use, diet, physical activity, and sexual practices, and several examples are discussed for illustration purposes. Despite some promising early findings, challenges including inadequate user engagement, privacy concerns, and lack of internet access among some groups need to be addressed in future research. Recommendations for advancing the field include stronger partnerships with commercial technology companies, utilization of rapid and adaptive designs to identify successful strategies for user engagement, rigorous and iterative efficacy testing of these strategies, and inclusive methods for intervention dissemination. PMID:25103820
Allen, Jane A; Davis, K C; Kamyab, K; Farrelly, M C
This study explores whether exposure to advertisements that focus on the negative effects of tobacco industry advertising and promotion at the point of sale (anti-POS advertising) influence: (i) attitude toward POS advertising; (ii) perceived impact of POS advertising on youth smoking; and (iii) support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the POS among adult non-smokers in New York. Data are from a split-sample, experimental study, using an online media tracking survey with embedded TV, radio and print advertising. Exposure to anti-POS advertising was associated with higher odds of holding a negative attitude toward POS advertising (OR 2.43, P < 0.001) and support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the POS (OR 1.77, P < 0.05), but not with perceived impact of POS tobacco advertisements on youth smoking. Findings suggest the possibility that a mass media campaign could be used to influence public attitude toward POS advertising and support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the POS. PMID:25503377
Fu, K. W.; Yip, P. S. F.
Media recommendations on suicide reporting are available in many countries and in different languages. Hong Kong newspapers have been found to be noncompliant with WHO recommendations. A booklet containing WHO media guidelines "Preventing Suicide: A Resource for Media Professionals," and an awareness campaign were launched in November 2004 in Hong…
Dignan, M; Bahnson, J; Sharp, P; Beal, P; Smith, M; Michielutte, R
The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project (FCP) is a community-based health education project funded by the National Cancer Institute. The target population includes around 25 000 black women age 18 and older who reside in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The overall goal of the program is to prevent mortality from cervical cancer by promoting Pap smears and return for follow-up care when needed. Based on the principles of social marketing, a plan to reach the target population with mass media educational messages through electronic and print channels was developed. Guided by marketing objectives, the target population was divided into relatively discrete segments. The segments included church attenders, patients in waiting rooms of public and selected health providers, female students at local colleges, shoppers, viewers of radio and television, newspaper readers, and business owners and managers. Introduction of the program was based on strategies developed for reaching the target population in each segment with television, radio and print mass media messages. Qualitative assessment of the mass media developed by the program indicated that all forms of communication helped to increase awareness of the program. PMID:10148691
Davis, Kevin C; Nonnemaker, James; Duke, Jennifer; Farrelly, Matthew C
Cessation television ads are often evaluated with measures of perceived effectiveness (PE) that gauge smokers' reactions to the ads. Although measures of PE have been validated for other genres of public service announcements, no studies to our knowledge have demonstrated the predictive validity of PE for cessation TV ads specifically. We analyzed data from a longitudinal Web survey of smokers in the United States to assess whether measures of PE for cessation TV ads are causally antecedent to cessation-related outcomes. These data consisted of baseline and 2-week follow-up surveys of 3,411 smokers who were shown a number of cessation TV ads and were asked to provide their appraisals of PE for those messages. We found that baseline PE for the ads was associated with increased negative feelings about smoking, increased outcome expectations about the benefits of quitting, increased consideration of the benefits of quitting, increased desire to quit, and increased intentions to quit smoking at follow-up. Results suggest that measures of PE for cessation TV ads can be powerful predictors of likely ad success. Hence, our findings support the use of PE in quantitative ad pretesting as part of a standard regimen of formative research for cessation television campaigns. PMID:22812702
This paper presents results from fiscal impact simulations of three national-level policies designed to prevent unintended pregnancy: A media campaign encouraging condom use, a pregnancy prevention program for at-risk youth, and an expansion in Medicaid family planning services. These simulations were performed using FamilyScape, a recently…
Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; ISON, CIOC; CIOC, NASA
From the initial discovery of C/2012 S1 (ISON) by Russian amateur astronomers in September 2012 to present day, amateur astronomers provide valuable resources of global coverage, data and legacy knowledge to the professional community. C/ISON promises to be the rare and brightest of comets if predictions of its evolution are correct. NASA has requested a small group of cometary scientists to facilitate, support and coordinate the observations of this potential bright comet. The Comet ISON Observing Campaign (CIOC) goals (www.isoncampaign.org) are: (i) a detailed characterization of a subset of comets (sun grazers) that are usually difficult to identify and study in the few hours before their demise; and (ii) facilitate collaborations between various investigators for the best science possible. One of the tangible products is the creation of CIOC_ISON, a professional - amateur astronomer collaboration network established on Facebook, with members from the scientific, amateur, science outreach/education, public from around the globe (www.facebook.com/groups/482774205113931/). Members, by invitation or request, provide the details of their equipment, location and observations and post their observations to both share and provide a forum for interactive discussions. Guidelines for observations and their logs are provided and updated as deemed necessary by the scientists for useful data. The long lead time between initial discovery of C/ISON in September 2012 and its perihelion in November 2013 provides a rare opportunity for the scientific and amateur astronomer communities to study a sungrazer comet on its initial (and possibly) only passage through the inner solar system. These collaborations, once an occasional connection, are now becoming essential and necessary, changing the paradigm of research. Unlike Citizen Science, these interactive and collaborative activities are the equivalent of Inverse Citizen Science, with the scientific community relying on the amateur
Young, Sean D.; Cumberland, William G.; Nianogo, Roch; Menacho, Luis A.; Galea, Jerome T.; Coates, Thomas
Background Social media technologies are newly emerging tools that can be used for HIV prevention and testing in low- and middle-income countries, such as Peru. This study examined the efficacy of using the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) social media intervention to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. Methods In a cluster randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation, Peruvian MSM from Greater Lima/Callao (N = 556) were randomly assigned to join private intervention or control groups on Facebook for 12 weeks. In the intervention condition, forty-nine Peruvian MSM were trained and randomly assigned to be HIV prevention mentors to participants via Facebook groups over 12 weeks. Control participants received an enhanced standard of care, including standard offline HIV prevention available in Peru as well as participation in Facebook groups (without peer leaders) that provided study updates and HIV testing information. After accepting a request to join the groups, continued participation was voluntary. Participants could request a free HIV test at a local community clinic, and completed questionnaires on HIV risk behaviors and social media use at baseline and 12-week follow-up. Findings Between March 19, 2012, and June 11, 2012, and Sept 26, 2012, and Dec 19, 2012, 556 participants were randomly assigned to intervention groups (N=278) or control groups (N=278); we analyse data for 252 and 246. 43 participants (17%) in the intervention group and 16 (7%) in the control groups got tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio 2.61, 95% CI 1.55–4.38). No adverse events were reported. Retention at 12-week follow-up was 90%. Across conditions, 7 (87.5%) of the 8 participants who tested positive were linked to care at a local clinic. Interpretation Development of peer-mentored social media communities seemed to be an effective method to increase HIV testing among high-risk populations in Peru.: Results suggest that the HOPE social
Kuefner, Michael A; Heinrich, Marc; Bautz, Werner; Uder, Michael
Iodinated contrast media are widely used in computed tomography and angiography. Adverse reactions such as contrast-medium induced nephropathy (CIN), anaphylactoid reactions and iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis are associated with intravasal administration of contrast agents. Iodinated contrast agents are generally considered to be safe, but in rare cases they can cause severe life threatening situations. In this review we present an overview about the incidence, pathways, and risk factors of adverse reactions. Simple schemes including hydration protocols for prevention of CIN, medication for prophylaxis of iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis with thyreostatics and anaphylactoid reactions with histamine antagonists and corticosteroids are suggested. PMID:19294866
Brownoff, R.; Hutchison, L.J.
Most clinical drug trials relating to acute otitis media have evaluated medications in terms of treatment. In this randomized double-blind, cross-over study, the effectiveness of an antihistamine decongestant in the prevention of AOM was investigated, rather than the treatment. The medication/placebo was started at the onset of a cold and continued throughout its duration. No treatment effect was evident in the results obtained with 308 children who completed the eight-month study. However, the results indicated a strong relationship between colds and AOM, and a trend toward higher occurrence of AOM in children under four years of age. PMID:21233997
Brownoff, R.; Hutchison, L.J.
Most clinical drug trials relating to acute otitis media have evaluated medications in terms of treatment. In this randomized double-blind, cross-over study, the effectiveness of an antihistamine decongestant in the prevention of AOM was investigated, rather than the treatment. The medication/placebo was started at the onset of a cold and continued throughout its duration. No treatment effect was evident in the results obtained with 308 children who completed the eight-month study. However, the results indicated a strong relationship between colds and AOM, and a trend toward higher occurrence of AOM in children under four years of age. PMID:21253110
Scribner, Richard A.; Theall, Katherine P.; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William
Objective: Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Method: Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N = 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. Results: There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets. PMID:21388596
Medina, Catherine; Rios, Diana I
New cases of HIV/AIDS among women of color in the United States highlight the continuing need for the public and private sectors to develop alternate preventive strategies. The author discusses the conceptual basis for using television sex scripts to incorporate women of color relational needs (trust, romance, sexual pressure) to promote HIV risk-reduction messages through a process of association with the television storyline. Sex scripts are a source of implicit knowledge about how to behave in situations that involve sexual intimacy. The article suggests that sexual scripts prevention messages build on the agency of women through the use of power theory-that is supporting woman's self-power by participating in sexual behavioral change. Implications for sexual equality in media programming are discussed. PMID:21534124
Rossi, C; Reginelli, A; D'Amora, M; Di Grezia, G; Mandato, Y; D'Andrea, A; Brunese, L; Grassi, R; Rotondi, A
The purpose of the study is to examine the incidence of adverse reactions caused by non-ionic contrast media in selected patients after desensitization treatment and to evaluate the safety profile of organ iodine contrast media (i.c.m.) in a multistep prevention protocol. In a population of 2000 patients that had received a CT scan, 100 patients with moderate/high risk for adverse reactions against iodinated contrast agents followed a premedication protocol and all adverse reactions are reported and classified as mild, moderate or severe. 1.7 percent of the pre-treated patients reported a mild, immediate type reaction to iodine contrast; of these five patients with allergy 0.71 percent had received iomeprol, 0.35 percent received ioversol and 0.71 percent received iopromide. The incidence of adverse reactions was reported to be higher (4 out of 5 patients) among those that referred a history of hypersensitivity against iodinated i.c.m. Although intravenous contrast materials have greatly improved, especially in terms of their safety profile, they should not be administered if there isn't a clear or justified indication. In conclusion, even if we know that the majority of these reactions are idiosyncratic and unpredictable we propose, with the aim of improving our knowledge on this subject, a multicenter study, based on skin allergy tests (prick test, patch test, intradermal reaction) in selected patients that have had previous experiences of hypersensitivity against parenteral organ iodine contrast media. PMID:24750802
Allen, Lee E., Ed.
Intended for secondary English teachers, the materials and ideas presented here suggest ways to use media in the classroom in teaching visual and auditory discrimination while enlivening classes and motivating students. Contents include "Media Specialists Need Not Apply," which discusses the need for preparation of media educators with…
Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G
One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a major public health problem in the United States, and because of the similarities in the age group of college and military populations, the problems regarding sexual violence in both constituencies have been well-documented. In the current pilot study we seek to add to both current knowledge about and promising practices of translating prevention strategies from one target audience to another. We describe how we translated, administered, and evaluated a bystander intervention social marketing campaign focused on sexual assault prevention that had been found to significantly affect attitude change on a college campus for a U.S. Army installation in Europe. In addition to demonstrating the process of translating prevention strategies across target audiences, findings from this pilot study contribute to the evaluation data on the effectiveness of sexual violence prevention strategies implemented with members of the U.S. Military. From our analysis, we see that research participants indicate that the degree to which the images resonate with them and the familiarity of the context (i.e., social self-identification) significantly effect the participants' personal responsibility for reducing sexual assault, confidence in acting as a bystander, and reported engagement as a bystander. PMID:22080576
To use the mass media (newspaper, radio, and TV) to reach a large audience with information about AIDS, it is important to choose the media outlets carefully, since they use information that satisfies their audience in content and style. For example, radio, TV, or videos are best to reach illiterate groups. Ways to approach each sector of the written and electronic media include press releases, news conferences, information kits, and personal contacts. Letters to the editor and offers of submitting articles for publication are additional ways to approach newspapers. Audio- or videocassettes with interviews or images conveying HIV/AIDS prevention messages can be submitted to TV and radio stations. It is important to present the information attractively to gain the journalists' attention. News releases should include sources of information and a contact name. It is important to inform the mass media of successes revolving around AIDS prevention, emphasizing local successes. One should identify what media slots have the most influence. For example, a medical officer in Chiang Mai, Thailand, notes that popular disc jockeys have more influence than do government information broadcasts. It is best to promote facts that probably will increase support for AIDS prevention campaigns. If possible, groups should seek free space or air time for AIDS prevention messages. AIDS prevention messages should not use fear because it does not promote safer sexual behavior. Instead, they should link condom use with a sense of independence, responsibility, and being fashionable. Leaflets, posters, videotapes, slides, displays, slogans, audiocassettes, T-shirts, stickers, and other activities or products reinforce the effectiveness of media campaigns. Interviews with or feature articles and programs about people infected or affected by HIV/AIDS chip away at the belief that "AIDS could never happen to me." PMID:12287965
Research Medical Center is part of one of the nation's largest health systems, Health Corporation of America, with hospitals across the South and Midwest. Research Medical Center recently launched a multimedia campaign featuring real doctors and touting the tagline, "These are the doctors you want." Following the October 2006 launch of the campaign, the hospital embarked on a regional publicity effort to promote the local doctors featured in the campaign. PMID:17361792
Giesbrecht, Norman; Greenfield, Thomas K.
Provides an overview of research focusing on several general strategies for reducing drinking-related problems, including controls on alcohol advertising and counter advertising; laws and regulations pertaining to minimum legal drinking age, and service to minors and drinking and driving. Concludes with a commentary on the potential effectiveness…
Maternal health care is one of the focuses of Bolivia's new reproductive health campaign. The campaign, which uses television, radio and print media to get its message across, has the slogan "Your health is in your hands." Prenatal and postnatal care, as well as safe delivery, form one of the campaign's target areas. Others are family planning, breast-feeding, and the prevention of illegal abortions. The Bolivian campaign, which has a logo showing a child's tiny hand grasping a parent's finger, is supported by the Population Communication Services project of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, US. Bolivia has the highest maternal mortality in the western hemisphere. "The need to create an awareness of reproductive health is vital, with the risk of a Bolivian woman dying during pregnancy or childbirth 60 times that for a woman in Europe or the US," according to Dr. Phyllis Piotrow, director of Johns Hopkins' Center for Communication Programs. Further, Bolivia has the second highest infant mortality rate in the western hemisphere after Haiti. PMID:12319470
Calear, Alison L; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen
Help-seeking behaviour for suicidality is low and the reasons for this have not systematically been examined. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between suicide stigma, suicide literacy and help-seeking attitudes and intentions. One thousand two hundred seventy-four Australian adults recruited via Facebook completed an online survey assessing a range of mental health outcomes. High suicide literacy and low suicide stigma were significantly associated with more positive help-seeking attitudes and, among a subsample of 534, greater intentions to seek help. Attribution of suicide to isolation was associated with more positive attitudes toward help-seeking and greater intentions to seek help, while respondents experiencing suicidal ideation had more negative attitudes toward help-seeking and lower intentions to seek help. Lower depressive symptoms, older age and female gender were associated with more positive help-seeking attitudes and higher help-seeking intentions. However, there were differential associations of specific suicide knowledge items and specific stigmatising attitudes with help-seeking outcomes; suggesting a nuanced approach may be required to promote help seeking for suicidality. Suicide knowledge and attitudes play an important role in the help-seeking process for suicide and should be carefully considered in the development of public awareness campaigns. PMID:25048756
Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R; Miller, Chloe; Sadhnani, Vaneeta; Carmont, Sue-Ann
In an evaluation of the television series "Driving Mum and Dad Mad," 723 families participated and were randomly assigned to either a standard or technology enhanced viewing condition (included additional Web-support). Parents in both conditions reported significant improvements from pre- to postintervention in their child's behavior, dysfunctional parenting, parental anger, depression, and self-efficacy. Short-term improvements were maintained at 6-months follow-up. Regressions identified predictors of program outcomes and level of involvement. Parents who watched the entire series had more severe problems at preintervention and high sociodemographic risk than parents who did not watch the entire series. Few sociodemographic, child, or parent variables assessed at preintervention predicted program outcomes or program engagement, suggesting that a wide range of parents from diverse socioeconomic status benefited from the program. Media interventions depicting evidence-based parenting programs may be a useful means of reaching hard to engage families in population-level child maltreatment prevention programs. PMID:18641169
Principi, Nicola; Marchisio, Paola; Esposito, Susanna
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common clinical condition that is associated with hearing loss. It can be diagnosed at least once in approximately 80% of preschool children: 30-40% of them have recurrent episodes, and 5-10% have chronic disease. OME, in recurrent and persistent cases, might significantly delay or impair communication skills, resulting in behavioral and educational difficulties. Several therapeutic approaches have been used to avoid these problems. Most, however, have not been adequately studied, and no definitive conclusions can be drawn. Official guidelines do not recommend the use of decongestants, antihistamines, steroids, or antibiotics. The data are too scanty to assess other interventions, although autoinflation, because it incurs neither cost nor adverse events, deserves attention. Surgical procedures (i.e., tympanostomy tube insertion and adenoidectomy as an adjuvant) can be useful in some cases. This review evaluates all the current OME treatments and preventive measures, including their possible adverse events. PMID:26853095
Radiocontrast media (RCM) are medical drugs used to improve the visibility of internal organs and structures in X-ray based imaging techniques. They may have side effects ranging from itching to a life-threatening emergency, known as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We define CIN as acute renal failure occurring within 24–72 hrs of exposure to RCM that cannot be attributed to other causes. It usually occurs in patients with preexisting renal impairment and diabetes. The mechanisms underlying CIN include reduction in medullary blood flow leading to hypoxia and direct tubule cell damage and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Identification of patients at high risk for CIN is important. We have reviewed the risk factors and procedures for prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers a deep evaluation of them both. The first rule to follow in patients at risk of CIN undergoing radiographic procedure is monitoring renal function by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the eGFR before and once daily for 5 days after the procedure. It is advised to discontinue potentially nephrotoxic medications, to choose radiocontrast media at lowest dosage, and to encourage oral or intravenous hydration. In high-risk patients N-acetylcysteine may also be given. PMID:24895606
Dalessandro, David; And Others
Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…
The mass media can be a powerful tool for teaching young people about the consequences of sexual activity. The HIV prevention media campaigns in Uganda have been instrumental in reducing HIV prevalence among young women in the 1990s. They produced a rise in monogamy, condom use in risky sexual relationships, and later age of sexual debut. Nevertheless, more research is needed to measure the influence of such campaigns on sexual behavior. In Uganda a nationwide campaign is promoting safer sex among adolescents, including abstinence, partner reduction, and condom use. Starting in 1995 the campaign by the Delivery of Improved Services for Health (DISH) Project, implemented by Pathfinder International and Johns Hopkins University, promoted HIV prevention messages through songs and soap operas, rap music contests, drama, and newsletters and posters. Eighty music groups performed songs about HIV prevention for target audiences 15-19 years old in 10 different districts. The winning song was recorded and distributed to taxi drivers and youth centers. In surveys of 1681 adolescents condom use among them increased from 46% before the campaign to 69% afterwards. The AIDS Information Center used radio announcements to promote HIV testing, with the result of young people turning up in large numbers. A 1993 survey of 6879 reproductive-age women also showed that about 13% of those who had seen the videos of songs 3 years earlier vs. only 4% of those who had not, were currently using contraception. Clinic locations, hotline telephone numbers, and referral networks can be included in mass media campaigns to enhance their effectiveness. If messages appear in different media simultaneously (music, television, radio, movies, and posters) the campaigns become even more effective. Focus group research and pretesting of materials help assess the effectiveness of materials before wide distribution. PMID:12292393
González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á
Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba. PMID:27510935