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Sample records for prevention spill prevention

  1. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs.

  2. Fuel conservation by the application of spill prevention and fail-safe engineering (a guideline manual)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodier, J. L.; Siclari, R. J.; Garrity, P. A.

    1981-06-01

    Spill prevention procedures are provided for maintaining a spill free plant during the transportation, transfer, storage and processing of petroleum products. The manual can be used to prevent spills of materials other than fuel oil. Special emphasis is given to failsafe engineering as an approach to preventing spills from the predominant cause-human failure.

  3. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and..., and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans to May 10, 2013. On June 19, 2009 (74 FR 29136), EPA issued a final... SPCC Plans, and implement those Plans to November 10, 2010. Then on October 14, 2010 (75 FR 63093),...

  4. Spill prevention control and countermeasure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This report includes facility descriptions for both oil and hazardous chemicals storage. It gives oil spill history; regulatory guideline conformance; local emergency arrangements; evacuation procedures and the contingency plan for oil and hazardous substances. (PSB)

  5. MANUAL FOR PREVENTING SPILLS OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AT FIXED FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the manual is to provide guidance to prevent spills of hazardous substances in fixed facilities that produce substances from raw or starter materials, store the substances, or transfer the substances to and from transportation terminals. The emphasis is on smaller-...

  6. 1100 Area Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1991-08-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is designed to describe measures that must be taken to prevent, control, and handle spills of bulk storage chemicals or oils at Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) facilities located in the Hanford Site 1100 Area. The SPCC is designed to satisfy the requirement from US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1988), to minimize risk to the environment or public health, and to anticipate and address potential environmental problems before they pose a threat to the quality of the environment or the public welfare. The SPCC Plan identifies practices employed by Westinghouse Hanford to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance [as defined in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 302 (40 CFR 302) (EPA 1990a)] from being released to the environment. This SPCC Plan is not designed to describe measures that must be taken to prevent, control, and handle spills of nonbulk storage chemicals or oils stored in 55-gal drums or smaller.

  7. 75 FR 45572 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is proposing to amend the date by which certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans, and implement those Plans. This action would allow additional time for those affected in the regulated community to understand the revisions to the SPCC rule finalized in December 2008 and......

  8. 300 Area Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, G.W.

    1990-11-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is designed to describe measures that must be taken to prevent, control, and handle spills of bulk storage chemicals or oils at Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) facilities located in the Hanford Site 300 Area. The SPCC Plan is designed to satisfy the requirement from US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program,`` which is intended to minimize risk to the environment or public health, and to anticipate and address potential environmental problems before they pose a threat to the quality of the environment or the public welfare. The SPCC Plan identifies practices employed by Westinghouse Hanford to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance [as defined in Title 40, Code of Federal regulations, Part 302 (40 CFR 302)] from being released to the environment. This SPCC Plan fulfills the requirement cited in WHC-CM-7-5, Part T, which establishes Westinghouse Hanford policy for required SPCC Plans, and references 40 CFR 112, ``Environmental Protection Agency Regulations on Oil Pollution Prevention,`` as a basis for contents of the SPCC Plan. Upon completion of the SPCC Plan, a copy will be kept on file at all 300 Area facilities described in the SPCC Plan. Additional copies will also be placed with the 300 Area Industrial Safety and Fire Protection management, and with other environmental oversight, and emergency preparedness, and response personnel as necessary. 1 fig.

  9. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  10. FUEL CONSERVATION BY THE APPLICATION OF SPILL PREVENTION AND FAILSAFE ENGINEERING (A GUIDELINE MANUAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Goodier, J. L.; Siclari, R. J.; Garrity, P. A.

    1980-10-30

    From a series of nationwide plant surveys dedicated to spill prevention, containment and countermeasure evaluation, coupled with spill response action activities, a need was determined for a spill prevention guideline manual. From Federally accumulated statistics for oil and hazardous substance spills, the authors culled information on spills of hydrocarbon products. In 1978, a total of 1456 oil spills were reported compared to 1451 in 1979. The 1978 spills were more severe, however, since 7;289,163 gallons of oil were accident~y discharged. In 1979, the gallons spilled was reduced to 3,663,473. These figures are derived from reported spills; it is highly possible that an equal amount was spilled and not reported. Spills effectively contained within a plant property that do not enter a n~vigational waterway need not be reported. Needless to say, there is a tremendous annual loss of oil products due to accidental spillage during transportation, cargo transfer, bulk storage and processing. As an aid to plant engineers and managers, Fe~eral workers, fire marshalls and fire and casualty insurance inspectors, the documen~ is offered as a spill prevention guide. The'manual defines state-of-the-art spill prevention practices and automation techniques that can reduce spills caused by human error. Whenever practical, the cost of implementation is provided to aid equipment acquisition and installation budgeting. To emphasize the need for spill prevention activities, historic spills are briefly described after which remedial action is defined in an appropriate section of the manual. The section on plant security goes into considerable depth since to date no Federal agency or traqe association has provided industry with guidelines on this important phase of plant operation. The intent of the document is to provide finger-tip reference material that can be used by interested parties in a nationwide effort to reduce loss of oil from preventable spills.

  11. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  12. Oil spill prevention and response: How to comply with OPA and OSPRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, L.

    1995-12-31

    When there is a man-made catastrophic event that adversely affects environment or the health and safety of the public, the government steps in to make and enforce laws to help prevent the reoccurrence of such events. This is the case with the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) which was signed into law by President Bush in August of 1990. According to the EPA, the federal government received 42,000 notifications of oil discharges during the years of 1988 through 1990. In 1989, 38 spills exceeded 100,000 gallons including the infamous Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska`s Prince William Sound. The Federal government has not been alone in its interest with oil spill prevention and response. Many states have also enacted laws with the intent of protecting the environment from damage due to oil spills. The state of Texas enacted the Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act (OSPRA) of 1991 which compliments and expands on OPA. The most significant requirement of both of these laws is that of the Facility Response Plan (FRP). Both Federal and State agencies encourage the development of one plan for spill response and prevention. The use of one plan makes sense because this eliminates the opportunity for discrepancies land simplifies response during an actual spill. The purpose of this paper is to aid the petroleum industry in determining whether it is required to have a FRP, and if it is, how to develop a plan that will comply with both OPA and OSPRA.

  13. 40 CFR 112.12 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements. 112.12 Section 112.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and...

  14. 40 CFR 112.8 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore facilities (excluding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore facilities (excluding production facilities). 112.8 Section 112.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils...

  15. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  16. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  17. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  18. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  19. 40 CFR 112.4 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by Regional Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.4 Amendment of...

  20. 40 CFR 112.3 - Requirement to prepare and implement a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan. 112.3 Section 112.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions... implement a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan. The owner or operator or an onshore...

  1. 30 CFR 254.54 - Spill prevention for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the prevention of oil spills from your facility, and demonstrate your compliance with these... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located in State Waters...

  2. 30 CFR 254.54 - Spill prevention for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements that apply to the prevention of oil spills from your facility, and demonstrate your compliance... MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for...

  3. 30 CFR 254.54 - Spill prevention for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the prevention of oil spills from your facility, and demonstrate your compliance with these... ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located in State...

  4. 30 CFR 254.54 - Spill prevention for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the prevention of oil spills from your facility, and demonstrate your compliance with these... ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located in State...

  5. The spill prevention, control, and countermeasures (SPCC) plan for the Y-12 Plant. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This spill prevention, control and countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is divided into two volumes. Volume I addresses Y-12`s compliance with regulations pertinent to the content of SPCC Plans. Volume II is the SPCC Hazardous Material Storage Data Base, a detailed tabulation of facility-specific information and data on potential spill sources at the Y-12 Plant. Volume I follows the basic format and subject sequence specified in 40 CFR 112.7. This sequence is prefaced by three additional chapters, including this introduction and brief discussions of the Y-12 Plant`s background/environmental setting and potential spill source categories. Two additional chapters on containers and container storage areas and PCB and PCB storage for disposal facilities are inserted into the required sequence. The following required subjects are covered in this volume: Spill history, site drainage; secondary containment/diversion structures and equipment; contingency plans; notification and spill response procedures; facility drainage; bulk storage tanks; facility transfer operations, pumping, and in-plant processes; transfer stations (facility tank cars/tank tracks); inspections and records; security, and personnel, training, and spill prevention procedures.

  6. MANUAL AND TRAINING COURSE FOR PREVENTION OF SPILLS OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AT FIXED FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this manual and training course is to prevent spills of hazardous substances in fixed facilities which are those facilities that produce the substances from raw or starter materials, store the substances, or transfer the substances to and from transportation termin...

  7. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and workover facilities). 112.9 Section 112.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION...

  8. 30 CFR 254.54 - Spill prevention for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Spill prevention for facilities located in State waters seaward of the coast line. 254.54 Section 254.54 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL-SPILL RESPONSE REQUIREMENTS FOR FACILITIES LOCATED SEAWARD OF THE COAST LINE...

  9. Approach for assessing coastal vulnerability to oil spills for prevention and readiness using GIS and the Blowout and Spill Occurrence Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J. R.; Grubesic, T. H.; Sim, L.; Rose, K.; Graham, J.

    2015-08-01

    Increasing interest in offshore hydrocarbon exploration has pushed the operational fronts associated with exploration efforts further offshore into deeper waters and more uncertain subsurface settings. This has become particularly common in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In this study we develop a spatial vulnerability approach and example assessment to support future spill prevention and improve future response readiness. This effort, which is part of a larger integrated assessment modeling spill prevention effort, incorporated economic and environmental data, and utilized a novel new oil spill simulation model from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Blowout and Spill Occurrence Model (BLOSOM). Specifically, this study demonstrated a novel approach to evaluate potential impacts of hypothetical spill simulations at varying depths and locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The simulations are analyzed to assess spatial and temporal trends associated with the oil spill. The approach itself demonstrates how these data, tools and techniques can be used to evaluate potential spatial vulnerability of Gulf communities for various spill scenarios. Results of the hypothetical scenarios evaluated in this study suggest that under conditions like those simulated, a strong westward push by ocean currents and tides may increase the impacts of deep water spills along the Texas coastline, amplifying the vulnerability of communities on the local barrier islands. Ultimately, this approach can be used further to assess a range of conditions and scenarios to better understand potential risks and improve informed decision making for operators, responders, and stakeholders to support spill prevention as well as response readiness.

  10. 40 CFR 112.10 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and workover facilities. 112.10 Section 112.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils...

  11. 40 CFR 112.3 - Requirement to prepare and implement a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Response Plan pursuant to 40 CFR 112.20(a), and was in operation on or before August 16, 2002, you must... Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan. 112.3 Section 112.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability,...

  12. 40 CFR 112.3 - Requirement to prepare and implement a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Response Plan pursuant to 40 CFR 112.20(a), and was in operation on or before August 16, 2002, you must... Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan. 112.3 Section 112.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability,...

  13. 40 CFR 112.5 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by owners or operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.5 Amendment of...

  14. 40 CFR 112.5 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by owners or operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.5 Amendment of...

  15. 40 CFR 112.3 - Requirement to prepare and implement a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Response Plan pursuant to 40 CFR 112.20(a), and was in operation on or before August 16, 2002, you must... Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan. 112.3 Section 112.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability,...

  16. 40 CFR 112.5 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by owners or operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.5 Amendment of...

  17. 40 CFR 112.3 - Requirement to prepare and implement a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Response Plan pursuant to 40 CFR 112.20(a), and was in operation on or before August 16, 2002, you must... Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan. 112.3 Section 112.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability,...

  18. 40 CFR 112.5 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by owners or operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.5 Amendment of...

  19. 40 CFR 112.5 - Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan by owners or operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amendment of Spill Prevention, Control... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General Requirements for All Facilities and All Types of Oils § 112.5 Amendment of...

  20. Nowcast model for hazardous material spill prevention and response, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wilmot, Wayne L.; Galt, Jerry A.

    1997-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) installed the Physical Oceanographic Real-time System (PORTS) in San Francisco Bay, California, to provide real-time observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions to, among other purposes, guide hazardous material spill prevention and response. Integrated with nowcast modeling techniques and dissemination of real-time data and the nowcasting results through the Internet on the World Wide Web, emerging technologies used in PORTS for real-time data collection forms a nowcast modeling system. Users can download tides and tidal current distribution in San Francisco Bay for their specific applications and/or for further analysis.

  1. Approach for assessing coastal vulnerability to oil spills for prevention and readiness using GIS and the Blowout and Spill Occurrence Model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nelson, J. R.; Grubesic, T. H.; Sim, L.; Rose, K.; Graham, J.

    2015-08-01

    Increasing interest in offshore hydrocarbon exploration has pushed the operational fronts associated with exploration efforts further offshore into deeper waters and more uncertain subsurface settings. This has become particularly common in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In this study we develop a spatial vulnerability approach and example assessment to support future spill prevention and improve future response readiness. This effort, which is part of a larger integrated assessment modeling spill prevention effort, incorporated economic and environmental data, and utilized a novel new oil spill simulation model from the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Blowout and Spillmore » Occurrence Model (BLOSOM). Specifically, this study demonstrated a novel approach to evaluate potential impacts of hypothetical spill simulations at varying depths and locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The simulations are analyzed to assess spatial and temporal trends associated with the oil spill. The approach itself demonstrates how these data, tools and techniques can be used to evaluate potential spatial vulnerability of Gulf communities for various spill scenarios. Results of the hypothetical scenarios evaluated in this study suggest that under conditions like those simulated, a strong westward push by ocean currents and tides may increase the impacts of deep water spills along the Texas coastline, amplifying the vulnerability of communities on the local barrier islands. Ultimately, this approach can be used further to assess a range of conditions and scenarios to better understand potential risks and improve informed decision making for operators, responders, and stakeholders to support spill prevention as well as response readiness.« less

  2. Aquatic toxicity of forty industrial chemicals: Testing in support of hazardous substance spill prevention regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, M. W.; Ward, C. H.

    1981-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is presently developing hazardous substance spill regulations to help prevent water pollution. Aquatic animal toxicity data are used as criteria for the designation and categorization of substances as hazardous, even though this type of data is not available for many industrial chemicals. Static 96-hr. toxicity tests were conducted with 40 such chemicals to provide basic toxicity data for regulatory decision making. Thirty-two of the 40 chemicals tested were hazardous to aquatic life as determined by 96-hr. LC 50's less than or equal to 500 mg/l. All 40 chemicals were tested with the fresh-water fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and ten chemicals were also tested with the salt-water grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

  3. Identification of environmentally vulnerable areas with priority for prevention and management of pipeline crude oil spills.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Heydrich, Silke Cram; Cervantes, Irene Sommer; Orozco, Oralia Oropeza

    2011-07-01

    The oil industry is one of the main productive activities in Mexico and has a huge infrastructure, including a wide pipeline network that crosses urban, industrial, agricultural and natural areas. The threat of crude oil spills is greatest in those regions with a high concentration of oil extraction and refining activities, as in the case of the Coatzacoalcos and Tonalá Rivers Low Basin. This study ranked the geosystems of the basin in terms of vulnerability to pipeline crude oil spills. Very high vulnerability (level I) was assigned to the water bodies (lakes and rivers) and their margins of influence, including surfaces that flood during normal hydraulic load. High vulnerability areas (level II) comprised surfaces that can flood during extraordinary hydraulic load related with extreme hydrometeorological events. The remaining three vulnerability levels were defined for areas with low or negligible flooding potential, these were ranked according to physical (slope, relief and permeability), biological (richness, singularity and integrity) and socio-economic (social marginalization index and economic activities index) conditions. These results are presented on a map for better visualization and interpretation. This study will be useful to establish preventive and effective emergency management actions in order to reduce remediation costs and adverse effects on wild species. It also can help local and national authorities, oil industry and civil protection corps to better protect ecosystems, natural resources and human activities and goods. PMID:21376445

  4. Preventing stroke

    MedlinePlus

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... Clinical Cardiology; Council on Functional Genomics and ... Council on Hypertension. Guidelines for the primary prevention ...

  5. 40 CFR 112.7 - General requirements for Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following: (1) An oil spill contingency plan following the provisions of part 109 of this chapter. (2) A...: (A) An oil spill contingency plan following the provisions of part 109 of this chapter. (B) A written... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for...

  6. 40 CFR 112.7 - General requirements for Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following: (1) An oil spill contingency plan following the provisions of part 109 of this chapter. (2) A...: (A) An oil spill contingency plan following the provisions of part 109 of this chapter. (B) A written... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for...

  7. 40 CFR 112.7 - General requirements for Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... following: (1) An oil spill contingency plan following the provisions of part 109 of this chapter. (2) A...: (A) An oil spill contingency plan following the provisions of part 109 of this chapter. (B) A written... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements for...

  8. 40 CFR 112.7 - General requirements for Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following: (1) An oil spill contingency plan following the provisions of part 109 of this chapter. (2) A...: (A) An oil spill contingency plan following the provisions of part 109 of this chapter. (B) A written... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true General requirements for...

  9. 40 CFR 112.7 - General requirements for Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following: (1) An oil spill contingency plan following the provisions of part 109 of this chapter. (2) A...: (A) An oil spill contingency plan following the provisions of part 109 of this chapter. (B) A written... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements for...

  10. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  11. 40 CFR 112.12 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and for Vegetable Oils, including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and... 21 CFR part 110, are elevated, constructed of austenitic stainless steel, have no external...

  12. 40 CFR 112.8 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore facilities (excluding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels) § 112.8... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION... must inspect the condition of the accumulation before starting, to ensure no oil will be discharged....

  13. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  14. 40 CFR 112.12 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and for Vegetable Oils, including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and... 21 CFR part 110, are elevated, constructed of austenitic stainless steel, have no external...

  15. 40 CFR 112.8 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore facilities (excluding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels) § 112.8... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION... must inspect the condition of the accumulation before starting, to ensure no oil will be discharged....

  16. 40 CFR 112.12 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and for Vegetable Oils, including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and... 21 CFR part 110, are elevated, constructed of austenitic stainless steel, have no external...

  17. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from... Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  18. 40 CFR 112.12 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and for Vegetable Oils, including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and... 21 CFR part 110, are elevated, constructed of austenitic stainless steel, have no external...

  19. 40 CFR 112.8 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore facilities (excluding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels) § 112.8... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION... must inspect the condition of the accumulation before starting, to ensure no oil will be discharged....

  20. 40 CFR 112.8 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore facilities (excluding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels) § 112.8... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION... must inspect the condition of the accumulation before starting, to ensure no oil will be discharged....

  1. Fail-safe devices for the prevention of hazardous-material spills. Final report, December 1979-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, D.B.

    1984-12-01

    Hazardous material spills have often been caused by over filling containers. Many spills could be prevented by using automatic container-filling procedures to determine when maximum capacity is reached. This project conducted an assessment of current technology, including laboratory testing of devices and performance monitoring of on-site automatic level controllers. Three industrial plants cooperated in the field testing phase, each having a different problem with a different material. The types of level control devices chosen were ultrasonic, vibrating tines, and a magnetic-coupled float unit. Two of the units were activated by electricity, and the third was pneumatic. One unit controlled dry powder; the second, a viscous liquid; and the third, an aqueous liquid. Each location required an explosion-proof system. All were subjected to the extremes of weather, and all were installed without significant revisions to existing containers. The on-site experience at host plants demonstrated that fail-safe level controllers can work well for an extended period under severe weather conditions. The proper controller configuration must be chosen to be compatible with the environment and with the material being controlled. Controllers should incorporate requisite safeguards to assure safety and be resistant to corrosion, fouling and weather.

  2. Preventing Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... The top three methods used in suicides include firearms (49.9%), suffocation (26.7%), and poisoning (15. ... Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention Page maintained by: Office ...

  3. Drowning Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drowning Prevention: Information for Parents Page Content Article Body Drowning ... in very cold water for lengthy periods. Drowning Prevention: Know the Warning Signs These signs may signal ...

  4. Preventing Rejection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Assistance Lifestyle Changes Back to Work or School Physical Changes Relationship Changes Pregnancy Precautions Fertility Labor & Delivery Breastfeeding Risks Cancer Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection ...

  5. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  6. Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... from osteoporosis. Lower-body strength exercises and balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid the disability that may result from falling. Here are some fall prevention tips from Go4Life : l Have your eyes and hearing tested often. Always wear your glasses when you ...

  7. Preventing falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... worsened. Improving your vision will help reduce falls. Images ... for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: ...

  8. Preventing Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread in respiratory droplets distributed by coughing and sneezing, they readily spread from person to person. Additionally, ... and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing, you may help prevent those around you from ...

  9. Dengue Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Compartir This photograph shows a mother applying mosquito repellent to her child's skin in order to prevent ... the lights are on. To protect yourself, use repellent on your skin while indoors or out. When ...

  10. Willingness to pay among households to prevent coastal resources from polluting by oil spills: a pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W; Kannen, Andreas; Kraft, Dietmar

    2009-10-01

    In many coastal regions oil spills can be considered to be one of the most important risks for the coastal environment. Efficient contingency management in responding to oil spills is critically important. Strategic priorities in contingency management highly depend upon the importance attributed to different economic and ecological resources such as beaches or birds. Due to the lack of a market for natural resources in the real world, these resources cannot be directly measured in monetary terms. This increases the risk that natural resources and their services are neglected in contingency decision making. This paper evaluates these natural resources in a hypothetical market by using the methodology of stated choice experiments. Results from a pilot survey show that according to the perspective of individuals, an oil spill combat process should focus on the protection of coastal waters, beaches and eider ducks. PMID:19539336

  11. The changing Arctic and its effects on the development of Norway and Russia's offshore oil-spill prevention policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Two very different nations are joined with a northern border and have worked together for decades to manage shared Arctic affairs, yet have very disparate approaches to policy development. Increased access to the Arctic and the push to develop its resources has also created a requirement for developing national policies to address the possibilities of oil spill response and remediation. Norway and Russia are the significant regional powers, with a shared arctic boundary, yet substantially differing approaches to policy development and implementation. We are exploring the variations in their approaches to Arctic offshore oil-spill policy development, in the context of policy informed by economic, social, and physical sciences.

  12. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention ... Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the emergency list next to every phone in your home and in your cell phone. A toddler or preschooler who vomits may ...

  13. Preventing Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    The Navajo supervisor in the Office of Environmental Health in New Mexico identifies diseases and their risk factors, administers an injury prevention program, and ensures compliance with various health-related codes. She assists in the planning and direction of environmental health programs and public health education for local Navajo…

  14. Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  15. Preeclampsia prevention

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Pineda, Lucia M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is the main complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Calcium starting at 14 weeks of pregnancy is indicated to prevent the disease. Recent advances in prevention of preeclampsia endorse the addition of conjugated linoleic acid. Objective: To estimate the protective effect from calcium alone, compared to calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid in nulliparous women at risk of preeclampsia. Methods: A case-control design nested in the cohort of nulliparous women attending antenatal care from 2010 to 2014. The clinical histories of 387 cases of preeclampsia were compared with 1,054 normotensive controls. The exposure was prescriptions for calcium alone, the first period, or calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid, the second period, from 12 to 16 weeks of gestational age to labor. Confounding variables were controlled, allowing only nulliparous women into the study and stratifying by age, education and ethnic group. Results: The average age was 26.4 yrs old (range= 13-45), 85% from mixed ethnic backgrounds and with high school education. There were no differences between women who received calcium carbonate and those who did not (OR= 0.96; 95% CI= 0.73-1.27). The group of adolescents (13 to 18 years old) in the calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid was protected for preeclampsia (OR= 0.00; 95% CI= 0.00-0.44) independent of the confounder variables. Conclusions: 1. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy did not have preventive effects on preeclampsia. 2. Calcium plus Conjugated Linoleic acid provided to adolescents was observed to have preventive effect on Preeclampsia. PMID:26848195

  16. Allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  17. Preventing Pressure Sores

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to ...

  18. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  19. Oil Spills and Spills of Hazardous Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The stated purpose of this publication is to describe some of the more significant spill incidents and the mechanisms, both managerial and technological, to deal with them. This publication is targeted for school, general public, and other such audiences. Sections include effects of spills, prevention of spills, responding to spills, spill…

  20. Recipes for Prevention. Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…

  1. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  2. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  3. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  4. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  5. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  6. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... or home modification programs to help older people prevent falls. Check with your local health department, senior ...

  7. Measles -- Recommendations for Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevent News and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Measles - Recommendations for Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... safest protection you can give your child against measles. Children should be given the first dose of ...

  8. Research Areas: Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's prevention research has a broad focus—from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and testing ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  9. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education FAQs Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  10. The Suicide Prevention Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how it contributes to prevention knowledge, capacity building, and policy development. PMID:20835376

  11. Fire Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehmann, Jeanne; Claus, William C.

    The fire prevention education bulletin helps schools continue their work to make the home, school, and community safe places in which to live and to help children and young people live in safe ways without developing undue fears. Briefly discussed are the goals of a fire prevention program, who should be concerned with fire prevention education,…

  12. Suicide Prevention Triangle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter, Fred

    This manual provides resource tools and strategies to enhance the suicide prevention capabilities of health professionals and the health care setting in which care is provided. In the first section, terms are defined and the suicide prevention triangle model is described. Applications of the model and good practices for suicide prevention in any…

  13. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7) "Prevention Activities"; (8) "Sample Prevention Strategies"; and (9)…

  14. Can I Prevent Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print A A A Text Size What's ... too. Although there is no surefire way to prevent acne, try these tips to help reduce the ...

  15. FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has developed the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide for those who are interested in and responsible for pollution prevention in industrial or service facilities. t summarizes the benefits of a company-wide pollution prevention...

  16. Murals Reflecting Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Safe and Drug Free Schools Program.

    This document is used in a collaborative project that engages children and adolescents in alcohol, tobacco, and drug prevention activities through the arts. The project offers an innovative teaching resource that uses the universal language of the arts for drug prevention. By creating murals with drug prevention themes, elementary and secondary…

  17. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  18. Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2016-08-01

    There are a number of arguments in support of early measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low- and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed. PMID:27440823

  19. [Prevention of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Dambacher, M A; Kissling, R; Neff, M

    1998-11-01

    The European Parliament presented June 10th in Brussels the 'Osteoporosis Report in EU--Means for Prevention'. It was emphasized that in the EU more than 3500 million Ecu have to be spent for hospitalization and that more than 500,000 hospitals beds are being used by osteoporotic patients. According to some calculations this number will double within the next 50 years. The EU has set up eight steps to be considered, e.g. have densitometric measurements available for persons with high risk and have these measurement paid by the insurances to further finance and support research for the very important areas of prevention and treatment. One distinguishes between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of osteoporosis. Primary prevention aims at reaching at adolescent age a peak bone mass as high as possible. Secondary prevention aims at reducing bone loss peri- and postmenopausal. The tertiary prevention with manifest osteoporosis aims at preventing fractures. Emphasis of the primary prevention is, besides a sufficient calcium intake, to omit risk factors; with secondary prevention the use of medical treatments such as estrogens/gestagens, bisphosphonates, and recently also SERMs is applied. The tertiary prevention tries mostly to reduce the femur fractures. In addition to drugs such as vitamin D/calcium, vitamin D metabolites and bisphosphonates it is very important to create 'a fall-proof home'. Also very useful are hip protectors. PMID:9865147

  20. Ideology and Violence Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major problem in US society in terms of the death and destruction it causes, the fear it generates, and the attention it receives. A recent trend has been to regard the problem of violence as an epidemic and to shape ideas of violence prevention according to public-health formulations. This process does not take into account the ideological nature of the proposed violence-prevention measures. Problems arise because this ideology is relevant to the potential effectiveness of violence prevention. This paper delineates several ideological issues involved in violence prevention and discusses how they interact with frequently employed public-health prevention strategies. Based upon this discussion, a general perspective for violence prevention is proposed and guiding principles that emerge from this perspective are presented. PMID:3404554

  1. Values in Preventive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmaster, Barry

    1992-01-01

    We know how lifestyle affects health, yet concern for preventing illness by promoting healthy lifestyles remains marginal in medical practice. Effective preventive strategies can raise daunting moral and political problems about the extent to which individual freedoms may be infringed, particularly on paternalistic grounds. Evaluative questions also arise about more specific matters, such as identifying risk and causal factors, determining what level of risk is acceptable, and deciding how compelling the evidence must be to take preventive action. PMID:11651426

  2. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  3. Preventing Suicides in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Suicides Preventing Suicides in the Military Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... Family Hotline 1-800-984-8523 Read More "Preventing Suicides" Articles Preventing Suicides in the Military / Who's ...

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  5. Preventive treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2006-08-01

    Migraine is a common episodic pain disorder, the treatment of which can be acute to stop an attack or preventive to reduce the frequency, duration or severity of attacks. Preventive treatment is used when attacks are frequent or disabling. Many different medication groups are used for preventive treatment, including beta-blockers, antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs. Their mechanisms of action include raising the threshold to migraine activation, enhancing antinociception, inhibiting cortical spreading depression, inhibiting peripheral and central sensitization, blocking neurogenic inflammation and modulating sympathetic, parasympathetic or 5-HT tone. In this article, I review evidence of the effectiveness of migraine preventive drugs. I also discuss the setting of treatment priorities. PMID:16820222

  6. Roles in Suicide Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Training & Events Online Training Courses Assessing and Managing Suicide Risk (AMSR) News & Highlights SPARK Talks Organizations States National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention National ...

  7. Prevention at Community Colleges. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to "Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches," community colleges have traditionally had a threefold mission that includes preparing students for transfer to four-year colleges, developmental education, and workforce preparation. The researchers point out that the demographic…

  8. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to…

  9. Teaching Prevention in Pediatrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tina L.; Greenberg, Larrie; Loeser, Helen; Keller, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews methods of teaching preventive medicine in pediatrics and highlights innovative programs. Methods of teaching prevention in pediatrics include patient interactions, self-directed learning, case-based learning, small-group learning, standardized patients, computer-assisted instruction, the Internet, student-centered learning, and lectures.…

  10. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... site at http://prevention.cancer.gov on the Internet. More information on cholesterol-lowering drugs can be obtained from the FDA Web site at http://www.fda.gov on the Internet. Related Resources Causes and Prevention Posted: June 2, ...

  11. Preventing Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  12. Prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Bartalena, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Smoking is the most important risk factor for the occurrence/progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), as well as for its lower/slower response to immunosuppression. Accordingly, refrain from smoking should be urged, both as primary prevention (removal of risk factors in Graves' patients without GO), secondary prevention (early detection and treatment of asymptomatic/very mild GO) and tertiary prevention (reduction of complications/disability of overt GO). A 6-month course of 200 μg/day sodium selenite can prevent progression of mild GO to more severe GO and is, therefore, a form of secondary prevention and, probably, primary prevention. Correction of thyroid dysfunction and stable maintenance of euthyroidism are important preventive measures. The optimal treatment for hyperthyroidism in patients with GO is uncertain, because evidence demonstrating the superiority of antithyroid drugs over thyroid ablation (radioiodine, thyroidectomy, or both) is lacking. If radioiodine is used, low-dose steroid prophylaxis is recommended, particularly in smokers, to prevent radioiodine-associated GO progression. PMID:22632372

  13. MEASURING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The workshop, "Measuring Pollution Prevention Progress," was held in Salem, MA, March 31 - April 2, 1993. he purpose of this workshop was to present the latest significant research and practical findings related to pollution prevention measurement from ongoing and recently comple...

  14. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of stomach cancer. Some studies show that eating fruits and vegetables that are high in vitamin C and beta carotene may lower the risk ... take can prevent cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, ... vitamins, minerals, or food supplements. New ways to prevent ...

  15. DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...

  16. Prevention of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Flood, Karen; Malone, Fergal D

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem. PMID:21893439

  17. [Atorvastatin in primary prevention].

    PubMed

    Kültürsay, Hakan

    2009-03-01

    Statins are one of the most widely used drugs in medical treatment and have been shown to prevent cardiovascular disease or reduce risk in a large number of studies. Although there is a general class effect, there are differences with regard to structure and efficacy between these agents. Among these agents, atorvastatin is a potent statin whose efficacy has been demonstrated in many clinical trials. Despite the presence of numerous clinical studies, data on atorvastatin related to primary prevention are limited compared to secondary prevention. In this article, clinical results of primary prevention trials with atorvastatin and data on its cost-effectiveness are reviewed. It is concluded that atorvastatin has a role in primary prevention and the cost of its use seems to be lower than commonly accepted cost-effectiveness thresholds. PMID:19404046

  18. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  19. Prevention of food allergy.

    PubMed

    du Toit, George; Tsakok, Teresa; Lack, Simon; Lack, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    The past few decades have witnessed an increase in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy (FA). For prevention strategies to be effective, we need to understand the causative factors underpinning this rise. Genetic factors are clearly important in the development of FA, but given the dramatic increase in prevalence over a short period of human evolution, it is unlikely that FA arises through germline genetic changes alone. A plausible hypothesis is that 1 or more environmental exposures, or lack thereof, induce epigenetic changes that result in interruption of the default immunologic state of tolerance. Strategies for the prevention of FA might include primary prevention, which seeks to prevent the onset of IgE sensitization; secondary prevention, which seeks to interrupt the development of FA in IgE-sensitized children; and tertiary prevention, which seeks to reduce the expression of end-organ allergic disease in children with established FA. This review emphasizes the prevention of IgE-mediated FA through dietary manipulation, among other strategies; in particular, we focus on recent interventional studies in this field. PMID:27059727

  20. The limits of prevention.

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, J M

    1985-01-01

    Recent years have been marked by unprecedented accomplishments in preventing disease and reducing mortality. More gains can be expected, but there are limits. The forces shaping the nature and potential of prevention programs can be characterized as points falling along a spectrum ranging from the purely scientific to the purely social. This paper focuses on four elements of that spectrum, discussing some of the limitations to prevention that are presented by biological, technical, ethical, and economic factors. The author concludes with an essentially optimistic perspective on the prospects, special opportunities, and imperatives inherent in each of the categories of limitations discussed. PMID:3923530

  1. Guideline Implementation: Preventing Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-03-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of unplanned patient hypothermia" provides guidance for identifying factors associated with intraoperative hypothermia, preventing hypothermia, educating perioperative personnel on this topic, and developing relevant policies and procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which addresses performing a preoperative assessment for factors that may contribute to hypothermia, measuring and monitoring the patient's temperature in all phases of perioperative care, and implementing interventions to prevent hypothermia. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:26924369

  2. Prevention of lipohypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Kumar, Arun; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2016-07-01

    Lipohypertrophy is an important insulin injection site reaction, which has clinically significant sequelae, including a greater risk of glycaemic variability and higher insulin dose requirement. This article describes the prevention of lipohypertrophy, using the concept of levels of prevention. It enumerates methods of primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary prevention of lipohypertrophy. Focus on patient education, site rotation, avoidance of needle reuse, and dose titration when shifting from injection in lipohypertrophic lesions to normal subcutaneous tissue, helps minimize the development and impact of lipohypertrophy. PMID:27427150

  3. [Preventive medicine in geriatrics].

    PubMed

    Namias, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of check-up and preventive recommendations for elderly. It concerns screening, vaccination, chemoprophylaxy, and counseling. It is mainly based on the recommendations of the U.S. Preventive services Task force. It approaches the screening of hypertention, visual and auditive impairment, breast, colorectal, cervical, prostate cancers, about dyslipidemia, depression, osteoporosis, vaccination against influenza, pneumococcal infection,and chemoprophylaxy by estrogen, raloxifene, acetyisalicyclic acid. There is also counseling in the prevention of falls, exercises, and diet. This summary underlines the multiple recent changes compared with the 1996 recommendations. PMID:14983902

  4. Profiting from pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    LoPilato, A.J.; Eng, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    In the case of pollution prevention, national environmental goals coincide with industry`s economic interests. Most, if not all businesses have strong incentives to reduce the toxicity and quantities of wastes generated. These incentives include not only the ever increasing cost of compliance within a growing framework of regulations, but may include a firms desire to reduce the risk of criminal and civil liability, reduce overall operating costs, improve employee morale and participation, enhance corporate image in the community and insure protection of both public health and the environment. Although some businesses may invest in a pollution prevention program because it is the green thin to do, most businesses will weight their initial and long-term pollution prevention program investments on sound economic analyses. An effective pollution prevention program can provide cost savings that will more than offset the initial development and implementation costs.

  5. Household Safety: Preventing Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... room a child shouldn't enter to prevent wandering into places that haven't been properly childproofed. ... the activities that develop your child's body and mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  6. Prevent Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back Pain Print This Topic En español Prevent Back Pain Browse Sections The Basics Overview Am I at ... Health: Back Pain . There are different types of back pain. Back pain can be acute or chronic. It ...

  7. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates that about one in four U.S. ... to learn more about the study's long-term effects through the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS), ...

  8. Preventive treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    Migraine preventive therapy, even in the absence of a headache, is given in an attempt to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include disabling migraine attacks, the overuse of acute medications or failure of or contraindication to acute medications, troublesome side effects from medication, hemiplegic migraine, or very frequent headaches (more than 2 a week). The major medication groups for preventive treatment include anticonvulsants, antidepressants, b-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel antagonists, serotonin antagonists, neurotoxins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and others. If preventive medication is indicated, the agent preferentially should be chosen from one of the first-line categories, based on the drug's side-effect profile and the patient's coexistent and comorbid conditions. PMID:16622394

  9. Migraine preventive treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Migraine is a chronic neurological disease. Preventive therapy is given in an attempt to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include recurring migraine attacks that significantly interfere with the patient's daily routines, despite appropriate acute treatment; frequent headaches; contraindication to, failure of, overuse of, or intolerance to acute therapies; patient preference; frequent, very long, or uncomfortable auras; and presence of uncommon migraine conditions. The major medication groups for preventive migraine treatment include beta-adrenergic blockers, antidepressants, calcium channel antagonists, serotonin antagonists, and anticonvulsants. The choice of preventive treatment depends on the individual drug's efficacy and adverse events, the patient's clinical features, frequency, and response to prior treatment, and the presence of any comorbid or coexistent disease. PMID:20816433

  10. Preventive migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2009-05-01

    The pharmacologic treatment of migraine may be acute (abortive) or preventive (prophylactic), and patients with frequent severe headaches often require both approaches. Preventive therapy is used to try to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. The preventive medications with the best-documented efficacy are amitriptyline, divalproex, topiramate, and the beta-blockers. Choice is made based on a drug's proven efficacy, the physician's informed belief about medications not yet evaluated in controlled trials, the drug's adverse events, the patient's preferences and headache profile, and the presence or absence of coexisting disorders. Because comorbid medical and psychologic illnesses are prevalent in patients who have migraine, one must consider comorbidity when choosing preventive drugs. Drug therapy may be beneficial for both disorders; however, it is also a potential confounder of optimal treatment of either. PMID:19289224

  11. Oral Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... South Asia and Southeast Asia, including China and India. Personal history of head and neck cancer A ... such as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: [ ...

  12. Prevent Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous section Overview 2 of 5 sections Take Action! Take Action: Get Active Take care of your back to ... I at Risk? 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Prevent Injuries Focus on good posture. Good posture ...

  13. Osteoporosis: Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... next to your bed Free NIH Videos About Osteoporosis The NIHSeniorHealth Web site features five brief, informative ...

  14. Preventive Antepartum Care

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    As the role of the obstetrician-gynecologist evolves to include primary care, the obstetrician must assume greater responsibility for providing prenatal preventive care, particularly regarding the STORCH5 pathogens. PMID:18475371

  15. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Cases A recent report from the Indianapolis Star has revealed multiple occasions in which allegations of ... Gymnastics. In many of the cases that the Star investigated, complaint… Read more Who we are Prevent ...

  16. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Head Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...

  17. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  18. Automating Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshier, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the following aspects of the State University of New York-Brockport's preventive maintenance computerization project: (1) software selection, (2) project implementation; and (3) problems and benefits of the system. (MCG)

  19. Preventability of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Graham A.; Wei, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas models of cancer disparities and variation in cancer burden within population groups now specify multiple levels of action from biologic processes to individual risk factors and social and physical contextual factors, approaches to estimating the preventable proportion of cancer use more traditional direct models often from single exposures to cancer at specific organ sites. These approaches are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations are presented. The need for additional multilevel data and approaches to estimation of preventability are identified. International or regional variation in cancer may offer the most integrated exposure assessment over the life course. For the four leading cancers, which account for 50% of incidence and mortality, biologic, social, and physical environments play differing roles in etiology and potential prevention. Better understanding of the interactions and contributions across these levels will help refine prevention strategies. PMID:22224878

  20. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Cancer.gov

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  1. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  2. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  3. Prevent Blindness America

    MedlinePlus

    ... to eNews Close Donate A Lifetime of Healthy Vision See well to learn, work, play, and live ... the sight-saving work of
 Prevent Blindness. Donate Vision Problems in the U.S. Prevalence of Adult Vision ...

  4. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  5. Infection Prevention in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pergam, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation are increasing every year, as are the number of centers both transplanting and caring for these patients. Improvements in transplant procedures, immunosuppressive regimens, and prevention of transplant-associated complications have led to marked improvements in survival in both populations. Infections remain one of the most important sources of excess morbidity and mortality in transplant, and therefore, infection prevention strategies are a critical element for avoiding these complications in centers caring for high-risk patients. This manuscript aims to provide an update of recent data on prevention of major healthcare-associated infections unique to transplantation, reviews the emergence of antimicrobial resistant infections, and discusses updated strategies to both identify and prevent transmission of these pathogens in transplant recipients. PMID:26820654

  6. [Prevention of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Roodenburg, J L; Vermey, A; Nauta, J M

    1994-05-01

    Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended. PMID:11830977

  7. Compliance through pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, B.D.; Coyle, S.; Kachel, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Decreased budgetary resources have caused the Air Force Materiel Command to look for a better way to target pollution prevention investments. The new paradigm, Compliance through Pollution Prevention (CTP2), is based upon the Code of Environmental Management Principles (CEMP) for federal facilities. It provides a procedure to assure that all future AFMC P2 investments result in the greatest reduction in environmental compliance burden possible. This paper describes the evolution of this new environmental management system, both past and future.

  8. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kew, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Because of its frequency and grave prognosis, preventing hepatocellular carcinoma is an urgent priority. Prevention should be possible because environmental carcinogens-chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections, dietary exposure to aflatoxins, and iron overload-cause the great majority of these tumors. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection accounts for 55% of global hepatocellular carcinomas and 80% of those in the high-incidence Asia Pacific and sub-Saharan African regions. In these regions the infection that becomes chronic is predominantly acquired very early in life. A safe and effective vaccine against this virus is available and its universal inclusion in the immunization of infants has already resulted in a marked reduction of chronic infection and a 70% decrease in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in those immunized. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in industrialized countries. The infection is mainly acquired in adulthood and, until a vaccine becomes available, prevention will consist mainly of identifying, counselling, and treating chronically infected individuals, preventing spread of the virus by the use of safe injection practices (particularly in intravenous drug abusers), and screening all donated blood for the presence of the virus. 4.5 billion of the world.s population are exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Prevention involves treating susceptible crops to prevent fungal contamination, and handling the foodstuffs in such a way as to prevent contamination during storage. Iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis can be prevented by repeated venesection and in African dietary iron overload by fermenting the home-brewed beer in iron-free containers. PMID:20526004

  9. Preventing Obesity through Schools

    PubMed Central

    Nihiser, Allison; Merlo, Caitlin; Lee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    PRÉCIS This paper describes highlights from the Weight of the Nation™ 2012 Schools Track. Included is a summary of 16 presentations. Presenters shared key actions for obesity prevention through schools. The information provided at the Weight of the Nation™ can help school health practitioners access tools, apply evidence-based strategies, and model real-world examples to successfully start obesity prevention initiatives in their jurisdiction. PMID:24446995

  10. IS SUICIDE PREVENTABLE?

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Ralph B.

    1959-01-01

    Among 500 cases of suicide analyzed in Stockholm, fewer than a third were associated with depression. Most forms of psychiatric disease were represented. Nevertheless, most persons give some warning before attempting suicide, and these warnings should be the signal for preventive action. Centers with trained personnel could prevent many suicides, if the potential victims were recognized and referred early enough. Laymen too should be educated to recognize potential suicide and help avert it. PMID:13629348

  11. Delivery of preventive care

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Alan; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Miller, Anthony; Kaminsky, Barbara; Enns, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine family physicians’ practice of, knowledge about, and attitudes toward delivering preventive care during periodic health examinations (PHEs). Design A stratified sample of 5013 members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada were randomly selected to receive a questionnaire by mail. Descriptive analysis was performed on a national data set of 1010 respondents. Setting Canada. Participants A sample of family physicians from each Canadian province. Main outcome measures Physicians were asked questions about whether they addressed aspects of preventive care, such as tobacco smoking, nutrition, physical activity, alcohol intake, and sun exposure with patients during PHEs. The questions were designed to gauge attitudes and identify barriers to the provision of preventive care. Results Most respondents (87% to 89%) indicated that they were comfortable counseling their patients about issues such as nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol consumption; however, many of these respondents did not refer their patients to specialists or provide them with additional resources to educate patients about the health risks of their conditions. While tobacco smoking risks and cessation were addressed by most family physicians (79%) during PHEs, other topics, such as sun exposure, were often overlooked. Conclusion The results of this survey indicate that while many family physicians follow the evidence-based guidelines for preventive care, current levels of preventive care in the primary care setting are below national standards. It is critical that Canadians receive optimal preventive care to improve the outlook of the chronic disease burden on the health care system. PMID:22267643

  12. Primary prevention of asthma.

    PubMed

    Becker, Allan B; Chan-Yeung, Moira

    2002-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of asthma over the last quarter century, particularly in the industrialized world. Although our understanding of asthma continues to improve, there is no cure for the disease. Primary prevention of asthma is the focus of this review. Asthma is a disease with multiple gene-environment interactions. Candidate genes for asthma are considered, and potential interaction between one of those genes, CD14, and an environmental factor, endotoxin, is reviewed as it relates to the hygiene hypothesis. Environmental risk factors for asthma including allergens, pollutants, infectious factors, and dietary modifications are considered, particularly their potential for primary prevention of asthma. Ongoing cohort studies including the Canadian Allergy and Asthma Prevention Study, the Manchester Allergy and Asthma Study, the Children's Asthma Prevention Study from Australia, and the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy Study from the Netherlands are briefly reviewed. A more definitive understanding of genetic background and environmental triggers and their interactions is required before any specific approach to the primary prevention of asthma can be championed aggressively. PMID:11753119

  13. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident. PMID:26983186

  14. Stroke prevention: an update.

    PubMed

    Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2012-03-01

    Stroke is a personal, familial, and social disaster. It is the third cause of death worldwide, the first cause of acquired disability, the second cause of dementia, and its cost is astronomic. The burden of stroke is likely to increase given the aging of the population and the growing incidence of many vascular risk factors. Prevention of stroke includes--as for all other diseases--a "mass approach" aiming at decreasing the risk at the society level and an individual approach, aiming at reducing the risk in a given subject. The mass approach is primarily based on the identification and treatment of vascular risk factors and, if possible, in the implementation of protective factors. These measures are the basis of primary prevention but most of them have now been shown to be also effective in secondary prevention. The individual approach combines a vascular risk factor modification and various treatments addressing the specific subtypes of stroke, such as antiplatelet drugs for the prevention of cerebral infarction in large and small artery diseases of the brain, carotid endarterectomy or stenting for tight carotid artery stenosis, and oral anticoagulants for the prevention of cardiac emboli. There is a growing awareness of the huge evidence-to-practice gap that exists in stroke prevention largely due to socio-economic factors. Recent approaches include low cost intervention packages to reduce blood pressure and cheap "polypills" combining in a single tablet aspirin and several drugs to lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Polypill intake should however not lead to abandon the healthy life-style measures which remain the mainstay of stroke prevention. PMID:22460445

  15. [Preventive treatment for migraine].

    PubMed

    Mulleners, Wim M; Haan, Joost; Dekker, Frans; Ferrari, Michel D

    2010-01-01

    Migraine patients who experience an average of 2 or more attacks per month are eligible for preventive treatment as well as treatment for acute attacks. The decision to offer preventative treatment is also made on the basis of the average attack duration, severity of the attacks, and response to attack treatment. Prior to initiating preventive treatment, the average attack frequency per month should be assessed, preferably by means of a headache diary over a number of months, as attack frequency is extremely variable. None of the currently available preventive drugs, such as beta-blockers, sodium valproate, topiramate and candesartan, were developed specifically for treating migraine, but were all originally intended for other indications. 50% of the migraine patients receiving preventive treatment can expect a 50% reduction in attacks, and the remaining attacks often seem to be less severe. The effects of the drugs are often unpredictable per individual, and side-effects frequently lead to early discontinuation of treatment. Drugs usually prescribed for cardiovascular disorders are often used. In the case of a disorder such as migraine with a high burden of disability, patients with cardiovascular or pulmonary comorbidity should receive medication that is optimally adjusted for both indications. PMID:20699036

  16. JNCI and Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmistha; Kramer, Barnett S.

    2015-01-01

    The Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI), with its broad coverage of bench research, epidemiologic studies, and clinical trials, has a long history of publishing practice-changing studies in cancer prevention and public health. These include studies of tobacco cessation, chemoprevention, and nutrition. The landmark Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT)—the first large trial to prove efficacy of a preventive medication for a major malignancy—was published in the Journal, as were key ancillary papers to the BCPT. Even when JNCI was not the publication venue for the main trial outcomes, conceptual and design discussions leading to the trial as well as critical follow-up analyses based on trial data from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the Selenium and Vitamin E Chemoprevention Trial (SELECT) were published in the Journal. The Journal has also published important evidence on very charged topics, such as the purported link between abortion and breast cancer risk. In summary, JNCI has been at the forefront of numerous major publications related to cancer prevention. PMID:25713150

  17. Diabetes mellitus prevention.

    PubMed

    Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review lifestyle modification interventions and pharmacological clinical studies designed to prevent diabetes and provide evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of Diabetes Mellitus. A review of relevant literature compiled via a literature search (PUBMED) of English-language publications between 1997 and 2010 was conducted. It is found that people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus can halt the development of the disease. Lifestyle modification intervention with reduction of 5%-10% of excess body weight and increase in moderate physical activity by 150 min/wk has consistently proven to reduce the appearance of diabetes in different at-risk populations. Pharmacologic interventions have also demonstrated the prevention of the appearance of diabetes in persons at risk. Bariatric surgery has decreased the appearance of diabetes patients in a select group of individuals. The progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus can be prevented. Lifestyle modification intervention changes with weight loss and increased physical activity are currently recommended for the prevention of diabetes. PMID:22020084

  18. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  19. Prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick; Mitra, Dipayan; Gregson, Barbara A; Mendelow, A David

    2007-07-01

    Nontraumatic intracerebral haemorrhages arise from a wide range of causes falling into two broad groups: discreet vascular "ictohaemorrhagic" lesions such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, cavernomas, tumours, and dural fistulae; and more generalised amyloid or hypertension related conditions. It is now possible using family history, associated risk factors and gradient echo MRI to predict cases at high risk of hypertensive or amyloid related haemorrhage. There is considerable potential for prevention of hypertensive haemorrhages by treatment of high risk cases with antihypertensive medication. As yet no effective preventative treatment for amyloid angiopathy related ICH has emerged although a variety of drugs are under investigation. Prevention of haemorrhage from ictohaemorrhagic lesions revolves around removal or obliteration of the lesion. Although there is a wide range of such lesions available treatments come down to three modalities. These are surgical excision, stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular embolisation. PMID:17630936

  20. [Prevention of infant obesity].

    PubMed

    Hernández Cordero, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem, demanding urgent and clear defined actions in order to stop the rapid increase on its prevalence and all health consequences associated. The best strategy to stop the rapid increase in childhood obesity is to prevent it. In order to do so, multiple defined actions between government, industry, community organizations, schools, families and health-care professionals. The general and family physicians, pediatricians, nurses, dieticians and other clinicians should be engaged, as a key actor, in the prevention of childhood obesity. The health-care professionals have frequent opportunities to inform to children, youth and their parents about the importance of prevention of obesity and to promote and engage them in healthy life styles, particularly, a healthy diet and regular physical activity. PMID:22352128

  1. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury. PMID:20463502

  2. Nutrition and melanoma prevention.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J Daniel; Wing, Gregory J; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma has continued to rise in incidence despite public efforts to promote sun protection behaviors. Because sunscreen use does not completely prevent skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation, additional chemopreventive methods for protecting against and reversing the effects of ultraviolet photodamage need evaluation. Recent years have brought increased interest in dietary factors, such as natural botanicals and vitamins, for the prevention of melanoma. This contribution provides a narrative review of the relevant, nutrition-related literature found by searching the keywords "melanoma chemoprevention," "nutrition and melanoma," "dietary botanicals and melanoma prevention," "green tea and melanoma," "vitamin D and melanoma," and "vitamin E and melanoma" in the PubMed database. Although randomized controlled trials of humans are lacking, basic science and epidemiologic studies show promising benefits of many natural products in chemoprevention for melanoma. Future studies, hopefully, will yield concrete answers and clarify the role of commonly available dietary nutrients in melanoma chemoprevention. PMID:21034988

  3. Prevention of Ill Health

    PubMed Central

    Muir, D. C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose and possibilities of prevention in the workplace are described. A problem solving approach begins by identifying physical, chemical or organizational factors in the work environment and personal health factors in the individual worker. Consulting experts may be required to assist in the process. Methodical assessment of the value of collecting data or of intervention policies will be required as increasing emphasis is placed on the development of truly effective preventive health policies. Major success so far must be credited to engineering and industrial hygiene endeavors. However, the occupational health professional is the only member of the team with knowledge of individual workers' health and who can thus render appropriate advice. With the employment of handicapped, disabled or recently ill workers, the physician's role will become increasingly important in the prevention of ill health at work. PMID:21289686

  4. Prevention strategies for trichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Aldred, David; Magan, Naresh

    2004-10-10

    Contamination of cereal commodities with mycotoxins represents a significant hazard to consumer health and has thus received increasing attention from food safety authorities and legislators. For trichothecenes, and deoxynivalenol (DON) in particular, the imminent implementation of legislative limits has focused attention on ways to prevent entry of such mycotoxin contaminants into the food and feed chains. Knowledge of the pre- and post-harvest stages in the cereal production chain and in particular information on where prevention strategies can be implemented is being used to develop quality assurance systems for improving food safety. Information on the ecology of Fusarium species, breeding for resistance, more effective fungicides, potential for biological control and effective drying and storage and preservation systems, are all helping to develop effective preventative strategies for minimising consumer exposure to trichothecenes and other mycotoxins. PMID:15342093

  5. Prevention in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Black, R E

    1990-01-01

    Developing countries have implemented primary health care programs directed primarily at prevention and management of important infectious and nutritional problems of children. Successful programs have emphasized the need for individual and community involvement and have been characterized by responsible government policies for equitable implementation of efficacious and cost-effective health interventions. Unfortunately, developing countries must also face increases in the chronic disease and social problems commonly associated with industrialized countries. Prevention efforts, for example, to reduce tobacco smoking, to modify the diet, to reduce injuries, or to avert environmental contamination, are needed to contain future morbidity and rapidly increasing medical care costs. Developing countries can build on their successful approaches to program implementation and add other measures directed at preservation of health and prevention of disease in adult as well as child populations. PMID:2231055

  6. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing anticipatory guidance and child maltreatment risk factor screening will be described. The modalities and strengths and weaknesses of community-based prevention programs will be discussed, and providers will be given tools to identify the effectiveness of available community-based programs. At a broader level, the article will describe ways that pediatricians can advocate at the local, state, and national level for policies and programs that support families and children. PMID:25242703

  7. Prevention of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    DuPont, G A

    1998-09-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common disease affecting adult dogs and cats. It is also a very preventable disease. The insidious nature of the disease and requirement for the pet owner to be actively involved make client and public education absolutely vital. Although clients are commonly aware of their pets' bad breath, they rarely notice gingivitis, fractured teeth, and traumatic malocclusions. The annual National Pet Dental Health Month program has resulted in a tremendous increase in public awareness. Veterinarians must carry this further in their everyday practices, convincing our clients of the need for preventive dental care. It is only through clients' ongoing desire and persistence that a long-term preventive program can be successful. This requires a coordinated effort by the entire hospital staff. When successful, clients' pets will live healthier and longer lives. PMID:9779544

  8. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  9. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Prevention & Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    Underage drinking prevention has two goals: prevent harm to the individual drinker and prevent harm to society. Modern prevention programs should be measured not by their intentions, but by their consequences: reducing the number of criminal events, reducing the amount of harm to individuals, and reducing the harm to society. This guide discusses…

  10. Adolescent preventive services.

    PubMed

    Reif, C J; Elster, A B

    1998-03-01

    Today, there are significant risks to the health of teenagers. Drugs (tobacco, alcohol, steroids and others), sex (pregnancy, STDs, date rape), nutrition (obesity and eating disorders), and violence (abuse, fighting) are unfortunately a part of many teens' lives. These risks increase throughout the teen years. Since each risk has a strong behavioral component, we hope to modify the behavior and minimize the risk. Prevention and health promotion are an important part of health care for teens. Primary care providers, such as family physicians, are in an excellent position to provide teen preventative care that is comprehensive and specific to the needs of each teen. PMID:9469914

  11. Preventing jailhouse suicides.

    PubMed

    Felthous, A R

    1994-01-01

    Psychiatric consultants to city and county jails are confronted with the challenge of preventing jailhouse suicides, a problem of national scope. Suicide prevention programs in jails must emphasize screening and identification, psychological support, observation, disarmament, clarity and consistency, and diagnosis, treatment, and/or hospitalization. Exactly how these principles are formulated and implemented will depend on the unique circumstances of each jail. Finally information is presented as evidence that a program that embodies these principles can effectively reduce the number of suicides in a jail where the average daily census has increased from fewer than 400 to greater than 900 in the past six years. PMID:7718921

  12. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  13. Preventing and Recognizing Embezzlement.

    PubMed

    Phairas, Debra

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately one in six physicians will be the victim of embezzlement at least once during his or her lifetime. This may be due to the trusting nature of physicians, a lack of business training about separating duties in transactions involving money, or employees' feeling overworked, underpaid, or underappreciated. The best protection against embezzlement is prevention. This article informs the reader of the steps to take to prevent stealing in the medical office, how to recognize if it is occurring, and how to obtain restitution or prosecution. PMID:27039633

  14. Preventing 30-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sherri

    2015-03-01

    Preventing 30-day readmissions to hospitals is a top priority in the era of health care reform. New regulations will be costly to health care facilities because of payment guidelines. The most frequently readmitted medical conditions are acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The transition from the hospital and into the home has been classified as a vulnerable time for many patients. During this time of transition patients may fail to fully understand their discharge instructions. Ineffective communication, low health literacy, and compliance issues contribute to readmissions. Telehealth and the use of technology may be used to prevent some readmissions. PMID:25680492

  15. HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda.

    PubMed

    Padian, Nancy S; McCoy, Sandra I; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Hasen, Nina; Kim, Julia; Bartos, Michael; Katabira, Elly; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Schwartländer, Bernhard; Cohen, Myron S

    2011-07-16

    We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic. PMID:21763938

  16. Delinquency Prevention Works. Program Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilchik, Shay

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiled this summary in order to assist states and jurisdictions in their delinquency prevention efforts. The summary provides a synthesis of current information on a broad range of programs and strategies which seek to prevent delinquency. The theory of risk-focused prevention is…

  17. Handbook of Youth Prevention Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Beth, Ed.; Pfohl, William, Ed.; Yoon, Jina S., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The "Handbook of Youth Prevention Science" describes current research and practice in mental health preventive interventions for youth. Traditional prevention research focused on preventing specific disorders, e.g. substance abuse, conduct disorders, or criminality. This produced "silos" of isolated knowledge about the…

  18. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Vandalism and Its Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, Paul; And Others

    As a result of the sharp increases in the costs of vandalism in the last few years, technical developments in intrusion devices have been rapid. This report provides an overall view of vandalism prevention emphasizing the various devices for detecting and reporting unauthorized entry into buildings and giving information about the activities of…

  20. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  1. The Prevention Researcher, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    The issues of this quarterly publication and year end supplement contain professional articles on topics that concern at risk youth and emphasize preventive measures. Number 1 highlights the importance of mentoring programs for at-risk youth. Discussions on mentoring for special groups such as gifted adolescents and lesbian and gay youth are…

  2. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  3. Preventing School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  4. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... People on chemotherapy, immunosuppressive medications, or long-term use of steroids Treatments at Home for People with Chickenpox There are several things that can be done at home to help relieve the symptoms and prevent skin ... Use non-aspirin medications, such as acetaminophen, to relieve ...

  5. Substance Use Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Judy

    This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…

  6. Strategies for Dropout Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This report provides descriptions of strategies for dropout prevention at the secondary level and presents examples of programs that successfully utilize these strategies. The information is based on data from a review of nearly 200 programs at secondary schools across the four-state Western region that includes Arizona, California, Nevada, and…

  7. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry

    This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…

  8. Student Leadership. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Linda; DeJong, William

    2010-01-01

    Campus-based efforts to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse and violence (AODV) will be more successful if they involve a wide range of stakeholders--including students--who can contribute to the program's design, implementation, and evaluation. Students provide a unique perspective on AODV prevention, and they can also bring a certain authority…

  9. Preventive medicine in 2030.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    This invited commentary imagines two futures for preventive medicine and public health in the Year 2030. Using satire, the commentary describes one future in which large corporations control public health and another where a robust public sector plays the leading role. PMID:23103593

  10. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  11. The Prevention Researcher, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of volume 7 of "The Prevention Researcher," a service of Integrated Research Services. Each issue provides information on a specific topic. The topic of Issue Number One is adolescent dating violence. This issue includes articles on adolescents' beliefs about rape and sexual victimization, and contains a report on an…

  12. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk of HPV infection: Having a weakened immune system Having a weakened immune system caused by immunosuppression increases the risk of HPV ... This virus causes AIDS and weakens the body's immune system. Medicine given to prevent organ rejection after transplant . ...

  13. Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Silverstein, Rustin

    This report describes seven categories of violent crime in Phoenix, Arizona, and provides causes, facts, preventative programs, and lessons learned pertaining to each category of violence. The categories are: (1) prenatal and early childhood; (2) families; (3) individual youth; (4) schools; (5) neighborhood and community; (6) workplace; and (7)…

  14. Can Sinusitis Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Sinusitis Prevention There ...

  15. [Can we prevent preeclampsia?].

    PubMed

    Ghesquière, Louise; Clouqueur, Elodie; Garabedian, Charles; Tsatsaris, Vassili; Houfflin-Debarge, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), a specific complication of pregnancy, is one of the most frequent causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the world. Recently, PE risk calculation algorithms allowing early detection of PE in the first trimester of pregnancy have been described. The aim of early detection would be to rapidly introduce an effective preventive treatment. The aim of our work is to study the different preventive treatments through the literature. Aspirin has some efficiency and reduces the risk of PE from 10 to 24%. It is most effective when the dose exceeds 75mg and when introduced before 16 gestational age. Early introduction of aspirin mainly prevents severe and preterm PE. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and vitamin D appear to be promising therapy for PE but further research is required. Calcium administered at 1g/day reduces the risk of PE especially to patients with low baseline calcium intake. A low dose of calcium could also reduce the risk of PE but this must be confirmed. Other preventive measures (antioxidants, nitric oxide, progesterone, rest, exercise) do not reduce the incidence of PE. PMID:27013262

  16. Illinois: Prevention Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Prevention Initiative provides grants to home-based and center-based programs to expand access to the Early Head Start (EHS) model as well as other birth to 3 models. The goal is to serve additional children birth to age 3 and help grantees increase program quality. The initiative to expand access to EHS and other models was…

  17. Preventing Giardia Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, W. Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…

  18. Reducing Bullying Through Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubler, Rea; Croxall, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Schoolyard bullies are seven times more likely to become delinquents or criminals than their nonbully peers. The unacceptable anti-social behavior of bullies can have an impact on both bullies and their victims across the lifespan. Most family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals realize that early violence prevention protects the social and…

  19. Vaccination to Prevent Cancer.

    PubMed

    Clements, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines stimulate the immune system, mimicking infectious attacks and thereby promoting the development of protective antibodies and/or cellular immunity so that the body is immune to infection when live native infections attack. Some of these infections are associated with cancer-causing changes in the body; thus some vaccines may help prevent cancer. PMID:27621345

  20. The Prevention Researcher, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Volume 6 of" The Prevention Researcher" contains three 12-page issues and one supplement. Issue Number 1 focuses on gambling, and contains the following articles: (1) "Gambling in the Family: The Hidden Addiction" (D. A. Abbott); (2) "Adolescent Gambling and Substance Use: The View from Texas" (L. Wallisch); (3) "Adolescent Gambling in Minnesota"…

  1. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to prevent pollution and reduce risk in communities, homes, workplaces, and ecosystems. This goal must be based in large part on the application of the best available science and technology associat...

  2. Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Why Prevention? Why Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabachnick, Joan

    2013-01-01

    In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual abuse a "silent, violent epidemic." Since that declaration, there has been a growing acceptance and awareness of the need for a broader public health approach to preventing sexual violence. However, it is only recently that individuals and organizations are beginning to look at…

  4. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  5. Approaches to Truancy Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogulescu, Sara; Segal, Heidi J.

    This report examines how New York counties can systematically and programmatically improve approaches to managing persons in need of supervision (PINS), describing approaches to truancy prevention and diversion that have been instituted nationwide and may be applicable to the PINS operating system. Researchers surveyed truancy-specific programs…

  6. HPV Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of these cancers can be prevented by HPV vaccine. HPV VACCINE IS RECOMMENDED AT THE SAME TIME AS OTHER ... caused by HPV, and meningitis. V1a1c-ci1n2esyfeoarryooludr:  THMdPaeVpningococcal HPV VACCINE IS BEST AT 11-12 YEARS Preteens have ...

  7. [Prevention in regional policy].

    PubMed

    Masi, M; Caponetti, A

    2006-01-01

    Prevention, safety and health promotion represent fondamental issues in the Regional policy. With this regard, the implementation of the Regional policy has been thought as the promotion of an integrated system which links different fields such as health, work-related information and education, job orientation and work in general. It is recommended that a good standard of prevention is achieved through the synergic actions and the collaborations among all the different actors playing a role in safety and prevention in workplace, including occupational physicians, safety and prevention operators, safety representatives for workers, trade unions, employers associations and public institutions. It is also necessary to adopt a strategy in order to decrease the number of misdiagnosed occupational diseases as well as to promote the "culture of safety in workplaces", increasing the awareness of all figures, with special focus on employers category. All this has to be set in the new scenario of the nowadays work characterized by the progressive increase of atypical job contracts, renewing the emphasis on the necessity of keeping joined "the right to a job with the right to health". PMID:17144418

  8. Prevention of relapsing backache

    PubMed Central

    Lühmann, Dagmar; Stoll, Susanne; Burkhardt-Hammer, Tatjana; Raspe, Heiner

    2006-01-01

    Background The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model!) and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school), ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts) as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the methodological requirements

  9. Dropout Prevention Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta. Office of Truancy, Dropout and Alternative Education.

    This document presents a dropout prevention planning guide developed by the Office of Truancy, Dropout and Alternative Education of the Maine Department of Education, an office established to provide technical consultant services to public and private schools for identifying students at risk of school failure, and the development of dropout…

  10. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  11. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Scheans, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described. PMID:26803094

  12. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sheila; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Peer counselors and staff members describe the "I Have a Future" Program at Meharry Medical College in Nashville (Tennessee). This program focuses on pregnancy prevention by providing education, health care, and increased life options; social skills training; an entrepreneurial program; and separate classes for African-American youth. (SLD)

  13. The Prevention Researcher, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    As a service of Integrated Research Services, a non-profit organization, this newsletter reports on many facets of prevention research. Written in direct, accessible language, each issue provides a "snapshot" update on a specific topic. Some articles are reprinted (often in a briefer format) from other publications; others provide a synthesis of…

  14. Nogales Dropout Prevention Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogales High School District 10, AZ.

    Descriptions of the Nogales dropout prevention program, including activities of the career counseling center and causes for dropping out of school, introduce the guide. The goals and objectives of the independent study center for potential dropouts include giving assistance to students so they may complete their high school education and guidance…

  15. Prevention Researcher, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The issues of this quarterly publication and year end supplement contain professional articles on topics that concern at risk youth and emphasize preventive measures. Number 1 highlights the challenges facing gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth in schools. Many schools have nothing in their curricula to help provide an understanding of these issues…

  16. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    1996-01-01

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

  17. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1996-12-24

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water. 3 figs.

  18. [Prevention of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljacić Crkvencić, Neva

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia

  19. [Prevention, why resist it?].

    PubMed

    Laurin, J C

    1989-01-01

    Prevention, why resist it? Based on a 1988 speech the author gave to infection control professionals in Montréal, this article draws a parallel between individuals' resistance to change and their reaction to infection control programs. Gladly, many of the same well-honed techniques that help change along can be applied to infection control efforts, he says. Analyzing the implementation of an infection control program for AIDS in a health center, the author emphasizes do's and don'ts and explores appropriate and inappropriate approaches to leadership, conflict prevention and problem solving. To sell your program, he says, you must also sell yourself; you must be convincing and credible. PMID:2912544

  20. Prevention of suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe. PMID:27489458

  1. Venereal disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Cutler, J C

    1981-03-01

    Outlining his interest and work in the prevention of VD, especially gonorrhea and syphilis, the author addresses the questions of prophylaxis and contraceptives, together with their technological advances, and ties these two concepts into the complex fabric of human behavior, history of available therapy in both world wars as well as the economic, social, moral and national concepts of what constitutes proper emphasis: prevention or cure. Thus, the absence of therapeutic modalities spurred the United States Armed Services to utilize Credé's solution for urethral irrigation and locally applied calomel ointment for prophylactic purposes in World War I but abandoned this mode when cheap penicillin therapy became available after World War II. Similarly, the utilization of combined prophylactic and contraceptive methods for women has to await the overcoming of societal and parental resistance. Particularly where teenagers are concerned the importance of combined modalities is stressed. PMID:6894273

  2. Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, D S; Coe, F L

    1999-11-15

    The first episode of nephrolithiasis provides an opportunity to advise patients about measures for preventing future stones. Low fluid intake and excessive intake of protein, salt and oxalate are important modifiable risk factors for kidney stones. Calcium restriction is not useful and may potentiate osteoporosis. Diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis and renal tubular acidosis should be considered in patients with nephrolithiasis. A 24-hour urine collection with measurement of the important analytes is usually reserved for use in patients with recurrent stone formation. In these patients, the major urinary risk factors include hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and hyperuricosuria. Effective preventive and treatment measures include thiazide therapy to lower the urinary calcium level, citrate supplementation to increase the urinary citrate level and, sometimes, allopurinol therapy to lower uric acid excretion. Uric acid stones are most often treated with citrate supplementation. Data now support the cost-effectiveness of evaluation and treatment of patients with recurrent stones. PMID:10593318

  3. The Prevention of Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Antonio; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2013-01-01

    The thalassemias are among the most common inherited diseases worldwide, affecting individuals originating from the Mediterranean area, Middle East, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. As the diseases require long-term care, prevention of the homozygous state constitutes a major armament in the management. This article discusses the major prevention programs that are set up in many countries in Europe, Asia, and Australia, often drawing from the experience in Sardinia. These comprehensive programs involve carrier detections, molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Variability of clinical severity can be attributable to interactions with α-thalassemia and mutations that increase fetal productions. Special methods taht are currently quite expensive and not widely applicable are preimplantation and preconception diagnosis. The recent successful studies of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may allow future prenatal diagnosis that is noninvasive for the fetus. PMID:23378598

  4. Osteoradionecrosis: Causes and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the most serious complications arising from head and neck radiation therapy. Current research has shown that ORN represents nonhealing, dead bone and is not a state of infection. ORN is the result of functional and structural bony changes that may not be expressed for months or years. ORN may occur spontaneously or in response to wounding. Predisposing factors include absorbed radiation dose, fractionation, delivery modality, and dental status. Timing of dental extractions and other factors have also been shown to affect incidence. ORN may be reduced through early intraoral evaluation, treatment, and adequate healing time prior to beginning RT. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has been beneficial in the prevention and treatment of ORN. It is of paramount importance for the medical community to recognize the factors that may reduce ORN incidence, endorse oral care protocols, and acknowledge the value of HBO therapy in the prevention and treatment of this disease. 60 references.

  5. Prevention and drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Testa, Mark F; Smith, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Evidence linking alcohol and other drug abuse with child maltreatment, particularly neglect, is strong. But does substance abuse cause maltreatment? According to Mark Testa and Brenda Smith, such co-occurring risk factors as parental depression, social isolation, homelessness, or domestic violence may be more directly responsible than substance abuse itself for maltreatment. Interventions to prevent substance abuse-related maltreatment, say the authors, must attend to the underlying direct causes of both. Research on whether prevention programs reduce drug abuse or help parents control substance use and improve their parenting has had mixed results, at best. The evidence raises questions generally about the effectiveness of substance abuse services in preventing child maltreatment. Such services, for example, raise only marginally the rates at which parents are reunified with children who have been placed in foster care. The primary reason for the mixed findings, say Testa and Smith, is that almost all the parents face not only substance abuse problems but the co-occurring issues as well. To prevent recurring maltreatment and promote reunification, programs must ensure client progress in all problem areas. At some point in the intervention process, say Testa and Smith, attention must turn to the child's permanency needs and well-being. The best evidence to date suggests that substance-abusing parents pose no greater risk to their children than do parents of other children taken into child protective custody. It may be sensible, say the authors, to set a six-month timetable for parents to engage in treatment and allow twelve to eighteen months for them to show sufficient progress in all identified problem areas. After that, permanency plans should be expedited to place the child with a relative caregiver or in an adoptive home. Investing in parental recovery from substance abuse and dependence, the authors conclude, should not substitute for a comprehensive approach

  6. Preventing Supercooling Of Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massucco, Arthur A.; Wenghoefer, Hans M.; Wilkins, Ronnie

    1994-01-01

    Principle of heterogeneous nucleation exploited to prevent gallium from supercooling, enabling its use as heat-storage material that crystallizes reproducibly at its freezing or melting temperature of 29 to 30 degrees C. In original intended application, gallium used as heat-storage material in gloves of space suits. Terrestrial application lies in preparation of freezing-temperature reference samples for laboratories. Principle of heterogeneous nucleation also exploited similarly in heat pipes filled with sodium.

  7. Models for effective prevention.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L; Kelder, S H

    1992-07-01

    The social influence models do provide some optimism for primary prevention efforts. Prevention programs appear most effective when 1) the target behavior of the intervention has received increasing societal disapproval (such as cigarette smoking), 2) multiple years of behavioral health education are planned, and 3) community-wide involvement or mass media complement a school-based peer-led program (45,46). Short-term programs and those involving alcohol use have had less favorable outcomes. Future research in primary prevention should address concerns of high-risk groups and high-risk countries, such as lower income populations in the United States or countries that have large adolescent homeless populations. The utilization of adolescent leaders for program dissemination might be particularly critical in these settings. A second major and global concern should focus upon alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In many communities adolescent alcohol use is normative and even adult supported. Thus, young people are getting quite inconsistent messages on alcohol from their schools, from TV, from peers, and from parents. This inconsistency may translate into many tragic and avoidable deaths for young people. Clearly, in the area of alcohol-related problems, community-wide involvement may be necessary. A third direction for prevention research should involve issues of norms, access, and enforcement including policy interventions, such as involve the availability of cigarette vending machines or the ease of under-age buying or levels of taxation. These methods affect adolescents more acutely since their financial resources, for the most part, are more limited. These policy level methods also signify to adolescents what adults consider appropriate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1390786

  8. Preventing ophthalmia neonatorum

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Dorothy L; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-01-01

    The use of silver nitrate as prophylaxis for neonatal ophthalmia was instituted in the late 1800s to prevent the devastating effects of neonatal ocular infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. At that time – during the preantibiotic era – many countries made such prophylaxis mandatory by law. Today, neonatal gonococcal ophthalmia is rare in Canada, but ocular prophylaxis for this condition remains mandatory in some provinces/ territories. Silver nitrate drops are no longer available and erythromycin, the only ophthalmic antibiotic eye ointment currently available for use in newborns, is of questionable efficacy. Ocular prophylaxis is not effective in preventing chlamydial conjunctivitis. Applying medication to the eyes of newborns may result in mild eye irritation and has been perceived by some parents as interfering with mother-infant bonding. Physicians caring for newborns should advocate for rescinding mandatory ocular prophylaxis laws. More effective means of preventing ophthalmia neonatorum include screening all pregnant women for gonorrhea and chlamydia infection, and treatment and follow-up of those found to be infected. Mothers who were not screened should be tested at delivery. Infants of mothers with untreated gonococcal infection at delivery should receive ceftriaxone. Infants exposed to chlamydia at delivery should be followed closely for signs of infection. PMID:26236350

  9. Blow out preventer

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, A.I.

    1980-06-10

    In oil and gas well pumping apparatus, a polish rod reciprocates through a stuffing box and connects to a submersible pump through a tubing string or the like. When servicing, it is desirable to close off the gas or oil pressure from below and hydraulic fluid is routed from a remote location to the blow out preventer. The blow out preventer consists of a cylindrical casing with a cap screw threadably engaged to the upper end thereof and containing a cylindrical spool or the like formed from elastomeric material having an annular channel around the outer perimeter which is operatively connected to the source of hydraulic fluid. When it is desired to close off the blow out preventer, hydraulic fluid is pumped under pressure to the channel thus forcing the center of the spool inwardly and clamping same around the polish rod thereby closing off the passageway around the polish rod. O rings surround the spool above and below the channel and assist in sealing. Upper and lower steps in the casing slope outwardly and away from one another to facilitate the return of the spool to the normal position when pressure is released.

  10. Preventing ophthalmia neonatorum

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Dorothy L; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-01-01

    The use of silver nitrate as prophylaxis for neonatal ophthalmia was instituted in the late 1800s to prevent the devastating effects of neonatal ocular infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. At that time – during the preantibiotic era – many countries made such prophylaxis mandatory by law. Today, neonatal gonococcal ophthalmia is rare in Canada, but ocular prophylaxis for this condition remains mandatory in some provinces/ territories. Silver nitrate drops are no longer available and erythromycin, the only ophthalmic antibiotic eye ointment currently available for use in newborns, is of questionable efficacy. Ocular prophylaxis is not effective in preventing chlamydial conjunctivitis. Applying medication to the eyes of newborns may result in mild eye irritation and has been perceived by some parents as interfering with mother-infant bonding. Physicians caring for newborns should advocate for rescinding mandatory ocular prophylaxis laws. More effective means of preventing ophthalmia neonatorum include screening all pregnant women for gonorrhea and chlamydia infection, and treatment and follow-up of those found to be infected. Mothers who were not screened should be tested at delivery. Infants of mothers with untreated gonococcal infection at delivery should receive ceftriaxone. Infants exposed to chlamydia at delivery should be followed closely for signs of infection. PMID:25838784

  11. Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Michael J. E-mail: WahlMichaelJ@aol.com

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions.

  12. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  13. Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…

  14. Role of Enforcement in Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the role of enforcement in prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) What the Evidence Tells Us about the Role of Enforcement in Prevention; (2) Campus Briefs; (3) Q&A with Charles Cychosz; and (4) Higher Education Center Resources.

  15. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... inhibitor, can do an even better job of preventing breast cancer than the SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors stop an enzyme ...

  16. INTEGRATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype computer-based decision support system was designed to provide small businesses with an integrated pollution prevention methodology. Preliminary research involved compilation of an inventory of existing pollution prevention tools (i.e., methodologies, software, etc.),...

  17. Prevention: What You Can Do

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  18. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  19. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  20. Pollution prevention makes good sense

    SciTech Connect

    Spearot, R.M.

    1993-06-01

    EPA is trying to write source reduction into new regulations and enforcement actions to encourage industry to prevent waste generation. Waste reduction is best accomplished by setting up a pollution prevention program.

  1. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as citrus drinks. Recommendations based on the specific type of ... do to prevent kidney stones. Some studies suggest citrus drinks like lemonade and orange juice protect against ...

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Prevention & Treatment of Arrhythmia Updated:Sep 2,2016 Do ... Risk for Arrhythmia • Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring of Arrhythmia • Prevention & Treatment of Arrhythmia Introduction Medications Ablation Devices for ...

  3. Preventing and Treating Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treating Blood Clots Request Permissions Download PDF Preventing and Treating Blood Clots January 20, 2015 To ... 2013, ASCO updated the clinical practice guideline about preventing and treating blood clots for people with cancer ...

  4. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented? Pneumonia can be very serious and ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal Pneumonia Vaccine A vaccine is available to prevent pneumococcal ...

  5. Body Lice Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  6. PREVENTION GUIDELINES SYSTEM/DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Prevention Guidelines System gives public health practitioners quick access to the most current CDC recommendations and guidelines for the prevention, control, treatment and detection of infectious and chronic diseases, environmental hazards, natural or human-generated disast...

  7. Can Kaposi Sarcoma Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... early? Can Kaposi sarcoma be prevented? Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is caused by the Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus ( ... to protect people against KSHV. For now, preventing KS depends on reducing the chance of becoming infected ...

  8. The Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The Diabetes Prevention Program is a randomized clinical trial testing strategies to prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals with elevated fasting plasma glucose concentrations and impaired glucose tolerance. The 27 clinical centers in the U.S. are recruiting at least 3,000 participants of both sexes, ~50% of whom are minority patients and 20% of whom are ≥65 years old, to be assigned at random to one of three intervention groups: an intensive lifestyle intervention focusing on a healthy diet and exercise and two masked medication treatment groups—metformin or placebo—combined with standard diet and exercise recommendations. Participants are being recruited during a 2 2/3-year period, and all will be followed for an additional 3 1/3 to 5 years after the close of recruitment to a common closing date in 2002. The primary outcome is the development of diabetes, diagnosed by fasting or post-challenge plasma glucose concentrations meeting the 1997 American Diabetes Association criteria. The 3,000 participants will provide 90% power to detect a 33% reduction in an expected diabetes incidence rate of at least 6.5% per year in the placebo group. Secondary outcomes include cardiovascular disease and its risk factors; changes in glycemia, β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, obesity, diet, physical activity, and health-related quality of life; and occurrence of adverse events. A fourth treatment group—troglilazone combined with standard diet and exercise recommendations—was included initially but discontinued because of the liver toxicity of the drug. This randomized clinical trial will test the possibility of preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in individuals at high risk. PMID:10189543

  9. Prevention of youth injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

    1999-01-01

    There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

  10. HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Padian, Nancy S.; McCoy, Sandra I.; Karim, Salim Abdool; Hasen, Nina; Kim, Julia; Bartos, Michael; Katabira, Elly; Bertozzi, Stefano; Schwartländer, Bernhard; Cohen, Myron S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic. PMID:21763938

  11. Insulin use: preventable errors.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is vital for patients with type 1 diabetes and useful for certain patients with type 2 diabetes. The serious consequences of insulin-related medication errors are overdose, resulting in severe hypoglycaemia, causing seizures, coma and even death; or underdose, resulting in hyperglycaemia and sometimes ketoacidosis. Errors associated with the preparation and administration of insulin are often reported, both outside and inside the hospital setting. These errors are preventable. By analysing reports from organisations devoted to medication error prevention and from poison control centres, as well as a few studies and detailed case reports of medication errors, various types of error associated with insulin use have been identified, especially in the hospital setting. Generally, patients know more about the practicalities of their insulin treatment than healthcare professionals with intermittent involvement. Medication errors involving insulin can occur at each step of the medication-use process: prescribing, data entry, preparation, dispensing and administration. When prescribing insulin, wrong-dose errors have been caused by the use of abbreviations, especially "U" instead of the word "units" (often resulting in a 10-fold overdose because the "U" is read as a zero), or by failing to write the drug's name correctly or in full. In electronic prescribing, the sheer number of insulin products is a source of confusion and, ultimately, wrong-dose errors, and often overdose. Prescribing, dispensing or administration software is rarely compatible with insulin prescriptions in which the dose is adjusted on the basis of the patient's subsequent capillary blood glucose readings, and can therefore generate errors. When preparing and dispensing insulin, a tuberculin syringe is sometimes used instead of an insulin syringe, leading to overdose. Other errors arise from confusion created by similar packaging, between different insulin products or between insulin and other

  12. [Epidemiology and prevention].

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of the prostate cancer are quite different between countries in the world. Such diversity may relate not only with the genetic difference but life style including diet. It is sure that the countries where PSA test widely prevails experience the decrease of the mortality of the prostate cancer. In Japan, 25% of the population is now over 65 years old. Surprisingly, one third of the patients with prostate cancer who were diagnosed at year 2010 are over 75 years old. Adequate selection of the treatment and endeavor to establish prevention strategy are important. PMID:26793873

  13. Dentistry preventing family violence.

    PubMed

    Mouden, L D

    1996-01-01

    Dentistry has a long history of dealing with one form of family violence, child maltreatment. However, a recent national survey shows that dentists are not living up to their legal and ethical obligations to report suspected child victims. Dentistry needs to be equally concerned with adult victims of family violence--the victims of spousal abuse and elder abuse and neglect. Successful child abuse prevention programs need to expand to cover all of family violence. All health care professionals need education and awareness training to help develop the necessary attitudes to deal with all victims of family violence. PMID:9564320

  14. Insect bite prevention.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah J; Mordue Luntz, Anne Jennifer; Logan, James G

    2012-09-01

    Protection from the bites of arthropod (insect and acarine) vectors of disease is the first line of defense against disease transmission and should be advised in all cases when traveling abroad. Details are described of the main approaches for the prevention of bites, including topical or skin repellents, impregnated clothing, bed nets, and spatial or aerial repellents and aerosols. The bionomics of the main arthropod vectors of disease are described along with photographic plates and tabulated advice to give the traveler. An in-depth treatment of the different protection methodologies provides an up-to-date overview of the technologies involved. PMID:22963776

  15. Biorepositories | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  16. Changing Schools to Prevent Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Douglas M.

    Although community psychologists and prevention specialists view schools as the ideal vehicle for delinquency programs for children, few examples of effective school-based prevention programs are available. Delinquency prevention program developers view common school practices as contributing causes of delinquency, making school change a major…

  17. Eating Disorders: Prevention through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.

    1993-01-01

    School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…

  18. Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, John

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on forty years of distinguished service in delinquency prevention, John Calhoun, founder of the National Crime Prevention Council, lays out the essential ingredients for preventing violence. These include strategies for connecting with alienated youth, building community norms of caring, reducing access of weapons of violence, and claiming…

  19. Microbicides for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita

    2011-01-01

    Although the HIV incidence rate has slowed in some countries, HIV remains a serious health challenge, particularly in the developing world. The epidemic is increasingly feminised, with young women at high risk of acquiring the virus. There is thus a clear requirement for acceptable woman-initiated methods of HIV prevention. Foremost among these are vaginally-applied substances known as microbicides; early research into potential microbicides focussed on non-HIV-specific compounds such as surfactants and polyanionic entry inhibitors. However, proof of the microbicide concept as a viable prevention strategy was not provided until the CAPRISA 004 trial of a microbicide containing the HIV-specific antiretroviral tenofovir was completed in mid-2010. Confirmation of the proof of concept provided by CAPRISA 004 by at least two major trials will hopefully lead to licensure of the product by 2018. Parallel studies are planned to ascertain the feasibility of implementation of these products in the public sector with subsequent research focussed on appropriate and acceptable methods of delivery of the active ingredient, and to increase adherence through other delivery systems such as vaginal rings. PMID:22310825

  20. Prevention of suicide.

    PubMed Central

    McNamee, J E; Offord, D R

    1990-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiologic features of suicide in Canada and evaluated suicide prevention programs. Three groups were found to be at increased risk for suicide: men aged 70 years or more, women aged 65 to 69 and men aged 20 to 24. The other groups, in decreasing order of risk, were the mentally ill, people who have attempted suicide, those with a life-threatening illness, native people, people with a family history of suicide and prisoners. Studies that evaluated suicide prevention programs showed that none significantly reduced the incidence of suicide; however, the studies were found to be methodologically inadequate or used noncomparable systems of data collection. On the basis of our findings we recommend that primary care physicians routinely evaluate suicide risk among patients in high-risk groups and that intervention include counselling, follow-up and, if necessary, referral to a psychiatrist. Close follow-up is recommended for newly discharged psychiatric patients and those who recently attempted suicide. PMID:2134157

  1. Migraine: preventive treatment.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, S D; Goadsby, P J

    2002-09-01

    Migraine is a common episodic headache disorder. A comprehensive headache treatment plan includes acute attack treatment to relieve pain and impairment and long-term preventive therapy to reduce attack frequency, severity, and duration. Circumstances that might warrant preventive treatment include: (i) migraine that significantly interferes with the patient's daily routine despite acute treatment; (ii) failure, contraindication to, or troublesome side-effects from acute medications; (iii) overuse of acute medications; (iv) special circumstances, such as hemiplegic migraine; (v) very frequent headaches (more than two a week); or (vi) patient preference. Start the drug at a low dose. Give each treatment an adequate trial. Avoid interfering, overused, and contraindicated drugs. Re-evaluate therapy. Be sure that a woman of childbearing potential is aware of any potential risks. Involve patients in their care to maximize compliance. Consider co-morbidity. Choose a drug based on its proven efficacy, the patient's preferences and headache profile, the drug's side-effects, and the presence or absence of coexisting or co-morbid disease. Drugs that have documented high efficacy and mild to moderate adverse events (AEs) include beta-blockers, amitriptyline, and divalproex. Drugs that have lower documented efficacy and mild to moderate AEs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), calcium channel antagonists, gabapentin, topiramate, riboflavin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:12230591

  2. How to prevent overdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chiolero, Arnaud; Paccaud, Fred; Aujesky, Drahomir; Santschi, Valérie; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of an abnormality that is not associated with a substantial health hazard and that patients have no benefit to be aware of. It is neither a misdiagnosis (diagnostic error), nor a false positive result (positive test in the absence of a real abnormality). It mainly results from screening, use of increasingly sensitive diagnostic tests, incidental findings on routine examinations, and widening diagnostic criteria to define a condition requiring an intervention. The blurring boundaries between risk and disease, physicians' fear of missing a diagnosis and patients' need for reassurance are further causes of overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis often implies procedures to confirm or exclude the presence of the condition and is by definition associated with useless treatments and interventions, generating harm and costs without any benefit. Overdiagnosis also diverts healthcare professionals from caring about other health issues. Preventing overdiagnosis requires increasing awareness of healthcare professionals and patients about its occurrence, the avoidance of unnecessary and untargeted diagnostic tests, and the avoidance of screening without demonstrated benefits. Furthermore, accounting systematically for the harms and benefits of screening and diagnostic tests and determining risk factor thresholds based on the expected absolute risk reduction would also help prevent overdiagnosis. PMID:25612105

  3. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  4. Natural Products for Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Heather

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review the clinical trial literature on the use and effects of natural products for cancer prevention. DATA SOURCES Clinical trials published in PubMed. CONCLUSION There is a growing body of literature on the use of natural products for cancer prevention. To date, few trials have demonstrated conclusive benefit. Current guidelines recommend against the use of natural products for cancer prevention. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE Clinicians should ask patients about their use of natural products and motivations for use. If patients are using natural products specifically for cancer prevention, they should be counseled on the current guidelines, as well as their options for other cancer prevention strategies. PMID:22281308

  5. Prevention of pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Rebecca A; Landry, Gregory L

    2003-12-01

    With over 30 million children participating in sports each year across the United States, a number of significant injuries are to be expected. Although mild injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions predominate, catastrophic injuries do occur. Young athletes are at an increased risk for growth plate and apophyseal injuries, overuse injuries, and heat illness. Many of these sports injuries can be prevented. Prevention strategies include protective equipment, rule changes, preseason and season prevention interventions, safety measures, better coaching, education, and a societal awareness of injury and prevention. This article discusses current injury prevention for children participating in baseball, football, soccer, and ice hockey. PMID:14583164

  6. Prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A.; Patterson, D.; Rayner, M.; Hyland, K.

    1992-01-01

    1. Major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are smoking, blood pressure and blood cholesterol and they interact in a multiplicative fashion. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and lack of exercise also contribute. Obesity increases risk probably mainly by its effect on blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for stroke. 2. Prevention may be opportunistic or in specially organized clinics, the latter being less likely to result in the attendance of high risk individuals. 3. Worthwhile reductions in cigarette smoking can be achieved by brief advice and follow-up. Literature on smoking and other aspects of prevention is available from the district health education department. 4. Risk scores can be used to calculate the risk of coronary heart disease. They can help to indicate the advisability of measurement of blood cholesterol and to focus limited resources on those at highest risk by helping to define a 'special care group'. 5. Indications for measuring blood cholesterol are: a family history of premature coronary heart disease or hyperlipidaemia, personal history of coronary heart disease, clinical evidence of raised lipids (xanthelasma, corneal arcus under 50, xanthomas at any age), a high risk of coronary heart disease according to a risk score. Many would also include those under treatment for hypertension and diabetes. 6. Dietary advice can moderately reduce blood cholesterol. The proportion of calories from fat should be reduced from the current average of around 40% to a maximum of 33%. Dietary advice should be tailored to the patient's current diet. An increase in vegetables and fruit can be generally advocated. 7. Regular exercise has a worthwhile role to play in prevention. Rapid walking, jogging and swimming may all be suitable, as may be heavy gardening and housework. 8. A small proportion of patients may require lipid-lowering drugs. These include resins (cholestyramine and colestipol

  7. Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) Purpose A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers* Setting Canadian Prevalence,% (95% CI) Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n) Acute care 25 (23.8–26.3) 23.9–29.7 (3418) Nonacute care† 30 (29.3–31.4) 30.0–53.3 (1165) Community care 15 (13.4–16.8) 13.2 (91) Mixed health care‡ 22 (20.9

  8. Preventing ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.

    1985-07-12

    A recent Office of Technology Assessment report to Congress indicates that the associated health risks from ground water contamination are likely to increase because federal and state laws provide inadequate protection. Road de-icing salts, pesticide runoff, septic tanks, and seepage from livestock manure and fertilizers are all major causes that are difficult to control. A primary source that can be corrected is improper or unsafe disposal of hazardous wastes that are dumped into landfills or surface ponds or injected into deep wells. Congress has tried to deal with the problem by strengthening existing and introducing new legislation. Because getting rid of hazardous waste is increasingly expensive and difficult, companies are beginning to look for ways to prevent pollution at the source by using new technologies that are economically sound. 17 references, 4 figures.

  9. Diet and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, P; Clifford, C K; Milner, J A

    2001-05-01

    Research from several sources provides strong evidence that vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, dietary fibre, certain micronutrients, some fatty acids and physical activity protect against some cancers. In contrast, other factors, such as obesity, alcohol, some fatty acids and food preparation methods may increase risks. Unravelling the multitude of plausible mechanisms for the effects of dietary factors on cancer risk will likely necessitate that nutrition research moves beyond traditional epidemiological and metabolic studies. Nutritional sciences must build on recent advances in molecular biology and genetics to move the discipline from being largely 'observational' to focusing on 'cause and effect'. Such basic research is fundamental to cancer prevention strategies that incorporate effective dietary interventions for target populations. PMID:11334719

  10. Preventing remediation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    Remediation, the design and construction of a remedy, typically represents the most significant portion of the cleanup process. The cost may be 5 to 10 times the cost of earlier investigation and feasibility efforts. Furthermore, the risks associated with remediation activities and their ability to meet ultimate cleanup goals and objectives are far greater than those associated with earlier efforts. Often times there are unrealistic expectations interjected throughout the design and construction process in the remediation field. The simple fact that most problems are buried, and one cannot see all that is below the ground surface provides sufficient uncertainty to result in problems. There are three key points during the remediation process which provide opportunities to prevent and avoid problems. These are: (1) during design; (2) during procurement and contracting; and (3) during construction. This paper examines actions which the author has found or believes will assist in providing a formula for success.

  11. [Prevention of hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Morillas, Rosa M; Sala, Marga; Planas, Ramon

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of cirrhosis which, in addition to producing a great social impact, deteriorates the quality of life of patients and is considered a sign of advanced liver disease and therefore a clinical indication for liver transplant evaluation. Patients who have had episodes of HE have a high risk of recurrence. Thus, after the HE episode resolves, it is recommended: control and prevention of precipitating factors (gastrointestinal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, use of diuretics with caution, avoid nervous system depressant medications), continued administration of non-absorbable disaccharides such as lactulose or lactitol, few or non-absorbable antibiotics such as rifaximin and assess the need for a liver transplant as the presence of a HE episode carries a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. PMID:24480288

  12. Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Marianne; Buller, David B; Cust, Anne; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K; Meyskens, Frank; Pandey, Shaily; Thomas, Nancy E; Veierød, Marit B; Ward, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures-either through occupation, atmosphere, or food-may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged. PMID:26601858

  13. Preventing and diagnosing dementia.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Bernie; Jenkins, Catharine; Ginesi, Laura

    While dementia is an umbrella term for a range of degenerative brain disorders, many share similar presentations. Nurses are ideally placed to identify those at risk and empower them to access treatment and plan and prepare for their future needs--as such, they need up-to-date knowledge of the signs and symptoms of the different types of dementia to identify risk factors and make an informed diagnosis. This article, the third in a four-part series on dementia, examines the risk factors, signs, symptoms and diagnosis of dementia, as well as outlining lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise that may help to prevent the development of the condition. PMID:27544960

  14. Preventing recurrent suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    Links, P. S.; Balchand, K.; Dawe, I.; Watson, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight recent empirical evidence for effective interventions that can guide family physicians in managing patients after suicide attempts. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Randomized control trials of psychosocial interventions for people after suicide attempts have provided some evidence for effective interventions. MAIN MESSAGE: Suicide attempts are more common than suicides; the number of attempts seen in a family practice is estimated to be 10 to 15 yearly. Up to two thirds of patients who take their lives by suicide have seen a family physician in the month before their death. Principles of care after a suicide attempt include actively engaging the patient, involving the family, restricting access to means of suicide, and developing intervention plans to deal with the psychopathology that has placed the patient at risk. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians have a crucial role in preventing suicide through aftercare and ongoing monitoring of patients who have attempted suicide. PMID:10587773

  15. [Prevention of Postthrombotic Syndrom].

    PubMed

    Hügel, Ulrike; Baumgartner, Iris

    2015-11-25

    Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a complication which occurs after deep vein thrombosis in spite of optimal anticoagulation. The term ’post-thrombotic syndrome’ summarizes all clinical symptoms and skin lesions developing in the aftermath of deep vein thrombosis. In order to prevent PTS various therapeutic options exist, the choice is depending on the time lapse since the event of thrombosis. At the acute phase of pelvic vein thrombosis catheter-directed lysis has proved to be an efficient therapy. Starting from the acute phase up to the chronic phase compression therapy should be administered. In the chronic phase clinically relevant improvement of PTS can be achieved by recanalisation of the venous outflow tract in the pelvic axis by endovascular stenting. Surgery or endovenous thermal ablation of the insufficient superficial venous system are further and supplementary sensible treatment options. PMID:26602850

  16. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, F D Richard

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most important cause of premature death and disability globally. Much is known of the main aetiological risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and smoking, with a raft of additional risks of increasing prevalence, such as obesity and diabetes. Furthermore, some of the most secure evidence-based management strategies in healthcare relate to interventions that modify risk. Yet major gaps remain in the implementation of such evidence, summarized in international guideline recommendations. Some of this gap relates to knowledge deficits amongst clinicians, but also to continued uncertainties over interpretation of the evidence base and areas where data are less available. This article collection in BMC Medicine seeks to offer reflections in each of these areas of uncertainty, spanning issues of better diagnosis, areas of controversy and glimpses of potentially potent future interventions in the prevention of CVD. PMID:26456942

  17. [Primary prevention: physical activity].

    PubMed

    Schuler, G

    2004-01-01

    Traditional risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and being overweight have received considerable attention in recent years, whereas physical activity as a preventive strategy does not enjoy the same public attention. In recent years the level of physical activity has decreased dramatically in children and adolescents in favor of time spent on the internet and in front of the TV. If this trend is allowed to develop along the same direction, a sharp increase in cardiovascular disease can be anticipated. The protective action of physical activity on the cardiovascular system has been well documented in large numbers of patients, and the basic physiological mechanisms have been elucidated. Metabolic changes comprise loss of weight, reduction in triglyceride and LDL levels, as well as an increase in HDL. Insulin sensitivity is enhanced in all tissues postponing the manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Shear forces created by physical activity induce ecNOS within the endothelial lining of the arteries. This enzyme is responsible for controlling vasomotion through the elaboration of NO which causes vasodilation in the smooth muscle within the vessel wall. Utilization of preformed collateral vessels has been postulated repeatedly; so far, however, it only could be documented in animals, not in humans. Nearly all studies concerned with primary prevention have shown a significant negative correlation between energy expenditure during exercise and cardiovascular mortality, even light and moderate exercise will result in a lower incidence. In order to eliminate a sedentary life style in children and adolescents, adequate programs should be initiated in all schools; they should aim for 60 min of physical activity on a daily basis. PMID:15021990

  18. FOD Prevention at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA-MSFC directive MID 5340.1 requires FOD prevention for all flight hardware projects, and requires all support organizations to comply. MSFC-STD-3598 implements a standard approach for FOD prevention, tailored from NAS 412. Three levels of FOD Sensitive Area are identified, adopting existing practices at other NASA facilities. Additional emphasis is given to prevention of impact damage and mitigation of facility FOD sources, especially leaks and spills. Impact Damage Susceptible (IDS) items are identified as FOD-sensitive as well as hardware vulnerable to entrapment of small items.

  19. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Molecular Prevention Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) one-week course on molecular aspects of cancer prevention follows the Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course. It provides a strong background about molecular biology and genetics of cancer, and an overview of cutting-edge research and techniques in the fields of molecular epidemiology, biomarkers, multi-omic, and translational research. The following topics will be typically presented: |

  20. Firearm injury prevention training in Preventive Medicine Residency programs.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    Preventive medicine plays a central role in the reducing the number of deaths due to preventable causes of premature deaths. General Preventive Medicine Residency programs have not been studied in relation to training in this area. A three-wave mail survey was conducted with email and telephone follow-ups. The outcome measures were the portion of program directors involved in training residents on firearm injury prevention issues and their perceived benefits and barriers of training residents on firearm injury prevention issues. Only 25% of the programs provided formal training on firearm injury prevention. Program directors who provided formal training perceived significantly higher number of benefits to offering such training than did directors who did not provide such training but no significant difference was found between the two for number of perceived barriers. If preventive medicine residency graduates are to play a role in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from firearms it will require more residencies to offer formal training in this area. The Association for Prevention Teaching and Research needs to develop guidelines on specific curriculum topics regarding firearm injury prevention. PMID:19326195

  1. Can we really prevent suicide?

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Lifshitz, Maya; Zalsman, Gil; Giner, Lucas; Oquendo, Maria A

    2012-12-01

    Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for all ages. Unfortunately, suicide is difficult to prevent, in large part because the prevalence of risk factors is high among the general population. In this review, clinical and psychological risk factors are examined and methods for suicide prevention are discussed. Prevention strategies found to be effective in suicide prevention include means restriction, responsible media coverage, and general public education, as well identification methods such as screening, gatekeeper training, and primary care physician education. Although the treatment for preventing suicide is difficult, follow-up that includes pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or both may be useful. However, prevention methods cannot be restricted to the individual. Community, social, and policy interventions will also be essential. PMID:22996297

  2. Can We Really Prevent Suicide?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Lifshitz, Maya; Zalsman, Gil; Giner, Lucas; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for all ages. Unfortunately, suicide is difficult to prevent, in large part because the prevalence of risk factors is high among the general population. In this review, clinical and psychological risk factors are examined and methods for suicide prevention are discussed. Prevention strategies found to be effective in suicide prevention include means restriction, responsible media coverage, and general public education, as well identification methods such as screening, gatekeeper training, and primary care physician education. Although the treatment for preventing suicide is difficult, follow-up that includes pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or both may be useful. However, prevention methods cannot be restricted to the individual. Community, social, and policy interventions will also be essential. PMID:22996297

  3. The prevention of coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Mearin, M Luisa

    2015-06-01

    Primary prevention of coeliac disease is currently not possible. Previously, a 'window of opportunity' was suggested for primary prevention, by introducing gluten between four and six months of age. However, results from recent prospective studies establish that the timing of gluten introduction and the duration or maintenance of breastfeeding do not influence the development of the disease. Secondary prevention is possible through early diagnosis and treatment. Since coeliac disease is severely underdiagnosed, the only way to achieve large-scale secondary prevention is by mass screening. Prospective studies indicate that important health problems, such as reduced foetal growth and birth weight, delayed growth in height and weight in children, and reduced bone mineral density in both children and adults can be prevented by mass screening. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet may be considered as tertiary prevention. PMID:26060113

  4. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Ashley

    2000-01-01

    Definition Malaria is caused by a protozoan infection of red blood cells with one of four species of the genus plasmodium: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, or P malariae.1 Clinically, malaria may present in different ways, but it is usually characterised by fever (which may be swinging), tachycardia, rigors, and sweating. Anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, cerebral involvement, renal failure, and shock may occur. Incidence/prevalence Each year there are 300-500 million clinical cases of malaria. About 40% of the world's population is at risk of acquiring the disease.23 Each year 25-30 million people from non-tropical countries visit areas in which malaria is endemic,4 of whom between 10 000 and 30 000 contract malaria.5 Aetiology/risk factors Malaria is mainly a rural disease, requiring standing water nearby. It is transmitted by bites6 from infected female anopheline mosquitoes,7 mainly at dusk and during the night.18 In cities, mosquito bites are usually from female culicene mosquitoes, which are not vectors of malaria.9 Malaria is resurgent in most tropical countries and the risk to travellers is increasing.10 Prognosis Ninety per cent of travellers who contract malaria do not become ill until after they return home.5 “Imported malaria” is easily treated if diagnosed promptly, and it follows a serious course in only about 12% of people.1112 The most severe form of the disease is cerebral malaria, with a case fatality rate in adult travellers of 2-6%,3 mainly because of delays in diagnosis.5 Aims To reduce the risk of infection; to prevent illness and death. Outcomes Rates of malarial illness and death, and adverse effects of treatment. Proxy measures include number of mosquito bites and number of mosquitoes in indoor areas. We found limited evidence linking number of mosquito bites and risk of malaria.13 Methods Clinical Evidence search and appraisal in November 1999. We reviewed all identified systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials (RCTs

  5. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  6. HIV treatment for prevention.

    PubMed

    Ambrosioni, Juan; Calmy, Alexandra; Hirschel, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions) is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear.Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission.More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated waves of testing would precisely

  7. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Ringworm Risk & Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Who gets ringworm? Ringworm is very common. Anyone can get ringworm, ...

  8. Prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  9. Prevention of venereal infections

    PubMed Central

    Guthe, T.

    1958-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, a plea is made for a broad view by health administrations of the preventive aspects of venereal disease control, based on epidemiological rather than purely clinical grounds. Stress is laid on the importance of measures directed towards health promotion, specific protection, early recognition and prompt treatment, disability limitation, and rehabilitation. The value of case-finding and contact-tracing and of systematic blood-testing of certain population groups is emphasized. In the second part, measures for local and systemic prophylaxis are discussed. It is also pointed out that in the past 15 years there has been a rapid reduction in syphilis throughout the world as a whole (although some recrudescence has recently been reported in certain countries), but that over the same period the reservoir of gonorrhoea has been but slightly reduced. The possible epidemiological, immunological and other reasons for this phenomenon are gone into, and the conclusion is reached that the outlook for the control of gonorrhoea is now somewhat less favourable than it was a few years ago. Should apprehension on this score bring about a general orientation away from penicillin (particularly the long-acting preparations) in treating gonorrhoea, the effect on the reservoir of syphilis may also be unfortunate. PMID:13596876

  10. Preventing Suicide Among Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Sakinofsky, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inpatient suicide comprises a proportionately small but clinically important fraction of suicide. This study is intended as a qualitative analysis of the comprehensive English literature, highlighting what is known and what can be done to prevent inpatient suicide. Method: A systematic search was conducted on the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and a personal database for articles on cohort series, preferably controlled, of inpatient suicide (not deliberate self-harm or attempted suicide, unless they also dealt specifically with suicide data). Results: A qualitative discussion is presented, based on the findings of the literature searched. Conclusions: The bulk of inpatient suicides actually occur not on the ward but off premises, when the patient was on leave or had absconded. Peaks occur shortly after admission and discharge. It is possible to reduce suicide risk on the ward by having a safe environment, optimizing patient visibility, supervising patients appropriately, careful assessment, awareness of and respect for suicide risk, good teamwork and communication, and adequate clinical treatment. PMID:24881161

  11. Calcification prevention tablets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  12. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  13. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    2015 Keynote Lecture HPV Vaccination: Preventing More with Less A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 23, 2015 at 3:00pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Douglas Lowy, NCI Acting Director. |

  14. Can coffee prevent caries?

    PubMed Central

    Anila Namboodiripad, PC; Kori, Sumathi

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society's Institute of Dental Sciences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients' histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodicity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS) scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives. PMID:20379435

  15. Vaccination to prevent varicella

    PubMed Central

    King, PG

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that herpes zoster (HZ) incidence rates among children and adults (aged <60 years) with a history of natural varicella are influenced primarily by the frequency of exogenous exposures, while asymptomatic endogenous reactivations help to cap the rate at approximately 550 cases/100,000 person-years when exogenous boosting becomes rare. The Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1995 to monitor the effects of varicella vaccination in one of the three representative regions of the United States. The stability in the data collection and number of reporting sites under varicella surveillance from 1995–2002 and HZ surveillance during 2000–2001 and 2006–2007 contributed to the robustness of the discerned trends. Discussion: Varicella vaccination may be useful for leukemic children; however, the target population in the United States is all children. Since the varicella vaccine inoculates its recipients with live, attenuated varicella–zoster virus (VZV), clinical varicella cases have dramatically declined. Declining exogenous exposures (boosts) from children shedding natural VZV have caused waning cell-mediated immunity. Thus, the protection provided by varicella vaccination is neither lifelong nor complete. Moreover, dramatic increases in the incidence of adult shingles cases have been observed since HZ was added to the surveillance in 2000. In 2013, this topic is still debated and remains controversial in the United States. Summary: When the costs of the booster dose for varicella and the increased shingles recurrences are included, the universal varicella vaccination program is neither effective nor cost-effective. PMID:24275643

  16. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines. PMID:19450348

  17. Selenium for preventing cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Crespi, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice PA; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Background This review is an update of the first Cochrane publication on selenium for preventing cancer (Dennert 2011). Selenium is a metalloid with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. Objectives Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: an aetiological relation between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans? andthe efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans? Search methods We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1966 to February 2013 week 1), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 week 6), CancerLit (February 2004) and CCMed (February 2011). As MEDLINE now includes the journals indexed in CancerLit, no further searches were conducted in this database after 2004. Selection criteria We included prospective observational studies (cohort studies including sub-cohort controlled studies and nested case-control studies) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with healthy adult participants (18 years of age and older). Data collection and analysis For observational studies, we conducted random effects meta-analyses when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. For RCTs, we performed random effects meta-analyses when two or more studies were available. The risk of bias in observational studies was assessed using forms adapted from the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort and case-control studies; the criteria specified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were used to evaluate the risk of bias in RCTs. Main results We included 55 prospective observational studies (including more than 1,100,000 participants) and eight RCTs (with a total of 44,743 participants). For the observational studies, we found lower cancer incidence (summary odds ratio (OR) 0

  18. Primary Prevention of Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shisslak, Catherine M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes current understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia (clinical symptoms and outcome, prevalence and risk factors), offering suggestions for the primary prevention of these disorders at the individual, family, and community levels, and emphasizing prevention in the schools. (Author/KS)

  19. Preventive Law for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harold L.

    This chapter focuses on the need for a revised relationship between schools and the courts through the concept of preventive law. The chapter reviews court cases and presents an overview of conflict resolution models and strategies for reducing litigation. Preventive law assumes that greater use of its strategies affords a lesser need for conflict…

  20. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  1. Preventing Ventilation On Sailboard Skegs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Design effort undertaken to solve spinout problem plaguing high-performance sailboards. Proposed skeg section designed by use of computer model of pressure field and boundary layer. Prevents ventilation by maintaining attached boundary-layer flow throughout operating environment. Cavitation also avoided by preventing valleys in pressure distribution while skeg operated throughout its range.

  2. Communication Skills for Preventive Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Catherine E.; O'Donnell, Joseph F.; Novack, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    Defines and examines a communication model for enhancing the provision and adoption of preventive practices in the primary care setting and discusses teaching that model in the medical school context. Methods for integrating communication skills for prevention into the medical school curriculum are discussed, using examples from Dartmouth (New…

  3. Saving the Barrier by Prevention.

    PubMed

    Weisshaar, Elke

    2016-01-01

    One third of all occupation-related diseases are diseases of the skin, and in most of these cases the skin barrier is involved. Professions such as metalworkers, hairdressers, and health care and construction workers are mainly affected. Among them, contact dermatitis is the leading skin disease. It usually presents as hand eczema caused by or leading to impaired barrier function. All this significantly impacts the function of the hands, reduces the ability to work and especially impairs the patient's quality of life. Diagnostics and therapy are of great importance; in addition, prevention programs are meanwhile an important mainstay of the overall therapeutic concept. They comprise measures of secondary (outpatient) and tertiary (inpatient) prevention. Secondary prevention measures include occupation-tailored teaching and prevention programs, and the dermatologist's examination and report. In severe cases or if therapy is not successful in the long term, or if the diagnosis is not clear, measures of tertiary prevention may come into action. They are offered as an inpatient treatment and prevention program. The aims are prevention of the job loss, but especially to reach a long-term healing up and getting back to normal occupational and leisure life in the sense of attaining full quality of life. During the last years, research in Germany has shown that the different measures of prevention in occupational dermatology are very effective. This integrated concept of an in-/outpatient disease management reveals remarkable pertinent efficacy for patients with severe occupational dermatoses in at-risk professions. PMID:26844907

  4. Drug Education & Prevention. Chapter 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with drug education and prevention. Papers include: (1) "State of the Art of Drug Prevention Programs: A Five Year Retrospective of School Curricula" (Natalie Silverstein, et al.); (2) "TCs: Education for Wholeness" (Christine Grant…

  5. Progress toward a Prevention Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagner, Matthew W.; Lansing, Jiffy

    2009-01-01

    Matthew Stagner and Jiffy Lansing chart developments in the field of child maltreatment and propose a new framework for preventing child abuse and neglect. They begin by describing the concept of investment-prevention as it has been applied recently in fields such as health care and welfare. They then explain how the new framework applies to…

  6. AIDS. CSAP Prevention Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Karen, Ed.

    This resource guide was compiled from a variety of publications and data bases and represents the most current information to date on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention. The guide is organized into three major sections. The first section lists prevention materials. For each entry, information is provided on the organization…

  7. DIABETES PREVENTION TRIAL TYPE 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Diabetes Prevention Trial--Type 1 (DPT-1) is a nationwide study to see if we can prevent or delay type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. Nine medical centers and more than 350 clinics in the United States and Canada are taking part in the study.

  8. Mississippi Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of School Improvement.

    This document presents the Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum developed for use in Mississippi elementary and secondary schools. The curriculum uses a developmental approach to substance abuse prevention which emphasizes helping students gain information needed to make sound decisions about drug use. Incorporated into the curriculum are all…

  9. Elementary Youth: Prevention Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This prevention resource guide (compiled from a variety of publications and data bases and representing the most currently available information) focuses on elementary youth, and is divided into four sections. The first section contains facts and figures from current research about substance abuse prevention for elementary youth. For example, one…

  10. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE. HONEYWELL PLANNING GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    THIS HONEYWELL PAMPHLET DISCUSSES SOME ASPECTS OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF AUTOMATIC CONTROLS, HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING, AND COMPARES IN-PLANT WITH CONTRACT SERVICE, CONCLUDING THAT CONTRACT SERVICE IS PREFERABLE AND DESCRIBING A NUMBER OF MAINTENANCE PLANS WHICH THEY FURNISH. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROVIDES--(1) MORE EFFICIENT…

  11. Crime Prevention Services for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Harold A.

    The purpose of this guide is to identify the various opportunities available in most communities for delivering crime prevention services to youth so that they will be better prepared to reduce their vulnerability to crime, while enhancing their involvement in prevention efforts. It also serves to outline the benefits of programming with youth;…

  12. Anatomic consideration for preventive implantation.

    PubMed

    Denissen, H W; Kalk, W; Veldhuis, H A; van Waas, M A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of preventive implant therapy is to prevent or delay loss of alveolar ridge bone mass. For use in an anatomic study of 60 mandibles, resorption of the alveolar ridge was classified into four preventive stages: (1) after extraction of teeth; (2) after initial resorption; (3) when the ridge has atrophied to a knife-edge shape; and (4) when only basal bone remains. Implantation in stage 3 necessitates removal of the knife-edge ridge to create space for cylindrical implants. Therefore, implantation in stage 2 is advocated to prevent the development of stage 3. The aim of implantation in stage 4 is to prevent total loss of function of the atrophic mandible. PMID:8359876

  13. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, V.C.

    1995-02-01

    The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breast cancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breast cancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer.

  14. Preventive aspects regarding back pain.

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas E; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Prevention, as the act of keeping from happening, aims to avert things that would occur if no intervention would be taken. From the epidemiology of back pain, consequences of the disease that are worth preventing can be derived. Biological, psychological, and social factors lead to back pain and chronification and ultimately to various adverse outcomes. The most important preventable consequences of back pain include loss of ability to function in daily life, loss of work productivity, sickness absence, and disability pension, excessive and inappropriate healthcare utilisation, impairments in quality of life, and disturbance of sexual life. The most important tools for prevention of back pain lie within rehabilitation after acute pain treatment and include exercise and physical training as well as health education and increasing health literacy. The bio-psycho-social nature of back pain must be taken into account in all preventive measures. PMID:26695480

  15. [Relapse prevention in drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Rácz, József

    2013-12-01

    The literature review deals with methods of relapse prevention. Relapse prevention is the key in the treatment of clients with drug addictions according to the transtheoretical model of change. If relapse prevention is more effective then not only the relapse would be prevented, but the client would leave the circulus vitiosus of relapses. Among psychotherapies cognitive behavioural methods are proven effective. Shorter forms of cognitive therapies are also available: for example, cognitive bias modification. Pharmacotherapy partly decreases craving of the clients or ceases the effects of psychoactive substances. Specific pharmacotherapeutic methods prevent relapses in a non-abstinent treatment design. Here the goal is not the abstinence in a short time, but the reduction of harms associated with drug use. In this way, a new target group of drug users can be involved in treatment. PMID:24380964

  16. Family Wellness, Not HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane

    2010-01-01

    HIV exceptionalism (and disease-specific programs generally) garner both unbalanced funding and the most talented personnel, distorting local health priorities. In support of HIV exceptionalism, the successful mobilization of significant global health sector resources was not possible prior to HIV. Both sides of the debate have merits; rather than perpetuating polarization, we suggest that sustained improvements in global health require creating a prevention infrastructure to meet multiple health challenges experienced by local communities. We propose four fundamental shifts in HIV and disease prevention: (1) horizontally integrating prevention at one site locally, with priorities tailored to local health challenges and managed by local community leaders; (2) using a family wellness metaphor for services, not disease prevention; (3) implementing evidence-based prevention programs (EBPP) based on common principles, factors, and processes, rather than replication of specific programs; and (4) utilizing the expertise of private enterprise to re-design EBPP into highly attractive, engaging, and accessible experiences. PMID:19148744

  17. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N.; Fleshner, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (pca) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (pcpt) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are important factors to consider. This review provides a comparative update on the reduce and pcpt trials and some clinical recommendations. Other potential primary preventive strategies with statins, selective estrogen response modulators, and nutraceutical compounds—including current evidence for these agents and their roles in clinical practice—are discussed. Many substances that have been examined in the primary prevention of pca and for which clinical data are either negative or particularly weak are not covered. The future of pca prevention continues to expand, with several ongoing clinical trials and much interest in tertiary prostate cancer prevention. PMID:20882132

  18. Prevention of Youthful Marijuana Use.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Timmen L; Banys, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Considerable money and effort have been expended in attempts to prevent drug use by youth, with disappointing results. Too often, prevention programs have singled out youth with simplistic messages of exaggerated risk and the same politically acceptable solution for all-abstinence. Historically, prevention efforts have been less effective by not being soundly based in science and failing also to address adult drug and alcohol use as part of the problem. The Institute of Medicine continuum of care model developed in 1994 offers a framework for a more sophisticated, three-tiered approach to prevention, defined as all services provided prior to a clinical diagnosis of a substance use disorder. By dividing prevention efforts into universal (delivered to broad populations without consideration of individual risk for developing substance use disorder), selected (targeting sub-groups of individuals identified on the basis of characteristics known to create an elevated risk for substance use disorder), and indicated (addressing individuals identified on the basis of manifest risk behaviors), prevention can be better tailored to meet different levels of need. Student Assistance Programs (SAPs) and community coalitions provide examples of how IOM's continuum of care model can be integrated into drug prevention programs for youth. PMID:26891015

  19. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N; Fleshner, N E

    2010-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are important factors to consider.This review provides a comparative update on the REDUCE and PCPT trials and some clinical recommendations. Other potential primary preventive strategies with statins, selective estrogen response modulators, and nutraceutical compounds-including current evidence for these agents and their roles in clinical practice-are discussed. Many substances that have been examined in the primary prevention of pca and for which clinical data are either negative or particularly weak are not covered.The future of PCa prevention continues to expand, with several ongoing clinical trials and much interest in tertiary prostate cancer prevention. PMID:20882132

  20. Preventable hospitalizations and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Blustein, J; Hanson, K; Shea, S

    1998-01-01

    "Preventable" hospitalizations have been proposed as indicators of poor health plan performance. In this study of elderly Medicare beneficiaries, however, we found that preventable hospitalizations are also more common among elders of lower socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship persisted even when an up-to-date severity-of-illness adjustment system was used. To the extent that indicators of health plan "performance" reflect enrollees' characteristics, plans will be rewarded for marketing their services to wealthier, healthier, and better-educated patients. Further work is needed to clarify issues of accountability for preventable hospitalizations and other putative indices of health plan performance. PMID:9558796

  1. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  2. Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... News and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect: Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This content exists at the following URL. Please update your links or ... Formats Help: How ...

  3. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... strapped in with the safety harness. Store all firearms and bullets in a locked cabinet. ... of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heads up. Facts for physicians about ...

  4. How Can Angina Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... making lifestyle changes and treating related conditions. Making Lifestyle Changes Healthy lifestyle choices can help prevent or delay angina and heart disease. To adopt a healthy lifestyle, you can: Quit smoking and avoid secondhand smoke ...

  5. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  6. School Building Intrusions: Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Lanny R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the uses of building security systems to prevent loss from damage by vandalism in school buildings. Outlines types of systems, selection of systems, and current practices in securing schools. (MD)

  7. Medicare Preventive and Screening Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Preventive & screening services How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers: Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening Alcohol misuse screenings & counseling Bone mass measurements (bone ...

  8. Exercises to help prevent falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing ... and easily. Do not hold your breath. Balance exercises You can do some balance exercises during everyday ...

  9. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finance Human Resources and Administrative Services Information Technology Marketing and Sales Membership Practice Public Affairs Quality Publishing ... Feedback Recent a a a print email share Facebook Twitter 2016 Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet 3/ ...

  10. Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the genetic terms used on this page Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment Overview How can learning ... gov] Top of page How can knowing about genetics help treat disease? Every year, more than two ...

  11. Preventing Burns in Your Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... clothing when you handle chemicals. Store chemicals, including gasoline, out of the reach of children. To prevent ... child younger than 1 year old into a car seat, touch the seat to see how hot ...

  12. Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Eliminate or minimize contact with ... Pathogens Branch 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 Hantavirus Hotline (877) 232-3322 (404) 639-1510 800- ...

  13. Prevent Injury After a Disaster

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor ... Heat Prevention Guide (Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme ...

  14. Preventing Ticks on Your Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemicals. Do not apply any insect acaricides or repellents to your cats without first consulting your veterinarian! ... permethrin, etc.) Amitraz Repel Ticks on Dogs A repellent product may prevent the tick from coming into ...

  15. Preventing Suicides: Who's at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Suicides Who's at Risk? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table ... times more likely than women to die from suicide. However, three times more women than men attempt ...

  16. Prevention and Control of Cryptosporidiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cryptosporidium Tracking in the United States CryptoNet Healthy Water Links Healthy Water Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water Global ... you requested has moved to Prevention & Control. Healthy Water Links Healthy Water Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water Global ...

  17. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet plan should a person follow to prevent future kidney stones? A dietitian can help a person ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Health Topics ...

  18. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamin D and Disease Prevention Why is vitamin D important for health? Vitamin D is a hot topic in the news, thanks ... is controversy, though, over the effects of vitamin D on health other than the bones. Doctors have ...

  19. Teacher Burnout: Diagnosis, Prevention, Remediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossack, Sharon W.; Woods, Sandra L.

    1980-01-01

    Practical suggestions for diagnosing, preventing, and remediating teacher burnout include changing the school environment, health habits, supportive behavior, time management, and general perspective on teaching and job situations. (JD)

  20. Reducing Stress through Preventive Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, James C.; Quick, Jonathan D.

    1979-01-01

    Two levels of prevention can be used to counter the key stressors of personnel at work; the first deals with organizational techniques and the second with individual techniques such as systematic desensitization, biofeedback, or aerobic exercise. (Author)

  1. Preventing Relapse Following Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Susan E.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Kirouac, Megan; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. Long-term smoking cessation can drastically reduce people’s risk for developing smoking-related disease. The research literature points to a need for clearer operationalization and differentiation between smoking cessation and relapse prevention interventions and outcomes. That said, extensive meta-analyses and research studies have indicated that there are various efficacious smoking interventions that can both support smoking cessation and relapse prevention efforts. Specifically, behavioral treatments, relapse prevention psychotherapy, pharmacologic interventions, motivational enhancement, smoking reduction to quit, brief advice, alternative intervention modes (telephone, Internet, computer), self-help, and tailored treatments can help prepare smokers for longer-term abstinence. Although these methods vary on reach, they are relatively efficacious, particularly in combined formats. PMID:26550097

  2. TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... of coordination, and increased confusion, restlessness or agitation. Diagnosis Imaging tests, including X-rays of the head ...

  3. Preventing banking and check fraud.

    PubMed

    Sagner, J S

    1994-11-01

    Most banking fraud involves disbursement activity which, by its nature, necessitates access to an organization's bank account. Banking fraud can be prevented by employing several internal controls and by using various banking products. PMID:10146100

  4. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  5. Injury prevention in youth sports.

    PubMed

    Veigel, Jake D; Pleacher, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Sport is the principal cause of injury in children and adolescents. Youth participation in organized athletics is estimated to be 45 million in the United States alone. These injuries influence health and fitness and have socioeconomic impact. Many injuries can be prevented. This article outlines the efficacy of current injury prevention strategies in youth sports through the use of educational programs, rule changes in baseball and hockey, safety equipment, and conditioning programs. PMID:19005358

  6. Prevention of early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A I

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods used for the prevention of early childhood caries (ECC). The education of mothers or caregivers to promote healthy dietary habits in infants has been the main strategy used for the prevention of ECC. This review found that education has a modest impact on the development of ECC. While education should be promoted especially in high risk communities and population groups (low-income families and native populations), it should not be the only preventive strategy of ECC. Early screening for signs of caries development, starting from the first year of life, could identify infants and toddlers who are at risk of developing ECC and assist in providing information to parents about how to promote oral health and prevent the development of tooth decay. High risk children include those with early signs of ECC, poor oral hygiene, limited exposure to fluorides, and frequent exposure to sugary snacks and drinks. These children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes fluoride varnish application, fluoridated dentifrices, fluoride supplements, sealants, diet counseling, and chlorhexidine. Prevention of ECC also requires addressing the social and economic factors that face many families where ECC is endemic. PMID:9671200

  7. The future of HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Padian, Nancy S; Isbell, Michael T; Russell, Elizabeth S; Essex, M

    2012-08-01

    In the decades since the emergence of HIV, numerous approaches to prevent transmission have been tested with varying degrees of success. Because a highly effective vaccine will not be available within the next decade, it is increasingly clear that preventing new HIV infections will require successful implementation of promising behavioral and biomedical interventions in combination. These prevention packages must be sufficiently flexible to include a variety of evidence-based interventions that serve each dynamic population they target, particularly those who are most vulnerable. To optimize the impact of combination intervention packages, well-designed implementation science studies are vital. Efficacy in a clinical trial does not necessarily translate to effectiveness at the population-level, and prioritized research studies should investigate programmatic implementation and operations scale-up and new methods to monitor and evaluate these processes both for organization and cost-effectiveness. With an estimated 2.7 million people becoming newly infected with HIV in 2010, the prevention of HIV remains an urgent global health priority. Since the emergence of HIV/AIDS more than 30 years ago, the evidence base for HIV prevention has expanded and evolved. Here we explore the status of evidence-based HIV prevention, describing both the continuing challenges and the emerging opportunities to reduce HIV incidence. PMID:22772385

  8. Combination prevention: a deeper understanding of effective HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Hankins, Catherine A; de Zalduondo, Barbara O

    2010-10-01

    Evidence-informed and human rights-based combination prevention combines behavioural, biomedical, and structural interventions to address both the immediate risks and underlying causes of vulnerability to HIV infection, and the pathways that link them. Because these are context-specific, no single prescription or standard package will apply universally. Anchored in 'know your epidemic' estimates of where the next 1000 infections will occur and 'know your response' analyses of resource allocation and programming gaps, combination prevention strategies seek to realign programme priorities for maximum effect to reduce epidemic reproductive rates at local, regional, and national levels. Effective prevention means tailoring programmes to local epidemics and ensuring that components are delivered with the intensity, quality, and scale necessary to achieve intended effects. Structural interventions, addressing the social, economic, cultural, and legal constraints that create HIV risk environments and undermine the agency of individuals to protect themselves and others, are also public goods in their own right. Applying the principles of combination prevention systematically and consistently in HIV programme planning, with due attention to context, can increase HIV programme effectiveness. Better outcome and impact measurement using multiple methods and data triangulation can build the evidence base on synergies between the components of combination prevention at individual, group, and societal levels, facilitating iterative knowledge translation within and among programmes. PMID:21042055

  9. Prevention Neuroscience: A new frontier for preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Prevention neuroscience may be defined as follows: an interdisciplinary field concerned with the neurobiological factors that influence susceptibility to preventable disease, disability or mortality. It includes, but is not limited to: examination of brain health as an outcome, brain activity as a predictor of health outcomes, brain structures/systems as causal determinants of health outcomes (e.g., health behaviours), and the brain as a mediator of other causal influences (e.g., social conditions) on health outcomes. This commentary describes concepts, theory and research illustrating each of these scenarios using exercise, smoking cessation, dietary behaviour, and health disparities as examples. It is argued that neuroscience may provide both concepts and methods that may be possible (even fruitful) to incorporate into preventive medicine research and health promotion practise. Although public health practitioners and cognitive neuroscientists have not traditionally crossed paths outside of the context of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and other dementias, it is easy to envision a future where many common disease prevention activities involve collaboration between the two disciplines, and the cache of tools available to the preventive medicine expert includes neuroimaging and neuromodulation techniques. PMID:26876625

  10. Kawasaki Disease: Complications, Treatment and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Stroke More Kawasaki Disease: Complications, Treatment and Prevention Updated:Apr 27,2016 Complications The possibility of ... problems that did not show up right away. Prevention There is no known prevention for Kawasaki disease. ...

  11. PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The PREVENT program provides a structure for the introduction of new agents, drugs and vaccines to inhibit, retard or reverse the cancer process. The program was designed to optimize translational opportunities from discovery to the clinic, and provide a mechanism to identify and study efficacy and pharmacodynamics biomarkers that will help in phase II trials to evaluate drug effects.  | Research pipeline for new prevention interventions and biomarkers headed toward clinical trials.

  12. Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM).

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep; Kumar, Arun

    2016-09-01

    Prevention of Gestational diabetes mellitus holds the key to prevention of the diabetes and metabolic syndrome epidemic sweeping the world. This review discusses prevention of gestational diabetes and provides a scientific framework for the study of this topic. It classifies prevention in various ways, and suggests strategies which fit the different levels of prevention of gestational diabetes. The review also cites recent evidence and best practices to support the feasibility of prevention of gestational diabetes. PMID:27582141

  13. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  14. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  15. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  16. Preventing and managing pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Plourde, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the evidence on prevention and management of childhood obesity and to offer suggestions for family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Articles were obtained from a PubMed search. Most studies on pediatric obesity provide level II evidence. There are some level I studies on management. MAIN MESSAGE Pediatric obesity is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Prevention should be initiated as early as pregnancy. Prevention and treatment approaches should include patient and family interventions focusing on nutrition, physical activity, reduced television viewing, and behaviour modification. The effectiveness of such interventions by primary care physicians has not been totally demonstrated, but incorporating them into clinical practice routines is likely to be beneficial. CONCLUSION Family physicians have a role in promoting preventive measures and identifying and treating obesity-related comorbidity. Pediatric obesity is not an individual child’s problem, but a problem that involves the whole family and the community. Recommending a healthy diet and increased physical activity and counseling families on behaviour change is the best approach to preventing and managing childhood obesity. PMID:16572577

  17. Prevention strategies for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2012-12-01

    Through the last decade consideration of the role of vitamins and minerals in primary prevention of genitourinary tumors has dramatically changed. Despite all efforts efficacy of a specific compound has not been proven, so far. In consequence, recommendations for a use of vitamins or other supplements with the intention of prostate cancer prevention should be avoided today. In contrast, there is some evidence that life style modification might be helpful: recent investigations suggest that smoking may be involved in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. In addition, there is evidence that moderate food consumption, reduction of dairy products and an Asian or Mediterranean diet might not only prevent prostate cancer but also harbors additional beneficial effects on general health. This move from single compounds to more complex diets can be considered as a change of paradigm in prostate cancer prevention and could be the starting point of future epidemiological research. Disappointing findings with regards to nutritional cancer prevention contrast with a solid evidence concerning the efficacy of chemoprevention using 5a-reductase inhibitors: Long-term use of Finasteride and Dutasteride significantly reduces prostate cancer detection. Further candidate drugs are under investigation. However, translation of these findings into urological practice remains a matter of controversial discussion. PMID:23288209

  18. Water programs: oil pollution prevention nontransportation-related onshore and offshore facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-20

    The US Environmental Protection Agency proposes to modify its existing regulation, which establishes requirements for Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans to prevent spills of oil by nontransportation-related onshore and offshore facilities (oil or gas drilling, production, or workover facilities) into US navigable waters. The proposal would apply to any offshore facility, which is subject to US jurisdiction and which is in, on, or under any waters, which has either spilled 13:1000 gal of oil in a single event, or has had two reportable oil spills of any size in any 12 mo period. The proposed revision also involves changes in the requirements for new facilities, SPCC Plan requirements, and others, which are discussed in detail. Comments must be received by 7/21/80.

  19. Prevention of Periprosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Alisina; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a calamitous complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The reported incidence is low but it is probably underestimated due to the difficulty in diagnosis. PJI has challenged the orthopaedic community for several years and despite all the advances in this field, it is still a real concern with immense impact on patients, and the healthcare system. Eradication of infection can be very difficult. Therefore, prevention remains the ultimate goal. The medical community has executed many practices with the intention to prevent infection and treat it effectively when it encounters. Numerous factors can predispose patients to PJI. Identifying the host risk factors, patients’ health modification, proper wound care, and optimizing operative room environment remain some of the core fundamental steps that can help minimizing the overall incidence of infection. In this review we have summarized the effective prevention strategies along with the recommendations of a recent International Consensus Meeting on Surgical Site and Periprosthetic Joint Infection. PMID:26110171

  20. Promising candidates for allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Gern, James E

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in understanding environmental risk factors for allergic diseases in children have led to renewed efforts aimed at prevention. Factors that modify the probability of developing allergies include prenatal exposures, mode of delivery, diet, patterns of medication use, and exposure to pets and farm animals. Recent advances in microbial detection techniques demonstrate that exposure to diverse microbial communities in early life is associated with a reduction in allergic disease. In fact, microbes and their metabolic products might be essential for normal immune development. Identification of these risk factors has provided new targets for prevention of allergic diseases, and possibilities of altering microbial exposure and colonization to reduce the incidence of allergies is a promising approach. This review examines the rationale, feasibility, and potential effect for the prevention of childhood allergic diseases and explores possible strategies for enhancing exposure to beneficial microbes. PMID:26145984

  1. Veteran-specific suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    York, Janet A; Lamis, Dorian A; Pope, Charlene A; Egede, Leonard E

    2013-06-01

    Suicide rates have been increasing in some subgroups of Veteran populations, such as those who have experienced combat. Several initiatives are addressing this critical need and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has been recognized for its leadership. This integrative review adopts the Research Impact Framework (RIM) to address suicide-specific prevention activities targeting Veterans. The RIM is a standardized approach for developing issue narratives using four broad areas: societal-related impacts, research-related impacts, policy-related impacts, and service-related impacts. The questions addressed in this review are: (1) What are the major initiatives in Veteran-specific suicide prevention in four areas of impact-society, research, policy, and services? (2) Are there gaps related in each impact area? and (3) What are the implications of this narrative for other strategies to address suicide prevention targeting Veterans? Systematic application of the RIM identifies exemplars, milestones, gaps, and health disparity issues. PMID:23011459

  2. Repurposing Drugs for Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel K; Szabo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Development of agents for cancer prevention has been particularly challenging for two main reasons. One is the inherent difficulty in identifying targets for the heterogeneous group of processes that lead to invasive cancer arising at different target organ sites, while the other is the need for safe, tolerable interventions that can be given for lengthy periods of time. The rapidly increasing understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cancer is providing new opportunities for early intervention, prior to the development of invasive disease. Furthermore, there is an ever-increasing number of approved drugs with many different mechanisms of action. The appeal of using drugs with well described mechanisms of action and safety profiles has led to renewed interest in repurposing such agents for cancer prevention. Here we review the rationale and evidence of effectiveness of three agents that are the current focus of much interest in the field of cancer prevention - aspirin, metformin, and pioglitazone. PMID:26881711

  3. Split stack blowout prevention system

    SciTech Connect

    Crager, B.L.; Ray, D.R.; Steddum, R.E.

    1980-03-18

    A blowout prevention system for an offshore structure positioned on the underwater bottom in a body of water which contains moving ice masses that could force the structure off location wherein a surface blowout preventer stack for conventional well control is connected to the upper end of a riser with the lower end of the riser being disconnectably connected to a subsurface blowout preventer stack which provides the necessary well control should the structure be forced off location. The subsurface stack is positioned on a wellhead located in a chamber in the subsea bottom and is disconnectably connected to the riser so that the riser may be quickly removed from the subsea bottom should the structure be forced off location.

  4. Microbicides: Topical Prevention against HIV

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Robin J.; Rosenberg, Zeda

    2012-01-01

    Microbicides represent a potential intervention strategy for preventing HIV transmission. Vaginal microbicides would meet the need for a discreet method that women could use to protect themselves against HIV. Although early-generation microbicides failed to demonstrate efficacy, newer candidates are based on more potent antiretroviral (ARV) products. Positive data from the CAPRISA 004 trial of tenofovir gel support use in women and represent a turning point for the field. This article reviews current progress in development of ARV-based microbicides. We discuss the consensus on selection criteria, the potential for drug resistance, rationale for drug combinations, and the use of pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) assessment in product development. The urgent need for continued progress in development of formulations for sustained delivery is emphasized. Finally, as the boundaries between different prevention technologies become increasingly blurred, consideration is given to the potential synergy of diverse approaches across the prevention landscape. PMID:22355798

  5. Cancer prevention in the schools.

    PubMed

    Iammarino, N K; Weinberg, A D

    1985-03-01

    About 145,000 people with cancer will die this year who might have been saved by earlier diagnosis and treatment. Many of these deaths could be prevented through smoking cessation programs, reduction of occupational health hazards, and school and community health education programs. To gain insight into the problem, a literature review was conducted to examine the major curricula and instructional materials developed during the past decade. Due to the magnitude of information available concerning the etiology and prevention of cancer, the review was limited to literature with specific relevance to children and adolescents. The review provides information concerning the background of cancer prevention; knowledge and attitudes of adolescents concerning cancer; cancer curricula, programs, and educational materials for adolescents; and a justification for cancer education in schools. Conclusions are drawn, and recommendations for action are offered. PMID:3845262

  6. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A

    1981-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach

  7. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    PubMed

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations. PMID:23547592

  8. Can Rheumatoid Arthritis Be Prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of elevations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related biomarkers prior to the onset of clinically apparent RA raises hopes that individuals who are at risk for future RA can be identified in a preclinical phase of disease that is defined as abnormalities of RA-related immune activity prior to the clinically apparent onset of joint disease. Additionally, there is a growing understanding of the immunologic processes that are occurring in preclinical RA, as well as a growing understanding of risk factors that may be mechanistically related to RA development. Furthermore, there are data supporting that treatment of early RA can lead to drug free remission. Taken as a whole, these findings suggest that it may be possible to use biomarkers and other factors to accurately identify the likelihood and timing of onset of future RA, and intervene with immunomodulatory therapies and/or risk factor modification to prevent the future onset of RA in at-risk individuals. Importantly, several clinical prevention trials for RA have already been tried, and one is underway. However, while our understanding of the growing understanding of the mechanisms and natural history of RA development may be leading us to the implementation of prevention strategies for RA, there are still several challenges to be met. These include developing sufficiently accurate methods of predicting those at high risk for future RA so that clinical trials can be developed based on accurate rates of development of arthritis and subjects can be adequately informed of their risk for disease, identifying the appropriate interventions and biologic targets for optimal prevention, and addressing the psychosocial and economic aspects that are crucial to developing broadly applicable prevention measures for RA. These issues notwithstanding, prevention of RA may be within reach in the near future. PMID:24315049

  9. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Campus and Community Coalitions in AOD Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Changing the environment that affects decisions about use of alcohol and other drugs has emerged as a key to reducing substance use problems among college and university students. The student environment, however, is not limited to the campus. Education, counseling, and campus-based prevention policies and activities cannot succeed if a campus is…

  11. What Works in Prevention: Principles of Effective Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Maury; Crusto, Cindy; Wandersman, Abraham; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Seybolt, Diana; Morrisey-Kane, Erin; Davino, Katrina

    2003-01-01

    Uses a review-of-reviews approach across four areas (substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, school failure, and juvenile delinquency and violence) to identify characteristics consistently associated with effective prevention programs. Programs were comprehensive, included varied teaching methods, provided sufficient dosage, were theory driven,…

  12. @Prevention: a website project for prevention in the healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, R; Onesti, A; Martini, M; Cartiglia, C; Sticchi, L; Alberti, M

    2011-06-01

    In the field of prevention, Internet websites and their related instruments constitute valuable tools for healthcare facilities, and particularly for Local Healthcare Authorities (LHA). As yet, however, their undoubted potential remains largely unexploited. Many LHA websites currently operating in Italy are organized in such a way that they fail to make adequate use of this precious resource. Indeed, communication regarding prevention is all too often limited to the simple reproduction of information and indications in a static and heterogeneous manner, so much so that it resembles a mere "online notice-board". The aim of the present research was to analyze the current situation and the various innovative proposals that have been made, in order to construct a more effective website model that could be used nationwide. To this end, the research was carried out through a two-pronged approach: on the one hand, all 190 LHA websites in Italy were analyzed; on the other, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of habitual users of the most modern and widespread social network, Facebook. Analysis and elaboration of the data gathered led to the creation of the model "@Prevention". This project is intended to introduce an innovative perspective into the field of online communication for healthcare prevention by providing a highly useful tool for the LHA, healthcare workers and, obviously, citizens. PMID:21842707

  13. Prediabetes and Lifestyle Modification: Time to Prevent a Preventable Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    More than 100 million Americans have prediabetes or diabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which individuals have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. People with prediabetes have an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. An estimated 34% of adults have prediabetes. Prediabetes is now recognized as a reversible condition that increases an individual’s risk for development of diabetes. Lifestyle risk factors for prediabetes include overweight and physical inactivity. Increasing awareness and risk stratification of individuals with prediabetes may help physicians understand potential interventions that may help decrease the percentage of patients in their panels in whom diabetes develops. If untreated, 37% of the individuals with prediabetes may have diabetes in 4 years. Lifestyle intervention may decrease the percentage of prediabetic patients in whom diabetes develops to 20%. Long-term data also suggest that lifestyle intervention may decrease the risk of prediabetes progressing to diabetes for as long as 10 years. To prevent 1 case of diabetes during a 3-year period, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle intervention program. In addition, recent data suggest that the difference in direct and indirect costs to care for a patient with prediabetes vs a patient with diabetes may be as much as $7000 per year. Investment in a diabetes prevention program now may have a substantial return on investment in the future and help prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25102521

  14. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    2016 Keynote Lecture Polyvalent Vaccines Targeting Oncogenic Driver Pathways A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 21, 2016 at 1:30pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Mary L. (Nora) Disis, MD. |

  16. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  17. Preventing, Recognizing, Treating Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, Arthur

    1965-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism occurs in three forms: (1) Asymptomatic “silent” embolization of lungs; (2) pulmonary infarction; and (3) massive pulmonary embolization leading to acute cor pulmonale. The commonest source of emboli are veins of the lower extremities and of the pelvic organs. The prevention and the treatment of pulmonary embolism overlap, for except for the heroic procedure of pulmonary embolectomy, treatment is equivalent to the prevention of further emboli. The diagnosis may be easy in typical cases and very difficult in others. PMID:14341314

  18. Preventing HIV Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Adimora, Adaora A.; Ramirez, Catalina; Auerbach, Judith D.; Aral, Sevgi O.; Hodder, Sally; Wingood, Gina; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Bukusi, Elizabeth Anne

    2014-01-01

    Although the number of new infections has declined recently, women still constitute almost half of the world's 34 million people with HIV infection, and HIV remains the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. Prevention research has made considerable progress during the past few years in addressing the biological, behavioral and social factors that influence women's vulnerability to HIV infection. Nevertheless, substantial work still must be done in order to implement scientific advancements and to resolve the many questions that remain. This article highlights some of the recent advances and persistent gaps in HIV prevention research for women and outlines key research and policy priorities. PMID:23764631

  19. Extension for prevention: margin placement.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    This article will review the concept of extension for prevention popularized by G.V. Black around the early 1900s. Concepts of extension and prevention have changed over the years with a more informed knowledge of the caries process, improved materials, cutting instruments, and techniques. The reasons for placement of the outline form relative to the tooth morphology, gingival tissue, relationship to adjacent teeth, and the choice of material will be described for all of the materials used in restorative dentistry. Research will be cited to support the scientific basis for outline form placement. PMID:22662468

  20. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers. PMID:27270661

  1. Products for prevention during orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, B L

    1994-11-01

    The potential for iatrogenic damage following fixed orthodontic treatment has been well documented for many years. Enamel decalcification and gingival inflammation are preventable if good practice is followed. Patients with gingivitis or active caries should not be considered for fixed orthodontics until the disease is controlled. Diet advice, oral hygiene, and topical fluorides are the basic elements of any preventive regime, and while they need to be individually tailored for each patient, fluoride mouthrinses should be routinely used by all patients with fixed appliances. The susceptibility of enamel adjacent to an orthodontic attachment remains a problem which future improvements in adhesive materials may help to address. PMID:7857901

  2. Primary Prevention, Schools and the School Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yammer, David

    This paper discusses the importance of preventive intervention in maintaining the mental health of children. Definitions of prevention are presented, with particular focus on primary prevention, i.e., the lowering of the rate of emotional disorders in a population. The importance of focusing on prevention in childhood is emphasized, and the…

  3. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the...

  4. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the...

  5. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the...

  6. Leslie Ford, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Leslie Ford built clinical cancer prevention research as a scientific field when few people were considering the possibility of prevention, and is recognized as a national and international leader in cancer prevention research. She has a passion for prevention and strong belief that all clinical science must, to the fullest extent possible, derive as a translation of basic science. |

  7. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  8. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the...

  9. 45 CFR 96.125 - Primary prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Primary prevention. 96.125 Section 96.125 Public... Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.125 Primary prevention. (a) For purposes of § 96.124, each State... comprehensive primary prevention program shall include activities and services provided in a variety of...

  10. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the...

  11. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  12. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  13. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

  14. Preventing Violence in Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh

    1993-01-01

    The incidence of school violence has increased in recent years. In response to the escalation, Deborah Prothrow-Stith developed a violence prevention curriculum to be taught in high schools; it has also been used in middle schools. The first section of this journal issue's report, "Confronting an Epidemic" offers details of Prothrow-Stith's…

  15. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Casari, Ilaria; Falasca, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26610570

  16. Hippocampal Sclerosis: Causes and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew Charles

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the commonest cause of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults, and is associated with alterations to structures and networks beyond the hippocampus.In addition to being a cause of epilepsy, the hippocampus is vulnerable to damage from seizure activity. In particular, prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) can result in hippocampal sclerosis. The hippocampus is also vulnerable to other insults including traumatic brain injury, and inflammation. Hippocampal sclerosis can occur in association with other brain lesions; the prevailing view is that it is probably a secondary consequence. In such instances, successful surgical treatment usually involves the resection of both the lesion and the involved hippocampus. Experimental data have pointed to numerous neuroprotective strategies to prevent hippocampal sclerosis. Initial neuroprotective strategies aimed at glutamate receptors may be effective, but later, metabolic pathways, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, and inflammation are involved, perhaps necessitating the use of interventions aimed at multiple targets. Some of the therapies that we use to treat status epilepticus may neuroprotect. However, prevention of neuronal death does not necessarily prevent the later development of epilepsy or cognitive deficits. Perhaps, the most important intervention is the early, aggressive treatment of seizure activity, and the prevention of prolonged seizures. PMID:26060898

  17. Prevention Programs and Scientific Nonsense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses attempts to examine the scientific base of widely advocated prevention programs, describing how one professor experienced hostility when examining program evaluation data. It focuses on science and the learned theory; science, anti-science, and pseudo-science; anti-science and health promotion; pseudoscience and health promotion; and…

  18. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  19. HOSPITAL POLLUTION PREVENTION CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has instituted a broad pollution prevention research program through the Office of Research and Development to support continued environmental improvements throughout the nation. he Agency is also responding to the national concern in rega...

  20. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  1. Stroke prevention: modifying risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Romero, José Rafael; Morris, Jane; Pikula, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Risk factor modification remains as the principal aspect of care for stroke prevention. Understanding of risk factors has advanced and several options are now available to treat modifiable risk factors. However, effective treatment remains a challenging task in clinical practice. Prevention begins with awareness of risk factors by patients and clinicians. Risk factor assessment along with overall stroke risk estimation should be part of evaluation of patients with stroke, and used with careful clinical judgment. In this review we discuss the impact of modifiable traditional vascular risk factors on ischemic stroke, interventions for stroke prevention, and evidence for early treatment of risk factors where available as well as areas of research progress. Emphasis should be paid in education of patients, the community and medical personnel. Future research in the field of genetic determinants of vascular risk factors and stroke will increase our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cerebrovascular disease and likely result in development of new therapies and individualized programs for stroke prevention. PMID:19124428

  2. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovaries removed with your doctor. Prevention strategies for women with a family history of ovarian cancer or BRCA mutation If your ... what the results mean to you. For some women with a strong family history of ovarian cancer, knowing they do not have ...

  3. Leak prevention critical for ASTs

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.

    1994-08-01

    Aboveground storage tanks can be crafted to prevent leaks caused by vandalism, overfill accidents and faulty valves. New designs and safety devices available in aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have made ASTs viable option for owners of commercial, institutional and governmental facilities with storage needs of less than 20,000 gallons.

  4. Dropout Prevention. An Introductory Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health Schools.

    This packet contains materials and lists resources to help those concerned with preventing students from dropping out of school. The packet begins with excerpts from a report prepared by the American Institutes for Research (Robert J. Rossi and others) on the "Evaluation of Projects Funded by the School Dropout Demonstration Assistance Program."…

  5. Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Angela; Tai, Eric; Nielsen, Danielle Beauchesne; Shropshire, Sonya; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology care, infections from both community and healthcare settings remain a major cause of hospitalization and death among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) is a common and potentially dangerous side effect in patients receiving chemotherapy treatments and may lead to higher risk of infection. Preventing infection during treatment can result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality for patients with cancer. As part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients public health campaign, a public-private partnership was formed between the CDC Foundation and Amgen, Inc. The CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control developed and launched an interactive website, www.PreventCancerInfections.org, designed for patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The site encourages patients to complete a risk assessment for developing neutropenia during their treatment. After completing the assessment, patients receive information about how to lower the risk for infection and keep themselves healthy while receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25095295

  6. Fostering Hope: A Prevention Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonucci, Frank; Baker, Mona; Burke, Karen; Duffey, Tim; Gatchell, Judy; Graves, Laurel; Lahti, Michel; Macklin, Ethel; Forbush, Ed; Foster, Joni; Parks, Susan; Primmerman, Bill; Johnson, Ruth; Rumery, Karen; Richards, Roger; Wilbur, Katherine; Medwid, Jo Ann

    This booklet is designed to assist people in implementing strategies to prevent negative outcomes for children. The process starts with the individual, acknowledging an inside-out approach to change. The next component in the model is a set of research-based facts that promote resilience by focusing on strengths instead of deficits. What follows…

  7. Engaging Men in Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Christopher T.; Wheeler, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    Violence prevention groups on college campuses, in schools, and in communities are increasingly aware that violence against women cannot end unless men take an active role in stopping it, and the failure of many men to take the issue of violence against women seriously cannot be overlooked. At the University of South Carolina (USC), collaboration…

  8. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  9. Preventing HIV Infection among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This document notes that a recent threat to American's youth is the risk of infection from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It views youth at high risk for alcohol or other drug use as also being, in all probability, at highest risk for exposure to HIV, and suggests that programs set up to prevent adolescents from becoming involved with…

  10. [Nutritional factors in preventing osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Martín Jiménez, Juan Antonio; Consuegra Moya, Belkis; Martín Jiménez, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis, main risk factor for suffering fragility fractures, is an important public health problem which has undoubted social, health and economic impact; but mainly causes pain, functional limitation and severe alterations in the patient's quality of life. Its current prevalence is very high and a further increase is expected due to a higher life expectancy and the progressive ageing of the population. In the prevention of osteoporosis, the main goal is to prevent fragility fractures; for this reason, it is necessary to: 1) promote bone formation in youth, to get sufficient bone mass peak, 2) reduce bone loss in adulthood, especially after menopause, 3) maintain bone health throughout life, and 4) prevent falls. There is enough evidence that multifactorial strategies (assessment of risk factors, healthy lifestyle habits, smoking cessation, moderation in alcohol consumption, physical exercise, outdoor activity with prudent exposure to sunlight, and a varied and balanced diet), are effective in the population at risk. Regarding factors for the prevention of osteoporosis, current recommendations are: increased consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride; provide adequate vitamin D (even with fortified food if necessary); consumption of foods rich in omega-3 acids; reduction of salt and prepared ready meals; sufficient but moderate intake of protein and, in the absence of intolerance, promote the consumption of milk and dairy products, especially yogurt and fermented milk products. PMID:26267775

  11. Preventing Blooming In CCD Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janesick, James

    1992-01-01

    Clocking scheme for charge-coupled-device (CCD) imaging photodetector prevents smearing of bright spots and eliminates residual images. Also imposes charge-collecting electric field of optimum-full-well configuration, minimizes nonuniformities among picture elements, and keeps dark current low. Works under almost any lighting conditions.

  12. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  13. Vaccine Preventable Disease on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Kenneth J.

    1984-01-01

    While morbidity and mortality from vaccine preventable diseases have declined, some college students remain susceptible to measles, rubella, diptheria, tetanus, or polio. Colleges and universities have the opportunity to ensure protection of students, faculty, and employees by establishing and enforcing immunization requirements. (Author/DF)

  14. Prevention of Diseases in Gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Izetbegovic, Sebija; Alajbegovic, Jasmin; Mutevelic, Alma; Pasagic, Almir; Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prevention of diseases in gynecology can be improved by better understanding of health promotion and management of diseases. Management is “the art of performing jobs by or with other people” Mary Parker Follet. Methods: A descriptive analysis was performed on scientific studies in several published articles in medical journals and books. Results: There are five primary functions of management as: Anticipate and plan, organize, command, coordinate and control. If we introduce the following definition in the sense of medical science and apply it to the medical practice that would mean way of recognizing, managing and resolving issues of diagnosis and therapy of diseases (in this case gynecology diseases) according to certain guidelines and treatment algorithms. Treatment of family doctors is an important aspect in the quality-of-life of women and their reproductive health as well as a significant issue in public, environmental and social problems. Conclusions: It is very important to deal with it on the primary care level and in addition to promote the primary and secondary prevention of diseases, which is sometimes more important than the curative procedures. The primary prevention involves regular gynecological examinations and screening. The doctors have also a duty to educate women about the risk factors for malignant diseases, as well as proposing some of the qualitative preventive measures. PMID:24498489

  15. Falls prevention for the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Balzer, Katrin; Bremer, Martina; Schramm, Susanne; Lühmann, Dagmar; Raspe, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Background An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention. Research questions The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years), living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed. Results Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the inclusion criteria

  16. Prevention of occupational Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Sultan T

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual's capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain. PMID:25983601

  17. Mobilizing Schools for Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Charlotte P.

    1980-01-01

    Consultation to school personnel following student suicides led to a program of prevention through training school personnel. The program increased the ability of resource persons available to adolescents--teachers, counselors and school nurses--to recognize signs of suicidal depression and to respond effectively to suicidal students. (Author)

  18. Mediation: A Violence Prevention Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conflict Resolution Unlimited, Inc., Bellevue, WA.

    Young people need help in learning alternative dispute resolution skills. A program that aims to do this, set in a context of preventing violent behavior, is presented here. It is structured into sixteen 45-minute sessions which can be presented by one teacher. The training is organized around the following seven themes: The Mediation Process,…

  19. Epidemiological Perspectives on Maltreatment Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulczyn, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Fred Wulczyn explores how data on the incidence and distribution of child maltreatment shed light on planning and implementing maltreatment prevention programs. He begins by describing and differentiating among the three primary sources of national data on maltreatment. Wulczyn then points out several important patterns in the data. The first…

  20. Prevention of occupational Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Al-Otaibi, Sultan T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual's capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain. PMID:25983601

  1. Prevention and Control of Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchfarber, Barbara S.; Zins, Joseph E.; Jason, Leonard A.

    Childhood injury continues to be a major public health crisis in the United States, with a large percentage of injuries being preventable and controllable. This chapter provides information related to understanding child and youth injury. Studies have shown that injuries affect identifiable high-risk groups. Such host factors that put children at…

  2. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  3. Approaches to Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Paula D.

    1971-01-01

    This article concerns the drug abuse related definitions of the words education" and prevention" as they have come to be used today. The writer infers that the changing uses of these words reflects an increasingly more enlightened approach to ameliorating the problem of drug abuse. (Author)

  4. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Rick; Cadzow, Emma

    2004-01-01

    Applying CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies to schools can significantly contribute to a safer learning environment by influencing the behaviour of students and visitors. CPTED has three overlapping primary concepts that are intended to reduce opportunities for crime as well as fear of crime: access control,…

  5. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content Error processing SSI file Connect with us: Enter Search Term(s): Skip to main content Toggle navigation Home Tools & Protocols Undiagnosed Hypertension Self-Measured Blood Pressure ...

  6. Ethical considerations in cardiovascular prevention.

    PubMed

    Follath, F

    2009-12-01

    The fundamental values in medical ethics include the following aspects of professional conduct: (i) actions in the best interest of patients; (ii) first, do no harm; (iii) patients' right to refuse or choose treatments; (iv) fairness and equality in the distribution of healthcare resources; and (v) truthfulness and honesty (informed consent). These values have to be considered in all diagnostic steps and therapeutic decisions. They should also form the basis for discussions of potential conflicts of interest among patients, doctors, healthcare financers and politicians. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases represent the most frequent cause of death and a major healthcare problem in most regions of the world. CV prevention is therefore an important task both in individual subjects and as a means to improve health in the general population. While the merits of treatment in patients with established CV diseases, i.e. secondary prevention, are widely accepted and regarded as necessary, primary prevention with drugs in apparently healthy individuals at an increased risk of future CV events is not free of controversies. The different types of prevention envisaged also give rise to ethical questions: Should all the growing number of classical and newly recognised CV risk markers be a reason for intervention or should they be preferably used for calculating a total risk score? What are the compelling or only relative indications for anti-hypertensive, cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic or platelet-inhibiting drugs? Are pre-hypertension, pre-diabetes and marginally elevated cholesterol levels early diseases justifying drug treatment, regardless of the possibility that some prophylactic interventions may be associated with adverse events? Discussions also often arise concerning the role of age, gender and of non-CV co-morbidities for decisions about long-term prevention with drugs. How reliable and applicable are 'evidence-based' guidelines derived from trials in highly selected

  7. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878

  8. Primary prevention protects public health.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Lorenzo

    2002-12-01

    It is widely accepted that epidemiological data provide the only reliable evidence of a carcinogenic effect in humans, but epidemiology is unable to provide early warning of a cancer risk. The experimental approach to carcinogenicity can ascertain and predict potential cancer risks to humans in time for primary prevention to be successful. Unfortunately, only in rare instances were experimental data considered sufficiently convincing per se to stimulate the adoption of preventive measures. The experimental testing of environmental agents is the second line of defense against potential human carcinogens. The first line is the testing of synthesized agents, be these pesticides, medical drugs, or industrial chemical/physical agents, at the time of their development. We do not know, however, how many substances have been prevented from entering the environment because most tests are carried out by commercial or private laboratories and results are rarely released. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sequence of events of the carcinogenesis process will eventually lead to a more accurate characterization and quantification of risks. However, the ways that mechanistic data have been used lately for evaluating evidence of carcinogenicity have not necessarily meant that the evaluations were more closely oriented toward public health. A tendency has surfaced to dismiss the relevance of long-term carcinogenicity studies. In the absence of absolute certainty, rarely if ever reached in biology, it is essential to adopt an attitude of responsible caution, in line with the principles of primary prevention, the only one that may prevent unlimited experimentation on the entire human species. PMID:12562637

  9. EPA's indoor air/pollution prevention workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Leovic, K.W.; White, J.B.; Sarsony, C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses a workshop held as a step toward EPA's prioritizing potential areas of research for applying pollution prevention to indoor air quality (IAQ). The workshop involved technical experts in the fields of IAQ, pollution prevention, and selected industries. Workshop goals were to identify major IAQ issues and their pollution prevention opportunities, and to suggest research strategies for IAQ/pollution prevention. The paper summarizes the suggestions made by workshop participants and highlights opportunities for IAQ/pollution prevention research.

  10. Persisting with prevention: The importance of adherence for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Helen A; Wasserheit, Judith N; Barnabas, Ruanne V; Hayes, Richard J; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2008-01-01

    Background Only four out of 31 completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of HIV prevention strategies against sexual transmission have shown significant efficacy. Poor adherence may have contributed to the lack of effect in some of these trials. In this paper we explore the impact of various levels of adherence on measured efficacy within an RCT. Analysis We used simple quantitative methods to illustrate the impact of various levels of adherence on measured efficacy by assuming a uniform population in terms of sexual behavior and the binomial model for the transmission probability per partnership. At 100% adherence the measured efficacy within an RCT is a reasonable approximation of the true biological efficacy. However, as adherence levels fall, the efficacy measured within a trial substantially under-estimates the true biological efficacy. For example, at 60% adherence, the measured efficacy can be less than half of the true biological efficacy. Conclusion Poor adherence during a trial can substantially reduce the power to detect an effect, and improved methods of achieving and maintaining high adherence within trials are needed. There are currently 12 ongoing HIV prevention trials, all but one of which require ongoing user-adherence. Attention must be given to methods of maximizing adherence when piloting and designing RCTs and HIV prevention programmes. PMID:18620578

  11. Prevention of choking among children.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    Choking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children, especially those aged 3 years or younger. Food, coins, and toys are the primary causes of choking-related injury and death. Certain characteristics, including shape, size, and consistency, of certain toys and foods increase their potential to cause choking among children. Childhood choking hazards should be addressed through comprehensive and coordinated prevention activities. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) should increase efforts to ensure that toys that are sold in retail store bins, vending machines, or on the Internet have appropriate choking-hazard warnings; work with manufacturers to improve the effectiveness of recalls of products that pose a choking risk to children; and increase efforts to prevent the resale of these recalled products via online auction sites. Current gaps in choking-prevention standards for children's toys should be reevaluated and addressed, as appropriate, via revisions to the standards established under the Child Safety Protection Act, the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, or regulation by the CPSC. Prevention of food-related choking among children in the United States has been inadequately addressed at the federal level. The US Food and Drug Administration should establish a systematic, institutionalized process for examining and addressing the hazards of food-related choking. This process should include the establishment of the necessary surveillance, hazard evaluation, enforcement, and public education activities to prevent food-related choking among children. While maintaining its highly cooperative arrangements with the CPSC and the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration should have the authority to address choking-related risks of all food products, including meat products that fall under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Agriculture. The existing National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury

  12. [Memorandum - research funding of prevention].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Gold, C; Hoffmann, W; Jahn, I; Töppich, J; Wildner, M; Dubben, S; Franze, M; John, J; Kliche, T; Lehmann, H; Naegele, G; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Pott, E; Robra, B-P

    2012-08-01

    The memorandum of the research funding of prevention has been devised within the framework of the Prevention Research Funding Programme of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It consists not only of the obtained findings of the research-practice co-operation but also of recommendations for the implementation of prospective, innovational, effective, practice-oriented and sustainable research. The respective knowledge has been acquired from quantitative surveys on the experiences of scientists and practice partners within the prevention research funding project as well as from extensive qualitative methods of structured group evaluation. A participatory co-operation between research and practice based on mutual respect, trust and recognition is seen as mandatory for the further development of both prevention and health promotion research. Research and practice partners are required to engage in an ab initio collaboration starting from the conception phase, whereby it is advisable to encourage and fortify the communication between research, practice and funding partners by systematic surveillance in form of a meta-project. In addition, the inclusion of the target population from the outset and on a collaborative basis is considered as beneficial in order to ensure the practical application of the research findings. Furthermore, innovatory research designs which are able to provide a framework for internal flexibility, continuous re-assessment and adjustment are fundamental for the implementation of practice-oriented research. Moreover, a dynamic co-operation between different groups of interest not only depends on sharing responsibility but also on sufficient funding for both research and practice, which is particularly important for the transfer and communication of the attained findings. With regard to the evaluation of both effectiveness and sustainability of interventions, a research funding project is required which makes long-term results possible

  13. [Relapse prevention in anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Giel, Katrin; Leehr, Elisabeth; Becker, Sandra; Startup, Helen; Zipfel, Stephan; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa is characterised by high relapse rates and thus there is a need for strategies that reduce reoccurrence of illness. One way of achieving this is to integrate relapse prevention into treatment, but clearly this requires identification of risk and maintenance factors. The Maudsley Model of Anorexia Nervosa Treatment in Adults (MANTRA) by Schmidt & Treasure has 5 major treatment stages. These include an initial stage of motivation and dialogue about change, an individual relapse formulation, improvement of cognitive and socio-emotional skills, work on the patient's identity and eventually a final stage of ending and parting. These treatment stages are derived from a maintenance model of AN by Schmidt & Treasure and on evidence from recovered patients and part of their objective is to prevent relapse. PMID:23592490

  14. Noise Injury: Etiology and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R. E. M.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure to noise might be responsible for a wide and varied spectrum of physical and mental morbidity, although many of the claims of cause and effect relationship are controversial and unproven. The etiological relationship between noise and high frequency hearing loss is, however, well documented. While noise-induced hearing loss is considered to be primarily an occupational problem, current leisure time activities have created the potential for it to become more common in the community at large. Once developed, this hearing loss is permanent and cannot be influenced by therapy. Noise-induced hearing loss is almost completely preventable and the family physician has an important responsibility for primary and secondary prevention, whether the noise source is in the workplace or in some other location. PMID:21286519

  15. Cutaneous Scar Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Bulushi, Taimoor

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring is common after trauma, surgery and infection and occurs when normal skin tissue is replaced by fibroblastic tissue during the healing process. The pathophysiology of scar formation is not yet fully understood, although the degree of tension across the wound edges and the speed of cell growth are believed to play central roles. Prevention of scars is essential and can be achieved by attention to surgical techniques and the use of measures to reduce cell growth. Grading and classifying scars is important to determine available treatment strategies. This article presents an overview of the current therapies available for the prevention and treatment of scars. It is intended to be a practical guide for surgeons and other health professionals involved with and interested in scar management. PMID:26909210

  16. Participation in Universal Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Robert; Goates, Scott; Hill, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We analyze family decisions to participate in community-based universal substance-abuse prevention programs through the framework of expected utility theory. Family functioning, which has been shown to be a good indicator of child risk for substance abuse, provides a useful reference point for family decision making. Our results show that well-functioning families (with children at low risk for substance use) should have the lowest incentive to participate, but that high-risk families may also opt out of prevention programs. For programs that are most effective for high-risk youth, this could be a problem. Using data from the Strengthening Families Program and the Washington Healthy Youth Survey, we empirically test the implications of our model and find that at least for one measure of family functioning those families with children most likely to be at risk for substance use are opting out of the program. PMID:23894208

  17. Musculoskeletal ageing and primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Nedergaard, Anders; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A; Christiansen, Claus

    2013-10-01

    Loss of musculoskeletal mass and function is a natural ageing trait, reinforced by an unhealthy life style. Loss of bone (osteoporosis) and muscle (sarcopaenia) are conditions whose prevalence are increasing because of the change in population distribution in the western world towards an older mean age. Improvements in lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking and exercise, are the most powerful tools to combat this decline efficiently; however, public health interventions aimed at tackling these problems have shown abysmal success at the population level, mostly due to failure in compliance. With these issues in mind, we believe that the primary prevention modality in coming decades will be pharmacological. We review the basic biology of musculoskeletal ageing and what measures can be taken to prevent ageing-associated loss of musculoskeletal mass and function, with particular emphasis on pharmacological means. PMID:23891483

  18. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented. PMID:27107762

  19. Future directions in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Umar, Asad; Dunn, Barbara K; Greenwald, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Prevention of cancer remains the most promising strategy for reducing both its incidence and the mortality due to this disease. For more than four decades, findings from epidemiology, basic research and clinical trials have informed the development of lifestyle and medical approaches to cancer prevention. These include selective oestrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer, the 5-α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer, and the development of vaccines for viruses that are associated with specific cancers. Future directions include genetic, proteomic and other molecular approaches for identifying pathways that are associated with cancer initiation and development, as well as refining the search for immunologically modifiable causes of cancer. PMID:23151603

  20. 77 FR 33479 - Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... of pollution events; and Assess the efforts of lessees/operators to prevent oil spills or prevent... equipment monthly; retain inspection & maintenance records for 2 years. 46(a) Notify NRC of all 0 oil spills... BSEE & 2 NTL responsible party of oil spills from operations at another facility. 50; 51...

  1. 77 FR 60715 - Information Collection Activities: Oil-Spill Response Requirements for Facilities Located Seaward...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Assess the efforts of lessees/operators to prevent oil spills or prevent substantial threats of such.... 46(a) NTL Notify NRC of all oil spills from owner/ Burden would be included in the 0 operator facility. NRC inventory 46(b) NTL(s) Notify BSEE of oil spills of one barrel 2 61 notifications 122 or...

  2. A performative definition of waste prevention.

    PubMed

    Corvellec, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    The increasing importance being placed on waste prevention in European waste governance raises the question of how waste prevention is defined in practice. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of a sample of fifty-one Swedish waste prevention initiatives with the purpose of identifying which kind of actions are imagined, promoted, and set into motion under the label of waste prevention. The analysis shows that despite their apparent variety, the initiatives in the sample boil down to three main types of actions: raising awareness about the need to prevent waste, increasing material efficiency, and developing sustainable consumption. In contradistinction to the formal definition of waste prevention in the European Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), what emerges from analyzing the initiatives in the sample is a performative definition of waste prevention as something heterogeneous, contradictory, and evolving. Such a definition of waste prevention in practice provides an understanding of the organizational dynamics of waste prevention. PMID:27067425

  3. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs.

    PubMed

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports. PMID:27389748

  4. To Treat or to Prevent?

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Tracy, Melissa; Keyes, Katherine M.; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a prevalent and disabling psychiatric disorder in urban areas. However, the most effective allocation of resources into prevention and treatment to reduce this problem is unknown. We contrasted the impact of two interventions on violence-related PTSD: (1) a population-level intervention intended to prevent violence (i.e., hot-spot policing), and (2) an individual-level intervention intended to shorten PTSD duration (i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy—CBT). Methods We used agent-based modeling to simulate violence and PTSD in New York City under four scenarios: (1) no intervention, (2) targeted policing to hot spots of violence, (3) increased access to CBT for people who suffered from violence-related PTSD, and (4) a combination of the two interventions. Results Combined prevention and treatment produced the largest decrease in violence-related PTSD prevalence: hot-spot policing plus a 50% increase in CBT for 5 years reduced the annual prevalence of violence-related PTSD from 3.6% (95% confidence interval = 3.5%, 3.6%) to 3.4% (3.3%, 3.5%). It would have been necessary to implement hot-spot policing or to increase CBT by 200% for 10 years for either intervention to achieve the same reduction in isolation. Conclusions This study provides an empirically informed demonstration that investment in combined strategies that target social determinants of mental illness and provide evidence-based treatment to those affected by psychiatric disorders can produce larger reductions in the population burden from violence-related PTSD than either preventive or treatment interventions alone. However, neither hot-spot policing nor CBT, alone or combined, will produce large shifts in the population prevalence of violence-related PTSD. PMID:26237744

  5. Peritoneal Metastases: Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is a surgicaly curable disease. It requires multimodality of treatment in Localy advanced and metastatic disease. Molecular markers like RAS mutation has brought in change in the mangement of metastatic disease. Nearly 15 to 20 % presents with peritonieal surface metastasis. The debate continues with systomic vs Cyutoreductive surgery with are without HIPEC. This article highlights management of peritoneal metastasis with special reference to prevention and treatment. PMID:27065703

  6. Photoprotection and prevention of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Marks, R

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes the current position on primary prevention of melanoma, including what is the evidence relating sunlight exposure to the development of melanoma, what forms of photoprotection there are and what are their relative values. There have been increasing incidence and mortality rates due to melanoma in most countries where they are being recorded. The initial approach in many countries has been to develop some form of early detection program in an attempt to diagnose and treat at a curable stage the melanomas that are occurring now. Primary prevention of melanoma is the more long term approach to the problem which many countries are now considering and a number are actively pursuing. Recent concern about stratospheric ozone depletion has contributed to the desire for the primary prevention approach. There are epidemiological data associating the risk of melanoma with increased exposure to sunlight in people with fair skin. They show that it is sunlight exposure in childhood and in doses sufficient to cause sunburn remembered many years later, that is particularly associated with risk of melanoma in adulthood. The exact spectrum of radiation in sunlight which is responsible for these tumours is not known, although the ultraviolet range is believed to be most important, particularly UVB but probably also UVA. The approach to photoprotection is a reduction in the overall exposure to sunlight, not just a single component of it. The natural protection of shade, clothing and hats is promoted as the best protection. Sunscreens have assumed a major component of primary prevention programs based on their convenience of use and also on their widespread promotion by those people who have a commercial interest in them. These products protect predominantly in the UVB range for which there is a sun protection factor (SPF) grading, as well as having some activity in the UVA range (for which there is not yet a satisfactory grading method). PMID:10417449

  7. Preventing large-battery explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, D.; Pangeri, S. F.

    1980-08-01

    This information circular presents a brief history of the lead-acid battery and describes ways to prevent serious injury from battery explosions when servicing and charging lead-acid batteries, particularly in the surface mining industry. The Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, battery maufacturers, and the mining industry have all contributed information as well as recommendations for injury-free handling for this report.

  8. ED navigators prevent unnecessary admissions.

    PubMed

    2012-02-01

    RN Navigators in the emergency department at Montefiore Medical Center work with social workers to prevent unnecessary admissions. Program targets the homeless and patients with tenuous living situations. CMs work with the emergency department staff to identify patients who don't meet admission criteria but can't be safely discharged. The hospital collaborates with a local housing assistance agency which sends a van to transport appropriate patients to a shelter. PMID:22299178

  9. Does cholesterol lowering prevent stroke?

    PubMed

    Henry, R Y; Kendall, M J

    1998-10-01

    The importance of lowering plasma cholesterol to reduce the incidence of coronary events is well established. However, in the prevention of stroke disease, control of hypertension has been the main aim of treatment and lipid lowering therapy has not hitherto been considered to be desirable or necessary. In this review, the evidence from large multicentre trials, imaging studies and meta-analyses is presented. It shows convincingly that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins) reduce stroke risk. PMID:9875681

  10. Prevention Starts in Early Childhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  11. Preventing paraffin-related injury.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; Swart, Dehran

    2009-07-01

    Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world) is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages-especially its comparatively low cost to produce-it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ‎discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ‎multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ‎and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ‎successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ‎initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations. ‎ PMID:21483184

  12. Prevention of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Leona; Fitzpatrick, Jane

    All patients undergoing surgery are at risk of developing hypothermia; up to 70% develop hypothermia perioperatively. Inadvertent hypothermia is associated with complications such as impaired wound healing, increased blood loss, cardiac arrest and increased risk of wound infection. Anaesthesia increases the risk as the normal protective shivering reflex is absent. Ambient temperature also has a major effect on the patient's body temperature. Prevention of hypothermia not only reduces the incidence of complications, but patients also experience a greater level of comfort, and avoid postoperative shivering and the unpleasant sensation of feeling cold. Nurses should be aware of the risks of hypothermia so that preventative interventions can be employed to minimize the risk of hypothermia. Preoperative assessment is essential to enable identification of at-risk patients. Simple precautionary measures initiated by nurses can considerably reduce the amount of heat lost, minimize the risk of associated complications and ultimately improve patients' short- and long-term recovery. Minimizing skin exposure, providing adequate bed linen for the transfer to theatre and educating patients about the importance of keeping warm perioperatively are all extremely important. It is also worth considering using forced-air warmers preoperatively as research suggests that initiating active warming preoperatively may be successful in preventing hypothermia during the perioperative period. PMID:19966730

  13. Prevention of Depression in Childhood and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses strategies and programs used to prevent depression in children and adolescents. It describes the rationale for depression prevention and discusses prevention approaches in schools and other settings, highlighting examples of programs that have been empirically evaluated. Prevention effects are small but significant, comparable or greater in magnitude than adolescent prevention programs for other issues, including substance use and human immunodeficiency virus. Future research should include rigorous design features, including attention control groups, allocation concealment, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessments, and theory-driven tests of moderation and mediation, and should test larger-scale implementation of prevention programs. PMID:26980124

  14. Antiepileptic drugs in migraine prevention.

    PubMed

    Mathew, N T

    2001-01-01

    Migraineurs may continue to experience attacks, despite daily use of one or more agents from a wide range of drugs, including beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, serotonin antagonists, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and antiepileptic agents. Divalproex sodium is the only antiepileptic drug approved for migraine prevention. Gabapentin, topiramate, and other antiepileptic agents are being evaluated for migraine prevention and treatment. Prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of divalproex, gabapentin, and topiramate for migraine prevention generally were composed of a prospective baseline period, a dose titration period, and a fixed-dose treatment period. The primary efficacy variable was a reduction in the 28-day frequency of migraine headache. Patients receiving divalproex for 12 weeks at doses up to 1500 mg/day achieved significant decreases in the migraine frequency (P<.05), corresponding to reductions of 30% to 40% compared with baseline. Nearly half of the divalproex-treated patients had a 50% or more reduction from baseline in headache frequencies (P< or =.05). Asthenia, vomiting, somnolence, tremor, and alopecia were common adverse events associated with divalproex. Significant reductions in migraine frequency were also observed with gabapentin (1800 to 2400 mg/day) when compared with placebo (P<.01), and nearly half of all patients treated at the highest dose experienced a reduction in headache rate of 50% or more. Somnolence was the most commonly reported adverse event among the gabapentin-treated patients. Two single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials evaluated topiramate for migraine prevention. A lower 28-day migraine frequency was seen during 18 weeks of administration at a maximum daily dose of 200 mg (P =.09). In a second study, a significantly lower mean 28-day migraine frequency was observed during 16 weeks of treatment with topiramate (P =.0015). Mean reduction in migraine

  15. Preventing employee theft: 15 techniques for preventing bookkeeping embezzlement.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2004-01-01

    Medical practices are unfortunately the target of embezzlement more often than you might think. This article offers practical suggestions for keeping your employees honest and thwarting a would-be embezzler. It describes the common symptoms of an embezzler at work and offers 15 practical techniques for preventing bookkeeping embezzlement. This article also suggests a simple method for conducting mini-audits from time to time and precautions to take to ensure the reliability of computer passwords. The article advocates keeping tighter control of office supplies and a method for spotting telephone abuse. Finally, it offers suggestions for dealing with employees who steal time on the job. PMID:15672898

  16. Drink your prevention: beverages with cancer preventive phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Teresa; Gallo, Cristina; Bassani, Barbara; Canali, Sara; Albini, Adriana; Bruno, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    Specific alimentary habits, including oriental and Mediterranean diets characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fruits, cereals and, for the Mediterranean diet, olive oil, are associated with a reduction of risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and some cancers. Numerous beverages contain diverse natural compounds, termed phytochemicals, that have been reported to exert antitumor, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant properties. Here we review the chemopreventive and angiopreventive properties of selected phytochemicals found in common beverages: epigallocatechin(green tea), triterpenoids (citrus juices), resveratrol (red wine), xanthohumol (beer), procyanidin (chocolate), and caffeine (coffee), focusing on their molecular mechanisms, providing "ready to drink" prevention approaches. PMID:25490889

  17. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identical to prostate cancer preventive measures, especially in regard to aggressive disease. Thus, apart from lifestyle measures that can encourage optimal heart and prostate health there are potentially several dietary supplements that need to be avoided in healthy men because they may also increase the risk of prostate cancer. However, there are also several low-cost, generic, safe in the appropriate individuals, and naturally derived agents that could reduce prostate cancer risk, and these can be discussed and remembered utilizing the acronym S.A.M. (statins, aspirin, and/or metformin). PMID:26112486

  18. Blood Clots That Kill: Preventing DVT

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Deep Vein Thrombosis Blood Clots That Kill: Preventing DVT Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of ... More "Deep Vein Thrombosis" Articles Blood Clots That Kill: Preventing DVT / Skater Tara Lipinski Speaks Out About ...

  19. EBIPM 2013 planner for preventing weed invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a calendar format, this publication is designed for land managers to make management decisions for preventing weed invasions in a timely manner. For each month there are recommendations for wee prevention management actions....

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT / POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goal 8.4 Improve Environmental Systems Management (Formally Pollution Prevention and New Technology) Background The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed and evaluated tools and technologies to monitor, prevent, control, and clean-up pollution through...

  1. Fire prevention on airplanes. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, J

    1929-01-01

    Various methods for preventing fires in airplanes are presented with most efforts centering around prevention of backfires, new engine and carburetor designs, as well as investigations on different types of fuels.

  2. Your Guide to Medicare's Preventive Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 Section: 2 Preventive Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Alcohol misuse screening and counseling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 ... 2 SECTION Preventive Services 9 PS Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening Who’s covered? Medicare covers a one-time ...

  3. Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... DO Video Library Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain Page Content A n estimated 50 million Americans ... natural tendency toward self-healing. Tips to Minimize Back Pain Here are some tips for preventing or minimizing ...

  4. ER Screenings Could Help Prevent Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158246.html ER Screenings Could Help Prevent Suicide: Study Checking patients for risk factors should be ... News) -- Routine screening of emergency room patients for suicide risk might be an effective way to prevent ...

  5. About DCP | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is the primary unit of the National Cancer Institute devoted to cancer prevention research. DCP provides funding and administrative support to clinical and laboratory researchers, community and multidisciplinary teams, and collaborative scientific networks. |

  6. Are physicians obligated to provide preventive services?

    PubMed

    Belcher, D W

    1990-01-01

    Preventive care is considered a benefit to the patient. Physicians express a positive attitude towards prevention, but their performance of recommended activities is low, as shown in a five-year trial at the Seattle VA Medical Center. The release of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's guide to clinical preventive services has provided physicians with authoritative prevention recommendations. While most physicians are specialists with little interest or skill in preventive care, primary care providers do accept an obligation to provide comprehensive care, including prevention. This paper examines the ethical basis for the idea of obligation. External pressures, legal, economic, and organizational, are affecting the physician-patient relationship in ways that encourage a contract mode of medical practice and limit physicians' ability to provide preventive care. As a profession, medicine needs to speak for the health needs of the public. As practitioners, physicians need to seek the welfare of their patients. PMID:2231049

  7. POLLUTION PREVENTION MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last decade, the Agency has increasingly focused on pollution prevention when addressing high-risk human health and environmental problems. A preventive approach requires: (1) innovative design and production techniques that minimize or eliminate adverse environmental im...

  8. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Sleep Problems Stroke Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Unique to ... difficulties. Optimizing Management of Congestive Heart Failure and COPD Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Many older people develop ...

  9. Pubic "Crab" Lice Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  10. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay carotid artery disease and stroke . Your risk for carotid artery ...

  11. Prostate Cancer Prevention: Concepts and Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Zachary; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2016-04-01

    Prevention is an important treatment strategy for diminishing prostate cancer morbidity and mortality and is applicable to both early- and late-stage disease. There are three basic classifications of cancer prevention: primary (prevention of incident disease), secondary (identification and treatment of preclinical disease), and tertiary (prevention of progression or recurrence). Based on level I evidence, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) should be considered in selected men to prevent incident prostate cancer. Level I evidence also supports the consideration of dutasteride, a 5-ARI, for tertiary prevention in active surveillance and biochemical recurrence patients. Vitamins and supplements, including selenium or vitamin E, have not been proven in clinical trials to prevent prostate cancer and in the case of Vitamin E has been found to increase the risk of incident prostate cancer. Ongoing and future trials may further elucidate the role of diet and immunotherapy for prevention of prostate cancer. PMID:26957512

  12. FAQs about Vaccines and Diseases They Prevent

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters Events FAQs about Vaccines and Diseases They Prevent Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Are there ... in the United States? What diseases do vaccines prevent? What would happen if we stopped immunizations ? Who ...

  13. Strategies That Work to Help Prevent Suicides

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159314.html Strategies That Work to Help Prevent Suicides Measures include physical barriers and selling fewer ... attempts. There is no single best way to prevent suicide, according to one of the study authors, ...

  14. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falls and Older Adults How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... healthy and happy. There are simple ways to prevent most falls. "Injuries from falls are a major ...

  15. Can I prevent Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pelvic Organ Prolapse POP Symptoms & Types Can I Prevent POP? POP Diagnosis POP Treatments 3 Resources + More Bladder Control UI Symptoms & Types Can I Prevent UI? UI Diagnosis UI Treatments 3 Resources + More ...

  16. Preventive Care for Children (Affordable Care Act)

    MedlinePlus

    ... GetCovered: My Story State by State Widgets & Badges Preventive Care for Children Many insurers are now required ... for mothers and vaccinations for kids. 26 Covered Preventive Services for Children Alcohol and Drug Use assessments ...

  17. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    MedlinePlus

    ... based, actionable, and easy to use. News & Media Prevention Policy Matters Blog Public Health 3.0: A ... with us About Us The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) plays a vital role ...

  18. About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for ... as well. NIA Information on Risk Factors and Prevention 2014-2015 Alzheimer's Disease Progress Report: Advancing Research ...

  19. Strategies That Work to Help Prevent Suicides

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159314.html Strategies That Work to Help Prevent Suicides Measures include ... legislation, has the potential to change public health strategies in suicide prevention plans," Zohar explained. "With these ...

  20. 20 Tips to Help Prevent Medical Errors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevent Medical Errors 20 Tips to Help Prevent Medical Errors: Patient Fact Sheet This information is for ... current information. Select to Download PDF (295 KB). Medical errors can occur anywhere in the health care ...

  1. Disconnected Lives: Men, Masculinity, and Rape Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Rocco L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rape prevention in the context of a problematic masculinity. Reviews conservative, mythopoetic, and feminist perspectives on masculinity. Proposes a feminist foundation for rape prevention programs for college males. (Author/KW)

  2. Kinesiology and Injury Prevention. Every Dancer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clippinger-Robertson, Karen

    1986-01-01

    This article focuses on three aspects of kinesiology: training principles, technique, and class design as they relate to injury prevention. Recommendations for prevention of some common dance injuries are offered. (MT)

  3. Resources for Investigators | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    NCI Links Clinical Trials Management Resource Website NCI CTCAE v4.0 If You Want to Find Ways to Prevent Cancer…Learn About Prevention Trials NCI Informed Consent Recommendations and Template NCI Research Resources |

  4. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT&E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact.

  5. Folate in Skin Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J.D.; Jacobson, Elaine L.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Jacobson, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Skin, the largest, most exposed organ of the body, provides a protective interface between humans and the environment. One of its primary roles is protection against exposure to sunlight, a major source of skin damage where the UV radiation (UVR) component functions as a complete carcinogen. Melanin pigmentation and the evolution of dark skin is an adaptive protective mechanism against high levels of UVR exposure. Recently, the hypothesis that skin pigmentation balances folate preservation and Vitamin D production has emerged. Both micronutrients are essential for reproductive success. Photodegradation of bioactive folates suggests a mechanism for the increased tendency of populations of low melanin pigmentation residing in areas of high UV exposure to develop skin cancers. Folate is proposed as a cancer prevention target for its role in providing precursors for DNA repair and replication, as well as its ability to promote genomic integrity through the generation of methyl groups needed for control of gene expression. The cancer prevention potential of folate has been demonstrated by large-scale epidemiological and nutritional studies indicating that decreased folate status increases the risk of developing certain cancers. While folate deficiency has been extensively documented by analysis of human plasma, folate status within skin has not been widely investigated. Nevertheless, inefficient delivery of micronutrients to skin and photolysis of folate argue that documented folate deficiencies will be present if not exacerbated in skin. Our studies indicate a critical role for folate in skin and the potential to protect sun exposed skin by effective topical delivery as a strategy for cancer prevention. PMID:22116700

  6. Preventive Health Care for the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Stults, Barry M.

    1984-01-01

    Demographic, economic and humanitarian considerations dictate that effective preventive health care be provided to the elderly. A disease-specific approach to geriatric preventive health care will not suffice; measures to enhance or maintain physical, mental and social function must also be emphasized. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of many preventive care procedures has not been adequately investigated in the elderly. Research is urgently needed to determine the efficacy of and appropriate target population for various geriatric preventive health care measures. PMID:6395498

  7. Osteoporosis: Prevention and Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Susan; Myers, Anita

    1987-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity in post-menopausal women. Strategies to prevent or delay bone loss in normal post-menopausal women and to reduce the risk of fractures in women with osteoporosis are within the scope of family practice. Certain factors, such as inadequate calcium intake, estrogen deficiency, cigarette smoking and lack of physical activity can be modified in peri- and post-menopausal women. For patients with osteoporosis, there is potential for lowering the risk of fractures by means of calcium supplements or other therapies, physical training and rehabilitation, and modification of factors associated with risk of falling. PMID:21267348

  8. Osteoarthritis: From Palliation to Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Constance R.; Millis, Michael B.; Olson, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability. The traditional focus on late-stage osteoarthritis has not yielded effective disease-modifying treatments. Consequently, current clinical care focuses on palliation until joint replacement is indicated. A symposium format was used to examine emerging strategies that support the transformation of the clinical approach to osteoarthritis from palliation to prevention. Central to this discussion are concepts for diagnosis and treatment of pre-osteoarthritis, meaning joint conditions that increase the risk of accelerated development of osteoarthritis. The presentation of translational and clinical research on three common orthopaedic conditions—anterior cruciate ligament tear, intra-articular fracture, and hip dysplasia—were used to illustrate these ideas. New information regarding the use of novel quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the form of ultrashort echo time enhanced T2* (UTE-T2*) mapping to evaluate the potential for articular cartilage to heal subsurface damage in a mechanically sound environment was presented. These data indicate that improved diagnostics can both identify cartilage at risk and evaluate the effectiveness of early treatment strategies. With use of a new mouse model for intra-articular fracture, it was shown that inflammation correlated to fracture severity and that super-healer mice avoided early posttraumatic osteoarthritis in part through an enhanced ability to dampen inflammation. These findings suggest that there is a role for acute and sustained anti-inflammatory treatment in the prevention of osteoarthritis. For long-term treatment, contemporary gene-therapy approaches may offer an effective means for sustained intra-articular delivery of anti-inflammatory and other bioactive agents to restore joint homeostasis. To illustrate the potential of early treatment to prevent or delay the onset of disabling osteoarthritis, the positive clinical effects on articular cartilage and

  9. Management and Prevention of Dystocia.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Bethany J; Hilton, W Mark

    2016-07-01

    Dystocia is an inevitable challenge in the livestock industries, particularly with primiparous female animals. Prevention and appropriate management will decrease cow and calf morbidity and mortality, which will improve the economic status of the beef or dairy operation. Early identification and proper intervention improves outcomes, and the use of selection tools to decrease the potential for dystocia will have positive returns. Assisted reproductive technologies present a unique set of challenges to the calving process that both the producer and practitioner should be prepared to address. PMID:27324453

  10. Can Chronic Pain Be Prevented?

    PubMed

    Badiola, Ignacio J

    2016-06-01

    All chronic pain begins at some discrete point in time. Significant strides in the understanding of mechanisms and risk factors associated with the transition from a new, or acute, pain experience to a chronic pain condition have been made over the past 20 years. These insights provide the hope of one day being able to modify or even halt this pathophysiologic progression. This article reviews some of the current knowledge of this transition as well as the evidence currently available to best prevent and treat it using persistent surgical pain as a model. PMID:27208712

  11. Molecular epidemiology and cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, F.P.; Jeffrey, A.M.; Brandt-Rauf, P.W.; Brenner, D.; Mayer, J.L.; Smith, S.J.; Latriano, L.; Hemminki, K.; Santella, R.M. )

    1990-01-01

    A review of recent studies of biologic markers in populations with model exposures to carcinogens (cigarette smoke and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) illustrates their potential role in cancer prevention. Data on macromolecular adducts and oncogene activation from cross-sectional, serial sampling and case-control studies demonstrate the usefulness of biologic markers in signalling a potential carcinogenic risk and in estimating the magnitude of interindividual variation within exposed groups. Recommendations for future research include nested case-control studies to establish the relationship between markers of biologic dose and effect (e.g., adducts, gene mutation, oncogene activation) and cancer risk. 31 references.

  12. Marine injuries. Prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Frey, C

    1994-08-01

    Penetrating wounds, stings, and inoculation of venom are common marine injuries to unwary walkers during the summer season. In many circumstances, foreign bodies such as wood splinters or small shards of glass can be removed readily with fine-pointed forceps. Other times, objects may not be noticed until radiographic examination of the injured area. With deeply penetrated foreign bodies, attempts at removal must often be weighed against the likelihood of continued symptoms and damage should the object be left in the foot. This review presents methods of prevention and treatment for common sources of marine foot injuries. PMID:7997347

  13. Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for

  14. Medical Prevention of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stubert, Johannes; Dieterich, Max; Gerber, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in Western Europe and North America. Effective strategies of medical prevention could reduce the burden of breast cancer mortality. The best evidence for a risk reduction exists for hormonal agents such as tamoxifen and raloxifene (22–72%) or aromatase inhibitors (50–65%). However, the severity of side effects and the lack of evidence for an improved survival compromise the risk/benefit balance. In this review the results of chemoprevention studies, including new treatment approaches, are summarized with critical discussion of their use in clinical practice. PMID:25759621

  15. HPV: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Jon K

    2012-09-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. Almost 80% of the world's population is exposed by the age of 50. HPV can cause oropharyngeal, genital, and anal cancers. It also causes genital warts. There is no cure for HPV but vaccines are available to prevent infection by the most common HPV viruses; unfortunately, usage is low. Most people will clear HPV spontaneously. Those who do not are at high risk for developing malignancy. Treatment mainstays are destruction and excision of the lesions. PMID:22828099

  16. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  17. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  18. Clinical Trials Management | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials.

  19. 29 CFR 1926.151 - Fire prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.151 Section 1926.151 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.151 Fire prevention. (a) Ignition hazards....

  20. Making the Link: Faculty and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Barbara E.; DeJong, William

    The guide presents concepts and approaches to prevention of alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse among college students, focusing on the role of faculty in prevention efforts. Sections discuss why faculty should get involved, the impact of AOD abuse on academic performance, the rationale for taking an environmental approach to prevention, helping…