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Sample records for preventive behavior persuasion

  1. Nonverbal Behavior and Perceived Counselor Attractiveness and Persuasiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, Michael B.

    1975-01-01

    Investigated the perception of counselor attractiveness and persuasiveness through the expression of nonverbal behavior. Two male and female counselors were trained to portray "affiliative" manner and "unaffiliative" manner. Subjects saw four different counselors and then rated them on scales measuring perceived attractiveness and persuasiveness.…

  2. Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Ann Christine

    A textbook called "Persuasion" was designed to provide discovery situations and a skills program to teach students to be aware of the ways in which they are influenced by various methods of communication, both public and private. The text focuses first on the persuader and the emotions he seeks to manipulate, then on the persuader and the image he…

  3. Predicting Persuasion-Induced Behavior Change from the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Berkman, Elliot T.; Mann, Traci; Harrison, Brittany; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Although persuasive messages often alter people’s self-reported attitudes and intentions to perform behaviors, these self-reports do not necessarily predict behavior change. We demonstrate that neural responses to persuasive messages can predict variability in behavior change in the subsequent week. Specifically, an a priori region of interest (ROI) in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was reliably associated with behavior change (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Additionally, an iterative cross-validation approach using activity in this MPFC ROI predicted an average 23% of the variance in behavior change beyond the variance predicted by self-reported attitudes and intentions. Thus, neural signals can predict behavioral changes that are not predicted from self-reported attitudes and intentions alone. Additionally, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to demonstrate that a neural signal can predict complex real world behavior days in advance. PMID:20573889

  4. I Can Talk You into It: Theory of Mind and Persuasion Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Moore, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We investigated links between persuasive behavior and theory of mind (ToM) understanding using a novel naturalistic peer persuasion task in which children were invited to convince an interactive puppet to eat raw broccoli or brush his teeth. Sixty-three 3- to 8-year-olds (M age = 6 years, 6 months) took part in the persuasion task and were also…

  5. To think or not to think: two pathways towards persuasion by short films on AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Igartua, Juan José; Cheng, Lifen; Lopes, Orquídea

    2003-01-01

    Health messages are designed to stimulate an active cognitive process in those audiences generally with little involvement. The Elaboration Likelihood Model by Petty and Cacioppo sustains that subjects with high involvement and those with low involvement react differently to the persuasive message to which they are exposed. One efficient way to capture the attention of the low involvement audiences is to insert the messages within an entertainment context. Our study attempted to analyze affective and cognitive processes to explain the impact of these new formats, fictional shorts for HIV/AIDS prevention. A 2 x 2 factorial design was used, with involvement in the AIDS issue (high/low) and the type of format (musical/dialogue) as independent variables. The finding showed the better the quality of the short (with dialogue style) the more negative affectivity was stimulated, also the more cognitive processing was induced, and a more favorable attitude towards preventive behavior was stimulated. PMID:14690887

  6. Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavior Disorder How to Write Persuasive Essays Fluently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerar, Nancy Irby

    2012-01-01

    A multiprobe, multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of persuasive writing strategy instruction. Six middle school students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) received two instructional phases of Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) instruction for writing persuasive essays over 33 days of intervention.…

  7. The eye movement desensitization and reprocessing procedure prevents defensive processing in health persuasion.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Arie; van Asten, Regine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is studied to understand and prevent defensive reactions with regard to a negatively framed message advocating fruit and vegetable consumption. EMDR has been shown to tax the working memory. Participants from a university sample (n = 124) listened to the persuasive message in a randomized laboratory experiment. In the EMDR condition, they were also instructed to follow with their eyes a dot on the computer screen. The dot constantly moved from one side of the screen to the other in 2 seconds. In addition, a self-affirmation procedure was applied in half of the participants. EMDR led to a significant increase in persuasion, only in recipients in whom the persuasive message could be expected to activate defensive self-regulation (in participants with a moderate health value and in participants with low self-esteem). In those with a moderate health value, EMDR increased persuasion, but only when recipients were not affirmed. In addition, EMDR increased persuasion only in recipients with low self-esteem, not in those with high self-esteem. These results showed that EMDR influenced persuasion and in some way lowered defensive reactions. The similarities and differences in effects of EMDR and self-affirmation further increased our insight into the psychology of defensiveness. PMID:24138408

  8. Dissonance-based Interventions for the Prevention of Eating Disorders: Using Persuasion Principles to Promote Health

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Becker, Carolyn Black; Rohde, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The limited efficacy of prior eating disorder (ED) prevention programs led to the development of dissonance-based interventions (DBI) that utilize dissonance-based persuasion principles from social psychology. Although DBIs have been used to change other attitudes and behaviors, only recently have they been applied to ED prevention. This article reviews the theoretical rationale and empirical support for this type of prevention program. Relative to assessment-only controls, DBIs have produced greater reductions in ED risk factors, ED symptoms, future risk for onset of threshold or subthreshold EDs, future risk for obesity onset, and mental health utilization, with some effects persisting through 3-year follow-up. DBIs have also produced significantly stronger effects than alternative interventions for many of these outcomes, though these effects typically fade more quickly. A meta-analysis indicated that the average effects for DBIs were significantly stronger than those for non-DBI ED prevention programs that have been evaluated. DBIs have produced effects when delivered to high-risk samples and unselected samples, as well as in efficacy and effectiveness trials conducted by six independent labs, suggesting that the effects are robust and that DBIs should be considered for the prevention of other problems, such as smoking, substance abuse, HIV, and diabetes care. PMID:18506621

  9. The Effect of Normative and Behavioral Persuasion on Help Seeking in Thai and American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Kirkhart, Matthew W.; D'Souza, June B.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of previous research on self-construals, the theory of reasoned action, and persuasive communication, the authors hypothesized that individual, behavioral-focused information would be more effective in increasing help-seeking intention among college students in the United States, whereas relational, normative-focused information would…

  10. Persuasive Embodied Agents: Using Embodied Agents to Change People's Behavior, Beliefs, and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (i.e., avatars; ECAs) are appearing in increasingly many everyday contexts, such as e-commerce, occupational training, and airport security. Also common to a typical person's daily life is persuasion. Whether being persuaded or persuading, the ability to change another person's attitude or behavior is a…

  11. The Role of Persuasive Arguments in Changing Affirmative Action Attitudes and Expressed Behavior in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Fiona A.; Charles, Margaret A.; Nelson, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of…

  12. Evidence-based tailoring of behavior-change campaigns: increasing fluoride-free water consumption in rural Ethiopia with persuasion.

    PubMed

    Huber, Alexandra C; Tobias, Robert; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred million people worldwide are at risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis due to excessive fluoride uptake from their water. Since medical treatment of the disease is difficult and mostly ineffective, preventing fluoride uptake is crucial. In the Ethiopian Rift Valley, a fluoride-removal community filter was installed. Despite having access to a fluoride filter, the community used the filter sparingly. During a baseline assessment, 173 face-to-face interviews were conducted to identify psychological factors that influence fluoride-free water consumption. Based on the results, two behavior-change campaigns were implemented: a traditional information intervention targeting perceived vulnerability, and an evidence-based persuasion intervention regarding perceived costs. The interventions were tailored to household characteristics. The campaigns were evaluated with a survey and analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in changing behavior and targeted psychological factors. While the intervention targeting perceived vulnerability showed no desirable effects, cost persuasion decreased the perceived costs and increased the consumption of fluoride-free water. This showed that altering subjective perceptions can change behavior even without changing objective circumstances. Moreover, interventions are more effective if they are based on evidence and tailored to specific households. PMID:24218018

  13. The role of persuasive arguments in changing affirmative action attitudes and expressed behavior in higher education.

    PubMed

    White, Fiona A; Charles, Margaret A; Nelson, Jacqueline K

    2008-11-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Studies 1 and 2 established effective manipulations of positive?negative AA information, and peripheral?central routes of processing. Study 3 implemented these techniques, and a path analysis was carried out testing the differential effects of valence of information processed via different routes on AA evaluative beliefs, attitudes, intention, and expressed behavior. Results indicated that positive AA messages processed centrally (i.e., for meaning) resulted in significantly more positive evaluative beliefs. Modifications to the original model resulted in a final model with excellent fit to the data that supported the mediating role of intention in the AA attitude?behavior relationship, as predicted by the theory of reasoned action. The findings highlight potential benefits of interventions for improving support for AA policies, provided that positive information is processed at a central, evaluative level. PMID:19025247

  14. Persuasion [and] Persuasion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Ann Christine

    The units in the Persuasion Program are meant to help students develop a critical awareness of methods and techniques used by those who want to persuade or influence them, and to help the students develop a proficiency in the art of persuading others. In this program, TV, films, radio, newspapers, magazines, and all types of advertising are…

  15. Persuasive Design: An Information-Systems Design-Theory Approach to Persuade Employment-Seeking Behavior among People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Buhairan, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    People with disabilities face a number of societal challenges that influence this vulnerable population to be less interested and motivated to pursue working. According to researchers, persuasive technologies are able to motivate intended users to change a targeted behavior. This study included the design, development, and evaluation of an…

  16. Quantifying the impact of Wellington Zoo's persuasive communication campaign on post-visit behavior.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Zoos potential to facilitate visitor conservation behavior is commonly articulated. Few studies, however, have quantified whether zoos' conservation messages result in visitors implementing the behavior. To test if zoo conservation messages are adopted at home, I implemented a persuasive communication campaign which advocated keeping cats indoor at night, a behavior that is a potential solution to cats depredating native wildlife. Furthermore, I tested if a public commitment (signing a pledge card) strengthened the relationship between on-site intention to engage in the behavior and actual implementation of the behavior at home. The conservation behavior was included in the twice-daily animal presentations in the amphitheater. A sample of 691 visitors completed a survey as they exited the amphitheater that measured their recall of the conservation behavior and intention to engage in the behavior at home. The last 311 visitors to complete the survey were asked to sign a pledge card which was publicly displayed in the amphitheater. Six weeks after their zoo trip, visitors were contacted and asked if they had implemented the behavior. Recall of the conservation behavior was high (91% for control, 100% for pledge group) and the entire pledge group had implemented the behavior whereas just half (51%) of the control group did. Furthermore, signing the pledge card strengthened the relationship between onsite intention and at home behavior (r = 1.0 of for the pledge group and r = 0.21 for the control group). Overall, the zoo's conservation message was recalled and behavior implemented at home. PMID:25652807

  17. Prevention of suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe. PMID:27489458

  18. Field experiment evidence of substantive, attributional, and behavioral persuasion by members of Congress in online town halls

    PubMed Central

    Minozzi, William; Neblo, Michael A.; Esterling, Kevin M.; Lazer, David M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Do leaders persuade? Social scientists have long studied the relationship between elite behavior and mass opinion. However, there is surprisingly little evidence regarding direct persuasion by leaders. Here we show that political leaders can persuade their constituents directly on three dimensions: substantive attitudes regarding policy issues, attributions regarding the leaders’ qualities, and subsequent voting behavior. We ran two randomized controlled field experiments testing the causal effects of directly interacting with a sitting politician. Our experiments consist of 20 online town hall meetings with members of Congress conducted in 2006 and 2008. Study 1 examined 19 small meetings with members of the House of Representatives (average 20 participants per town hall). Study 2 examined a large (175 participants) town hall with a senator. In both experiments we find that participating has significant and substantively important causal effects on all three dimensions of persuasion but no such effects on issues that were not discussed extensively in the sessions. Further, persuasion was not driven solely by changes in copartisans’ attitudes; the effects were consistent across groups. PMID:25775516

  19. Field experiment evidence of substantive, attributional, and behavioral persuasion by members of Congress in online town halls.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, William; Neblo, Michael A; Esterling, Kevin M; Lazer, David M J

    2015-03-31

    Do leaders persuade? Social scientists have long studied the relationship between elite behavior and mass opinion. However, there is surprisingly little evidence regarding direct persuasion by leaders. Here we show that political leaders can persuade their constituents directly on three dimensions: substantive attitudes regarding policy issues, attributions regarding the leaders' qualities, and subsequent voting behavior. We ran two randomized controlled field experiments testing the causal effects of directly interacting with a sitting politician. Our experiments consist of 20 online town hall meetings with members of Congress conducted in 2006 and 2008. Study 1 examined 19 small meetings with members of the House of Representatives (average 20 participants per town hall). Study 2 examined a large (175 participants) town hall with a senator. In both experiments we find that participating has significant and substantively important causal effects on all three dimensions of persuasion but no such effects on issues that were not discussed extensively in the sessions. Further, persuasion was not driven solely by changes in copartisans' attitudes; the effects were consistent across groups. PMID:25775516

  20. Persuasive Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidel, Thomas M.

    This book, for either college or secondary-school speech or rhetoric courses, defines persuasive speaking as essentially a process or activity and discusses the elements which facilitate analyzing that process. Sections deal with (1) the nature and history of persuasive speaking, especially classical and modern canons of rhetoric, (2) the…

  1. Persuasive communication about AIDS prevention: need for cognition determines the impact of message format.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A B

    1999-04-01

    Adolescents were classified as being high or low in need for cognition (NFC) (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) and expressed their knowledge about AIDS, attitudes toward condom use, and perceived supportive norms after being exposed to a cartoon or a written message about safe sex. Both messages have a positive impact on knowledge and attitudes. Theoretically interesting is the finding that the cartoon message is more effective in bringing about change in attitudes and subjective norms than the written message for low-NFC adolescents, and that the written message is more effective than the cartoon message for high-NFC adolescents. These results are consistent with the theory-based prediction that a persuasive communication will be most effective when the format of the message is tailored to people's information-processing proclivities. The practical implications of the findings for AIDS education are discussed. PMID:10214498

  2. Effects of Persuasive Messages on Blood Donation Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Leippe, Michael R.

    Only about 9% of the eligible American population actually donates blood, and the rate of donors who fail to give a second time is very high. Since many people who view blood-giving as a humanitarian act also see it as an unpleasant experience, persuasive appeals that promote a sense of moral obligation may be ineffectual in prompting donations. A…

  3. Humor in print health advertisements: enhanced attention, privileged recognition, and persuasiveness of preventive messages.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication. PMID:24160572

  4. Pitfalls in Persuasion: How Do Users Experience Persuasive Techniques in a Web Service?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segerståhl, Katarina; Kotro, Tanja; Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa

    Persuasive technologies are designed by utilizing a variety of interactive techniques that are believed to promote target behaviors. This paper describes a field study in which the aim was to discover possible pitfalls of persuasion, i.e., situations in which persuasive techniques do not function as expected. The study investigated persuasive functionality of a web service targeting weight loss. A qualitative online questionnaire was distributed through the web service and a total of 291 responses were extracted for interpretative analysis. The Persuasive Systems Design model (PSD) was used for supporting systematic analysis of persuasive functionality. Pitfalls were identified through situations that evoked negative user experiences. The primary pitfalls discovered were associated with manual logging of eating and exercise behaviors, appropriateness of suggestions and source credibility issues related to social facilitation. These pitfalls, when recognized, can be addressed in design by applying functional and facilitative persuasive techniques in meaningful combinations.

  5. Attitudes and persuasion.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila

    2006-01-01

    Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding. PMID:16318599

  6. Strategic Persuasive Writing Instruction for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Irby Cerar, Nancy; Guckert, Mary; Thompson, Catherine; Bronaugh, Danette Allen; Jakulski, Jill; Abdulalim, Latif; Mills, Sara; Evmenova, Anya; Regan, Kelley; Cuenca-Carlino, Yojanna

    2015-01-01

    Expressive writing is important for school and life success, but remains challenging for many students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Emerging evidence reveals promise for teaching students with learning and behavioral issues to improve written expression with self-regulated strategy development instruction. In that research, students…

  7. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Relapse Prevention (RP) model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010). Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change. PMID:21771314

  8. Persuasive Conversational Agent with Persuasion Tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Yasuhiko

    Persuasive conversational agents persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviors through conversation, and are expected to be applied as virtual sales clerks in e-shopping sites. As an approach to create such an agent, we have developed a learning agent with the Wizard of Oz method in which a person called Wizard talks to the user pretending to be the agent. The agent observes the conversations between the Wizard and the user, and learns how to persuade people. In this method, the Wizard has to reply to most of the user's inputs at the beginning, but the burden gradually falls because the agent learns how to reply as the conversation model grows.

  9. Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders to Self-Advocate through Persuasive Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca-Sanchez, Yojanna; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Kidd, Julie K.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model of writing instruction with a self-determination training component for middle school-age students with emotional and behavioral disorders. We randomly assigned students to experimental or comparison treatments during which special education teachers provided the…

  10. Research in the Social Psychology of Persuasion and Behavior Modification: Relevant to School Health Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard I.

    1973-01-01

    Brief description of a series of investigations designed to determine the relative effectiveness of various motivators in effecting oral hygiene behavior in a group of junior high school. Presented at the annual meeting of the American School Health Association, San Diego, California, 1972. (JC)

  11. Persuasion and attitude change in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    Many strategies used to induce the occurrence of desirable science-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors involve the use of persuasive messages. Science educators need to become acquainted with persuasion in the context of social influence and learning theory to be able to evaluate its usefulness in the science education milieu. Persuasion is the conscious attempt to bring about a jointly developed mental state common to both source and receiver through the use of symbolic cues, and it can be distinguished from other forms of social influence. Propaganda is a type of persuasion directed toward a mass audience. Coercion relies on reinforcement control, whereas persuasion is prompted by information. Brainwashing involves coercive techniques used to obtain cooperation and compliance. Persuasion and instruction are much alike; both require conscious cognitive activity by the recipient and involve communication which includes giving arguments and evidence for the purpose of getting someone to do something or to believe something.Persuasion research is anchored in learning theory. Early efforts were based on information processing. Studies following an information process approach focused on the effect of the variables harbored within the question Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect? on belief and attitude change. Cognitive processing and social exchange approaches to persuasion represent extensions to information process. Cognitive processing is concerned specifically with how people personally process the arguments presented in a persuasive message. Social exchange emphasizes the interchange that takes place between the message source and recipient. These approaches seem to be fruitful areas for future persuasion research in science education.Science educators' unfamiliarity with persuasion research stems from the fact that it is largely reported in the social psychology literature and has not been integrated into a framework familiar to

  12. Persuasion as Ethical Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1985-01-01

    States that teachers should help students understand in practical terms how to recognize good ethical persuasion and to understand when even distinguished, honest, and moral writers might need to resort to "unfair ethical persuasion." (EL)

  13. Combining Persuasive Technology With Behavioral Theory to Support Weight Maintenance Through a Mobile Phone App: Protocol for the MotiMate App

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Freyne, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of health-focused mobile phone apps available for download increases daily, with weight management apps being among the most proliferative. However, most lack theoretic grounding or evidence of efficacy. There is a significant body of literature which provides evidence for behaviors which are associated with successful weight loss maintenance. Behavioral theory also provides further insight regarding successful behavior change and maintenance. Objective We aimed to apply this knowledge to the development of the functionality of an app targeting weight loss maintenance. Methods We have subsequently undertaken the development of a persuasive and behavior targeting mobile app (MotiMate) to assist in maintenance of weight loss. MotiMate combines persuasive and behavior change theories in a practical targeted tool through its motivational messages, personalized feedback, and intelligent supportive tools to manage weight, food, exercise, mood and stress. Results The development and trial of MotiMate received funding support in May 2014. All 88 volunteers started the trial by December 2014 and were in the process of completing their final visits when this paper was submitted (May 2015). Data analysis is currently underway. Conclusions The paper has presented a scientifically informed mobile phone app to support weight loss maintenance. Further evaluation of its efficacy is in progress. Trial Registration ANZCTR 12614000474651; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=366120 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eJeQiKxi). PMID:26747725

  14. Persuasion Dialogues in ELT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Ramsey; Winks, Martin

    1978-01-01

    Some features of "persuasion dialogue" are examined, and suggestions are offered for ways in which persuasion might be used as a topic in the language class to stimulate the use of realistic language through appropriate role playing. Three dialogues are presented that illustrate different kinds of persuasion. (SW)

  15. Symbolic Action in India: Gandhi's Nonverbal Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    1975-01-01

    Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)

  16. Model, Framework, and Platform of Health Persuasive Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ayubi, Soleh Udin

    2013-01-01

    Persuasive technology (PT) has the potential to support individuals to perform self-management and social support as a part of health behavior change. This has led a few researchers in the intersection of the areas of health behavior change and software engineering to apply behavior change and persuasion theories to software development practices,…

  17. Satire as Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruner, Charles R.

    Satire is a genre long extant if not especially beloved in human history. Practitioners of the art claim the intent to persuade and educate through their works. Many quantitative studies have tested the persuasive effects of satire. In research on persuasion, A.D. Annis (1939) compared the effects of editorials and editorial cartoons and concluded…

  18. "Show and Tell" Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Virgil R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To engage in the process of formulating compelling persuasive arguments. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: Incorporated into participation points. Requirements: (a) References: 0; (b) Length: 1-2 minutes; (c) Visual aid: No; (d) Outline: No; (e) Prerequisite reading: Chapter 19 (DeVito, 2003); (f) Additional requirements: None.…

  19. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  20. Persuasion Via Mere Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Raymond K.; Ware, Paul D.

    1971-01-01

    Describes an experiment which sought to effect persuasion by merely exposing subjects to the name of a stimulus object for a specified number of times. Through illustration, explains the theoretical basis and methodology employed in a mere exposure experiment. (Author)

  1. Within-individual increases in innovative behavior and creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time: A social-cognitive theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas W H; Lucianetti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of innovative behavior (the generation, dissemination, and implementation of new ideas) have generally overlooked the agency perspective on this important type of performance behavior. Guided by social-cognitive theory, we propose a moderated mediation relationship to explain why and how employees become motivated to make things happen through their innovative endeavors. First, we propose that within-individual increases in organizational trust and perceived respect by colleagues promote within-individual increases in creative, persuasion, and change self-efficacy over time. Second, we propose that within-individual increases in self-efficacy beliefs promote within-individual increases in idea generation, dissemination, and implementation over time. Finally, we propose that psychological collectivism (a between-individual variable) is a moderator, and that a higher level of psychological collectivism weakens the positive relationship between within-individual increases in self-efficacy beliefs and within-individual increases in innovative behavior. Repeated measures collected from 267 employees in Italy at 3 time points over an 8-month period generally support our proposed dynamic moderated mediation relationship. PMID:26052714

  2. Models of Persuasion Dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakken, Henry

    This chapter1 reviews formal dialogue systems for persuasion. In persuasion dialogues two or more participants try to resolve a conflict of opinion, each trying to persuade the other participants to adopt their point of view. Dialogue systems for persuasion regulate how such dialogues can be conducted and what their outcome is. Good dialogue systems ensure that conflicts of view can be resolved in a fair and effective way [6]. The term ‘persuasion dialogue’ was coined by Walton [13] as part of his influential classification of dialogues into six types according to their goal. While persuasion aims to resolve a difference of opinion, negotiation tries to resolve a conflict of interest by reaching a deal, information seeking aims at transferring information, deliberationdeliberation wants to reach a decision on a course of action, inquiry is aimed at “growth of knowledge and agreement” and quarrel is the verbal substitute of a fight. This classification leaves room for shifts of dialogues of one type to another. In particular, other types of dialogues can shift to persuasion when a conflict of opinion arises. For example, in information-seeking a conflict of opinion could arise on the credibility of a source of information, in deliberation the participants may disagree about likely effects of plans or actions and in negotiation they may disagree about the reasons why a proposal is in one’s interest.

  3. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahaya, W. A. J. W.; Zain, M. Z. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.

  4. The Necessary Art of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Jay A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the importance of persuasion in business and offers four essential steps to effective persuasion: establish credibility, identify common ground, use vivid language and compelling evidence, and connect emotionally with the audience. (JOW)

  5. Media and Persuasive Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael R.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of attitude change through mediated instruction and how attitudes are related to learning is followed by guidelines for the use of six categories of persuasion techniques by instructional designers. Summaries of research findings on the effectiveness of each technique in mediated instruction are included. (MBR)

  6. The Geometry of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert A.

    1970-01-01

    Questions raised by contemporary communication teachers about educational program standards and goals have foundation in the classic rhetorical controversy between Plato and the Sophists. Sophistic instruction in ancient Greece centered around techniques of oral persuasion, and the methods were attacked by Plato because they emphasized skills over…

  7. Cancer prevention and screening behaviors in lesbians.

    PubMed

    Grindel, Cecilia Gatson; McGehee, Linda A; Patsdaughter, Carol A; Roberts, Susan J

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of cancer diagnosis has increased in the United States highlighting the need for astute cancer prevention and screening behaviors. Previous literature has suggested that lesbians may not follow the American Cancer Society's (ACS) guidelines regarding prevention and screening for cancer due to disparity in access to care and increased use of alcohol and tobacco. The purpose of this study was to examine the cancer prevention and screening behaviors of lesbians using the ACS guidelines as the standards for comparison, and to determine factors that influence mammography screening. A 102-item self-report survey was distributed to lesbians nationwide using various methods including snowballing sampling techniques. The sample included 1139 self-identified lesbians from 44 states. In general, healthy lifestyle behaviors were followed. The majority of the women did not smoke, ate plenty of fruits and vegetables, ate protein sources low in fat and consumed alcohol at a moderate rate. However, safe sex practices were often not used by participants. Most women did have mammograms and Papanicolaou smears (PAP) as recommended; however, adherence to self-breast examination guidelines was not followed. Women who were older, had higher yearly incomes, did not smoke, performed regular self breast exams and had regular physical exams were most likely to have a mammogram. Over half of the women met American Cancer Society guidelines for prevention and screening for breast and cervical cancer. However, strategies are needed to increase compliance with these guidelines in order to improve cancer health outcomes. PMID:17255057

  8. Exploiting attractiveness in persuasion: senders' implicit theories about receivers' processing motivation.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Tobias; Kutzner, Florian; Fiedler, Klaus; Freytag, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Previous research suggests a positive correlation between physical attractiveness and the expectation of positive outcomes in social interactions, such as successful persuasion. However, prominent persuasion theories do not imply a general advantage of attractive senders. Instead, the persuasion success should vary with the receivers' processing motivation and processing capacity. Focusing on the perspective of the sender, the authors elaborate on lay theories about how attractiveness affects persuasion success. They propose that lay theories (a) match scientific models in that they also comprise the interaction of senders' attractiveness and receivers' processing characteristics, (b) guide laypersons' anticipation of persuasion success, and (c) translate into strategic behavior. They show that anticipated persuasion success depends on the interplay of perceived attractiveness and expectations about receivers' processing motivation (Experiment 1 and 2). Further experiments show that laypersons strategically attempt to exploit attractiveness in that they approach situations (Experiment 3) and persons (Experiment 4) that promise persuasion success. PMID:20472856

  9. The Effects of Instruction in Peer-Revision on the Persuasive Writing of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the use of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) to improve the writing skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This single subject multiple baseline, multiple probe design study extends this research base by investigating the effects of peer-revision instruction on the persuasive…

  10. Behavioral Research in Cancer Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Klein, William M. P.; Bloch, Michele; Hesse, Bradford W.; McDonald, Paige G.; Nebeling, Linda; O’Connell, Mary E.; Riley, William T.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Tesauro, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Human behavior is central to the etiology and management of cancer outcomes and presents several avenues for targeted and sustained intervention. Psychosocial experiences such as stress and health behaviors including tobacco use, sun exposure, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of some cancers yet are often quite resistant to change. Cancer screening and other health services are misunderstood and over-utilized, and vaccination underutilized, in part because of the avalanche of information about cancer prevention. Coordination of cancer care is suboptimal, and only a small fraction of cancer patients enroll in clinical trials essential to the development of new cancer treatments. A growing population of cancer survivors has necessitated a fresh view of cancer as a chronic rather than acute disease. Fortunately, behavioral research can address a wide variety of key processes and outcomes across the cancer controbiol continuum from prevention to end-of-life care. Here we consider effects at the biobehavioral and psychological, social and organizational, and environmental levels. We challenge the research community to address key behavioral targets across all levels of influence, while taking into account the many new methodological tools that can facilitate this important work. PMID:24512871

  11. A Persuasive Example of Collaborative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsmith, Kevin M.; Cooper, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Describes the 12-week long collaborative learning project used in a persuasion and propaganda course. Explains that the students worked in groups on a persuasive campaign to change a target population. States that the student projects were persuasive. (CMK)

  12. Designing for Persuasion: Toward Ambient Eco-Visualization for Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tanyoung; Hong, Hwajung; Magerko, Brian

    When people are aware of their lifestyle's ecological consequences, they are more likely to adjust their behavior to reduce their impact. Persuasive design that provides feedback to users without interfering with their primary tasks can increases the awareness of neighboring problems. As a case study of design for persuasion, we designed two ambient displays as desktop widgets. Both represent a users' computer usage time, but in different visual styles. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative study of two ambient displays. We discuss the gradual progress of persuasion supported by the ambient displays and the differences in users' perception affected by the different visualization styles. Finally, Our empirical findings lead to a series of design implications for persuasive media.

  13. Persuasion in the Counseling Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, David J.; And Others

    Of all the methods and techniques arising from research in human communication that are subsequently used in counseling, the one most seldom mentioned in counseling literature is that of persuasion. The word persuasion is often wrongly used as a synonym for manipulation, an activity counselors are trained to avoid in working with clients. Verbal…

  14. Personality and Persuasive Technology: An Exploratory Study on Health-Promoting Mobile Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halko, Sajanee; Kientz, Julie A.

    Though a variety of persuasive health applications have been designed with a preventive standpoint toward diseases in mind, many have been designed largely for a general audience. Designers of these technologies may achieve more success if applications consider an individual's personality type. Our goal for this research was to explore the relationship between personality and persuasive technologies in the context of health-promoting mobile applications. We conducted an online survey with 240 participants using storyboards depicting eight different persuasive strategies, the Big Five Inventory for personality domains, and questions on perceptions of the persuasive technologies. Our results and analysis revealed a number of significant relationships between personality and the persuasive technologies we evaluated. The findings from this study can guide the development of persuasive technologies that can cater to individual personalities to improve the likelihood of their success.

  15. Toward a theory of persuasive hope: effects of cognitive appraisals, hope appeals, and hope in the context of climate change.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Amy E

    2015-01-01

    Hope has the potential to be a powerful motivator for influencing behavior. However, hope and messages that evoke hope (hope appeals) have rarely been the focus of theoretical development or empirical research. As a step toward the effective development and use of hope appeals in persuasive communication, this study conceptualized and operationalized hope appeals in the context of climate change prevention. Then, the study manipulated components of the hope evocation part of a hope appeal. Specifically, the components were designed to address appraisals of the importance, goal congruence, future expectation, and possibility of climate protection, resulting in a 2 (strong/weak importance) × 2 (strong/weak goal congruence) × 2 (strong/weak future expectation) × 2 (strong/weak possibility) between-subjects pretest-posttest factorial design. Two hundred forty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of the 16 message conditions and completed the study online. The study tested whether the four appraisals predict feelings of hope. It determined whether message components that address importance, goal congruence, future expectation, and possibility affect appraisals, feelings of hope, and persuasion outcomes. Finally, this study tested the effects of feelings of hope on persuasion outcomes. This study takes an important step toward enabling the effective use of hope appeals in persuasive communication. PMID:25297455

  16. Persuasion: Reception and Responsibility. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    This book is designed to develop students' skills both as consumers and as producers of persuasion. The book explains, with examples from diverse media campaigns, strategies of persuasion constantly used in the mass media, in political rhetoric, and in advertising. The book covers material on persuasion theory, persuasion research, and persuasion…

  17. Loudness as a Variable in Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packwood, William T.

    1974-01-01

    A persuasion scale assessing counselor conviction and client agreement was used to rate 900 counselor statements. The 24 highest rated and 15 lowest rated persuasive statements were fed into a graphic level recorder. Differences in the graphs of high- and low- persuasive statements indicated that loudness is a characteristic of persuasion. (Author)

  18. Re-Examining the Agentic Shift: The Sense of Agency Influences the Effectiveness of (Self)Persuasion.

    PubMed

    Damen, Tom G E; Müller, Barbara C N; van Baaren, Rick B; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether differences in the sense of agency influenced the effectiveness of both direct persuasion and self-persuasion techniques. By manipulating both the delay and contingency of the outcomes of actions, participants were led to experience either a low or high sense of agency. Participants were subsequently presented with arguments as to why a clean local environment is important (direct persuasion), or were asked to generate those arguments themselves (self-persuasion). Subsequently, participants' cleanliness attitudes and willingness to participate in a campus cleanup were measured. The results show that techniques of direct persuasion influenced attitudes and volunteering behavior under conditions of low rather than high agency, whereas techniques of self-persuasion were most effective under conditions of high rather than low agency. The present findings therefore show how recent experiences of agency, a state based experience of control, can influence the effectiveness of both external and internal persuasion techniques. PMID:26053303

  19. Re-Examining the Agentic Shift: The Sense of Agency Influences the Effectiveness of (Self)Persuasion

    PubMed Central

    Damen, Tom G. E.; Müller, Barbara C. N.; van Baaren, Rick B.; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether differences in the sense of agency influenced the effectiveness of both direct persuasion and self-persuasion techniques. By manipulating both the delay and contingency of the outcomes of actions, participants were led to experience either a low or high sense of agency. Participants were subsequently presented with arguments as to why a clean local environment is important (direct persuasion), or were asked to generate those arguments themselves (self-persuasion). Subsequently, participants’ cleanliness attitudes and willingness to participate in a campus cleanup were measured. The results show that techniques of direct persuasion influenced attitudes and volunteering behavior under conditions of low rather than high agency, whereas techniques of self-persuasion were most effective under conditions of high rather than low agency. The present findings therefore show how recent experiences of agency, a state based experience of control, can influence the effectiveness of both external and internal persuasion techniques. PMID:26053303

  20. Persuasive Mobile Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Wylie, Carlos; Coulton, Paul

    With many industrialized societies bearing the cost of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle on the health of their populations there is a need to find new ways of encouraging physical activity to promote better health and well being. With the increasing power of mobile phones and the recent emergence of personal heart rate monitors, aimed at dedicated amateur runners, there is now a possibility to develop “Persuasive Mobile Health Applications” to promote well being through the use of real-time physiological data and persuade users to adopt a healthier lifestyle. In this paper we present a novel general health monitoring software for mobile phones called Heart Angel. This software is aimed at helping users monitor, record, as well as improve their fitness level through built-in cardio-respiratory tests, a location tracking application for analyzing heart rate exertion over time and location, and a fun mobile-exergame called Health Defender.

  1. Change through persuasion.

    PubMed

    Garvin, David A; Roberto, Michael A

    2005-02-01

    Faced with the need for a massive change, most managers respond predictably. They revamp the organization's strategy, shift around staff, and root out inefficiencies. They then wait patiently for performance to improve--only to be bitterly disappointed because they've failed to adequately prepare employees for the change. In this article, the authors contend that to make change stick, leaders must conduct an effective persuasion campaign-one that begins weeks or months before the turn-around plan is set in concrete. Like a political campaign, a persuasion campaign is largely one of differentiation from the past. Turnaround leaders must convince people that the organization is truly on its deathbed-or, at the very least, that radical changes are required if the organization is to survive and thrive. (This is a particularly difficult challenge when years of persistent problems have been accompanied by few changes in the status quo.) And they must demonstrate through word and deed that they are the right leaders with the right plan. Accomplishing all this calls for a four-part communications strategy. Prior to announcing a turnaround plan, leaders need to set the stage for employees' acceptance of it. At the time of delivery, they must present a framework through which employees can interpret information and messages about the plan. As time passes, they must manage the mood so that employees' emotional states support implementation and follow-through. And at critical intervals, they must provide reinforcement to ensure that the desired changes take hold and that there's no backsliding. Using the example of the dramatic turn-around at Boston's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, the authors elucidate the inner workings of a successful change effort. PMID:15724578

  2. Gender, Persuasion Techniques, and Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raign, Kathryn Rosser; Sims, Brenda R.

    1993-01-01

    Examines preconceptions of four proposal developers about three factors: effective and ineffective collaboration; gender's effects on collaboration; and gender's effect on persuasion. Finds the discourse techniques used by men and women do not parallel a person's gender. (RS)

  3. When the model fits the frame: the impact of regulatory fit on efficacy appraisal and persuasion in health communication.

    PubMed

    Bosone, Lucia; Martinez, Frédéric; Kalampalikis, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    In health-promotional campaigns, positive and negative role models can be deployed to illustrate the benefits or costs of certain behaviors. The main purpose of this article is to investigate why, how, and when exposure to role models strengthens the persuasiveness of a message, according to regulatory fit theory. We argue that exposure to a positive versus a negative model activates individuals' goals toward promotion rather than prevention. By means of two experiments, we demonstrate that high levels of persuasion occur when a message advertising healthy dietary habits offers a regulatory fit between its framing and the described role model. Our data also establish that the effects of such internal regulatory fit by vicarious experience depend on individuals' perceptions of response-efficacy and self-efficacy. Our findings constitute a significant theoretical complement to previous research on regulatory fit and contain valuable practical implications for health-promotional campaigns. PMID:25680684

  4. Promoting UV Exposure Awareness with Persuasive, Wearable Technologies.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M Sazzad; Cripwell, Liam; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Current methods to promote awareness of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation have focussed on delivering population level information and some location-based reporting of UV Index (UVI). However, diseases related to excessive (e.g. sunburn, skin cancer) or insufficient (e.g. vitamin D deficiency) exposure to sunlight still remain a global burden. The emergence of wearable sensors and the application of persuasive technology in health domains raise the possibility for technology to influence awareness of sufficient sun intake for vitamin D production, as well as preventing risk of skin damage. This paper presents a personalised solution to promote healthy, safe sun exposure using wearable devices and persuasive techniques. PMID:27440288

  5. Estimates of Preventability and Their Relation to Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gary D.

    It was hypothesized that a person's estimates of the preventability of health problems would be related to health behaviors such that a person who engages in healthful behavior should make higher estimates of preventability. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between causal attribution of health problems and health-related…

  6. Relapse Prevention Model of Behavioral Maintenance: Implications for Alcohol Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose-Colley, Mary; Cinelli, Bethann

    1992-01-01

    Describes Relapse Prevention as therapeutic modality, based on Social Learning Theory, used to prevent relapse for individuals who have completed treatment for substance abuse behaviors. Outlines relapse prevention theory and suggests various components of model be incorporated into alcohol education curricula. Outlines teaching strategies to…

  7. Personalized persuasion: tailoring persuasive appeals to recipients' personality traits.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Kang, Sonia K; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2012-06-01

    Persuasive messages are more effective when they are custom-tailored to reflect the interests and concerns of the intended audience. Much of the message-framing literature has focused on the advantages of using either gain or loss frames, depending on the motivational orientation of the target group. In the current study, we extended this research to examine whether a persuasive appeal's effectiveness can be increased by aligning the message framing with the recipient's personality profile. For a single product, we constructed five advertisements, each designed to target one of the five major trait domains of human personality. In a sample of 324 survey respondents, advertisements were evaluated more positively the more they cohered with participants' dispositional motives. These results suggest that adapting persuasive messages to the personality traits of the target audience can be an effective way of increasing the messages' impact, and highlight the potential value of personality-based communication strategies. PMID:22547658

  8. Contagion on complex networks with persuasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Li-Jie; Xu, Xin-Jian; Fu, Xinchu

    2016-03-01

    The threshold model has been widely adopted as a classic model for studying contagion processes on social networks. We consider asymmetric individual interactions in social networks and introduce a persuasion mechanism into the threshold model. Specifically, we study a combination of adoption and persuasion in cascading processes on complex networks. It is found that with the introduction of the persuasion mechanism, the system may become more vulnerable to global cascades, and the effects of persuasion tend to be more significant in heterogeneous networks than those in homogeneous networks: a comparison between heterogeneous and homogeneous networks shows that under weak persuasion, heterogeneous networks tend to be more robust against random shocks than homogeneous networks; whereas under strong persuasion, homogeneous networks are more stable. Finally, we study the effects of adoption and persuasion threshold heterogeneity on systemic stability. Though both heterogeneities give rise to global cascades, the adoption heterogeneity has an overwhelmingly stronger impact than the persuasion heterogeneity when the network connectivity is sufficiently dense.

  9. Twelve Practical Strategies To Prevent Behavioral Escalation in Classroom Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla-Mehta, Smita; Albin, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve practical strategies that can be used by classroom teachers to prevent behavioral escalation are discussed, including reinforce calm, know the triggers, pay attention to anything unusual, do not escalate, intervene early, know the function of problem behavior, use extinction wisely, teach prosocial behavior, and teach academic survival…

  10. Preventing Severe Problem Behavior in Young Children: The Behavior Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawken, Leanne S.; Johnston, Susan S.

    2007-01-01

    Best practice in preventing severe problem behavior in schools involves implementing a continuum of effective behavior support. This continuum includes primary prevention strategies implemented with all students, secondary prevention strategies for students at-risk, and tertiary interventions for students who engage in the most severe problem…

  11. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  12. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of this counseling. This fact sheet explains the ... skin looking young and healthy. Potential Benefits and Harms of Behavioral Counseling The main potential benefit of ...

  13. Family-Based Preventive Interventions: Can the Onset of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior Be Prevented?

    PubMed

    Reider, Eve E; Sims, Belinda E

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youth aged 10-24. Research informed prevention efforts have the opportunity to decrease risk for suicidal ideation and behavior before it is manifested. Indeed, there is a small body of research findings demonstrating both proximal and distal effects of preventive interventions delivered in childhood and adolescence on suicidal ideation and/or behavior. These efforts build off of other secondary analyses of prevention research that has demonstrated benefits for multiple types of youth outcomes. This supplement provides "proof of concept" that family-based preventive interventions aimed at reducing a number of risk factors for suicide (e.g., substance use, externalizing, and internalizing behavior) can prevent suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:27094108

  14. Strategies for Preventing Behavioral Incidents in the Nation's Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Johnny; Leonard, Rex

    1985-01-01

    Discusses strategies that can be used to prevent the five most common behavioral problems in secondary schools: (1) failure to complete assigned work, (2) tardiness, (3) inattentiveness, (4) littering, and (5) failure to bring materials to class. (FL)

  15. Identifying Major Techniques of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makosky, Vivian Parker

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this class exercise is to increase undergraduate psychology students' awareness of common persuasion techniques used in advertising, including the appeal to or creation of needs, social and prestige suggestion, and the use of emotionally loaded words and images. Television commercials and magazine advertisements are used as…

  16. Persuasive Appeal for Clean Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFrene, Debbie D.; Lehman, Carol M.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that one way to expose students to the problems associated with profanity is to tie the exploration and discussion of the issue to the persuasive writing assignment that is common in many undergraduate business communication courses. Presents a discussion of such an assignment. (SG)

  17. Teaching Persuasion: A Positive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Mary C.

    The synthesis of four instructional models for argumentative writing--the Toulmin, Hiduke, Winder, and Crebbe-Debate approaches--with basic discourse theory produces a practical and positive method of teaching college students to write effective persuasive essays. A battery of questions based on a modified communication triangle--subject…

  18. The necessary art of persuasion.

    PubMed

    Conger, J A

    1998-01-01

    Business today is largely run by teams and populated by authority-averse baby boomers and Generation Xers. That makes persuasion more important than ever as a managerial tool. But contrary to popular belief, the author asserts, persuasion is not the same as selling an idea or convincing opponents to see things your way. It is instead a process of learning from others and negotiating a shared solution. To that end, persuasion consists of four essential elements: establishing credibility, framing to find common ground, providing vivid evidence, and connecting emotionally. Credibility grows, the author says, out of two sources: expertise and relationships. The former is a function of product or process knowledge and the latter a history of listening to and working in the best interest of others. But even if a persuader's credibility is high, his position must make sense--even more, it must appeal--to the audience. Therefore, a persuader must frame his position to illuminate its benefits to everyone who will feel its impact. Persuasion then becomes a matter of presenting evidence--but not just ordinary charts and spreadsheets. The author says the most effective persuaders use vivid--even over-the-top--stories, metaphors, and examples to make their positions come alive. Finally, good persuaders have the ability to accurately sense and respond to their audience's emotional state. Sometimes, that means they have to suppress their own emotions; at other times, they must intensify them. Persuasion can be a force for enormous good in an organization, but people must understand it for what it is: an often painstaking process that requires insight, planning, and compromise. PMID:10179656

  19. Oxytocin Enhances Social Persuasion during Hypnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Richard A.; Hung, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that hypnosis cannot promote behaviors that people will not otherwise engage in. Oxytocin can enhance trust in others, and may promote the extent to which a hypnotized person complies with the suggestion of a hypnotist. This double-blind placebo study administered oxytocin or placebo to high hypnotizable participants (N = 28), who were then administered hypnotic suggestions for socially unorthodox behaviors, including swearing during the experiment, singing out loud, and dancing in response to a posthypnotic cue. Participants who received oxytocin were significantly more likely to swear and dance than those who received the placebo. This finding may be interpreted in terms of oxytocin increasing social compliance in response as a function of (a) increased trust in the hypnotist, (b) reduced social anxiety, or (c) enhanced sensitivity to cues to respond to experimental expectations. These results point to the potential role of oxytocin in social persuasion. PMID:23577153

  20. Oxytocin enhances social persuasion during hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Hung, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that hypnosis cannot promote behaviors that people will not otherwise engage in. Oxytocin can enhance trust in others, and may promote the extent to which a hypnotized person complies with the suggestion of a hypnotist. This double-blind placebo study administered oxytocin or placebo to high hypnotizable participants (N = 28), who were then administered hypnotic suggestions for socially unorthodox behaviors, including swearing during the experiment, singing out loud, and dancing in response to a posthypnotic cue. Participants who received oxytocin were significantly more likely to swear and dance than those who received the placebo. This finding may be interpreted in terms of oxytocin increasing social compliance in response as a function of (a) increased trust in the hypnotist, (b) reduced social anxiety, or (c) enhanced sensitivity to cues to respond to experimental expectations. These results point to the potential role of oxytocin in social persuasion. PMID:23577153

  1. Preventing Trouble: Making Schools Safer Places Using Positive Behavior Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Karen; Safran, Stephen; Johanson, George

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of disruptive behaviors in schools is a national concern. While substantial resources are often allocated toward individual students who exhibit challenging behavior, less emphasis is placed on preventative interventions in common areas such as hallways, cafeterias and playgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine…

  2. The Role of Reciprocity in Verbally Persuasive Robots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Liang, Yuhua Jake

    2016-08-01

    The current research examines the persuasive effects of reciprocity in the context of human-robot interaction. This is an important theoretical and practical extension of persuasive robotics by testing (1) if robots can utilize verbal requests and (2) if robots can utilize persuasive mechanisms (e.g., reciprocity) to gain human compliance. Participants played a trivia game with a robot teammate. The ostensibly autonomous robot helped (or failed to help) the participants by providing the correct (vs. incorrect) trivia answers. Then, the robot directly asked participants to complete a 15-minute task for pattern recognition. Compared to no help, results showed that a robot's prior helping behavior significantly increased the likelihood of compliance (60 percent vs. 33 percent). Interestingly, participants' evaluations toward the robot (i.e., competence, warmth, and trustworthiness) did not predict compliance. These results also provided an insightful comparison showing that participants complied at similar rates with the robot and with computer agents. This result documents a clear empirically powerful potential for the role of verbal messages in persuasive robotics. PMID:27447027

  3. Behavioral and Biomedical Combination Strategies for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bekker, Linda-Gail; Beyrer, Chris; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Around 2.5 million people become infected with HIV each year. This extraordinary toll on human life and public health worldwide will only be reversed with effective prevention. What’s more, in the next few years, it is likely at least, that no single prevention strategy will be sufficient to contain the spread of the disease. There is a need for combination prevention as there is for combination treatment, including biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. Expanded HIV prevention must be grounded in a systematic analysis of the epidemic’s dynamics in local contexts. Although 85% of HIV is transmitted sexually, effective combinations of prevention have been shown for people who inject drugs. Combination prevention should be based on scientifically derived evidence, with input and engagement from local communities that fosters the successful integration of care and treatment. PMID:22908192

  4. Preventing Problem Behaviors: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Level Prevention Interventions for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Tary J.; Sugai, George

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare changes in social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence for kindergarten or first grade students identified as being at risk for serious behavior problems who received primary, secondary, or tertiary level preventive interventions. Of the 93 participants in this study, 73% were male; 86% were…

  5. The Neural Correlates of Persuasion: A Common Network across Cultures and Media

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Emily B.; Rameson, Lian; Berkman, Elliot T.; Liao, Betty; Kang, Yoona; Inagaki, Tristen K.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Persuasion is at the root of countless social exchanges in which one person or group is motivated to have another share its beliefs, desires, or behavioral intentions. Here, we report the first three functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to investigate the neurocognitive networks associated with feeling persuaded by an argument. In the first two studies, American and Korean participants, respectively, were exposed to a number of text-based persuasive messages. In both Study 1 and Study 2, feeling persuaded was associated with increased activity in posterior superior temporal sulcus bilaterally, temporal pole bilaterally, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. The findings suggest a discrete set of underlying mechanisms in the moment that the persuasion process occurs, and are strengthened by the fact that the results replicated across two diverse linguistic and cultural groups. Additionally, a third study using region-of-interest analyses demonstrated that neural activity in this network was also associated with persuasion when a sample of American participants viewed video-based messages. In sum, across three studies, including two different cultural groups and two types of media, persuasion was associated with a consistent network of regions in the brain. Activity in this network has been associated with social cognition and mentalizing and is consistent with models of persuasion that emphasize the importance of social cognitive processing in determining the efficacy of persuasive communication. PMID:19925175

  6. Persuasive Technology in Nursing Education About Pain.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ana Graziela; Dal Sasso, Grace T M; Iyengar, Sriram

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices, as persuasive technologies, represent an important platform to promote changes in attitudes and behaviors. They are not only understood as tools, but as a learning process that provides different opportunities to learn how to learn. The objectives of the study were to measure the quality of a virtual mobile learning object, to measure the mental workload of the educational intervention, and to evaluate the learning results. This is a technological production study with a mixed method, quasi-experimental approach. Three simulated clinical scenarios comprise the m-OVADor@, allowing for a simulated evaluation of acute pain through interactive tools. The technology met the quality criteria for educational software, with low mental workload, demonstrating a significant strategy for learning about pain among nursing students. PMID:27332205

  7. Persuasive Talk in Social Contexts: Development, Assessment, and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the developmental literature in spoken persuasion and discusses implications for assessment and intervention with students with language-learning disorders, in terms of persuading others, analyzing persuasive appeals, and responding to persuasive appeals. (JDD)

  8. Health Literacy and Injury Prevention Behaviors Among Caregivers of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Heerman, William J.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Bronaugh, Andrea B.; Barkin, Shari L.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional injury is a leading cause of infant mortality. Purpose To examine the role of caregiver health literacy in infant injury prevention behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2010–2012 from a randomized trial at four pediatric clinics was performed in 2012–2013. Caregiver health literacy was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Caregiver-reported adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended injury prevention behaviors was assessed across seven domains: (1) car seat position; (2) car seat use; (3) sleeping safety; (4) fire safety; (5) hot water safety; (6) fall prevention; and (7) firearm safety. Results Data were analyzed from 844 English and Spanish-speaking caregivers of 2-month-old children. Many caregivers were non-adherent with injury prevention guidelines, regardless of health literacy. Notably, 42.6% inappropriately placed their children in the prone position to sleep, and 88.6% did not have their hot water heater set <120°F. Eleven percent of caregivers were categorized as having low health literacy. Low caregiver health literacy, compared to adequate health literacy, was significantly associated with increased odds of caregiver non-adherence with recommended behaviors for car seat position (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=1.6, 7.1), and fire safety (AOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.02, 4.1) recommendations. Caregivers with low health literacy were less likely to be non-adherent to fall prevention recommendations (AOR=0.5, 95% CI=0.2, 0.9). Conclusions Non-adherence to injury prevention guidelines was common. Low caregiver health literacy was significantly associated with some injury prevention behaviors. Future interventions should consider the role of health literacy in promoting injury prevention. PMID:24745634

  9. Persuasion on Trial: An Exercise for Understanding the Benefits of Studying Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, John S.; Gass, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The study of persuasion is the wellspring of the communication discipline. Nevertheless, in one review, Seiter and Gass (2004) noted that ''critics of persuasion seem to emerge and reemerge with some regularity'' (p. 2). Although the study of persuasion is generally venerated by those within the field of communication, it is…

  10. Bringing the frame into focus: the influence of regulatory fit on processing fluency and persuasion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angela Y; Aaker, Jennifer L

    2004-02-01

    This research demonstrates that people's goals associated with regulatory focus moderate the effect of message framing on persuasion. The results of 6 experiments show that appeals presented in gain frames are more persuasive when the message is promotion focused, whereas loss-framed appeals are more persuasive when the message is prevention focused. These regulatory focus effects suggesting heightened vigilance against negative outcomes and heightened eagerness toward positive outcomes are replicated when perceived risk is manipulated. Enhanced processing fluency leading to more favorable evaluations in conditions of compatibility appears to underlie these effects. The findings underscore the regulatory fit principle that accounts for the persuasiveness of message framing effects and highlight how processing fluency may contribute to the "feeling right" experience when the strategy of goal pursuit matches one's goal. PMID:14769079

  11. The role of the pediatrician in preventing suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, I W

    2002-02-01

    Suicidality is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality among young people. Important risk factors for suicidal behavior are mental illness, alcohol and other substance use disorders, previous suicide attempt, impulsive and/or aggressive behavior, history of abuse, and access to lethal means. Emotional well-being and connectedness to family and school act to buffer or protect young people from involvement in self-directed violence. Pediatricians can play a major role in suicide prevention by identifying emotional and behavioral problems and intervening appropriately, promoting positive parenting skills and family cohesion, and providing injury prevention education to reduce access to lethal means. As part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent youth suicidal behavior, child health professionals are uniquely positioned to promote resiliency among youth and families as well as identify and provide appropriate treatment and service coordination for risk factors before injuries occur. Adequate training is critical to ensure that pediatricians are prepared to provide effective assessment, prevention and intervention for suicidal behavior. PMID:11862165

  12. Preventive, Lifestyle, and Personal Health Behaviors among Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Makar, Marian; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines personal health behaviors and wellness, health-related lifestyles, and prevention screening practices among licensed physicians. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,875 physicians practicing in California. Data from 763 returned questionnaires (41%) were analyzed. Results: Our data…

  13. A Family Systems Approach for Preventing Adolescent Runaway Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coco, E. Lane; Courtney, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes a family therapy approach to restructure family relationships in order to prevent further runaway behavior of a 15-year-old Mexican-American female. The approach involves a family interview, genogram, and family therapy. The Family Satisfaction Scale was administered to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach. (Author/MKA)

  14. Preventing Antisocial Behavior: Interventions from Birth through Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Tremblay, Richard E., Ed.

    A variety of approaches to preventing antisocial behavior in children have ranged from infant schools to residential treatment centers, from social training to psychological therapies, with evaluations that have typically been little more than testimonials to current fashions. By introducing experimental approaches to the study of intervention…

  15. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  16. Contagion on complex networks with persuasion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Li-Jie; Xu, Xin-Jian; Fu, Xinchu

    2016-01-01

    The threshold model has been widely adopted as a classic model for studying contagion processes on social networks. We consider asymmetric individual interactions in social networks and introduce a persuasion mechanism into the threshold model. Specifically, we study a combination of adoption and persuasion in cascading processes on complex networks. It is found that with the introduction of the persuasion mechanism, the system may become more vulnerable to global cascades, and the effects of persuasion tend to be more significant in heterogeneous networks than those in homogeneous networks: a comparison between heterogeneous and homogeneous networks shows that under weak persuasion, heterogeneous networks tend to be more robust against random shocks than homogeneous networks; whereas under strong persuasion, homogeneous networks are more stable. Finally, we study the effects of adoption and persuasion threshold heterogeneity on systemic stability. Though both heterogeneities give rise to global cascades, the adoption heterogeneity has an overwhelmingly stronger impact than the persuasion heterogeneity when the network connectivity is sufficiently dense. PMID:27029498

  17. Language Symmetry: A Force behind Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Joseph; Sommer, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Language operates according to rules. Rules mean prediction. The application of these language rules to persuasive campaigns through linguistic technology can result in major gains in advertising, political and marketing outcomes. For qualitative researchers in communications, marketing and messaging, one area of persuasive language technology can…

  18. Unit 1204: The Evaluation of Persuasive Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This unit for grade 12 is intended to provide an introduction to the criticism of persuasive discourse. After a brief discussion of the definition of criticism, the unit proceeds to the establishment of standards for evaluating persuasive discourse, standards involving Kenneth Burke's pentad: act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose. The unit then…

  19. Contagion on complex networks with persuasion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Li-Jie; Xu, Xin-Jian; Fu, Xinchu

    2016-01-01

    The threshold model has been widely adopted as a classic model for studying contagion processes on social networks. We consider asymmetric individual interactions in social networks and introduce a persuasion mechanism into the threshold model. Specifically, we study a combination of adoption and persuasion in cascading processes on complex networks. It is found that with the introduction of the persuasion mechanism, the system may become more vulnerable to global cascades, and the effects of persuasion tend to be more significant in heterogeneous networks than those in homogeneous networks: a comparison between heterogeneous and homogeneous networks shows that under weak persuasion, heterogeneous networks tend to be more robust against random shocks than homogeneous networks; whereas under strong persuasion, homogeneous networks are more stable. Finally, we study the effects of adoption and persuasion threshold heterogeneity on systemic stability. Though both heterogeneities give rise to global cascades, the adoption heterogeneity has an overwhelmingly stronger impact than the persuasion heterogeneity when the network connectivity is sufficiently dense. PMID:27029498

  20. Communication Consulting as Persuasion: Issues and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Roseanna G.

    Focusing on the issue of the training and preparation of the communication specialist in communication consulting, an investigation of the persuasive elements in the client-consulting relationship suggests that more direct focus on consulting as persuasion can lead to more responsible and effective enactment of the role of both consultant and…

  1. A Synthetic Model of Mass Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneupper, Charles W.; Underwood, Willard A.

    Mass persuasion involves a message production process which significantly alters or reinforces an attitude, belief, or action of the members of a large, heterogeneous audience. A synthetic communication model for mass persuasion has been constructed which incorporates aspects of several models created to describe the process of effective…

  2. Using Persuasion to Plan a Moon Walk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Muriel

    1977-01-01

    Describes an exercise in learning about persuasion using a NASA exercise in group decision-making centered on a theoretical crash landing on the moon. Students experience the power of the authoritative voice, the persuasive power of facts, the bandwagon approach, and group manipulation. (TJ)

  3. Ambient Persuasive Technology Needs Little Cognitive Effort: The Differential Effects of Cognitive Load on Lighting Feedback versus Factual Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Jaap; Midden, Cees

    Persuasive technology can influence behavior or attitudes by for example providing interactive factual feedback about energy conservation. However, people often lack motivation or cognitive capacity to consciously process such relative complex information (e.g., numerical consumption feedback). Extending recent research that indicates that ambient persuasive technology can persuade the user without receiving the user's conscious attention, we argue here that Ambient Persuasive Technology can be effective while needing only little cognitive resources, and in general can be more influential than more focal forms of persuasive technology. In an experimental study, some participants received energy consumption feedback by means of a light changing color (more green=lower energy consumption, vs. more red=higher energy consumption) and others by means of numbers indicating kWh consumption. Results indicated that ambient feedback led to more conservation than factual feedback. Also, as expected, only for participants processing factual feedback, additional cognitive load lead to slower processing of that feedback. This research sheds light on fundamental characteristics of Ambient Persuasive Technology and Persuasive Lighting, and suggests that it can have important advantages over more focal persuasive technologies without losing its persuasive potential.

  4. Fostering Multiple Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors for Primary Prevention of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; King, Abby; Pagoto, Sherry; Van Horn, Linda; Fisher, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The odds of developing cancer are increased by specific lifestyle behaviors (tobacco use, excess energy and alcohol intakes, low fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, risky sexual behaviors, and inadequate sun protection). These behaviors are largely absent in childhood, emerge and tend to cluster over the lifespan, and show an increased prevalence among those disadvantaged by low education or income or minority status. Even though risk behaviors are modifiable, few are diminishing in the population over time. We review the prevalence and population distribution of these behaviors and apply an ecological model to describe effective or promising healthy lifestyle interventions targeted to the individual, the sociocultural context, or environmental and policy influences. We suggest that implementing multiple health behavior change interventions across several ecological levels could substantially reduce the prevalence of cancer and the burden it places on the public and the health care system. We note important still unresolved questions about which behaviors can be intervened upon simultaneously in order to maximize positive behavioral synergies, minimize negative ones, and effectively engage underserved populations. We conclude that interprofessional collaboration is needed to appropriately evaluate and convey the value of primary prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:25730716

  5. Preventing Childhood Caries: A Review of Recent Behavioral Research.

    PubMed

    Albino, J; Tiwari, T

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of dental caries reflects a complex interplay of biochemical, microbial, genetic, social and physical environmental, and health-influencing behavioral factors. This review updates the literature on the efficacy of behavioral approaches to caries prevention for children up to 18 y of age. Included were studies of behavioral interventions implemented at individual, family, and community levels that assessed results in terms of reductions in caries increments. Only those reports published since 2011 were considered. Outcomes were variable, although motivational interviewing, which involves individuals in decisions about oral health within the context of their respective life circumstances, proved effective in 3 of 4 reported studies, and more definitive trials are underway. Recommendations for future research include examinations of the cost-effectiveness of interventions, as well as work focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying oral health behavior change and variables that may mediate or moderate responses to interventions. PMID:26438210

  6. Prevention of STDs -- the challenge of changing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Halpern, J; Finger, W R

    1992-04-01

    STD prevention efforts in Latin America, particularly in the Dominican Republic, have begun to stress the need for behavioral changes. Traditionally, the professional public health community has focused on secondary prevention of STDs -- detection and treatment of the disease in order to prevent complications from developing. But in light of the AIDS epidemic, greater attention has been paid to primary prevention. Hoping to prevent the disease from occurring, primary prevention efforts target high risk groups (prostitutes and their clients and young people) with health education and promotion of behavioral change. Such changes include using condoms, seeking medical care for STDs, and decreasing the number of sex partners. An example of primary prevention programs is the Avancemos Project in the Dominican Republic. Launched in 1989 by the country's Ministry of Health and Family Health International's AIDSTECH Division, the project targets sex workers with several intervention measures. Initially, the Avancemos Project trained 16 sex workers to serve as peer educators to distribute condoms and educational materials. These 16 volunteers have in turn trained more than 300 other peer educators. Among the educational materials distributed by the peer educators are 2 comic books entitled "Martiza's Advice" and "The Triumphs of Maritza." A handsome, well dressed, and street-wise sex worker, the title character in these comic books instructs on a range of issues, including how to negotiate with clients how to use a condom. As those involved with the project attest, the comic books have become extremely popular among the target group, tapping into the women's buried feelings of self-worth. PMID:12343656

  7. Hispanics and cancer preventive behavior: the development of a behavioral model and its policy implications.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J T; Atwood, J; Garcia, J A; Meyskens, F L

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical development of a model that predicts the conditions under which Hispanics will seek preventive health care. Research trends, however, show that Hispanics tend to delay preventive care, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality rates for serious diseases such as cancer. Since many serious diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes and cancer can be prevented or treated more effectively if detected early, it is crucial to understand the motivating forces behind Hispanics' preventive health behavior. The Hispanic model, which is an extension of the Health Behavior in Cancer Prevention Model developed by Atwood (1986), includes as core variables environmental barriers to access and English language proficiency, as well as social support, health beliefs, self-efficacy, or perceived skill, health locus of control, and health values. The practical health policy applications of the model are also discussed. PMID:10304503

  8. Educational storylines in entertainment television: audience reactions toward persuasive strategies in medical dramas.

    PubMed

    Asbeek Brusse, Elsbeth D; Fransen, Marieke L; Smit, Edith G

    2015-04-01

    Medical television drama series provide an important source of health information. This form of entertainment-education (E-E) can be used to influence knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward health-related issues. In the literature, E-E is generally regarded as a persuasive strategy in itself, whereas in an increasing number of E-E programs, several different persuasive strategies are used. An important question is how the audience ethically evaluates these strategies. The aim of the present study is to examine viewers' ethical judgments toward the use of three persuasive strategies in E-E: product placement, framing, and persuasion toward a controversial position. A survey among 525 viewers of 5 popular medical dramas demonstrates that viewers evaluate the use of the currently investigated attitudinal statements about potential persuasive strategies in E-E as being immoral and that viewers prefer neutral storylines. Adopting a strategy that viewers find inappropriate may interfere with the intended prosocial effects of E-E. A broader understanding of the appropriate and inappropriate uses of persuasive strategies in E-E is indispensable for effective E-E productions. PMID:25584930

  9. Can Humor Increase Persuasion, Or Is It All a Joke?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markiewicz, Dorothy

    This study investigated two questions: (1) Can a humorous persuasive message increase the amount of persuasion compared with a serious control message? (2) Can humor external to and contiguous with a persuasive message increase its persuasiveness? The research on the first question attempted to determine intervening variables responsible for prior…

  10. Workplace prevention programs promote behavior change in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Henry, K

    1995-02-01

    An estimated 800,000 Tanzanians had been infected with HIV by the end of 1992. Since working-age people spend 75% of their time at work, the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), the Tanzanian Council for Social Development, and the Organization of Tanzanian Trade Unions organize and implement workplace-based HIV/AIDS prevention programs. For example, anonymous HIV screening conducted by AMREF at Tanzania Breweries Limited in September 1993 found 11.4% of the brewery's truck drivers to be HIV-seropositive. The men subsequently participated in an informal AIDS education session conducted by peer educators with help from the brewery's STD/AIDS coordinator. These sessions are a regular part of workplace AIDS prevention programs supported by the US Agency of International Development's Tanzania AIDS Program implemented by the AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP). The author considers motivating managers, peer education, condoms, behavior change, and expansion and sustainability. PMID:12347575

  11. AIDS prevention among Hispanics: needs, risk behaviors, and cultural values.

    PubMed

    Marin, G

    1989-01-01

    Data from different sources show that Hispanics are over-represented in reported cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (twice their proportion of the population) and that their rate of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is three times higher than among non-Hispanic whites. The behavior risk factors most frequently associated with infection in AIDS cases are IV drug use in the Northeast and high-risk sexual behavior in the West. HIV infection prevention strategies for Hispanics need to address high risk behaviors, taking into consideration associated culture-specific characteristics. Strategies need to address as well conditions such as racism and ethnic prejudices that keep many Hispanic homosexuals and bisexuals away from white or non-Hispanic gay organizations and publications, the lack of culturally appropriate drug treatment centers, the level of mis-information among Hispanics, and the possible high incidence among men of sexual intercourse with prostitutes. Prevention campaigns need to include such Hispanic cultural values as simpatia, familialism, personalismo, and power distance, if prevention campaigns are going to be perceived as relevant by Hispanics. Appropriate wording and communication channels need to be identified in order to transmit messages that will be perceived as credible and that will reach the largest possible audience. PMID:2508169

  12. Preventing HIV Transmission in Chinese Internal Migrants: A Behavioral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China. PMID:25610903

  13. Preventing HIV transmission in Chinese internal migrants: a behavioral approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaona; Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Cai, Rui; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China. PMID:25610903

  14. Behaviors, beliefs, and intentions in skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Cody, R; Lee, C

    1990-08-01

    This study investigated knowledge, behaviors, and health beliefs of Australian university students (n = 312) regarding skin cancers and evaluated the effects of videotaped presentations. Students' knowledge and health beliefs were assessed, and they then viewed either an informational video, an emotionally involving video, or a control video. Knowledge and beliefs were assessed immediately and 10 weeks later. Postvideo skin protection intentions increased significantly from prevideo assessment among the two intervention groups compared to the controls. Maintenance of skin protection intentions was higher with the emotional video. Health belief variables, particularly perceived barriers, were significant predictors of knowledge, intention, and behavior. However, other variables such as skin type and previous experience with skin cancer were more important. Females had greater knowledge and stronger intentions to prevent skin cancer than males but reported fewer high-risk behaviors. PMID:2246784

  15. Healthy Living with Persuasive Technologies: Framework, Issues, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Samir; Price, Alan

    2009-01-01

    While our Y2K worries about old computers “retiring” at midnight captured the television and news media attention, a more significant “old age” phenomenon snuck onto the scene with hardly a headline: the dawn of the age of the aged. 1 The over burdened health care system will face a worldwide wave of retirees who will live longer, cost more to treat, and demand new goods and services to help them stay healthy, active, and independent. Research in persuasive technologies and the associated usage of a computing system, device, or application intentionally designed to change a person's attitude or behavior in a predetermined way is showing the potential to assist in improving healthy living, reduce the costs on the health care system, and allow the aged to maintain a more independent life. This article gives a deeper insight into the evolution of persuasive technologies and presents a framework that can guide a researcher or practitioner in comprehending more effectively the work being done in this novel research field. It also provides categories of domains within health care in which these technologies are used and surveys exemplars from published literature. The article's goal is to provide greater understanding by addressing the challenges that lie ahead for all key stakeholders that design and/or use persuasive technologies in health care. PMID:19074300

  16. Embodied Resistance to Persuasion in Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Lewinski, Peter; Fransen, Marieke L.; Tan, Ed S.

    2016-01-01

    From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing, and selective attention (e.g., Fransen et al., 2015b). However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily expression in resisting persuasion is so far underexplored. This is a surprising observation if one considers that at least 40% of advertisements use positive emotions (i.e., happiness) to persuade people to like the ad, brand, and product (Weinberger et al., 1995). In this article we present a framework in which we apply previous knowledge and theories on emotion regulation and embodiment to the process of resistance to persuasion. In doing so, we specifically address the role of facial expression in the course of resistance. The literature and findings from our own research lead us to propose that people can resist persuasion by controlling their facial expression of emotion when exposed to an advertisement. Controlling the expression of emotions elicited by an ad (for example refusing to smile) might be a fruitful way to resist the ad’s persuasive potential. Moreover, we argue that co-viewers can affect embodied resistance to persuasion. Showing the viability of embodied resistance to persuasion is relevant in view of the fact that ads trying to persuade us by addressing our positive emotions are ubiquitous. Embodied resistance might help people to cope with these induced positive emotions in order to resist advertisements and might therefore work as a novel and effective strategy to resist persuasion. PMID:27574512

  17. Embodied Resistance to Persuasion in Advertising.

    PubMed

    Lewinski, Peter; Fransen, Marieke L; Tan, Ed S

    2016-01-01

    From the literature on resistance to persuasion in advertising, much is known about how people can resist advertising by adopting resistance strategies, such as avoidance, counter-arguing, and selective attention (e.g., Fransen et al., 2015b). However, the role of emotion regulation and bodily expression in resisting persuasion is so far underexplored. This is a surprising observation if one considers that at least 40% of advertisements use positive emotions (i.e., happiness) to persuade people to like the ad, brand, and product (Weinberger et al., 1995). In this article we present a framework in which we apply previous knowledge and theories on emotion regulation and embodiment to the process of resistance to persuasion. In doing so, we specifically address the role of facial expression in the course of resistance. The literature and findings from our own research lead us to propose that people can resist persuasion by controlling their facial expression of emotion when exposed to an advertisement. Controlling the expression of emotions elicited by an ad (for example refusing to smile) might be a fruitful way to resist the ad's persuasive potential. Moreover, we argue that co-viewers can affect embodied resistance to persuasion. Showing the viability of embodied resistance to persuasion is relevant in view of the fact that ads trying to persuade us by addressing our positive emotions are ubiquitous. Embodied resistance might help people to cope with these induced positive emotions in order to resist advertisements and might therefore work as a novel and effective strategy to resist persuasion. PMID:27574512

  18. Educating the public: information or persuasion?

    PubMed

    Coleman, Grahame John

    2010-01-01

    Beliefs form a major component of public attitudes, and attitudes have a role in determining how people behave as consumers and as citizens. Their behavior in turn affects the commercial viability and even the sustainability of animal industries. Beliefs are subjective facts, that is, matters that individuals consider to be true. The process of informing the community necessarily involves changing beliefs and, to this extent, persuasion. Education strategies relating to welfare issues depend on the target group and the desired outcome. Target groups include farmers, post-farm gatekeepers including transport drivers and abattoir workers, carers of companion animals, legislators and regulators, retailers, and the general community. These target groups may not be homogeneous, but each nevertheless has identifiable needs for knowledge and skills relevant to welfare. The approach that is likely to be most effective is to provide appropriately targeted dispassionate and factual information to the community. In this way, when debates about animal welfare occur, all the stakeholders--including animal-rights groups, retailers, farmers, legislators, and regulators--who are involved in the debate are more likely to produce good outcomes if discussion is based on a shared understanding of what current practices are and what science can reveal about welfare. Given that the mass media are the preferred source of information, the use of science-based media coverage and informed ethical debate is likely to have the best effect, albeit over a fairly long time frame. PMID:20378883

  19. The Community Disease Prevention Behaviors in District Maros South Sulawesi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman; Dirawan, Gufran Darma; Yahya, Muhammad; Taiyeb, Mushawwir

    2015-01-01

    The community diseases prevention behaviors assumed influenced by knowledge of infectious disease, hygiene and health knowledge, motivation and of behaviors of disease prevention than influence by attitude prevention of infectious diseases. This study aimed to examine the effect of variable knowledge infectious disease, hygiene and health…

  20. The Integration of Research and Practice in the Prevention of Youth Problem Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglan, Anthony; Mrazek, Patricia J.; Carnine, Douglas; Flay, Brian R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the integration of research-based practices into youth problem behavior prevention, examining the developing integration of science and prevention practice regarding: increasing use of epidemiological evidence about youth problem behaviors to guide prevention; a system for monitoring the incidence, prevalence, and context of youth…

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  2. Persuasion as a Metaphor for Teaching: A Case in Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Helenrose; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines how teachers can use principles of persuasion to structure lessons and units of study to help students in conceptual reorganization and growth of cognitive problem- solving processes, reviewing research on persuasion as a change process and on the viability of persuasion as a metaphor for teaching, and discussing the implications of the…

  3. The Car Accident: An Exercise in Persuasive Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    The ability to communicate persuasively is an important managerial tool. Surveys of both students and employers underscore the importance of oral and written communication skills and persuasion to successful careers in business. Writing persuasive documents to customers, subordinates, superiors, or stakeholders requires the ability to analyze the…

  4. Teaching Students the Persuasive Message through Small Group Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creelman, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Teaching students to write persuasive messages is a critical feature of any undergraduate business communications course. For the persuasive writing module in the author's course, students write a persuasive message on the basis of the four-part indirect pattern often used for sales or fund-raising messages. The course text she uses identifies…

  5. Using Online Media to Write Extended Persuasive Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton-Standish, Leisa

    2014-01-01

    This article examines methods of teaching students immersed in online media to write extended persuasive text. Specific examples for the writing classroom are outlined to engage students in persuasive writing through the use of online media. The persuasive writing examples are linked to the Common Core State Standards.

  6. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia

    2014-01-01

    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  7. Investments in Prevention; the Prevention of Learning and Behavior Problems in Young Children. Evaluation Report, 1966--1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vleet, Phyllis

    The general purpose of this project was to initiate, implement and evaluate a program concerned with developing improved and more effective techniques for the reduction or prevention of learning and behavior problems in children. The children included in the PACE I.D. Center Study were an extreme group as far as behavior and learning problems were…

  8. Teaching Persuasion as Consensus in Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyler, Nancy Roundy

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that understanding the "tools of rhetorical analysis" in relation to persuasion can help business communication teachers better incorporate the concept of consensus building into their courses. Discusses incorporating rhetorical techniques (using metaphors, calling on readers' schemata, and using narratives) into a business communication…

  9. Power of Persuasion: Becoming the Influencer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C.; Young, Norman

    2012-01-01

    The ability to effectively communicate an idea is as important as the idea itself. Facility managers are called on to perform an incredible variety of tasks taking into account a diverse group of stakeholders and multiple competing priorities. Becoming a powerful influencer and sharpening one's skills of persuasion will prove to be a fundamental…

  10. Persuasion Analysis: A Companion to Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rank, Hugh

    Paying less attention to the traditionally taught rational, logical argument analysis format, this book focuses on analysis of the emotional, non-logical persuasive language and techniques often seen in television advertisements. In so doing, readers become more discerning consumers and hone their writing skills. Designed as both a self-study…

  11. Source Credibility in Persuasive Oral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Vanessa Dean

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses persuasive communication and explores why some speakers are seen as credible sources of information while others are not. She covers several factors related to perceived credibility, including (1) sex, (2) size, (3) age, and (4) social status of the source. Methods of establishing credibility are discussed. (CH)

  12. Advertising: A Research Subject for Persuasive Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malachowski, Ann Marie

    1984-01-01

    Describes using the parallels between developing the persuasive essay and an advertisement to help advertising students become aware of the importance of voice, point of view, and audience. Students complete a written essay modeled after the language and techniques employed by advertisers. (HTH)

  13. Evaluation as Persuasion: A Practical Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Edward F.

    1980-01-01

    This critique of Ernest R. House's monograph, "The Logic of Evaluative Argument," attempts to clarify the relationships between evaluation as persuasion and the practical argument. If the outcome of a practical argument is action, then to be persuaded is to be persuaded to act. (Author/RL)

  14. Persuasive and Informative Advertising: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeborn, Beth A.; Hulbert, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors outline a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and the price. The experiments…

  15. Rhetoric and Gender in Jane Austen's "Persuasion."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Arthur E.

    1995-01-01

    Argues for a reading of Jane Austen's "Persuasion" that undermines Joseph Duffy's reading of the novel as a commentary on shifting social class structures, and which bolsters Nancy Armstrong's reading as a commentary on female voice and the values of the domestic household. Interprets the novel in the light of 18th-century rhetorical theory. (TB)

  16. Persuasion = Stating and Arguing Claims Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Inside a ninth-grade classroom, we witness one teacher's very intentional instructional attempts that resulted in her students being able to convey well-crafted reasoning and text-supported evidence to mount persuasive arguments. Through personal examples and Internet resources, the teacher concretized pathos, logos, and ethos. The teacher and…

  17. Developments in Children's Persuasive Message Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Susan L.; Clinton, Barbara L.

    1998-01-01

    Finds developmentally based systematic age changes in four of six persuasive-message practices in middle childhood: creating consensus about a problem, advocating a proposal, motivating the other to act, and building the other's self-concept. Notes that these age effects reflect children's evolving views about communication and messages as they…

  18. Persuasive Features in Web-Based Alcohol and Smoking Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past decade, the use of technologies to persuade, motivate, and activate individuals’ health behavior change has been a quickly expanding field of research. The use of the Web for delivering interventions has been especially relevant. Current research tends to reveal little about the persuasive features and mechanisms embedded in Web-based interventions targeting health behavior change. Objectives The purpose of this systematic review was to extract and analyze persuasive system features in Web-based interventions for substance use by applying the persuasive systems design (PSD) model. In more detail, the main objective was to provide an overview of the persuasive features within current Web-based interventions for substance use. Methods We conducted electronic literature searches in various databases to identify randomized controlled trials of Web-based interventions for substance use published January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009, in English. We extracted and analyzed persuasive system features of the included Web-based interventions using interpretive categorization. Results The primary task support components were utilized and reported relatively widely in the reviewed studies. Reduction, self-monitoring, simulation, and personalization seem to be the most used features to support accomplishing user’s primary task. This is an encouraging finding since reduction and self-monitoring can be considered key elements for supporting users to carry out their primary tasks. The utilization of tailoring was at a surprisingly low level. The lack of tailoring may imply that the interventions are targeted for too broad an audience. Leveraging reminders was the most common way to enhance the user-system dialogue. Credibility issues are crucial in website engagement as users will bind with sites they perceive credible and navigate away from those they do not find credible. Based on the textual descriptions of the interventions, we cautiously

  19. Meta-Analysis of Single-Session Behavioral Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections: Implications for Bundling Prevention Packages

    PubMed Central

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Sagherian, Michael J.; Warren, Michelle; Popat, Ami R.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based, single-session behavioral interventions are urgently needed for preventing the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To estimate the efficacy of single-session, behavioral interventions for STI prevention, we collected data from 29 single-session interventions (20 studies; n = 52 465) with an STI outcome. Infection with an STI was 35% less likely (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.55–0.77) among intervention group participants than among control group participants. Single-session interventions offer considerable benefits in terms of disease prevention and create minimal burden for both the patient and the provider. Brief and effective STI prevention interventions are a valuable tool and can be readily adapted to bolster the benefits of biomedical technologies focusing on the prevention of HIV and other STIs. PMID:22994247

  20. Application of Neurolinguistic Programming for Treatment and Relapse Prevention of Addictive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Daya Singh

    The dilemma of relapse exists for a number of addictive behaviors, and mental health authorities agree that keeping addictive behaviors off permanently is much more difficult than treating the behaviors initially. Several relapse prevention models have been posited and environmental, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors have…

  1. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Crossed two relapse prevention conditions (skills training-vs-discussion control) with two levels of aversive smoking in volunteer subjects (N=123). Results indicated that relapse-prevention skill training did prevent relapse among cigarette smokers. Lighter smokers were more favorably influenced. (LLL)

  2. Health Belief Factors and Dispositional Optimism as Predictors of STD and HIV Preventive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak-Place, Jennifer; Stern, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Identifying factors predictive of youth's engaging in preventive behaviors related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV remains a prominent public health concern. The utility of the Health Belief Model (HBM) continues to be suggested in identifying preventive behaviors. This study sought to examine the full HBM, including self-efficacy,…

  3. Speak Up: Help Prevent Errors in Your Care: Behavioral Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... TM Help Prevent Errors in Your Care Behavioral Health Care To prevent health care errors, patients are urged to... SpeakUP TM Service ... individuals should be involved in their own behavioral health care. These efforts to increase consumer awareness and involvement ...

  4. What We Know and Need to Know about Preventing Problem Behavior in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugai, George; Horner, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    When chronic problem behaviors occur in schools, the tendency is to react with stringent and restrictive consequences. Recently, emphasis has shifted toward proactive prevention strategies. In this article, we focus on what we know and need to know about school-wide applications of effective practices and systems for preventing problem behaviors.…

  5. Learning with Gadgets: Teaching Persuasive Strategies through Student-Created Infomercials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, David H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Communicators are involved in persuasion every day. For students to be effective in their persuasive attempts, they need experiential practice in creating and evaluating persuasive messages that utilize persuasive strategies. Persuasive strategies can help speakers to influence their audiences to accept proposed ideas and the possible…

  6. Emotional and persuasive perception of fonts.

    PubMed

    Juni, Samuel; Gross, Julie S

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the latent affective and persuasive meaning attributed to text when appearing in two commonly used fonts. Two satirical readings were selected from the New York Times. These readings (one addressing government issues, the other education policy) were each printed in Times New Roman and Arial fonts of the same size and presented in randomized order to 102 university students, who ranked the readings on a number of adjective descriptors. Analysis showed that satirical readings in Times New Roman were perceived as more funny and angry than those in Arial, the combination of emotional perception which is congruent with the definition of satire. This apparent interaction of font type with emotional qualities of text has implications for marketing, advertising, and the persuasive literature. PMID:18459353

  7. Influence of Risk Factors for Child Disruptive Behavior on Parent Attendance at a Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral and Response-Prevention Treatments for Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agras, W. Stewart; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed treatment for bulimia nervosa among 77 female patients assigned to wait-list control, self-monitoring of caloric intake and purging behaviors, cognitive-behavioral treatment, and cognitive-behavioral treatment plus response prevention of vomiting. All treatment groups showed significant improvement; control group did not.…

  9. Health Risk Behaviors of Texas Students Attending Dropout Prevention/Recovery Schools in 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Nancy F.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Kelder, Steven H.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Carvajal, Scott C.; Gingiss, Phyllis M.

    1999-01-01

    Determined the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among Texas high school students attending dropout prevention/recovery alternative schools. Student surveys indicated that a substantial number participated in behaviors that placed them at acute or chronic health risk. There were differences in prevalence of risk behaviors by gender,…

  10. Preventive Effects of Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Middle Childhood on Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…

  11. Breast cancer-preventive behaviors: exploring Iranian women’s experiences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer-preventive behaviors are critical for community and women’s health. Although many studies have addressed women’s knowledge and attitudes toward breast cancer, little information is available about their experiences of breast cancer preventive behaviors. This study aimed to explore the experiences of Iranian women regarding preventive behaviors. Methods This was a qualitative study. A sample of Iranian women aged 30 years and over was selected purposefully. Data collected through focus group and semi-structured audiotaped interviews and were analyzed by conventional content analysis. Results The following five main themes emerged from the analysis: attitude toward breast cancer and preventive behaviors, stress management, healthy lifestyle, perceived social support and individual/environmental barriers. The findings showed that women were highly motivated to preventive behaviors of breast cancer but faced considerable challenges. Conclusions The findings indicated that increased awareness, positive attitudes, stronger motivational factors, and fewer barriers toward preventive behaviors are most important parameters that might encourage women to practice breast cancer-preventive behaviors. PMID:24606758

  12. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the Risk Perception Attitude Framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) were analyzed to assess respondents’ reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their chances of getting cancer (efficacy). Respondents with higher efficacy were more likely to report that good nutrition can prevent cancer and reported more preventive dietary changes compared to respondents with lower efficacy. Respondents with higher efficacy were more likely to report intentions to change their diets to prevent cancer and reported more preventive dietary changes to their own diets, but only at higher levels of risk. Results suggest that to improve cognitions about the role of nutrition in cancer prevention, interventions should target cancer prevention efficacy; however, to increase intentions to change nutrition behaviors, interventions should target efficacy and risk perceptions. PMID:19011220

  13. Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: A Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral and Interpersonal Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Jason L.; Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 programs for preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Participants were 380 high school students randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral program (CB), an interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training program (IPT-AST), or a no-intervention control. The interventions involved eight 90-min…

  14. Integrating Bullying Prevention into Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Chris P.; McIntosh, Kent; Gietz, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Bullying is often defined as unprovoked aggressive behavior repeatedly carried out against victims who are unable to defend themselves. Children and youth who engage in bullying behavior may have a physical advantage, higher social status, or power in numbers, whereas those who are targeted by bullies are likely to be solitary, smaller in stature,…

  15. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of behavioral counseling to prevent CVD in overweight ... the end of this document). Potential Benefits and Harms of Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease The ...

  16. Behavioral change communications on malaria prevention in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tweneboah-Koduah, Ernest Yaw; Braimah, Mahama; Otuo, Priscilla Ntriwaa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed at encouraging the target markets to acquire ITNs, although most messages on malaria prevention are not integrated. Several challenges were noted, including financial constraints, lack of human resources, cultural barriers, negative publicity, and negative perceptions on malaria. PMID:22676841

  17. HIV risk behaviors, knowledge, and prevention education among offenders under community supervision: a hidden risk group.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Langley, Sandra; Crimmins, Susan; Chaple, Michael

    2004-08-01

    Numerous studies have established that incarcerated populations are at substantial risk for HIV infection. In response, many jails and prisons have increased HIV prevention and related services. However, although twice as many offenders are under community supervision as are incarcerated at any given time, HIV prevention needs have been largely ignored among probationers and parolees, and little is known about their HIV risk behaviors or HIV prevention needs. Compared with inmates, probationers and parolees have substantially greater opportunities to engage in HIV risk behaviors. In the present study, we describe HIV risk behaviors, knowledge, and prevention education experiences of probationers and parolees in New York City. We find that probationers and parolees have high rates of unprotected sex, and limited current exposure to effective HIV education and prevention interventions. Probation and parole departments need to improve HIV training for officers and make HIV risk reduction services more available. PMID:15342338

  18. Prediction as Persuasion and Threat: Interaction of Locus of Control and Locus of Prediction on Compliance and Reactance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goggin, William C.

    A model of persuasion suggests that individuals comply with a prediction of their behavior because they are persuaded by that prediction; a model of threat suggests that they defy prediction because of its threat of control. College students with either internal (N=20) or external (N=20) loci of control were informed of the accuracy of the…

  19. Prevention of mental disorders, substance abuse, and problem behaviors: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Beardslee, William R; Chien, Peter L; Bell, Carl C

    2011-03-01

    Robust scientific evidence shows that mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders can be prevented before they begin. This article highlights and expands points from a 2009 Institute of Medicine report to provide a concise summary of the literature on preventing mental illness. Because prevention requires intervention before the onset of illness, effective preventive approaches are often interdisciplinary and developmental. Evidence-based preventive strategies are discussed for the different phases of a young person's life. Specific recommendations to focus on parenting, child development, and the prevention of depression are made for a target audience of practicing psychiatrists and mental health professionals. Further systemic recommendations are to prioritize prevention and to coordinate and facilitate research on preventive practices in order to reduce suffering, create healthier families, and save money. PMID:21363895

  20. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    Although smoking cessation techniques have been effective, few programs have long term results. To investigate the effectiveness of a tobacco dependence relapse prevention program, 123 adult smokers (51 male, 72 female) voluntarily participated in one of four small group treatment conditions (6 or 30 second aversive smoking plus skill training, or…

  1. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…

  2. Incoming College Students' Bystander Behaviors to Prevent Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Banyard, Victoria L.; McMahon, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluations of bystander intervention education programs demonstrate that this approach results in students' increased willingness to intervene in prosocial ways to prevent sexual violence (e.g., Moynihan, Banyard, Arnold, Eckstein, & Stapleton, 2010). These programs often focus on first-year college students, though theories and research on…

  3. Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jarrett, Robin B.; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    Relapse rates for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) range from 30% to 40% within 1 to 2 years after acute treatment. Although relapse rates are high, there have been relatively few studies on the prevention of relapse in youth. While acute phase pharmacotherapy has been shown to reduce symptoms rapidly in depressed…

  4. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  5. The Forewarning Effect of Coherence Markers in Persuasive Discourse: Evidence from Persuasion and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalski, Judith; Lentz, Leo; Sanders, Ted; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies showed how coherence markers, like connectives and lexical cue phrases, influence the processing and representation of informative text. Although discourse analysts have repeatedly argued that coherence markers influence the processing of persuasive text as well, there is hardly any empirical evidence for this idea. This article…

  6. Spoken Persuasive Discourse Abilities of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Catherine; Kirk, Cecilia; Powell, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the performance of adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) during a spoken persuasive discourse task. Persuasive discourse is frequently used in social and academic settings and is of importance in the study of adolescent language. Method: Participants included 8 adolescents with ABI and 8 peers…

  7. Establishing a Companywide Customer Orientation through Persuasive Internal Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Kathleen K.; Enis, Ben

    1990-01-01

    Argues that applying persuasion strategies to internal marketing efforts can facilitate the adoption of a customer orientation among employees and elicit greater commitment to the company and its goals. Examines four specific persuasion strategies: defining the customer satisfaction link; encouraging self-efficacy; providing rewards; and creating…

  8. An Empirical Test of a Model of Resistance to Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Burgoon, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Tests a model of resistance to persuasion based upon variables not considered by earlier congruity and inoculation models. Supports the prediction that the kind of critical response set induced and the target of the criticism are mediators of resistance to persuasion. (JMF)

  9. The Language of Persuasion, English, Vocabulary: 5114.68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Irvin

    Developed for a high school quinmester unit on the language of persuasion, this guide provides the teacher with teaching strategies for a study of the speaker or writer as a persuader, the identification of the logical and psychological tools of persuasion, an examination of the levels of abstraction, the techniques of propaganda, and the…

  10. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  11. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  12. 12 CFR 108.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 108.10 Section 108.10 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  13. 12 CFR 390.19 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 390.19 Section 390.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Crime Is Charged or Proven § 390.19 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden of showing, by...

  14. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  15. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  16. 12 CFR 390.19 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 390.19 Section 390.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Crime Is Charged or Proven § 390.19 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden of showing, by...

  17. 12 CFR 108.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 108.10 Section 108.10 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  18. 12 CFR 390.19 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 390.19 Section 390.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY... Crime Is Charged or Proven § 390.19 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden of showing, by...

  19. 12 CFR 108.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 108.10 Section 108.10 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  20. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  1. Persuasion with Unintelligible Messages: A Cognitive Response Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Vernon R.; Brock, Timothy C.

    Theories of persuasion have long assumed a process which includes comprehension of the message by the recipient. Several hundred undergraduates at Ohio State University and Marshall University (Ohio) participated in six experiments examining persuasion and the use of unintelligible messages. Subjects in individual cubicles of a university language…

  2. A Check List for Evaluating Persuasive Features of Mathematics Courseware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aris, Baharuddin; Gharbaghi, Alireza; Ahmad, Maizah Hura; Rosli, Mohd Shafie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to introduce a check list for evaluating persuasive features of mathematics courseware. Since mathematics is a source of anxiety among students (Zeidner & Matthews, 2010), this research is an attempt to employ persuasive features that can be used in mathematics courseware. Specifically, we sought to determine…

  3. The Application of Persuasive Technology to Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Joseph; Aagaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Persuasive technology is a sub-discipline of Human-Computer Interaction that has emerged within the last 10 years, and which has generated increasing interest in the application of persuasion to systems design. Most applications have to date been developed in commercial contexts, as well in the domain of health promotion. We present a mainly…

  4. Fluent Persuasive Writing with Counterarguments for Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Cerar, Nancy Irby; Allen-Bronaugh, Dannette; Thompson, Catherine; Guckert, Mary; Leins, Pat; Hauth, Clara; Cuenca-Sanchez, Yojanna

    2014-01-01

    Twelve seventh- and eighth-grade students with emotional disturbance participated in a multiple probe, multiple baseline design two-phase intervention study to improve persuasive writing skills. The first phase after baseline taught students to plan and write persuasive essays including counterarguments. In the second phase, students were taught…

  5. Persuasive Fund Raising: The Psychology of Student Entrepreneurship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meussling, Vonne

    A curriculum designed for public relations students in a persuasion class at Indiana State University provided them with the theory of persuasion and then gave them the opportunity to apply the theory by doing volunteer work for a community client. The course has four objectives: (1) to provide students with entrepeneurial experience and practical…

  6. The Effect of Authority on the Persuasiveness of Mathematical Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Matthew; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments are reported that investigate the extent to which an authority figure influences the level of persuasion undergraduate students and research-active mathematicians invest in mathematical arguments. We demonstrate that, in some situations, both students and researchers rate arguments as being more persuasive when they are…

  7. "Dateline NBC"'s Persuasive Attack on Wal-Mart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Dorries, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Develops a typology of persuasive attack strategies. Identifies two key components of persuasive attack: responsibility and offensiveness. Describes several strategies for intensifying each of these elements. Applies this analysis to "Dateline NBC"'s allegations that Wal-Mart's "Buy American" campaign was deceptive. Concludes that "Dateline NBC'"s…

  8. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Pediatric Responders to Pharmacotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…

  10. National Institutes of Health funding for behavioral interventions to prevent chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Calitz, Chris; Pollack, Keshia M; Millard, Chris; Yach, Derek

    2015-04-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause the majority of premature deaths, disability, and healthcare expenditures in the U.S. Six largely modifiable risk behaviors and factors (tobacco use, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and poor mental health) account for more than 50% of premature mortality and considerably more morbidity and disability. The IOM proposed that population burden of disease and preventability should be major determinants of the amount of research funding provided by the U.S. NIH. Data on NIH prevention funding between fiscal years 2010 and 2012 for human behavioral interventions that target the modifiable risk factors of NCDs were analyzed during 2013-2014. The NIH prevention portfolio comprises approximately 37% human behavioral studies and 63% basic biomedical, genetic, and animal studies. Approximately 65% of studies were secondary prevention versus 23% for primary prevention, and 71% of studies intervened at the individual and family levels. Diet and exercise were the most-studied risk factors (41%), and few studies conducted economic analyses (12%). NIH spends an estimated $2.2-$2.6 billion annually (7%-9% of the total of $30 billion) on human behavioral interventions to prevent NCDs. Although NIH prevention funding broadly aligns with the current burden of disease, overall funding remains low compared to funding for treatment, which suggests funding misalignment with the preventability of chronic diseases. PMID:25576496

  11. An Attachment Parenting Intervention to Prevent Adolescents' Problem Behaviors: A Pilot Study in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ortega, Enrique; Stattin, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Background: In spite of the proven effectiveness of parenting based programs to prevent adolescent risk behaviors, such programs are rarely implemented in Mediterranean countries. Objective: This pilot study was aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effects of a parenting based universal prevention program (Connect) in Italy. Methods: Our…

  12. Behavioral Vaccines and Evidence Based Kernels: Non-Pharmaceutical Approaches for the Prevention of Mental, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 1

    PubMed Central

    Embry, Dennis D.

    2011-01-01

    In March of 2009, the Institute of Medicine issued a new report on the Prevention of Mental, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People.1 Fundamentally, the report calls for ending the rationing of prevention of mental, emotional and behavioral disorders (MEBs) among America’s children, youth and young adults. Continued rationing of access to scientifically proven prevention causes a serious threat to the country’s national security2 and to our economic competitiveness compared to 22 other rich countries.3 Such MEBs are also the leading preventable cost center for local, state and the federal governments.1, 4 These preventable MEBs cause health-care costs to continue to spiral up. The IOM Report calls for a public-health approach to MEBs—basically like how America and Canada dealt with the polio epidemic, measles, mumps, car passenger injuries to children, and accidental poisoning from medications and toxic chemicals. Why is this necessary? America’s rates of some of these mental, emotional and behavioral problems are worse than other developed countries,5, 6 and rates of some of these problems have objectively increased over the past 20-50 years in America.7 The attributes of a public-health approach for MEBs are defined in the article. The article discusses multiple examples of how public health approaches might reduce or prevent MEBs using low-cost evidence based kernels, which are fundamental units of behavior. Such kernels can be used repeatedly, which then act as “behavioral vaccines” to reduce morbidity or mortality and/or improve human wellbeing. This document calls for six key policy actions to improve mental, emotional and behavioral health in young people—with resulting wellbeing and economic competiveness of North America and reducing health-care costs. PMID:21333837

  13. Measuring Bystander Attitudes and Behavior to Prevent Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…

  14. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... behaviors place individuals at greatest risk for infection. HIV awareness and education should be universally integrated into all educational environments. * CDC recommends all adolescents and adults 13-64 get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine medical ...

  15. Behavioral Groups as Preventive Care in a Health Maintenance Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Joan; And Others

    This paper describes the use of a particular therapeutic modality--behavioral groups--in a relatively new delivery system called a Health Maintenance Organization. The program described, run under the George Washington University Health Plan, offers short-term structured groups designed to aid people at particularly difficult or vulnerable…

  16. Preventing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool: Effective Strategies for Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Janelle C.; Crosby, Megan G.; Irwin, Heather K.; Dennis, Lindsay R.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides practical strategies and techniques that early childhood educators can implement in their classrooms to effectively manage challenging behaviors. The specific strategies addressed fall under the following categories: (a) classroom management, (b) reinforcement, and (c) communication. Suggestions are made for how parents can…

  17. HIV Prevention Among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Rangel, M Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2015-12-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants' HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N = 3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57-75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14-25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57-63%, p < .001). In general, exposure to prevention messages is positively associated with greater odds of HIV testing at the pre-departure, destination, and interception phases. Binational efforts need to be intensified to reach and deliver HIV prevention to Mexican im/migrants across the migration continuum. PMID:26595267

  18. Core Competencies and the Prevention of High-Risk Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…

  19. Psychosocial Barriers to Behavior Change in Preventing Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Explores reasons for lack of behavior change in response to the threat of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), focusing on psychosocial barriers to behavior change relevant to preventing the spread of AIDS. Draws from Health Belief Model to examine five variables: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity of consequences, perceived…

  20. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Self-Determination Theory with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…

  1. Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on Academic Engagement and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJager, Brett W.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions…

  2. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  3. Promoting the organ donor card: a causal model of persuasion effects.

    PubMed

    Skumanich, S A; Kintsfather, D P

    1996-08-01

    Due to the present critical shortage of donor organs available for transplantation, effective communication strategies are necessary to heighten public commitment to donation. The promotion of organ donor card-signing may be a successful vehicle in the achievement of this goal. Based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion effects, evidence of the motivation for organ donor card-signing, and examination of previous donation message tests, this study proposes and tests a causal model of response to organ donor card appeals. The inter-relationship of values, empathy arousal, and issue involvement was found to be a significant driving force in the persuasive process for the behavioral intention to sign an organ donor card. Implications of these findings for future research are addressed. PMID:8844941

  4. Assessing prosocial message effectiveness: effects of message quality, production quality, and persuasiveness.

    PubMed

    Austin, E W; Pinkleton, B; Fujioka, Y

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effectiveness of prosocial messages is compromised by poor design. A receiver-oriented content analysis (N = 246) was used to assess college students' perceptions of the message quality, production quality, and persuasiveness of advertisements and prosocial advertisements regarding alcohol. After providing background information, respondents rated a series of video clips on a variety of criteria guided by the Message Interpretation Process (MIP) model. Results indicated that prosocial advertisements were rated as higher in quality than were commercial advertisements overall and on logic-based criteria, but prosocial advertisements nevertheless had weaker relationships to viewers' beliefs and reported behaviors relevant to drinking alcohol. Heavier drinkers rated commercial advertisements more positively than did lighter/nondrinkers. They were less skeptical of persuasive messages and rated prosocial advertisements lower in effectiveness and commercial advertisements higher in effectiveness. PMID:10977288

  5. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling. PMID:26480847

  6. [Persuasive communications and regular blood donation: an experimental study].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Balduino Guedes Fernandes da; Dias, Mardonio Rique

    2008-06-01

    This study aimed to: investigate yielding to the dependent variable "behavioral intent to become a regular blood donor", verify the impact of such communications on variance in the dependent variable, examine the single contribution of the external independent variable to the Rational Action Theory, and test the fit of the expanded Rational Choice Theory to the target behavior and sample. Only a post-test design and double-blinded procedure were used, randomly picking 405 university students for experimental groups 1 and 2, placebo control, and control only. The results showed: lack of yielding by the experimental groups; considerable percentage variance in the dependent variable explained by the independent variable in the experimental and placebo control groups; and satisfactory and significant correlations for variables in the expanded theory. Absence of yielding for the criterion variable was probably due to the time interval. The positive persuasive strategy accounted for the greatest variance in the dependent variable. Moral obligation showed the greatest impact on participants' intent to perform the behavior. The correlations corroborated the theoretical and methodological validity of the expanded theory. PMID:18545766

  7. Preventing Bullying through Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): A Multitiered Approach to Prevention and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Although bullying continues to be a growing public health concern in schools across the United States, there are considerable gaps in the American understanding of effective prevention approaches for addressing this seemingly intractable issue. This article applies a public health approach to addressing bullying through the multitiered Positive…

  8. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior and its predictors in southwest rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Lachat, Carl; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Inappropriate child feeding and caring practices are a major cause of malnutrition. To date, no studies have examined concordance and discordance of child feeding and preventive behavior and their predictors in developing countries. Methods We used baseline data generated from A 2-year-longitudinal agriculture-nutrition panel survey conducted from February 9 to April 9, 2014, in nine districts encompassing 20 randomly selected counties in Oromiya Region and Southern Nation, Nationality and Peoples Region in Ethiopia. Households were recruited using the Expanded Program on Immunization sampling method. A total of 623 children under the age of 5 years and their respective caregivers were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered observations. Results Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was observed in 45.1% of the children, while 45.5% of the children were suffering from discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Concordance and discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior had almost different predictors. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was significantly associated with the age of the caretaker of ≥40 years (odds ratio (OR)=2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.41), low household dietary diversity (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.04), medium household dietary diversity (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.00), severe household food insecurity (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.93), and increase with increasing child age. Conclusion A substantial number of children in the southwest of rural Ethiopia are exposed to both poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Low household dietary diversity and extreme food insecurity household were predictors of concordance of poor child feeding and poor preventive behavior and provide useful entry points for comprehensive interventions to address child feeding and caring in the area. PMID:27511625

  9. Persuasion Tactics Used by College Age Females on College Age Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Erika J.; Pollard, Gloria D.; Williams, Christina M.

    This paper researched persuasive tactics used by college age females on college age males. Previous evidence indicates that nonverbal persuasion is more effective than verbal persuasion. The topics explored in previous research on persuasion consisted of physical attractiveness, indirect knowledge of influence, tactics used by children and college…

  10. Inducing Resistance to Persuasive Attack: A Test of Two Strategies of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, W. Richard; Bodaken, Edward M.

    1975-01-01

    Hypothesizes that the ability to create an attitude which would be resistant to later persuasive attack depends largely on whether the attitude is initially induced through direct persuasion or self-persuasion. Reviews a study designed to determine which technique produces greater resistance to subsequent persuasive attacks. (MH)

  11. "Oh, ppbbt!": Differences between the Oral and Written Persuasive Strategies of School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erftmier, Thelma; Dyson, Ann Hass

    1986-01-01

    Reports on a study indicating children's dependency in oral persuasion on the cooperative nature of dialog and nonverbal vocalizations and their dependence in written persuasion on persuasive strategies found in speech that can be transferred to writing and, concomitantly, their relatively infrequent use of persuasive strategies specific to…

  12. Behavioral Health in Prevention and Chronic Illness Management: Motivational Interviewing.

    PubMed

    Tuccero, Donna; Railey, Kenyon; Briggs, Melvania; Hull, Sharon K

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the history, methodology, and evidence related to the effective use of motivational interviewing (MI) in the primary care setting. MI has been shown to have a positive effect in promotion and modification of health habits and to increase treatment engagement. MI is also effective when used in conjunction with other treatment modalities, such as educational programs and cognitive behavioral therapy. Practical application of MI can be accomplished in a variety of primary care settings by a wide range of practitioners, incorporates nicely into new health care delivery models, and may improve the patient-provider relationship. PMID:27262001

  13. The longitudinal effects of a rape-prevention program on fraternity men's attitudes, behavioral intent, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Foubert, J D

    2000-01-01

    Rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and sexually coercive behavior of 145 fraternity men randomly assigned to a control group or a rape-prevention program were surveyed. One third of 23 fraternities on a mid-Atlantic public university campus volunteered to participate in the study. The rape-prevention intervention consisted of "the men's program," a victim empathy-based presentation titled "How to help a sexual assault survivor: What men can do." Although no evidence of change in sexually coercive behavior was found, significant 7-month declines in rape myth acceptance and the likelihood of committing rape were shown among program participants. In the case of rape myth acceptance, the 7-month decrement remained lower in the participant group than in the control group. Implications of using these initial findings from the men's program for rape-prevention programming are discussed. PMID:10650733

  14. The influence of advertising on compulsive buying – The role of persuasion knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Mikołajczak-Degrauwe, Kalina; Brengman, Malaika

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The growing concern over compulsive buying (CB) among consumers has led to vast amount of research examining the antecedents of this maladaptive behaviour. The focus of previous research was, however, mainly on examining the internal, psychological factors contributing to CB. The current research, on the other hand, sheds light on one of the external triggers which can possibly stimulate CB, namely advertising. Methods: An online survey has been conducted to identify the attitudes and scepticism towards advertising as well as ad avoidance and persuasion knowledge among a sample of 582 Belgian consumers. Furthermore, all participants were screened with regard to compulsive buying tendencies. Results: This research provides evidence that positive attitudes towards advertising can lead to CB. An important factor in this relation is persuasion knowledge. Conclusions: The study results lead to the conclusion that people higher in persuasion knowledge dispose less positive attitudes towards advertising which can subsequently prevent them from engaging in CB. Moreover high scores on scepticism towards advertising and ad avoidance among Belgian consumers in our sample point to a need for advertisers to modify their practices in order to gain more trust from consumers. This study also shows that advertising in particular attracts and seems to affect an already disadvantaged group of people – namely compulsive buyers. PMID:25215215

  15. The asymmetrical force of persuasive knowledge across the positive-negative divide.

    PubMed

    Nordmo, Mads; Selart, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In two experimental studies we explore to what extent the general effects of positive and negative framing also apply to positive and negative persuasion. Our results reveal that negative persuasion induces substantially higher levels of skepticism and awareness of being subjected to a persuasion attempt. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in positive persuasion, more claims lead to stronger persuasion, while in negative persuasion, the numerosity of claims carries no significant effect. We interpret this finding along the lines of a satiety-model of persuasion. Finally, using diluted, or low strength claims in a persuasion attempt, we reveal a significant interaction between dispositional reactance and dilution of claims on persuasion knowledge. The interaction states that diluted claims increase the awareness of being subjected to a persuasion attempt, but only for those with a high dispositional level of reactance. PMID:26388821

  16. The asymmetrical force of persuasive knowledge across the positive–negative divide

    PubMed Central

    Nordmo, Mads; Selart, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In two experimental studies we explore to what extent the general effects of positive and negative framing also apply to positive and negative persuasion. Our results reveal that negative persuasion induces substantially higher levels of skepticism and awareness of being subjected to a persuasion attempt. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in positive persuasion, more claims lead to stronger persuasion, while in negative persuasion, the numerosity of claims carries no significant effect. We interpret this finding along the lines of a satiety-model of persuasion. Finally, using diluted, or low strength claims in a persuasion attempt, we reveal a significant interaction between dispositional reactance and dilution of claims on persuasion knowledge. The interaction states that diluted claims increase the awareness of being subjected to a persuasion attempt, but only for those with a high dispositional level of reactance. PMID:26388821

  17. Preventing the threat of credit-card fraud: Factors influencing cashiers' identification-checking behavior.

    PubMed

    Downing, Christopher; Howard, E Henry; Goodwin, Christina; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined factors influencing cashiers' identification (ID)-checking behavior in order to inform the development of interventions to prevent credit-card fraud. In both studies, research assistants made credit purchases in various stores and noted the cashiers' ID-checking behavior. In the first study, the store type, whether the cashier swiped the credit/debit card, the amount of the purchase, and whether the credit/debit card was signed significantly influenced ID-checking behavior. In the second study, an A-B-A design was used to evaluate the impact of a "Check my ID" prompt placed on the credit/debit card. The prompt increased cashiers' ID-checking behavior from 5.9% at Baseline to 10.3% during the Intervention. When the prompt was removed, the cashiers' ID-checking behavior decreased to 7.2%. Implications for further intervention research to prevent credit-card fraud are discussed. PMID:27309026

  18. Enhancing parenting skills among nonresident African American fathers as a strategy for preventing youth risky behaviors.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Rafferty, Jane; Reischl, Thomas M; De Loney, E Hill; Brooks, Cassandra L

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a theoretically based, culturally specific family intervention designed to prevent youth risky behaviors by influencing the parenting attitudes and behaviors of nonresident African American fathers and the parent-child interactions, intentions to avoid violence, and aggressive behaviors of their preadolescent sons. A sample of 158 intervention and 129 comparison group families participated. ANCOVA results indicated that the intervention was promising for enhancing parental monitoring, communication about sex, intentions to communicate, race-related socialization practices, and parenting skills satisfaction among fathers. The intervention was also beneficial for sons who reported more monitoring by their fathers, improved communication about sex, and increased intentions to avoid violence. The intervention was not effective in reducing aggressive behaviors among sons. Findings are discussed from a family support perspective, including the need to involve nonresident African American fathers in youth risky behavior prevention efforts. PMID:20082239

  19. Preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis in pregnant adolescents in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When toxoplasmosis is acquired during pregnancy, it can be transmitted to the fetus causing severe lesions in the first two gestational trimesters. This study analyzed the main factors associated with the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis among pregnant adolescents in the city of Fortaleza in northeast Brazil. Methods It is a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2009 to November 2010, with a sample of 320 pregnant adolescents, ages ranging from 12 to 19 years old, receiving prenatal care in the Public Health Care System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model analyses were used to identify the association between preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis, and the independent variables and 95% confidence interval. Results We observed that 16.3% of the pregnant adolescents showed preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis. The factors positively associated to the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis were: age group between 12 and 14 years old (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.23-6.12) and more than two prenatal consultations (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.17-4.09). Conclusions Noteworthy is the importance of a serologic follow-up for pregnant adolescents with clearer and more precise information about risk factors and the importance of adopting preventive behaviors. Thus, it is necessary to establish educational measures for handling food and raising kittens during prenatal care. PMID:22272659

  20. Developing a Tablet-Based Self-Persuasion Intervention Promoting Adolescent HPV Vaccination: Protocol for a Three-Stage Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Simon Craddock; Marks, Emily G; Persaud, Donna; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Street, Richard L; Wiebe, Deborah J; Farrell, David; Bishop, Wendy Pechero; Fuller, Sobha; Baldwin, Austin S

    2016-01-01

    -provider discussions. Results This paper describes the study protocol and activities to date. Currently, we have developed the initial prototype of the tablet app for English- and Spanish-speaking populations, and completed Stage 1 data collection. Conclusions Our systematic collaboration between basic and applied behavioral scientists accelerates translation of promising basic psychological research into innovative interventions suitable for underserved, safety-net populations. At project’s end, we plan to have a feasible and acceptable self-persuasion intervention that can affect key cancer disparities in the United States through prevention of HPV-related cancers. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02537756 and http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02535845 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6e5XcOGXz and http://www.webcitation.org/6e5XfHoic, respectively). PMID:26825137

  1. Simulating Irrational Human Behavior to Prevent Resource Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Sircova, Anna; Karimi, Fariba; Osin, Evgeny N.; Lee, Sungmin; Holme, Petter; Strömbom, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues

  2. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

    PubMed

    Sircova, Anna; Karimi, Fariba; Osin, Evgeny N; Lee, Sungmin; Holme, Petter; Strömbom, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues

  3. Misconceptions about health and disease prevention behaviors of rural Appalachian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wayne C.; Griffith, Brian N.; Bikman, Timothy J.; Meyer, Cameron M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Appalachia is one of the unhealthiest regions in the United States due to poor disease prevention behaviors. Objective Determine if self-perceived health of rural Appalachians is related to participation in disease prevention behaviors. Methods Rural Appalachian adults (n=437) were surveyed regarding their self-perceived health and disease prevention behaviors. Healthy behaviors included: moderate (≥ 90 min/wk) and vigorous (≥ 45 min/wk) physical activity, sugared drink consumption (≤ 1 sugared drink/d), smoking (non-smoker), alcohol consumption (≤ 1 drink/d), blood pressure (≤ 120/80 mm Hg), and fast food consumption (≤ 1 time/wk). Participants were grouped where healthy = (self-health rating > 5 on a 0-10 scale), BMI < 25, and blood pressure (≤ 120/80 mm Hg). Jaccard Binary Similarity (JBS) coefficients and Russell and Rao (RR) dichotomy coefficients determined the association and predictability of self-health ratings and disease prevention behaviors. T-tests determined group differences in the number of disease prevention behaviors. Results Individuals who reported being healthy had high JBS coefficients for having healthy sugared drink consumption (0.552), not smoking (0.704), low alcohol consumption (0.742), and low fast food consumption (0.481). RR results were similar to JBS results. Not smoking and low alcohol consumption were highly correlated (r=0.87). Those with a good health perception practiced more disease prevention behaviors (mean±SEM, 2.84±0.06) than those with a poor health perception (2.19±0.10, p<0.001). Good health perceptions were not strongly related to obesity and inactivity. Conclusions Appalachians are not indifferent about their health. However, Appalachians may not understand how inactivity and obesity relate to disease. PMID:27019843

  4. Relapse prevention. An overview of Marlatt's cognitive-behavioral model.

    PubMed

    Larimer, M E; Palmer, R S; Marlatt, G A

    1999-01-01

    Relapse prevention (RP) is an important component of alcoholism treatment. The RP model proposed by Marlatt and Gordon suggests that both immediate determinants (e.g., high-risk situations, coping skills, outcome expectancies, and the abstinence violation effect) and covert antecedents (e.g., lifestyle factors and urges and cravings) can contribute to relapse. The RP model also incorporates numerous specific and global intervention strategies that allow therapist and client to address each step of the relapse process. Specific interventions include identifying specific high-risk situations for each client and enhancing the client's skills for coping with those situations, increasing the client's self-efficacy, eliminating myths regarding alcohol's effects, managing lapses, and restructuring the client's perceptions of the relapse process. Global strategies comprise balancing the client's lifestyle and helping him or her develop positive addictions, employing stimulus control techniques and urge-management techniques, and developing relapse road maps. Several studies have provided theoretical and practical support for the RP model. PMID:10890810

  5. Voice and persuasion in a banking telemarketing context.

    PubMed

    Chebat, Jean-Charles; El Hedhli, Kamel; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire; Boivin, Robert

    2007-04-01

    Voice has been neglected in research on advertising and persuasion. The present study examined the influence of voice and sex on the credibility of the voice source in a banking telemarketing context as well as with regards to the attitude toward the advertisement, and subjects' behavioral intention. An experiment using voices of a man and a woman was conducted. A recorded mock-telemarketing message consisted of an advertisement for an ATM card offered by a Canadian bank. Subjects were undergraduate students (N=399; 71.6% women, 28.4% men; M age=26.5 yr., SD = 7.4). They completed a questionnaire after hearing the message in telemarketing conditions. Analysis indicated a moderate intensity, an unmarked intonation, and a fast speech rate are associated with a more credible source than the other combinations. Sex was not a significant moderator in the relationship between voice characteristics and source credibility. Voice characteristics significantly affected attitudes toward the advertisement and behavioral intention. PMID:17566432

  6. Combination HIV Prevention Interventions: The Potential of Integrated Behavioral and Biomedical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Combination HIV prevention interventions that integrate efficacious behavioral and biomedical strategies offer the potential to reduce new HIV infections. Purpose We overview the efficacy data for three biomedical HIV prevention approaches: microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and an HIV vaccination, review factors associated with differential acceptability and uptake of these methods, and suggest strategies to optimize the effectiveness and dissemination of combination HIV prevention approaches. Methods A narrative review was conducted highlighting key efficacy data for microbicides, PrEP, and an HIV vaccination and summarizing acceptability data for each of the three biomedical HIV prevention approaches. Recommendations for the integration and dissemination of combined behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention approaches are provided. Results To date, microbicides and an HIV vaccination have demonstrated limited efficacy for the prevention of HIV. However, PrEP has demonstrated efficacy in reducing HIV incident infections. A diverse array of factors influences both hypothetical willingness and actual usage of each biomedical prevention method. Conclusions Strategies to effectively integrate and evaluate combination HIV prevention interventions are urgently needed. PMID:25216985

  7. Evaluation of an Intervention among Adolescents to Reduce Preventive Misconception in HIV Vaccine Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lally, Michelle; Goldsworthy, Richard; Sarr, Moussa; Kahn, Jessica; Brown, Larry; Peralta, Ligia; Zimet, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Placebo and randomization are important concepts that must be understood before youth can safely participate in HIV vaccine studies or other biomedical trials for HIV prevention. These concepts are central to the phenomenon of preventive misconception which may be associated with an increase in risk behavior among study participants related to mistaken beliefs. Persuasive messaging, traditionally used in the field of marketing, could enhance educational efforts associated with randomized clinical trials. Methods Two educational brochures were designed to increase knowledge about HIV vaccine clinical trials via 1 and 2-sided persuasive messaging. Through the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network, 120 youth were enrolled, administered a mock HIV vaccine trial consent, and then randomized to receive either no supplemental information or one of the two brochures. Results The 2-sided brochure group in which common clinical trial misconceptions were acknowledgedand then refuted had significantly higher scores on knowledge of randomization and interpretation of side effects than the consent-only control group, and willingness to participate in an HIV vaccine trial was not decreased with the use of this brochure. Conclusion Two sided persuasive messaging improves understanding of the concepts of randomization and placebo among youth who would consider participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Further evaluation of this approach should be considered for at-risk youth participating in an actual trial of a biomedical intervention for HIV prevention. PMID:24613097

  8. An Experimental Test of the Persuasive Effect of Source Similarity in Narrative and Nonnarrative Health Blogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blogs, or websites containing online personal journals, are a form of popular personal communication with immense potential for health promotion. Objective Narratives are stories with a beginning, middle, and end that provide information about the characters and plot. Source similarity refers to the degree to which the message source and each recipient are alike with respect to certain attributes. Narratives and source similarity have seldom been examined in tandem as strategies for health persuasion. Personal health blogs provide a suitable platform for such an investigation. This study examined the persuasive effects of message type and source similarity on participants’ intentions to adopt a specific health behavior (running for exercise). Methods A total of 150 participants were randomly assigned to conditions (n=25 per condition) in a completely crossed, 2 (message type: narrative and nonnarrative) × 3 (source similarity: no similarity, non-health-related similarity, and health-related similarity) between-subjects experiment. First, in an online questionnaire, participants provided personal information in 42 categories and rated the relatedness of each category to running and then completed pretest measures of the dependent variables. Based on their responses, 150 personal health blogs were created. Two weeks later, the initial participants read the blog created with their personal characteristics and completed a questionnaire online. Results The source similarity effect was stronger in nonnarrative than narrative blogs. When the blogs were nonnarrative, those with health-related similarities were more persuasive than those with non-health-related similarities. Narrative blogs generated more positive thoughts and stronger blogger identification than nonnarrative blogs. Conclusions Health-related source similarity is key for persuasive health communication, especially when the messages are nonnarrative. PMID:23887135

  9. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53), with ≥ secondary education (OR=1.96), had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88) and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are

  10. Teaching Persuasion and Communication Issues in the Real Estate Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Rochelle D.; DiGaetani, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a business communication teaching technique that uses role playing related to issues of the real estate business. Helps students to develop skill in persuasion, problem analysis, and decision making. (CH)

  11. Effects of Persuasive Appeals in Public Service Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Jerry R.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that of four message types perceived on the basis of persuasive appeal--emotional, logical, source-attribute, and fear--emotional appeal is the most effective and source-attribute the least effective method of advertising. (RB)

  12. Theory of Synesthesia Applied to Persuasion in Print Advertising Headlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michelle R.; Hitchon, Jacqueline C.

    1995-01-01

    Tests the persuasive impact of synesthetic metaphors (which equate sense A to sense B) in advertising headlines. Finds that in some circumstances, synesthetic headlines produce less, rather than more, favorable attitudes toward the advertisement and brand than literal equivalents. (SR)

  13. Strategies and motives for resistance to persuasion: an integrative framework

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Marieke L.; Smit, Edith G.; Verlegh, Peeter W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Persuasion is an important element of human communication. But in many situations, we resist rather than embrace persuasive attempts. Resistance to persuasion has been studied in many different disciplines, including communication science, psychology, and marketing. The present paper reviews and connects these diverse literatures, and provides an organizing framework for understanding and studying resistance. Four clusters of resistance strategies are defined (avoidance, contesting, biased processing, and empowerment), and these clusters are related to different motivations for resisting persuasion (threat to freedom, reluctance to change, and concerns of deception). We propose that, while avoidance strategies may be triggered by any of these motivations, contesting strategies are linked primarily to concerns of deception, while empowerment and biased processing strategies are most common when people are reluctant to change. PMID:26322006

  14. Health Behavior Theory for Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Root-Cause Analysis Project in Critical Care Nursing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kristen R; Ragnoni, Jennifer A; Bickmann, Jonathan D; Saarinen, Hannah A; Gosselin, Ann K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use a behavioral theory to examine pressure ulcer prevention by nurses in a critical care setting. A root-cause analysis approach was used, including an integrative literature review, operationalization of behavioral constructs into a survey, and root-cause analysis application in a cardiovascular intensive care unit. This article highlights an innovative approach to quality improvement in critical care. PMID:26111143

  15. On advancing behavior analysis in the treatment and prevention of battering: Commentary on Myers

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Lizette; Calhoun, Karen

    1995-01-01

    Myers offers an important challenge to behavior analysts: eliminating the battering of women. In this commentary, we extend the conceptual model advocated by Myers, urge a bidirectional approach that focuses more on the battered woman and less on the battering man, caution against the indiscriminate use of marital therapy approaches, and argue that the most important contributions in the field may come from behavioral prevention rather than treatment interventions. PMID:16795879

  16. Persuasion: The Key to Changing Women's Ideas About Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Although standard maternity care is not evidence-based and, in many cases, increases risks for mothers and babies, few women make birth decisions that reflect this knowledge. This column discusses persuasion as a way to change women's ideas about safe, healthy birth. The relationship between persuasion and choice is discussed, and the differences between presenting information and persuading women that natural birth is the safest and healthiest way to give birth are explored. PMID:20808426

  17. Effectiveness of a teacher-based indicated prevention program for preschool children with externalizing problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Plueck, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Hautmann, Christopher; Hanisch, Charlotte; Jaenen, Nicola; Doepfner, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Externalizing behavior is common in preschool children and shows stability over the lifespan implying that strategies for early intervention and prevention are needed. Improving parenting reduces child behavior problems but it is unproven whether the effects transfer to kindergarten. Strategies implemented directly by teachers in the kindergarten may be a promising approach. The effectiveness of the teacher's module of the Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP-TE) was investigated in a study using a within-subject control group design. Each of the 144 teachers enrolled identified one child with externalizing problem behavior (aged 3-6 years) and rated that child's behavior problems [broadband externalizing, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder] as well as their own behavior (attending skills) and burden by the child. Changes in child symptoms and teacher behavior or burden during the 3-month waiting period (control) and 3-month treatment period were compared. Stability of treatment effects at both 3- and 12-months follow-up after treatment was examined. Multilevel modeling analyses showed that, despite a reduction in externalizing behavior and ADHD scores during the waiting period, all child problem behavior scores decreased during the treatment period compared with the waiting period. The teacher's behavior also improved and their burden decreased. These treatment effects were stable during follow-up for the subsample remaining in the kindergarten for up to 1 year. This study shows that a teacher-based intervention alone is associated with improvements in both the externalizing behavior of preschoolers and teacher behavior and burden. Indications of long-term stability of effects were found. PMID:24752568

  18. An Opinion Interactive Model Based on Individual Persuasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Chen, Bin; Liu, Liang; Ma, Liang; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the formation process of group opinion in real life, we put forward a new opinion interactive model based on Deffuant model and its improved models in this paper because current models of opinion dynamics lack considering individual persuasiveness. Our model has following advantages: firstly persuasiveness is added to individual's attributes reflecting the importance of persuasiveness, which means that all the individuals are different from others; secondly probability is introduced in the course of interaction which simulates the uncertainty of interaction. In Monte Carlo simulation experiments, sensitivity analysis including the influence of randomness, initial persuasiveness distribution, and number of individuals is studied at first; what comes next is that the range of common opinion based on the initial persuasiveness distribution can be predicted. Simulation experiment results show that when the initial values of agents are fixed, no matter how many times independently replicated experiments, the common opinion will converge at a certain point; however the number of iterations will not always be the same; the range of common opinion can be predicted when initial distribution of opinion and persuasiveness are given. As a result, this model can reflect and interpret some phenomena of opinion interaction in realistic society. PMID:26508911

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Children of Depressed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E.; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L.; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K.; Cole, David A.

    2009-01-01

    A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9-15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6…

  20. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the elements of a manualized cognitive behavior psychotherapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction, relapse prevention approach and theoretically grounded in principles of cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy and targeted therapies for suicidal, depressed youth. CBT-SP consists of acute and continuation phases, each lasting about 12 sessions, and includes a chain analysis of the suicidal event, safety plan development, skill building, psychoeducation, family intervention, and relapse prevention. Results CBT-SP was administered to 110 depressed, recent suicide attempters aged 13–19 years (mean 15.8±1.6) across five academic sites. Twelve or more sessions were completed by 72.4% of the sample. Conclusions A specific intervention for adolescents at high risk for repeated suicide attempts has been developed and manualized, and further testing of its efficacy appears feasible. PMID:19730273

  1. Initial Behavior Outcomes for the PeaceBuilders Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniel J.; And Others

    2003-01-01

    Assigned elementary schools to either immediate postbaseline intervention (PBI) with PeaceBuilders, a school-based violence prevention program, or to intervention 1 year later (PBD). Found significant gains in social competence for kindergarten through second-graders in Year 1, in peace-building behavior in Grades K to 5, and reduced aggression in…

  2. Assessment, behavioral treatment, and prevention of pica: clinical guidelines and recommendations for practitioners.

    PubMed

    Williams, Don E; McAdam, David

    2012-01-01

    Pica is a dangerous form of self-injurious behavior that occurs in people with developmental disabilities who are institutionalized. Studies also indicate that pica has led to the death of people with developmental disabilities. While a number of published studies have demonstrated that pica behavior can be decreased substantially with behavioral treatment, few of these studies incorporated strategies for generalization and maintenance outside of brief sessions. A second limitation of current research is that some studies reduced pica substantially, but pica responses still occurred at rates that are problematic in terms of prevention of adverse consequences, which leaves practitioners with the task of further decreasing pica to protect people exhibiting pica from harm. We make recommendations for assessment, treatment, and prevention of pica for practitioners. These recommendations are based on two extensive reviews of the literature and our extensive experience as practitioners in the treatment of pica. Our hope is that administrators, professionals and practitioners will consider our guidelines and recommendations as they attempt to protect people with pica and developmental disabilities from harm by developing standards for assessment, treatment and prevention for this difficult-to-treat population. Our hope is that children with pica will receive early intervention to prevent pica from developing into life-threatening behavior. PMID:22750361

  3. Teens in Crisis: Preventing Suicide and Other Self-Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Thomas C.

    Designed as a guide for the prevention of suicide and other self-destructive behavior, this booklet is divided into two main sections. Outlining the problem of suicide in the nation, the first section contains an introduction to the topic of suicide with statistical information, then eight segments deal with such subjects as facing the reality of…

  4. Communication Skills and Self-Esteem in Prevention of Destructive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Demonstrated long-range effectiveness of SAY IT STRAIGHT training as a school-based program for the prevention of destructive behaviors by comparing juvenile police offenders among trained and untrained ninth through twelfth graders (N=357) for 18 months following training. Found untrained students had more criminal offenses than did trained…

  5. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  6. The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberg, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

  7. The Effect of Preventive Classroom Management Training Program on Approval and Disapproval Behaviors of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guner, Nevin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Preventive Classroom Management Training Program (PCMTP) on approval and disapproval behaviors of teachers working in inclusive classrooms was investigated. The study group consisted of 45 teachers who were working in public schools and had students with special needs in their classrooms. Data were gathered using…

  8. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  9. THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOR OF YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PELEGRINO, DONALD A.; AND OTHERS

    THE IN-SERVICE TRAINING GUIDE FOR YOUTH SERVICES PERSONNEL WAS DESIGNED TO AID PERSONNEL IN THE PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ANTI-SOCIAL YOUTH BEHAVIOR. THIS PRACTICAL GUIDE AND TRAINING MANUAL PRESENTS A COMPENDIUM OF IDEAS, SUGGESTIONS, AND TECHNIQUES. THE INTRODUCTION PRESENTS THE BACKGROUND AND PROCEDURES OF THE GUIDE'S PUBLICATION AND…

  10. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  11. Behavior Differences Seven Months Later: Effects of a Rape Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Newberry, Johnathan T.; Tatum, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    First-year men at a midsized public university either saw a rape prevention program or were in a control group and were asked to complete attitude and behavior surveys at the beginning and end of an academic year. Participants were also asked whether they joined fraternities during that year. With 90% of first-year men participating throughout the…

  12. Impact of a Universal Prevention Strategy on Reading and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruth, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study addresses the problem of reading and behavioral performance in elementary school by examining the impact of a universal preventive intervention on both the proximal and distal outcomes of students in the fourth grade at a mid-western elementary school. These proximal outcomes (disruptions per student per hour) were measured…

  13. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  14. H1N1 Preventive Health Behaviors in a University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Sanza, Megan; Johnston, Lindsay; Petinaux, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Background: When H1N1 emerged in 2009, institutions of higher education were immediately faced with questions about how best to protect their community from the virus, yet limited information existed to help predict student preventive behaviors. Methods: The authors surveyed students at a large urban university in November 2009 to better…

  15. Practices for Enhancing Children's Social-Emotional Development and Preventing Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corso, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Many challenging behaviors can be prevented by designing environments that promote children's engagement and teaching children new social skills (Lawry, Danko, & Strain, 1999; Neilsen, Olive, Donovan, & McEvoy, 1999; Strain & Hemmeter, 1999). Fox, Dunlap, Hemmeter, Joseph, and Strain (2003) have described a framework for promoting children's…

  16. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment. PMID:22690178

  17. Topics and sources of memorable breast cancer messages and their impact on prevention and detection behaviors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sandi W; Nazione, Samantha; Laplante, Carolyn; Kotowski, Michael R; Atkin, Charles; Skubisz, Christine M; Stohl, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Often, people are able to recall a message on a particular topic for a long period of time. These memorable messages have the ability to influence behavior when they are recalled from memory long after initial exposure. Knowing the topics and sources of the messages that are remembered about breast cancer can improve the efficacy of future breast cancer outreach. To this end, 359 women completed an online survey about memorable breast cancer messages. Most women (60%) recalled a memorable message, described it, identified its source, and noted whether it had resulted in prevention or detection behaviors. Four categories of message topics emerged: early detection (37.3%), awareness (30.9%), treatment (25.8%), and prevention (6%). Furthermore, five categories of sources of these memorable messages were found: media (35.5%), friends (22.2%), family (21.6%), medical professionals (15.2%), and others (5.5%). The media were a major source of all four topics of messages, although family members, friends, and the medical community were major sources for particular message topics as well. Memorable messages originating from medical professionals were substantially more likely to motivate detection behaviors than prevention behaviors. This research demonstrates that message topic and source both play roles in determining message recall as well as in determining how memorable messages impacted behavior. PMID:19440911

  18. Social-Information-Processing Patterns Mediate the Impact of Preventive Intervention on Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Godwin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In the study reported here, we tested the hypothesis that the Fast Track preventive intervention’s positive impact on antisocial behavior in adolescence is mediated by its impact on social-cognitive processes during elementary school. Fast Track is the largest and longest federally funded preventive intervention trial for children showing aggressive behavior at an early age. Participants were 891 high-risk kindergarten children (69% male, 31% female; 49% ethnic minority, 51% ethnic majority) who were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group by school cluster. Multiyear intervention addressed social-cognitive processes through social-skill training groups, parent groups, classroom curricula, peer coaching, and tutoring. Assigning children to the intervention decreased their mean antisocial-behavior score after Grade 9 by 0.16 standardized units (p < .01). Structural equation models indicated that 27% of the intervention’s impact on antisocial behavior was mediated by its impact on three social-cognitive processes: reducing hostile-attribution biases, increasing competent response generation to social problems, and devaluing aggression. These findings support a model of antisocial behavioral development mediated by social-cognitive processes, and they guide prevention planners to focus on these processes. PMID:23406610

  19. Social-information-processing patterns mediate the impact of preventive intervention on adolescent antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Kenneth A; Godwin, Jennifer

    2013-04-01

    In the study reported here, we tested the hypothesis that the Fast Track preventive intervention's positive impact on antisocial behavior in adolescence is mediated by its impact on social-cognitive processes during elementary school. Fast Track is the largest and longest federally funded preventive intervention trial for children showing aggressive behavior at an early age. Participants were 891 high-risk kindergarten children (69% male, 31% female; 49% ethnic minority, 51% ethnic majority) who were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group by school cluster. Multiyear intervention addressed social-cognitive processes through social-skill training groups, parent groups, classroom curricula, peer coaching, and tutoring. Assigning children to the intervention decreased their mean antisocial-behavior score after Grade 9 by 0.16 standardized units (p < .01). Structural equation models indicated that 27% of the intervention's impact on antisocial behavior was mediated by its impact on three social-cognitive processes: reducing hostile-attribution biases, increasing competent response generation to social problems, and devaluing aggression. These findings support a model of antisocial behavioral development mediated by social-cognitive processes, and they guide prevention planners to focus on these processes. PMID:23406610

  20. Pathways to prevention: improving nonresident African American fathers' parenting skills and behaviors to reduce sons' aggression.

    PubMed

    Howard Caldwell, Cleopatra; Antonakos, Cathy L; Assari, Shervin; Kruger, Daniel; De Loney, E Hill; Njai, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a test of the Fathers and Sons Program for increasing intentions to avoid violence and reducing aggressive behaviors in 8- to 12-year-old African American boys by enhancing the parenting skills satisfaction and parenting behaviors of their nonresident fathers. The study included 158 intervention and 129 comparison group families. Structural equation model results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving fathers' parenting skills satisfaction, which was positively associated with sons' satisfaction with paternal engagement. Sons' paternal engagement satisfaction was positively associated with their intentions to avoid violence. Although aggressive behaviors were lower for comparison group sons, the intervention effectively reduced sons' aggressive behaviors indirectly by enhancing fathers' parenting behaviors. Support for family-centered youth violence prevention efforts is discussed. PMID:23746345

  1. Promotion of Influenza Prevention Beliefs and Behaviors through Primary School Science Education

    PubMed Central

    Koep, TH; Jenkins, S; M Hammerlund, ME; Clemens, C; Fracica, E; Ekker, SC; Enders, FT; Huskins, WC; Pierret, C

    2016-01-01

    Background School-based campaigns to improve student health have demonstrated short-term success across various health topics. However, evidence of the effectiveness of programs in promoting healthy beliefs and behaviors is limited. We hypothesized that educational curricula teaching the science behind health promotion would increase student knowledge, beliefs and adherence to healthy behaviors, in this case related to influenza. Methods Integrated Science Education Outreach is a successful education intervention in Rochester, Minnesota public schools that has demonstrated improvements in student learning. Within this program, we designed novel curricula and assessments to determine if gains in knowledge extended to influenza prevention. Further, we coupled InSciEd Out programming with a clinical intervention, Influenza Prevention Prescription Education (IPPE), to compare students' attitudes, intentions and healthy behaviors utilizing surveys and hand hygiene monitoring equipment. Results 95 students participated in (IPPE) in the intervention school. Talking drawings captured improvement in influenza prevention understanding related to hand washing [pre n=17(43%); post n=30(77%)] and vaccination [pre n=2(5%); post n=15(38%)]. Findings from 1024 surveys from 566 students revealed strong baseline understanding and attitudes related to hand washing and cough etiquette (74% or greater positive responses). Automated hand hygiene monitoring in school bathrooms and classrooms estimated compliance for both soap (overall median 63%, IQR 38% to 100%) and hand sanitizer use (0.04 to 0.24 uses per student per day) but did not show significant pre/ post IPPE differences. Conclusions Student understanding of principles of influenza prevention was reasonably high. Even with this baseline, InSciEd Out and IPPE improved students’ unprompted knowledge of behaviors to prevent influenza, as reflected by talking drawings. This novel metric may be more sensitive in capturing knowledge

  2. Parents as health promoters: a theory of planned behavior perspective on the prevention of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kyle R; Silk, Kami S; Eneli, Ihuoma U

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States. A number of communication campaigns and interventions have been conducted to combat the problem, with parents being recognized as an important target audience. A critical aspect of involving parents in such campaigns is formative research on parents' perceptions of their role in preventing childhood obesity. To facilitate this process, a study was conducted in which parents (N = 201) responded to Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) survey items as they relate to providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods for their children. Results indicated support for TPB predictions. Additionally, the degree to which parents viewed providing healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods as effective in preventing obesity (response efficacy) was predictive of parent tracking of children's unhealthy eating behavior. Finally, parent TV viewing behavior was related to perceived response efficacy of limiting children's TV viewing hours. Practical implications for communication practitioners are discussed. PMID:20390979

  3. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed. PMID:24942813

  4. Community trial on heat related-illness prevention behaviors and knowledge for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noriko; Nakao, Rieko; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Kondo, Masahide; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to explore whether broadcasting heat health warnings (HHWs), to every household and whether the additional home delivery of bottled water labeled with messages will be effective in improving the behaviors and knowledge of elderly people to prevent heat-related illness. A community trial on heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors and knowledge for people aged between 65 and 84 years was conducted in Nagasaki, Japan. Five hundred eight subjects were selected randomly from three groups: heat health warning (HHW), HHW and water delivery (HHW+W), and control groups. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires were conducted in June and September 2012, respectively. Of the 1524 selected subjects, the 1072 that completed both questionnaires were analyzed. The HHW+W group showed improvements in nighttime AC use (p=0.047), water intake (p=0.003), cooling body (p=0.002) and reduced activities in heat (p=0.047) compared with the control, while the HHW group improved hat or parasol use (p=0.008). An additional effect of household water delivery was observed in water intake (p=0.067) and cooling body (p=0.095) behaviors. HHW and household bottled water delivery improved heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors. The results indicate that home water delivery in addition to a HHW may be needed to raise awareness of the elderly. PMID:25789456

  5. Community Trial on Heat Related-Illness Prevention Behaviors and Knowledge for the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Noriko; Nakao, Rieko; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Kondo, Masahide; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore whether broadcasting heat health warnings (HHWs), to every household and whether the additional home delivery of bottled water labeled with messages will be effective in improving the behaviors and knowledge of elderly people to prevent heat-related illness. A community trial on heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors and knowledge for people aged between 65 and 84 years was conducted in Nagasaki, Japan. Five hundred eight subjects were selected randomly from three groups: heat health warning (HHW), HHW and water delivery (HHW+W), and control groups. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires were conducted in June and September 2012, respectively. Of the 1524 selected subjects, the 1072 that completed both questionnaires were analyzed. The HHW+W group showed improvements in nighttime AC use (p = 0.047), water intake (p = 0.003), cooling body (p = 0.002) and reduced activities in heat (p = 0.047) compared with the control, while the HHW group improved hat or parasol use (p = 0.008). An additional effect of household water delivery was observed in water intake (p = 0.067) and cooling body (p = 0.095) behaviors. HHW and household bottled water delivery improved heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors. The results indicate that home water delivery in addition to a HHW may be needed to raise awareness of the elderly. PMID:25789456

  6. Child social skills training in developmental crime prevention: effects on antisocial behavior and social competence.

    PubMed

    Beelmann, Andreas; Lösel, Friedrich

    2006-08-01

    Social skills training for children is becoming increasingly popular as a measure for developmental crime prevention. Although previous reviews of such programs have shown positive effects, they have also revealed problems of research design, outcome measures, and long-term follow up. Accordingly, this article reports on a recent meta-analysis of randomized evaluations of the effect of social skills training in preventing antisocial behavior and promoting social competence. Of 841 retrievable references, 84 research reports with a total of 136 treatment-control comparisons fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Results showed a small but significant overall positive effect of d = .39 at post-intervention and d = .28 at follow-up (3 months and later). Effect sizes were somewhat greater for outcome measures of social competence than for measures of antisocial behavior, particularly when delinquency was assessed. Cognitive-behavioral programs revealed the best results in terms of generalization over time and on outcome criteria. In addition, prevention measures indicated for children and adolescents who already manifested some behavioral problems had higher effect sizes than universal approaches. Because most studies dealt with small sample sizes, non-official outcome data, and measurements after less than one year, the results should be interpreted with caution. Further high-quality studies with long-term empirical outcome criteria are needed, particularly outside the United States. PMID:17296094

  7. The Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. PMID:19327028

  8. Grape powder prevents cognitive, behavioral and biochemical impairments in a rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Naimesh; Alkadhi, Isam; Atrooz, Fatin; Patki, Gaurav; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Previously, using the single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder, we reported that moderate treadmill exercise, via modulation of oxidative stress related mechanisms, rescued anxiety and depression-like behaviors and reversed SPS-induced memory impairment. In this study using the SPS model (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, and 1–2 min diethyl ether exposure), we hypothesized that antioxidant rich grape powder (GP) prevents SPS-induced behavioral and memory impairment in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into: Control (CON; provided tap water), SPS (provided tap water), GP-SPS (provided 15 g/L GP in tap water for 3 wk followed by SPS), or GP-CON (3 wk of GP followed by control exposure). Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were significantly greater in SPS rats when compared to CON or GP treated rats and GP reversed these behavioral deficits. SPS rats made significantly more errors in both short- and long-term memory tests compared to CON or GP treated rats, which were prevented in GP-SPS rats. GP prevented SPS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone level. Furthermore, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were significantly decreased in amygdala of SPS rats but not in GP-SPS rats compared to CON or GP-CON rats. Additionally, GP significantly increased acetylated Histone3, Histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC 5) in hippocampus and amygdala of SPS rats as compared to CON or GP-CON rats. In conclusion, we suggest protective role of GP in SPS-induced behavioral, cognitive and biochemical impairments in rats. Perhaps, epigenetic regulation of BDNF enables GP-mediated prevention of SPS-induced deficits in rats. PMID:25533441

  9. Grape powder prevents cognitive, behavioral, and biochemical impairments in a rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Naimesh; Alkadhi, Isam; Atrooz, Fatin; Patki, Gaurav; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Previously, using the single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder, we reported that moderate treadmill exercise, via modulation of oxidative stress-related mechanisms, rescued anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and reversed SPS-induced memory impairment. In this study using the SPS model (2-hour restrain, 20-minute forced swimming, 15-minute rest, and 1-2-minute diethyl ether exposure), we hypothesized that antioxidant rich grape powder (GP) prevents SPS-induced behavioral and memory impairment in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into control (CON) (provided tap water), SPS (provided tap water), GP-SPS (provided 15 g/L GP in tap water for 3 weeks followed by SPS), or GP-CON (3 weeks of GP followed by CON exposure). Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were significantly greater in SPS rats, when compared with CON- or GP-treated rats, and GP reversed these behavioral deficits. Single-prolonged stress rats made significantly more errors in both short- and long-term memory tests compared with CON- or GP-treated rats, which were prevented in GP-SPS rats. Grape powder prevented SPS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone level. Furthermore, brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were significantly decreased in amygdala of SPS rats but not in GP-SPS rats compared with CON or (GP-CON) rats. In addition, GP significantly increased acetylated histone 3 and histone deacetylase 5 in hippocampus and amygdala of SPS rats as compared with CON or GP-CON rats. In conclusion, we suggest protective role of GP in SPS-induced behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical impairments in rats. Perhaps, epigenetic regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor enables GP-mediated prevention of SPS-induced deficits in rats. PMID:25533441

  10. Is autism a preventable disorder of verbal behavior? A response to five commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a response to five commentaries on our article An Analysis of Autism as a Contingency-Shaped Disorder of Verbal Behavior (Drash & Tudor, 2004). One of the principal objectives of that article is to provide the behavior analysis community and the autism community with a conceptual basis for analyzing autism as a behavioral disorder rather than a neurological disorder. This analysis provides a logical and testable behavioral answer to the question of the etiology of autism, a question that has baffled scientists and researchers for more than half a century. Elements of the original article with which reviewers expressed concern include: need for more data, need for greater emphasis on neurological and epidemiological factors in autism, the relative importance of verbal behavior as a core deficit of autism, and disruptive and avoidant behavior as a primary variable in the etiology of autism. We provide a behavioral response to each of these concerns. We also show how our analysis will provide a conceptual foundation for behavior analysis to begin developing urgently needed programs for prevention and earlier intervention in autism. PMID:22477289

  11. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  12. Cue exposure and relapse prevention in the treatment of addictive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, G A

    1990-01-01

    Cue exposure techniques have been increasingly applied in the treatment of addictive behaviors. The role of cue exposure in a comprehensive approach to relapse prevention is considered from several theoretical perspectives. Issues discussed include the optimal definition of both cue and response variables in cue exposure, the relation between exposure to drug-taking cues and elicitation of outcome expectancies, and the combination of extinction-based cue exposure methods and skill training in relapse prevention programs. Whether cue exposure effects are mediated by extinction of appetitive craving responses and/or by the modification of efficacy and outcome expectancies is discussed. PMID:2248112

  13. “The Bitter Laughter”. When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion

    PubMed Central

    D’Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called “just a joke effect” (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a “bitter laughter.” The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between “surface” and “deep” parody (Poggi and D’Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician’s gender. PMID:27555825

  14. "The Bitter Laughter". When Parody Is a Moral and Affective Priming in Political Persuasion.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, Francesca; Poggi, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Research on socially aware systems requires fine-grained knowledge of the mechanisms of persuasion in order to promote civic knowledge and aware political participation. Within humor studies, political parody is generally considered a simple pleasant weapon for political evaluation, currently explained by referring to the so called "just a joke effect" (Nabi et al., 2007). Indeed the funny side of parody can induce positive emotions, but it also includes a discrediting act that sometimes produces a "bitter laughter." The present study aims to understand the role played by negative and moral emotions aroused by parody. A parody is defined as a communicative behavior (a discourse, text, body movement, song) that imitates a communicative behavior or trait displayed by some Target by reproducing it in a distorted way, with the aim of making fun of the Target. Based on a socio-cognitive approach, a distinction is made between "surface" and "deep" parody (Poggi and D'Errico, 2013), with the former simply imitating behaviors actually displayed by the Target, and the latter implying a (humorous) re-categorization of the Target. The paper studies the effect of these two different types of parody on persuasion processes. Results show that the deep parody, as opposed to surface parody, triggers more negative emotions, and in particular indignation, that in turn lead to more negative evaluations of the Target. Moreover, the moral priming of parody is influenced by the Target politician's gender. PMID:27555825

  15. Persuasive performance feedback: the effect of framing on self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Choe, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Bongshin; Munson, Sean; Pratt, Wanda; Kientz, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Self-monitoring technologies have proliferated in recent years as they offer excellent potential for promoting healthy behaviors. Although these technologies have varied ways of providing real-time feedback on a user's current progress, we have a dearth of knowledge of the framing effects on the performance feedback these tools provide. With an aim to create influential, persuasive performance feedback that will nudge people toward healthy behaviors, we conducted an online experiment to investigate the effect of framing on an individual's self-efficacy. We identified 3 different types of framing that can be applicable in presenting performance feedback: (1) the valence of performance (remaining vs. achieved framing), (2) presentation type (text-only vs. text with visual), and (3) data unit (raw vs. percentage). Results show that the achieved framing could lead to an increased perception of individual's performance capabilities. This work provides empirical guidance for creating persuasive performance feedback, thereby helping people designing self-monitoring technologies to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:24551378

  16. Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Nurit

    2015-11-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. PMID:26422583

  17. Grape powder treatment prevents anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of aging.

    PubMed

    Patki, Gaurav; Ali, Quaisar; Pokkunuri, Indira; Asghar, Mohammad; Salim, Samina

    2015-06-01

    Earlier, we have reported that grape powder (GP) treatment prevented pharmacologic and psychological stress-induced anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment in rats. Protective effects of GP were attributed to its antioxidant effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that age-associated behavioral and cognitive deficits such as anxiety and memory impairment will be ameliorated with GP treatment. Using a National Institute of Aging recommended rodent model of aging, we examined a potentially protective role of antioxidant-rich GP in age-associated anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: young rats (3 months old) provided with tap water or with 15 g/L GP dissolved in tap water for 3 weeks, aged rats (21 months old) provided with tap water or with GP-treated tap water for 3 weeks (AG-GP). Anxiety-like behavior was significantly greater in aged rats compared with young rats, GP-treated young rats, or aged control rats (P < .05). Also, GP treatment prevented age-induced anxiety-like behavior in AG-GP rats (P < .05). Neither short-term nor long-term age-associated memory deficits improved with GP treatment in AG-GP rats. Furthermore, aged rats showed increased level of physiological stress (corticosterone) and increased oxidative stress in the plasma (8-isoprostane) as well as in selected brain areas (protein carbonylation). Grape powder treatment prevented age-induced increase in corticosterone levels and plasma 8-isoprostane levels in aged rats (P < .05), whereas protein carbonylation was recovered in the amygdala region only (P < .05). Grape powder by regulating oxidative stress ameliorates age-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats, whereas age-associated memory deficits seem unaffected with GP treatment. PMID:26022140

  18. Persuasion from an Eighteen-Year-Old's Perspective: Perry and Piaget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinitz, Sue; Kiedaisch, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Looks at how the theories of William Perry and Jean Piaget explain choices students made in writing persuasive essays. Examines the implications of their theories for teaching persuasion to eighteen-year olds. (SR)

  19. Using Vicarious Experience and Verbal Persuasion to Enhance Self-Efficacy in Pre-Service Teachers: "Priming the Pump" for Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Kenneth M.; Gutkin, Terry B.; Wilson, Caryll Palmer; Oats, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates whether self-efficacy perceptions pertaining to working with difficult-to-teach children could be increased for preservice teachers using vicarious experience and verbal persuasion. Experimental group viewed a videotape demonstrating behavior management procedures while the control group viewed a placebo video. Experimental group…

  20. Text Messaging as a Tool for Behavior Change in Disease Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phone text messaging is a potentially powerful tool for behavior change because it is widely available, inexpensive, and instant. This systematic review provides an overview of behavior change interventions for disease management and prevention delivered through text messaging. Evidence on behavior change and clinical outcomes was compiled from randomized or quasi-experimental controlled trials of text message interventions published in peer-reviewed journals by June 2009. Only those interventions using text message as the primary mode of communication were included. Study quality was assessed by using a standardized measure. Seventeen articles representing 12 studies (5 disease prevention and 7 disease management) were included. Intervention length ranged from 3 months to 12 months, none had long-term follow-up, and message frequency varied. Of 9 sufficiently powered studies, 8 found evidence to support text messaging as a tool for behavior change. Effects exist across age, minority status, and nationality. Nine countries are represented in this review, but it is problematic that only one is a developing country, given potential benefits of such a widely accessible, relatively inexpensive tool for health behavior change. Methodological issues and gaps in the literature are highlighted, and recommendations for future studies are provided. PMID:20354039

  1. Lithium and valproate prevent methylphenidate-induced mania-like behaviors in the hole board test.

    PubMed

    Souza, L S; Silva, E F; Santos, W B; Asth, L; Lobão-Soares, B; Soares-Rachetti, V P; Medeiros, I U; Gavioli, E C

    2016-08-26

    Manic bipolar is diagnosed by psychomotor agitation, increased goal-directed activity, insomnia, grandiosity, excessive speech, and risky behavior. Animal studies aimed to modeling mania are commonly based in psychostimulants-induced hyperlocomotion. The exploration of other behaviors related with mania is mandatory to investigate this phase of bipolar disorder in animals. In this study, the hole board apparatus was suggested for evaluating mania-like behaviors induced by the psychostimulant methylphenidate. The treatment with methylphenidate (10mg/kg, ip) increased locomotion in the open field test. The pretreatment with lithium (50mg/kg, ip) and valproate (400mg/kg, ip) significantly prevented the hyperlocomotion. In the hole-board test, methylphenidate increased interactions with the central and peripheral holes and the exploration of central areas. Lithium was more effective than valproate in preventing all the behavioral manifestations induced by the psychostimulant. These findings were discussed based on the ability of methylphenidate-treated mice mimicking two symptoms of mania in the hole board test: goal-directed action and risk-taking behavior. In conclusion, the results point to a new approach to study mania through the hole board apparatus. The hole board test appears to be a sensitive assay to detect the efficacy of antimanic drugs. PMID:27353513

  2. Text messaging as a tool for behavior change in disease prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Kershaw, Trace

    2010-01-01

    Mobile phone text messaging is a potentially powerful tool for behavior change because it is widely available, inexpensive, and instant. This systematic review provides an overview of behavior change interventions for disease management and prevention delivered through text messaging. Evidence on behavior change and clinical outcomes was compiled from randomized or quasi-experimental controlled trials of text message interventions published in peer-reviewed journals by June 2009. Only those interventions using text message as the primary mode of communication were included. Study quality was assessed by using a standardized measure. Seventeen articles representing 12 studies (5 disease prevention and 7 disease management) were included. Intervention length ranged from 3 months to 12 months, none had long-term follow-up, and message frequency varied. Of 9 sufficiently powered studies, 8 found evidence to support text messaging as a tool for behavior change. Effects exist across age, minority status, and nationality. Nine countries are represented in this review, but it is problematic that only one is a developing country, given potential benefits of such a widely accessible, relatively inexpensive tool for health behavior change. Methodological issues and gaps in the literature are highlighted, and recommendations for future studies are provided. PMID:20354039

  3. Sexual behavior patterns of gay university men: implications for preventing HIV infection.

    PubMed

    D'Augelli, A R

    1992-07-01

    Gay male university students less than 25 years old were studied to determine whether they had changed their sexual activity patterns to reduce the risk of HIV infection. Most had not established sexual behavior patterns typical of the older gay men who had been studied in earlier research. Although most of the participants surveyed were concerned about HIV infection, some did engage in risky sexual behavior. The risk-reduction strategies most often used were having fewer sexual partners and being more selective in choosing partners. Future HIV-prevention interventions must be designed to address the needs of this generation of gay men. PMID:1506566

  4. Prevention des Toxicomanies Aupres des Filles avec des Problemes de Comportement: Effets a Court Terme (Prevention of Drug Addiction in Girls with Behavior Problems: Short-Term Effects).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article, written in French, describes and evaluates the first phase of a program to prevent drug addiction among 110 fifth-grade girls with behavior problems in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Evaluation of the instructional program showed positive results for student knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors and supported program continuation…

  5. The Impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors on Health Status of Ghanaians

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Zhao, Xicang

    2013-01-01

    The article here investigated the impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors as measures of Health Status of Ghanaians. We carry out a cross-sectional analysis of 5573 adults who participated and had indicated that they needed to state their health description in the three years prior to the phase 2007 World Health Organization, a study on Global Ageing and Adult health (SAGE) conducted in Ghana. The ordinal logistic regression model was employed for analysis using R. The results suggest that, there is incontrovertible evidence showing a strong relationship between preventive health behaviors and health status of Ghanaians. Again, the lifestyle of Ghanaians clearly manifests in their positive correlation with the good and moderate health state due to the high percentage (38.96% and 39.04%) respectively. The outcome points to a potential link with the Ghanaian social and health policies. PMID:23985114

  6. Preventing Disruptive Behavior via Classroom Management: Validating the Color Wheel System in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tiffany L; Skinner, Christopher H; Skinner, Amy L; Cazzell, Samantha; Aspiranti, Kathleen B; Moore, Tara; Coleman, MariBeth

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that installing a classroom management system known as the Color Wheel reduced inappropriate behaviors and increased on-task behavior in second- and fourth-grade classrooms; however, no systematic studies of the Color Wheel had been disseminated targeting pre-school or kindergarten participants. To enhance our understanding of the Color Wheel System (CWS) as a prevention system, a multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel on inappropriate vocalizations (IVs) in three general education kindergarten classrooms. Partial-interval time-sampling was used to record classwide IVs, which were operationally defined as any comment or vocal noise that was not solicited by the teacher. Time series graphs and effect size calculations suggest that the CWS caused immediate, large, and sustained decreases in IVs across the three classrooms. Teacher acceptability and interview data also supported the CWS. Implications related to prevention are discussed and directions for future research are provided. PMID:26802118

  7. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Lisa M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area. PMID:27429186

  8. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-08-15

    Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area. PMID:27429186

  9. Correlates of HIV risk and preventive behaviors in Armenian female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Markosyan, Karine M; Babikian, Talin; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hirsch, Jennifer S; Grigoryan, Samvel; del Rio, Carlos

    2007-03-01

    This study describes HIV risk and preventive behaviors and their correlates among Armenian female commercial sex workers (CSWs) as a prerequisite to developing gender and culturally appropriate interventions. Ninety-eight CSWs from three Armenian cities were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Quantitative findings were further elaborated by focus group discussions (N = 25) and key informant interviews (N = 8). Inconsistent condom use with all types of sexual partners was reported, as were condom tear/slippage, alcohol and drug use, and sex with drug injecting clients. Prominent misconceptions regarding HIV transmission, prevention and disease manifestations were noted. Correlates of condom use intentions included history of substance use, attitudes regarding condom use, risk perception, and comfort negotiating condom use. Intentions to use condoms were strongly associated with recent frequency of condom use. Understanding the relationship between condom use and its determinants is critical in the design and implementation of effective prevention programs tailored for Armenian CSWs. PMID:16823626

  10. Proliferation Persuasion. Coercive Bargaining with Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, Tristan A.

    2015-08-31

    Why do states wait for prolonged periods of time with the technical capacity to produce nuclear weapons? Only a handful of countries have ever acquired the sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technology needed to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Yet the enduring trend over the last five decades is for these states to delay or forgo exercising the nuclear weapons option provided by uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing capabilities. I show that states pause at this threshold stage because they use nuclear technology to bargain for concessions from both allies and adversaries. But when does nuclear latency offer bargaining benefits? My central argument is that challengers must surmount a dilemma to make coercive diplomacy work: the more they threaten to proliferate, the harder it becomes to reassure others that compliance will be rewarded with nuclear restraint. I identify a range of mechanisms able to solve this credibility problem, from arms control over breakout capacity to third party mediation and confidence building measures. Since each step towards the bomb raises the costs of implementing these policies, a state hits a sweet spot when it first acquires enrichment and/or reprocessing (ENR) technology. Subsequent increases in proliferation capability generate diminishing returns at the bargaining table for two reasons: the state must go to greater lengths to make a credible nonproliferation promise, and nuclear programs exhibit considerable path dependency as they mature over time. Contrary to the conventional wisdom about power in world politics, less nuclear latency thereby yields more coercive threat advantages. I marshal new primary source evidence from archives and interviews to identify episodes in the historical record when states made clear decisions to use ENR technology as a bargaining chip, and employ this theory of proliferation persuasion to explain how Japan, North Korea, and Iran succeeded and failed to barter concessions from the

  11. Clustering of Five Health-Related Behaviors for Chronic Disease Prevention Among Adults, United States, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Janet B.; Wheaton, Anne G.; Kanny, Dafna; Cunningham, Timothy J.; Lu, Hua; Onufrak, Stephen; Malarcher, Ann M.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Five key health-related behaviors for chronic disease prevention are never smoking, getting regular physical activity, consuming no alcohol or only moderate amounts, maintaining a normal body weight, and obtaining daily sufficient sleep. The objective of this study was to estimate the clustering of these 5 health-related behaviors among adults aged 21 years or older in each state and the District of Columbia and to assess geographic variation in clustering. Methods We used data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess the clustering of the 5 behaviors among 395,343 BRFSS respondents aged 21 years or older. The 5 behaviors were defined as currently not smoking cigarettes, meeting the aerobic physical activity recommendation, consuming no alcohol or only moderate amounts, maintaining a normal body mass index (BMI), and sleeping at least 7 hours per 24-hour period. Prevalence of having 4 or 5 of these behaviors, by state, was also examined. Results Among US adults, 81.6% were current nonsmokers, 63.9% obtained 7 hours or more sleep per day, 63.1% reported moderate or no alcohol consumption, 50.4% met physical activity recommendations, and 32.5% had a normal BMI. Only 1.4% of respondents engaged in none of the 5 behaviors; 8.4%, 1 behavior; 24.3%, 2 behaviors; 35.4%, 3 behaviors; and 24.3%, 4 behaviors; only 6.3% reported engaging in all 5 behaviors. The highest prevalence of engaging in 4 or 5 behaviors was clustered in the Pacific and Rocky Mountain states. Lowest prevalence was in the southern states and along the Ohio River. Conclusion Additional efforts are needed to increase the proportion of the population that engages in all 5 health-related behaviors and to eliminate geographic variation. Collaborative efforts in health care systems, communities, work sites, and schools can promote all 5 behaviors and produce population-wide changes, especially among the socioeconomically disadvantaged. PMID:27236381

  12. The impact of online visual on users' motivation and behavioural intention - A comparison between persuasive and non-persuasive visuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Nurulhuda; Shiratuddin, Mohd Fairuz; Wong, Kok Wai

    2016-08-01

    Research related to the first impression has highlighted the importance of visual appeal in influencing the favourable attitude towards a website. In the perspective of impression formation, it is proposed that the users are actually attracted to certain characteristics or aspects of the visual properties of a website, while ignoring the rests. Therefore, this study aims to investigate which visual strongly appeals to the users by comparing the impact of common visuals with the persuasive visuals. The principles of social influence are proposed as the added value to the persuasiveness of the web visuals. An experimental study is conducted and the PLS-SEM method is employed to analyse the obtained data. The result of the exploratory analyses demonstrated that the structural model has better quality when tested with persuasive data sample compared to non-persuasive data sample, evident with stronger coefficient of determination and path coefficients. Thus, it is concluded that persuasive visual provides better impact towards users' attitude and behavioural intention of a website.

  13. Same-sex sexual behavior of men in Kenya: Implications for HIV prevention, programs, and policy

    PubMed Central

    Geibel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Unprotected anal sex has long been recognized as a risk factor for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). In Africa, however, general denial of MSM existence and associated stigma discouraged research. To address this gap in the literature, partners conducted the first behavioral surveys of MSM in Kenya. The first study was to assess HIV risk among MSM in Nairobi, and the second study a pre-post intervention study of male sex workers in Mombasa. The 2004 behavioral survey of 500 men in Mombasa revealed that MSM were having multiple sexual partners and failed to access appropriate prevention counseling and care at Kenya clinics. A 2006 capture-recapture enumeration in Mombasa estimated that over 700 male sex workers were active, after which a pre-intervention baseline survey of 425 male sex workers was conducted. Awareness of unprotected anal sex as an HIV risk behavior and consistent condom use with clients was low, and use of oil-based lubricants high. Based on this information, peer educators were trained in HIV prevention, basic counseling skills, and distribution of condoms and lubricants. To assess impact of the interventions, a follow-up survey of 442 male sex workers was implemented in 2008. Exposure to peer educators was significantly associated with increased consistent condom use, improved HIV knowledge, and increased use of water-based lubricants. These results have provided needed information to the Government of Kenya and have informed HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24753921

  14. Communication to change behavior. A coordinated approach to HIV / AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, D

    1996-07-01

    Behavior change communication (BCC) uses the results of epidemiological and social science research to guide the design of creative interventions which call upon the talents of artists, writers, actors, producers, counselors, and other communicators. These interventions are the product of considerable US Agency for International Development experience with development communication. The AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project uses the term BCC to emphasize the difference between simply providing information and giving people the knowledge, skills, encouragement, and support they need to reduce the risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and living healthy. BCC activities for HIV/AIDS prevention use multiple channels to transmit and reinforce messages which address the needs of well-defined target audiences. They also provide people with the skills and tools required to prevent HIV and create a supportive social environment which helps people adopt and maintain safer sex behavior. BCC is an integral component of all strategies which comprise AIDSCAP's comprehensive approach to HIV/AIDS prevention. PMID:12347585

  15. The epistemic-teleologic model of deliberate self-persuasion.

    PubMed

    Maio, Gregory R; Thomas, Geoff

    2007-02-01

    Although past theory and research point to the importance of understanding deliberate self-persuasion (i.e., deliberate self-induced attitude change), there have been no empirical and theoretical efforts to model this process. This article proposes a new model to help understand the process, while comparing the process of deliberate self-persuasion with relevant theory and research. The core feature of this model is a distinction between epistemic processes, which involve attempting to form new valid attitudes, and teleologic processes, which involve self-induced attitude change but with minimal concerns for validity. The epistemic processes employ tactics of reinterpretation, reattribution, reintegration, retesting, changing comparators, and changing dimensions of comparison. The teleologic processes include suppression, preemption, distraction, and concentration. By mapping these processes, this model helps to generate many novel and testable hypotheses about the use of deliberate self-persuasion to cope with ambivalent attitudes. PMID:18453455

  16. Figural vividness and persuasion: capturing the "elusive" vividness effect.

    PubMed

    Guadagno, Rosanna E; Rhoads, Kelton V L; Sagarin, Brad J

    2011-05-01

    Despite the widespread belief that the use of vividness in persuasive communications is effective, many laboratory studies have failed to find vividness effects. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is that many laboratory tests have not vivified solely the central thesis of the message but have vivified irrelevant portions of the message as well or instead. Two experiments examined the effect of vivifying the central ("figure") or noncentral ("ground") features of a message on persuasion. In both experiments, the formerly "elusive vividness effect" of superior persuasion was found, but only in vivid-figure communications. A mediation analysis revealed the salutary role of supportive cognitive elaborations, rather than memory for the communication, in mediating the vividness effect. The findings caution against attempts to persuade by increasing overall message vividness because off-thesis vividness has the unintended and undercutting consequence of distracting recipients from the point of the communication. PMID:21383069

  17. The Sleeper Effect in Persuasion: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumkale, G. Tarcan; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the available judgment and memory data on the sleeper effect in persuasion is presented. According to this effect, when people receive a communication associated with a discounting cue, such as a noncredible source, they are less persuaded immediately after exposure than they are later in time. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that recipients of discounting cues were more persuaded over time when the message arguments and the cue had a strong initial impact. In addition, the increase in persuasion was stronger when recipients of discounting cues had higher ability or motivation to think about the message and received the discounting cue after the message. These results are discussed in light of classic and contemporary models of attitudes and persuasion. PMID:14717653

  18. A Sociolinguistic View of the Language of Persuasion in Jordanian Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khatib, Mahmoud A.

    1994-01-01

    Investigates persuasion as a sociolinguistic phenomenon in Jordan. This study focuses on three main modes of persuasion and explores attitudes toward factors contributing to persuasion success. Devices such as the Quranic verses, the Traditions, wisdoms and proverbs, as well as trustworthiness, are crucial in influencing listener beliefs. (50…

  19. Anxiety and Message-Induced Persuasion: A Meta-analytical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Gayle M.

    Using learning theory approaches and definitions of persuasion generated from learning theorists, a study examined the effects of anxiety on message-induced persuasion by using meta-analytic techniques to quantitatively assess the effect of anxiety manipulation in persuasive situations. Studies used in the meta-analysis were similar in context and…

  20. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  1. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  2. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  3. 40 CFR 154.5 - Burden of persuasion in determinations under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burden of persuasion in determinations... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS SPECIAL REVIEW PROCEDURES General Provisions § 154.5 Burden of persuasion in... principle that the burden of persuasion that a pesticide product is entitled to registration or...

  4. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  5. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  6. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  7. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  8. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  9. 40 CFR 154.5 - Burden of persuasion in determinations under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Burden of persuasion in determinations... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS SPECIAL REVIEW PROCEDURES General Provisions § 154.5 Burden of persuasion in... principle that the burden of persuasion that a pesticide product is entitled to registration or...

  10. 40 CFR 154.5 - Burden of persuasion in determinations under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burden of persuasion in determinations... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS SPECIAL REVIEW PROCEDURES General Provisions § 154.5 Burden of persuasion in... principle that the burden of persuasion that a pesticide product is entitled to registration or...

  11. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  12. 40 CFR 154.5 - Burden of persuasion in determinations under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Burden of persuasion in determinations... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS SPECIAL REVIEW PROCEDURES General Provisions § 154.5 Burden of persuasion in... principle that the burden of persuasion that a pesticide product is entitled to registration or...

  13. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  14. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  15. 40 CFR 154.5 - Burden of persuasion in determinations under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burden of persuasion in determinations... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS SPECIAL REVIEW PROCEDURES General Provisions § 154.5 Burden of persuasion in... principle that the burden of persuasion that a pesticide product is entitled to registration or...

  16. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  17. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in...

  18. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  19. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  20. Use of Religious Tracts in the Teaching of an Introductory Course in Persuasive Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorgan, Howard

    The use of religious tracts in teaching a course in persuasive communication is described in this paper. Excerpts from a number of tracts are presented to show how religious tracts can be used in teaching about (1) persuasive messages that appeal to fear, (2) the question of ethics in persuasion, (3) appeals to concerns about physiological…

  1. Written Feedback and Scoring of Sixth-Grade Girls' and Boys' Narrative and Persuasive Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelley; Childs, Ruth; Kennedy, Kerrie

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the possible gender differences in teachers' scoring and written feedback on two narrative and two persuasive writing samples sent to 108 grade six teachers throughout one Canadian province. Participating teachers read a narrative and a persuasive piece of writing from one boy, and a narrative and persuasive piece written by…

  2. Preventing Multiple Risky Behaviors among Adolescents: Seven Strategies. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2011-24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Mary A.; Andrews, Kristine M.; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Taking risks is fairly common in adolescence. Risky behaviors can be associated with serious, long-term, and--in some cases--life-threatening consequences. This is especially the case when adolescents engage in more than one harmful behavior. The tendency for risky behaviors to co-occur has been well-studied. Yet prevention efforts traditionally…

  3. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  4. Zinc Prevents Sickness Behavior Induced by Lipopolysaccharides after a Stress Challenge in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, Thiago B.; Galvão, Marcella C.; Reis-Silva, Thiago M.; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    Sickness behavior is considered part of the specific beneficial adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in individuals in response to infectious/inflammatory processes. However, in dangerous and stressful situations, sickness behavior should be momentarily abrogated to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight or flight. Taking this assumption into account, we experimentally induced sickness behavior in rats using lipopolysaccharides (LPS), an endotoxin that mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, and then exposed these rats to a restraint stress challenge. Zinc has been shown to play a regulatory role in the immune and nervous systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc treatment on the sickness response of stress-challenged rats. We evaluated 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behavior, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), corticosterone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels. LPS administration induced sickness behavior in rats compared to controls, i.e., decreases in the distance traveled, average velocity, rearing frequency, self-grooming, and number of vocalizations, as well as an increase in the plasma levels of TNF-α, compared with controls after a stressor challenge. LPS also decreased BDNF expression but did not influence anxiety parameters. Zinc treatment was able to prevent sickness behavior in LPS-exposed rats after the stress challenge, restoring exploratory/motor behaviors, communication, and TNF-α levels similar to those of the control group. Thus, zinc treatment appears to be beneficial for sick animals when they are facing risky/stressful situations. PMID:25775356

  5. Adolescent sexual health behavior in Thailand: implications for prevention of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Sritanyarat, Wanapa; Ayuwat, Dusadee

    2006-01-01

    Since adolescents are now engaging in sexual activity in their early years, sexual behavior needs to be explored to prevent contact with HPVs and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including cervical cancer. This qualitative study aimed to explore this question from adolescents' view points in their natural context. The participants were 19 individuals aged 13-19 years living in rural families in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The preliminary findings indicated that factors contributing to low sexual risk behavior were helping family to do housework, an emphasis on learning, listening to parents, and following their advice. Adolescent behavior leading to high sexual risk included being very close to friends, having a wide social circle, going out for enjoyment at night time, returning home late at night, drinking alcohol, smoking, paying less attention to learning, not listening to parents, and not following their advice. Adolescent sexual behavior was found to comprise: 1) sexual activities themselves; 2) non-disclosure of having sex; and 3) protective behavior. Sexual activities were ranked from low risk to high risk of sexual health. Low risk included having a steady boy/girlfriend, hugging, and kissing. High risk sexual behavior featured unprotected sex, abuse or rape, and abortion. Important influences were: eagerness to learn and try to have sex, mens' sexual desire, peer group value of having sex, and material value. The adolescents demonstrated no willingness to disclose having a boy/girl friend, having sex and negative consequences like becoming pregnant. Sexual protective behavior was up to males, whether they were willing to use a condom, with females having little power to negotiate. The study suggests that inappropriate adolescent risk behavior and social values need to be a focus of attention for education. In particular, families need to take action by early detection of adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:17250438

  6. The comparative effectiveness of persuasion, commitment and leader block strategies in motivating sorting.

    PubMed

    Mickaël, Dupré

    2014-04-01

    Household waste management has become essential in industrialized countries. For the recycling programs to be a success, all citizens must comply with the developed residential procedures. Governmental bodies are thus dependent on as many people as possible adhering to the sorting systems they develop. Since the 1970s oil crisis, governments have called upon social psychologists to help develop effective communication strategies. These studies have been based on persuasion and behavioral commitment (Kiesler, 1971). Less common are studies based on developing participative communication (Horsley, 1977), a form of communication that relies on individuals to pass on information. After going through the main communication perspectives as they relate to the sorting of household waste, a comparative field study will be presented on the effectiveness of persuasive, committing and participative communication. Participative communication relied on users to pass along information to their neighbors. The results show that the participants who spread information in this way, along with those who made a commitment, changed their behavior to a greater degree than the other participants. PMID:24507457

  7. Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents MK-801-induced stereotypical behavior and cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingqin; Chen, Quancheng; Hu, Xindai; Mao, Shishi; Kong, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), an essential nutrient, antioxidant, redox modulator, and nerve growth factor, prevents cognitive deficits associated with oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. Previous molecular imaging studies also demonstrate that PQQ binds to N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In this study, we investigated the effects of PQQ on stereotypical behaviors and cognitive deficits induced by MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist used to model schizophrenia. Mice were given repeated injections of MK-801 (0.5mg/kg/d) and PQQ (0.2, 2.0, or 20 μg/kg/d) for 60 days. Behavior was evaluated using a variety of motor, social, and cognitive tests. We found that PQQ administration significantly attenuated MK-801-induced increases in stereotypical behavior and ataxia, suggesting a protective role of PQQ against MK-801-induced neuronal dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of PQQ. PMID:24149067

  8. Musty odor of entomopathogens enhances disease-prevention behaviors in the termite Coptotermes formosanus.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Aya; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Akino, Toshiharu; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Yanagawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Susumu

    2011-09-01

    Termites often eliminate pathogens directly through mutual grooming, and are thereby prevent infections from entomopathogenic fungi. Our previous study confirmed that the antennae of Coptotermesformosanus sensitively responded to the musty odor of entomopathogenic fungi. However, it is unclear if this odor has any effect on termite behavior. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of fungal odor on termite behavior, especially on conidia removal. The musty odor was prepared as an aqueous solution by immersing conidia in distilled water. When untreated termites were mixed with fungal-odor-treated termites at a ratio of 4:1, mutual grooming and attack of treated termites were frequently observed. This indicated that the fungal odor triggered these behavioral responses. While some components of the fungal odor were found in all of the entomopathogenic fungi tested, the odor profiles differed among the isolates. PMID:21683707

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Preventive Behaviors in France during the Fukushima Nuclear Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Crépey, Pascal; Pivette, Mathilde; Bar-Hen, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Background The Fukushima nuclear disaster has generated worldwide concern on the risk of exposure to nuclear radiations. In Europe, health authorities had to issue statements about the lack of usefulness of iodine based preventive treatments within their borders. However a lack of confidence in official messages has developed in various European countries due to recent perceived failures in managing public health crises. The lay population preventive behaviors in this context are largely unknown. Consequently, to examine the effects of public health crisis on lay behaviors leading to pharmaceuticals purchases, we studied the sales of iodine-based products in France before, during and after the crisis. Methods We focused our study on 58 iodine-based drugs available with and without a physician prescription. Our data came from a stratified sample of 3004 pharmacies in metropolitan France. Our study period was from January 2010 to April 2012, with a focus on March-April 2011. We differentiated sales of drugs prescribed by physicians from sales of drugs obtained without a prescription. We used a CUSUM method to detect abnormal increases in sales activity and cross-correlations to assess shifts in sales timing. Results Sales of iodine-based nutritional complements, and later sales of iodine-based homeopathic remedies, substantially increased (up to 3-fold) during a period of 20 days. Their temporal patterns were correlated to specific events during the crisis. Prescriptions for iodine-based homeopathy increased (up to 35% of all sales). Iodine pills, strictly regulated by health authorities, have also been sold but on a very small scale. Conclusion These results indicate uncontrolled preventive behaviors resulting in the potentially unjustifiable consumption of available drugs. They have implications in public policy, and demonstrate the usefulness of drug sales surveillance for instantaneous evaluation of population behavior during a global crisis. PMID:23505499

  10. Changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior as a result of a community-based AIDS prevention program.

    PubMed

    Miller, T E; Booraem, C; Flowers, J V; Iversen, A E

    1990-01-01

    The study evaluates the outcome of a California-based AIDS prevention program, "Stop AIDS." Community discussion groups focusing on information, attitudes, and behavior associated with HIV infection and transmission were conducted in one-time, 3 1/2-hour sessions. Participants completed different versions of the AIDS Prevention Test before and after the discussion group. Significant positive shifts in information, attitudes, and behavior were observed as a function of the discussion group participation. Whereas pretest knowledge correlated with pretest behavior and posttest knowledge, only pretest behavior correlated with the crucial variable of posttest intended behavior. When changes from pretest to posttest were analyzed, both information and attitude change correlated to changes in behavior. The intervention and evaluation procedures are proposed as a replicable national model for community-based AIDS prevention programs. PMID:2386650

  11. Reduced Fatalism and Increased Prevention Behavior After Two High-Profile Lung Cancer Events

    PubMed Central

    PORTNOY, DAVID B.; LEACH, CORINNE R.; KAUFMAN, ANNETTE R.; MOSER, RICHARD P.; ALFANO, CATHERINE M.

    2015-01-01

    The positive impact of media coverage of high-profile cancer events on cancer prevention behaviors is well-established. However, less work has focused on potential adverse psychological reactions to such events, such as fatalism. Conducting 3 studies, the authors explored how the lung cancer death of Peter Jennings and diagnosis of Dana Reeve in 2005 related to fatalism. Analysis of a national media sample in Study 1 found that media coverage of these events often focused on reiterating the typical profile of those diagnosed with lung cancer; 38% of the media mentioned at least 1 known risk factor for lung cancer, most often smoking. Data from a nationally representative survey in Study 2 found that respondents reported lower lung cancer fatalism, after, compared with before, the events (OR = 0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.93]). A sustained increase in call volume to the national tobacco Quitline after these events was found in Study 3. These results suggest that there is a temporal association between high-profile cancer events, the subsequent media coverage, psychological outcomes, and cancer prevention behaviors. These results suggest that high-profile cancer events could be leveraged as an opportunity for large-scale public heath communication campaigns through the dissemination of cancer prevention messages and services. PMID:24274730

  12. Modifying health behavior to prevent cardiovascular diseases: a nationwide survey among German primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; Diehl, Katharina; Bock, Christina; Herr, Raphael M; Mayer, Manfred; Görig, Tatiana

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Primary care is considered to be the ideal setting for CVD prevention. Therefore, more than 4,000 German primary care physicians (PCPs) were asked about their attitudes towards and their activities regarding the prevention of CVD in the nationwide ÄSP-kardio Study. The focus of the study was on health behavior modification. Two thirds of the participating PCPs stated that they routinely provided brief inventions to assist patients in reducing both their tobacco (72%) and alcohol (61%) consumption, to encourage them to increase their levels of physical activity (72%), and to assist them in adjusting to a more healthy diet (66%), and in achieving a healthy body weight (69%). However, only between 23% (quitting smoking) and 49% (diet modification) of PCPs felt that they had been successful in helping patients modify their lifestyles. Insufficient reimbursement, cultural diversity and a lack of time were reported to be the most problematic barriers to successful intervention in the primary care setting. Despite these obstacles, the majority of German PCPs was engaged in prevention and health behavior intervention to reduce the incidence and progression of CVD. PMID:24739770

  13. Does Practice Make Perfect? A Randomized Control Trial of Behavioral Rehearsal on Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Skills

    PubMed Central

    Seaburn, David; Gibbs, Danette; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; White, Ann Marie; Caine, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10–24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper skills to intervene with at-risk youth, the impact on skills and use of training is less known. Brief gatekeeper training programs are largely educational and do not employ active learning strategies such as behavioral rehearsal through role play practice to assist skill development. In this study, we compare gatekeeper training as usual with training plus brief behavioral rehearsal (i.e., role play practice) on a variety of learning outcomes after training and at follow-up for 91 school staff and 56 parents in a school community. We found few differences between school staff and parent participants. Both training conditions resulted in enhanced knowledge and attitudes, and almost all participants spread gatekeeper training information to others in their network. Rigorous standardized patient and observational methods showed behavioral rehearsal with role play practice resulted in higher total gatekeeper skill scores immediately after training and at follow-up. Both conditions, however, showed decrements at follow-up. Strategies to strengthen and maintain gatekeeper skills over time are discussed. PMID:21814869

  14. Mediation of a Preventive Intervention’s Six-Year Effects on Health Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Ana C.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a 6-year longitudinal follow-up sample of 240 youth who participated in a randomized experimental trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families with children ages 9 -12, the current study tested mechanisms by which the intervention reduced substance use and risky sexual behavior in mid to late adolescence (15–19 years old). Mechanisms tested included parental monitoring, adaptive coping, and negative errors. Parental monitoring at 6-year follow-up mediated program effects to reduce alcohol and marijuana use, polydrug use, and other drug use for those with high pre-test risk for maladjustment. In the condition that included a program for mothers only, increases in youth adaptive coping at 6-year follow-up mediated program effects on risky sexual behavior for those with high pre-test risk for maladjustment. Contrary to expectation, program participation increased negative errors and decreased adaptive coping among low risk youth in some of the analyses. Ways in which this study furthers our understanding of pathways through which evidence-based preventive interventions affect health risk behaviors are discussed. PMID:20565156

  15. N-acetylcysteine prevents stress-induced anxiety behavior in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mocelin, Ricieri; Herrmann, Ana P; Marcon, Matheus; Rambo, Cassiano L; Rohden, Aline; Bevilaqua, Fernanda; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Zanatta, Leila; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Lara, Diogo R; Piato, Angelo L

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, the pharmacological treatments currently available are limited in efficacy and induce serious side effects. A possible strategy to achieve clinical benefits is drug repurposing, i.e., discovery of novel applications for old drugs, bringing new treatment options to the market and to the patients who need them. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a commonly used mucolytic and paracetamol antidote, has emerged as a promising molecule for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action of this drug is complex, and involves modulation of antioxidant, inflammatory, neurotrophic and glutamate pathways. Here we evaluated the effects of NAC on behavioral parameters relevant to anxiety in zebrafish. NAC did not alter behavioral parameters in the novel tank test, prevented the anxiety-like behaviors induced by an acute stressor (net chasing), and increased the time zebrafish spent in the lit side in the light/dark test. These data may indicate that NAC presents an anti-stress effect, with the potential to prevent stress-induced psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. The considerable homology between mammalian and zebrafish genomes invests the current data with translational validity for the further clinical trials needed to substantiate the use of NAC in anxiety disorders. PMID:26261019

  16. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  17. Persuasion and Social Influence Tactics Used by Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Rick; Feldman, Michelle; Williams, Kristin; Fierstien, Jocelyn

    1998-01-01

    Members (N=499) of the American Mental Health Counselors Association were surveyed to identify persuasion and influence tactics that they utilize in their practice. Techniques reported were metaphors, noting negative consequences, pointing out benefits or rewards, using reasoning, evaluating oneself to an ideal self, and modeling. The effects of…

  18. Persuasion in a Self-Help Group: Processes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurik, Nancy C.

    1987-01-01

    Examined techniques of persuasion used in self-help organization for persons with mental problems. Concludes that successful affiliation with the group is a conversion process and that, although acceptance of the organizational ideology may facilitate an individual member's recovery, it simultaneously reinforces an understanding of mental problems…

  19. Persuasive Writing and the Student-Run Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, James C.

    2007-01-01

    High school teacher James C. Mayer explains how a student-run symposium can promote "risk-taking and participation" and help students practice effective persuasion skills before demonstrating them in writing. The symposium places students in roles that encourage responsibility and ownership for discussion and learning, shifting the classroom…

  20. Children's Attention to Beliefs in Interactive Persuasion Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Karen; London, Kamala; Campbell, Michelle Diane

    2007-01-01

    Whether and when children can apply their developing understanding of belief to persuasion was examined using interactive puppet tasks. Children selected 1 of 2 arguments to persuade a puppet to do something (e.g., pet a dog) after hearing the puppet's belief (e.g., "I think puppies bite"). Across 2 studies, 132 children (ages 3-7 years) engaged…

  1. Modern Trends in Persuasion in Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, William S.

    The author suggests that we are moving into an era where skills in persuasion are considered prerequisite to other management skills and discusses the emphasis on interpersonal communication as a continuing process that serves the purpose of making known and available to an industrial group the resources of individual human beings. He cites the…

  2. Metadiscourse Use in the Persuasive Writing of Malaysian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Helen; Eng, Wong Bee

    2014-01-01

    Metadiscourse is a prevalent linguistic resource that helps writers to manage the flow of the propositional contents and to direct their stance towards their contents and readers. Its dominance in persuasive writings has motivated this study which is to examine the occurrences and forms of metadiscourse use in the writing of both the high (HEP)…

  3. Investigating Persuasive Writing by 9-11 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Roger; Burrell, Andrew; Homer, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Within research into children's persuasive writing, relatively little work has been done on the writing of advertisements, how such writing develops in the primary school years and the textual features that help to secure this development. Framed within rhetoric, writing and linguistics, an exploratory study was undertaken in which a standardised…

  4. Criticism and Interpretation: Teaching the Persuasive Aspects of Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Research articles are an excellent tool for promoting active learning about the scientific process. One difficulty in teaching research articles is that they address a professional audience and often seek to be persuasive as well as informative. This essay discusses pedagogical strategies that are intended to help students differentiate the purely…

  5. How Films Function as Persuasion for the Mass Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Victoria

    Reaching millions of people weekly, film is possibly the most persuasive of all media today. Its success is due to the combination of the filmmakers' shrewd audience analysis and audience techniques with the medium's ability to involve viewers intellectually, emotionally, and even physically in the vivid images on the screen. Once a major means of…

  6. Fear and Loving in Las Vegas: Evolution, Emotion, and Persuasion.

    PubMed

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Goldstein, Noah J; Mortensen, Chad R; Sundie, Jill M; Cialdini, Robert B; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2009-06-01

    How do arousal-inducing contexts, such as frightening or romantic television programs, influence the effectiveness of basic persuasion heuristics? Different predictions are made by three theoretical models: A general arousal model predicts that arousal should increase effectiveness of heuristics; an affective valence model predicts that effectiveness should depend on whether the context elicits positive or negative affect; an evolutionary model predicts that persuasiveness should depend on both the specific emotion that is elicited and the content of the particular heuristic. Three experiments examined how fear-inducing versus romantic contexts influenced the effectiveness of two widely used heuristics-social proof (e.g., "most popular") and scarcity (e.g., "limited edition"). Results supported predictions from an evolutionary model, showing that fear can lead scarcity appeals to be counter-persuasive, and that romantic desire can lead social proof appeals to be counter-persuasive. The findings highlight how an evolutionary theoretical approach can lead to novel theoretical and practical marketing insights. PMID:19727416

  7. Persuasive Argumentation and Social Comparison as Determinants of Attitude Polarization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnstein, Eugene; Vinokur, Amiram

    1977-01-01

    Several studies, developed by the authors, indicate that persuasive-arguments theory by itself is an adequate explanation of polarization. Sanders and Baron (AA 526 863) criticize this research. Here the authors answer their critique. Relevant portions of the standard literature are reviewed to demonstrate that social comparison is neither a…

  8. The Persuasiveness of Metaphor: A Replication and Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siltanen, Susan A.

    1981-01-01

    Tested the persuasiveness of three extended concluding metaphors: sex, death, and sex-death. (Speech topic for high school students was the anti-legalization of marihuana.) Results indicated that attitudes changed more toward the position advocated in the speech when it contained a concluding sex metaphor than when it did not. (PD)

  9. Influence, Belief, and Argument: An Introduction to Responsible Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehninger, Douglas

    This analysis of argumentation considers three separate, yet interrelated, aspects of the persuasive argument: evidence, warrant, and claim. A study of each of these components is presented in separate chapters with an examination of the role and standards each must carry out in formulating sound, logical proof. A classification of types of…

  10. Appealing Texts: The Persuasive Writing of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durst, Russel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the persuasive essays of high school juniors and seniors to determine the specific rhetorical and linguistic features that contributed to raters' holistic judgments about the overall quality of the essays. Reports that use of logical appeals, five-paragraph structure, coherence, and number of words were strongly correlated with overall…

  11. Counterfactual Thinking as a Mechanism in Narrative Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal-Or, Nurit; Boninger, David S.; Poran, Amir; Gleicher, Faith

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of counterfactual thinking on persuasion. Participants in both experiments were exposed to short video clips in which an actor described a car accident that resulted in serious injury. In the narrative description, the salience of a counterfactual was manipulated by either explicitly including the counterfactual…

  12. The Sleeper Effect in Persuasion: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumkale, G. Tarcan; Albarracin, Dolores

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the available judgment and memory data on the sleeper effect in persuasion is presented. According to this effect, when people receive a communication associated with a discounting cue, such as a noncredible source, they are less persuaded immediately after exposure than they are later in time. Findings from this meta-analysis…

  13. Discovering Argument: Linking Literacy, Citizenship Education, and Persuasive Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Peter; Thomas, Damon

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores persuasive writing and what more might be done to help equip young people with the written literacy tools to be effective participants in civic activism. Firstly, we argue from an Australian (and Tasmanian) context that there may be merit in teachers and students re-visiting some of the advice from classical rhetoric around the…

  14. Fear and Loving in Las Vegas: Evolution, Emotion, and Persuasion

    PubMed Central

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Goldstein, Noah J.; Mortensen, Chad R.; Sundie, Jill M.; Cialdini, Robert B.; Kenrick, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    How do arousal-inducing contexts, such as frightening or romantic television programs, influence the effectiveness of basic persuasion heuristics? Different predictions are made by three theoretical models: A general arousal model predicts that arousal should increase effectiveness of heuristics; an affective valence model predicts that effectiveness should depend on whether the context elicits positive or negative affect; an evolutionary model predicts that persuasiveness should depend on both the specific emotion that is elicited and the content of the particular heuristic. Three experiments examined how fear-inducing versus romantic contexts influenced the effectiveness of two widely used heuristics—social proof (e.g., “most popular”) and scarcity (e.g., “limited edition”). Results supported predictions from an evolutionary model, showing that fear can lead scarcity appeals to be counter-persuasive, and that romantic desire can lead social proof appeals to be counter-persuasive. The findings highlight how an evolutionary theoretical approach can lead to novel theoretical and practical marketing insights. PMID:19727416

  15. Behavioral Skills Training to Improve the Abduction-Prevention Skills of Children with Autism.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter-Cho, Katherine; Lang, Russell; Davenport, Katy; Moore, Melissa; Lee, Allyson; O'Reilly, Mark; Watkins, Laci; Falcomata, Terry

    2016-09-01

    A concurrent multiple baseline across participants design evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on abduction-prevention skills of four children with autism. Across phases, confederates presented four types of abduction lures: (a) simple requests, (b) appeals to authority, (c) assistance requests, and (d) incentives. During baseline, lures resulted in children leaving with confederate strangers. During intervention, BST targeted a three-step response (i.e., refuse, move away, and report) and the abduction-prevention skills of all participants improved. Improvements generalized to novel settings and confederates and were maintained at 4 weeks. There is currently limited research on abduction-prevention pertaining to individuals with ASD. BST can be used to teach abduction-prevention skills to individuals with ASD. BST can be effective at teaching appropriate responses to multiple types of abduction lures. The effects of BST on multiple responses to multiple types of lures can generalize across settings and people and maintain over time. PMID:27622133

  16. Enhancing Sibling Relationships to Prevent Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Theory, Design and Feasibility of Siblings Are Special

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Hostetler, Michelle; McHale, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Siblings play a significant but neglected role in family socialization dynamics, and focusing on the sibling relationship is a non-stigmatizing point of entry into the family for prevention programming. Siblings are Special (SAS) was designed as a universal program that targets both sibling relationship and parenting mediating processes in middle childhood to prevent behavior problems in adolescence. We describe the theoretical framework underlying SAS, the SAS curriculum, and the feasibility of the program based on a study of 128 middle-childhood aged sibling dyads. Data on the quality of program implementation, program fidelity, siblings’ engagement, and ratings of impact indicated the SAS program was acceptable to families and schools, that the curriculum could be implemented with high fidelity, that siblings and parents participated at high levels and were highly engaged, and that, from the perspective of group leaders, school administrators and parents, the program had a positive impact on the siblings. PMID:23000632

  17. Community-based prevention marketing: organizing a community for health behavior intervention.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Carol A; Brown, Kelli R McCormack; McDermott, Robert J; Forthofer, Melinda S; Bumpus, Elizabeth C; Calkins, Susan A; Zapata, Lauren B

    2007-04-01

    This article describes the application and refinement of community-based prevention marketing (CBPM), an example of community-based participatory research that blends social marketing theories and techniques and community organization principles to guide voluntary health behavior change. The Florida Prevention Research Center has worked with a community coalition in Sarasota County, Florida to define locally important health problems and issues and to develop responsive health-promotion interventions. The CBPM framework has evolved as academic and community-based researchers have gained experience applying it. Community boards can use marketing principles to design evidence-based strategies for addressing local public health concerns. Based on 6 years of experience with the "Believe in All Your Possibilities" program, lessons learned that have led to revision and improvement of the CBPM framework are described. PMID:16923844

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Children of Depressed Parents

    PubMed Central

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E.; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L.; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K.; Cole, David A.

    2010-01-01

    A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9–15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at postintervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6 months), and at 12-month follow-up. Children were assessed by child reports on depressive symptoms, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems; by parent reports on internalizing and externalizing problems; and by child and parent reports on a standardized diagnostic interview. Parent depressive symptoms and parent episodes of major depression also were assessed. Evidence emerged for significant differences favoring the family group intervention on both child and parent outcomes; strongest effects for child outcomes were found at the 12-month assessment with medium effect sizes on most measures. Implications for the prevention of adverse outcomes in children of depressed parents are highlighted. PMID:19968378

  19. Randomized controlled trial of a family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for children of depressed parents.

    PubMed

    Compas, Bruce E; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M; Colletti, Christina J M; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K; Cole, David A

    2009-12-01

    A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9-15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at postintervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6 months), and at 12-month follow-up. Children were assessed by child reports on depressive symptoms, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems; by parent reports on internalizing and externalizing problems; and by child and parent reports on a standardized diagnostic interview. Parent depressive symptoms and parent episodes of major depression also were assessed. Evidence emerged for significant differences favoring the family group intervention on both child and parent outcomes; strongest effects for child outcomes were found at the 12-month assessment with medium effect sizes on most measures. Implications for the prevention of adverse outcomes in children of depressed parents are highlighted. PMID:19968378

  20. Implications for the prevention of aggressive behavior within psychiatric hospitals drawn from interpersonal communication theory.

    PubMed

    Daffern, Michael; Day, Andrew; Cookson, Amy

    2012-05-01

    Although interpersonal style is a defining feature of personality and personality disorder and is commonly identified as an important influence on aggressive behavior, treatment completion, and the development of an effective therapeutic alliance, it is rarely considered in practice guidelines for preventing, engaging, and managing patients at risk of aggression. In this article, the authors consider three potential applications of interpersonal theory to the care and management of patients at risk of aggression during hospitalization: (a) preventing aggression through theoretically grounded limit setting and de-escalation techniques, (b) developing and using interventions to alter problematic interpersonal styles, and (c) understanding therapeutic ruptures and difficulties establishing a therapeutic alliance. Interpersonal theory is proposed to offer a unifying framework that may assist development of intervention and management strategies that can help to reduce the occurrence of aggression in institutional settings. PMID:21518699

  1. Behavioral research in preventive dentistry: educational and contingency management approaches to the problem of patient compliance.

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, B A; Becksfort, C M

    1981-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reinforcement on compliance with an oral hygiene education program. Patients 18 years of age or older who enrolled in an ongoing program at a periodontal practice received 3-5 sessions of instruction in preventive dental care. Using a between-subjects design, patients who entered the program during alternating months also had a portion of their fees refunded contingent upon improvements in their dental plaque scores. Pre- and posttreatment data showed that all subjects exhibited lower plaque levels following the program, but that greater improvements were seen in patients who were exposed to the fee reduction contingency. Plaque scores taken at a 6-month follow-up revealed some relapse for the Fee Reduction subjects. However, their scores were still substantially better than pretreatment, and better than those of the Education only subjects, whose data differed little from untreated Controls. Methodological and practical issues related to behavioral research in preventive dentistry are discussed. PMID:7287595

  2. Child Pedestrian Injury: A Review of Behavioral Risks and Preventive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Davis, Aaron L.; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian injury is among the leading causes of pediatric death in the United States and much of the world. This paper is divided into two sections. First, we review the literature on behavioral risk factors for child injury. Cognitive and perceptual development risks are discussed. The roles of distraction, temperament and personality, and social influences from parents and peers are presented. We conclude the first section with brief reviews of environmental risks, pedestrian safety among special populations, and the role of sleep and fatigue on pediatric pedestrian safety. The second section of the review considers child pedestrian injury prevention strategies. Categorized by mode of presentation, we discuss parent instruction strategies, school-based instruction strategies (including crossing guards), and streetside training techniques. Technology-based training strategies using video, internet, and virtual reality are reviewed. We conclude the section on prevention with discussion of community-based interventions. PMID:23066380

  3. A Multidimensional Model of Sexual Health and Sexual and Prevention Behavior Among Adolescent Women

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sexual health refers a state of lifespan well-being related to sexuality. Among young people, sexual health has multiple dimensions, including the positive developmental contributions of sexuality, as well as the acquisition of skills pertinent to avoiding adverse sexual outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Existing efforts to understand sexual health, however, have yet to empirically operationalize a multi-dimensional model of sexual health and to evaluate its association to different sexual/prevention behaviors. Methods Sexual health dimensions and sexual/prevention behaviors were drawn from a larger longitudinal cohort study of sexual relationships among adolescent women (N =387, 14–17 years). Second order latent variable modeling (AMOS/19.0) evaluated the relationship between sexual health and dimensions and analyzed the effect of sexual health to sexual/prevention outcomes. Results All first order latent variables were significant indicators of sexual health (β: 0.192 – 0.874, all p < .001). Greater sexual health was significantly associated with sexual abstinence, as well as with more frequent non-coital and vaginal sex, condom use at last sex, a higher proportion of condom-protected events, use of hormonal or other methods of pregnancy control and absence of STI. All models showed good fit. Conclusions Sexual health is an empirically coherent structure, in which the totality of its dimensions is significantly linked to a wide range of outcomes, including sexual abstinence, condom use and absence of STI. This means that, regardless of a young person’s experiences, sexual health is an important construct for promoting positive sexual development and for primary prevention. PMID:23332488

  4. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  5. Ethical persuasion: the rhetoric of communication in critical care.

    PubMed

    Dubov, Alex

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the ethics of rhetoric in critical care. Rational appeals in critical care fail to move patients or surrogates to a better course of action. Appeals to their emotions are considered illegitimate because they may preclude autonomous choice. This article discusses whether it is always unethical to change someone's beliefs, whether persuasive communication is inherently harmful and whether it leaves no space for voluntariness. To answer these questions, the article engages with Aristotle's work, Rhetoric. In considering whether there is a place for emotionally charged messages in a patient-provider relationship, the article intends to delineate the nature of this relationship and describe the duties this relationship implies. The article presents examples of persuasive communication used in critical care and discusses whether providers may have a duty to persuade patients. This duty is supported by the fact that doctors often influence patients' and families' choices by framing presented options. Doctors should assume responsibility in recognizing these personal and contextual influences that may influence the medical choices of their patients. They should attempt to modify these contextual factors and biases in a way that would assist patients and families in reaching the desired outcomes. The opening sections surveyed a number of definitions found in relevant literature and outlined some of the concepts included in the proposed definition. This definition helps to distinguish instances of persuasion from cases of manipulation, coercion and deception. Considering the fact that patients and families often make irrational decisions and the fact that doctors inadvertently influence their choices, the article suggested that persuasion can be a positive tool in medical communication. When patients or families clearly do not understand the risks or make decisions that contradict their long-term goals, persuasion can be used as a positive influence

  6. Actively caring to prevent bullying in an elementary school: Prompting and rewarding prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Shane; Teie, Sophia; McCutchen, Jenna; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    This field study evaluated the impact of an intervention designed to prevent bullying among elementary-school students by prompting and rewarding prosocial behavior. More specifically, teachers of 404 second-, third-, fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students from an elementary school in northeast Virginia asked their students to look out for other students' prosocial behaviors (termed "actively caring") and to submit their stories about actively caring. At the start of every class day, the teachers read three of these stories and recognized one story and the two associated students (i.e., the observer and the performer) by providing each with a wristband engraved with "Actively Caring for People." For six consecutive Fridays, students reported their observations of bullying and completed a single item estimate of self-esteem. Weekly surveys revealed reductions in "being bullied" and "bullying others," as well as an increase in self-esteem. PMID:27309025

  7. Study designs for identifying risk compensation behavior among users of biomedical HIV prevention technologies: balancing methodological rigor and research ethics.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Kristen

    2013-10-01

    The growing evidence base for biomedical HIV prevention interventions - such as oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides, male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and eventually prevention vaccines - has given rise to concerns about the ways in which users of these biomedical products may adjust their HIV risk behaviors based on the perception that they are prevented from infection. Known as risk compensation, this behavioral adjustment draws on the theory of "risk homeostasis," which has previously been applied to phenomena as diverse as Lyme disease vaccination, insurance mandates, and automobile safety. Little rigorous evidence exists to answer risk compensation concerns in the biomedical HIV prevention literature, in part because the field has not systematically evaluated the study designs available for testing these behaviors. The goals of this Commentary are to explain the origins of risk compensation behavior in risk homeostasis theory, to reframe risk compensation as a testable response to the perception of reduced risk, and to assess the methodological rigor and ethical justification of study designs aiming to isolate risk compensation responses. Although the most rigorous methodological designs for assessing risk compensation behavior may be unavailable due to ethical flaws, several strategies can help investigators identify potential risk compensation behavior during Phase II, Phase III, and Phase IV testing of new technologies. Where concerns arise regarding risk compensation behavior, empirical evidence about the incidence, types, and extent of these behavioral changes can illuminate opportunities to better support the users of new HIV prevention strategies. This Commentary concludes by suggesting a new way to conceptualize risk compensation behavior in the HIV prevention context. PMID:23597916

  8. Behavior change interventions to prevent HIV infection among women living in low and middle income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Sandra I; Kangwende, Rugare A; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-06-01

    We conducted a systematic review of behavioral change interventions to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV among women and girls living in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and other databases and bibliographies were systematically searched for trials using randomized or quasi-experimental designs to evaluate behavioral interventions with HIV infection as an outcome. We identified 11 analyses for inclusion reporting on eight unique interventions. Interventions varied widely in intensity, duration, and delivery as well as by target population. Only two analyses showed a significant protective effect on HIV incidence among women and only three of ten analyses that measured behavioral outcomes reduced any measure of HIV-related risk behavior. Ongoing research is needed to determine whether behavior change interventions can be incorporated as independent efficacious components in HIV prevention packages for women or simply as complements to biomedical prevention strategies. PMID:19949847

  9. Dress-Related Behavioral Problems and Violence in the Public School Setting: Prevention, Intervention, and Policy--A Holistic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloman, Lillian; LaPoint, Velma; Alleyne, Sylvan I.; Palmer, Ruth J.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    1996-01-01

    Addresses clothing-related behavioral problems for public school children and the increasing use of dress codes and uniform policies as preventive measures. It describes dress-related conflicts for black public school students and parents across socialization and contextual settings. The implications of preventive policies and practices are…

  10. Prevention of and Early Intervention for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Systems to Support Data-Based Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Mitchell, Barbara S.

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders are at great risk for long-term negative outcomes. Researchers and practitioners alike acknowledge the need for evidence-based, preventive, and early intervention strategies. Accordingly, in this chapter an expanded view of prevention is presented as a series of data driven decisions to guide…

  11. The Effectiveness of Personalizing Acquaintance Rape Prevention: Programs on Perception of Vulnerability and on Reducing Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Michael D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that a personalized acquaintance rape prevention program reduces risk-taking behavior and increases perception of vulnerability. Seventy female college students were exposed to Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program with experimentals and controls receiving personalized or nonpersonalized instruction, respectively. Findings showed…

  12. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  13. Evaluation of a school-based educational program to prevent adolescents’ problem behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many researchers believe that adolescents’ problem behaviors are indicators of a deficiency in social skills. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a prevention program on reducing problem behaviors in male adolescents. Materials and Methods: In a preposttest design with randomized control group, 49 students received social skills training (SST). Follow-up assessment of outcomes took place 5 months post baseline. The SST program was administered over the course of 10 weeks (10 sessions of 1 h). The main tools were multiple problem behaviors index (MPBI) and Social Skills Rating System – student form (SSRS-S). The control group (57 students) did not receive any intervention. Intervention effects were evaluated with t-test, univariate ANCOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Significant difference between groups founded on SSRS at posttest (t = 2.5, P = 0.014) by univariate ANCOVA. In addition, the findings indicated that variation trend of mean scores of SSRS in the intervention group was significant (F = 225.3, P < 0.0001). The intervention group reported Lower levels of MPBI at posttest and follow-up compared to the control group. Significant difference between the two groups did not achieved on MPBI scores in the posttest after adjusting for the pretest scores; however, this difference was significant at the follow up (F = 5.3, P = 0.020). Conclusion: The results suggest that SST was effective in improving social competence and preventing problem behaviors among male adolescent. Future researches must be examined the role of peer and family. PMID:25884000

  14. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-04-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  15. Optimization of Multicomponent Behavioral and Biobehavioral Interventions for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Collins, Linda M; Kugler, Kari C; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2016-01-01

    To move society toward an AIDS-free generation, behavioral interventions for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS must be not only effective, but also cost-effective, efficient, and readily scalable. The purpose of this article is to introduce to the HIV/AIDS research community the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), a new methodological framework inspired by engineering principles and designed to develop behavioral interventions that have these important characteristics. Many behavioral interventions comprise multiple components. In MOST, randomized experimentation is conducted to assess the individual performance of each intervention component, and whether its presence/absence/setting has an impact on the performance of other components. This information is used to engineer an intervention that meets a specific optimization criterion, defined a priori in terms of effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and/or scalability. MOST will enable intervention science to develop a coherent knowledge base about what works and does not work. Ultimately this will improve behavioral interventions systematically and incrementally. PMID:26238037

  16. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use and Addictive Behaviors: Prevention and Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels of engagement in substance use and nonsubstance addictive behaviors. Current biologic models of adolescent vulnerability for addictions incorporate existing data on allostatic changes in function and structure of the midbrain dopaminergic system, stress-associated neuroplasticity, and maturational imbalances between cognitive control and reward reactivity. When characterizing adolescent vulnerability, identifying subgroups of adolescents at high risk for addictive behaviors is a major goal of the addiction field. Genetics, epigenetics, and intermediate phenotypes/endophenotypes may assist in characterizing children and adolescents at risk. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of adolescence and addiction vulnerability has the potential to refine screening, enhance prevention and intervention strategies, and inform public policy. PMID:25022184

  17. Prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Eugene; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior among adolescents. Suicide is one of the top three causes of adolescent deaths worldwide. Despite the strong relationship between PTSD and suicidal behavior, precise causal pathways linking PTSD to suicide in adolescents remains unclear. A slew of mediating factors and variables commonly present themselves with both suicide and PTSD, including co-morbid psychiatric disorders, exposure to different forms of trauma and stressful life events, core neurobiological changes, and mental, emotional, and physiological states such as hyperarousal, impulsivity, and aggression. Because youth is such a critical stage of development, it is very important that at-risk adolescents are identified and referred for treatment. With many treatment challenges in these populations, effective implementation and use of prevention methods are of increasing importance. The most proven prevention methods include physician education, means restriction, and gatekeeper training. Other strategies that have received empirical support are public education campaigns and implementing guidelines for the media, including those for television, print media, and the Internet. PMID:23843573

  18. Validating a health consumer segmentation model: behavioral and attitudinal differences in disease prevention-related practices.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Lisa S; Massett, Holly A; Maibach, Edward W; Weber, Deanne; Hassmiller, Susan; Mockenhaupt, Robin E

    2010-03-01

    While researchers typically have segmented audiences by demographic or behavioral characteristics, psychobehavioral segmentation schemes may be more useful for developing targeted health information and programs. Previous research described a four segment psychobehavioral segmentation scheme-and a 10-item screening instrument used to identify the segments-based predominantly on people's orientation to their health (active vs. passive) and their degree of independence in health care decision making (independent vs. dependent). This study builds on this prior research by assessing the screening instrument's validity with an independent dataset and exploring whether people with distinct psychobehavioral orientations have different disease prevention attitudes and preferences for receiving information in the primary care setting. Data come from 1,650 respondents to a national mail panel survey. Using the screening instrument, respondents were segmented into four groups-independent actives, doctor-dependent actives, independent passives, and doctor-dependent passives. Consistent with the earlier research, there were clear differences in health-related attitudes and behaviors among the four segments. Members of three segments appear quite receptive to receiving disease prevention information and assistance from professionals in the primary care setting. Our findings provide further indication that the screening instrument and corresponding segmentation strategy may offer a simple, effective tool for targeting and tailoring information and other health programming to the unique characteristics of distinct audience segments. PMID:20390985

  19. Clusters of Behaviors and Beliefs Predicting Adolescent Depression: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Paunesku, David; Ellis, Justin; Fogel, Joshua; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Gollan, Jackie; Gladstone, Tracy; Reinecke, Mark; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Risk factors for various disorders are known to cluster. However, the factor structure for behaviors and beliefs predicting depressive disorder in adolescents is not known. Knowledge of this structure can facilitate prevention planning. METHODS We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) data set to conduct an exploratory factor analysis to identify clusters of behaviors/experiences predicting the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) at 1-year follow-up (N=4,791). RESULTS Four factors were identified: family/interpersonal relations, self-emancipation, avoidant problem solving/low self-worth, and religious activity. Strong family/interpersonal relations were the most significantly protective against depression at one year follow-up. Avoidant problem solving/low self-worth was not predictive of MDD on its own, but significantly amplified the risks associated with delinquency. CONCLUSION Depression prevention interventions should consider giving family relationships a more central role in their efforts. Programs teaching problem solving skills may be most appropriate for reducing MDD risk in delinquent youth. PMID:20502621

  20. Skin cancer-related prevention and screening behaviors: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kasparian, Nadine A; McLoone, Jordana K; Meiser, Bettina

    2009-10-01

    Primary prevention and early detection continue to be of paramount importance in addressing the public health threat of skin cancer. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the prevalence and correlates of skin cancer-related health behaviors in the general population. To achieve this aim, 91 studies published in international peer-reviewed journals over the past three decades were reviewed and synthesized. Reported estimates of sunscreen use varied considerably across studies, ranging from 7 to 90%. According to self-report, between 23 and 61% of individuals engage in skin self-examination at least once per year, and the documented prevalence of annual clinical skin examination ranges from 8 to 21%. Adherence to sun protection and screening recommendations is associated with a range of factors, including: female gender, sun-sensitive phenotype, greater perceived risk of skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of sun protection or screening, and doctor recommendation for screening. The literature suggests that a large proportion of the general population engage in suboptimal levels of sun protection, although there is substantial variability in findings. The strongest recommendation to emerge from this review is a call for the development and widespread use of standardized measurement scales in future research, in addition to more studies with a population-based, multivariate design. It is also recommended that specific targeted interventions are developed to increase the prevalence of preventative and early intervention behaviors for the control of skin cancer. PMID:19521760

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Trials Evaluating Patient Education and Counseling for Three Groups of Preventive Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Simons-Morton, Denise G.; Ramirez, Gilbert; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Green, Lawrence W.; Mains, Douglas A.

    1997-01-01

    The overall effectiveness of patient education and counseling on preventive health behaviors was examined across published clinical trials, 1971-1994. The effectiveness of various approaches for modifying specific types of behaviors among patients without diagnosed disease was assessed. Multiple regression models indicated differences among…

  2. Evaluation of a University-based Date Rape Prevention Program: Effect on Attitudes and Behavior Related to Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Shelli K.; Scherman, Avraham; Marshall, Lawrence J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of a date rape prevention program for both male and female undergraduate students (N=60) in changing attitudes and behavioral intent, and exploring the attitude-behavior link for both genders. Results reveal that participants in the treatment groups were less accepting of rape myths and endorsed attitudes…

  3. Efficacy of a Self-Administered Home-Based Parent Intervention on Parenting Behaviors for Preventing Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Samuolis, Jessica; Williams, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that parenting practices characterized by careful monitoring, firm and consistent limit setting, and nurturing communication patterns with children are protective against adolescent substance use and other problem behaviors. Family-based prevention programs that promote these behaviors can be an effective way…

  4. Tapping into the Power of School Climate to Prevent Bullying: One Application of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; Judkins, Maryann

    2014-01-01

    Preventing bullying requires a comprehensive approach that includes a focus on school climate. We review the climate features shown to reduce bullying, then illustrate how School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) applies these principles in practice. SWPBIS, grounded in multiple theories--behaviorism, social learning…

  5. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  6. Prevention Effects Moderate the Association of 5-HTTLPR and Youth Risk Behavior Initiation: Gene x Environment Hypotheses Tested via a Randomized Prevention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride

    2009-01-01

    A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' risk behavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk…

  7. Lithium prevents parkinsonian behavioral and striatal phenotypes in an aged parkin mutant transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Christopher A; Dewey, Colleen M; Chinta, Shankar J; Rane, Anand; Rajagopalan, Subramanian; Batir, Sean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Andersen, Julie K

    2014-12-01

    Lithium has long been used as a treatment for the psychiatric disease bipolar disorder. However, previous studies suggest that lithium provides neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease. The exact mechanism by which lithium exerts these effects still remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of low-dose lithium treatment in an aged mouse model expressing a parkin mutation within dopaminergic neurons. We found that low-dose lithium treatment prevented motor impairment as demonstrated by the open field test, pole test, and rearing behavior. Furthermore, lithium prevented dopaminergic striatal degeneration in parkin animals. We also found that parkin-induced striatal astrogliosis and microglial activation were prevented by lithium treatment. Our results further corroborate the use of this parkin mutant transgenic mouse line as a model for PD for testing novel therapeutics. The findings of the present study also provide further validation that lithium could be re-purposed as a therapy for PD and suggest that anti-inflammatory effects may contribute to its neuroprotective mechanisms. PMID:25452026

  8. Designing Effective Persuasive Systems Utilizing the Power of Entanglement: Communication Channel, Strategy and Affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiqing; Chatterjee, Samir

    With rapid advances in information and communication technology, computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies are utilizing multiple IT platforms such as email, websites, cell-phones/PDAs, social networking sites, and gaming environments. However, no studies have compared the effectiveness of a persuasive system using such alternative channels and various persuasive techniques. Moreover, how affective computing impacts the effectiveness of persuasive systems is not clear. This study proposes (1) persuasive technology channels in combination with persuasive strategies will have different persuasive effectiveness; (2) Adding positive emotion to a message that leads to a better overall user experience could increase persuasive effectiveness. The affective computing or emotion information was added to the experiment using emoticons. The initial results of a pilot study show that computer-mediated communication channels along with various persuasive strategies can affect the persuasive effectiveness to varying degrees. These results also shows that adding a positive emoticon to a message leads to a better user experience which increases the overall persuasive effectiveness of a system.

  9. Melanoma Genetic Testing, Counseling, and Adherence to Skin Cancer Prevention and Detection Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, Karen; Volpicelli, Kathryn; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Ming, Michael E.; Schuchter, Lynn M.; Jepson, Christopher; Domchek, Susan M.; Armstrong, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of knowledge of CDKN2A and MC1R genotype on melanoma prevention behaviors like sun avoidance and skin examination in the context of familial melanoma. Methods 73 adults with a family history of melanoma were randomly assigned to be offered individualized CDKN2A and MC1R genotyping results in the context of a genetic counseling session, or the standard practice of not being offered counseling or disclosure of genotyping results. Mixed effects or longitudinal logistic models were used to determine whether the intervention affected change in sun protection habits, skin examinations and perception and beliefs related to melanoma risk, prevention, and genetic counseling. Results All participants in the intervention group who attended genetic counseling sessions chose to receive their test results. From baseline to follow-up, participants in the intervention group reported an increase in the frequency of skin self-examinations compared to a slight decrease in the control group (p=0.002). Participants in the intervention group reported a smaller decrease in frequency of wearing a shirt with long sleeves than did participants in the control group (p =0.047). No effect of the intervention was noted for other outcomes. Conclusions Feedback of CDKN2A and MC1R genotype among families without known pathogenic CDKN2A mutations does not appear to decrease sun protection behaviors. Impact While disclosure of CDKN2A and MC1R genotype did not have negative effects on prevention, the benefits of communicating this information remain unclear. The small number of families who tested positive for CDKN2A mutations in this study is a limitation. PMID:23392000

  10. Prevention of behavior problems for children in foster care: outcomes and mediation effects.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Price, Joe; Leve, Leslie D; Laurent, Heidemarie; Landsverk, John A; Reid, John B

    2008-03-01

    Parent training for foster parents is mandated by federal law and supported by state statues in nearly all states; however, little is known about the efficacy of that training, and recent reviews underscore that the most widely used curricula in the child welfare system (CWS) have virtually no empirical support (Grimm, Youth Law News, April-June:3-29, 2003). On the other hand, numerous theoretically based, developmentally sensitive parent training interventions have been found to be effective in experimental clinical and prevention intervention trials (e.g., Kazdin and Wassell, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39:414-420, 2000; McMahon and Forehand, Helping the noncompliant child, Guilford Press, New York, USA, 2003; Patterson and Forgatch, Parents and adolescents: I. Living together, Castalia Publishing, Eugene, OR, USA, 1987; Webster-Stratton et al., Journal of Clinical Child Pyschology Psychiatry, 42:943-952, 2001). One of these, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC; Chamberlain, Treating chronic juvenile offenders: Advances made through the Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care model, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2003), has been used with foster parents of youth referred from juvenile justice. The effectiveness of a universal intervention, KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) based on MTFC (but less intensive) was tested in a universal randomized trial with 700 foster and kinship parents in the San Diego County CWS. The goal of the intervention was to reduce child problem behaviors through strengthening foster parents' skills. The trial was designed to examine effects on both child behavior and parenting practices, allowing for specific assessment of the extent to which improvements in child behavior were mediated by the parenting practices targeted in the intervention. Child behavior problems were reduced significantly more in the intervention condition than in the

  11. Persuasion as a Social-Cognitive Activity: The Effects of Age and Channel of Communication on Children's Production of Persuasive Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, A. D.; And Others

    To examine the relationship between children's social-cognitive status and the production of persuasive arguments and to determine the effects of age and the channel of communication on these arguments, 16 first grade, 17 third grade, and 16 fifth grade students were asked to produce both oral and written persuasive messages and were administered…

  12. Neuregulin 1 Prevents Phencyclidine-Induced Behavioral Impairments and Disruptions to GABAergic Signaling in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Snikeris, Peta; Jenner, Andrew; Karl, Tim; Huang, Xu-Feng; Frank, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substantial evidence from human post-mortem and genetic studies has linked the neurotrophic factor neuregulin 1 (NRG1) to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Genetic animal models and in vitro experiments have suggested that altered NRG1 signaling, rather than protein changes, contributes to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the effect of NRG1 on schizophrenia-relevant behavior and neurotransmission (particularly GABAergic and glutamatergic) in adult animals. Method: To address this question, we treated adult mice with the extracellular signaling domain of NRG1 and assessed spontaneous locomotor activity and acoustic startle response, as well as extracellular GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus via microdialysis. Furthermore, we asked whether the effect of NRG1 would differ under schizophrenia-relevant impairments in mice and therefore co-treated mice with NRG1 and phencyclidine (PCP) (3mg/kg). Results: Acute intraventricularly- or systemically-injected NRG1 did not affect spontaneous behavior, but prevented PCP induced hyperlocomotion and deficits of prepulse inhibition. NRG1 retrodialysis (10nM) reduced extracellular glutamate and glycine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and prevented PCP-induced increase in extracellular GABA levels in the hippocampus. Conclusion: With these results, we provide the first compelling in vivo evidence for the involvement of NRG1 signaling in schizophrenia-relevant behavior and neurotransmission in the adult nervous system, which highlight its treatment potential. Furthermore, the ability of NRG1 treatment to alter GABA, glutamate, and glycine levels in the presence of PCP also suggests that NRG1 signaling has the potential to alter disrupted neurotransmission in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26478928

  13. Harm Reduction for the Prevention of Youth Gambling Problems: Lessons Learned From Adolescent High-Risk Behavior Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2004-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…

  14. Flufenamic acid prevents behavioral manifestations of salicylate-induced tinnitus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Ustundag, Yasemin; Bulut, Funda; Demir, Caner Feyzi; Bal, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tinnitus is defined as a phantom auditory sensation, the perception of sound in the absence of external acoustic stimulation. Given that flufenamic acid (FFA) blocks TRPM2 cation channels, resulting in reduced neuronal excitability, we aimed to investigate whether FFA suppresses the behavioral manifestation of sodium salicylate (SSA)-induced tinnitus in rats. Material and methods Tinnitus was evaluated using a conditioned lick suppression model of behavioral testing. Thirty-one Wistar rats, randomly divided into four treatment groups, were trained and tested in the behavioral experiment: (1) control group: DMSO + saline (n = 6), (2) SSA group: DMSO + SSA (n = 6), (3) FFA group: FFA (66 mg/kg bw) + saline (n = 9), (4) FFA + SSA group: FFA (66 mg/kg bw) + SSA (400 mg/kg bw) (n = 10). Localization of TRPM2 to the plasma membrane of cochlear nucleus neurons was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Results Pavlovian training resulted in strong suppression of licking, having a mean value of 0.05 ±0.03 on extinction day 1, which is below the suppression training criterion level of 0.20 in control tinnitus animals. The suppression rate for rats having both FFA (66 mg/kg bw) and SSA (400 mg/kg bw) injections was significantly lower than that for the rats having SSA injections (p < 0.01). Conclusions We suggest that SSA-induced tinnitus could possibly be prevented by administration of a TRPM2 ion channel antagonist, FFA at 66 mg/kg bw. PMID:26925138

  15. Factors Determining Water Treatment Behavior for the Prevention of Cholera in Chad

    PubMed Central

    Lilje, Jonathan; Kessely, Hamit; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Cholera is a well-known and feared disease in developing countries, and is linked to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Contaminated drinking water and the lack of sufficient treatment are two of the key causes of high transmission rates. This article presents a representative health survey performed in Chad to inform future intervention strategies in the prevention and control of cholera. To identify critical psychological factors for behavior change, structured household interviews were administered to N = 1,017 primary caregivers, assessing their thoughts and attitudes toward household water treatment according to the Risk, Attitude, Norm, Ability, and Self-regulation model. The intervention potential for each factor was estimated by analyzing differences in means between groups of current performers and nonperformers of water treatment. Personal risk evaluation for diarrheal diseases and particularly for cholera was very low among the study population. Likewise, the perception of social norms was found to be rather unfavorable for water treatment behaviors. In addition, self-reported ability estimates (self-efficacy) revealed some potential for intervention. A mass radio campaign is proposed, using information and normative behavior change techniques, in combination with community meetings focused on targeting abilities and personal commitment to water treatment. PMID:25918206

  16. Brief Motivational Feedback and Cognitive Behavioral Interventions for Prevention of Disordered Gambling: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Larimer, Mary E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lostutter, Ty W.; Whiteside, Ursula; Cronce, Jessica M.; Kaysen, Debra; Walker, Denise D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims The purpose of the current study was to evaluate feasibility and efficacy of two promising approaches to indicated prevention of disordered gambling in a college population. Design Randomized controlled trial with assignment to a Personalized Feedback Intervention (PFI), Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention (CBI), or Assessment-Only Control (AOC). PFI was individually delivered in a single session and included feedback regarding gambling behavior, norms, consequences, and risk-reduction tips, delivered in a motivational interviewing style. CBI was delivered in small groups over 4-6 sessions and included functional analysis, brief cognitive correction, as well as identification of and alternatives for responding to gambling triggers. Setting College campus. Participants At-risk or probable pathological gamblers (N = 147; 65.3% male; group assignment: PFI, n = 52; CBI, n = 44; AOC, n = 51). Measurements Self-reported gambling quantity, frequency, consequences, psychopathology, normative perceptions, and beliefs. Findings Relative to control, results at 6-month follow-up indicated reductions in both interventions for gambling consequences (PFI d = .48; CBI d = .39) and DSM-IV criteria (PFI d=.60; CBI d=.48), reductions in frequency for PFI (d = .48). CBI was associated with reduced illusions of control, whereas PFI was associated with reduced perceptions of gambling frequency norms. Reductions in perceived gambling frequency norms mediated effects of PFI on gambling frequency. Conclusions A single-session Personalized Feedback Intervention and a multi-session Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention may be helpful in reducing disordered gambling in US college students. PMID:22188239

  17. Factors determining water treatment behavior for the prevention of cholera in Chad.

    PubMed

    Lilje, Jonathan; Kessely, Hamit; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Cholera is a well-known and feared disease in developing countries, and is linked to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Contaminated drinking water and the lack of sufficient treatment are two of the key causes of high transmission rates. This article presents a representative health survey performed in Chad to inform future intervention strategies in the prevention and control of cholera. To identify critical psychological factors for behavior change, structured household interviews were administered to N = 1,017 primary caregivers, assessing their thoughts and attitudes toward household water treatment according to the Risk, Attitude, Norm, Ability, and Self-regulation model. The intervention potential for each factor was estimated by analyzing differences in means between groups of current performers and nonperformers of water treatment. Personal risk evaluation for diarrheal diseases and particularly for cholera was very low among the study population. Likewise, the perception of social norms was found to be rather unfavorable for water treatment behaviors. In addition, self-reported ability estimates (self-efficacy) revealed some potential for intervention. A mass radio campaign is proposed, using information and normative behavior change techniques, in combination with community meetings focused on targeting abilities and personal commitment to water treatment. PMID:25918206

  18. Uganda's HIV Prevention Success: The Role of Sexual Behavior Change and the National Response

    PubMed Central

    Green, Edward C.; Nantulya, Vinand; Hogle, Janice A.

    2006-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in understanding what may have led to Uganda's dramatic decline in HIV prevalence, one of the world's earliest and most compelling AIDS prevention successes. Survey and other data suggest that a decline in multi-partner sexual behavior is the behavioral change most likely associated with HIV decline. It appears that behavior change programs, particularly involving extensive promotion of “zero grazing” (faithfulness and partner reduction), largely developed by the Ugandan government and local NGOs including faith-based, women’s, people-living-with-AIDS and other community-based groups, contributed to the early declines in casual/multiple sexual partnerships and HIV incidence and, along with other factors including condom use, to the subsequent sharp decline in HIV prevalence. Yet the debate over “what happened in Uganda” continues, often involving divisive abstinence-versus-condoms rhetoric, which appears more related to the culture wars in the USA than to African social reality. PMID:16688475

  19. Assessing Bystander Behavior Intentions Toward Friends to Prevent Dating Violence: Development of the Bystander Behavior Intentions-Friends Scale Through Concept Mapping and Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Borsky, Amanda E; McDonnell, Karen; Rimal, Rajiv N; Turner, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Bystander behavior interventions aim to reduce violence by encouraging individuals to intervene in a safe and effective manner when they hear or see circumstances that could lead to violence. This study used a participatory-based approach to develop a 9-item scale to measure bystander behaviors to prevent dating violence among friends. Predominantly, female students (N = 37) on a college campus in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States were asked to define bystander behaviors. Responses were thematically sorted and ranked according to importance in preventing dating violence and feasibility by 12 participants. Psychometric testing of intentions to perform the behavior was done based on responses from an additional 288 respondents. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine whether bystander behaviors directed at friends to prevent dating violence was a uni- or multidimensional construct, which has not been done to date in the available literature. Results demonstrated a unidimensional factor structure with strong factor loadings (above .71) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha .92); items focused on primary and secondary prevention behaviors toward friends. These findings provide a reliable and single construct scale to assess college-age women's response to witnessing the victimization of a friend. These findings can facilitate future program evaluations. PMID:26822267

  20. Persuasive Dialogue Based on a Narrative Theory: An ECA Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavazza, Marc; Smith, Cameron; Charlton, Daniel; Crook, Nigel; Boye, Johan; Pulman, Stephen; Moilanen, Karo; Pizzi, David; de La Camara, Raul Santos; Turunen, Markku

    Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA) are poised to constitute a specific category within persuasive systems, in particular through their ability to support affective dialogue. One possible approach consists in using ECA as virtual coaches or personal assistants and to make persuasion part of a dialogue game implementing specific argumentation or negotiation features. In this paper, we explore an alternative framework, which emerges from the long-term development of ECA as "Companions" supporting free conversation with the user, rather than task-oriented dialogue. Our system aims at influencing user attitudes as part of free conversation, albeit on a limited set of topics. We describe the implementation of a Companion ECA to which the user reports on his working day, and which can assess the user's emotional attitude towards daily events in the office, trying to influence such attitude using affective strategies derived from a narrative model. This discussion is illustrated through examples from a first fully-implemented prototype.

  1. The Operator Guide: An Ambient Persuasive Interface in the Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Pöhr, Florian; Tscheligi, Manfred

    In this paper we introduce the context of a semiconductor factory as a promising area for the application of innovative interaction approaches. In order to increase efficiency ambient persuasive interfaces, which influence the operators' behaviour to perform in an optimized way, could constitute a potential strategy. We present insights gained from qualitative studies conducted in a specific semiconductor factory and provide a description of typical work processes and already deployed interfaces in this context. These findings informed the design of a prototype of an ambient persuasive interface within this realm - the "Operator Guide". Its overall aim is to improve work efficiency, while still maintaining a minimal error rate. We provide a detailed description of the Operator Guide along with an outlook of the next steps within a user-centered design approach.

  2. The effect of homosexuality on perceptions of persuasiveness and trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Joseph; Crawford, Isiaah

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of sexual orientation on perceptions of persuasiveness and trustworthiness. Subjects were told that a university was considering adding either an International Studies Minor or a Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Studies minor to its curriculum. Subjects then viewed a videotape of a male professor, introduced as either homosexual or heterosexual, speaking about the benefits of the proposal. Following the video, ratings of the speaker's trustworthiness and persuasiveness were assessed. Results indicate that the speaker's sexual orientation alone did not have a significant effect on either of these ratings. However, a significant interaction occurred between the speaker's sexual orientation and the speech topic, indicating that subjects expressed especially low levels of trustworthiness when the homosexual speaker was lecturing on the GLB minor. Regression analyses revealed that subjects' attitudes toward homosexuals were a significant predictor of their judgements of the speaker's trustworthiness. PMID:12739700

  3. Persuasive System Design Does Matter: A Systematic Review of Adherence to Web-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Robin N; Ossebaard, Hans C; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia EWC

    2012-01-01

    Background Although web-based interventions for promoting health and health-related behavior can be effective, poor adherence is a common issue that needs to be addressed. Technology as a means to communicate the content in web-based interventions has been neglected in research. Indeed, technology is often seen as a black-box, a mere tool that has no effect or value and serves only as a vehicle to deliver intervention content. In this paper we examine technology from a holistic perspective. We see it as a vital and inseparable aspect of web-based interventions to help explain and understand adherence. Objective This study aims to review the literature on web-based health interventions to investigate whether intervention characteristics and persuasive design affect adherence to a web-based intervention. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies into web-based health interventions. Per intervention, intervention characteristics, persuasive technology elements and adherence were coded. We performed a multiple regression analysis to investigate whether these variables could predict adherence. Results We included 101 articles on 83 interventions. The typical web-based intervention is meant to be used once a week, is modular in set-up, is updated once a week, lasts for 10 weeks, includes interaction with the system and a counselor and peers on the web, includes some persuasive technology elements, and about 50% of the participants adhere to the intervention. Regarding persuasive technology, we see that primary task support elements are most commonly employed (mean 2.9 out of a possible 7.0). Dialogue support and social support are less commonly employed (mean 1.5 and 1.2 out of a possible 7.0, respectively). When comparing the interventions of the different health care areas, we find significant differences in intended usage (p = .004), setup (p < .001), updates (p < .001), frequency of interaction with a counselor (p < .001), the system (p = .003) and peers (p

  4. [Rejection of the preventive discussion and at-risk sexual behavior: a qualitative study among gay men in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Maia, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The dominant preventive discourse imposed on sexual minorities is one that orders and prescribes condom use and an adjusted lifestyle. High-risk sexual behaviors seem to express, in part, the rejection of this dominant discourse. The objective of this study is to better understand the links between the risky sexual behaviors of gays and the socio-cultural context that leads to the rejection of preventive practices. An ethnological study was carried out in Portugal This study included seven gay men aged between 19 and 64 years old. The study also included accounts from interviews of three lesbian and bisexual women. The results show that the social pressure of a hetero-normative environment can result in the refusal or denial of prevention practices. Thus, risky sexual behaviors can reflect desire and aspirations for more rights and freedoms. New and alternative spaces for meeting gays, namely on the Internet, also seem to create more opportunities for sexual liberation and open the way for relaxed prevention practices and engaging in risky sexual behavior. However, preventive practices are not entirely absent; the reduction of risks is being expressed by the choice of sexual partners and the avoidance of certain sexual practices when a condom is not used. Through this study, the importance of peer groups in the acceptance and internalization of the preventive discourse is re-affirmed. PMID:21491746

  5. A Review of Intervention Programs to Prevent and Treat Behavioral Problems in Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Petrenko, Christie L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at higher risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems than children in the general population. Effective prevention and treatment programs are necessary to reduce the burden of behavioral problems in this population. The current review identified 17 controlled trials of nine intervention programs for young children with developmental disabilities, with parent training the most common type of intervention in this population. Nearly all studies demonstrated medium to large intervention effects on child behavior post-intervention. Preliminary evidence suggests interventions developed for the general population can be effective for children with developmental disabilities and their families. A greater emphasis on the prevention of behavior problems in young children with developmental disabilities prior to the onset of significant symptoms or clinical disorders is needed. Multi-component interventions may be more efficacious for child behavior problems and yield greater benefits for parent and family adjustment. Recommendations for future research directions are provided. PMID:24222982

  6. The role of persuasion power on the consensus formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gündüç, Semra; Eryiğit, Recep

    2015-05-01

    An opinion dynamics model which is based on a version of two dimensional Sznajd model is introduced. According to this model the dynamics is governed by the interactions between four agents which live on the corners of a plaquette and their neighbors. The distinctive feature of the model is that each individual is identified by two parameters, namely, opinion and persuasion ability. The united group may persuade the individuals living at the neighboring sites according to both the number and their persuasion ability. This form of the model is used to discuss opinion dynamics processes in societies where a campaign is conducted by the principle being united and putting forward arguments which are commonly accepted by the members of the society. It is seen that persuasion parameter plays the major role in the societies where a minority opinion gains ground to be the major opinion of the society. The model has been applied to the Scottish referendum opinion poles data since 2011. The model in its simplicity, predicts that the arguments of the minority opinion ("YES" votes) are more appealing despite the observed win of the "NO" votes. This result may be due to the abundance of the "NO" opinion supporters at the beginning of the campaign.

  7. Tip-over prevention through heuristic reactive behaviors for unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talke, Kurt; Kelley, Leah; Longhini, Patrick; Catron, Garret

    2014-06-01

    Skid-steer teleoperated robots are commonly used by military and civilian crews to perform high-risk, dangerous and critical tasks such as bomb disposal. Their missions are often performed in unstructured environments with irregular terrain, such as inside collapsed buildings or on rough terrain covered with a variety of media, such as sand, brush, mud, rocks and debris. During such missions, it is often impractical if not impossible to send another robot or a human operator to right a toppled robot. As a consequence, a robot tip-over event usually results in mission failure. To make matters more complicated, such robots are often equipped with heavy payloads that raise their centers of mass and hence increase their instability. Should the robot be equipped with a manipulator arm or flippers, it may have a way to self-right. The majority of manipulator arms are not designed for and are likely to be damaged during self-righting procedures, however, which typically have a low success rate. Furthermore, those robots not equipped with manipulator arms or flippers have no self-righting capabilities. Additionally, due to the on-board camera frame of reference, the video feed may cause the robot to appear to be on at level ground, when it actually may be on a slope nearing tip-over. Finally, robot operators are often so focused on the mission at hand they are oblivious to their surroundings, similar to a kid playing a video game. While this may not be an issue in the living room, it is not a good scenario to experience on the battlefield. Our research seeks to remove tip-over monitoring from the already large list of tasks an operator must perform. An autonomous tip-over prevention behavior for a mobile robot with a static payload has been developed, implemented and experimentally validated on two different teleoperated robotic platforms. Suitable for use with both teleoperated and autonomous robots, the prevention behavior uses the force-angle stability measure

  8. Are Investments in Disease Prevention Complements? The Case of Statins and Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, Robert; Darden, Michael; Lakdawalla, Darius

    2014-01-01

    We obtain estimates of associations between statin use and health behaviors. Statin use is associated with a small increase in BMI and moderate (20% to 33%) increases in the probability of being obese. Statin use was also associated with a significant (e.g., 15% of mean) increase in moderate alcohol use among men. There was no consistent evidence of a decrease in smoking associated with statin use, and exercise worsened somewhat for females. Statin use was associated with increased physical activity among males. Finally, there was evidence that statin use increased the use of blood pressure medication and aspirin for both males and females, although estimates varied considerably in magnitude. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that healthy diet is a strong substitute for statins, but there is only uneven evidence for the hypothesis that investments in disease prevention are complementary. PMID:24814322

  9. Paying for Prevention: Challenges to Health Insurance Coverage for Biomedical HIV Prevention in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of HIV infection continues to be a crucial public health priority in the United States, especially among populations at elevated risk such as men who have sex with men, transgender women, people who inject drugs, and racial and ethnic minority communities. Although most HIV prevention efforts to date have focused on changing risky behaviors, the past decade has yielded efficacious new biomedical technologies designed to prevent infection, such as the prophylactic use of antiretroviral drugs and the first indications of an efficacious vaccine. Access to prevention technologies will be a significant part of the next decade’s response to HIV, and advocates are mobilizing to achieve more widespread use of these interventions. These breakthroughs, however, arrive at a time of escalating healthcare costs; health insurance coverage therefore raises pressing new questions about priority-setting and the allocation of responsibility for public health. The goals of this Article are to identify legal challenges and potential solutions for expanding access to biomedical HIV prevention through health insurance coverage. This Article discusses the public policy implications of HIV prevention coverage decisions, assesses possible legal grounds on which insurers may initially deny coverage for these technologies, and evaluates the extent to which these denials may survive external and judicial review. Because several of these legal grounds may be persuasive, particularly denials on the basis of medical necessity, this Article also explores alternative strategies for financing biomedical HIV prevention efforts. PMID:23356098

  10. Power and Change in the 21st Century: An Exploration of the Industrial Areas Foundation as a Model of Theory and Pedagogy in the Persuasion Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravel, Anne

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on exploration and Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) as a model of theory and pedagogy in the persuasion course. Considers problems in the persuasion classrooms. Examines texts used to teach persuasion. Notes the theories and practices in the IAF. (SG)

  11. Preventive Effect of Cecropia pachystachya Against Ketamine-Induced Manic Behavior and Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gazal, Marta; Kaufmann, Fernanda N; Acosta, Bruna A; Oliveira, Pathise Souto; Valente, Matheus R; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; Sturbelle, Régis; Lencina, Claiton L; Stefanello, Francieli M; Kaster, Manuella P; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Ghisleni, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Cecropia species are widely used in traditional medicine by its anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of the crude aqueous extract from Cecropia pachystachya leaves in a rat model of mania induced by ketamine. The results indicated that ketamine treatment (25 mg/kg i.p., for 8 days) induced hyperlocomotion in the open-field test and oxidative damage in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, evaluated by increased lipid peroxidation, carbonyl protein formation and decreased total thiol content. Moreover, ketamine treatment reduced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in hippocampus. Pretreatment of rats with C. pachystachya aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o., for 14 days) or with lithium chloride (45 mg/kg p.o., for 14 days, used as a positive control) prevented both behavioral and pro-oxidant effects of ketamine. These findings suggest that C. pachystachya might be a useful tool for preventive intervention in bipolar disorder, reducing the episode relapse and the oxidative damage associated with the manic phase of this disorder . PMID:25998886

  12. Gay bathhouse HIV prevention: the use of staff monitoring of patron sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Woods, William J.; Sheon, Nicolas; Morris, Joseph A.; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Many HIV prevention interventions have been launched in gay bathhouses and sex clubs since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, such as condom distribution and HIV testing. Perhaps none of these are as intrusive to the venue's environment as what is called "monitoring," which involves staff, during every shift, repeatedly walking throughout the public areas of a bathhouse to check on patrons' sexual behavior. Yet, monitoring has received little evaluation. Between 2002 and 2004, we conducted qualitative interviews with venue managers, staff and patrons in New York City, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. An analysis found that monitoring was influenced by the kinds of space available for sex, suggesting three approaches to monitoring: 1) monitoring all sex in clubs that only had public areas where men had sex ; 2) monitoring some sex in clubs with private rooms for sex; and 3) no monitoring of sex, regardless of the kinds of space for sex. This paper explores each approach as described by club managers, staff, and patrons to understand the potential effectiveness of monitoring as an HIV prevention intervention. PMID:24044008

  13. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  14. Optimal information dissemination strategy to promote preventive behaviors in multilayer epidemic networks.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Heman; Sahneh, Faryad Darabi; Scoglio, Caterina; Poggi-Corradini, Pietro; Preciado, Victor M

    2015-06-01

    Launching a prevention campaign to contain the spread of infection requires substantial financial investments; therefore, a trade-off exists between suppressing the epidemic and containing costs. Information exchange among individuals can occur as physical contacts (e.g., word of mouth, gatherings), which provide inherent possibilities of disease transmission, and non-physical contacts (e.g., email, social networks), through which information can be transmitted but the infection cannot be transmitted. Contact network (CN) incorporates physical contacts, and the information dissemination network (IDN) represents non-physical contacts, thereby generating a multilayer network structure. Inherent differences between these two layers cause alerting through CN to be more effective but more expensive than IDN. The constraint for an epidemic to die out derived from a nonlinear Perron-Frobenius problem that was transformed into a semi-definite matrix inequality and served as a constraint for a convex optimization problem. This method guarantees a dying-out epidemic by choosing the best nodes for adopting preventive behaviors with minimum monetary resources. Various numerical simulations with network models and a real-world social network validate our method. PMID:25811554

  15. Partnerships between Black Women and Behaviorally Bisexual Men: Implications for HIV Risk and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Obregon, Nora B.; McCuller, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Although an estimated 87% of new HIV infections in Black/African American women are attributed to sex with men, many women are unaware of their male partners’ HIV risk factors. Research on women who are aware of a high-risk male partner may inform HIV prevention. We analyzed transcripts from semi-structured interviews with 20 Black women who reported sex with at least one man who had sex with men and women (MSMW) in the prior 5 years. We applied Choice and Sexual Network theories to the interpretation. The majority described their partnerships as committed and involving emotional or instrumental support. Substance abuse was a common component of the relationships and very few involved consistent condom use. Although nearly all respondents described it as alarming to learn of their partners’ involvement with other men and several ended the relationships, many continued the relationships without protective changes in their sex behavior. These narratives indicate that although many leave, many other women remain in relationships after learning of a male partners’ high-risk activity. Substance abuse, financial instability, and a desire to remain in intimate partnerships may discourage preventive actions in these women. PMID:25422580

  16. Perceptions of Oral Health, Preventive Care, and Care-Seeking Behaviors Among Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. METHODS Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. RESULTS Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. CONCLUSIONS Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being “free” or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. PMID:25388597

  17. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Farzad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with adverse physical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. This study was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency among gym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework. Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and control group. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panel study to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statistical analysis. Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about side effects of AAS (P<0.001), attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally after intervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group. Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and ado­lescences would be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them not to use AAS. PMID:24688897

  18. Persuasion Model and Its Evaluation Based on Positive Change Degree of Agent Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    For it can meet needs of negotiation among organizations take place in different time and place, and for it can make its course more rationality and result more ideal, persuasion based on agent can improve cooperation among organizations well. Integrated emotion change in agent persuasion can further bring agent advantage of artificial intelligence into play. Emotion of agent persuasion is classified, and the concept of positive change degree is given. Based on this, persuasion model based on positive change degree of agent emotion is constructed, which is explained clearly through an example. Finally, the method of relative evaluation is given, which is also verified through a calculation example.

  19. Speaker Credibility in Persuasive Business Communication: A Model which Explains Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenton, Sherron B.

    1989-01-01

    Expands Carl Hovland's Yale Communication Model to include dimensions which explain gender differences in speaker credibility in persuasive business communication, with support from the gender literature. (MS)

  20. Influence of a persuasive strategy on nursing students' beliefs and attitudes toward provision of care to people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Valois, P; Turgeon, H; Godin, G; Blondeau, D; Cote, F

    2001-11-01

    Based on the theory of planned behavior and the elaboration likelihood model, the aim of this study was to verify the effect of persuasive messages on nursing students' beliefs and attitudes regarding provision of care to people living with HIV/AIDS. The assumption was that a persuasive communication strategy induces a constructive change in beliefs and attitudes regarding provision of care. Baseline data collection was performed among a group of 74 nursing students (experimental group = 27; control group = 47). The questionnaire assessed the variables of the theory of planned behavior (i.e., beliefs, attitudes, perceived behavioral control). The results confirmed that persuasive messages generated a change in beliefs and attitudes of the nursing students concerning providing care to people living with HIV/AIDS. It appears that this strategy of modifying behavioral predispositions is effective and generates cognitive and affective changes. Therefore, educational programs should take these observations into consideration to ensure that future nurses are better prepared to provide appropriate care to people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:11725993

  1. Behavior: My Problem or Yours?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Mildred

    1991-01-01

    Activities are described for learning about problem classroom behaviors, the impact of one's manner of attire on one's behavior, and personal responsibility for one's behavior. Learning activities include role playing, making math puzzles, writing personal anecdotes, drawing a persuasive cartoon concerning smoking and discipline, and making bar…

  2. When cheating would make you a cheater: implicating the self prevents unethical behavior.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Christopher J; Adams, Gabrielle S; Monin, Benoît

    2013-11-01

    In 3 experiments using 2 different paradigms, people were less likely to cheat for personal gain when a subtle change in phrasing framed such behavior as diagnostic of an undesirable identity. Participants were given the opportunity to claim money they were not entitled to at the experimenters' expense; instructions referred to cheating with either language that was designed to highlight the implications of cheating for the actor's identity (e.g., "Please don't be a cheater") or language that focused on the action (e.g., "Please don't cheat"). Participants in the "cheating" condition claimed significantly more money than did participants in the "cheater" condition, who showed no evidence of having cheated at all. This difference occurred both in a face-to-face interaction (Experiment 1) and in a private online setting (Experiments 2 and 3). These results demonstrate the power of a subtle linguistic difference to prevent even private unethical behavior by invoking people's desire to maintain a self-image as good and honest. PMID:23127418

  3. Developing parenting programs to prevent child health risk behaviors: a practice model

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Christine; Dickinson, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that developing public health programs to modify parenting behaviors could lead to multiple beneficial health outcomes for children. Developing feasible effective parenting programs requires an approach that applies a theory-based model of parenting to a specific domain of child health and engages participant representatives in intervention development. This article describes this approach to intervention development in detail. Our presentation emphasizes three points that provide key insights into the goals and procedures of parenting program development. These are a generalized theoretical model of parenting derived from the child development literature, an established eight-step parenting intervention development process and an approach to integrating experiential learning methods into interventions for parents and children. By disseminating this framework for a systematic theory-based approach to developing parenting programs, we aim to support the program development efforts of public health researchers and practitioners who recognize the potential of parenting programs to achieve primary prevention of health risk behaviors in children. PMID:19661165

  4. Properly timed exposure to central ANG II prevents behavioral sensitization and changes in angiotensin receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Santollo, Jessica; Whalen, Philip E.; Speth, Robert C.; Clark, Stewart D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) is susceptible to rapid desensitization, but that more chronic treatments that stimulate ANG II lead to sensitization of several responses. It is unclear, however, if the processes of desensitization and sensitization interact. To test for differences in AT1R expression associated with single or repeated injections of ANG II, we measured AT1R mRNA in nuclei that control fluid intake of rats given ANG II either in a single injection or divided into three injections spaced 20 min apart. Rats given a single injection of ANG II had more AT1R mRNA in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) than did controls. The effect was not observed, however, when the same cumulative dose of ANG II was divided into multiple injections. Behavioral tests found that single daily injections of ANG II sensitized the dipsogenic response to ANG II, but a daily regimen of four injections did not cause sensitization. Analysis of 125I-Sar1-ANG II binding revealed a paradoxical decrease in binding in the caudal AV3V and dorsal median preoptic nucleus after 5 days of single daily injections of ANG II; however, this effect was absent in rats treated for 5 days with four daily ANG II injections. Taken together, these data suggest that a desensitizing treatment regimen prevents behavior- and receptor-level effects of repeated daily ANG II. PMID:25354729

  5. Effectiveness of training on preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among the female adolescents: Examination of theory of planned behavior

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Farzaneh; Hosseini Nodeh, Zahra; Rahnavard, Zahra; Arab, Masoume

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since type-2 diabetes is the most common chronic disease among Iranian female adolescents, we applied theory of planned behavior to examine the effect of training to intention to preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among female adolescents. Methods: In this experimental study 200 (11-14 year old) girls from 8 schools of Tehran city (100 in each intervention and control group) were recruited based on cluster sampling method during two stages. For intervention group, an educational program was designed based on the theory of planned behavior and presented in 6 workshop sessions to prevent type-2 diabetes. The data were collected before and two months after the workshops using a valid and reliable (α=0.72 and r=0.80) authormade questionnaire based on Ajzens TPB questionnaire manual. The data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square test and analysis of covariance. Results: Findings indicate that the two groups were homogeneous regarding the demographic characteristics before education, but the mean score of the theory components (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) was higher in the control group. Also, results showed all of the theory components significantly increased after the education in the intervention group (p=0.000). Conclusion: Training based on the theory of planned behavior enhances the intention to adherence preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among the studied female adolescents. PMID:27390718

  6. Evaluating the Relationship-Oriented Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills model of HIV preventive behaviors in young men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Greene, George J; Andrews, Katie; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Most HIV infections among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) occur within primary partnerships. Research on YMSM’s knowledge, motivation, and behavioral skills regarding relationship-related HIV prevention, and how these correspond to HIV risk and partnership characteristics, is limited. We examined links among the Relationship-Oriented Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (RELO-IMB) model, relationship characteristics, and HIV risk in 96 YMSM. Condomless sex with a primary partner was associated with low relationship-related HIV preventive information, motivation, and behavioral skills. Lack of HIV testing and alcohol use before sex were associated with low behavioral skills. In multivariate analyses, behavioral skills were the only consistent predictor of these outcomes. Regarding relationship characteristics, feeling trapped in the relationship or being physically abused by a partner was associated with low motivation and behavioral skills. The RELO-IMB model can be used to understand HIV risk in relationships and points to targets for relationship-specific HIV prevention education for YMSM. PMID:27459167

  7. Siblings Are Special: Initial test of a New Approach for Preventing Youth Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; Hostetler, Michelle L.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Jones, Damon; McHale, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose A growing body of research documents the significance of siblings and sibling relationships for development, mental health, and behavioral risk across childhood and adolescence. Nonetheless, few well-designed efforts have been undertaken to promote positive and reduce negative youth outcomes by enhancing sibling relationships. Methods Based on a theoretical model of sibling influences, we conducted a randomized trial of Siblings Are Special, a group-format afterschool program for 5th graders with a younger sibling in 2nd through 4th grade, which entailed 12 weekly afterschool sessions and 3 Family Nights. We tested program efficacy with a pre-posttest design with 174 families randomly assigned to condition. In home visits at both time points we collected data via parent questionnaires, child interviews, and observer-rated videotaped interactions and teachers rated children’s behavior at school. Results The program enhanced positive sibling relationships, appropriate strategies for parenting siblings, and child self-control, social competence, and academic performance; program exposure was also associated with reduced maternal depression and child internalizing problems. Results were robust across the sample, not qualified by sibling gender, age, family demographics, or baseline risk. No effects were found for sibling conflict, collusion or child externalizing problems; we will examine follow-up data to determine if short-term impacts lead to reduced negative behaviors over time. Conclusions The breadth of the SAS program’s impact is consistent with research suggesting that siblings are an important influence on development and adjustment and supports our argument that a sibling focus should be incorporated into youth and family-oriented prevention programs. PMID:23298985

  8. Knowledge, beliefs and preventive behaviors regarding Influenza A in students: a test of the health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Najimi, Arash; Golshiri, Parastoo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The higher prevalence rate of influenza A among adolescence emphasizes the importance of preventative strategies among this age group of population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive behaviors of high school students regarding type A influenza, in Shahrekord, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 313 high school students were enrolled. Preventive behaviors of influenza A was evaluated by components of the Health Belief Model (HBM), using a questionnaire which its reliability was verified through a pilot study (alpha score 0.8). Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics, independent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. Findings: Mean age of the students was 16.31 years. Knowledge, perceived severity and perceived barriers were in the modest level among the students. The highest scores were related to perceived susceptibility (75.4%) and perceived benefit (55.6%). Mass media was the main source of their information regarding influenza A. Conclusion: Considering the findings of this study and the relation between HBM components and the preventive behaviors of students, it seems that using HBM could be useful in improving preventive behaviors of influenza A among the studied population. PMID:24083273

  9. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  10. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  11. Heroin Use and Injection Risk Behaviors in Colombia: Implications for HIV/AIDS Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Harris, Shana; Berbesi, Dedsy; Segura Cardona, Ángela María; Montoya Vélez, Liliana Patricia; Mejía Motta, Inés Elvira; Jessell, Lauren; Guarino, Honoria; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Heroin production in Colombia has increased dramatically in recent decades, and some studies point to an increase in local heroin use since the mid-1990s. Despite this rapid increase, little is known about the effects of these activities on heroin injection within Colombia. One of the biggest concerns surrounding heroin injection is the potential spread of HIV through drug user networks. Objectives This article examines injection risk behaviors among heroin injectors in the Colombian cities of Medellín and Pereira to explore the implications for possible increased HIV transmission within this group. Methods A cross-sectional study used respondent-driving sampling to recruit a sample of 540 people who inject drugs (PWID) over 18 years of age (Medellín: n = 242, Pereira: n = 298). Structured interviews with each participant were conducted using the World Health Organization Drug Injection Study Phase II Survey. An HIV test was also administered. Results Information regarding the socio-demographics, injection drug use, HIV risk and transmission behaviors, injection risk management, and HIV knowledge and prevalence of participants are reported. The study identified many young, newly initiated injectors who engage in risky injection practices. The study also found that HIV prevalence is fairly low among participants (2.7%). Conclusions/Importance Findings indicate a potential risk for the spread of HIV among PWID in Colombia given their widespread sharing practices, high rate of new injector initiation, and unsafe syringe cleaning practices. Colombia has a possibly time-limited opportunity to prevent an HIV epidemic by implementing harm reduction interventions among young, newly initiated PWID. PMID:26800352

  12. Changes induced by prenatal stress in behavior and brain morphology: can they be prevented or reversed?

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Marta

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents a critical analysis of the behavioral alterations reported in the offspring of women exposed to stress and/or depression during pregnancy and the neurochemical and structural changes underlying them. Among the alterations attributed to prenatal stress in humans and experimental rats of both sexes is impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, anxiety and exaggerated fear of novelty, and decreased social interaction. Learning and attention deficits are more prevalent in boys and male rats. Fear of novelty and anxiety are associated with enlargement of the amygdala and its corticotropin-releasing factor content, and decreased socialization, with lower oxytocin activity in the amygdala. Learning deficits are associated with a decrease in neurogenesis, dendritic complexity, and spine number in the dorsal hippocampus. Fostering prenatally stressed (PS) pups onto control mothers prevents the dysregulation of the HPA axis and heightened anxiety, indicating a role for postnatal factors in their etiology. By contrast, learning impairment and decreased socialization are not affected by this fostering procedure and are therefore prenatally mediated.In spite of their widespread use in depressed pregnant women, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants do not normalize the behavior of their children. When administered during gestation to stressed rats, SSRIs do not reduce anxiety or learning deficits in their offspring. Moreover, when given to unstressed mothers, SSRIs induce anxiety in the offspring. The detrimental effect of SSRIs may result from inhibition of the serotonin transporter exposing the brain to excess amounts of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) at a critical time during fetal development. PMID:25287533

  13. Knowledge, beliefs and barriers associated with prostate cancer prevention and screening behaviors among African-American men.

    PubMed

    Blocker, Deborah E; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Thomas, Kamilah B; Jones, Belinda L; Jackson, Ethel Jean; Reid, LaVerne; Campbell, Marci K

    2006-08-01

    African-American men have the highest prostate cancer rates worldwide, and innovative efforts are needed to increase cancer prevention and screening behaviors among this population. Formative research was conducted to assess attitudes and behaviors linked to prostate cancer prevention activities that could be used to develop a culturally relevant intervention for an African-American church-based population. Four gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 29 men and women at two African-American churches in central North Carolina. Three primary themes emerged from the focus group discussions: culturally and gender-influenced beliefs and barriers about cancer prevention and screening; barriers related to the healthcare system: and religious influences, including the importance of spiritual beliefs and church support. These discussions revealed the importance of the black family, the positive influence of spouses/partners on promoting cancer screening and healthy behaviors, the roles of faith and church leadership, and beliefs about God's will for good health. These findings also revealed that there are still major barriers and challenges to cancer prevention among African Americans, including continued mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. Findings provide important insights to consider in implementing successful prostate cancer prevention interventions designed for church-based audiences. PMID:16916126

  14. Knowledge, beliefs and barriers associated with prostate cancer prevention and screening behaviors among African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Blocker, Deborah E.; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Thomas, Kamilah B.; Jones, Belinda L.; Jackson, Ethel Jean; Reid, LaVerne; Campbell, Marci K.

    2006-01-01

    African-American men have the highest prostate cancer rates worldwide, and innovative efforts are needed to increase cancer prevention and screening behaviors among this population. Formative research was conducted to assess attitudes and behaviors linked to prostate cancer prevention activities that could be used to develop a culturally relevant intervention for an African-American church-based population. Four gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 29 men and women at two African-American churches in central North Carolina. Three primary themes emerged from the focus group discussions: culturally and gender-influenced beliefs and barriers about cancer prevention and screening; barriers related to the healthcare system: and religious influences, including the importance of spiritual beliefs and church support. These discussions revealed the importance of the black family, the positive influence of spouses/partners on promoting cancer screening and healthy behaviors, the roles of faith and church leadership, and beliefs about God's will for good health. These findings also revealed that there are still major barriers and challenges to cancer prevention among African Americans, including continued mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. Findings provide important insights to consider in implementing successful prostate cancer prevention interventions designed for church-based audiences. PMID:16916126

  15. Action Tendency Emotions Evoked by Memorable Breast Cancer Messages and Their Association With Prevention and Detection Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sandi W.; Hamel, Lauren M; Kotowski, Michael R.; Nazione, Samantha; LaPlante, Carolyn; Atkin, Charles K.; Stohl, Cynthia; Skubisz, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Memorable messages about breast cancer sent by different sources, such as friends and family members, were analyzed for the action tendency emotions that they evoked. Negative emotions of fear, sadness, and anger, and positive emotions of hope and relief were analyzed for their associations with prevention and detection breast cancer behaviors. Messages that evoked fear were significantly more likely to be associated with detection behaviors, whereas messages that evoked relief were significantly less likely to be associated with detection behaviors than messages that did not evoke these emotions. These results are consistent with control theory and also show that friends and family are important sources of memorable messages about breast cancer. PMID:21153990

  16. The dynamic relationship between social norms and behaviors: The results of an HIV prevention network intervention for injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl; Donnell, Deborah; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Celentano, David; Metzger, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims Social norms are a key source of influence on health behaviors. This study examined changes in social norms and relationships between HIV injection risk behaviors and social norms among injection drug users (IDUs) involved in an experimental intervention. Design Randomized clinical trial. Setting An HIV Prevention Trials Network study, Philadelphia, USA. Participants IDUs, called indexes, and their social network members, who were drug or sex partners, were recruited for an HIV prevention intervention and followed for up to 30 months (N=652). Indexes were randomized into a peer education intervention or control condition. Measurements Outcomes of injection related HIV risk behaviors (sharing needles, sharing cookers, sharing cotton, front/back-loaded) were measured every 6 months and social norm of these 4 risk behaviors were assessed every 12 months. Findings There was a statistically significant intervention effect on all four social norms of injection behaviors, with participants in the intervention reporting less risky social norms compared with controls (changes in mean score: needles, -0.24, p.<01; cookers, -0.33, p.<01; cottons, -0.28, p.<05; front/back loading, -0.23, p.<01). There was also a statistically significant bidirectional association with social norms predicting injection risk behaviors at the next assessment and risk behaviors predicting social norms at the subsequent visit. Conclusions Through social network interventions it is feasible to change both injection risk behaviors and associated social norms. However, it is critical that social network interventions focus on publically highlighting behavior changes since changing social norms without awareness of behaviors change may lead to relapse of risk behaviors. PMID:23362861

  17. Coping Power Adapted as Universal Prevention Program: Mid Term Effects on Children's Behavioral Difficulties and Academic Grades.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Nocentini, Annalaura; Ruglioni, Laura; Lochman, John E

    2016-08-01

    Aggressive behaviors in schools have the potential to cause serious harm to students' emotional and social well-being and to limit their ability to achieve their full academic potential. Prevention programs developed to reduce children's aggressive behaviors in school settings can provide interventions at a universal or targeted level. The main aim of our randomized control study was to examine the efficacy of Coping Power, adapted as a universal prevention program, in reducing children's behavioral problems and improving school grades. Nine classes participated (184 students, mean age 91 months) from two elementary state schools in Tuscany, Italy. Study findings showed a significant reduction in behavioral problems and an improvement in school grades for the intervention classes relative to the control classes. This study suggests the Coping Power program can be delivered in school settings at both universal and targeted prevention levels, and that in this multi-tiered prevention model, teachers, educators and school psychologists can learn a set of intervention skills which can be delivered with flexibility, thus reducing some of the complexity and costs of schools using multiple interventions. PMID:27129573

  18. Evaluation of a Group Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Young Adolescents: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Chajon, Norma D.; Kash-MacDonald, V. Megan; Chaplin, Tara M.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Matlin, Samantha L.; Gallop, Robert J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a common psychological problem in adolescence. Recent research suggests that group cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent symptoms of depression in youth. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of such interventions when delivered by school teachers and counselors (as opposed to research team staff). We…

  19. The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth: Implications for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Aber, J. Lawrence; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the implications for prevention science of recent advances in research on family poverty and children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. First, we describe definitions of poverty and the conceptual and empirical challenges to estimating the causal effects of poverty on children's mental, emotional, and behavioral…

  20. Family Group Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Families of Depressed Parents: 18- and 24-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Thigpen, Jennifer C.; Keller, Gary; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Cole, David A.; Potts, Jennifer; H. Watson, Kelly; Rakow, Aaron; Colletti, Christina; Reeslund, Kristen; Fear, Jessica; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Merchant, M. J.; Roberts, Lorinda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In a long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial (Compas et al., 2009) to examine the effects at 18- and 24-month follow-ups of a family group cognitive-behavioral (FGCB) preventive intervention for mental health outcomes for children and parents from families (N = 111) of parents with a history of major depressive disorder…

  1. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents Outperforms Two Alternative Interventions: A Randomized Efficacy Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2008-01-01

    In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater…

  2. Using Systematic Screening Procedures to Identify Students Who Are Nonresponsive to Primary Prevention Efforts: Integrating Academic and Behavioral Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Menzies, Holly Mariah

    2010-01-01

    Many school systems are adopting three-tiered models of prevention (e.g., Response to Intervention and Positive Behavior Support) to support an increasingly diverse student population (Sugai, Horner, & Gresham, 2002). A central feature of these models is that data are monitored to determine responsiveness. We offer this paper as a guide for…

  3. A Review of Parenting Programs in Developing Countries: Opportunities and Challenges for Preventing Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Anilena; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Many children in developing countries are at risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties, which are likely to be elevated due to the effects of poverty. Parenting programs have shown to be effective preventative strategies in high-income countries, but to date the research on their effectiveness in lower-income countries is limited.…

  4. Addressing the Needs of At-Risk and Adjudicated Youth through Positive Behavior Support: Effective Prevention Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terrance M.; Nelson, C. Michael; Liaupsin, Carl J.; Jolivette, Kristine; Christle, Christine A.; Riney, Mackensie

    2002-01-01

    This article describes how effective systems of positive behavioral support can be used in alternative educational settings as a means of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention for at-risk and adjudicated youth. Special concerns and specific strategies for this population are discussed across the range of placement alternatives. (Contains…

  5. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) Tertiary Intervention for Students with Problem Behaviors: Preliminary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Kincaid, Don; Dunlap, Glen; Strain, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Although there is literature supporting the effectiveness of tertiary behavioral supports, the majority of the studies have been conducted with single-subject designs. The Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model is a standardized model of a school-based tertiary intervention. This study reports initial results from a randomized controlled trial to…

  6. A Model for Increasing the Fidelity and Effectiveness of Interventions for Challenging Behaviors: Prevent-Teach-Reinforce for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Glen; Lee, Janice K.; Joseph, Jaclyn D.; Strain, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    A need exists for intervention strategies that are both effective in reducing challenging behaviors and practical for use by typical practitioners of early childhood care and education. In this article, we describe a model, "Prevent-Teach-Reinforce for Young Children," which is based on extensive research and includes features designed…

  7. Improving Breast Cancer Preventive Behavior among Female Medical Staff: The Use of Educational Intervention based on Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    TORBAGHAN, Ameneh Eskandari-; FARMANFARMA, Khadijah Kalan-; MOGHADDAM, Alireza Ansari-; ZAREI, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer prevalent among women worldwide. Preventive behaviors such as early diagnosis through screening tests play an important role in prevention and control of the disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of educational intervention using a health belief model on breast cancer preventive behaviors. Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 130 female employees of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences who were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. A questionnaire, made and validated by the researcher, was completed before and one month after training by the study subjects. Data were analysed using regression analysis, independent sample T-test, chi-square and Pearson’s correlation coefficient using the SPSS software 18. Results: There were significant changes in the training group, following educational intervention in the awareness construct and in some constructs of the model including perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, as well as in practice compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, perceived barriers remained as the only predictor in the model, such that for every unit increase in this variable, the behavior score increased by 18%. Conclusion: The use of educational intervention based on Health Belief Model had positive effect on knowledge of breast cancer preventive behaviors among participants. PMID:25977633

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Behavioral Skills Training Procedures for Teaching Abduction-Prevention Skills to Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brigitte M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Knudson, Peter; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Kelso, Pamela; Jostad, Candice; Langley, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Although child abduction is a low-rate event, it presents a serious threat to the safety of children. The victims of child abduction face the threat of physical and emotional injury, sexual abuse, and death. Previous research has shown that behavioral skills training (BST) is effective in teaching children abduction-prevention skills, although not…

  9. Alcoholics Anonymous and Relapse Prevention as Maintenance Strategies After Conjoint Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Men: 18-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…

  10. Effect of educational intervention on knowledge, perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts

    PubMed Central

    Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors.

  11. Perceptions of a Rape Prevention Program by Fraternity Men and Male Student Athletes: Powerful Effects and Implications for Changing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Cowell, Edwin A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to determine fraternity men and student athletes' perceptions of a commonly used rape-prevention program. Participants saw "The Men's Program" and then participated in 60-90 minute focus groups assessing whether their attitudes and behavior would change, what about the program led to that change, and…

  12. Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support: Preliminary Evaluation of Third-, Fourth-, and Fifth-Grade Attitudes toward Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Scott W.; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The current pilot study demonstrates the potential of adding simple and efficient bully prevention strategies to already established School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports. The self-report surveys of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students from three elementary schools evaluated the relationship between the implementation of…

  13. Gender Differences in Behavioral Outcomes among Children at Risk of Neglect: Findings from a Family-Focused Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Michael A.; Hayward, R. Anna; DePanfilis, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the impact of the Family Connections (FC) intervention on preventing behavioral problems among urban, predominantly African American children at risk of neglect. Method: Secondary data analyses using mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to examine gender differences in child…

  14. First-Year Male Students' Perceptions of a Rape Prevention Program 7 Months after Their Participation: Attitude and Behavior Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Tatum, Jerry L.; Godin, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Seven months after seeing The Men's Program, a commonly used rape prevention program, 248 first-year college men responded to four open-ended questions concerning whether or not the program impacted their attitudes or behavior, particularly regarding alcohol related sexual assault. Two thirds of participants reported either attitude or behavior…

  15. Taxonomy for Strengthening the Identification of Core Elements for Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for HIV/AIDS Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Whittier, David K.; Jones, Patricia L.; Smith, Bryce D.; Uhl, Gary; Fisher, Holly H.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of core elements was developed to denote characteristics of an intervention, such as activities or delivery methods, presumed to be responsible for the efficacy of evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) for HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper describes the development of a taxonomy of core elements based on a literature review of…

  16. PSYOP and Persuasion: Applying Social Psychology and Becoming an Informed Citizen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sara B.

    2004-01-01

    This project teaches students about persuasion techniques, especially as governments use them. Most project examples came from the work of the U.S. military's modern Psychological Operations division. Social psychology students (a) reviewed influence techniques; (b) examined posters, leaflets, and other persuasion tools used in World War II, the…

  17. The Status of Recent Experimental, Empirical, and Rhetorical Studies in the Teaching of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, June Eleanor

    To determine the status of recent experimental, empirical, and rhetorical studies in teaching persuasion, a questionnaire was sent to 300 speech teachers in colleges and universities. Results were based on data obtained from 60 percent of the respondents. It was found that persuasion is taught in most colleges and universities, a wide range of…

  18. Persuasion as a Dynamic, Multidimensional Process: An Investigation of Individual and Intraindividual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, P. Karen; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2004-01-01

    Persuasion is an interactive process through which a given message alters individuals' perspectives by changing the knowledge, beliefs, or interests that underlie those perspectives. Although persuasion is seen as central to effective teaching and learning, there is still much to understand about the characteristics of learners, texts, and tasks…

  19. Young Children's Persuasion in Everyday Conversation: Tactics and Attunement to Others' Mental States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Karen; Wright, Jennifer Cole; Estes, David

    2010-01-01

    Young children's persuasion tactics, and how these reflected attunement to others' mental states, were explored in archived longitudinal samples of transcribed at-home conversations of four children, three to five years old. Over 87,000 utterances were examined to identify conversation "chunks" involving persuasion; 1,307 chunks were then coded…

  20. "Schaffer v. Weast": The Supreme Court on the Burden of Persuasion when Challenging IEPS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Terrye; Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2008-01-01

    On November 14, 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court announced its decision in "Schaffer v. Weast." This special education decision concerned which party bears the burden of persuasion when parents challenge a school district's Individualized Education Program (IEP) in a due process hearing. In this article, we define burden of persuasion and explain its…

  1. Teacher Candidates' Epistemological Beliefs, Dispositions, and Views on Teaching as Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Gale M.; Kardash, CarolAnne M.

    2004-01-01

    Alexander and her colleagues proposed "teaching as persuasion" as a guiding metaphor for conceptual change pedagogy (Alexander, Fives, Buehl, & Mulhern, 2002). However, there is reason to suspect that the term persuasion can have negative connotations for some individuals ( Dole & Sinatra, 1999; Murphy, 2001). Therefore, we examined 182 primarily…

  2. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  3. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  4. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  5. Validating the Relationship Qualities of Influence and Persuasion with the Family Social Relations Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Rachel Oakley; Bagozzi, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the family social relations model (SRM) to test for the personal relationship qualities of influence and persuasion in the family decision-making context of buying a new car. Uncovers patterns in the relationship qualities of influence and persuasion across three decisions families make when buying a new car (i.e., how much to spend, car…

  6. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  7. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  8. The Effect of Playing a Persuasive Game on Attitude and Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Dana

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a persuasive game may serve as a way to change attitude towards the homeless and increase affective learning, this study examined, experimentally, the effects of persuasive rhetoric and ethos in a video game designed to put the player in the shoes of an almost-homeless person for thirty days. Data were collected from 5139…

  9. Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walrod, Michael R.

    A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

  10. Consumer-Product and Socio-Political Messages for Use in Studies of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratkanis, Anthony R.; And Others

    Developed as part of a research program directed at obtaining reliable persuasive effects, the two sets of persuasive messages provided in this report--consumer messages and sociopolitical messages--discuss fictitious brands of consumer products and various sociopolitical issues. The consumer messages were developed for the following 12 products:…

  11. Persuasiveness and Audience Focus in a Nonacademic R&D Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Vincent J.

    1996-01-01

    States that participants in a qualitative case study of nonacademic R&D authors thought their reports were more informative than persuasive. Describes how three definitions of "persuasion" emerged. Concludes that most of the participants felt they owed a greater debt to their subject matter rather than the audience; some participants argued that…

  12. Rethinking Joseph Janangelo's "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Composition and Communication, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents several excerpts from an article written by Joseph Janangelo titled "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts." In his article, Janangelo suggested that Cornell's work and ideas about composing model intelligent ways to composing persuasive nonsequential text. Janangelo also wondered if the use of…

  13. The Effect of Persuasion on the Utilization of Program Evaluation Information: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Sandra H.; Thompson, Bruce

    The utilization of program evaluation may be made more effective by means of the application of contemporary persuasion theory. The Elaboration Likelihood Model--a model of cognitive processing, ability, and motivation--was used in this study to test the persuasive effects of source credibility and involvement on message acceptance of evaluation…

  14. Persuasive Writing and Self-Regulation Training for Writers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asaro-Saddler, Kristie; Bak, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    In this single-subject study, we examined the effects of a persuasive writing and self-regulation strategy on the writing of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Six children with ASD worked in pairs to learn a mnemonic-based strategy for planning and writing a persuasive essay using the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD)…

  15. Persuasion: Five Studies Dealing with the Relationships between Media, Attitudes, and Learning Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael R.; And Others

    The use of media in persuasive messages was investigated in five studies addressing: (1) the effectiveness of realistic media in such messages; (2) interaction of field dependence/independence or hemisphericity with media type in persuasive message delivery; and (3) whether mediated messages should be designed differently for learners with…

  16. Initial Position, Personal Control, and Attributional Augmentation of Persuasive Communication on Nuclear Disarmament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, John H.; Shaver, Kelly G.

    The effectiveness of two alternative attitude change strategies--a traditional persuasive strategy and a combined attributional/persuasive strategy--in altering attitudes toward nuclear disarmament were compared. Seventeen male and 39 female undergraduate students at a small university participated. A nuclear disarmament attitude pretest was…

  17. Persuasion in Advertising: Analyzing One of the Public Faces of Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemesianou, Christine A.

    2007-01-01

    Today's communication and information environments create an immense amount of clutter for consumers, but a well crafted advertising campaign can differentiate an organization from its competitors. Persuasion in Advertising is a critical assignment where students apply Aristotle's and Cicero's persuasive techniques to a specific advertising…

  18. Randomized controlled trial of a brief dyadic cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to prevent PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Alain; Des Groseilliers, Isabeau Bousquet; Cordova, Matthew J.; Ruzek, Josef I.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of effective interventions to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method We evaluated the efficacy of a brief dyadic two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention through a controlled trial involving trauma-exposed individuals recruited at the hospital's emergency room. Participants were randomly assigned to either the dyadic intervention group (n=37) or to a waiting list (assessment only) group (n=37). Results In an intent-to-treat analysis, a time-by-group interaction was found, whereby the treated participants had less PTSD symptoms at the post-treatment but not at the pre-treatment compared to controls. Controlling for the improvement observed in the control participants, the intervention yielded a net effect size of d=0.39. Conclusions A brief, early, and effective intervention can be provided by nurses or social workers in hospital settings, at a fairly low cost to individuals presenting to the emergency room as the result of trauma exposure. PMID:23986816

  19. Dispelling the illusion of invulnerability: the motivations and mechanisms of resistance to persuasion.

    PubMed

    Sagarin, Brad J; Cialdini, Robert B; Rice, William E; Serna, Sherman B

    2002-09-01

    Three studies examined the impact of a treatment designed to instill resistance to deceptive persuasive messages. Study 1 demonstrated that after the resistance treatment, ads using illegitimate authority-based appeals became less persuasive, and ads using legitimate appeals became more persuasive. In Study 2, this resistance generalized to novel exemplars, persevered over time, and appeared outside of the laboratory context. In Study 3, a procedure that dispelled participants' illusions of invulnerability to deceptive persuasion maximized resistance to such persuasion. Overall, the present studies demonstrate that attempts to confer resistance to appeals will likely be successful to the extent that they install 2 conceptual features: perceived undue manipulative intent of the source of the appeal and perceived personal vulnerability to such manipulation. PMID:12219852

  20. The full translational spectrum of prevention science: facilitating the transfer of knowledge to practices and policies that prevent behavioral health problems.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Diana H; Ridenour, Ty A; Stahl, Mindy; Sussman, Steve

    2016-03-01

    A broad-span, six-stage translational prevention model is presented, extending from the basic sciences-taking a multi-level systems approach, including the neurobiological sciences-through to globalization. The application of a very wide perspective of translation research from basic scientific discovery to international policy change promises to elicit sustainable, population-level reductions in behavioral health disorders. To illustrate the conceptualization and actualization of a program of translational prevention research, we walk through each stage of research to practice and policy using an exemplar, callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Basic science has identified neurobiological, psychophysiological, behavioral, contextual, and experiential differences in this subgroup, and yet, these findings have not been applied to the development of more targeted intervention. As a result, there are currently no programs considered especially effective for CU traits, likely because they do not specifically target underlying mechanisms. To prevent/reduce the prevalence of conduct disorder, it is critical that we transfer existing knowledge to subsequent translational stages, including intervention development, implementation, and scaling. And eventually, once resulting programs have been rigorously evaluated, replicated, and adapted across cultural, ethnic, and gender groups, there is potential to institutionalize them as well as call attention to the special needs of this population. In this paper, we begin to consider what resources and changes in research perspectives are needed to move along this translational spectrum. PMID:27012249

  1. Effect of Health Education Based on the Protection Motivation Theory on Malaria Preventive Behaviors in Rural Households of Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected through systematic random sampling and the study data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, the constructs of the protection motivation theory, and a checklist for assessing the malaria preventive behaviors. After the pre-test, the intervention group underwent an educational intervention and after two months, the post-test was performed through the same questionnaire. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 18) and analyzed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the two study groups regarding perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response costs, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and malaria preventive behaviors. After the intervention, however, a significant increase was observed in the intervention group's mean scores of all the constructs of the protection motivation theory as well as malaria preventive behaviors (P < 0.01). Conclusions: According to the findings of the study, educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory is highly effective in promoting malaria preventive behaviors. PMID:24829734

  2. Childhood abuse history and risk behaviors among teen parents in a culturally rooted, couple-focused HIV prevention program.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Janna; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Gonzalez-Figueroa, Evelyn; Huang, Rong; Cumberland, William G

    2007-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents living in inner cities are at risk for acquiring HIV through unprotected sexual activity. In addition to individual risk behaviors, a lack of socioeconomic and other environmental resources create risk environments that make certain communities vulnerable to both adolescent pregnancy and HIV/AIDS. Research indicates that adolescent parents, many who have histories of childhood trauma, may use their experience of young parenthood and the concomitant feelings of parental protectiveness as a source of renewed hope for their future. The purpose of this report is to explore the relationship between history of childhood abuse and high risk behaviors in adolescent Latino mothers and fathers enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a culturally rooted, couple-focused HIV prevention program. In addition, this report describes the HIV prevention program that was designed specifically for young Latino parents wherein maternal and paternal protectiveness are viewed as intrinsic and developing critical factors that promote resiliency and motivate behavioral change. PMID:17403493

  3. Effects of scanning (routine health information exposure) on cancer screening and prevention behaviors in the general population.

    PubMed

    Hornik, Robert; Parvanta, Sarah; Mello, Susan; Freres, Derek; Kelly, Bridget; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Research on health information exposure focuses primarily on deliberate information-seeking behavior and its effects on health. By contrast, this study explores the complementary and perhaps more influential role of health information acquired through exposure to routinely used sources, called scanning. The authors hypothesized that scanning from nonmedical sources, both mediated and interpersonal, affects cancer screening and prevention decisions. The authors used a nationally representative longitudinal survey of 2,489 adults 40 to 70 years of age to analyze the effects of scanning on 3 cancer screening behaviors (mammography, prostate-specific antigen [PSA], and colonoscopy) and 3 prevention behaviors (exercising, eating fruits and vegetables, and dieting to lose weight). After adjustment for baseline behaviors and covariates, scanning at baseline predicted weekly exercise days 1 year later as well as daily fruit and vegetable servings 1 year later for those whose consumption of fruits and vegetables was already higher at baseline. Also, among those reporting timely screening mammogram behavior at baseline, scanning predicted repeat mammography. Scanning was marginally predictive of PSA uptake among those not reporting a PSA at baseline. Although there were strong cross-sectional associations, scanning did not predict dieting or colonoscopy uptake in longitudinal analyses. These analyses provide substantial support for a claim that routine exposure to health content from nonmedical sources affects specific health behaviors. PMID:24083417

  4. Baclofen prevents the elevated plus maze behavior and BDNF expression during naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Pedrón, Valeria T; Varani, André P; Balerio, Graciela N

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we have shown that baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, prevents the somatic expression and reestablishes the dopamine and μ-opioid receptors levels, modified during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male and female mice. There are no previous reports regarding sex differences in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the expression of BDNF in morphine-withdrawn mice. The present study analyses the behavioral and biochemical variations during morphine withdrawal in mice of both sexes, and whether these variations are prevented with baclofen. Swiss-Webster albino prepubertal mice received morphine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily, for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, one group of morphine-treated mice received naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of morphine to precipitate withdrawal. A second group received baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before naloxone administration. The EPM behavior was measured during 15 min after naloxone injection. The expression of BDNF-positive cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Withdrawn male mice showed a higher percentage of time spent and number of entries to the open arms compared to withdrawn female mice. Baclofen prevented this behavior in both sexes. BDNF expression decreased in the AcbC, BNST, CeC, and CA3 of the hippocampus while increased in the BLA of morphine withdrawn male. Baclofen pretreatment prevented the BDNF expression observed in morphine withdrawn male mice in all the brain areas studied except in the CeC. Baclofen prevention of the EPM behavior associated to morphine withdrawal could be partially related to changes in BDNF expression. PMID:26789010

  5. Public knowledge and preventive behavior during a large-scale Salmonella outbreak: results from an online survey in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Food-borne Salmonella infections are a worldwide concern. During a large-scale outbreak, it is important that the public follows preventive advice. To increase compliance, insight in how the public gathers its knowledge and which factors determine whether or not an individual complies with preventive advice is crucial. Methods In 2012, contaminated salmon caused a large Salmonella Thompson outbreak in the Netherlands. During the outbreak, we conducted an online survey (n = 1,057) to assess the general public’s perceptions, knowledge, preventive behavior and sources of information. Results Respondents perceived Salmonella infections and the 2012 outbreak as severe (m = 4.21; five-point scale with 5 as severe). Their knowledge regarding common food sources, the incubation period and regular treatment of Salmonella (gastro-enteritis) was relatively low (e.g., only 28.7% knew that Salmonella is not normally treated with antibiotics). Preventive behavior differed widely, and the majority (64.7%) did not check for contaminated salmon at home. Most information about the outbreak was gathered through traditional media and news and newspaper websites. This was mostly determined by time spent on the medium. Social media played a marginal role. Wikipedia seemed a potentially important source of information. Conclusions To persuade the public to take preventive actions, public health organizations should deliver their message primarily through mass media. Wikipedia seems a promising instrument for educating the public about food-borne Salmonella. PMID:24479614

  6. Results of the "Aprender a Convivir" Program for Development of Social Competence and Prevention of Antisocial Behavior in Four-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Juan L.; Fernandez, Maria; Justicia, Fernando; Fernandez, Eduardo; Justicia, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the result of implementing an antisocial behavior prevention program in preschool education. The intervention goal was to prevent the emergence of antisocial behaviors through developing social competence in the participants. The program, called "Aprender a Convivir", is divided into four modules by topic: rules and…

  7. Mobile Phone Apps for Preventing Cancer Through Educational and Behavioral Interventions: State of the Art and Remaining Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Nicole; Jacobs, Molly; Massey, Rachael I

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of mobile phones in smoking cessation, promoting healthy diet, nutrition, and physical activity, sun safety, and cancer screening. Although many apps relating to the prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases are available from major mobile phone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their efficacy. Objective In this paper, we discuss issues related to the development and testing of new apps for preventing cancer through smoking cessation, sun safety, and other healthy behaviors, including key methodologic issues and outstanding challenges. Methods An exploratory literature review was conducted using bibliographic searches in PubMed and CINAHL with relevant search terms (eg, smartphones, smoking cessation, cancer prevention, cancer screening, and carcinogens) to identify papers published in English through October 2015. Results Only 4 randomized controlled trials of the use of mobile phone apps for smoking cessation and 2 trials of apps for sun safety were identified, indicating that it is premature to conduct a systematic search and meta-analysis of the published literature on this topic. Conclusions Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to better establish the cancer prevention and control capabilities of mobile phone apps. In developing new and refined apps for cancer prevention and control, both health literacy and eHealth literacy should be taken into account. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as smoking cessation, cancer screening, and sun safety. Mobile phone apps are likely to be a useful and low-cost intervention for preventing cancer through behavioral changes. PMID:27242162

  8. "We are also normal humans, you know?" Views and attitudes of juvenile delinquents on antisocial behavior, neurobiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Horstkötter, Dorothee; Berghmans, Ron; de Ruiter, Corine; Krumeich, Anja; de Wert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the views and attitudes of juvenile delinquents regarding the implications of genomics and neurobiology research findings for the prevention and treatment of antisocial behavior. Scientific developments in these disciplines are considered to be of increasing importance for understanding the causes and the course of antisocial behavior and related mental disorders. High expectations exist with regard to the development of more effective prevention and intervention. Whether this is a desirable development does not only depend on science, but also on the ethical and social implications of potential applications of current and future research findings. As this pilot study points out, juvenile delinquents themselves have rather mixed views on the goals and means of early identification, prevention and treatment. Some welcome the potential support and help that could arise from biologically informed preventive and therapeutic measures. Others, however, reject the very goals of prevention and treatment and express worries concerning the risk of labeling and stigmatization and the possibility of false positives. Furthermore, interventions could aim at equalizing people and taking away socially disapproved capacities they themselves value. Moreover, most juvenile delinquents are hardly convinced that their crime could have been caused by some features of their brain or that a mental disorder has played a role. Instead, they provide social explanations such as living in a deprived neighborhood or having antisocial friends. We suggest that the hopes and expectations as well as the concerns and worries of juvenile delinquents are relevant not only for genomics and neurobiology of antisocial behavior, but also for prevention and intervention measures informed by social scientific and psychological research. The range of patterns of thought of juvenile delinquents is of great heuristic value and may lead to subsequent research that could further

  9. Dying the right-way? Interest in and perceived persuasiveness of parochial extremist propaganda increases after mortality salience.

    PubMed

    Frischlich, Lena; Rieger, Diana; Hein, Maia; Bente, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Research on parochial altruism demonstrated that hostility toward out-groups (parochialism) represents the dark side of the willingness to benefit one's in-group even at own costs (altruism). Parochial aggression thereby emerged mainly under conditions of threat. Extremist propaganda videos, for instance by right-wing extremists, try to capitalize on parochial altruistic mechanism by telling recipients sharing their national identity that this nation is under threat wherefore they for have to join the extremist's cause to prevent the extinction of their nation. Most of the time, propaganda videos are rated as uninteresting and non-persuasive by the target audience. Yet, evolutionary media psychology posits that the interest in and effectiveness of media increases when evolutionarily relevant problems are addressed. Consequently, interest in parochial altruistic right-wing extremist messages should increase under conditions of threat. The current study tested this assumption by randomly assigning German non-Muslims (N = 109) to either an existential threat (here: mortality salience) or a control condition and asking them to evaluate extremist propaganda that addressed them as either in-group members (right-wing extremists) or as out-group members (Islamic extremists). In support of the hypotheses, subjects under conditions of threat reported a higher interest in the right-wing extremist propaganda and perceived it as more persuasive. We discuss the results concerning the implications for evolutionary media psychology and the transmission of parochial altruism in propaganda videos. PMID:26322011

  10. Dying the right-way? Interest in and perceived persuasiveness of parochial extremist propaganda increases after mortality salience

    PubMed Central

    Frischlich, Lena; Rieger, Diana; Hein, Maia; Bente, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Research on parochial altruism demonstrated that hostility toward out-groups (parochialism) represents the dark side of the willingness to benefit one’s in-group even at own costs (altruism). Parochial aggression thereby emerged mainly under conditions of threat. Extremist propaganda videos, for instance by right-wing extremists, try to capitalize on parochial altruistic mechanism by telling recipients sharing their national identity that this nation is under threat wherefore they for have to join the extremist’s cause to prevent the extinction of their nation. Most of the time, propaganda videos are rated as uninteresting and non-persuasive by the target audience. Yet, evolutionary media psychology posits that the interest in and effectiveness of media increases when evolutionarily relevant problems are addressed. Consequently, interest in parochial altruistic right-wing extremist messages should increase under conditions of threat. The current study tested this assumption by randomly assigning German non-Muslims (N = 109) to either an existential threat (here: mortality salience) or a control condition and asking them to evaluate extremist propaganda that addressed them as either in-group members (right-wing extremists) or as out-group members (Islamic extremists). In support of the hypotheses, subjects under conditions of threat reported a higher interest in the right-wing extremist propaganda and perceived it as more persuasive. We discuss the results concerning the implications for evolutionary media psychology and the transmission of parochial altruism in propaganda videos. PMID:26322011

  11. Determinants of Knowledge and Biosecurity Preventive Behaviors for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Risk Among Chinese Poultry Farmers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bin; Liu, Zong Ping

    2016-06-01

    Biosecurity measures are the first line of defense against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) on farms. It is generally recognized that an individual's behavior can be influenced by the knowledge they possess. However, empirical study has not reported an association between poultry producers' awareness of HPAI symptoms and their actual biosecurity actions. The aim of this study is to classify knowledge items of HPAI by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and to examine the determinants of different types of knowledge and the effect of different types of knowledge on biosecurity preventive behaviors (BPBs). The survey (n = 297) was conducted using a questionnaire to measure the level of awareness of items related to HPAI and the actual adoption of BPBs among poultry farmers in the Chinese province of Jiangsu. The EFA revealed three main types of knowledge, which were categorized as avian influenza (AI) epidemic characteristics, primary biosecurity preventive knowledge (basic biosecurity preventive knowledge against AI), and essential biosecurity preventive knowledge (crucial biosecurity preventive knowledge against infection of AI). Multivariate regression showed that only poultry farmers' awareness of essential biosecurity preventive knowledge was positively associated with their actual BPBs. Additionally, educational attainment, number of years of experience raising poultry, farming operation size, and training were associated both with BPB and most of the knowledge factors or knowledge items. Training of existing poultry farmers is probably a feasible scheme; furthermore, the training should focus on the essential biosecurity preventive knowledge. On the other hand, policy initiatives to encourage large-scale poultry farming while discouraging small-scale backyard poultry husbandry would be an effective method of improving the management standards of rural poultry farming. PMID:27309291

  12. Persuasive Technology in Mobile Applications Promoting Physical Activity: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John; Win, Khin Than; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Freeman, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Persuasive technology in mobile applications can be used to influence the behaviour of users. A framework known as the Persuasive Systems Design model has been developed for designing and evaluating systems that influence the attitudes or behaviours of users. This paper reviews the current state of mobile applications for health behavioural change with an emphasis on applications that promote physical activity. The inbuilt persuasive features of mobile applications were evaluated using the Persuasive Systems Design model. A database search was conducted to identify relevant articles. Articles were then reviewed using the Persuasive Systems Design model as a framework for analysis. Primary task support, dialogue support, and social support were found to be moderately represented in the selected articles. However, system credibility support was found to have only low levels of representation as a persuasive systems design feature in mobile applications for supporting physical activity. To ensure that available mobile technology resources are best used to improve the wellbeing of people, it is important that the design principles that influence the effectiveness of persuasive technology be understood. PMID:26748792

  13. Integrating Behavioral HIV Interventions into Biomedical Prevention Trials with Youth: Lessons from Chicago’s Project PrEPare

    PubMed Central

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Green, Keith R.; Siberry, George; Lally, Michelle; Balthazar, Christopher; Serrano, Pedro A.; Kapogiannis, Bill

    2013-01-01

    On the heels of several trials demonstrating the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and the recent approval by the FDA of the supplemental indication for Truvada as PrEP, researchers, advocates, and community providers are calling for the investigation of implementation strategies that combine behavioral interventions with biomedical prevention. This paper describes the modification and integration of an evidence-based group-level intervention into a small PrEP pilot trial with young men who have sex with men (YMSM). The behavioral intervention as well as ongoing risk reduction counseling sessions were found to be highly acceptable among a sample of racially diverse YMSM. PMID:24223514

  14. Illness representation on H1N1 influenza and preventive behaviors in the Hong Kong general population.

    PubMed

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Joseph T F

    2015-12-01

    This study examined illness representations of new influenza Human Swine Influenza A (H1N1) and association with H1N1 preventive behaviors among 300 Chinese adults using a population-based randomized telephone survey. Results showed that relatively few participants thought H1N1 would have serious consequences (12%-15.7%) and few showed negative emotional responses toward H1N1 (9%-24.7%). The majority of the participants thought H1N1 could be controlled by treatment (70.4%-72.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that treatment control (odds ratio = 1.78) and psychological attribution (odds ratio = .75) were associated with intention to take up influenza vaccination. Emotional representations were associated with lower likelihood of wearing face mask (odds ratio = .77) and hand washing (odds ratio = .67). Results confirm that illness representation variables are associated with H1N1 preventive behaviors. PMID:24423574

  15. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project: Longitudinal Outcome of Behavioral Measures as Predictors of Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Sarah Jane; Raman, Rema; He, Feng; Salmon, David P.; Ferris, Steven; Aisen, Paul; Cummings, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Background/Methods The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project is a longitudinal study that recruited 644 cognitively healthy older subjects (aged between 75 and 93 years, 58% women) at baseline and evaluated their cognitive change over 4 years. The study was structured like a clinical trial to anticipate a prevention trial and to determine the performance of novel trial instruments in a longitudinal non-interventional trial framework. Behavioral symptoms were assessed at baseline. Results The existence of participant-reported behavioral symptoms at baseline predicted conversion to Clinical Dementia Rating scale score ≥0.5 over the 4-year period. Conclusions The results imply that early anxiety and depression may be harbingers of future cognitive decline, and that patients exhibiting such symptoms, even in the absence of co-occurring cognitive symptoms, should be closely followed over time. PMID:25685141

  16. A regulatory focus perspective on eating behavior: how prevention and promotion focus relates to emotional, external, and restrained eating

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Sassenrath, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    By applying regulatory focus theory (RFT) to the context of eating behavior, the present research examines the relations between individual differences in the two motivational orientations as conceptualized in RFT, that is, prevention-focused and promotion-focused self-regulation and emotional, external, and restrained eating. Building on a representative study conducted in the Netherlands (N = 4,230), it is documented that individual differences in prevention focus are positively related to emotional eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to external and restrained eating. Individual differences in promotion focus are positively related to external eating whereas negligible associations are found in regards to emotional and restrained eating. In relating RFT to different eating styles we were able to document significant relations of basic self-regulatory orientations with regard to essential daily behavior associated with health and well-being. The implications for changing eating styles are discussed. PMID:25477840

  17. Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior and HIV/AIDS Prevention Education: Survey Results, 1991. Bulletin No. 93253.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Judy; Nehls-Lowe, Barbara

    This report contains data from the 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, administered to 1,440 high school students throughout Wisconsin. Included are data on the prevalence of injuries; drug use; sexual behaviors; dietary behaviors; and physical activity. The results revealed that over 80% of students rarely or never wear bicycle helmets and 50%…

  18. Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

  19. Understanding Stalking Behaviors by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Recommended Prevention Strategies for School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Michal; Haymes, Linda; Storey, Keith; Loughrey, Tamara; Campbell, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Stalking behavior among some students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) is of concern both for the individual being stalked as well as the student with ASDs. This manuscript reviews effective interventions based upon functional assessment and appropriate positive behavior supports. Specific interventions for addressing staking behavior by…

  20. The Use of Group Contingencies for Preventing and Managing Disruptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulac, David M.; Benson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors requiring intervention occur across multiple school systems, including individual students and classrooms. Such behaviors, including talking aloud in class, getting out of one's seat, or more serious behaviors, can be frustrating for other students as well as teachers, who are trying to help students meet ever-increasing…