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Sample records for primary brain tumor

  1. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  2. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Ryota; Kuroshima, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of brain metastases for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is reportedly 1.5~5%, and the origin is usually pulmonary. A 77-year-old man presented to our hospital with headache and disturbance of specific skilled motor activities. Computed tomography (CT) showed a massive neoplastic lesion originating in the left temporal and parietal lobes that caused a mass edematous effect. Grossly, total resection of the tumor was achieved. Histological examination revealed much nuclear atypia and mitotic figures. Staining for CD56, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin was positive, indicating NET. The MIB-1 index was 37%. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as NET. After surgery, gastroscopy and colonoscopy were performed, but the origin was not seen. After discharge, CT and FDG-PET (fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography) were performed every 3 months. Two years later we have not determined the origin of the tumor. It is possible that the brain is the primary site of this NET. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this phenomenon. PMID:25506006

  3. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  4. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or malignant, with cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain ... targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get ...

  5. Primary brain tumors, neural stem cell, and brain tumor cancer cells: where is the link?

    PubMed Central

    Germano, Isabelle; Swiss, Victoria; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of brain tumor-derived cells (BTSC) with the properties of stem cells has led to the formulation of the hypothesis that neural stem cells could be the cell of origin of primary brain tumors (PBT). In this review we present the most common molecular changes in PBT, define the criteria of identification of BTSC and discuss the similarities between the characteristics of these cells and those of the endogenous population of neural stem cells (NPCs) residing in germinal areas of the adult brain. Finally, we propose possible mechanisms of cancer initiation and progression and suggest a model of tumor initiation that includes intrinsic changes of resident NSC and potential changes in the microenvironment defining the niche where the NSC reside. PMID:20045420

  6. Neuromorphometry of primary brain tumors by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hevia-Montiel, Nidiyare; Rodriguez-Perez, Pedro I.; Lamothe-Molina, Paul J.; Arellano-Reynoso, Alfonso; Bribiesca, Ernesto; Alegria-Loyola, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Magnetic resonance imaging is a technique for the diagnosis and classification of brain tumors. Discrete compactness is a morphological feature of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects. This measure determines the compactness of a discretized object depending on the sum of the areas of the connected voxels and has been used for understanding the morphology of nonbrain tumors. We hypothesized that regarding brain tumors, we may improve the malignancy grade classification. We analyzed the values in 20 patients with different subtypes of primary brain tumors: astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and glioblastoma multiforme subdivided into the contrast-enhanced and the necrotic tumor regions. The preliminary results show an inverse relationship between the compactness value and the malignancy grade of gliomas. Astrocytomas exhibit a mean of 973±14, whereas oligodendrogliomas exhibit a mean of 942±21. In contrast, the contrast-enhanced region of the glioblastoma presented a mean of 919±43, and the necrotic region presented a mean of 869±66. However, the volume and area of the enclosing surface did not show a relationship with the malignancy grade of the gliomas. Discrete compactness appears to be a stable characteristic between primary brain tumors of different malignancy grades, because similar values were obtained from different patients with the same type of tumor. PMID:26158107

  7. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  8. The role of integrins in primary and secondary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Schittenhelm, Jens; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Sipos, Bence

    2016-10-01

    The tumor environment plays an integral part in the biology of cancer, participating in tumor initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Integrins, a family of cell surface receptors, bridge the extracellular matrix to the intracellular cytoskeleton. Since their first characterization 25 years ago, a vast amount of work has been performed to understand the essential role of integrins in cell development, tissue organization, tumor growth, vessel development and their signaling mechanisms. Their potential as therapeutic targets in various types of cancer is intensively studied. In this review, we discuss the expression patterns and functional role of integrin in primary brain tumors and brain metastases, provide an overview of clinical data on integrin inhibition and their potential application in imaging and therapy of these tumors. PMID:27097828

  9. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  10. Brain tumor (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  11. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain from an unknown location. This is called cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin. Growing brain tumors can place pressure ... not know the original location. This is called cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin. Metastatic brain tumors occur in about ...

  12. Cilengitide in Treating Children With Refractory Primary Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  13. Significant predictors of patients' uncertainty in primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Chien, Lung-Chang; Acquaye, Alvina A; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-05-01

    Patients with primary brain tumors (PBT) face uncertainty related to prognosis, symptoms and treatment response and toxicity. Uncertainty is correlated to negative mood states and symptom severity and interference. This study identified predictors of uncertainty during different treatment stages (newly-diagnosed, on treatment, followed-up without active treatment). One hundred eighty six patients with PBT were accrued at various points in the illness trajectory. Data collection tools included: a clinical checklist/a demographic data sheet/the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale-Brain Tumor Form. The structured additive regression model was used to identify significant demographic and clinical predictors of illness-related uncertainty. Participants were primarily white (80 %) males (53 %). They ranged in age from 19-80 (mean = 44.2 ± 12.6). Thirty-two of the 186 patients were newly-diagnosed, 64 were on treatment at the time of clinical visit with MRI evaluation, 21 were without MRI, and 69 were not on active treatment. Three subscales (ambiguity/inconsistency; unpredictability-disease prognoses; unpredictability-symptoms and other triggers) were different amongst the treatment groups (P < .01). However, patients' uncertainty during active treatment was as high as in newly-diagnosed period. Other than treatment stages, change of employment status due to the illness was the most significant predictor of illness-related uncertainty. The illness trajectory of PBT remains ambiguous, complex, and unpredictable, leading to a high incidence of uncertainty. There was variation in the subscales of uncertainty depending on treatment status. Although patients who are newly diagnosed reported the highest scores on most of the subscales, patients on treatment felt more uncertain about unpredictability of symptoms than other groups. Due to the complexity and impact of the disease, associated symptoms, and interference with functional status, comprehensive assessment of patients

  14. A multicenter study of primary brain tumor incidence in Australia (2000–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Dobes, Martin; Shadbolt, Bruce; Khurana, Vini G.; Jain, Sanjiv; Smith, Sarah F.; Smee, Robert; Dexter, Mark; Cook, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    There are conflicting reports from Europe and North America regarding trends in the incidence of primary brain tumor, whereas the incidence of primary brain tumors in Australia is currently unknown. We aimed to determine the incidence in Australia with age-, sex-, and benign-versus-malignant histology-specific analyses. A multicenter study was performed in the state of New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), which has a combined population of >7 million with >97% rate of population retention for medical care. We retrospectively mined pathology databases servicing neurosurgical centers in NSW and ACT for histologically confirmed primary brain tumors diagnosed from January 2000 through December 2008. Data were weighted for patient outflow and data completeness. Incidence rates were age standardized and trends analyzed using joinpoint analysis. A weighted total of 7651 primary brain tumors were analyzed. The overall US-standardized incidence of primary brain tumors was 11.3 cases 100 000 person-years (±0.13; 95% confidence interval, 9.8–12.3) during the study period with no significant linear increase. A significant increase in primary malignant brain tumors from 2000 to 2008 was observed; this appears to be largely due to an increase in malignant tumor incidence in the ≥65-year age group. This collection represents the most contemporary data on primary brain tumor incidence in Australia. Whether the observed increase in malignant primary brain tumors, particularly in persons aged ≥65 years, is due to improved detection, diagnosis, and care delivery or a true change in incidence remains undetermined. We recommend a direct, uniform, and centralized approach to monitoring primary brain tumor incidence that can be independent of multiple interstate cancer registries. PMID:21727214

  15. Primary brain tumors and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya-Matsuoka, Carlos; Cachia, David; Olar, Adriana; Armstrong, Terri S.; Gilbert, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic encephalopathic state associated with reversible cerebral vasogenic edema. It is an increasingly recognized occurrence in the oncology population. However, it is very uncommon in patients with primary brain tumors (PBTs). The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicoradiological features and report the clinical outcomes of PRES in PBT patients. Methods We identified 4 cases with PBT who developed PRES at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) between 2012 and 2014. Clinical and radiological data were abstracted from their records. In addition, we also solicited 8 cases from the literature. Results The median age at PRES onset was 19 years, male-to-female ratio was 1:1, and the syndrome occurred in patients with ependymoma (n = 4), glioblastoma (n = 3), diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG; n = 3), juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 1), and atypical meningioma (n = 1). Two glioblastomas and 2 DIPG cases received bevacizumab and vandetanib before the onset of symptoms, respectively. The most common clinical presentation was seizures (n = 7). Three MDACC patients recovered completely in 3–4 weeks after the onset of symptoms. One patient died due to active cancer and several comorbidities including PRES. Conclusions Hypertension seems to be the most important coexisting risk factor for development of PRES; however, the potential effects of chemotherapeutic agents in the pathogenesis of PRES should also be examined. The clinicoradiological course of PRES in PBT patients did not vary from the classical descriptions of PRES found in other causes. PRES must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in patients with PBTs presenting with seizures or acute encephalopathy. PMID:26034631

  16. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... facts and statistics here include brain and central nervous system tumors (including spinal cord, pituitary and pineal gland ... U.S. living with a primary brain and central nervous system tumor. This year, nearly 17,000 people will ...

  17. Analgesic use and the risk of primary adult brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Egan, Kathleen M; Nabors, Louis B; Thompson, Zachary J; Rozmeski, Carrie M; Anic, Gabriella A; Olson, Jeffrey J; LaRocca, Renato V; Chowdhary, Sajeel A; Forsyth, Peter A; Thompson, Reid C

    2016-09-01

    Glioma and meningioma are uncommon tumors of the brain with few known risk factors. Regular use of aspirin has been linked to a lower risk of gastrointestinal and other cancers, though evidence for an association with brain tumors is mixed. We examined the association of aspirin and other analgesics with the risk of glioma and meningioma in a large US case-control study. Cases were persons recently diagnosed with glioma or meningioma and treated at medical centers in the southeastern US. Controls were persons sampled from the same communities as the cases combined with friends and other associates of the cases. Information on past use of analgesics (aspirin, other anti-inflammatory agents, and acetaminophen) was collected in structured interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for analgesic use adjusted for potential confounders. All associations were considered according to indication for use. A total of 1123 glioma cases, 310 meningioma cases and 1296 controls were included in the analysis. For indications other than headache, glioma cases were less likely than controls to report regular use of aspirin (OR 0.69; CI 0.56, 0.87), in a dose-dependent manner (P trend < 0.001). No significant associations were observed with other analgesics for glioma, or any class of pain reliever for meningioma. Results suggest that regular aspirin use may reduce incidence of glioma. PMID:26894804

  18. More Complete Removal of Malignant Brain Tumors by Fluorescence-Guided Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-13

    Benign Neoplasms, Brain; Brain Cancer; Brain Neoplasms, Benign; Brain Neoplasms, Malignant; Brain Tumor, Primary; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Brain Tumors; Intracranial Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Brain; Neoplasms, Intracranial; Primary Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Tumors; Gliomas; Glioblastoma

  19. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Treister, Daniel; Kingston, Sara; Hoque, Kristina E; Law, Meng; Shiroishi, Mark S

    2014-08-01

    Gliomas comprise 80% of primary brain neoplasms, with glioblastoma multiforme being the most commonly diagnosed glioma. The annual incidence is 5.26 per 100,000, or 17,000 newly diagnosed cases per year in the United States. The incidence increases with age, peaking between the 6th and 8th decades. Gliomas are more common among Caucasians and occur more often in men. They can be associated with certain rare hereditary syndromes including Cowden, Turcot, Li-Fraumeni, neurofibromatosis type 1 and type 2, tuberous sclerosis, and familial schwannomatosis. Known risk factors include a history of ionizing radiation, family history of glioma, and certain genetic susceptibility variants that are weakly associated with glioma. Preventative measures have not been shown to decrease the risk of later development. In addition, screening tests are unwarranted since early diagnosis and treatment have not been shown to improve outcome. PMID:25173141

  20. Identification of primary tumors of brain metastases by SIMCA classification of IR spectroscopic images.

    PubMed

    Krafft, Christoph; Shapoval, Larysa; Sobottka, Stephan B; Geiger, Kathrin D; Schackert, Gabriele; Salzer, Reiner

    2006-07-01

    Brain metastases are secondary intracranial lesions which occur more frequently than primary brain tumors. The four most abundant types of brain metastasis originate from primary tumors of lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma. As metastatic cells contain the molecular information of the primary tissue cells and IR spectroscopy probes the molecular fingerprint of cells, IR spectroscopy based methods constitute a new approach to determine the origin of brain metastases. IR spectroscopic images of 4 by 4 mm2 tissue areas were recorded in transmission mode by a FTIR imaging spectrometer coupled to a focal plane array detector. Unsupervised cluster analysis revealed variances within each cryosection. Selected clusters of five IR images with known diagnoses trained a supervised classification model based on the algorithm soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA). This model was applied to distinguish normal brain tissue from brain metastases and to identify the primary tumor of brain metastases in 15 independent IR images. All specimens were assigned to the correct tissue class. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that IR spectroscopy can complement established methods such as histopathology or immunohistochemistry for diagnosis. PMID:16787638

  1. Identification of primary tumors of brain metastases by infrared spectroscopic imaging and linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Krafft, Christoph; Shapoval, Larysa; Sobottka, Stephan B; Schackert, Gabriele; Salzer, Reiner

    2006-06-01

    This study applies infrared (IR) spectroscopy to distinguish normal brain tissue from brain metastases and to determine the primary tumor of four frequent brain metastases such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. Standard methods sometimes fail to identify the origin of brain metastases. As metastatic cells contain the molecular information of the primary tissue cells and IR spectroscopy probes the molecular fingerprint of cells, IR spectroscopy based methods constitute a new approach to determine the primary tumor of a brain metastasis. IR spectroscopic images were recorded by a FTIR spectrometer equipped with a macro sample chamber and coupled to a focal plane array detector. Unsupervised cluster analysis of IR images revealed variances within each sample and between samples of the same tissue type. Cluster averaged IR spectra of tissue classes with known diagnoses were selected to develop a metric with eight variables. These data trained a supervised classification model based on linear discriminant analysis that was used to identify the origin of 20 cryosections including one brain metastasis with an unknown primary tumor. PMID:16700626

  2. Advanced Imaging for Biopsy Guidance in Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tsiouris, Apostolos J; Ramakrishna, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate glioma sampling is required for diagnosis and establishing eligibility for relevant clinical trials. MR-based perfusion and spectroscopy sequences supplement conventional MR in noninvasively predicting the areas of highest tumor grade for biopsy. We report the case of a patient with gliomatosis cerebri and multifocal patchy enhancement in whom the combination of advanced and conventional imaging attributes successfully guided a diagnostic biopsy. PMID:27014538

  3. Epidemiology of primary brain tumors: current concepts and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Margaret; Minn, Yuriko; Chew, Terri; Bondy, Melissa; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a sufficiently detailed perspective on epidemiologic studies of primary brain tumors to encourage multidisciplinary etiologic and prognostic studies among surgeons, neuro-oncologists, epidemiologists, and molecular scientists. Molecular tumor markers that predict survival and treatment response are being identified with hope of even greater gains in this area from emerging array technologies. Regarding risk factors, studies of inherited susceptibility and constitutive polymorphisms in genes pertinent to carcinogenesis (for example, DNA repair and detoxification genes and mutagen sensitivity) have revealed provocative findings. Inverse associations of the history of allergies with glioma risk observed in 3 large studies and reports of inverse associations of glioma with common infections suggest a possible role of immune factors in glioma genesis or progression. Studies continue to suggest that brain tumors might result from workplace, dietary, and other personal and residential exposures, but studies of cell phone use and power frequency electromagnetic fields have found little to support a causal connection with brain tumors; caveats remain. The only proven causes of brain tumors (that is, rare hereditary syndromes, therapeutic radiation, and immune suppression giving rise to brain lymphomas) account for a small proportion of cases. Progress in understanding primary brain tumors might result from studies of well-defined histologic and molecular tumor types incorporating assessment of potentially relevant information on subject susceptibility and environmental and noninherited endogenous factors (viruses, radiation, and carcinogenic or protective chemical exposures through diet, workplace, oxidative metabolism, or other sources). Such studies will require the cooperation of researchers from many disciplines. PMID:12356358

  4. Seizures in patients with primary brain tumors: what is their psychosocial impact?

    PubMed

    Shin, John Y; Kizilbash, Sani H; Robinson, Steven I; Uhm, Joon H; Hammack, Julie E; Lachance, Daniel H; Buckner, Jan C; Jatoi, Aminah

    2016-06-01

    Seizures occur in most patients with primary malignant tumors and are associated with poor quality of life. To our knowledge, no previous studies have sought descriptions of quality of life in patients' own words. Patients with a history of a malignant primary brain tumor and seizures participated in semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed with qualitative methodology. Twenty-seven patients participated, most with high grade brain tumors. Most were receiving anti-seizure medication. Three distinct themes emerged: (1) the first seizure as a sentinel event, as manifested in part by how patients described their first seizure in remarkable detail ("I clearly remember the date…"); (2) seizures as inextricably tied to the brain tumor itself; for example, one patient explained how he "always wondered what was happening with my brain tumor" with each seizure; and (3) adaptation and acceptance-or lack therefore-to seizures. With respect to this third theme, patients conveyed frustration from an inability to work, to drive, and to take care of their children ("It's like you are 15 all over again.") Others described frustration with taking antiseizure medications ("I felt like an 80 year old, now taking her pills every day"). However, some patients had adapted or resigned themselves ("…so much of life is out of control-you just gotta take what you get."). These findings have future research implications but should also serve to make healthcare providers more aware of the heavy emotional burden that seizures thrust upon brain tumor patients. PMID:26979915

  5. Treatment results of stereotactic interstitial brachytherapy for primary and metastatic brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, G.L.; Luxton, G.; Cohen, D.; Petrovich, Z.; Langholz, B.; Apuzzo, M.L.; Sapozink, M.D. )

    1991-08-01

    A total of 41 stereotactic interstitial brain implants in 39 patients were performed for recurrence after teletherapy (recurrence implant), or as part of initial treatment in conjunction with teletherapy (primary implant). Implanted tumors consisted of malignant gliomas (33), other primary brain tumors (3), and single metastatic lesions (3). All patients were temporarily implanted with Ir-192 using a coaxial catheter afterloading system; two patients were implanted twice. Survival post-implant for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 13 patients, was 10 months whether implanted primarily or for recurrence. Mean time to recurrence, measured from initiation of teletherapy to implantation, was 10 months. Twenty patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) had a median survival post-implant of 23 months for primary implants (7 patients) and 11 months for recurrence implants (13 patients). Mean time to recurrence, measured from initiation of teletherapy to implantation, was 19 months. Three patients (9%) of the evaluable group required reoperation for symptomatic mass effect, all with initial diagnosis of AA. Survival for this subgroup was 14, 22, and 32 months post-implantation. Using stereotactic techniques, interstitial brachytherapy of brain tumors was technically feasible with negligible acute morbidity and mortality, and appeared to offer limited prolongation of control for a subset of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. The role of this modality in primary treatment for malignant gliomas needs to be further defined by prospectively randomized trials.

  6. Use of complementary and alternative medical therapy by patients with primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Terri S; Gilbert, Mark R

    2008-05-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing. CAM includes mind-body interventions, biologically based therapies, energy therapies, and body-based methods. Primary brain tumors arise within the brain and have a poor prognosis when malignant. Even patients with benign tumors suffer neurologic and systemic symptoms as a result of the tumor or its treatment. CAM is used by 30% of brain tumor patients, who often do not report its use to their physician. Herbal medicines may affect the metabolism of prescribed medications or produce adverse effects that may be attributed to other causes. In patients with systemic cancer, mind-body modalities such as meditation and relaxation therapy have been shown to be helpful in reducing anxiety and pain; acupuncture and hypnotherapy may also reduce both pain and nausea. Recent preclinical studies have reported that ginseng, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Angelica sinensis may promote apoptosis of tumor cells or exercise antiangiogenic effects. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of CAM on symptom control or tumor growth in this vulnerable patient population. PMID:18541122

  7. Detection of tumor-derived DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with primary tumors of the brain and spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuxuan; Springer, Simeon; Zhang, Ming; McMahon, K. Wyatt; Kinde, Isaac; Dobbyn, Lisa; Ptak, Janine; Brem, Henry; Chaichana, Kaisorn; Gallia, Gary L.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Groves, Mari L.; Jallo, George I.; Lim, Michael; Olivi, Alessandro; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Rigamonti, Daniele; Riggins, Greg J.; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Weingart, Jon D.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Ye, Xiaobu; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Marie, Suely K. N.; Holdhoff, Matthias; Agrawal, Nishant; Diaz, Luis A.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Bettegowda, Chetan

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free DNA shed by cancer cells has been shown to be a rich source of putative tumor-specific biomarkers. Because cell-free DNA from brain and spinal cord tumors cannot usually be detected in the blood, we studied whether the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that bathes the CNS is enriched for tumor DNA, here termed CSF-tDNA. We analyzed 35 primary CNS malignancies and found at least one mutation in each tumor using targeted or genome-wide sequencing. Using these patient-specific mutations as biomarkers, we identified detectable levels of CSF-tDNA in 74% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 57–88%] of cases. All medulloblastomas, ependymomas, and high-grade gliomas that abutted a CSF space were detectable (100% of 21 cases; 95% CI = 88–100%), whereas no CSF-tDNA was detected in patients whose tumors were not directly adjacent to a CSF reservoir (P < 0.0001, Fisher’s exact test). These results suggest that CSF-tDNA could be useful for the management of patients with primary tumors of the brain or spinal cord. PMID:26195750

  8. Can deceased donor with recurrent primary brain tumor donate kidneys for transplantation?

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Modi, Pranjal R; Pal, Bipin C; Modi, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from deceased donors is in its infancy in India. Cadaver organ donation was accepted legally in 1994 by the "Human Organs Transplantation Act." Marginal donors are now accepted by many centers for kidney transplantation. We report a case of procurement of both kidneys from a young deceased donor having recurrent primary brain tumor, transplanted into two adult recipients with successful outcome. PMID:26941500

  9. Can deceased donor with recurrent primary brain tumor donate kidneys for transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Suresh; Modi, Pranjal R.; Pal, Bipin C.; Modi, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from deceased donors is in its infancy in India. Cadaver organ donation was accepted legally in 1994 by the “Human Organs Transplantation Act.” Marginal donors are now accepted by many centers for kidney transplantation. We report a case of procurement of both kidneys from a young deceased donor having recurrent primary brain tumor, transplanted into two adult recipients with successful outcome. PMID:26941500

  10. Liposomal cytarabine in neoplastic meningitis from primary brain tumors: a single institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Gaviani, P; Corsini, E; Salmaggi, A; Lamperti, E; Botturi, A; Erbetta, A; Milanesi, I; Legnani, F; Pollo, B; Silvani, A

    2013-12-01

    Neoplastic meningitis (NM) is diagnosed in 1-2 % of patients with primary brain tumors. Standard treatment of NM includes single-agent or combination chemotherapy, with compounds such as methotrexate, thiotepa, and cytarabine (Ara-C) or its injectable, sustained-release formulation Depocyte(®). In this Report, we reported the data of efficacy and tolerability of an intrathecal Depocyte(®) regimen for patients presenting with NM from primary brain tumors. We described 12 patients with NM confirmed at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and with a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology. Patients were treated with repeated courses of intrathecal Depocyte(®) (once every 2 weeks for 1 month of induction therapy and as consolidation therapy on a monthly base in responding patients). Twelve patients (10 males and 2 females) were treated by our Institution. The diagnosis of primitive brain tumor was medulloblastoma in six patients, germinoma in two patients, pylocitic astrocytomas with spongioblastic aspects, teratocarcinoma, meningeal melanoma, and ependimoma in the other four patients. The total number of Depocyte(®) cycles ranged from one to nine. In 7/12 patients, there was clinical and/or radiological response after Depocyte(®), and the toxicity was moderate and transient, mainly due to the lumbar puncture procedure. In the two patients with germinoma, we observed a normalization of MRI Imaging and negativization of CSF with disappearance of the tumor cells. OS was 180 days (range 20-300, CI 95 %). PMID:23525755

  11. [The first experience in interstitial brachytherapy for primary and metastatic tumors of the brain].

    PubMed

    Bentsion, D L; Gvozdev, P B; Sakovich, V P; Fialko, N V; Kolotvinov, V S; Baiankina, S N

    2006-01-01

    In 2001-2002, the authors performed a course of brachytherapy in 15 patients with inoperable primary, recurrent, and metastatic brain tumors. The histostructural distribution was as follows: low-grade astrocytoma (grade II according to the WHO classification) in 2 patients, anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in 3, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in 5. Five patients had solid tumor deposits in the brain. Computer tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were used to define a path for forthcoming biopsy and implantation at a "Stryker" navigation station, by taking into account the anatomy of the brain, vessels, and functionally significant areas. After having histological findings, plastic intrastats whose number had been determined by the volume of a target were implanted into a tumor by the predetermined path. Dosimetric planning was accomplished by using CT and MRI images on an "Abacus" system. The final stage involved irradiation on a "GammaMed plus" with a source of 192Ir. Irradiation was given, by hyperfractionating its dose (3-4 Gy twice daily at an interval of 4-5 hours) to the total focal dose (TFD) of 36-44 Gy. Patients with gliomas untreated with radiation also underwent external radiation in a TFD of 54-56 Gy and patients with brain metastases received total external irradiation of the brain in a TFD of 36-40 Gy. The tolerance of a course of irradiation was fair. In patients with AA and GBM, one-year survival was observed in 66 and 60%, respectively; in those having metastasis, it was in 20%. Six patients died from progressive disease. All patients with low-grade astrocytoma and one patient with anaplastic astrocytoma were alive at month 24 after treatment termination. The mean lifespan of patients with malignant gliomas and solid tumor metastasis was 11.5 and 5.8 months, respectively. Brachytherapy is a noninvasive and tolerable mode of radiotherapy that increases survival in some groups of patients with inoperable brain tumors. PMID:16739930

  12. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  13. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  14. Clinical variables and primary tumor characteristics predictive of the development of melanoma brain metastasis and post-brain metastasis survival

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewski, Jan; Geraghty, Laurel N.; Rose, Amy E.; Christos, Paul J.; Mazumdar, Madhu; Polsky, David; Shapiro, Richard; Berman, Russell; Darvishian, Farbod; Hernando, Eva; Pavlick, Anna; Osman, Iman

    2010-01-01

    Background Melanoma patients who develop brain metastases (B-Met) have limited survival and are excluded from most clinical trials. In this study, we sought to identify primary tumor characteristics and clinical features predictive of B-Met development and post-B-Met survival. Methods We studied a prospectively accrued cohort of 900 melanoma patients to identify clinicopathologic features of primary melanoma (e.g. thickness, ulceration, mitotic index, lymphovascular invasion) that are predictive of B-Met development and post-B-Met survival. Associations between clinical variables present at the time of B-Met diagnosis (e.g. extracranial metastases, B-Met location, presence of neurological symptoms) and post-B-Met survival were also assessed. Univariate associations were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and the effect of independent predictors assessed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression. Results 89 (10%) of the 900 patients developed B-Met. Ulceration and site of primary on the head and neck were independent predictors of B-Met development on multivariate analysis (p=0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). Clinical variables predictive of post-B-Met survival on multivariate analysis included the presence of neurological symptoms (p=0.008) and extracranial metastases (p=0.04). Ulceration was the only primary tumor characteristic that remained a significant predictor of post-B-Met survival on multivariate analysis (p=0.04). Conclusions Primary tumor ulceration was the strongest predictor of B-Met development and remained an independent predictor of decreased post-B-Met survival in a multivariate analysis inclusive of primary tumor characteristics and clinical variables. Our results suggest that patients with ulcerated primaries should be prospectively studied to determine if heightened surveillance for B-Met can improve clinical outcome. PMID:21472718

  15. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  16. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumor - metastatic (secondary); Cancer - brain tumor (metastatic) ... For many people with metastatic brain tumors, the cancer is not curable. It will eventually spread to other areas of the body. Prognosis depends on the type of tumor ...

  17. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... abta.org Donate Now Menu Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ... or Complete our contact form Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ...

  18. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff ... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning Donate to the ABTA Help advance the understanding ...

  19. A small-molecule antagonist of CXCR4 inhibits intracranial growth of primary brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Joshua B.; Kung, Andrew L.; Klein, Robyn S.; Chan, Jennifer A.; Sun, Yanping; Schmidt, Karl; Kieran, Mark W.; Luster, Andrew D.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2003-11-01

    The vast majority of brain tumors in adults exhibit glial characteristics. Brain tumors in children are diverse: Many have neuronal characteristics, whereas others have glial features. Here we show that activation of the Gi protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 is critical for the growth of both malignant neuronal and glial tumors. Systemic administration of CXCR4 antagonist AMD 3100 inhibits growth of intracranial glioblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts by increasing apoptosis and decreasing the proliferation of tumor cells. This reflects the ability of AMD 3100 to reduce the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt, all of which are pathways downstream of CXCR4 that promote survival, proliferation, and migration. These studies (i) demonstrate that CXCR4 is critical to the progression of diverse brain malignances and (ii) provide a scientific rationale for clinical evaluation of AMD 3100 in treating both adults and children with malignant brain tumors.

  20. Survival of Patients with Primary Brain Tumors: Comparison of Two Statistical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Selingerová, Iveta; Doleželová, Hana; Horová, Ivanka; Katina, Stanislav; Zelinka, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed the survival time for patients with primary brain tumors undergoing treatment with stereotactic radiation methods at the Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute Brno. We also identified risk factors and characteristics, and described their influence on survival time. Methods In summarizing survival data, there are two functions of principal interest, namely, the survival function and the hazard function. In practice, both of them can depend on some characteristics. We focused on nonparametric methods, propose a method based on kernel smoothing, and compared our estimates with the results of the Cox regression model. The hazard function is conditional to age and gross tumor volume and visualized as a color-coded surface. A multivariate Cox model was also designed. Results There were 88 patients with primary brain cancer, treated with stereotactic radiation. The median survival of our patient cohort was 47.8 months. The estimate of the hazard function has two peaks (about 10 months and about 40 months). The survival time of patients was significantly different for various diagnoses (p≪0.001), KI (p = 0.047) and stereotactic methods (p = 0.033). Patients with a greater GTV had higher risk of death. The suitable threshold for GTV is 20 cm3. Younger patients with a survival time of about 50 months had a higher risk of death. In the multivariate Cox regression model, the selected variables were age, GTV, sex, diagnosis, KI, location, and some of their interactions. Conclusion Kernel methods give us the possibility to evaluate continuous risk variables and based on the results offer risk-prone patients a different treatment, and can be useful for verifying assumptions of the Cox model or for finding thresholds of continuous variables. PMID:26863415

  1. Donepezil in Treating Young Patients With Primary Brain Tumors Previously Treated With Radiation Therapy to the Brain

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Cognitive/Functional Effects; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Children; Neurotoxicity; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Radiation Toxicity

  2. Early CT findings after interstitial radiation therapy for primary malignant brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Tolly, T.L.; Bruckman, J.E.; Czarnecki, D.J.; Frazin, L.J.; Lewis, H.J.; Richards, M.J.; Adamkiewicz, J.J. Jr.

    1988-11-01

    The CT findings after interstitial radiation therapy for brain tumors have not been extensively described. We evaluated retrospectively the CT scans of 13 patients who were treated with brachytherapy for malignant glioma. We found no typical CT appearance that differentiates recurrent tumor from radiation effect. After undergoing brachytherapy, eight of the 13 patients scanned demonstrated enhancement of brain tissue beyond the margins of the original enhancing tumor mass. In most cases, the pattern of enhancement diminished and extended more peripherally from the central necrotic area with time. We also report a new CT finding of focal calcification developing at the site of the radioactive implant.

  3. Existential Well-Being and Meaning Making in the Context of Primary Brain Tumor: Conceptualization and Implications for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ownsworth, Tamara; Nash, Kimberley

    2015-01-01

    When faced with a significant threat to life, people tend to reflect more intensely upon existential issues, such as the meaning and purpose of one’s life. Brain tumor poses a serious threat to a person’s life, functioning, and personhood. Although recognized as an important dimension of quality of life, existential well-being is not well understood and reflects an overlooked area of support for people with brain tumor. This perspective article reviews the historical underpinnings of the concept of existential well-being and integrates this discussion with theoretical perspectives and research on meaning making and psychological adjustment to primary brain tumor. We then provide an overview of psychosocial support interventions for people with brain tumor and describe the findings of a recently published psychotherapy trial targeting existential well-being. Overall, this article highlights the importance of assessing the existential support needs of people with primary brain tumor and their family members, and providing different avenues of support to facilitate the meaning-making process across the illness trajectory. PMID:25964883

  4. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  5. Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  6. Medulloblastoma/Primitive neuroectodermal tumor and germ cell tumors: the uncommon but potentially curable primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Samkari, Ayman; Hwang, Eugene; Packer, Roger J

    2012-08-01

    This article presents an overview of medulloblastomas, central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and germ cell tumors for the practicing oncologist. Discussion includes the definition of these tumors, histopathologic findings, molecular and genetic characteristics, prognoses, and evolution of treatment. PMID:22794288

  7. Exploring Spirituality in Family Caregivers of Patients With Primary Malignant Brain Tumors Across the Disease Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Alyssa G.; Jean Choi, Chien-Wen; Donovan, Heidi S.; Schulz, Richard; Bender, Catherine; Given, Barbara; Sherwood, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To determine whether the perceived level of spirituality in family caregivers of patients with primary malignant brain tumors (PMBTs) changes across the disease trajectory. Design Ongoing descriptive, longitudinal study. Setting Southwestern Pennsylvania. Sample 50 family caregivers of patients with PMBT. Methods Caregivers and care recipients were recruited at time of diagnosis. Participants were interviewed at two subse-quent time points, four and eight months following diagnosis. Main Research Variables Care recipients’ symptoms, neuro-psychologic status, and physical function, as well as caregiver social support. Findings Results showed no significant difference in spirituality scores reported at baseline and eight months (p = 0.8), suggesting that spirituality may be a stable trait across the disease trajectory. Conclusions Spirituality remains relatively stable along the course of the disease trajectory. Reports of caregiver depressive symptoms and anxiety were lower when paired with higher reports of spirituality. Implications for Nursing Clinicians can better identify caregivers at risk for negative outcomes by identifying those who report lower levels of spirituality. Future interventions should focus on the development and implementation of interventions that provide protective buffers such as increased social support. Knowledge Translation Spirituality is a relatively stable trait. High levels of spirituality can serve as a protective buffer from negative mental health outcomes. Caregivers with low levels of spirituality may be at risk for greater levels of burden, anxiety, and stress. PMID:23615145

  8. Primary brain tumors treated with steroids and radiotherapy: Low CD4 counts and risk of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Michael A.; Parisi, Michele; Grossman, Stuart; Kleinberg, Lawrence . E-mail: kleinla@jhmi.edu

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: Patients with primary brain tumors are often treated with high doses of corticosteroids for prolonged periods to reduce intracranial swelling and alleviate symptoms such as headaches. This treatment may lead to immunosuppression, placing the patient at risk of life-threatening opportunistic infections, such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The risk of contracting some types of infection may be reduced with prophylactic antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of low CD4 counts and whether monitoring CD4 counts during and after radiotherapy (RT) is warranted. Methods and Materials: CD4 counts were measured during RT in 70 of 76 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed Grade III and IV astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma treated with corticosteroids and seen at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Weekly CD4 measurements were taken in the most recent 25 patients. Prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160 mg/800 mg p.o. every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) or dapsone (100 mg p.o. daily) in those with sulfa allergy was prescribed only if patients developed a low CD4 count. Carmustine chemotherapy wafers were placed at surgery in 23% of patients, evenly distributed between the groups. No patient received any other chemotherapy concurrent with RT. Results: CD4 counts decreased to <200/mm{sup 3} in 17 (24%) of 70 patients. For the 25 patients with weekly CD4 counts, all CD4 counts were >450/mm{sup 3} before RT, but 6 (24%) of 25 fell to <200/mm{sup 3} during RT. Patients with counts <200/mm{sup 3} were significantly more likely to be hospitalized (41% vs. 9%, p <0.01) and be hospitalized for infection (23% vs. 4%, p <0.05) during RT. Overall survival was not significantly different between the groups. All patients with low CD4 counts were treated with prophylactic antibiotics, and no patient developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. No patients developed a serious adverse reaction to antibiotic therapy. The mean dose of

  9. Aquaporins and Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Maugeri, Rosario; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Fricano, Anna; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Brain primary tumors are among the most diverse and complex human cancers, and they are normally classified on the basis of the cell-type and/or the grade of malignancy (the most malignant being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), grade IV). Glioma cells are able to migrate throughout the brain and to stimulate angiogenesis, by inducing brain capillary endothelial cell proliferation. This in turn causes loss of tight junctions and fragility of the blood-brain barrier, which becomes leaky. As a consequence, the most serious clinical complication of glioblastoma is the vasogenic brain edema. Both glioma cell migration and edema have been correlated with modification of the expression/localization of different isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels, some of which are also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as glycerol and urea. In this review, we discuss relationships among expression/localization of AQPs and brain tumors/edema, also focusing on the possible role of these molecules as both diagnostic biomarkers of cancer progression, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we will discuss the possibility that AQPs, together with other cancer promoting factors, can be exchanged among brain cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). PMID:27367682

  10. Aquaporins and Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maugeri, Rosario; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Fricano, Anna; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Brain primary tumors are among the most diverse and complex human cancers, and they are normally classified on the basis of the cell-type and/or the grade of malignancy (the most malignant being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), grade IV). Glioma cells are able to migrate throughout the brain and to stimulate angiogenesis, by inducing brain capillary endothelial cell proliferation. This in turn causes loss of tight junctions and fragility of the blood–brain barrier, which becomes leaky. As a consequence, the most serious clinical complication of glioblastoma is the vasogenic brain edema. Both glioma cell migration and edema have been correlated with modification of the expression/localization of different isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels, some of which are also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as glycerol and urea. In this review, we discuss relationships among expression/localization of AQPs and brain tumors/edema, also focusing on the possible role of these molecules as both diagnostic biomarkers of cancer progression, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we will discuss the possibility that AQPs, together with other cancer promoting factors, can be exchanged among brain cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). PMID:27367682

  11. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... to make progress in “immunogenomics” Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  12. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  13. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form The American Brain Tumor Association was the first and is the only national organization committed to funding brain tumor research and providing ...

  14. Intraoperative delineation of primary brain tumors using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Butte, Pramod V; Fang, Qiyin; Jo, Javier A; Yong, William H; Pikul, Brian K; Black, Keith L; Marcu, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the potential of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as an adjunctive tool for delineation of brain tumor from surrounding normal tissue in order to assist the neurosurgeon in near-complete tumor excision. A time-domain TR-LIFS prototype apparatus (gated photomultiplier detection, fast digitizer) was used for recording tissue autofluorescence in normal cortex (NC), normal white matter (NWM), and various grades of gliomas intraoperatively. Tissue fluorescence was induced with a pulsed nitrogen laser (337 nm, 700 ps), and the intensity decay profiles were recorded in the 360- to 550-nm spectral range (10-nm interval). Histopathological analysis (hematoxylin & eosin) of the biopsy samples taken from the site of TR-LIFS measurements was used for validation of spectroscopic results. Preliminary results on 17 patients demonstrate that normal cortex (N=16) and normal white matter (N=3) show two peaks of fluorescence emission at 390 nm (lifetime=1.8+/-0.3 ns) and 460 nm (lifetime=0.8+/-0.1 ns). The 390-nm emission peak is absent in low-grade glioma (N=5; lifetime=1.1 ns) and reduced in high-grade glioma (N=9; lifetime=1.7+/-0.4 ns). The emission characteristics at 460 nm in all tissues correlated with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence (peak: 440 to 460 nm; lifetime: 0.8 to 1.0 ns). These findings demonstrate the potential of using TR-LIFS as a tool for enhanced delineation of brain tumors during surgery. In addition, this study evaluates similarities and differences between TR-LIFS signatures of brain tumors obtained in vivo and those previously reported in ex vivo brain tumor specimens. PMID:20459282

  15. Intraoperative delineation of primary brain tumors using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butte, Pramod V.; Fang, Qiyin; Jo, Javier A.; Yong, William H.; Pikul, Brian K.; Black, Keith L.; Marcu, Laura

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the potential of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as an adjunctive tool for delineation of brain tumor from surrounding normal tissue in order to assist the neurosurgeon in near-complete tumor excision. A time-domain TR-LIFS prototype apparatus (gated photomultiplier detection, fast digitizer) was used for recording tissue autofluorescence in normal cortex (NC), normal white matter (NWM), and various grades of gliomas intraoperatively. Tissue fluorescence was induced with a pulsed nitrogen laser (337 nm, 700 ps), and the intensity decay profiles were recorded in the 360- to 550-nm spectral range (10-nm interval). Histopathological analysis (hematoxylin & eosin) of the biopsy samples taken from the site of TR-LIFS measurements was used for validation of spectroscopic results. Preliminary results on 17 patients demonstrate that normal cortex (N=16) and normal white matter (N=3) show two peaks of fluorescence emission at 390 nm (lifetime=1.8+/-0.3 ns) and 460 nm (lifetime=0.8+/-0.1 ns). The 390-nm emission peak is absent in low-grade glioma (N=5; lifetime=1.1 ns) and reduced in high-grade glioma (N=9; lifetime=1.7+/-0.4 ns). The emission characteristics at 460 nm in all tissues correlated with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence (peak: 440 to 460 nm lifetime: 0.8 to 1.0 ns). These findings demonstrate the potential of using TR-LIFS as a tool for enhanced delineation of brain tumors during surgery. In addition, this study evaluates similarities and differences between TR-LIFS signatures of brain tumors obtained in vivo and those previously reported in ex vivo brain tumor specimens.

  16. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  17. Addition of Anti-Angiogenetic Therapy with Bevacizumab to Chemo- and Radiotherapy for Leptomeningeal Metastases in Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Michael C.; Zeiner, Pia S.; Jahnke, Kolja; Wagner, Marlies; Mittelbronn, Michel; Steinbach, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    Leptomeningeal dissemination of a primary brain tumor is a condition which is challenging to treat, as it often occurs in rather late disease stages in highly pretreated patients. Its prognosis is dismal and there is still no accepted standard of care. We report here a good clinical effect with a partial response in three out of nine patients and a stable disease with improvement on symptoms in two more patients following systemic anti-angiogenic treatment with bevacizumab (BEV) alone or in combination with chemo- and/or radiotherapy in a series of patients with leptomeningeal dissemination from primary brain tumors (diffuse astrocytoma WHO°II, anaplastic astrocytoma WHO°III, anaplastic oligodendroglioma WHO°III, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and glioblastoma, both WHO°IV). This translated into effective symptom control in five out of nine patients, but only moderate progression-free and overall survival times were reached. Partial responses as assessed by RANO criteria were observed in three patients (each one with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and glioblastoma). In these patients progression-free survival (PFS) intervals of 17, 10 and 20 weeks were achieved. In three patients (each one with diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor) stable disease was observed with PFS of 13, 30 and 8 weeks. Another three patients (all with glioblastoma) were primary non-responders and deteriorated rapidly with PFS of 3 to 4 weeks. No severe adverse events were seen. These experiences suggest that the combination of BEV with more conventional therapy schemes with chemo- and/or radiotherapy may be a palliative treatment option for patients with leptomeningeal dissemination of brain tumors. PMID:27253224

  18. Intra-axial brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Rapalino, Otto; Batchelor, Tracy; González, R Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide variety of intra-axial primary and secondary brain neoplasms. Many of them have characteristic imaging features while other tumors can present in a similar fashion. There are peculiar posttreatment imaging phenomena that can present as intra-axial mass-like lesions (such as pseudoprogression or radiation necrosis), further complicating the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of patients with intracerebral tumors. The purpose of this chapter is to present a general overview of the most common intra-axial brain tumors and peculiar posttreatment changes that are very important in the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of patients with brain tumors. PMID:27432670

  19. Systematic Review of Interventions to Improve the Provision of Information for Adults with Primary Brain Tumors and Their Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Langbecker, Danette; Janda, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adults with primary brain tumors and their caregivers have significant information needs. This review assessed the effect of interventions to improve information provision for adult primary brain tumor patients and/or their caregivers. Methods: We included randomized or non-randomized trials testing educational interventions that had outcomes of information provision, knowledge, understanding, recall, or satisfaction with the intervention, for adults diagnosed with primary brain tumors and/or their family or caregivers. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched for studies published between 1980 and June 2014. Results: Two randomized controlled, 1 non-randomized controlled, and 10 single group pre–post trials enrolled more than 411 participants. Five group, four practice/process change, and four individual interventions assessed satisfaction (12 studies), knowledge (4 studies), and information provision (2 studies). Nine studies reported high rates of satisfaction. Three studies showed statistically significant improvements over time in knowledge and two showed greater information was provided to intervention than control group participants, although statistical testing was not performed. Discussion: The trials assessed intermediate outcomes such as satisfaction, and only 4/13 reported on knowledge improvements. Few trials had a randomized controlled design and risk of bias was either evident or could not be assessed in most domains. PMID:25667919

  20. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...

  1. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary. PMID:26962338

  2. A prospective comparative clinical study of peripheral blood counts and indices in patients with primary brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Subeikshanan, V; Dutt, A; Basu, D; Tejus, MN; Maurya, VP; Madhugiri, VS

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elevation of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to be an indicator of poor prognosis in many malignancies including recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Objectives: This study was aimed at assessing if the NLR and other leukocyte counts and indices were deranged in treatment-naïve patients with primary brain tumors when compared with an age-matched healthy control group. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective comparative clinical observational study by design. A healthy control population was compared with treatment-naïve patients diagnosed with intra- and extraaxial brain tumors. Leukocyte counts (neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts) as well as leukocyte ratios such as the NLR and the monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were calculated. We also evaluated if the counts and indices were related to the tumor volume. Results: In all patients with tumors, the platelet and neutrophil counts were elevated when compared to the controls. In contrast, monocyte counts and the MLR were found to be decreased in patients with tumors when compared to the controls. The subset of patients with glioblastoma showed a significant increase in NLR when compared to the controls. Conclusions: Significant changes in the neutrophil, monocyte, and platelet counts as well as NLR and MLR were observed. Prospective longitudinal studies are required to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of these findings. PMID:27089106

  3. Are preoperative sex-related differences of affective symptoms in primary brain tumor patients associated with postoperative histopathological grading?

    PubMed

    Richter, Andre; Jenewein, J; Krayenbühl, N; Woernle, C; Bellut, D

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the impact of the histopathological tumor type on affective symptoms before surgery among male and female patients with supratentorial primary brain tumors. A total of 44 adult patients were included in the study. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Additionally, clinical interviews, including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), were conducted. The general function of patients was measured with the Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS). All measures were obtained before surgery and therefore before the final histopathological diagnosis. All self-rating questionnaires but not the HDRS, showed significantly higher scores in female patients. The functional status assessed with the KPS was lower in female patients and correlated to the somatic part of the BDI. We further found a tendency for higher HDRS scores in male patients with a WHO grade 4 tumor stage compared to female patients. This finding was supported by positive correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in male and negative correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in female patients. In conclusion the preoperative evaluation of affective symptoms with self-rating questionnaires in patients with brain tumors may be invalidated by the patient’s functional status. Depression should be explored with clinical interviews in these patients. Sex differences of affective symptoms in this patient group may also be related to the malignancy of the tumor, but further studies are needed to disentangle this relationship. PMID:26468140

  4. Assessment of the long-term effects of primary radiation therapy for brain tumors in children. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Danoff, B.F.; Cowchock, F.S.; Marquette, C.; Mulgrew, L.; Kramer, S.

    1982-04-15

    One-hundred-twelve children with primary brain tumors received definitive radiotherapy between the years 1958-1979. Sixty-nine patients were alive at intervals of 1-21 years. Thirty-eight patients underwent neurologic and endocrine evaluation, psychologic and intelligence testing, and assessment for second malignancy post-treatment. A second intracranial malgnancy developed in one child, for an incidence of 1.6%. Performance status was good to excellent in 89% of the patients studied. Seventeen percent of the group were mentally retarded. Behavioral disorders were identified in 39% of the patients, 59% of the mothers, and 43% of the fathers. Of the 23 patients with nonparasellar tumors, six were found to have growth hormone deficiency, including two patients with panhypopituitarism. Disability was related to age under 3 years at the time of treatment and tumor extension to the hypothalamus.

  5. Radiosurgery for Pediatric Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Erin S; Chao, Samuel T; Angelov, Lilyana; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Barnett, Gene; Jung, Edward; Recinos, Violette R; Mohammadi, Alireza; Suh, John H

    2016-03-01

    The utility of radiosurgery for pediatric brain tumors is not well known. For children, radiosurgery may have an important role for treating unresectable tumors, residual disease, or tumors in the recurrent setting that have received prior radiotherapy. The available evidence demonstrates utility for some children with primary brain tumors resulting in good local control. Radiosurgery can be considered for limited residual disease or focal recurrences. However, the potential toxicities are unique and not insignificant. Therefore, prospective studies need to be performed to develop guidelines for indications and treatment for children and reduce toxicity in this population. PMID:26536284

  6. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)

  7. Descriptive epidemiology of primary tumors of the brain, cranial nerves and cranial meninges in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Preston-Martin, S

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data on the distribution of 8,612 cases of primary tumors of the brain, cranial nerves and cranial meninges (both benign and malignant) diagnosed among residents of Los Angeles County from 1972 to 1985. Incidence rates of gliomas, meningiomas, nerve sheath tumors and all histologic types combined are presented for specific age, sex and ethnic groups. At all ages, the highest incidence is seen for gliomas among men. Meningioma rates are higher among women than men in every ethnic group. In both sexes, glioma rates are highest among whites, and meningioma rates are highest among blacks. Asians have the lowest rates of both types of tumors. Proportional incidence ratios are elevated among those born in Eastern Europe, Southern Europe and the Middle East and among Jewish residents of Los Angeles County. A clear trend of increasing glioma incidence with increasing social class is seen among males. An analysis among white men aged 25-64 by occupation and industry at the time of diagnosis supports several previously published findings. A glioma excess is evident among workers in the aircraft industry. Workers in the petroleum industry and the rubber and plastics industry have an excess of meningiomas. Occupational groups at excess risk include dentists who have an increased risk of all types of brain tumors and electricians whose excess risk is limited to gliomas. PMID:2586698

  8. Radioresistance of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Kevin; Knisely, Jonathan; Symons, Marc; Ruggieri, Rosamaria

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as part of the standard of care treatment of the majority of brain tumors. The efficacy of RT is limited by radioresistance and by normal tissue radiation tolerance. This is highlighted in pediatric brain tumors where the use of radiation is limited by the excessive toxicity to the developing brain. For these reasons, radiosensitization of tumor cells would be beneficial. In this review, we focus on radioresistance mechanisms intrinsic to tumor cells. We also evaluate existing approaches to induce radiosensitization and explore future avenues of investigation. PMID:27043632

  9. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  10. New agents for targeting of IL-13RA2 expressed in primary human and canine brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Debinski, Waldemar; Dickinson, Peter; Rossmeisl, John H; Robertson, John; Gibo, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    appropriate candidates for IL-13RA2-targeted imaging/therapies. Canine spontaneous primary brain tumors represent an excellent translational model for human counterparts. PMID:24147065

  11. New Agents for Targeting of IL-13RA2 Expressed in Primary Human and Canine Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Debinski, Waldemar; Dickinson, Peter; Rossmeisl, John H.; Robertson, John; Gibo, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    appropriate candidates for IL-13RA2-targeted imaging/therapies. Canine spontaneous primary brain tumors represent an excellent translational model for human counterparts. PMID:24147065

  12. Use of 5-ALA fluorescence guided endoscopic biopsy of a deep-seated primary malignant brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Rainer; Feigl, Guenther C; Schuhmann, Martin U; Ehrhardt, André; Danz, Soeren; Noell, Susan; Bornemann, Antje; Tatagiba, Marcos S

    2011-05-01

    The introduction of fluorescence-guided resection of primary malignant brain tumors was a milestone in neurosurgery. Deep-seated malignant brain tumors are often not approachable for microsurgical resection. For diagnosis and therapy, new strategies are recommended. The combination of endoscopy and 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (5-ALA-induced Pp IX) fluorescence-guided procedures supported by neuronavigation seems an interesting option. Here the authors report on a combined approach for 5-ALA fluorescence-guided biopsy in which they use an endoscopy system based on an Xe lamp (excitation approximately λ = 407 nm; dichroic filter system λ = 380-430 nm) to treat a malignant tumor of the thalamus and perform a ventriculostomy and septostomy. The excitation filter and emission filter are adapted to ensure that the remaining visible blue remission is sufficient to superimpose on or suppress the excited red fluorescence of the endogenous fluorochromes. The authors report that the lesion was easily detectable in the fluorescence mode and that biopsy led to histological diagnosis. PMID:21166571

  13. Cytogenetics of human brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Finkernagel, S.W.; Kletz, T.; Day-Salvatore, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome studies of 55 brain tumors, including meningiomas, gliomas, astrocyomas and pituatary adenomas, were performed. Primary and first passage cultures were successfully obtained in 75% of these samples with an average of 18 G-banded metaphases analyzed per tumor. 44% of all the brain tumors showed numerical and or structural abnormalities. 46% of the primary and 38% of the first passage cultures showed similar numerical gains/losses and complex karyotypic changes. The most frequent numerical abnormalities (n {ge} 5) included loss of chromosomes 10, 22, and Y. The structural abnormalities most often seen involved 1p, 2, 5, 7, 17q and 19. This is an ongoing study which will attempt to correlate tumor type with specific karyotypic changes and to see if any of the observed chromosomal abnormalities provide prognostic indicators.

  14. Sleep Loss and Its Effects on Health of Family Caregivers of Individuals with Primary Malignant Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Clark, Patricia C.; Sherwood, Paula R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep loss places caregivers at risk for poor health. Understanding correlates of sleep loss and relationships to health may enable improvement of health of caregivers of individuals with primary malignant brain tumors (PMBT). In this cross-sectional, descriptive study of 133 caregivers, relationships were examined between sleep loss and physical, mental, emotional, and social health at time of patient diagnosis. Sleep loss was not related to physical health. Shorter total sleep time was associated with greater fatigue and social support. Sleep quality was positively associated with quality of life. Further study is needed of the role of sleep loss in the PMBT caregiving trajectory and its long-term relationship with health outcomes. PMID:23633116

  15. Primary brain tumor patients' supportive care needs and multidisciplinary rehabilitation, community and psychosocial support services: awareness, referral and utilization.

    PubMed

    Langbecker, Danette; Yates, Patsy

    2016-03-01

    Primary brain tumors are associated with significant physical, cognitive and psychosocial changes. Although treatment guidelines recommend offering multidisciplinary rehabilitation and support services to address patients' residual deficits, the extent to which patients access such services is unclear. This study aimed to assess patients' supportive care needs early after diagnosis, and quantify service awareness, referral and utilization. A population-based sample of 40 adults recently diagnosed with primary brain tumors was recruited through the Queensland Cancer Registry, representing 18.9 % of the eligible population of 203 patients. Patients or carer proxies completed surveys of supportive care needs at baseline (approximately 3 months after diagnosis) and 3 months later. Descriptive statistics summarized needs and service utilization, and linear regression identified predictors of service use. Unmet supportive care needs were highest at baseline for all domains, and highest for the physical and psychological needs domains at each time point. At follow-up, participants reported awareness of, referral to, and use of 32 informational, support, health professional or practical services. All or almost all participants were aware of at least one informational (100 %), health professional (100 %), support (97 %) or practical service (94 %). Participants were most commonly aware of speech therapists (97 %), physiotherapists (94 %) and diagnostic information from the internet (88 %). Clinician referrals were most commonly made to physiotherapists (53 %), speech therapists (50 %) and diagnostic information booklets (44 %), and accordingly, participants most commonly used physiotherapists (56 %), diagnostic information booklets (47 %), diagnostic information from the internet (47 %), and speech therapists (43 %). Comparatively low referral to and use of psychosocial services may limit patients' abilities to cope with their condition and the changes they

  16. Nucleolin antagonist triggers autophagic cell death in human glioblastoma primary cells and decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Elisabetta; Antonosante, Andrea; d'Angelo, Michele; Cristiano, Loredana; Galzio, Renato; Destouches, Damien; Florio, Tiziana Marilena; Dhez, Anne Chloé; Astarita, Carlo; Cinque, Benedetta; Fidoamore, Alessia; Rosati, Floriana; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Ippoliti, Rodolfo; Giordano, Antonio; Courty, José; Cimini, Annamaria

    2015-12-01

    Nucleolin (NCL) is highly expressed in several types of cancer and represents an interesting therapeutic target. It is expressed at the plasma membrane of tumor cells, a property which is being used as a marker for several human cancer including glioblastoma. In this study we investigated targeting NCL as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this pathology. To explore this possibility, we studied the effect of an antagonist of NCL, the multivalent pseudopeptide N6L using primary culture of human glioblastoma cells. In this system, N6L inhibits cell growth with different sensitivity depending to NCL localization. Cell cycle analysis indicated that N6L-induced growth reduction was due to a block of the G1/S transition with down-regulation of the expression of cyclin D1 and B2. By monitoring autophagy markers such as p62 and LC3II, we demonstrate that autophagy is enhanced after N6L treatment. In addition, N6L-treatment of mice bearing tumor decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model and increase mice survival. The results obtained indicated an anti-proliferative and pro-autophagic effect of N6L and point towards its possible use as adjuvant agent to the standard therapeutic protocols presently utilized for glioblastoma. PMID:26540346

  17. Nucleolin antagonist triggers autophagic cell death in human glioblastoma primary cells and decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model

    PubMed Central

    d'Angelo, Michele; Cristiano, Loredana; Galzio, Renato; Destouches, Damien; Florio, Tiziana Marilena; Dhez, Anne Chloé; Astarita, Carlo; Cinque, Benedetta; Fidoamore, Alessia; Rosati, Floriana; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Ippoliti, Rodolfo; Giordano, Antonio; Courty, José; Cimini, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Nucleolin (NCL) is highly expressed in several types of cancer and represents an interesting therapeutic target. It is expressed at the plasma membrane of tumor cells, a property which is being used as a marker for several human cancer including glioblastoma. In this study we investigated targeting NCL as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this pathology. To explore this possibility, we studied the effect of an antagonist of NCL, the multivalent pseudopeptide N6L using primary culture of human glioblastoma cells. In this system, N6L inhibits cell growth with different sensitivity depending to NCL localization. Cell cycle analysis indicated that N6L-induced growth reduction was due to a block of the G1/S transition with down-regulation of the expression of cyclin D1 and B2. By monitoring autophagy markers such as p62 and LC3II, we demonstrate that autophagy is enhanced after N6L treatment. In addition, N6L-treatment of mice bearing tumor decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model and increase mice survival. The results obtained indicated an anti-proliferative and pro-autophagic effect of N6L and point towards its possible use as adjuvant agent to the standard therapeutic protocols presently utilized for glioblastoma. PMID:26540346

  18. Primary lymphoma of the brain

    MedlinePlus

    Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. People with a weakened immune system are at high risk for primary lymphoma of the brain. ...

  19. Extra-axial brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Rapalino, Otto; Smirniotopoulos, James G

    2016-01-01

    Extra-axial brain tumors are the most common adult intracranial neoplasms and encompass a broad spectrum of pathologic subtypes. Meningiomas are the most common extra-axial brain tumor (approximately one-third of all intracranial neoplasms) and typically present as slowly growing dural-based masses. Benign meningiomas are very common, and may occasionally be difficult to differentiate from more aggressive subtypes (i.e., atypical or malignant varieties) or other dural-based masses with more aggressive biologic behavior (e.g., hemangiopericytoma or dural-based metastases). Many neoplasms that typically affect the brain parenchyma (intra-axial), such as gliomas, may also present with primary or secondary extra-axial involvement. This chapter provides a general and concise overview of the common types of extra-axial tumors and their typical imaging features. PMID:27432671

  20. Epilepsy and brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Englot, Dario J; Chang, Edward F; Vecht, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70-80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60-75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20-50% of patients with meningioma and 20-35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60-90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  1. Comparative study of 18F-DOPA, 13N-Ammonia and F18-FDG PET/CT in primary brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Mattakarottu J; Pandit, Aniruddha G; Jora, Charu; Mudalsha, Ravina; Sharma, Amit; Pathak, Harish C

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic reliability of 18F-FDOPA, 13N-Ammonia and F18-FDG PET/CT in primary brain tumors. We evaluated the amino acid and glucose metabolism of brain tumors by using PET with 18F-FDOPA, 13N-Ammonia and F18-FDG PET/CT. Materials and Methods: Nine patients undergoing evaluation for brain tumors were studied. Tracer uptake was quantified by the use of standardized uptake values and the ratio of tumor uptake to normal identical area of contra lateral hemisphere (T/N). In addition, PET uptake with 18F-FDOPA was quantified by use of ratio of tumor uptake to striatum uptake (T/S). The results were correlated with the patient's clinical profile. Results: Both high-grade and low-grade tumors were well visualized with 18F-FDOPA. The sensitivity for identifying tumors was substantially higher with 18F-FDOPA PET than with F18-FDG and 13N-Ammonia PET as determined by simple visual inspection. The sensitivity for identifying recurrence in low grade gliomas is higher with 13N-Ammonia than with F18-FDG. Conclusion: 18F-FDOPA PET is more reliable than F18-FDG and 13N-Ammonia PET for evaluating brain tumors. PMID:23326065

  2. Primary cardiac tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, N A

    1980-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are a rare, but potentially curably form of heart disease. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary for diagnosis as these tumors have protean manifestations that mimic a variety of other cardiac and noncardiac diseases. Presently, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography are utilized as safe, reliable, and noninvasive imaging modalities. Seventy-five per cent of these tumors are benign, with myxoma accounting for 50% and rhabodomyoma comprising 20% of lesions. Various histologic types of sarcoma are the predominant malignant cardiac neoplasms. With strict attention to avoiding perioperative tumor embolization, surgical resection of these lesions can be accomplished with minimal morbidity and mortality. Sixteen consecutive primary tumors of the heart have been surgically treated at Duke University Medical Center since 1966 with no perioperative deaths and no late recurrences. Images Figs. 2A and B. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Figs. 5A and B Fig. 6. PMID:7362282

  3. Interstitial irradiation of brain tumors: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, M.; Gutin, P.H.

    1981-12-01

    As an adjuvant to surgery, radiation therapy has consistently proven to be the most successful form of treatment for primary and secondary malignant brain tumors and possibly for inoperable benign tumors. Because the risk of radiation necrosis of normal brain limits the amount of radiation that can be given by external beam therapy at conventional dose rates, interstitial radiation of brain tumors is a logical alternative treatment approach. We discuss the radiobiological advantages of low dose rate irradiation and intratumoral placement of sources that make interstitial irradiation an attractive treatment for brain tumors and review the history of clinical brachytherapy for intracranial neoplasia.

  4. Brain tumor stem cells.

    PubMed

    Palm, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2010-06-01

    Since the end of the 'no-new-neuron' theory, emerging evidence from multiple studies has supported the existence of stem cells in neurogenic areas of the adult brain. Along with this discovery, neural stem cells became candidate cells being at the origin of brain tumors. In fact, it has been demonstrated that molecular mechanisms controlling self-renewal and differentiation are shared between brain tumor stem cells and neural stem cells and that corruption of genes implicated in these pathways can direct tumor growth. In this regard, future anticancer approaches could be inspired by uncovering such redundancies and setting up treatments leading to exhaustion of the cancer stem cell pool. However, deleterious effects on (normal) neural stem cells should be minimized. Such therapeutic models underline the importance to study the cellular mechanisms implicated in fate decisions of neural stem cells and the oncogenic derivation of adult brain cells. In this review, we discuss the putative origins of brain tumor stem cells and their possible implications on future therapies. PMID:20370314

  5. Inhibition of cystine uptake disrupts the growth of primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wook Joon; Lyons, Susan A; Nelson, Gina M; Hamza, Hashir; Gladson, Candece L; Gillespie, G Yancey; Sontheimer, Harald

    2005-08-01

    Glial cells play an important role in sequestering neuronally released glutamate via Na+-dependent transporters. Surprisingly, these transporters are not operational in glial-derived tumors (gliomas). Instead, gliomas release glutamate, causing excitotoxic death of neurons in the vicinity of the tumor. We now show that glutamate release from glioma cells is an obligatory by-product of cellular cystine uptake via system xc-, an electroneutral cystine-glutamate exchanger. Cystine is an essential precursor for the biosynthesis of glutathione, a major redox regulatory molecule that protects cells from endogenously produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glioma cells, but not neurons or astrocytes, rely primarily on cystine uptake via system xc- for their glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of system xc- causes a rapid depletion of glutathione, and the resulting loss of ROS defense causes caspase-mediated apoptosis. Glioma cells can be rescued if glutathione status is experimentally restored or if glutathione is substituted by alternate cellular antioxidants, confirming that ROS are indeed mediators of cell death. We describe two potent drugs that permit pharmacological inhibition of system xc-. One of these drugs, sulfasalazine, is clinically used to treat inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine was able to reduce glutathione levels in tumor tissue and slow tumor growth in vivo in a commonly used intracranial xenograft animal model for human gliomas when administered by intraperitoneal injection. These data suggest that inhibition of cystine uptake into glioma cells through the pharmacological inhibition of system xc- may be a viable therapeutic strategy with a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug already in hand. PMID:16079392

  6. Primary lymphoma of the brain

    MedlinePlus

    Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. Patients who have a weakened immune system are at high risk of primary lymphoma of the ...

  7. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the genes can be called “genetic.” However, only about 5 to 10 percent of all cancer is hereditary (ie, passed down from one generation to another in a family). In cases of hereditary brain tumors, a mutation, or change in the DNA ...

  8. Living with a Brain Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mentor The ABTA's Online Support Community Understanding The Affordable Care Act Living with a Brain Tumor Understanding Emotions Talking ... Mentor The ABTA's Online Support Community Understanding The Affordable Care Act Living with a Brain Tumor Understanding Emotions Talking ...

  9. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  10. Cognitive rehabilitation for early post-surgery inpatients affected by primary brain tumor: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zucchella, Chiara; Capone, Annarita; Codella, Valentina; De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Vecchione, Carmine; Sandrini, Giorgio; Pace, Andrea; Pierelli, Francesco; Bartolo, Michelangelo

    2013-08-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most common neurological disorders in neuro-oncological patients and exerts a deep negative impact on quality of life interfering with familiar, social and career-related activities. To test the effectiveness of early cognitive rehabilitation treatment for inpatients affected by primary brain tumors. Out of 109 consecutive patients enrolled in the study, 58 patients were randomly assigned to a rehabilitation group or to a control group. The rehabilitation consisted of 16 one-hour individual sessions of therapist-guided cognitive training, spread over 4 weeks, combining computer exercises and metacognitive training. Patients in the control group received usual care without cognitive training. All patients were evaluated by means of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at the admission (T0) and after 4 weeks (T1). Patients in the rehabilitation group showed a significant improvement of cognitive functions. In particular, the domains that benefited most from the training were visual attention and verbal memory. The control group exhibited only a slightly, not statistically relevant, enhancement of cognitive performances. Cognitive rehabilitation for neuro-oncological inpatients resulted in a significant enhancement of cognitive performances after the training, also providing a foundation for early administration. Future research should be aimed to clarify the patients' characteristics that predict neuropsychological improvement, to identify the most effective elements in rehabilitative programs and to study the effects of treatment extension to everyday life. PMID:23677749

  11. Locke-Wallace Short Marital-Adjustment Test: Psychometric Evaluation in Caregivers for Persons With Primary Malignant Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yun; Terhorst, Lauren; Donovan, Heidi S.; Weimer, Jason M.; Choi, Chien-Wen J.; Schulz, Richard; Given, Barbara; Sherwood, Paula R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Caregivers’ well-being has been found to be associated with marital adjustment. This study’s purpose was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Locke-Wallace Short Marital-Adjustment Test (LWSMAT) in a sample of caregivers of persons with primary malignant brain tumor (PMBT). Methods Secondary analysis of data collected from 114 caregivers. The LWSMAT was tested for factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and construct validity. Results 5 extracted factors explained 60.55% of the total variance. Four interpretable factors (Contentment & Communication, Leisure & Sociality, Intimacy, and Shared Philosophy) had Cronbach’s alpha between 0.63 and 0.74. Convergent validity (r = −.35 and r = −.43, respectively, both p < .0001) and discriminant validity (r = .07, p = .49; and r = −.04, p = .67) were confirmed by comparing four factors with subdimensions of the Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA). Conclusion The LWSMAT is a multidimensional, reliable, and valid measure of marital adjustment in caregivers of persons with a PMBT. PMID:24620520

  12. Automatic brain tumor segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Matthew C.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Velthuizen, Robert P.; Murtaugh, F. R.; Silbiger, Martin L.

    1998-06-01

    A system that automatically segments and labels complete glioblastoma-multiform tumor volumes in magnetic resonance images of the human brain is presented. The magnetic resonance images consist of three feature images (T1- weighted, proton density, T2-weighted) and are processed by a system which integrates knowledge-based techniques with multispectral analysis and is independent of a particular magnetic resonance scanning protocol. Initial segmentation is performed by an unsupervised clustering algorithm. The segmented image, along with cluster centers for each class are provided to a rule-based expert system which extracts the intra-cranial region. Multispectral histogram analysis separates suspected tumor from the rest of the intra-cranial region, with region analysis used in performing the final tumor labeling. This system has been trained on eleven volume data sets and tested on twenty-two unseen volume data sets acquired from a single magnetic resonance imaging system. The knowledge-based tumor segmentation was compared with radiologist-verified `ground truth' tumor volumes and results generated by a supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm. The results of this system generally correspond well to ground truth, both on a per slice basis and more importantly in tracking total tumor volume during treatment over time.

  13. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... are best treated by a team that includes: Neuro-oncologist Neurosurgeon Medical oncologist Radiation oncologist Other health ... pdq . Accessed January 18, 2016. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines): ...

  14. Brain tumors at a nuclear facility.

    PubMed

    Reyes, M; Wilkinson, G S; Tietjen, G; Voelz, G L; Acquavella, J F; Bistline, R

    1984-10-01

    In response to an observed excess risk of brain tumor deaths among workers at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Facility (Colorado), a case-control study of all (n = 16) primary brain tumor deaths occurring among white males employed during 1952 through 1977 was conducted to investigate their relationship with occupational radiation/nonradiation exposures. For each case, four controls were individually matched on year of birth and period of employment. Although limited by a small number of cases, our study showed no statistically significant association between brain tumor death and exposure to internally deposited plutonium, external radiation, or other occupational risk factors. PMID:6491777

  15. Malignant metastatic carcinoid presenting as brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, I. Vijay; Jain, S. K.; Kurmi, Dhrubajyoti; Sharma, Rakesh; Chopra, Sanjeev; Singhvi, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rarely known to metastasise to the brain. It is even more rare for such patients to present with symptoms related to metastases as the initial and only symptom. We present a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with hemiparesis and imaging features suggestive of brain tumor. He underwent surgery and the histopathology revealed metastatic malignant lesion of neuroendocrine origin. A subsequent work up for the primary was negative. Patient was treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. We present this case to highlight the pathophysiological features, workup and treatment options of this rare disease and discuss the methods of differentiating it from more common brain tumors. PMID:27366273

  16. Malignant metastatic carcinoid presenting as brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Sundar, I Vijay; Jain, S K; Kurmi, Dhrubajyoti; Sharma, Rakesh; Chopra, Sanjeev; Singhvi, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rarely known to metastasise to the brain. It is even more rare for such patients to present with symptoms related to metastases as the initial and only symptom. We present a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with hemiparesis and imaging features suggestive of brain tumor. He underwent surgery and the histopathology revealed metastatic malignant lesion of neuroendocrine origin. A subsequent work up for the primary was negative. Patient was treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. We present this case to highlight the pathophysiological features, workup and treatment options of this rare disease and discuss the methods of differentiating it from more common brain tumors. PMID:27366273

  17. Comparative evaluation of 18F-FDOPA, 13N-AMMONIA, 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI in primary brain tumors - A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jora, Charu; Mattakarottu, Jacob J; Aniruddha, Pandit G; Mudalsha, Ravina; Singh, Dhananjay K; Pathak, Harish C; Sharma, Nitin; Sarin, Arti; Prince, Arvind; Singh, Giriraj

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic reliability of 18F-FDOPA, 13N-Ammonia and 18F-FDG PET/CT in primary brain tumors and comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients, 8 preoperative and 15 postoperative, undergoing evaluation for primary brain tumors were included in this study. Of them, 9/15 were operated for high grade gliomas (7/9 astrocytomas and 2/9 oligodendrogliomas) and 6/15 for low grade gliomas (5/6 astrocytomas and 1/6 oligodendroglioma). After PET study, 2 of 8 preoperative cases were histopathologically proven to be of benign etiology. 3 low grade and 2 high grade postoperative cases were disease free on 6 months follow-up. Tracer uptake was quantified by standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the SUV max ratio of tumor to normal symmetrical area of contra lateral hemisphere (T/N). 18F-FDOPA uptake was also quantified by SUVmax ratio of tumor to striatum (T/S). Conventional MR studies were done in all patients. Results: Both high-grade and low-grade tumors were well visualized with 18F-FDOPA PET. Sensitivity of 18F-FDOPA PET was substantially higher (6/6 preoperative, 3/3 low grade postoperative, 7/7 high grade postoperative) than with 18F-FDG (3/6 preoperative, 1/3 low grade postoperative, 3/7 high grade postoperative) and 13N-Ammonia PET (2/6 preoperative, 1/3 low grade postoperative, 1/7 high grade postoperative). FDOPA was equally specific as FDG and Ammonia PET in operated cases but was falsely positive in two preoperative cases. Sensitivity of FDOPA (16/16) was more than MRI (13/16). Conclusion: 18F-FDG uptake correlates with tumor grade. Though 18F-FDOPA PET cannot distinguish between tumor grade, it is more reliable than 18F-FDG and 13N-Ammonia PET for evaluating brain tumors. 18F-FDOPA PET may prove to be superior to MRI in evaluating recurrence and residual tumor tissue. 13N-Ammonia PET did not show any encouraging results. PMID:22174511

  18. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  19. Brain tumors: Special characters for research and banking

    PubMed Central

    Kheirollahi, Majid; Dashti, Sepideh; Khalaj, Zahra; Nazemroaia, Fatemeh; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    A brain tumor is an intracranial neoplasm within the brain or in the central spinal canal. Primary malignant brain tumors affect about 200,000 people worldwide every year. Brain cells have special characters. Due to the specific properties of brain tumors, including epidemiology, growth, and division, investigation of brain tumors and the interpretation of results is not simple. Research to identify the genetic alterations of human tumors improves our knowledge of tumor biology, genetic interactions, progression, and preclinical therapeutic assessment. Obtaining data for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy requires sufficient samples, and brain tumors have a wide range. As a result, establishing the bank of brain tumors is very important and essential. PMID:25625110

  20. [Imaging of childhood brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Couanet, D; Adamsbaum, C

    2006-06-01

    Brain tumors represent around a quarter of all solid tumors observed in the pediatric population. Infratentorial tumors are the most frequent, mostly encountered between 4 and 11 years of age. Early imaging is important because initial symptoms can be misinterpreted as statural and pubertal disorders or pseudoabdominal symptoms with apathy and vomiting in infants. Because signal abnormalities on MRI are most often not specific, it is essential to take into account the clinical and topographic characteristics of the lesion to establish an appropriate differential diagnosis. The main patterns of brain tumors observed in pediatrics are presented. Brain metastases are very unusual in children, in contrast to lepto-meningeal metastasis. PMID:16778744

  1. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  2. Intraoperative infrared imaging of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Alexander M.; Heiss, John D.; Kopylev, Leonid; Oldfield, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Object Although clinical imaging defines the anatomical relationship between a brain tumor and the surrounding brain and neurological deficits indicate the neurophysiological consequences of the tumor, the effect of a brain tumor on vascular physiology is less clear. Methods An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature of the cortical surface before, during, and after removal of a mass in 34 patients (primary brain tumor in 21 patients, brain metastases in 10 and falx meningioma, cavernous angioma, and radiation necrosis–astrocytosis in one patient each). To establish the magnitude of the effect on blood flow induced by the tumor, the images were compared with those from a group of six patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. In four cases a cerebral artery was temporarily occluded during the course of the surgery and infrared emissions from the cortex before and after occlusion were compared to establish the relationship of local temperature to regional blood flow. Discrete temperature gradients were associated with surgically verified lesions in all cases. Depending on the type of tumor, the cortex overlying the tumor was either colder or warmer than the surrounding cortex. Spatial reorganization of thermal gradients was observed after tumor resection. Temperature gradients of the cortex in patients with tumors exceeded those measured in the cortex of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. Conclusions Brain tumors induce changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the cortex, which can be made visible by performing infrared imaging during cranial surgery. A reduction in CBF beyond the tumor margin improves after removal of the lesion. PMID:15599965

  3. Pediatric Brain Tumors: An Update.

    PubMed

    Segal, Devorah; Karajannis, Matthias A

    2016-07-01

    Brain tumors collectively represent the most common solid tumors in childhood and account for significant morbidity and mortality. Until recently, pediatric brain tumors were diagnosed and classified solely based on histologic criteria, and treatments were chosen empirically. Recent research has greatly enhanced our understanding of the diverse biology of pediatric brain tumors, their molecular and genetic underpinnings, leading to improved diagnostic accuracy and risk stratification, as well as the development of novel biomarkers and molecular targeted therapies. For subsets of patients, these new treatment options have already resulted in improved survival and decreased treatment toxicity. In this article, we provide an overview of the most common childhood brain tumors, describe recent key advances in the field, and discuss the therapeutic challenges that remain. PMID:27230809

  4. QL-21SPIRITUAL WELL-BEING AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN PRIMARY BRAIN TUMOR PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Randazzo, Dina; Affronti, Mary; Lipp, Eric; McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James; Flahiff, Charlene; Miller, Elizabeth; Woodring, Sarah; Freeman, Maria; Healy, Patrick; Minchew, Janet; Boulton, Susan; Desjardins, Annick; Ranjan, Tulika; Vlahovic, Gordana; Friedman, Henry; Peters, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Spirituality has been shown to impact patients' attitudes and decisions about treatment and end-of-life care when coping with chronic illnesses such as cancer. Previous studies have documented that health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and spiritual well-being are positively correlated, but little is known about the phenomenon in the primary brain tumor population. Therefore, we sought to measure spiritual well-being in primary brain tumor patients and evaluate whether it was associated with HRQoL. Data collected within the Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke as part of the PRoGREss registry between 12/16/2013 and 2/28/2014 were queried retrospectively. In addition to demographic and clinical information, data was obtained from patient reported outcome questionnaires including Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain Cancer (FACT-Br) with a score range from 0-184 and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp12) with a score range from 0-48. Correlation analyses were performed with the Pearson correlation coefficient. For this study, 845 subjects were identified. Mean age was 49.8 (SD = 13.5) years and 54.6% were male, 56.8% married, and 34.1% college educated. Median score for FACT-Br Total was 135.9 with range from 40.8 to 184 and median score for FACIT-Sp12 was 38.0 with range from 8.0 to 48.0. A significant positive correlation existed between scores on FACT-Br and FACIT-Sp12 with r = 0.636 (p <0.0001). Similar results were seen for correlations between FACT-Br total score and FACIT-Sp12 subscales (Faith r = 0.338, p < 0.0001 and Meaning/Peace r = 0.712, p < 0.0001). These results highlight the relationship between spirituality and HRQoL in the brain tumor population and suggest that implementing strategies to measure and encourage spiritual well-being may be one avenue to improve HRQoL.

  5. Incidence and long-term outcome of postradiotherapy moyamoya syndrome in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors: a single institute experience in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Hung; Chang, Feng-Chi; Liang, Muh-Lii; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Wong, Tai-Tong; Yen, Sang-Hue; Chen, Yi-Wei

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the incidence and long-term outcome of moyamoya syndrome in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors after receiving cranial radiotherapy (RT) in a single institute in Taiwan. The complete medical records, medical images, and RT notes of 391 pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with cranial RT between January 1975 and December 2005 in Taipei Veterans General Hospital (TVGH), Taiwan, were entered into an electronic registry and reviewed. Eight (2%) cases of post-RT moyamoya syndrome were identified in the sample of 391 patients. The median latency was 3 years post-RT. Among the eight patients, three had craniopharyngioma, two had optic glioma, two had medulloblastoma, and one had a suprasellar astrocytoma. The prescribed physical doses of RT were in the range of 40-54 Gy. The incidence was highest in those with optic glioma (0.039/person-year), followed by craniopharyngioma (0.013/person-year), astrocytoma (0.003/person-year), and medulloblastoma (0.002/person-year). No patients died of vasculopathy. No difference in crude incidence was found between our results and those of other series. The incidence of moyamoya syndrome was diagnosis dependent, with the highest incidence among patients with optic glioma. No regional difference in incidence was found. Long-term, stable neurological function may be achieved following timely surgical intervention. PMID:27265024

  6. [Chemotherapy for brain tumors in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Weller, M

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapy has become a third major treatment option for patients with brain tumors, in addition to surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of gliomas is no longer limited to recurrent disease. Temozolomide has become the standard of care in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Several ongoing trials seek to define the role of chemotherapy in the primary care of other gliomas. Some of these studies are no longer only based on histological diagnoses, but take into consideration molecular markers such as MGMT promoter methylation and loss of genetic material on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q. Outside such clinical trials chemotherapy is used in addition to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma or germ cell tumors, or as an alternative to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors or low-grade gliomas. In contrast, there is no established role for chemotherapy in other tumors such as ependymomas, meningiomas or neurinomas. Primary cerebral lymphomas are probably the only brain tumors which can be cured by chemotherapy alone and only by chemotherapy. The chemotherapy of brain metastases follows the recommendations for the respective primary tumors. Further, strategies of combined radiochemotherapy using mainly temozolomide or topotecan are currently explored. Leptomeningeal metastases are treated by radiotherapy or systemic or intrathecal chemotherapy depending on their pattern of growth. PMID:18253773

  7. Dendrimer technologies for brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vijay; Kesharwani, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Despite low prevalence, brain tumors are one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Unfortunately the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a highly regulated, well coordinated and efficient barrier, checks the permeation of most of the drugs across it. Hence, crossing this barrier is one of the most significant challenges in the development of efficient central nervous system therapeutics. Surface-engineered dendrimers improve biocompatibility, drug-release kinetics and aptitude to target the BBB and/or tumors and facilitate transportation of anticancer bioactives across the BBB. This review sheds light on different aspects of brain tumors and dendrimers based on different approaches for treatment including recent research, opportunities and challenges encountered in development of novel and efficient dendrimer-based therapeutics for the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:26891979

  8. An overview of therapeutic approaches to brain tumor stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Primary and secondary malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors are devastating invasive tumors able to give rise to many kinds of differentiated tumor cells. Glioblastoma multiform (GBM), is the most malignant brain tumor, in which its growth and persistence depend on cancer stem cells with enhanced DNA damage repair program that also induces recurrence and resists current chemo- and radiotherapies. Unlike non-tumor stem cells, tumor stem cells lack the normal mechanisms that regulate proliferation and differentiation, resulting in uncontrolled production and incomplete differentiation of tumor cells. In current paper recent developments and new researches in the field of brain tumor stem cells have been reviewed. PMID:23483074

  9. Involvement of tumor acidification in brain cancer pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Honasoge, Avinash; Sontheimer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas, primary brain cancers, are characterized by remarkable invasiveness and fast growth. While they share many qualities with other solid tumors, gliomas have developed special mechanisms to convert the cramped brain space and other limitations afforded by the privileged central nervous system into pathophysiological advantages. In this review we discuss gliomas and other primary brain cancers in the context of acid-base regulation and interstitial acidification; namely, how the altered proton (H+) content surrounding these brain tumors influences tumor development in both autocrine and paracrine manners. As proton movement is directly coupled to movement of other ions, pH serves as both a regulator of cell activity as well as an indirect readout of other cellular functions. In the case of brain tumors, these processes result in pathophysiology unique to the central nervous system. We will highlight what is known about pH-sensitive processes in brain tumors in addition to gleaning insight from other solid tumors. PMID:24198789

  10. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  11. A Primary Retroperitoneal Mucinous Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Heelan Gladden, Alicia A.; Wohlauer, Max; McManus, Martine C.; Gajdos, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    A twenty-five-year-old female presented with a large retroperitoneal mass. Workup included history and physical exam, imaging, biopsy, colonoscopy, and gynecologic exam. After surgical resection, the mass was determined to be a primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumor (PRMT). Clinically and histologically, these tumors are similar pancreatic and ovarian mucinous neoplasms. PRMTs are rare and few case reports have been published. PRMTs are divided into mucinous cystadenomas, mucinous borderline tumors of low malignant potential, and mucinous carcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential so resection is indicated and in some cases adjuvant chemotherapy and/or surveillance imaging. PMID:25874152

  12. Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Goel, V; Talwar, V; Dodagoudar, C; Singh, S; Sharma, A; Patnaik, N

    2015-01-01

    Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the kidney is a rare entity. Very few cases of primary renal PNET have been reported to date. Most literature about rPNET is isolated case reports. We report a case of rPNET in a 39-year-old male with a pre-operative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with renal vein thrombosis. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy with thrombolectomy, and histopathological examination revealed a highly aggressive tumor composed of monotonous sheets of round cells. Tumor cells were positive for CD 99 and FLI-1, hence confirming the diagnosis of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor. Post-surgery, patient was given VAC/IE-based adjuvant chemotherapy. In view of highly aggressive nature of this tumor, prompt diagnosis and imparting effective chemotherapy regimen to the patient is required, and it is important to differentiate PNET from other small round-cell tumors because of different therapeutic approach. PMID:25766349

  13. Primary omental yolk sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seon Hwa; Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sunghoon

    2013-11-01

    Extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor arising in the omentum is extremely rare. As yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum has been rarely reported, its clinical information is very limited. The authors encountered a case of yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum, and reported the case herein. A 32-year-old woman was presented with developed low abdominal distension for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of ovarian malignancy with ascites and peritoneal seeding nodules. Explorative laparotomy was performed and then the findings from frozen biopsy of omentum were suggestive of poorly differentiated tumor though whether it was primary or metastatic was uncertain. Thus, staging laparotomy were performed. Histopathology confirmed that the tumor was a yolk sac tumor of omentum origin. Then, 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy at intervals of 3 weeks were performed using bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin regimen. Four-year outpatient follow-up thereafter showed no relapse. PMID:24396822

  14. MRI and MRS of human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bob L; Hu, Jiani

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of human brain tumors, including the primary applications and basic terminology involved. Readers who wish to know more about this broad subject should seek out the referenced books (1. Tofts (2003) Quantitative MRI of the brain. Measuring changes caused by disease. Wiley; Bradley and Stark (1999) 2. Magnetic resonance imaging, 3rd Edition. Mosby Inc; Brown and Semelka (2003) 3. MRI basic principles and applications, 3rd Edition. Wiley-Liss) or reviews (4. Top Magn Reson Imaging 17:127-36, 2006; 5. JMRI 24:709-724, 2006; 6. Am J Neuroradiol 27:1404-1411, 2006).MRI is the most popular means of diagnosing human brain tumors. The inherent difference in the magnetic resonance (MR) properties of water between normal tissues and tumors results in contrast differences on the image that provide the basis for distinguishing tumors from normal tissues. In contrast to MRI, which provides spatial maps or images using water signals of the tissues, proton MRS detects signals of tissue metabolites. MRS can complement MRI because the observed MRS peaks can be linked to inherent differences in biochemical profiles between normal tissues and tumors.The goal of MRI and MRS is to characterize brain tumors, including tumor core, edge, edema, volume, types, and grade. The commonly used brain tumor MRI protocol includes T2-weighted images and T1-weighted images taken both before and after the injection of a contrast agent (typically gadolinium: Gd). The commonly used MRS technique is either point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) or stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). PMID:19381963

  15. Identifying Family Members Who Are Likely to Perceive Benefits From Providing Care to a Person With a Primary Malignant Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Alyssa; Kuo, Jean; Donovan, Heidi; Given, Barbara; Given, Charles W.; Schulz, Richard; Sherwood, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To identify changes in positive aspects of care (PAC) from the time of diagnosis to four months following the diagnosis in family caregivers of care recipients with primary malignant brain tumors. Design Longitudinal. Setting Dyads were recruited from neurosurgery clinics in Pittsburgh, PA, at the time of care recipients’ diagnosis with a primary malignant brain tumor. A second data collection took place four months following the diagnosis. Sample 89 caregiver and care recipient dyads. Methods Paired t tests were used to examine change in PAC, univariate analyses were used to determine predictors of PAC at four months, Mann-Whitney U tests and t tests were used to examine associations between categorical predictor variables and PAC at four months, and univariate linear regressions were used to examine associations between continuous predictors and PAC at four months. Main Research Variables The impact of sociodemographic factors, caregiver-perceived social support, mastery, neuroticism, and marital satisfaction on PAC. Findings Caregivers’ PAC scores during the first four months following diagnosis appeared to remain stable over time. Significant differences were found between the care recipient reasoning domain group at diagnosis and PAC score. Care recipients who scored below average were associated with caregivers with higher PAC scores. Caregiver PAC at four months following diagnosis was significantly predicted by care recipient reasoning and caregiver social support. Conclusions PAC scores appear to remain stable over time, although levels of PAC may be related to care recipients’ level of functioning. Future research should focus on the development of interventions for caregivers who report low levels of PAC at the time of diagnosis in an attempt to help these individuals identify PAC in their caregiving situation. Implications for Nursing Findings have clinical and research implications. Clinicians may be able to better identify

  16. Primary tracheobronchial tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Varela, Patricio; Pio, Luca; Torre, Michele

    2016-06-01

    Primary tracheobronchial tumors are rare lesions that can be benign or malignant, with different location along the airway tree. Symptoms may include wheezing, chronic pneumonia, asthma, chest pain, recurrent cough, atelectasis, haemoptysis, and weight loss. Due to the heterogeneity of symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult and the airway involvement can lead progressively to a bronchial or tracheal obstruction. Due to the rarity of primary tracheobronchial tumors in children, there are not any oncological guidelines on pre-operative work-up, treatment, and follow-up. Only few reports and multicentric studies are reported. In most cases, surgical resection seems to be the treatment of choice. Brachytherapy, endoscopic treatment, and chemotherapy are rarely described. In this article we present an overview on these rare tumors, including pathological aspects, clinical presentation, imaging assessment, and endoscopic or open surgical treatments. We discuss different surgical approaches, according with tumor location. PMID:27301601

  17. Bevacizumab in Reducing CNS Side Effects in Patients Who Have Undergone Radiation Therapy to the Brain for Primary Brain Tumor, Meningioma, or Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineocytoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage I Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  18. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  19. Deregulated proliferation and differentiation in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Swartling, Fredrik J; Čančer, Matko; Frantz, Aaron; Weishaupt, Holger; Persson, Anders I

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons, is deregulated in neural stem cell (NSC)- and progenitor-derived murine models of malignant medulloblastoma and glioma, the most common brain tumors of children and adults, respectively. Molecular characterization of human malignant brain tumors, and in particular brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), has identified neurodevelopmental transcription factors, microRNAs, and epigenetic factors known to inhibit neuronal and glial differentiation. We are starting to understand how these factors are regulated by the major oncogenic drivers in malignant brain tumors. In this review, we will focus on the molecular switches that block normal neuronal differentiation and induce brain tumor formation. Genetic or pharmacological manipulation of these switches in BTSCs has been shown to restore the ability of tumor cells to differentiate. We will discuss potential brain tumor therapies that will promote differentiation in order to reduce treatment-resistance, suppress tumor growth, and prevent recurrence in patients. PMID:25416506

  20. Deregulated proliferation and differentiation in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Swartling, Fredrik J; Čančer, Matko; Frantz, Aaron; Weishaupt, Holger; Persson, Anders I

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons, is deregulated in neural stem cell (NSC)- and progenitor-derived murine models of malignant medulloblastoma and glioma, the most common brain tumors of children and adults, respectively. Molecular characterization of human malignant brain tumors, and in particular brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), has identified neurodevelopmental transcription factors, microRNAs, and epigenetic factors known to inhibit neuronal and glial differentiation. We are starting to understand how these factors are regulated by the major oncogenic drivers in malignant brain tumors. In this review, we will focus on the molecular switches that block normal neuronal differentiation and induce brain tumor formation. Genetic or pharmacological manipulation of these switches in BTSCs has been shown to restore the ability of tumor cells to differentiate. We will discuss potential brain tumor therapies that will promote differentiation in order to reduce treatment resistance, suppress tumor growth, and prevent recurrence in patients. PMID:25416506

  1. Development and evaluation of information resources for patients, families, and healthcare providers addressing behavioral and cognitive sequelae among adults with a primary brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kylie M; Simpson, Grahame K; Koh, Eng-Siew; Whiting, Diane L; Gillett, Lauren; Simpson, Teresa; Firth, Rochelle

    2015-06-01

    Behavioral and cognitive changes in patients with primary brain tumor (PBT) are common and may be distressing to patients and their family members. Healthcare professionals report a strong need for information, practical strategies, and training to assist consumers and better address management issues. A literature review by the current project found that 53% of the information resources currently available to consumers and health professionals contained minimal or no information about cognitive/behavioral changes after PBT, and 71% of the resources contained minimal or no information on associated strategies to manage these changes. This project aimed to develop an information resource for patients, carers, and health professionals addressing the behavioral and cognitive sequelae of PBT, including strategies to minimize the disabling impact of such behaviors. In consultation with staff and patient groups, 16 key information topics were identified covering cognitive and communication changes and challenging behaviors including executive impairment, behavioral disturbance, and social/emotional dysfunction. Sixteen fact sheets and 11 additional resource sheets were developed and evaluated according to established consumer communication guidelines. Preliminary data show that these resources have been positively received and well utilized. These sheets are the first of their kind addressing challenging behaviors in the neuro-oncology patient group and are a practical and useful information resource for health professionals working with these patients and their families. The new resource assists in reinforcing interventions provided to individual patients and their relatives who are experiencing difficulties in managing challenging behaviors after PBT. PMID:25827649

  2. CARS and non-linear microscopy imaging of brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Roberta; Uckermann, Ortrud; Tamosaityte, Sandra; Geiger, Kathrin; Schackert, Gabriele; Steiner, Gerald; Koch, Edmund; Kirsch, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy offers a series of techniques that have the potential to be applied in vivo, for intraoperative identification of tumor border and in situ pathology. By addressing the different content of lipids that characterize the tumors with respect to the normal brain tissue, CARS microscopy enables to discern primary and secondary brain tumors from healthy tissue. A study performed in mouse models shows that the reduction of the CARS signal is a reliable quantity to identify brain tumors, irrespective from the tumor type. Moreover it enables to identify tumor borders and infiltrations at a cellular resolution. Integration of CARS with autogenous TPEF and SHG adds morphological and compositional details about the tissue. Examples of multimodal CARS imaging of different human tumor biopsies demonstrate the ability of the technique to retrieve information useful for histopathological diagnosis.

  3. Antiangiogenic therapy in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lakka, Sajani S; Rao, Jasti S

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the recruitment of new blood vessels, is an essential component of tumor progression. Malignant brain tumors are highly vascularized and their growth is angiogenesis-dependent. As such, inhibition of the sprouting of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels is one of the most promising antiglioma therapeutic approaches. Numerous classes of molecules have been implicated in regulating angiogenesis and, thus, novel agents that target and counteract angiogenesis are now being developed. The therapeutic trials of a number of angiogenesis inhibitors as antiglioma drugs are currently under intense investigation. Preliminary studies of angiogenic blockade in glioblastoma have been promising and several clinical trials are now underway to develop optimum treatment strategies for antiangiogenic agents. This review will cover state-of-the-art antiangiogenic targets for brain tumor treatment and discuss future challenges. An increased understanding of the angiogenic process, the diversity of its inducers and mediators, appropriate drug schedules and the use of these agents with other modalities may lead to radically new treatment regimens to achieve maximal efficacy. PMID:18928341

  4. Comparing the expression of integrins αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6, αvβ8, fibronectin and fibrinogen in human brain metastases and their corresponding primary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Schittenhelm, Jens; Klein, Annemarie; Tatagiba, Marcos S; Meyermann, Richard; Fend, Falko; Goodman, Simon L; Sipos, Bence

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the expression of αv-series integrins in brain metastases. Inhibitors targeting these integrins are being tested for their therapeutic potential. Material and Method: The extracellular regions of the αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6, αvβ8, the cytoplasmic domain of β3, the αv-chain, and the ECM molecules fibronectin and fibrinogen were studied immunohistochemically in a series of 122 carcinoma and 60 melanomas metastatic to the central nervous system. In addition, 38 matched primary and metastatic tumors to the brain were compared directly. Results: The αv-subunit was generally moderately to highly expressed in most tumors. αvβ3 and cytoplasmic β3 were weakly to moderately detectable in metastatic renal cell carcinomas and melanomas, αvβ5 was prominently expressed in metastatic renal and colorectal carcinomas, αvβ6 was most abundantly detectable in metastatic lung adenocarcinomas, but absent in melanomas. The tumor associated vessels in CNS metastases consistently expressed αvβ3, αvβ5, αv-, fibronectin and fibrinogen, however, mostly at low levels, while αvβ6, αvβ8 were lacking in vasculature. The comparative analysis of 38 matched primary tumors and brain metastases showed comparable levels of expression only for αvβ3 and αvβ8, while αvβ6 and αvβ5 were higher in primaries. Conclusion: We confirmed that integrin expression exhibits considerable heterogeneity according to tumor origin. αvβ5 is the most promising target for integrin targeted treatment in brain metastases. PMID:24294359

  5. Using Ferumoxytol-Enhanced MRI to Measure Inflammation in Patients With Brain Tumors or Other Conditions of the CNS

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-08

    Brain Injury; Central Nervous System Degenerative Disorder; Central Nervous System Infectious Disorder; Central Nervous System Vascular Malformation; Hemorrhagic Cerebrovascular Accident; Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident; Primary Brain Neoplasm; Brain Cancer; Brain Tumors

  6. Adenoviral virotherapy for malignant brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Suvobroto; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of primary brain cancer. In the past decade, virotherapy of tumors has gained credence, particularly in glioma management, as these tumors are not completely resectable and tend to micro-metastasize. Adenoviral vectors have an advantage over other viral vectors in that they are relatively non-toxic and do not integrate in the genome. However, the lack of coxsackie and adenovirus receptors (CAR) on surface of gliomas provides for inefficient transduction of wild-type adenoviral vectors in these tumors. By targeting receptors that are over-expressed in gliomas, modified adenoviral constructs have been shown to efficiently infect glioma cells. In addition, by taking advantage of tumor specific promoter (TSP) elements, oncolytic adenoviral vectors offer the promise of selective tumor-specific replication. This dual targeting strategy has enabled specificity in both laboratory and pre-clinical settings. This review looks at current trends in adenoviral virotherapy of gliomas, with an emphasis on targeting modalities and future clinical applications. PMID:19456208

  7. Adenoviral virotherapy for malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Suvobroto; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2009-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common form of primary brain cancer. In the past decade, virotherapy of tumors has gained credence, particularly in glioma management, as these tumors are not completely resectable and tend to micro-metastasize. Adenoviral vectors have an advantage over other viral vectors in that they are relatively non-toxic and do not integrate in the genome. However, the lack of coxsackie and adenovirus receptors on surface of gliomas provides for inefficient transduction of wild-type adenoviral vectors in these tumors. By targeting receptors that are overexpressed in gliomas, modified adenoviral constructs have been shown to efficiently infect glioma cells. In addition, by taking advantage of tumor-specific promoter elements, oncolytic adenoviral vectors offer the promise of selective tumor-specific replication. This dual targeting strategy has enabled specificity in both laboratory and pre-clinical settings. This review examines current trends in adenoviral virotherapy of gliomas, with an emphasis on targeting modalities and future clinical applications. PMID:19456208

  8. Molecular Culprits Generating Brain Tumor Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se-Yeong

    2013-01-01

    Despite current advances in multimodality therapies, such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, the outcome for patients with high-grade glioma remains fatal. Understanding how glioma cells resist various therapies may provide opportunities for developing new therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the main obstacle for successfully treating high-grade glioma is the existence of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), which share a number of cellular properties with adult stem cells, such as self-renewal and multipotent differentiation capabilities. Owing to their resistance to standard therapy coupled with their infiltrative nature, BTSCs are a primary cause of tumor recurrence post-therapy. Therefore, BTSCs are thought to be the main glioma cells representing a novel therapeutic target and should be eliminated to obtain successful treatment outcomes. PMID:24904883

  9. The impact of dietary isoflavonoids on malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Sehm, Tina; Fan, Zheng; Weiss, Ruth; Schwarz, Marc; Engelhorn, Tobias; Hore, Nirjhar; Doerfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyüpoglu, Iiker Y; Savaskan, Nic E

    2014-08-01

    Poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options render malignant brain tumors one of the most devastating diseases in clinical medicine. Current treatment strategies attempt to expand the therapeutic repertoire through the use of multimodal treatment regimens. It is here that dietary fibers have been recently recognized as a supportive natural therapy in augmenting the body's response to tumor growth. Here, we investigated the impact of isoflavonoids on primary brain tumor cells. First, we treated glioma cell lines and primary astrocytes with various isoflavonoids and phytoestrogens. Cell viability in a dose-dependent manner was measured for biochanin A (BCA), genistein (GST), and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Dose-response action for the different isoflavonoids showed that BCA is highly effective on glioma cells and nontoxic for normal differentiated brain tissues. We further investigated BCA in ex vivo and in vivo experimentations. Organotypic brain slice cultures were performed and treated with BCA. For in vivo experiments, BCA was intraperitoneal injected in tumor-implanted Fisher rats. Tumor size and edema were measured and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In vascular organotypic glioma brain slice cultures (VOGIM) we found that BCA operates antiangiogenic and neuroprotective. In vivo MRI scans demonstrated that administered BCA as a monotherapy was effective in reducing significantly tumor-induced brain edema and showed a trend for prolonged survival. Our results revealed that dietary isoflavonoids, in particular BCA, execute toxicity toward glioma cells, antiangiogenic, and coevally neuroprotective properties, and therefore augment the range of state-of-the-art multimodal treatment approach. PMID:24898306

  10. Radiosensitized treatment of malignant brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloznelyte-Plesniene, Laima

    2003-12-01

    Around 12,000 deaths from glioblastoma occurs within the European Community annually. At present, the best available treatment for malignant brain tumors results in a median survival of patients of 15 months despite surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to review our results of radiosensitized treatment of malignant brain tumors.

  11. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor in children.

    PubMed

    Foley, David S; Sunil, Indira; Debski, Robert; Ignacio, Romeo C; Nagaraj, Hirkati S

    2008-11-01

    Primary carcinoid tumors of the liver are rare, with fewer than 60 cases currently reported in the English literature. We present the evaluation and management of a solid hepatic tumor in a 14-year-old boy. Intraoperative biopsy was indeterminant for malignant potential, and the patient underwent complete resection by left hepatic lobectomy. Final histopathologic evaluation of the mass revealed a carcinoid tumor. Extensive endoscopic and radiologic workup revealed no other primary source. The patient recovered well from surgery and is currently free of disease 32 months after initial resection. Review of the literature suggests that primary hepatic carcinoid tumors are particularly rare in children. As the liver is frequently a site for carcinoid metastasis from the gastrointestinal tract, any patient with a suspected primary hepatic carcinoid tumor must undergo an extensive search for an extrahepatic primary site. These tumors are typically indolent but may metastasize. In addition, medical therapy is of limited benefit in reducing tumor bulk. The mainstay for treatment of primary hepatic carcinoid tumors is surgical resection, and these tumors carry a more favorable prognosis than other primary hepatic malignancies and metastatic carcinoid. Follow-up is long-term, as these tumors can recur many years after initial resection. PMID:18970916

  12. Signaling the Unfolded Protein Response in primary brain cancers.

    PubMed

    Le Reste, Pierre-Jean; Avril, Tony; Quillien, Véronique; Morandi, Xavier; Chevet, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is an adaptive cellular program used by eukaryotic cells to cope with protein misfolding stress in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). During tumor development, cancer cells are facing intrinsic (oncogene activation) and extrinsic (limiting nutrient or oxygen supply; exposure to chemotherapies) challenges, with which they must cope to survive. Primary brain tumors are relatively rare but deadly and present a significant challenge in the determination of risk factors in the population. These tumors are inherently difficult to cure because of their protected location in the brain. As such surgery, radiation and chemotherapy options carry potentially lasting patient morbidity and incomplete tumor cure. Some of these tumors, such as glioblastoma, were reported to present features of ER stress and to depend on UPR activation to sustain growth, but to date there is no clear general representation of the ER stress status in primary brain tumors. In this review, we describe the key molecular mechanisms controlling the UPR and their implication in cancers. Then we extensively review the literature reporting the status of ER stress in various primary brain tumors and discuss the potential impact of such observation on patient stratification and on the possibility of developing appropriate targeted therapies using the UPR as therapeutic target. PMID:27016056

  13. MR Imaging Evaluation of Intracerebral Hemorrhages and T2 Hyperintense White Matter Lesions Appearing after Radiation Therapy in Adult Patients with Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Il Han; Choi, Seung Hong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the frequency and severity of intracerebral hemorrhages and T2 hyperintense white matter lesions (WMLs) following radiation therapy for brain tumors in adult patients. Of 648 adult brain tumor patients who received radiation therapy at our institute, magnetic resonance (MR) image data consisting of a gradient echo (GRE) and FLAIR T2-weighted image were available three and five years after radiation therapy in 81 patients. Intracerebral hemorrhage was defined as a hypointense dot lesion appearing on GRE images after radiation therapy. The number and size of the lesions were evaluated. The T2 hyperintense WMLs observed on the FLAIR sequences were graded according to the extent of the lesion. Intracerebral hemorrhage was detected in 21 (25.9%) and 35 (43.2) patients in the three- and five-year follow-up images, respectively. The number of intracerebral hemorrhages per patient tended to increase as the follow-up period increased, whereas the size of the intracerebral hemorrhages exhibited little variation over the course of follow-up. T2 hyperintense WMLs were observed in 27 (33.3%) and 32 (39.5) patients in the three and five year follow-up images, respectively. The age at the time of radiation therapy was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the patients with T2 hyperintense WMLs than in those without lesions. Intracerebral hemorrhages are not uncommon in adult brain tumor patients undergoing radiation therapy. The incidence and number of intracerebral hemorrhages increased over the course of follow-up. T2 hyperintense WMLs were observed in more than one-third of the study population. PMID:26322780

  14. How Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal cord tumors in children staged? How are brain and spinal cord tumors diagnosed in children? Brain ... resonance angiography (MRA) or computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). Brain or spinal cord tumor biopsy Imaging tests such ...

  15. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Membership Information

    Cancer.gov

    BTEC welcomes new members interested in the development of multi-center, inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes and prevention of all brain tumors.

  16. Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Brain Tumors URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/braintumors.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  17. Staging Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

  18. [Classification of primary bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Dominok, G W; Frege, J

    1986-01-01

    An expanded classification for bone tumors is presented based on the well known international classification as well as earlier systems. The current status and future trends in this area are discussed. PMID:3461626

  19. Primary bone tumors of the spine.

    PubMed

    Cañete, A Navas; Bloem, H L; Kroon, H M

    2016-04-01

    Primary bone tumors of the spine are less common than metastases or multiple myeloma. Based on the patient's age and the radiologic pattern and topography of the tumor, a very approximate differential diagnosis can be established for an osseous vertebral lesion. This article shows the radiologic manifestations of the principal primary bone tumors of the spine from a practical point of view, based on our personal experience and a review of the literature. If bone metastases, multiple myeloma, lymphomas, hemangiomas, and enostoses are excluded, only eight types of tumors account for 80% of all vertebral tumors. These are chordomas, osteoblastomas, chondrosarcomas, giant-cell tumors, osteoid osteomas, Ewing's sarcomas, osteosarcomas, and aneurysmal bone cysts. PMID:26917429

  20. Embryonal brain tumors and developmental control genes

    SciTech Connect

    Aguzzi, A.

    1995-12-31

    Cell proliferation in embryogenesis and neoplastic transformation is thought to be controlled by similar sets of regulatory genes. This is certainly true for tumors of embryonic origin, such as Ewing sarcoma, Wilms` tumor and retinoblastoma, in which developmental control genes are either activated as oncogenes to promote proliferation, or are inactivated to eliminate their growth suppressing function. However, to date little is known about the genetic events underlying the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma, the most common brain tumor in children, which still carries an unfavourable prognosis. None of the common genetic alterations identified in other neuroectodermal tumors, such as mutation of the p53 gene or amplification of tyrosine kinase receptor genes, could be uncovered as key events in the formation of medulloblastoma. The identification of regulatory genes which are expressed in this pediatric brain tumor may provide an alternative approach to gain insight into the molecular aspects of tumor formation.

  1. MRI virtual biopsy and treatment of brain metastatic tumors with targeted nanobioconjugates: nanoclinic in the brain.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rameshwar; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Gangalum, Pallavi R; Ding, Hui; Portilla-Arias, Jose; Wagner, Shawn; Inoue, Satoshi; Konda, Bindu; Rekechenetskiy, Arthur; Chesnokova, Alexandra; Markman, Janet L; Ljubimov, Vladimir A; Li, Debiao; Prasad, Ravi S; Black, Keith L; Holler, Eggehard; Ljubimova, Julia Y

    2015-05-26

    Differential diagnosis of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement(s) remains a significant problem, which may be difficult to resolve without biopsy, which can be often dangerous or even impossible. Such MRI enhancement(s) can result from metastasis of primary tumors such as lung or breast, radiation necrosis, infections, or a new primary brain tumor (glioma, meningioma). Neurological symptoms are often the same on initial presentation. To develop a more precise noninvasive MRI diagnostic method, we have engineered a new class of poly(β-l-malic acid) polymeric nanoimaging agents (NIAs). The NIAs carrying attached MRI tracer are able to pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and specifically target cancer cells for efficient imaging. A qualitative/quantitative "MRI virtual biopsy" method is based on a nanoconjugate carrying MRI contrast agent gadolinium-DOTA and antibodies recognizing tumor-specific markers and extravasating through the BBB. In newly developed double tumor xenogeneic mouse models of brain metastasis this noninvasive method allowed differential diagnosis of HER2- and EGFR-expressing brain tumors. After MRI diagnosis, breast and lung cancer brain metastases were successfully treated with similar tumor-targeted nanoconjugates carrying molecular inhibitors of EGFR or HER2 instead of imaging contrast agent. The treatment resulted in a significant increase in animal survival and markedly reduced immunostaining for several cancer stem cell markers. Novel NIAs could be useful for brain diagnostic MRI in the clinic without currently performed brain biopsies. This technology shows promise for differential MRI diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases and other pathologies when biopsies are difficult to perform. PMID:25906400

  2. New strategies to deliver anticancer drugs to brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Laquintana, Valentino; Trapani, Adriana; Denora, Nunzio; Wang, Fan; Gallo, James M.; Trapani, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Malignant brain tumors are among the most challenging to treat and at present there are no uniformly successful treatment strategies. Standard treatment regimens consist of maximal surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The limited survival advantage attributed to chemotherapy is partially due to low CNS penetration of antineoplastic agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to review recent approaches to deliver anticancer drugs into primary brain tumors. METHODS Both preclinical and clinical strategies to circumvent the BBB are considered that includes chemical modification and colloidal carriers. CONCLUSION Analysis of the available data indicates that novel approaches may be useful for CNS delivery, yet an appreciation of pharmacokinetic issues, and improved knowledge of tumor biology will be needed to significantly impact drug delivery to the target site. PMID:19732031

  3. General Information about Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Go ... types of brain and spinal cord tumors. The information from tests and procedures done to detect (find) ...

  4. Proton MRS imaging in pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Zarifi, Maria; Tzika, A Aria

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques offer a noninvasive, non-irradiating yet sensitive approach to diagnosing and monitoring pediatric brain tumors. Proton MR spectroscopy (MRS), as an adjunct to MRI, is being more widely applied to monitor the metabolic aspects of brain cancer. In vivo MRS biomarkers represent a promising advance and may influence treatment choice at both initial diagnosis and follow-up, given the inherent difficulties of sequential biopsies to monitor therapeutic response. When combined with anatomical or other types of imaging, MRS provides unique information regarding biochemistry in inoperable brain tumors and can complement neuropathological data, guide biopsies and enhance insight into therapeutic options. The combination of noninvasively acquired prognostic information and the high-resolution anatomical imaging provided by conventional MRI is expected to surpass molecular analysis and DNA microarray gene profiling, both of which, although promising, depend on invasive biopsy. This review focuses on recent data in the field of MRS in children with brain tumors. PMID:27233788

  5. The proteomics of pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Tsangaris, George T

    2014-10-01

    Pediatric tumors of the CNS are the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. In pediatric pathology, brain tumors constitute the most frequent solid malignancy. An unparalleled outburst of information in pediatric neuro-oncology research has been witnessed over the last few years, largely due to increased use of high-throughput technologies such as genomics, proteomics and meta-analysis tools. Input from these technologies gives scientists the advantage of early prognosis assessment, more accurate diagnosis and prospective curative intent in the pediatric brain tumor clinical setting. The present review aims to summarize current knowledge on research applying proteomics techniques or proteomics-based approaches performed on pediatric brain tumors. Proteins that can be used as potential disease markers or molecular targets, and their biological significance, are herein listed and discussed. Furthermore, future perspectives that proteomics technologies may offer regarding this devastating disorder are presented. PMID:25059388

  6. Visual analysis of longitudinal brain tumor perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßer, Sylvia; Oeltze, Steffen; Preim, Uta; Bjørnerud, Atle; Hauser, Helwig; Preim, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    In clinical research on diagnosis and evaluation of brain tumors, longitudinal perfusion MRI studies are acquired for tumor grading as well as to monitor and assess treatment response and patient prognosis. Within this work, we demonstrate how visual analysis techniques can be adapted to multidimensional datasets from such studies within a framework to support the computer-aided diagnosis of brain tumors. Our solution builds on two innovations: First, we introduce a pipeline yielding comparative, co-registered quantitative perfusion parameter maps over all time steps of the longitudinal study. Second, based on these time-dependent parameter maps, visual analysis methods were developed and adapted to reveal valuable insight into tumor progression, especially regarding the clinical research area of low grade glioma transformation into high grade gliomas. Our examination of four longitudinal brain studies demonstrates the suitability of the presented visual analysis methods and comprises new possibilities for the clinical researcher to characterize the development of low grade gliomas.

  7. Cognitive Screening in Brain Tumors: Short but Sensitive Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Gail A.; Biggs, Vivien; Walker, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in brain tumors are generally thought to be relatively mild and non-specific, although recent evidence challenges this notion. One possibility is that cognitive screening tools are being used to assess cognitive functions but their sensitivity to detect cognitive impairment may be limited. For improved sensitivity to recognize mild and/or focal cognitive deficits in brain tumors, neuropsychological evaluation tailored to detect specific impairments has been thought crucial. This study investigates the sensitivity of a cognitive screening tool, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), compared to a brief but tailored cognitive assessment (CA) for identifying cognitive deficits in an unselected primary brain tumor sample (i.e., low/high-grade gliomas, meningiomas). Performance is compared on broad measures of impairment: (a) number of patients impaired on the global screening measure or in any cognitive domain; and (b) number of cognitive domains impaired and specific analyses of MoCA-Intact and MoCA-Impaired patients on specific cognitive tests. The MoCA-Impaired group obtained lower naming and word fluency scores than the MoCA-Intact group, but otherwise performed comparably on cognitive tests. Overall, based on our results from patients with brain tumor, the MoCA has extremely poor sensitivity for detecting cognitive impairments and a brief but tailored CA is necessary. These findings will be discussed in relation to broader issues for clinical management and planning, as well as specific considerations for neuropsychological assessment of brain tumor patients. PMID:25815273

  8. Validation techniques for quantitative brain tumors measurements.

    PubMed

    Salman, Y; Assal, M; Badawi, A; Alian, S; -M El-Bayome, M

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of tumor volume becomes more realistic with the use of imaging- particularly specially when the tumor have non-ellipsoidal morphology, which remains subtle, irregular and difficult to assess by visual metric and clinical examination. The quantitative measurements depend strongly on the accuracy of the segmentation technique. The validity of brain tumor segmentation methods is an important issue in medical imaging because it has a direct impact on many applications such as surgical planning and quantitative measurements of tumor volume. Our goal was to examine two popular segmentation techniques seeded region growing and active contour "snakes" to be compared against experts' manual segmentations as the gold standard. We illustrated these methods on brain tumor volume cases using MR imaging modality. PMID:17281898

  9. Recent developments in brain tumor predisposing syndromes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Gunnar; Andersson, Ulrika; Melin, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    The etiologies of brain tumors are in the most cases unknown, but improvements in genetics and DNA screening have helped to identify a wide range of brain tumor predisposition disorders. In this review we are discussing some of the most common predisposition disorders, namely: neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2, schwannomatosis, rhabdoid tumor predisposition disorder, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin), tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau, Li-Fraumeni and Turcot syndromes. Recent findings from the GLIOGENE collaboration and the newly identified glioma causing gene POT1, will also be discussed. Genetics. We will describe these disorders from a genetic and clinical standpoint, focusing on the difference in clinical symptoms depending on the underlying gene or germline mutation. Central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Most of these disorders predispose the carriers to a wide range of symptoms. Herein, we will focus particularly on tumors affecting the CNS and discuss improvements of targeted therapy for the particular disorders. PMID:26634384

  10. Epigenetics in Brain Tumors: HDACs Take Center Stage

    PubMed Central

    Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y.; Savaskan, Nicolai E.

    2016-01-01

    Primary tumors of the brain account for 2 % of all cancers with malignant gliomas taking the lion’s share at 70 %. Malignant gliomas (high grade gliomas WHO° III and °IV) belong to one of the most threatening tumor entities known for their disappointingly short median survival time of just 14 months despite maximum therapy according to current gold standards. Malignant gliomas manifest various factors, through which they adapt and manipulate the tumor microenvironment to their advantage. Epigenetic mechanisms operate on the tumor microenvironment by de- and methylation processes and imbalances between the histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetylases (HAT). Many compounds have been discovered modulating epigenetically controlled signals. Recent studies indicate that xCT (system xc-, SLC7a11) and CD44 (H-CAM, ECM-III, HUTCH-1) functions as a bridge between these epigenetic regulatory mechanisms and malignant glioma progression. The question that ensues is the extent to which therapeutic intervention on these signaling pathways would exert influence on the treatment of malignant gliomas as well as the extent to which manipulation of HDAC activity can sensitize tumor cells for chemotherapeutics through ‘epigenetic priming’. In light of considering the current stagnation in the development of therapeutic options, the need for new strategies in the treatment of gliomas has never been so pressing. In this context the possibility of pharmacological intervention on tumor-associated genes by epigenetic priming opens a novel path in the treatment of primary brain tumors. PMID:26521944

  11. Metabolic brain imaging correlated with clinical features of brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Alavi, J.; Alavi, A.; Dann, R.; Kushner, M.; Chawluk, J.; Powlis, W.; Reivich, M.

    1985-05-01

    Nineteen adults with brain tumors have been studied with positron emission tomography utilizing FDG. Fourteen had biopsy proven cerebral malignant glioma, one each had meningioma, hemangiopericytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), two had unbiopsied lesions, and one patient had an area of biopsy proven radiation necrosis. Three different patterns of glucose metabolism are observed: marked increase in metabolism at the site of the known tumor in (10 high grade gliomas and the PNET), lower than normal metabolism at the tumor (in 1 grade II glioma, 3 grade III gliomas, 2 unbiopsied low density nonenhancing lesions, and the meningioma), no abnormality (1 enhancing glioma, the hemangiopericytoma and the radiation necrosis.) The metabolic rate of the tumor or the surrounding brain did not appear to be correlated with the history of previous irradiation or chemotherapy. Decreased metabolism was frequently observed in the rest of the affected hemisphere and in the contralateral cerebellum. Tumors of high grade or with enhancing CT characteristics were more likely to show increased metabolism. Among the patients with proven gliomas, survival after PETT scan tended to be longer for those with low metabolic activity tumors than for those with highly active tumors. The authors conclude that PETT may help to predict the malignant potential of tumors, and may add useful clinical information to the CT scan.

  12. Primary phospholipase C and brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong Ryoul; Kang, Du-Seock; Lee, Cheol; Seok, Heon; Follo, Matilde Y; Cocco, Lucio; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2016-05-01

    In the brain, the primary phospholipase C (PLC) proteins, PLCβ, and PLCγ, are activated primarily by neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors, and hormones through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Among the primary PLC isozymes, PLCβ1, PLCβ4, and PLCγ1 are highly expressed and differentially distributed, suggesting a specific role for each PLC subtype in different regions of the brain. Primary PLCs control neuronal activity, which is important for synapse function and development. In addition, dysregulation of primary PLC signaling is linked to several brain disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Huntington's disease, depression and Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we included current knowledge regarding the roles of primary PLC isozymes in brain disorders. PMID:26639088

  13. Psychiatric aspects of brain tumors: A review

    PubMed Central

    Madhusoodanan, Subramoniam; Ting, Mark Bryan; Farah, Tara; Ugur, Umran

    2015-01-01

    Infrequently, psychiatric symptoms may be the only manifestation of brain tumors. They may present with mood symptoms, psychosis, memory problems, personality changes, anxiety, or anorexia. Symptoms may be misleading, complicating the clinical picture. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted regarding reports of brain tumors and psychiatric symptoms from 1956-2014. Search engines used include PubMed, Ovid, Psych Info, MEDLINE, and MedScape. Search terms included psychiatric manifestations/symptoms, brain tumors/neoplasms. Our literature search yielded case reports, case studies, and case series. There are no double blind studies except for post-diagnosis/-surgery studies. Early diagnosis is critical for improved quality of life. Symptoms that suggest work-up with neuroimaging include: new-onset psychosis, mood/memory symptoms, occurrence of new or atypical symptoms, personality changes, and anorexia without body dysmorphic symptoms. This article reviews the existing literature regarding the diagnosis and management of this clinically complex condition. PMID:26425442

  14. [MR spectroscopy in brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Papanagiotou, P; Backens, M; Grunwald, I Q; Farmakis, G; Politi, M; Roth, C; Reith, W

    2007-06-01

    MRT allows the anatomical visualization of intracerebral space-occupying lesions, and when magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is used in routine clinical practice it can give more information and be helpful in the diagnosis of such lesions. In MRS with long echo times for nerve tissue there are five metabolites that are particularly significant: N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine, choline, lactate, and lipids. NAA levels are lowered in the presence of intracerebral tumors. Creatine is lowered in situations of hypermetabolic metabolism and elevated in hypometabolic conditions, but remains constant in many pathologic states and can be used as a reliable reference value. With malignant tumors there are usually elevated choline concentrations, reflecting increased membrane synthesis and a higher cell turnover. The lactate level rises following a switch in metabolism from aerobic to anaerobic glycolysis, and this is frequently observed in the presence of malignant tumors. The occurrence of lipid peaks in a tumor spectrum suggests the presence of tissue necroses or metastases. There are typical constellations that are seen on MRS for individual tumors, which are discussed in detail in the present paper. PMID:17530212

  15. Confronting pediatric brain tumors: parent stories.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    This narrative symposium brings to light the extreme difficulties faced by parents of children diagnosed with brain tumors. NIB editorial staff and narrative symposium editors, Gigi McMillan and Christy A. Rentmeester, developed a call for stories that was distributed on several list serves and posted on Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics' website. The call asks parents to share their personal experience of diagnosis, treatment, long-term effects of treatment, social issues and the doctor-patient-parent dynamic that develops during this process. Thirteen stories are found in the print version of the journal and an additional six supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. One change readers may notice is that the story authors are not listed in alphabetical order. The symposium editors had a vision for this issue that included leading readers through the timeline of this topic: diagnosis-treatment-acute recovery-recurrence-treatment (again)-acute recovery (again)-long-term quality of life-(possibly) end of life. Stories are arranged to help lead the reader through this timeline.Gigi McMillan is a patient and research subject advocate, co-founder of We Can, Pediatric Brain Tumor Network, as well as, the mother of a child who suffered from a pediatric brain tumor. She also authored the introduction for this symposium. Christy Rentmeester is an Associate Professor of Health Policy and Ethics in the Creighton University School of Medicine. She served as a commentator for this issue. Other commentators for this issue are Michael Barraza, a clinical psychologist and board member of We Can, Pediatric Brain Tumor Network; Lisa Stern, a pediatrician who has diagnosed six children with brain tumors in her 20 years of practice; and Katie Rose, a pediatric brain tumor patient who shares her special insights about this world. PMID:24748242

  16. Monitoring therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ait-Belkacem, Rima; Berenguer, Caroline; Villard, Claude; Ouafik, L’Houcine; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Beck, Alain; Chinot, Olivier; Lafitte, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bevacizumab induces normalization of abnormal blood vessels, making them less leaky. By binding to vascular endothelial growth factor, it indirectly attacks the vascular tumor mass. The optimal delivery of targeted therapies including monoclonal antibodies or anti-angiogenesis drugs to the target tissue highly depends on the blood-brain barrier permeability. It is therefore critical to investigate how drugs effectively reach the tumor. In situ investigation of drug distribution could provide a better understanding of pharmacological agent action and optimize chemotherapies for solid tumors. We developed an imaging method coupled to protein identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. This approach monitored bevacizumab distribution within the brain structures, and especially within the tumor, without any labeling. PMID:25484065

  17. Carcinosarcoma as a primary mediastinal tumor.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Ahmet Sami; Ozdemir, Bulent; Aydiner, Fatma; Gullulu, Sümeyye

    2004-03-01

    Carcinosarcoma is a rare, biphasic and malignant tumor having a mixture of carcinoma and sarcoma containing differentiated mesenchymal elements. It may occur in such diverse locations as the uterus, breast, thyroid, lung, and upper gastrointestinal system. However, to date a primary mediastinal carcinosarcoma has not been reported in the literature. PMID:17670165

  18. Development of multifunctional nanoparticles for brain tumor diagnosis and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiseh, Omid

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a class of non-invasive imaging agents developed for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and drug delivery. MNPs have traditionally been developed for disease imaging via passive targeting, but recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled cellular-specific targeting, drug delivery and multi-modal imaging using these nanoparticles. Opportunities now exist to engineer MNP with designated features (e.g., size, coatings, and molecular functionalizations) for specific biomedical applications. The goal of this interdisciplinary research project is to develop targeting multifunctional nanoparticles, serving as both contrast agents and drug carriers that can effectively pass biological barriers, for diagnosis, staging and treatment of brain tumors. The developed nanoparticle system consists of a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle core (NP) and a shell comprised of biodegradable polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chitosan. Additionally, near-infrared fluorescing (NIRF) molecules were integrated onto the NP shell to enable optical detection. Tumor targeting was achieved by the addition of chlorotoxin, a peptide with that has high affinity to 74 out of the 79 classifications of primary brain tumors and ability to illicit a therapeutic effect. This novel NP system was tested both in vitro and in vivo and was shown to specifically target gliomas in tissue culture and medulloblastomas in transgenic mice with an intact blood brain barriers (BBB), and delineate tumor boundaries in both MR and optical imaging. Additionally, the therapeutic potential of this NP system was explored in vitro, which revealed a unique nanoparticle-enabled pathway that enhances the therapeutic potential of bound peptides by promoting the internalization of membrane bound cell surface receptors. This NP system was further modified with siRNA and evaluated as a carrier for brain tumor targeted gene therapy. Most significantly, the evaluation of

  19. Life Satisfaction in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crom, Deborah B.; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, life-long deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors’ physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggests some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population–based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t-tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors’ general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population. PMID:25027187

  20. Ion transporters in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Damin; Zhu, Wen; Kuo, John S.; Hu, Shaoshan; Sun, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Ion transporters are important in regulation of ionic homeostasis, cell volume, and cellular signal transduction under physiological conditions. They have recently emerged as important players in cancer progression. In this review, we discussed two important ion transporter proteins, sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC-1) and sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform 1 (NHE-1) in Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other malignant tumors. NKCC-1 is a Na+-dependent Cl− transporter that mediates the movement of Na+, K+, and Cl− ions across the plasma membrane and maintains cell volume and intracellular K+ and Cl− homeostasis. NHE-1 is a ubiquitously expressed cell membrane protein which regulates intracellular pH (pHi) and extracellular microdomain pH (pHe) homeostasis and cell volume. Here, we summarized recent pre-clinical experimental studies on NKCC-1 and NHE-1 in GBM and other malignant tumors, such as breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and lung cancer. These studies illustrated that pharmacological inhibition or down-regulation of these ion transporter proteins reduces proliferation, increases apoptosis, and suppresses migration and invasion of cancer cells. These new findings reveal the potentials of these ion transporters as new targets for cancer diagnosis and/or treatment. PMID:25620102

  1. The kynurenine pathway in brain tumor pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Seray; Braidy, Nady; Bessede, Alban; Bessesde, Alban; Brew, Bruce J; Grant, Ross; Teo, Charlie; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2012-11-15

    Brain tumors are among the most common and most chemoresistant tumors. Despite treatment with aggressive treatment strategies, the prognosis for patients harboring malignant gliomas remains dismal. The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the principal route of L-tryptophan catabolism leading to the formation of the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), and important neuroactive metabolites, including the neurotoxin, quinolinic acid (QUIN), the neuroprotective agent, picolinic acid (PIC), the T(H)17/Treg balance modulator, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), and the immunosuppressive agent, L-kynurenine (KYN). This review provides a new perspective on KP dysregulation in defeating antitumor immune responses, specifically bringing light to the lower segment of the KP, particularly QUIN-induced neurotoxicity and downregulation of the enzyme α-amino-β-carboxymuconate-ε-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) as a potential mechanism of tumor progression. Given its immunosuppressive effects, 3-HAA produced from the KP may also play a role in suppressing antitumor immunity in human tumors. The enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO-1) initiates and regulates the first step of the KP in most cells. Mounting evidence directly implicates that the induction and overexpression of IDO-1 in various tumors is a crucial mechanism facilitating tumor immune evasion and persistence. Tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO-2), which initiates the same first step of the KP as IDO-1, has likewise recently been shown to be a mechanism of tumoral immune resistance. Further, it was also recently shown that TDO-2-dependent production of KYN by brain tumors might be a novel mechanism for suppressing antitumor immunity and supporting tumor growth through the activation of the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This newly identified TDO-2-KYN-AhR signaling pathway opens up exciting future research opportunities and may represent a novel therapeutic target in cancer therapy

  2. Primary renal carcinoid tumor: A radiologic review

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Leslie; Shaban, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoid tumor is the classic famous anonym of neuroendocrine neoplasms. Primary renal carcinoid tumors are extremely rare, first described by Resnick and colleagues in 1966, with fewer than a total of 100 cases reported in the literature. Thus, given the paucity of cases, the clinical and histological behavior is not well understood, impairing the ability to predict prognosis. Computed tomography and (occasionally) octreotide studies are used in the diagnosis and followup of these rare entites. A review of 85 cases in the literature shows that no distinctive imaging features differentiate them from other primary renal masses. The lesions tend to demonstrate a hypodense appearance and do not usually enhance in the arterial phases, but can occasionally calcify. Octreotide scans do not seem to help in the diagnosis; however, they are more commonly used in the postoperative followup. In addition, we report a new case of primary renal carcinoid in a horseshoe kidney. PMID:27186242

  3. Primary cerebellar endodermal sinus tumor: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Hongmei; Zhang, Chun; Gong, Honghan; Guo, Linghong; Yu, Chen; Zeng, Xianjun

    2014-10-01

    Endodermal sinus tumors are rare malignant germ cell tumors that usually originate from the gonads and are rarely observed extragonadally. Pure primary endodermal sinus tumors of the cerebellar hemisphere are extremely rare and patients diagnosed with the disease often have a poor prognosis. The symptoms of YSTs are unspecific and associated with the location of tumors. Intracranial YSTs (such as cerebellar hemispheres) always present with symptoms including headache and poor vision. The present study reports the case of a three-year-old male who presented to The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University (Nanchang, China) with a headache that had persisted for one month, and then worsened for the last 10 days. This was accompanied by vomiting and gait disturbance. An abnormal signal mass was identified in the left cerebellar hemisphere on brain magnetic resonance imaging. The case initially presented as a medulloblastoma and the patient was followed up for six months. The final pathology report revealed an endodermal sinus tumor, also known as a yolk sac tumor. Six months following resection of the left cerebellar tumor, the patient succumbed to recurrence of the disease, due to acute vomiting and severe headache. PMID:25202397

  4. Clinical epidemiology for childhood primary central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Bauchet, Luc; Rigau, Valérie; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Palenzuela, Gilles; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Moritz, Jorge; Puget, Stéphanie; Bauchet, Fabienne; Pallusseau, Lorelei; Duffau, Hugues; Coubes, Philippe; Trétarre, Brigitte; Labrousse, François; Dhellemmes, Patrick

    2009-03-01

    This work was conducted by the French Brain Tumor Data Bank (FBTDB) and aims to prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumors (PCNST), in France, for which histological diagnosis is available. Results concerning children are presented. This study analyzes the childhood cases (0-19 years) of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST (during the years 2004-2006) which have been recorded by the FBTDB. All French neuropathology and neurosurgery departments participated in this program. Neurosurgeons and neuropathologists completed a data file containing socio-demographic, clinical, radiologic and anatomopathologic information. The Tumor Registry from Herault was authorized to compile the data files with personal identifiers. About 1,017 cases (533 boys and 484 girls) of newly diagnosed childhood PCNST have been recorded (gliomas: 52%, all other neuroepithelial tumors: 31%, craniopharyngioma: 5%, germ cell tumors, meningioma and neurinoma: approximately 3% each, all histological subtypes have been detailed). Tumor resections were performed in 83.3%, and biopsies in 16.7%. The distributions by histology, cryopreservation of the samples, age, sex, tumor site and surgery have been detailed. To our knowledge, this work is the first databank in Europe dedicated to PCNST that includes the collection of clinical, radiological and histological data (including cryopreservation of the specimen). The long term goals of the FBTDB are to create a national registry and a network to perform epidemiological studies, to implement clinical and basic research protocols, and to evaluate and harmonize the healthcare of children and adult patients affected by PCNST. PMID:19020806

  5. Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjan, Ajay; Kano, Hideyuki; Khan, Aftab; Kim, In-Young; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the role of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery in the multidisciplinary management of brain metastases from an undiagnosed primary cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients who had solitary or multiple brain metastases without a detectable primary site underwent stereotactic radiosurgery between January 1990 and March 2007 at the University of Pittsburgh. The median patient age was 61.7 years (range, 37.9-78.7 years). The median target volume was 1.0 cc (range, 0.02-23.6 cc), and the median margin radiosurgical dose was 16 Gy (range, 20-70 Gy). Results: After radiosurgery, the local tumor control rate was 88.5%. Twenty four patients died and 5 patients were living at the time of this analysis. The overall median survival was 12 months. Actuarial survival rates from stereotactic radiosurgery at 1 and 2 years were 57.2% and 36.8%, respectively. Factors associated with poor progression-free survival included large tumor volume (3 cc or more) and brainstem tumor location. Conclusions: Radiosurgery is an effective and safe minimally invasive option for patients with brain metastases from an unknown primary site.

  6. Brain tumors and synchrotron radiation: Methodological developments in quantitative brain perfusion imaging and radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Jean-Francois

    2005-04-01

    High-grade gliomas are the most frequent type of primary brain tumors in adults. Unfortunately, the management of glioblastomas is still mainly palliative and remains a difficult challenge, despite advances in brain tumor molecular biology and in some emerging therapies. Synchrotron radiation opens fields for medical imaging and radiation therapy by using monochromatic intense x-ray beams. It is now well known that angiogenesis plays a critical role in the tumor growth process and that brain perfusion is representative of the tumor mitotic activity. Synchrotron radiation quantitative computed tomography (SRCT) is one of the most accurate techniques for measuring in vivo contrast agent concentration and thus computing precise and accurate absolute values of the brain perfusion key parameters. The methodological developments of SRCT absolute brain perfusion measurements as well as their preclinical validation are detailed in this thesis. In particular, absolute cerebral volume and blood brain barrier permeability high-resolution (pixel size <50x50 {mu}m{sup 2}) parametric maps were reported. In conventional radiotherapy, the treatment of these tumors remains a delicate challenge, because the damages to the surrounding normal brain tissue limit the amount of radiation that can be delivered. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to infuse an iodinated contrast agent to the patient during the irradiation. The contrast agent accumulates in the tumor, through the broken blood brain barrier, and the irradiation is performed with kilovoltage x rays, in tomography mode, the tumor being located at the center of rotation and the beam size adjusted to the tumor dimensions. The dose enhancement results from the photoelectric effect on the heavy element and from the irradiation geometry. Synchrotron beams, providing high intensity, tunable monochromatic x rays, are ideal for this treatment. The beam properties allow the selection of monochromatic irradiation, at the optimal

  7. Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor with Poor Outcome.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Om; Ayub, Adil; Naeem, Buria; Najam, Sehrish; Ahmed, Zubair; Jafri, Wasim; Hamid, Saeed

    2016-03-01

    Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor (PHCT) represents an extremely rare clinical entity with only a few cases reported to date. These tumors are rarely associated with metastasis and surgical resection is usually curative. Herein, we report two cases of PHCT associated with poor outcomes due to late diagnosis. Both cases presented late with non-specific symptoms. One patient presented after a 2-week history of symptoms and the second case had a longstanding two years symptomatic interval during which he remained undiagnosed and not properly worked up. Both these cases were diagnosed with hepatic carcinoid tumor, which originates from neuroendocrine cells. Case 1 opted for palliative care and expired in one month’s time. Surgical resection was advised to the second case, but he left against medical advice. PMID:26975959

  8. Mapping of language brain areas in patients with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Rasha; Kamel, Nidal; Boon, Tang Tong; Reza, Faruque

    2015-08-01

    Language cortex in the human brain shows high variability among normal individuals and may exhibit a considerable shift from its original position due to tumor growth. Mapping the precise location of language areas is important before surgery to avoid postoperative language deficits. In this paper, the Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording and the MRI scanning of six brain tumorous subjects are used to localize the language specific areas. MEG recordings were performed during two silent reading tasks; silent word reading and silent picture naming. MEG source imaging is performed using distributed source modeling technique called CLARA ("Classical LORETA Analysis Recursively Applied"). Estimated MEG sources are overlaid on individual MRI of each patient to improve interpretation of MEG source imaging results. The results show successful identification of the essential language areas and clear definition of the time course of neural activation connecting them. PMID:26736340

  9. High incidence of TERT mutation in brain tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Johanns, Tanner M; Fu, Yujie; Kobayashi, Dale K; Mei, Yu; Dunn, Ian F; Mao, Diane D; Kim, Albert H; Dunn, Gavin P

    2016-07-01

    TERT promoter gene mutations are highly recurrent in malignant glioma. However, little information exists regarding their presence in experimental brain tumor models. To better characterize systems in which TERT mutation studies could be appropriately modeled experimentally, the TERT promoter was examined by conventional sequencing in primary brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC), two matched recurrent BTIC lines, a panel of established malignant glioma cell lines, and two meningioma cell lines. Telomerase gene expression was examined by quantitative PCR. We found that all glioblastoma BTIC lines harbored a TERT mutation, which was retained in two patient-matched recurrent BTIC. The TERT C228T or C250T mutation was found in 33/35 (94 %) of established malignant glioma cell lines and both meningioma cell lines examined. Brain tumor cell lines expressed variably high telomerase levels. Thus, a high percentage of glioma cell lines, as well as two meningioma cell lines, harbors TERT mutations. These data characterize tractable, accessible models with which to further explore telomerase biology in these tumor types. PMID:26960334

  10. Home care for brain tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Andrea; Villani, Veronica; Di Pasquale, Antonella; Benincasa, Dario; Guariglia, Lara; Ieraci, Sonia; Focarelli, Silvia; Carapella, Carmine Maria; Pompili, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain tumor patients are quite different from other populations of cancer patients due to the complexity of supportive care needs, the trajectory of disease, the very short life expectancy, and resulting need for a specific palliative approach. Methods A pilot program of comprehensive palliative care for brain tumor patients was started in the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute of Rome in October 2000, supported by the Lazio Regional Health System. The aim of this model of assistance was to meet patient's needs for care in all stages of disease, support the families, and reduce the rehospitalization rate. The efficacy of the model of care was evaluated analyzing the place of death, caregiver satisfaction, rehospitalization rate, and the impact on costs to the health system. Results From October 2000 to December 2012, 848 patients affected by brain tumor were enrolled in a comprehensive program of neuro-oncological home care. Out of 529 patients who died, 323 (61%) were assisted at home until death, 117 (22.2%) died in hospital, and 89 (16.8%) died in hospice. A cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in hospital readmission rates in the last 2 months of life compared with the control group (16.7% vs 38%; P < .001). Conclusions Our findings concerning death at home, rehospitalization rate, quality of life, and satisfaction of patients and their relatives with the care received suggest that a neuro-oncologic palliative home-care program has a positive impact on the quality of care for brain tumor patients, particularly at the end of life. PMID:26034609

  11. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of brain tumors. An analysis of possible associations.

    PubMed

    Lin, R S; Dischinger, P C; Conde, J; Farrell, K P

    1985-06-01

    To explore the association between occupation and the occurrence of brain tumor, an epidemiologic study was conducted using data from the death certificates of 951 adult white male Maryland residents who died of brain tumor during the period 1969 through 1982. Compared with the controls, men employed in electricity-related occupations, such as electrician, electric or electronic engineer, and utility company serviceman, were found to experience a significantly higher proportion of primary brain tumors. An increase in the odds ratio for brain tumor was found to be positively related to electromagnetic (EM) field exposure levels. Furthermore, the mean age at death was found to be significantly younger among cases in the presumed high EM-exposure group. These findings suggest that EM exposure may be associated with the pathogenesis of brain tumors, particularly in the promoting stage. PMID:4020499

  12. Subacute brain atrophy after radiation therapy for malignant brain tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, A.; Matsutani, M.; Kohno, T.; Nakamura, O.; Tanaka, H.; Fujimaki, T.; Funada, N.; Matsuda, T.; Nagata, K.; Takakura, K.

    1989-05-15

    Brain atrophy with mental and neurologic deterioration developing a few months after radiation therapy in patients without residual or recurrent brain tumors has been recognized. Two illustrative case reports of this pathologic entity are presented. Six autopsy cases with this entity including the two cases were reviewed neurologically, radiographically, and histopathologically. All patients presented progressive disturbances of mental status and consciousness, akinesia, and tremor-like involuntary movement. Computerized tomography (CT) demonstrated marked enlargement of the ventricles, moderate widening of the cortical sulci, and a moderately attenuated CT number for the white matter in all six patients. Four of the six patients had CSF drainage (ventriculoperitoneal shunt or continuous lumbar drainage), however, none of them improved. Histologic examination demonstrated swelling and loss of the myelin sheath in the white matter in all patients, and reactive astrocytosis in three of the six patients. Neither prominent neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex or basal ganglia, nor axonal loss in the white matter was generally identified. The blood vessels of the cerebral cortex and white matter were normal. Ependymal layer and the surrounding brain tissue were normal in all patients. These findings suggested that this pathologic condition results from demyelination secondary to direct neurotoxic effect of irradiation. The authors' previous report was reviewed and the differential diagnoses, the risk factors for this pathologic entity, and the indication for radiation therapy in aged patients with a malignant brain tumor are discussed.

  13. Extracellular Vesicles in Brain Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    D'Asti, Esterina; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Lee, Tae Hoon; Rak, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    Brain tumors can be viewed as multicellular 'ecosystems' with increasingly recognized cellular complexity and systemic impact. While the emerging diversity of malignant disease entities affecting brain tissues is often described in reference to their signature alterations within the cellular genome and epigenome, arguably these cell-intrinsic changes can be regarded as hardwired adaptations to a variety of cell-extrinsic microenvironmental circumstances. Conversely, oncogenic events influence the microenvironment through their impact on the cellular secretome, including emission of membranous structures known as extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs serve as unique carriers of bioactive lipids, secretable and non-secretable proteins, mRNA, non-coding RNA, and DNA and constitute pathway(s) of extracellular exit of molecules into the intercellular space, biofluids, and blood. EVs are also highly heterogeneous as reflected in their nomenclature (exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles) attempting to capture their diverse origin, as well as structural, molecular, and functional properties. While EVs may act as a mechanism of molecular expulsion, their non-random uptake by heterologous cellular recipients defines their unique roles in the intercellular communication, horizontal molecular transfer, and biological activity. In the central nervous system, EVs have been implicated as mediators of homeostasis and repair, while in cancer they may act as regulators of cell growth, clonogenicity, angiogenesis, thrombosis, and reciprocal tumor-stromal interactions. EVs produced by specific brain tumor cell types may contain the corresponding oncogenic drivers, such as epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) in glioblastoma (and hence are often referred to as 'oncosomes'). Through this mechanism, mutant oncoproteins and nucleic acids may be transferred horizontally between cellular populations altering their individual and collective phenotypes. Oncogenic pathways

  14. Primary, non-exophytic, optic nerve germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    DiLuna, Michael L; Two, Aimee M; Levy, Gillian H; Patel, Toral; Huttner, Anita J; Duncan, Charles C; Piepmeier, Joseph M

    2009-12-01

    Tumors of the optic chiasm are relatively uncommon and usually associated with phakomatoses such as neurofibromatosis. Even more rare is the presentation of a primary, non-exophytic, isolated optic chiasm germ cell tumor (GCT). These tumors have imaging characteristics nearly indistinguishable from optic chiasmatic gliomas (OCGs). Herein we describe two cases of young men who presented with similar findings of progressive, painless visual loss and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction including diabetes insipidus. Brain imaging was non-diagnostic and suggestive of an OCG. Pathology demonstrated GCTs in each case highlighting the importance of biopsy confirmation of the diagnosis. Both patients underwent a pterional craniotomy and sub-frontal approach to the optic chiasm. The chiasm was diffusely enlarged and discolored in each case without evidence of sellar, suprasellar or perichiasmatic pathology. Pathology demonstrated a malignant mixed GCT in the first patient and a germinoma in the second. This case series highlights the importance of tissue biopsy for patients with progressive symptoms from optic chiasm tumors. Furthermore, this is the first report of a primary, non-exophytic malignant mixed GCT. As the treatment regimens differ widely between optic chiasm GCTs and chiasm gliomas, tissue diagnosis is important. PMID:19554263

  15. Permanent and removable implants for the brachytherapy of brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gutin, P.H.; Phillips, T.L.; Hosobuchi, Y.

    1981-10-01

    Thirty-seven patients harboring primary or metastatic brain tumors were treated with 40 implantations of radioactive sources (/sup 192/Ir, /sup 198/Au, or /sup 125/I) using stereotactic neurosurgical techniques. Most tumors had recurred after surgery, whole brain irradiation, and treatment with all feasible chemotherapeutic agents. Sixteen of the 40 implants were pregnant; 24 were mounted in plastic catheters for removal after the desired dose had been delivered. One or more sources were placed in each tumor to deliver 3500-7350 rad to the tumor's periphery for /sup 198/Au, 4,000-12,000 rad for /sup 192/Ir, and 3,000-20,000 rad for /sup 125/I. Three of the six patients treated with /sup 192/Ir had objective responses for 2, 4, and 12 months, and two stabilized for 8 and 11 months. Seven of the 11 patients treated with /sup 198/Au were evaluable: three responded for 3, 5, and 37 + months, one deteriorating patient with a recurrent tumor stabilized for 6 months, and two deteriorated despite treatment. One patient received an interstitial ''boost'' dose with /sup 198/Au after whole brain irradiation and stabilized for 15 months before developing spinal metastases. Six patients received permanent implants with low activity /sup 125/I. Three of these patients had blioblastomas or anaplastic astrocytomas; all continued to deteriorate despite the interstitial irradiation, presumably because the dose rat was too low. One patient with a low-grade astrocytoma (optic chiasm) responded dramatically to permanent, low activity /sup 125/I implants (11 + months). Another (hypothalamic glioma) had a permanent /sup 125/I implant, responded, as was stable at 9 months when external irradiation was administered. One patient with a suprasellar ''teratoid'' tumor stabilized for 10 months.

  16. Brain Tumor Database, a free relational database for collection and analysis of brain tumor patient information.

    PubMed

    Bergamino, Maurizio; Hamilton, David J; Castelletti, Lara; Barletta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we describe the development and utilization of a relational database designed to manage the clinical and radiological data of patients with brain tumors. The Brain Tumor Database was implemented using MySQL v.5.0, while the graphical user interface was created using PHP and HTML, thus making it easily accessible through a web browser. This web-based approach allows for multiple institutions to potentially access the database. The BT Database can record brain tumor patient information (e.g. clinical features, anatomical attributes, and radiological characteristics) and be used for clinical and research purposes. Analytic tools to automatically generate statistics and different plots are provided. The BT Database is a free and powerful user-friendly tool with a wide range of possible clinical and research applications in neurology and neurosurgery. The BT Database graphical user interface source code and manual are freely available at http://tumorsdatabase.altervista.org. PMID:25784642

  17. Canine spontaneous brain tumors: A large animal model for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, P.R.; Kraft, S.L.; Wendling, L.R.; Miller, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    Brain tumors occur spontaneously on dogs with an incidence similar to that in humans. Brain tumors of dogs have histologic, radiologic, and other diagnostic similarities to human brain tumors. Tumor kinetics and biologic behavior of these tumors in dogs are also similar to that in man. Recent studies indicate that conventional radiation therapy of brain tumors of dogs result in a survival interval appropriate to study the late radiation reactions in the surrounding normal brain and other tissues within the irradiated field. The relatively large size of the dog allows identical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and methodology. The dog's head size enables the complex dosimetric variables to be relevant to that found in human radiation therapy. For these reasons, spontaneous brain tumors in the dog are an excellent model to study neuon capture theory (NCT). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Epigenetic regulation of human hedgehog interacting protein in glioma cell lines and primary tumor samples

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Mehdi H.; Zazpe, Idoya; Afzal, Mohammad; Sinha, Subrata; Rebhun, Robert B.; Meléndez, Bárbara; Rey, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Glioma constitutes one of the most common groups of brain tumors, and its prognosis is influenced by different genetic and epigenetic modulations. In this study, we demonstrated low or no expression of hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) in most of the cell lines and primary glioma tumor samples. We further proceeded to promoter methylation study of this gene in the same cell lines and primary tumor samples and found 87 % (7/8) HHIP methylation in glioblastoma cell lines and 75 % (33/44) in primary tumor samples. These methylation pattern correlates with low or unexpressed HHIP in both cell lines and primary tumor samples. Our results suggest the possibility of epigenetic regulation of this gene in glioma, similarly to medulloblastoma, gastric, hepatic, and pancreatic cancers. Also, HHIP might be a diagnostic or prognostic marker in glioma and help to the detection of these tumors in early stages of disease. PMID:25416442

  19. Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-21

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Malignant Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Noninfiltrating Astrocytoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Meningioma; Brain Metastases; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Pineal Parenchymal Tumor; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Infiltrating Astrocytoma; Mixed Gliomas; Stage IV Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  20. The role of IDO in brain tumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lijie; Lauing, Kristen L.; Chang, Alan L.; Dey, Mahua; Qian, Jun; Cheng, Yu; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Wainwright, Derek A.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant glioma comprises the majority of primary brain tumors. Coincidently, most of those malignancies express an inducible tryptophan catabolic enzyme, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). While IDO1 is not normally expressed at appreciable levels in the adult central nervous system, it's rapidly induced and/or upregulated upon inflammatory stimulus. The primary function of IDO1 is associated with conversion of the essential amino acid, tryptophan, into downstream catabolites known as kynure-nines. The depletion of tryptophan and/or accumulation of kynurenine has been shown to induce T cell deactivation, apoptosis and/or the induction of immunosuppressive programming via the expression of FoxP3. This understanding has informed immunotherapeutic design for the strategic development of targeted molecular therapeutics that inhibit IDO1 activity. Here, we review the current knowledge of IDO1 in brain tumors, pre-clinical studies targeting this enzymatic pathway, alternative tryptophan catabolic mediators that compensate for IDO1 loss and/or inhibition, as well as proposed clinical strategies and questions that are critical to address for increasing future immunotherapeutic effectiveness in patients with incurable brain cancer. PMID:25519303

  1. The expression of BST2 in human and experimental mouse brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, Derek A.; Balyasnikova, Irina V.; Han, Yu; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV astrocytoma) is a highly malignant brain tumor with poor treatment options and an average lifespan of 15 months after diagnosis. Previous work has demonstrated that BST2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2; also known as PDCA-1, CD137 and HM1.24) is expressed by multiple myeloma, endometrial cancer and primary lung cancer cells. BST2 is expressed on the plasma membrane, which makes it an ideal target for immunotherapy. Accordingly, several groups have shown BST2 mAb to be effective for targeting tumor cells. In this report, we hypothesized that BST2 is expressed in human and mouse brain tumors and plays a critical role in brain tumor progression. We show that BST2 mRNA expression is increased in mouse brain IC-injected with GL261 cells, when compared to mouse brain IC-injected with saline at 3 weeks post-operative (p < 0.05). To test the relevance of BST2, we utilized the intracranially (IC)-injected GL261 cell-based malignant brain tumor mouse model. We show that BST2 mRNA expression is increased in mouse brain IC-injected GL261 cells, when compared to mouse brain IC-injected saline at 3 weeks post-operative (p < 0.05). Furthermore, BST2 immunofluorescence predominantly localized to mouse brain tumor cells. Finally, mice IC-injected with GL261 cells transduced with shRNA for BST2 ± pre-incubation with BST2 mAb show no difference in overall lifespan when compared to mice IC-injected with GL261 cells transduced with a scrambled shRNA ± pre-incubation with BST2 mAb. Collectively, these data show that while BST2 expression increases during brain tumor progression in both human and mouse brain tumors, it has no apparent consequences to overall lifespan in an orthotopic mouse brain tumor model. PMID:21565182

  2. Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Jiro

    2016-04-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. The author believes that the principle of PDT would be applicable for controlling the invading front of malignant brain tumors and verified its efficacy through experiments using glioma cell lines and glioma xenograft models. An investigator-initiated clinical study was jointly conducted with Tokyo Women's Medical University with the support of the Japan Medical Association. Patient enrollment was started in May 2009 and a total of 27 patients were enrolled by March 2012. Of 22 patients included in efficacy analysis, 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma showed progression-free survival of 12 months, progression-free survival at the site of laser irradiation of 20 months, 1-year survival of 100%, and overall survival of 24.8 months. In addition, the safety analysis of the 27 patients showed that adverse events directly related to PDT were mild. PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. Currently, the post-marketing investigation in the accumulated patients has been conducted, and the preparation of guidelines, holding training courses, and dissemination of information on the safe implementation of PDT using web sites and videos, have been promoted. PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area. PMID:26888042

  3. Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    AKIMOTO, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. The author believes that the principle of PDT would be applicable for controlling the invading front of malignant brain tumors and verified its efficacy through experiments using glioma cell lines and glioma xenograft models. An investigator-initiated clinical study was jointly conducted with Tokyo Women’s Medical University with the support of the Japan Medical Association. Patient enrollment was started in May 2009 and a total of 27 patients were enrolled by March 2012. Of 22 patients included in efficacy analysis, 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma showed progression-free survival of 12 months, progression-free survival at the site of laser irradiation of 20 months, 1-year survival of 100%, and overall survival of 24.8 months. In addition, the safety analysis of the 27 patients showed that adverse events directly related to PDT were mild. PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. Currently, the post-marketing investigation in the accumulated patients has been conducted, and the preparation of guidelines, holding training courses, and dissemination of information on the safe implementation of PDT using web sites and videos, have been promoted. PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area. PMID:26888042

  4. Multifocal brain radionecrosis masquerading as tumor dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Safdari, H.; Boluix, B.; Gros, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors report on an autopsy-proven case of multifocal widespread radionecrosis involving both cerebral hemispheres and masquerading as tumor dissemination on a CT scan done 13 months after complete resection of an oligodendroglioma followed by radiation therapy. This case demonstrates that radiation damage may be present in a CT scan as a multifocal, disseminated lesion. Since the survival of brain-tumor patients who have undergone radiation therapy is prolonged by aggressive therapy, the incidence and variability of radiation-induced complications in such cases is likely to increase. For similar reasons, the radionecrosis in such cases should be taken into consideration. A short review of the CT scan findings and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations in a case of widespread radionecrosis is presented. The need for appropriate diagnosis and subsequent life-saving management is emphasized.

  5. Positron Scanner for Locating Brain Tumors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rankowitz, S.; Robertson, J. S.; Higinbotham, W. A.; Rosenblum, M. J.

    1962-03-01

    A system is described that makes use of positron emitting isotopes for locating brain tumors. This system inherently provides more information about the distribution of radioactivity in the head in less time than existing scanners which use one or two detectors. A stationary circular array of 32 scintillation detectors scans a horizontal layer of the head from many directions simultaneously. The data, consisting of the number of counts in all possible coincidence pairs, are coded and stored in the memory of a Two-Dimensional Pulse-Height Analyzer. A unique method of displaying and interpreting the data is described that enables rapid approximate analysis of complex source distribution patterns. (auth)

  6. Intraoperative MRI in pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Asim F; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A

    2015-09-01

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) has emerged as an important tool in guiding the surgical management of children with brain tumors. Recent advances have allowed utilization of high field strength systems, including 3-tesla MRI, resulting in diagnostic-quality scans that can be performed while the child is on the operating table. By providing information about the possible presence of residual tumor, it allows the neurosurgeon to both identify and resect any remaining tumor that is thought to be safely accessible. By fusing the newly obtained images with the surgical guidance software, the images have the added value of aiding in navigation to any residual tumor. This is important because parenchyma often shifts during surgery. It also gives the neurosurgeon insight into whether any immediate postoperative complications have occurred. If any complications have occurred, the child is already in the operating room and precious minutes lost in transport and communications are saved. In this article we review the three main approaches to an iMRI system design. We discuss the possible roles for iMRI during intraoperative planning and provide guidance to help radiologists and neurosurgeons alike in the collaborative management of these children. PMID:26346145

  7. Multifunctional nanoparticles for brain tumor imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Morshed, Ramin A; Auffinger, Brenda; Tobias, Alex L; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2014-02-01

    Brain tumors are a diverse group of neoplasms that often carry a poor prognosis for patients. Despite tremendous efforts to develop diagnostic tools and therapeutic avenues, the treatment of brain tumors remains a formidable challenge in the field of neuro-oncology. Physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier result in insufficient accumulation of therapeutic agents at the site of a tumor, preventing adequate destruction of malignant cells. Furthermore, there is a need for improvements in brain tumor imaging to allow for better characterization and delineation of tumors, visualization of malignant tissue during surgery, and tracking of response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multifunctional nanoparticles offer the potential to improve upon many of these issues and may lead to breakthroughs in brain tumor management. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of nanoparticles for brain tumors with an emphasis on innovative approaches in tumor targeting, tumor imaging, and therapeutic agent delivery. Clinically feasible nanoparticle administration strategies for brain tumor patients are also examined. Furthermore, we address the barriers towards clinical implementation of multifunctional nanoparticles in the context of brain tumor management. PMID:24060923

  8. Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Brain Tumor Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Morshed, Ramin; Auffinger, Brenda; Tobias, Alex L.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumors are a diverse group of neoplasms that often carry a poor prognosis for patients. Despite tremendous efforts to develop diagnostic tools and therapeutic avenues, the treatment of brain tumors remains a formidable challenge in the field of neuro-oncology. Physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier result in insufficient accumulation of therapeutic agents at the site of a tumor, preventing adequate destruction of malignant cells. Furthermore, there is a need for improvements in brain tumor imaging to allow for better characterization and delineation of tumors, visualization of malignant tissue during surgery, and tracking of response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multifunctional nanoparticles offer the potential to improve upon many of these issues and may lead to breakthroughs in brain tumor management. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of nanoparticles for brain tumors with an emphasis on innovative approaches in tumor targeting, tumor imaging, and therapeutic agent delivery. Clinically feasible nanoparticle administration strategies for brain tumor patients are also examined. Furthermore, we address the barriers towards clinical implementation of multifunctional nanoparticles in the context of brain tumor management. PMID:24060923

  9. Computed tomographic features of primary brain lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Barsky, M F; Coates, R K; Macdonald, D R

    1989-04-01

    Head computed tomographic (CT) examinations of 14 patients with primary brain lymphoma were reviewed to assess the CT features of the presenting and subsequent lesions. Presenting lesions were single in 62% and multiple in 38%. Lesions tended to be iso- or hyperdense and homogeneously enhancing. They were commonly located in the deep hemispheric regions, corpus callosum, and posterior fossa. Despite these characteristic patterns, the diagnosis of lymphoma was initially considered in just three patients. Follow-up CT showed good initial response to radiotherapy in 10 patients although mortality was high and posttherapy changes were frequent. Consideration of primary brain lymphoma by radiologists is important, as needle biopsy and radiotherapy may be preferred to a surgical resection. PMID:2702505

  10. Brain Metastasis from Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Naoe, Hideaki; Kaku, Eisuke; Ido, Yumi; Gushima, Rika; Maki, Yoko; Saito, Hirokazu; Yokote, Seiichiro; Gushima, Ryosuke; Nonaka, Kouichi; Hoshida, Yohmei; Murao, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Tetsu; Yokomine, Kazunori; Tanaka, Hideki; Nagahama, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Kouichi; Tanaka, Motohiko; Iyama, Ken-ichi; Baba, Hideo; Sasaki, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) into the central nervous system is extremely rare. We report a patient with synchronous GIST and brain metastasis. At disease onset, there was left hemiplegia and ptosis of the right eyelids. Resection cytology of the brain tumor was reported as metastasis of GIST. After positron emission tomography examination, another tumor in the small bowel was discovered, which suggested a small bowel GIST associated with intracranial metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis of the intestinal tumor specimen obtained by double balloon endoscopy showed a pattern similar to the brain tumor, with the tumors subsequently identified as intracranial metastases of jejunal GIST. After surgical resection of one brain tumor, the patient underwent whole brain radiation therapy followed by treatment with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec; Novartis Pharma, Basel, Switzerland). Mutational analysis of the original intestinal tumor revealed there were no gene alterations in KIT or PDGFRα. Since the results indicated the treatment had no apparent effect on either of the tumors, and because ileus developed due to an intestinal primary tumor, the patient underwent surgical resection of the intestinal lesion. However, the patient's condition gradually worsen and she subsequently died 4 months after the initial treatment. PMID:22110419

  11. Chemotherapy for malignant brain tumors of childhood

    PubMed Central

    Gottardo, Nicholas G.; Gajjar, Amar

    2009-01-01

    During the past 3 decades, chemotherapeutic agents have been extensively evaluated for the treatment of pediatric brain tumors in a myriad of schedules, doses, and combinations. Remarkable advances in outcome have been achieved for certain groups of children, notably those with medulloblastoma, and chemotherapy has played a key role. However, improvements in survival are obtained at a high cost to quality of life. In addition, the success achieved for medulloblastoma is offset by a lack of progress for high-grade glioma. Despite decades of intensive investigation, no single chemotherapeutic regimen stands out as particularly beneficial for children with high-grade glioma, with the vast majority of these patients succumbing to their disease. A plateau in efficacy has been reached. Further treatment intensification using conventional nonspecific chemotherapy is more likely to result in additional toxicity without major advances in survival. Genomewide analysis using microarray technology has contributed significantly to our understanding of tumor biology. This knowledge has shifted the focus onto novel agents that target molecular changes crucial for tumor proliferation or survival. These selective agents are likely to be less toxic to normal cells and it is anticipated they will be more effective than the nonspecific chemotherapeutic agents currently used. PMID:18952581

  12. The expression of BST2 in human and experimental mouse brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Derek A; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Han, Yu; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2011-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV astrocytoma) is a highly malignant brain tumor with poor treatment options and an average lifespan of 15 months after diagnosis. Previous work has demonstrated that BST2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2; also known as PDCA-1, CD137 and HM1.24) is expressed by multiple myeloma, endometrial cancer and primary lung cancer cells. BST2 is expressed on the plasma membrane, which makes it an ideal target for immunotherapy. Accordingly, several groups have shown BST2 mAb to be effective for targeting tumor cells. In this report, we hypothesized that BST2 is expressed in human and mouse brain tumors and plays a critical role in brain tumor progression. We show that BST2 expression is upregulated at both the mRNA and protein level in high grade when compared to low grade human astrocytoma (p<0.05). To test the relevance of BST2, we utilized the intracranially (IC)-injected GL261 cell-based malignant brain tumor mouse model. We show that BST2 mRNA expression is increased in mouse brain IC-injected with GL261 cells, when compared to mouse brain IC-injected with saline at 3 weeks post-operative (p<0.05). Furthermore, BST2 immunofluorescence predominantly localized to mouse brain tumor cells. Finally, mice IC-injected with GL261 cells transduced with shRNA for BST2±preincubated with BST2 mAb show no difference in overall lifespan when compared to mice IC-injected with GL261 cells transduced with a scrambled shRNA±preincubated with BST2 mAb. Collectively, these data show that while BST2 expression increases during brain tumor progression in both human and mouse brain tumors, it has no apparent consequences to overall lifespan in an orthotopic mouse brain tumor model. PMID:21565182

  13. A versatile ex vivo technique for assaying tumor angiogenesis and microglia in the brain.

    PubMed

    Ghoochani, Ali; Yakubov, Eduard; Sehm, Tina; Fan, Zheng; Hock, Stefan; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y; Savaskan, Nicolai E

    2016-01-12

    Primary brain tumors are hallmarked for their destructive activity on the microenvironment and vasculature. However, solely few experimental techniques exist to access the tumor microenvironment under anatomical intact conditions with remaining cellular and extracellular composition. Here, we detail an ex vivo vascular glioma impact method (VOGIM) to investigate the influence of gliomas and chemotherapeutics on the tumor microenvironment and angiogenesis under conditions that closely resemble the in vivo situation. We generated organotypic brain slice cultures from rats and transgenic mice and implanted glioma cells expressing fluorescent reporter proteins. In the VOGIM, tumor-induced vessels presented the whole range of vascular pathologies and tumor zones as found in human primary brain tumor specimens. In contrast, non-transformed cells such as primary astrocytes do not alter the vessel architecture. Vascular characteristics with vessel branching, junctions and vessel meshes are quantitatively assessable as well as the peritumoral zone. In particular, the VOGIM resembles the brain tumor microenvironment with alterations of neurons, microglia and cell survival. Hence, this method allows live cell monitoring of virtually any fluorescence-reporter expressing cell. We further analyzed the vasculature and microglia under the influence of tumor cells and chemotherapeutics such as Temozolamide (Temodal/Temcad®). Noteworthy, temozolomide normalized vasculare junctions and branches as well as microglial distribution in tumor-implanted brains. Moreover, VOGIM can be facilitated for implementing the 3Rs in experimentations. In summary, the VOGIM represents a versatile and robust technique which allows the assessment of the brain tumor microenvironment with parameters such as angiogenesis, neuronal cell death and microglial activity at the morphological and quantitative level. PMID:26673818

  14. A versatile ex vivo technique for assaying tumor angiogenesis and microglia in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Ghoochani, Ali; Yakubov, Eduard; Sehm, Tina; Fan, Zheng; Hock, Stefan; Buchfelder, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Primary brain tumors are hallmarked for their destructive activity on the microenvironment and vasculature. However, solely few experimental techniques exist to access the tumor microenvironment under anatomical intact conditions with remaining cellular and extracellular composition. Here, we detail an ex vivo vascular glioma impact method (VOGIM) to investigate the influence of gliomas and chemotherapeutics on the tumor microenvironment and angiogenesis under conditions that closely resemble the in vivo situation. We generated organotypic brain slice cultures from rats and transgenic mice and implanted glioma cells expressing fluorescent reporter proteins. In the VOGIM, tumor-induced vessels presented the whole range of vascular pathologies and tumor zones as found in human primary brain tumor specimens. In contrast, non-transformed cells such as primary astrocytes do not alter the vessel architecture. Vascular characteristics with vessel branching, junctions and vessel length are quantitatively assessable as well as the peritumoral zone. In particular, the VOGIM resembles the brain tumor microenvironment with alterations of neurons, microglia and cell survival. Hence, this method allows live cell monitoring of virtually any fluorescence-reporter expressing cell. We further analyzed the vasculature and microglia under the influence of tumor cells and chemotherapeutics such as Temozolamide (Temodal/Temcad®). Noteworthy, temozolomide normalized vasculare junctions and branches as well as microglial distribution in tumor-implanted brains. Moreover, VOGIM can be facilitated for implementing the 3Rs in experimentations. In summary, the VOGIM represents a versatile and robust technique which allows the assessment of the brain tumor microenvironment with parameters such as angiogenesis, neuronal cell death and microglial activity at the morphological and quantitative level. PMID:26673818

  15. Advising potential recipients on the use of organs from donors with primary central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Warrens, Anthony N; Birch, Rhiannon; Collett, David; Daraktchiev, Maren; Dark, John H; Galea, George; Gronow, Katie; Neuberger, James; Hilton, David; Whittle, Ian R; Watson, Christopher J E

    2012-02-27

    Deciding to use an organ from a donor with a primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor necessitates offsetting the risk of tumor transmission with the chances of survival if the patient waits for another offer of a transplant. Published data vary in the quoted risk of tumor transmission. We used data obtained by reviewing 246 UK recipients of organs taken from donors with CNS tumors and found no evidence of a difference in overall patient mortality for recipients of a kidney, liver, or cardiothoracic organ, compared with recipients of organs from donors without a CNS tumor. Recent publication of the UK experience of transplanting organs from CNS tumor donors found no transmission in 448 recipients of organs from 177 donors with a primary CNS tumor (Watson et al., Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 1437). This 0% transmission rate is associated with an upper 95% confidence interval limit of 1.5%. Using a series of assumptions of risk, we compared the risks of dying as a result of the transmission of a primary brain tumor with the risks of dying if not transplanted. On this basis, the use of kidneys from a donor with a primary CNS tumor provides a further 8 years of life over someone who waited for a donor who did not have a primary CNS tumor, in addition to the life years gained by the transplant itself. The benefits for the recipients of livers and cardiothoracic organs were less, but there was no disadvantage in the impact on life expectancy. PMID:22258288

  16. Awake brain tumor resection during pregnancy: Decision making and technical nuances.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingzhong; Han, Seunggu J; Rollins, Mark D; Gelb, Adrian W; Chang, Edward F

    2016-02-01

    The co-occurrence of primary brain tumor and pregnancy poses unique challenges to the treating physician. If a rapidly growing lesion causes life-threatening mass effect, craniotomy for tumor debulking becomes urgent. The choice between awake craniotomy versus general anesthesia becomes complicated if the tumor is encroaching on eloquent brain because considerations pertinent to both patient safety and oncological outcome, in addition to fetal wellbeing, are involved. A 31-year-old female at 30 weeks gestation with twins presented to our hospital seeking awake craniotomy to resect a 7 × 6 × 5 cm left frontoparietal brain tumor with 7 mm left-to-right subfalcine herniation on imaging that led to word finding difficulty, dysfluency, right upper extremity paralysis, and right lower extremity weakness. She had twice undergone tumor debulking under general anesthesia during the same pregnancy at an outside hospital at 16 weeks and 28 weeks gestation. There were considerations both for and against awake brain tumor resection over surgery under general anesthesia. The decision-making process and the technical nuances related to awake brain tumor resection in this neurologically impaired patient are discussed. Awake craniotomy benefits the patient who harbors a tumor that encroaches on the eloquent brain by allowing a greater extent of resection while preserving the language and sensorimotor function. It can be successfully done in pregnant patients who are neurologically impaired. The patient should be motivated and well informed of the details of the process. A multidisciplinary and collaborative effort is also crucial. PMID:26498092

  17. Metastasis Infiltration: An Investigation of the Postoperative Brain-Tumor Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Raore, Bethwel; Schniederjan, Matthew; Prabhu, Roshan; Brat, Daniel J.; Shu, Hui-Kuo; Olson, Jeffrey J.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate brain infiltration of metastatic tumor cells past the main tumor resection margin to assess the biological basis for the use of stereotactic radiosurgery treatment of the tumor resection cavity and visualized resection edge or clinical target volume. Methods and Materials: Resection margin tissue was obtained after gross total resection of a small group of metastatic lesions from a variety of primary sources. The tissue at the border of the tumor and brain tissue was carefully oriented and processed to evaluate the presence of tumor cells within brain tissue and their distance from the resection margin. Results: Microscopic assessment of the radially oriented tissue samples showed no tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding brain tissue. Among the positive findings were reactive astrocytosis observed on the brain tissue immediately adjacent to the tumor resection bed margin. Conclusions: The lack of evidence of metastatic tumor cell infiltration into surrounding brain suggests the need to target only a narrow depth of the resection cavity margin to minimize normal tissue injury and prevent treatment size-dependent stereotactic radiosurgery complications.

  18. Regional brain glucose metabolism in patients with brain tumors before and after radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Lau, Y.H.

    1994-05-01

    This study was performed to measure regional glucose metabolism in nonaffected brain regions of patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors. Seven female and four male patients (mean age 51.5{plus_minus}14.0 years old) were compared with eleven age and sex matched normal subjects. None of the patients had hydrocephalus and/or increased intracranial pressure. Brain glucose metabolism was measured using FDG-PET scan. Five of the patients were reevaluated one week after receiving radiation treatment (RT) to the brain. Patients were on Decadron and/or Dilantin at the time of both scan. PET images were analyzed with a template of 115 nonoverlapping regions of interest and then grouped into eight gray matter regions on each hemisphere. Brain regions with tumors and edema shown in MR imaging were excluded. Z scores were used to compare individual patients` regional values with those of normal subjects. The number of regional values with Z scores of less than - 3.0 were considered abnormal and were quantified. The mean global glucose metabolic rate (mean of all regions) in nonaffected brain regions of patients was significantly lower than that of normal controls (32.1{plus_minus}9.0 versus 44.8{plus_minus}6.3 {mu}mol/100g/min, p<0.001). Analyses of individual subjects revealed that none of the controls and 8 of the 11 patients had at least one abnormal region. In these 8 patients the regions which were abnormal were most frequently localized in right (n=5) and left occipital (n=6) and right orbital frontal cortex (n=7) whereas the basal ganglia was not affected. Five of the patients who had repeated scans following RT showed decrements in tumor metabolism (41{plus_minus}20.5%) and a significant increase in whole brain metabolism (8.6{plus_minus}5.3%, p<0.001). The improvement in whole brain metabolism after RT suggests that the brain metabolic decrements in the patients were related to the presence of tumoral tissue and not just a medication effect.

  19. Three-Staged Stereotactic Radiotherapy Without Whole Brain Irradiation for Large Metastatic Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Yoshinori Serizawa, Toru; Nagano, Osamu; Matsuda, Shinji; Ono, Junichi; Sato, Makoto; Iwadate, Yasuo; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of staged stereotactic radiotherapy with a 2-week interfraction interval for unresectable brain metastases more than 10 cm{sup 3} in volume. Patients and Methods: Subjects included 43 patients (24 men and 19 women), ranging in age from 41 to 84 years, who had large brain metastases (> 10 cc in volume). Primary tumors were in the colon in 14 patients, lung in 12, breast in 11, and other in 6. The peripheral dose was 10 Gy in three fractions. The interval between fractions was 2 weeks. The mean tumor volume before treatment was 17.6 {+-} 6.3 cm{sup 3} (mean {+-} SD). Mean follow-up interval was 7.8 months. The local tumor control rate, as well as overall, neurological, and qualitative survivals, were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: At the time of the second and third fractions, mean tumor volumes were 14.3 {+-} 6.5 (18.8% reduction) and 10.6 {+-} 6.1 cm{sup 3} (39.8% reduction), respectively, showing significant reductions. The median overall survival period was 8.8 months. Neurological and qualitative survivals at 12 months were 81.8% and 76.2%, respectively. Local tumor control rates were 89.8% and 75.9% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Tumor recurrence-free and symptomatic edema-free rates at 12 months were 80.7% and 84.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The 2-week interval allowed significant reduction of the treatment volume. Our results suggest staged stereotactic radiotherapy using our protocol to be a possible alternative for treating large brain metastases.

  20. Primary Multiple Pulmonary Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ming; Liu, Jinghao; Song, Zuoqing; Li, Xin; Shi, Tao; Wang, Dan; Ren, Dian; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) arising directly from the lung are extremely rare but particularly aggressive neoplasms. Although thoracic PNET usually develops on the chest wall, there have been reports of primary Ewing sarcoma/PNET of the lung. We present the case of a 16-year-old male with PNET diagnosed following histologic and immunohistochemical examination of a video-assisted thoracic surgical biopsy. As typically occurring for these tumors, the diagnosis was initially delayed in our patient and prognosis was poor despite aggressive surgical resection and postoperative chemotherapy. We attempted to explore the use of targeted pharmacotherapy through high-throughput sequencing in this case. We found that this treatment using Avastin and Cetuximab could provide a new therapeutic direction for PNET. PNENTs arising from the lung parenchyma without pleural or chest wall involvement are extremely rare. Although uncommon, if the pathological features are similar to Ewing sarcoma, PNENTs should be kept in mind, and the target therapy may be a potent treatment for this disease. PMID:26166119

  1. Brain tumors in man and animals: report of a workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop on brain tumors in man and animals. Animals, especially rodents are often used as surrogates for man to detect chemicals that have the potential to induce brain tumors in man. Therefore, the workshop was focused mainly on brain tumors in the F344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse because of the frequent use of these strains in long-term carcinogenesis studies. Over 100 brain tumors in F344 rats and more than 50 brain tumors in B6C3F1 mice were reviewed and compared to tumors found in man and domestic or companion animals. In the F344 rat, spontaneous brain tumors are uncommon, most are of glial origin, and the highly undifferentiated glioblastoma multiforme, a frequent tumor of man was not found. In the B6C3F1 mouse, brain tumors are exceedingly rare. Lipomas of the choroid plexus and meningiomas together account for more than 50% of the tumors found. Both rodent strains examined have low background rates and very little variability between control groups.

  2. Characterization of IRDye 800CW chlorotoxin as a targeting agent for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kovar, Joy L; Curtis, Evan; Othman, Shadi F; Simpson, Melanie A; Olive, D Michael

    2013-09-15

    Primary brain tumors present significant challenges for surgical resection because of their location and the frequent occurrence of malignant projections extending beyond the primary tumor. Visualization of the tumor margins during surgery is critical for a favorable outcome. We report the use of IRDye 800CW chlorotoxin (CLTX) as a targeted imaging agent for brain tumors in a spontaneous mouse model of medulloblastoma, ND2:SmoA1. Specificity and functionality of the targeted agent were confirmed in cell-based assays. Tumors were detected by magnetic resonance imaging and IRDye 800CW CLTX administered to individual animals for optical imaging at 1-month increments. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was measured by Evan's Blue perfusion prior to sacrifice. Results show that IRDye 800CW CLTX specifically targeted tumor tissue. The extravasation of Evan's Blue was observed in all tumors, suggesting that the presence of the tumors can introduce alterations in the permeability of the BBB. Because increased vascular permeability was observed early in the disease model, larger dye-labeled imaging agents that exceed current BBB size restrictions may warrant renewed consideration as candidates for tumor detection and surgical resection. Our study provides data characterizing in vitro and in vivo use of IRDye 800CW CLTX as a broadly applicable tumor imaging agent. PMID:23711726

  3. Cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary tumor sites

    PubMed Central

    López, Fernando; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Silver, Carl E.; Haigentz, Missak; Bishop, Justin A.; Strojan, Primož; Hartl, Dana M.; Bradley, Patrick J.; Mendenhall, William M.; Suárez, Carlos; Takes, Robert P.; Hamoir, Marc; Robbins, K. Thomas; Shaha, Ashok R.; Werner, Jochen A.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    Although most malignant lymphadenopathy in the neck represent lymphomas or metastases from head and neck primary tumors, occasionally, metastatic disease from remote, usually infraclavicular, sites presents as cervical lymphadenopathy with or without an obvious primary tumor. In general, these tumors metastasize to supraclavicular lymph nodes, but occasionally may present at an isolated higher neck level. A search for the primary tumor includes information gained by histology, immunohistochemistry, and evaluation of molecular markers that may be unique to the primary tumor site. In addition, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglocose positron emission tomography combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) has greatly improved the ability to detect the location of an unknown primary tumor, particularly when in a remote location. Although cervical metastatic disease from a remote primary site is often incurable, there are situations in which meaningful survival can be achieved with appropriate local treatment. Management is quite complex and requires a truly multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26713674

  4. New treatment modalities for brain tumors in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, John H

    2014-11-01

    Despite advancements in standard therapies, intracranial tumors remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality in veterinary and human medicine. Several newer approaches are gaining more widespread acceptance or are currently being prepared for translation from experimental to routine therapeutic use. Clinical trials in dogs with spontaneous brain tumors have contributed to the development and human translation of several novel therapeutic brain tumor approaches. PMID:25441624

  5. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  6. Primary Hepatic Osteosarcoma: A Rare Cause of Primary Liver Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Tsering Gyalpo Lama; Shuster, Marina; Chandra, Abhinav B.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Extraosseous osteosarcomas are rare, accounting for approximately 4% of all osteosarcomas. A literature review yields very few cases of osteosarcoma primarily arising from the hepatic parenchyma. CASE REPORT This report describes a case of a man in his 50s with a history of hepatitis C and cirrhosis who presented with 5 days of progressive right upper quadrant pain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a 4.4 cm × 4.8 cm × 4.8 cm right hepatic lobe mass with a large area of necrosis and peripheral enhancement. The subsequent liver biopsy showed few cores of tumor composed of fibroblastic malignant cells producing lace-like osteoid matrix. Osteosarcomatous foci in other parts of the body were excluded by performing extensive physical examination, radiologic imaging, and biopsy. Hence, a primary osteosarcoma was diagnosed. The patient underwent portal vein embolization in preparation for a surgical resection of the right liver lobe. He was admitted six weeks after the embolization for dyspnea and abdominal distension and expired due to abdominal hematoma and pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSION Based on the rarity, lack of consensus in treatment, and dismal prognosis, extraosseous osteosarcoma should be considered a separate entity from osseous osteosarcoma. More data and research are needed in this rare and understudied malignancy. PMID:27081321

  7. [MRI with dynamic contrast enhancement in brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Panfilenko, A F; Iakovlev, S A; Pozdniakov, A V; Tiumin, L A; Shcherbuk, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the leading method of radiation diagnosis of brain tumors. In conditions of the artificial contrast enhancement there are more clearly differentiated the boundaries of the tumor node on the back of peritumorous edema and identified structural features of the tumor. The purpose of this study was to examine indicators of the dynamics of accumulation and removal of contrast agents by brain tumors in MRI technique with dynamic contrast and identify opportunities of this method in the differential diagnosis of various types of tumors. PMID:23814831

  8. Anosmin-1 contributes to brain tumor malignancy through integrin signal pathways

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Catherine T; Kim, Haseong; Lee, Ji-Young; Williams, David M; Palethorpe, David; Fellows, Greg; Wright, Alan J; Laing, Ken; Bridges, Leslie R; Howe, Franklyn A; Kim, Soo-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Anosmin-1, encoded by the KAL1 gene, is an extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated protein which plays essential roles in the establishment of olfactory and GNRH neurons during early brain development. Loss-of-function mutations of KAL1 results in Kallmann syndrome with delayed puberty and anosmia. There is, however, little comprehension of its role in the developed brain. As reactivation of developmental signal pathways often takes part in tumorigenesis, we investigated if anosmin-1-mediated cellular mechanisms associated with brain tumors. Our meta-analysis of gene expression profiles of patients' samples and public microarray datasets indicated that KAL1 mRNA was significantly upregulated in high-grade primary brain tumors compared with the normal brain and low-grade tumors. The tumor-promoting capacity of anosmin-1 was demonstrated in the glioblastoma cell lines, where anosmin-1 enhanced cell motility and proliferation. Notably, anosmin-1 formed a part of active β1 integrin complex, inducing downstream signaling pathways. ShRNA-mediated knockdown of anosmin-1 attenuated motility and growth of tumor cells and induced apoptosis. Anosmin-1 may also enhance the invasion of tumor cells within the ECM by modulating cell adhesion and activating extracellular proteases. In a mouse xenograft model, anosmin-1-expressing tumors grew faster, indicating the role of anosmin-1 in tumor microenvironment in vivo. Combined, these data suggest that anosmin-1 can facilitate tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival. Therefore, although the normal function of anosmin-1 is required in the proper development of GNRH neurons, overexpression of anosmin-1 in the developed brain may be an underlying mechanism for some brain tumors. PMID:24189182

  9. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of primary intraosseous spinal glomus tumor.

    PubMed

    Becce, Fabio; Richarme, Delphine; Letovanec, Igor; Gilgien, Willy; Theumann, Nicolas

    2012-04-01

    The glomus tumor is a rare, benign, but painful vascular neoplasm arising from the neuromyoarterial glomus. Primary intraosseous glomus tumor is even rarer, with only about 20 cases reported in the literature so far, 5 of which involved the spine. Surgical resection is currently considered the treatment of choice. We herewith present an uncommon case of primary intraosseous spinal glomus tumor involving the right pedicle of the eleventh thoracic vertebra (T11). To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary intraosseous spinal glomus tumor successfully treated by percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). PMID:22072240

  10. Novel treatment strategies for brain tumors and metastases

    PubMed Central

    El-Habashy, Salma E.; Nazief, Alaa M.; Adkins, Chris E.; Wen, Ming Ming; El-Kamel, Amal H.; Hamdan, Ahmed M.; Hanafy, Amira S.; Terrell, Tori O.; Mohammad, Afroz S.; Lockman, Paul R.; Nounou, Mohamed Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes patent applications in the past 5 years for the management of brain tumors and metastases. Most of the recent patents discuss one of the following strategies: the development of new drug entities that specifically target the brain cells, the blood–brain barrier and the tumor cells, tailor-designing a novel carrier system that is able to perform multitasks and multifunction as a drug carrier, targeting vehicle and even as a diagnostic tool, direct conjugation of a US FDA approved drug with a targeting moiety, diagnostic moiety or PK modifying moiety, or the use of innovative nontraditional approaches such as genetic engineering, stem cells and vaccinations. Until now, there has been no optimal strategy to deliver therapeutic agents to the CNS for the treatment of brain tumors and metastases. Intensive research efforts are actively ongoing to take brain tumor targeting, and novel and targeted CNS delivery systems to potential clinical application. PMID:24998288

  11. Novel treatment strategies for brain tumors and metastases.

    PubMed

    El-Habashy, Salma E; Nazief, Alaa M; Adkins, Chris E; Wen, Ming Ming; El-Kamel, Amal H; Hamdan, Ahmed M; Hanafy, Amira S; Terrell, Tori O; Mohammad, Afroz S; Lockman, Paul R; Nounou, Mohamed Ismail

    2014-05-01

    This review summarizes patent applications in the past 5 years for the management of brain tumors and metastases. Most of the recent patents discuss one of the following strategies: the development of new drug entities that specifically target the brain cells, the blood-brain barrier and the tumor cells, tailor-designing a novel carrier system that is able to perform multitasks and multifunction as a drug carrier, targeting vehicle and even as a diagnostic tool, direct conjugation of a US FDA approved drug with a targeting moiety, diagnostic moiety or PK modifying moiety, or the use of innovative nontraditional approaches such as genetic engineering, stem cells and vaccinations. Until now, there has been no optimal strategy to deliver therapeutic agents to the CNS for the treatment of brain tumors and metastases. Intensive research efforts are actively ongoing to take brain tumor targeting, and novel and targeted CNS delivery systems to potential clinical application. PMID:24998288

  12. High Toxoplasma gondii Seropositivity among Brain Tumor Patients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bong-Kwang; Song, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Cho, Jaeeun; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that can modulate the environment of the infected host. An unfavorable environment modulated by T. gondii in the brain includes tumor microenvironment. Literature has suggested that T. gondii infection is associated with development of brain tumors. However, in Korea, epidemiological data regarding this correlation have been scarce. In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between T. gondii infection and brain tumor development, we investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 93 confirmed brain tumor patients (various histological types, including meningioma and astrocytoma) in Korea using ELISA. The results revealed that T. gondii seropositivity among brain tumor patients (18.3%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with that of healthy controls (8.6%). The seropositivity of brain tumor patients showed a significant age-tendency, i.e., higher in younger age group, compared with age-matched healthy controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study supports the close relationship between T. gondii infection and incidence of brain tumors. PMID:27180580

  13. High Toxoplasma gondii Seropositivity among Brain Tumor Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bong-Kwang; Song, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Cho, Jaeeun; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that can modulate the environment of the infected host. An unfavorable environment modulated by T. gondii in the brain includes tumor microenvironment. Literature has suggested that T. gondii infection is associated with development of brain tumors. However, in Korea, epidemiological data regarding this correlation have been scarce. In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between T. gondii infection and brain tumor development, we investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 93 confirmed brain tumor patients (various histological types, including meningioma and astrocytoma) in Korea using ELISA. The results revealed that T. gondii seropositivity among brain tumor patients (18.3%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with that of healthy controls (8.6%). The seropositivity of brain tumor patients showed a significant age-tendency, i.e., higher in younger age group, compared with age-matched healthy controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study supports the close relationship between T. gondii infection and incidence of brain tumors. PMID:27180580

  14. Association rule mining based study for identification of clinical parameters akin to occurrence of brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Dipankar; Sood, Meemansa; Vijayvargia, Poorvika; Hota, Sunil; Naik, Pradeep K

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare sector is generating a large amount of information corresponding to diagnosis, disease identification and treatment of an individual. Mining knowledge and providing scientific decision-making for the diagnosis & treatment of disease from the clinical dataset is therefore increasingly becoming necessary. Aim of this study was to assess the applicability of knowledge discovery in brain tumor data warehouse, applying data mining techniques for investigation of clinical parameters that can be associated with occurrence of brain tumor. In this study, a brain tumor warehouse was developed comprising of clinical data for 550 patients. Apriori association rule algorithm was applied to discover associative rules among the clinical parameters. The rules discovered in the study suggests - high values of Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), SGOT & SGPT to be directly associated with tumor occurrence for patients in the primary stage with atleast 85% confidence and more than 50% support. A normalized regression model is proposed based on these parameters along with Haemoglobin content, Alkaline Phosphatase and Serum Bilirubin for prediction of occurrence of STATE (brain tumor) as 0 (absent) or 1 (present). The results indicate that the methodology followed will be of good value for the diagnostic procedure of brain tumor, especially when large data volumes are involved and screening based on discovered parameters would allow clinicians to detect tumors at an early stage of development. PMID:23888095

  15. Thymus-derived rather than tumor-induced regulatory T cells predominate in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, Derek A.; Sengupta, Sadhak; Han, Yu; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant brain tumor with an average survival time of 15 months. Previously, we and others demonstrated that CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) infiltrate human GBM as well as mouse models that recapitulate malignant brain tumors. However, whether brain tumor-resident Tregs are thymus-derived natural Tregs (nTregs) or induced Tregs (iTregs), by the conversion of conventional CD4+ T cells, has not been established. To investigate this question, we utilized the i.c. implanted GL261 cell-based orthotopic mouse model, the RasB8 transgenic astrocytoma mouse model, and a human GBM tissue microarray. We demonstrate that Tregs in brain tumors are predominantly thymus derived, since thymectomy, prior to i.c. GL261 cell implantation, significantly decreased the level of Tregs in mice with brain tumors. Accordingly, most Tregs in human GBM and mouse brain tumors expressed the nTreg transcription factor, Helios. Interestingly, a significant effect of the brain tumor microenvironment on Treg lineage programming was observed, based on higher levels of brain tumor-resident Tregs expressing glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor and CD103 and lower levels of Tregs expressing CD62L and CD45RB compared with peripheral Tregs. Furthermore, there was a higher level of nTregs in brain tumors that expressed the proliferative marker Ki67 compared with iTregs and conventional CD4+ T cells. Our study demonstrates that future Treg-depleting therapies should aim to selectively target systemic rather than intratumoral nTregs in brain tumor-specific immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:21908444

  16. Thymus-derived rather than tumor-induced regulatory T cells predominate in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Derek A; Sengupta, Sadhak; Han, Yu; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2011-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant brain tumor with an average survival time of 15 months. Previously, we and others demonstrated that CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) infiltrate human GBM as well as mouse models that recapitulate malignant brain tumors. However, whether brain tumor-resident Tregs are thymus-derived natural Tregs (nTregs) or induced Tregs (iTregs), by the conversion of conventional CD4(+) T cells, has not been established. To investigate this question, we utilized the i.c. implanted GL261 cell-based orthotopic mouse model, the RasB8 transgenic astrocytoma mouse model, and a human GBM tissue microarray. We demonstrate that Tregs in brain tumors are predominantly thymus derived, since thymectomy, prior to i.c. GL261 cell implantation, significantly decreased the level of Tregs in mice with brain tumors. Accordingly, most Tregs in human GBM and mouse brain tumors expressed the nTreg transcription factor, Helios. Interestingly, a significant effect of the brain tumor microenvironment on Treg lineage programming was observed, based on higher levels of brain tumor-resident Tregs expressing glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor and CD103 and lower levels of Tregs expressing CD62L and CD45RB compared with peripheral Tregs. Furthermore, there was a higher level of nTregs in brain tumors that expressed the proliferative marker Ki67 compared with iTregs and conventional CD4(+) T cells. Our study demonstrates that future Treg-depleting therapies should aim to selectively target systemic rather than intratumoral nTregs in brain tumor-specific immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:21908444

  17. Stem cell-based therapies for tumors in the brain: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Shah, Khalid

    2016-08-01

    Advances in understanding adult stem cell biology have facilitated the development of novel cell-based therapies for cancer. Recent developments in conventional therapies (eg, tumor resection techniques, chemotherapy strategies, and radiation therapy) for treating both metastatic and primary tumors in the brain, particularly glioblastoma have not resulted in a marked increase in patient survival. Preclinical studies have shown that multiple stem cell types exhibit inherent tropism and migrate to the sites of malignancy. Recent studies have validated the feasibility potential of using engineered stem cells as therapeutic agents to target and eliminate malignant tumor cells in the brain. This review will discuss the recent progress in the therapeutic potential of stem cells for tumors in the brain and also provide perspectives for future preclinical studies and clinical translation. PMID:27282399

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of brain tumors in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Timothy

    2015-08-01

    A great deal of information is now available regarding the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of many primary and secondary brain tumors from dogs. In this review, these canine neoplasms are grouped into meningeal masses, ventricular masses, intra-axial enhancing lesions, intra-axial mildly to non-enhancing lesions, and multifocal lesions. For each of these patterns, the major and sporadic neoplastic differential diagnoses are provided, and guidance on how to rank differential diagnoses for each individual patient is presented. The implication of MRI features such as contrast-enhancement, signal intensities and location is discussed. However, the information garnered from MRI must be correlated with all available clinical information and with epidemiological data before creating a differential diagnosis. PMID:25792181

  19. Multidisciplinary pediatric brain tumor clinics: the key to successful treatment?

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Mohamed S; Hanzlik, Emily; Kieran, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Tumors of the CNS are the most common solid tumors diagnosed in childhood. As technology and research in cancer care are advancing, more specialties are involved in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of children with brain tumors. Multidisciplinary clinics have become the standard of care for cancer care throughout the USA, and specialty clinics focused on particular cancer types are gaining attention in improving the patient outcomes and satisfaction. We will discuss the role of multidisciplinary clinics, in an attempt to create preliminary guidelines on establishing and maintaining a multidisciplinary brain tumor clinic in order to optimize the care of the patients and their families. PMID:25923018

  20. Dendrimer-mediated approaches for the treatment of brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Nitin; Shah, Jigna; Mishra, Vijay; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal; Iyer, Arun K; Tekade, Rakesh Kumar; Kesharwani, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide, the cancer appeared as one of the most leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Among the various cancer types, brain tumors are most life threatening with low survival rate. Every year approximately 238,000 new cases of brain and other central nervous system tumors are diagnosed. The dendrimeric approaches have a huge potential for diagnosis and treatment of brain tumor with targeting abilities of molecular cargoes to the tumor sites and the efficiency of crossing the blood brain barrier and penetration to brain after systemic administration. The various generations of dendrimers have been designed as novel targeted drug delivery tools for new therapies including sustained drug release, gene therapy, and antiangiogenic activities. At present era, various types of dendrimers like PAMAM, PPI, and PLL dendrimers validated them as milestones for the treatment and diagnosis of brain tumor as well as other cancers. This review highlights the recent research, opportunities, advantages, and challenges involved in development of novel dendrimeric complex for the therapy of brain tumor. PMID:26928261

  1. State of the art survey on MRI brain tumor segmentation.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Nelly; Montseny, Eduard; Sobrevilla, Pilar

    2013-10-01

    Brain tumor segmentation consists of separating the different tumor tissues (solid or active tumor, edema, and necrosis) from normal brain tissues: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In brain tumor studies, the existence of abnormal tissues may be easily detectable most of the time. However, accurate and reproducible segmentation and characterization of abnormalities are not straightforward. In the past, many researchers in the field of medical imaging and soft computing have made significant survey in the field of brain tumor segmentation. Both semiautomatic and fully automatic methods have been proposed. Clinical acceptance of segmentation techniques has depended on the simplicity of the segmentation, and the degree of user supervision. Interactive or semiautomatic methods are likely to remain dominant in practice for some time, especially in these applications where erroneous interpretations are unacceptable. This article presents an overview of the most relevant brain tumor segmentation methods, conducted after the acquisition of the image. Given the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging over other diagnostic imaging, this survey is focused on MRI brain tumor segmentation. Semiautomatic and fully automatic techniques are emphasized. PMID:23790354

  2. Clinical applications of choline PET/CT in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Elisabetta; Lazzeri, Patrizia; Milano, Amalia; Gaeta, Maria Chiara; Ciarmiello, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas and metastatic tumors are the most common forms of brain tumors. From a clinical perspective, neuroimaging plays a significant role, in diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up. To date MRI is considered the current clinical gold standard for imaging, however, despite providing superior structural detail it features poor specificity in identifying viable tumors in brain treated with surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. In the last years functional neuroimaging has become largely widespread thanks to the use of molecular tracers employed in cellular metabolism which has significantly improved the management of patients with brain tumors, especially in the post-treatment phase. Despite the considerable progress of molecular imaging in oncology its use in the diagnosis of brain tumors is still limited by a few wellknown technical problems. Because 18F-FDG, the most common radiotracer used in oncology, is avidly accumulated by normal cortex, the low tumor/background signal ratio makes it difficult to distinguish the tumor from normal surrounding tissues. By contrast, radiotracers with higher specificity for the tumor are labeled with a short half-life isotopes which restricts their use to those centers equipped with a cyclotron and radiopharmacy facility. 11C-choline has been reported as a suitable tracer for neuroimaging application. The recent availability of choline labeled with a long half-life radioisotope as 18F increases the possibility of studying this tracer's potential role in the staging of brain tumors. The present review focuses on the possible clinical applications of PET/CT with choline tracers in malignant brain tumors and brain metastases, with a special focus on malignant gliomas. PMID:25225894

  3. miR-20b is up-regulated in brain metastases from primary breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Aamir; Ginnebaugh, Kevin R.; Sethi, Seema; Chen, Wei; Ali, Rouba; Mittal, Sandeep; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are frequent in patients with advanced breast cancer and are associated with poor prognosis. However, unique molecular biomarkers have not yet been established. We hypothesized that microRNA-20b (miR-20b) plays a role in breast cancer brain metastasis. Our study cohort comprised of eleven breast cancer patients with brain metastasis and nine control patients (age, stage, and follow-up matched) with breast cancer without brain metastasis. Cases were reviewed microscopically to select tumor blocks with >50% tumor cells, RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue blocks and expression of miR-20b analyzed using qRT-PCR. We further tested the effect of miR-20b overexpression on colony formation and invasion in vitro using MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In the patient-derived samples, miR-20b expression was significantly higher in brain metastases of breast cancer patients, compared to primary breast tumors as well as the patients without brain metastasis. miR-20b also significantly induced the colony formation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. Further, miR-20b levels were observed to be high in brain-metastasizing cells, compared to bone-metastasizing cells. Together, our findings suggest a novel role of miR-20b in breast cancer brain metastasis that warrants further investigation for its potential to be developed as prognostic and/or therapeutic target. PMID:25893380

  4. TUMOR CONTAMINATION IN THE BIOPSY PATH OF PRIMARY MALIGNANT BONE TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study factors possibly associated with tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors. Method: Thirty-five patients who underwent surgical treatment with diagnoses of osteosarcoma, Ewing's tumor and chondrosarcoma were studied retrospectively. The sample was analyzed to characterize the biopsy technique used, histological type of the tumor, neoadjuvant chemotherapy used, local recurrences and tumor contamination in the biopsy path. Results: Among the 35 patients studied, four cases of contamination occurred (11.43%): one from osteosarcoma, two from Ewing's tumor and one from chondrosarcoma. There was no association between the type of tumor and presence of tumor contamination in the biopsy path (p = 0.65). There was also no association between the presence of tumor contamination and the biopsy technique (p = 0.06). On the other hand, there were associations between the presence of tumor contamination and local recurrence (p = 0.01) and between tumor contamination and absence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors was associated with local recurrence. On the other hand, the histological type of the tumor and the type of biopsy did not have an influence on tumor contamination. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a protective effect against this complication. Despite these findings, tumor contamination is a complication that should always be taken into consideration, and removal of the biopsy path is recommended in tumor resection surgery. PMID:27047877

  5. Platelets surrounding primary tumor cells are related to chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Satoko; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Inokuchi, Masafumi; Hayashi, Hironori; Oyama, Katsunobu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hironori; Ninomiya, Itasu; Ahmed, A Karim; Harman, John W; Fushida, Sachio; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2016-08-01

    Platelets are crucial components of the tumor microenvironment that function to promote tumor progression and metastasis. In the circulation, the interaction between tumor cells and platelets increases invasiveness, protects tumor cells from shear stress and immune surveillance, and facilitates tumor cell extravasation to distant sites. However, the role and presence of platelets in the primary tumor have not been fully determined. Here, we investigated the presence of platelets around breast cancer primary tumor cells and the associations between these cells. We further investigated the associations among platelets, tumor cells, chemoresistance, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We retrospectively analyzed data from 74 patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)‑negative breast cancer who underwent biopsies before treatment and subsequent neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. In biopsy specimens, we evaluated the expression of platelet-specific markers and EMT markers using immunohistochemistry. The associations among the expression of platelet‑specific markers in biopsy specimens, EMT, response to neo‑adjuvant chemotherapy, and survival were analyzed. The presence of platelets was observed in 44 out of 74 (59%) primary breast cancer biopsy specimens. Platelet‑positive tumor cells showed EMT‑like morphological changes and EMT marker expression. Primary tumor cells associated with platelets were less responsive to neo‑adjuvant chemotherapy (pCR rate: 10 vs. 50%, respectively; p=0.0001). Platelets were an independent predictor of the response to chemotherapy upon multivariable analysis (p<0.0001). In conclusion, there was a significant association between platelets surrounding primary tumor cells in the biopsy specimens and the chemotherapeutic response in breast cancer. Platelets surrounding primary tumor cells may represent novel predictors of chemotherapeutic responses. PMID:27349611

  6. Uranyl phthalocyanines show promise in the treatment of brain tumors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.

    1967-01-01

    Processes synthesize sulfonated and nonsulfonated uranyl phthalocyanines for application in neutron therapy of brain tumors. Tests indicate that the compounds are advantageous over the previously used boron and lithium compounds.

  7. Cortical Plasticity in the Setting of Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fisicaro, Ryan A; Jost, Ethan; Shaw, Katharina; Brennan, Nicole Petrovich; Peck, Kyung K; Holodny, Andrei I

    2016-02-01

    Cortical reorganization of function due to the growth of an adjacent brain tumor has clearly been demonstrated in a number of surgically proven cases. Such cases demonstrate the unmistakable implications for the neurosurgical treatment of brain tumors, as the cortical function may not reside where one may initially suspect based solely on the anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Consequently, preoperative localization of eloquent areas adjacent to a brain tumor is necessary, as this may demonstrate unexpected organization, which may affect the neurosurgical approach to the lesion. However, in interpreting functional MRI studies, the interpreting physician must be cognizant of artifacts, which may limit the accuracy of functional MRI in the setting of brain tumors. PMID:26848558

  8. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

  9. Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the cancer is diagnosed and continue for months or years. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors ... after treatment. Some cancer treatments cause side effects months or years after treatment has ended. These are ...

  10. Glial brain tumor detection by using symmetry analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedoia, Valentina; Binaghi, Elisabetta; Balbi, Sergio; De Benedictis, Alessandro; Monti, Emanuele; Minotto, Renzo

    2012-02-01

    In this work a fully automatic algorithm to detect brain tumors by using symmetry analysis is proposed. In recent years a great effort of the research in field of medical imaging was focused on brain tumors segmentation. The quantitative analysis of MRI brain tumor allows to obtain useful key indicators of disease progression. The complex problem of segmenting tumor in MRI can be successfully addressed by considering modular and multi-step approaches mimicking the human visual inspection process. The tumor detection is often an essential preliminary phase to solvethe segmentation problem successfully. In visual analysis of the MRI, the first step of the experts cognitive process, is the detection of an anomaly respect the normal tissue, whatever its nature. An healthy brain has a strong sagittal symmetry, that is weakened by the presence of tumor. The comparison between the healthy and ill hemisphere, considering that tumors are generally not symmetrically placed in both hemispheres, was used to detect the anomaly. A clustering method based on energy minimization through Graph-Cut is applied on the volume computed as a difference between the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere mirrored across the symmetry plane. Differential analysis involves the loss the knowledge of the tumor side. Through an histogram analysis the ill hemisphere is recognized. Many experiments are performed to assess the performance of the detection strategy on MRI volumes in presence of tumors varied in terms of shapes positions and intensity levels. The experiments showed good results also in complex situations.

  11. Metastatic brain tumor from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Kohei; Oda, Masashi; Koyanagi, Masaomi; Saiki, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urothelial carcinoma occurs in the bladder, upper urinary tract, and lower urinary tract, including prostatic urethra. A majority of the reported cases of intracranial metastasis from urothelial carcinoma originates from the bladder and upper urinary tract. Brain metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra has not yet been reported in the literature. Case Description: A 72-year-old male presented with a metastatic brain tumor and a 3-year history of urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra treated with cystourethrectomy and chemotherapy with gemcitabine-cisplatin. Pathological diagnosis for tumor removal was compatible with metastatic brain tumor from urothelial carcinoma. Conclusion: Brain metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra has not yet been reported in the literature. It is an extremely rare case, however, we should be careful of brain metastasis during follow-up for urothelial carcinoma in the lower urinary tract. PMID:27512612

  12. Evidence for cerebellar motor functional reorganization in brain tumor patients: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kurabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Kosuke; Nakada, Tsutomu; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2016-05-27

    Functional reorganization of the motor system following brain damage has been studied extensively in stroke patients, in which not only the cerebrum but also the cerebellum (Cbll) undergoes substantial reorganization. However, the role of Cbll in motor functional reorganization in brain tumor patients remains poorly investigated. Because brain damages in brain tumor patients occur much more slowly than in stroke patients, the neural mechanisms for motor functional reorganization might differ between these two disease conditions. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether Cbll constitutes the neural substrates for motor functional reorganization in eighteen supratentorial brain tumor patients who exhibited no clinical signs of paresis. The patients and normal volunteers underwent a unilateral hand movement task. In the patients, the locus of primary sensory motor (SM1) activation during contralesional hand movement was significantly displaced by the tumor, suggesting functional compromise and/or reorganization in the central sulcus region. In addition, their contralesional Cbll activation during contralesional hand movement was substantially increased as compared to normal controls. The finding represents the first conclusive evidence that Cbll is involved in the motor-related functional reorganization in patients with brain tumor. PMID:27102144

  13. Support after Brain Tumor Means Different Things: Family Caregivers’ Experiences of Support and Relationship Changes

    PubMed Central

    Ownsworth, Tamara; Goadby, Elizabeth; Chambers, Suzanne Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Shorter hospital stays and greater emphasis on outpatient care means that family members have the primary responsibility for supporting a person with brain tumor to manage the physical, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional effects of the illness and its treatment. Given the integral role of family caregivers, it is essential to understand their experience of the impact of brain tumor and their own support needs. Accordingly, this qualitative study aimed to investigate family caregivers’ experiences of support and relationship changes in the context of brain tumor. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 family caregivers (8 spouse/partner, 3 parents) of people with malignant or benign tumor. A thematic analysis of interview transcripts identified two major themes, namely, “Meanings of Support” and “Relationship Impacts.” The Meanings of Support theme was characterized by intertwined and distinct support needs, varied expectations of support and factors influencing support expectations. The Relationship Impacts theme depicted mixed experiences of strengthened, maintained, and strained relations with the person with brain tumor. Overall, the findings highlight that there is considerable variability in caregivers’ experiences and expectations of support and the impact of brain tumor on relationships. The implications of these findings for the provision of caregiver support are discussed. PMID:25729740

  14. Brain and Spinal Tumors: Hope through Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the CNS. Some tools used in the operating room include a surgical microscope, the endoscope (a ... cells, which support other brain function. central nervous system (CNS)—the brain and spinal cord. cerebrospinal fluid ( ...

  15. Emerging Insights into Barriers to Effective Brain Tumor Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, Graeme F.; Dunn, Gavin P.; Nance, Elizabeth A.; Hanes, Justin; Brem, Henry

    2014-01-01

    There is great promise that ongoing advances in the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) combined with rapidly expanding knowledge of brain tumor patho-biology will provide new, more effective therapies. Brain tumors that form from brain cells, as opposed to those that come from other parts of the body, rarely metastasize outside of the CNS. Instead, the tumor cells invade deep into the brain itself, causing disruption in brain circuits, blood vessel and blood flow changes, and tissue swelling. Patients with the most common and deadly form, glioblastoma (GBM) rarely live more than 2 years even with the most aggressive treatments and often with devastating neurological consequences. Current treatments include maximal safe surgical removal or biopsy followed by radiation and chemotherapy to address the residual tumor mass and invading tumor cells. However, delivering effective and sustained treatments to these invading cells without damaging healthy brain tissue is a major challenge and focus of the emerging fields of nanomedicine and viral and cell-based therapies. New treatment strategies, particularly those directed against the invasive component of this devastating CNS disease, are sorely needed. In this review, we (1) discuss the history and evolution of treatments for GBM, (2) define and explore three critical barriers to improving therapeutic delivery to invasive brain tumors, specifically, the neuro-vascular unit as it relates to the blood brain barrier, the extra-cellular space in regard to the brain penetration barrier, and the tumor genetic heterogeneity and instability in association with the treatment efficacy barrier, and (3) identify promising new therapeutic delivery approaches that have the potential to address these barriers and create sustained, meaningful efficacy against GBM. PMID:25101239

  16. Multiscale CNNs for Brain Tumor Segmentation and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liya; Jia, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    Early brain tumor detection and diagnosis are critical to clinics. Thus segmentation of focused tumor area needs to be accurate, efficient, and robust. In this paper, we propose an automatic brain tumor segmentation method based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Traditional CNNs focus only on local features and ignore global region features, which are both important for pixel classification and recognition. Besides, brain tumor can appear in any place of the brain and be any size and shape in patients. We design a three-stream framework named as multiscale CNNs which could automatically detect the optimum top-three scales of the image sizes and combine information from different scales of the regions around that pixel. Datasets provided by Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized by MICCAI 2013 are utilized for both training and testing. The designed multiscale CNNs framework also combines multimodal features from T1, T1-enhanced, T2, and FLAIR MRI images. By comparison with traditional CNNs and the best two methods in BRATS 2012 and 2013, our framework shows advances in brain tumor segmentation accuracy and robustness. PMID:27069501

  17. Multiscale CNNs for Brain Tumor Segmentation and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liya; Jia, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    Early brain tumor detection and diagnosis are critical to clinics. Thus segmentation of focused tumor area needs to be accurate, efficient, and robust. In this paper, we propose an automatic brain tumor segmentation method based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Traditional CNNs focus only on local features and ignore global region features, which are both important for pixel classification and recognition. Besides, brain tumor can appear in any place of the brain and be any size and shape in patients. We design a three-stream framework named as multiscale CNNs which could automatically detect the optimum top-three scales of the image sizes and combine information from different scales of the regions around that pixel. Datasets provided by Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS) organized by MICCAI 2013 are utilized for both training and testing. The designed multiscale CNNs framework also combines multimodal features from T1, T1-enhanced, T2, and FLAIR MRI images. By comparison with traditional CNNs and the best two methods in BRATS 2012 and 2013, our framework shows advances in brain tumor segmentation accuracy and robustness. PMID:27069501

  18. Brain tumor stem cells: molecular characteristics and their impact on therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, David L.; Lubelski, Daniel; Miller, Tyler E.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent primary brain tumor and ranks among the most lethal of human cancers with conventional therapy offering only palliation. Great strides have been made in understanding brain cancer genetics and modeling these tumors with new targeted therapies being tested but these advances have not translated into substantially improved patient outcomes. Multiple chemotherapeutic agents, including temozolomide, the first-line treatment for glioblastoma, have been developed to kill cancer cells. However, the response to temozolomide in GBM is modest. Radiation is also moderately effective but this approach is plagued by limitations due to collateral radiation damage to healthy brain tissue and development of radioresistance. Therapeutic resistance is attributed at least in part to a cell population within the tumor that possesses stem-like characteristics and tumor propagating capabilities, referred to as cancer stem cells. Within GBM, the intratumoral heterogeneity is derived from a combination of regional genetic variance and a cellular hierarchy often regulated by distinct cancer stem cell niches, most notably perivascular and hypoxic regions. With the recent emergence as a key player in tumor biology, cancer stem cells have symbiotic relationships with the tumor microenvironment, oncogenic signaling pathways, and epigenetic modifications. The origins of cancer stem cells and their contributions to brain tumor growth and therapeutic resistance are under active investigation with novel anti-cancer stem cell therapies offering potential new hope for this lethal disease. PMID:23831316

  19. Imaging of Brain Tumors With Paramagnetic Vesicles Targeted to Phosphatidylserine

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Patrick M.; Pearce, John; Chu, Zhengtao; McPherson, Christopher M.; Takigiku, Ray; Lee, Jing-Huei; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate paramagnetic saposin C and dioleylphosphatidylserine (SapC-DOPS) vesicles as a targeted contrast agent for imaging phosphatidylserine (PS) expressed by glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. Materials and Methods Gd-DTPA-BSA/SapC-DOPS vesicles were formulated, and the vesicle diameter and relaxivity were measured. Targeting of Gd-DTPA-BSA/ SapC-DOPS vesicles to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo was compared with nontargeted paramagnetic vesicles (lacking SapC). Mice with GBM brain tumors were imaged at 3, 10, 20, and 24 h postinjection to measure the relaxation rate (R1) in the tumor and the normal brain. Results The mean diameter of vesicles was 175 nm, and the relaxivity at 7 Tesla was 3.32 (s*mM)−1 relative to the gadolinium concentration. Gd-DTPA-BSA/SapC-DOPS vesicles targeted cultured cancer cells, leading to an increased R1 and gadolinium level in the cells. In vivo, Gd-DTPA-BSA/SapC-DOPS vesicles produced a 9% increase in the R1 of GBM brain tumors in mice 10 h postinjection, but only minimal changes (1.2% increase) in the normal brain. Nontargeted paramagnetic vesicles yielded minimal change in the tumor R1 at 10 h postinjection (1.3%). Conclusion These experiments demonstrate that Gd-DTPA-BSA/SapC-DOPS vesicles can selectively target implanted brain tumors in vivo, providing noninvasive mapping of the cancer biomarker PS. PMID:24797437

  20. Sports and childhood brain tumors: Can I play?

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Sébastien; Lober, Robert M.; Davis, Carissa; Stave, Christopher; Partap, Sonia; Fisher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether children with brain tumors have a higher risk of complications while participating in sports. We sought to estimate the prevalence of such events by conducting a systematic review of the literature, and we surveyed providers involved with pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumor patients. Methods A systematic review of the literature in the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases was conducted for original articles addressing sport-related complications in the brain-tumor population. An online questionnaire was created to survey providers involved with pediatric CNS tumor patients about their current recommendations and experience regarding sports and brain tumors. Results We retrieved 32 subjects, including 19 pediatric cases from the literature. Most lesions associated with sport complications were arachnoid cysts (n = 21), followed by glioma (n = 5). The sports in which symptom onset most commonly occurred were soccer (n = 7), football (n = 5), and running (n = 5). We surveyed 111 pediatric neuro-oncology providers. Sport restriction varied greatly from none to 14 sports. Time to return to play in sports with contact also varied considerably between providers. Rationales for limiting sports activities were partly related to subspecialty. Responders reported 9 sport-related adverse events in patients with brain tumor. Conclusions Sport-related complications are uncommon in children with brain tumors. Patients might not be at a significantly higher risk and should not need to be excluded from most sports activities. PMID:26034627

  1. Positron emission tomographic measurement of blood-to-brain and blood-to-tumor transport of 82Rb: the effect of dexamethasone and whole-brain radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jarden, J.O.; Dhawan, V.; Poltorak, A.; Posner, J.B.; Rottenberg, D.A.

    1985-12-01

    Unidirectional blood-to-brain and blood-to-tumor transport rate constants for rubidium 82 were determined using dynamic positron emission tomography in patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors. Regional influx rate constants (K1) and plasma water volume (Vp) were estimated from the time course of blood and brain radioactivity following a bolus injection of tracer. Eight patients were studied before and 24 to 72 hours after treatment using pharmacological doses of dexamethasone, and 6 additional patients with metastatic brain tumors were studied before and within 60 to 90 minutes after 200- to 600-rad whole-brain radiation therapy. Steroid treatment was associated with a 9 to 48% decrease in tumor K1 and a 21% mean decrease in tumor Vp. No consistent changes in K1 or Vp were observed in control brain regions. Tumor K1 and Vp did not increase in patients undergoing whole-brain radiation therapy, all of whom were taking dexamethasone at the time of study. These data suggest that corticosteroids decrease the permeability of tumor capillaries to small hydrophilic molecules (including those of some chemotherapeutic agents) and that steroid pretreatment prevents acute, and potentially dangerous, increases in tumor capillary permeability following cranial irradiation.

  2. Synchrotron supported DEI/KES of a brain tumor in an animal model: The search for a microimaging modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannan, K. A.; Schültke, E.; Menk, R. H.; Siu, K.; Pavlov, K.; Kelly, M.; McLoughlin, G.; Beveridge, T.; Tromba, G.; Juurlink, B. H.; Chapman, D.; Rigon, L.; Griebel, R. W.

    2005-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the commonest and most aggressive primary brain tumor in humans. The high rate of tumor recurrence results in a poor prognosis despite multimodality treatment. One reason for high rate of recurrence is the invasive nature of the tumor into the surrounding normal brain tissue or multifocal occurrence at sites remote from that of the primary tumor establishment. Existing imaging demonstrates the primary tumor but fail to show the residual tumor microaggregates left behind following initial treatment. In this study, we employed diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) in an attempt to find an imaging modality that will provide visualization of residual disease that is not be apparent on MRI or CT scans.

  3. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue.

  4. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue. PMID:27456312

  5. Non-diffeomorphic registration of brain tumor images by simulating tissue loss and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Zacharaki, Evangelia I; Hogea, Cosmina S; Shen, Dinggang; Biros, George; Davatzikos, Christos

    2009-07-01

    Although a variety of diffeomorphic deformable registration methods exist in the literature, application of these methods in the presence of space-occupying lesions is not straightforward. The motivation of this work is spatial normalization of MR images from patients with brain tumors in a common stereotaxic space, aiming to pool data from different patients into a common space in order to perform group analyses. Additionally, transfer of structural and functional information from neuroanatomical brain atlases into the individual patient's space can be achieved via the inverse mapping, for the purpose of segmenting brains and facilitating surgical or radiotherapy treatment planning. A method that estimates the brain tissue loss and replacement by tumor is applied for achieving equivalent image content between an atlas and a patient's scan, based on a biomechanical model of tumor growth. Automated estimation of the parameters modeling brain tissue loss and displacement is performed via optimization of an objective function reflecting feature-based similarity and elastic stretching energy, which is optimized in parallel via APPSPACK (Asynchronous Parallel Pattern Search). The results of the method, applied to 21 brain tumor patients, indicate that the registration accuracy is relatively high in areas around the tumor, as well as in the healthy portion of the brain. Also, the calculated deformation in the vicinity of the tumor is shown to correlate highly with expert-defined visual scores indicating the tumor mass effect, thereby potentially leading to an objective approach to quantification of mass effect, which is commonly used in diagnosis. PMID:19408350

  6. Satellite tumors surrounding primary pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Orita, Yorihisa; Hamaya, Kazuo; Miki, Kentaroh; Sugaya, Akiko; Hirai, Misato; Nakai, Kiyoko; Nose, Sohichiroh; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2010-05-01

    The occasional local recurrence of benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA) has generally been attributed to the vulnerability of the tumor capsule. Although some reports have also noted the presence of satellite tumors associated with PA recurrence, only few reports have focused on this issue. We paid special attention to the satellite lesions apart from the main tumors and discussed their frequency, origin, nature and the ways of treating them. A total of 108 specimens of primary parotid gland PA resected at the Okayama Saiseikai General Hospital from 1988 to 2008 were microscopically reviewed. Four (3.7%) patients displayed a main mass with satellite tumors in a single parotid gland. The immunohistochemical analysis of p53 and Ki-67 index showed no distinct difference between PAs with satellite tumors and those without. Satellite tumors surrounding the main mass of parotid PA is relatively rare. In most cases, such satellite tumors will arise from capsular perforation of the primary tumor cells. Preoperative evaluation to recognize the existence of satellite tumors would be important and capsular dissection should be discouraged. We could not find any evidence suggesting that primary PA with satellite tumors could be more biologically aggressive than those without. PMID:19898859

  7. Sox2: regulation of expression and contribution to brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Sheila; Nejad, Romina; Karabork, Merve; Ekinci, Can; Solaroglu, Ihsan; Aldape, Kenneth D; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2016-07-01

    Tumors of the CNS are composed of a complex mixture of neoplastic cells, in addition to vascular, inflammatory and stromal components. Similar to most other tumors, brain tumors contain a heterogeneous population of cells that are found at different stages of differentiation. The cancer stem cell hypothesis suggests that all tumors are composed of subpopulation of cells with stem-like properties, which are capable of self-renewal, display resistance to therapy and lead to tumor recurrence. One of the most important transcription factors that regulate cancer stem cell properties is SOX2. In this review, we focus on SOX2 and the complex network of signaling molecules and transcription factors that regulate its expression and function in brain tumor initiating cells. We also highlight important findings in the literature about the role of SOX2 in glioblastoma and medulloblastoma, where it has been more extensively studied. PMID:27230973

  8. Irinotecan and Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Brain Metastases From Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-03-15

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Cognitive/Functional Effects; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Children; Poor Performance Status; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  9. Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors Increase Herceptin Transport and Treatment Efficacy in Mouse Metastatic Brain Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Satoshi; Konda, Bindu; Patil, Rameshwar; Ding, Hui; Espinoza, Andres; Wawrowsky, Kolja A.; Patil, Chirag; Ljubimov, Alexander V.; Black, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemotherapeutic drugs and newly developed therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are adequately delivered to most solid and systemic tumors. However, drug delivery into primary brain tumors and metastases is impeded by the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB), significantly limiting drug use in brain cancer treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effect of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in nude mice on drug delivery to intracranially implanted human lung and breast tumors as the most common primary tumors forming brain metastases, and studied underlying mechanisms of drug transport. In vitro assays demonstrated that PDE5 inhibitors enhanced the uptake of [14C]dextran and trastuzumab (Herceptin®, a humanized monoclonal antibody against HER2/neu) by cultured mouse brain endothelial cells (MBEC). The mechanism of drug delivery was examined using inhibitors for caveolae-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis and coated pit/clathrin endocytosis. Inhibitor analysis strongly implicated caveolae and macropinocytosis endocytic pathways involvement in the PDE5 inhibitor-enhanced Herceptin uptake by MBEC. Oral administration of PDE5 inhibitor, vardenafil, to mice with HER2-positive intracranial lung tumors led to an increased tumor permeability to high molecular weight [14C]dextran (2.6-fold increase) and to Herceptin (2-fold increase). Survival time of intracranial lung cancer-bearing mice treated with Herceptin in combination with vardenafil was significantly increased as compared to the untreated, vardenafil- or Herceptin-treated mice (p<0.01). Log-rank survival analysis of mice bearing HER2-positive intracranial breast tumor also showed a significant survival increase (p<0.02) in the group treated with Herceptin plus vardenafil as compared to other groups. However, vardenafil did not exert any beneficial effect on survival of mice bearing intracranial breast tumor with low HER2 expression and co-treated with Herceptin (p>0.05). Conclusions

  10. Crossing the barrier: treatment of brain tumors using nanochain particles.

    PubMed

    Karathanasis, Efstathios; Ghaghada, Ketan B

    2016-09-01

    Despite advancements in surgery and radiotherapy, the aggressive forms of brain tumors, such as gliomas, are still uniformly lethal with current therapies offering only palliation complicated by significant toxicities. Gliomas are characteristically diffuse with infiltrating edges, resistant to drugs and nearly inaccessible to systemic therapies due to the brain-tumor barrier. Currently, aggressive efforts are underway to further understand brain-tumor's microenvironment and identify brain tumor cell-specific regulators amenable to pharmacologic interventions. While new potent agents are continuously becoming available, efficient drug delivery to brain tumors remains a limiting factor. To tackle the drug delivery issues, a multicomponent chain-like nanoparticle has been developed. These nanochains are comprised of iron oxide nanospheres and a drug-loaded liposome chemically linked into a 100-nm linear, chain-like assembly with high precision. The nanochain possesses a unique ability to scavenge the tumor endothelium. By utilizing effective vascular targeting, the nanochains achieve rapid deposition on the vascular bed of glioma sites establishing well-distributed drug reservoirs on the endothelium of brain tumors. After reaching the target sites, an on-command, external low-power radiofrequency field can remotely trigger rapid drug release, due to mechanical disruption of the liposome, facilitating widespread and effective drug delivery into regions harboring brain tumor cells. Integration of the nanochain delivery system with the appropriate combination of complementary drugs has the potential to unfold the field and allow significant expansion of therapies for the disease where success is currently very limited. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:678-695. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1387 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26749497