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1

Primary intracranial germ cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Background: Primary intracranial germ cell tumors are rare (ICGCTs) and usually localized in the pineal and suprasellar regions of the brain. They are divided into histologic types: Germinoma, teratoma choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and malignant mixed germ cell tumors (MMGCTs). Neuroimaging evaluation is useful to distinguish between the types of ICGCTs. Germinoma is highly sensitive to radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy, and is potentially curable without surgery. MMGCTs are treated with the combination of chemotherapy and radiation, with a poorer prognosis. ICGCTs warrant correct pre-operative diagnosis in order to decide on appropriate management. Aim: To report the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings in three cases of primary intracranial germ-cell tumor. Materials and Methods: Three cases of intracranial germ cell tumors inclusive of both genders and all brain regions were retrieved from the archives of the Anatomical Pathology Department at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah between the years, 1995-2011, through a computerized search. Results: Based on histological examination, they were respectively diagnosed as MMGCTs (two cases) and germinoma. Clinical, radiological, pathological characteristics and immunohistochemical profile of the three ICGCTs are presented along with the review of recent literature. Conclusion: ICGCTs are rare tumors affecting males more than females, and at the end of three years follow-up in the present study, treatment morbidity appears to be low with no recurrence observed among surviving patients, indicating that suprasellar and basal ganglia ICGCTs may have a favorable prognosis regardless of histological type. Pineal MMGCTs may have an aggressive course.

Mufti, Shagufta Tahir; Jamal, Awatif

2012-01-01

2

[Primary retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor].  

PubMed

A case is presented of a primary extragonadal retroperitoneal germ cell tumor (seminoma) in a 51-year-old male. The ultimate diagnosis was only achieved after curative surgical resection of the tumor. There was no demonstrable testicular neoplasm. PMID:9880953

Van de Gaer, P; Verstraete, H; De Wever, I; Oyen, R

1998-10-01

3

Occurrence of malignant non-germ cell components in primary mediastinal germ cell tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

MethodsThirty-five patients with primary mediastinal germ cell tumours (PMGCT) underwent primary thoracotomy in a 30-year period (1965–1994). Of the 35 patients, 12 had benign teratomas, five pure seminomas and 18 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours.ResultsOut of 18 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours, 14 comprised more than one malignant component. In two cases malignant teratomas had an additional malignant non-germ cell component: one

L. Kolodziejski; K. Duda; A. Niezabitowski; S. Dyczek; B. Staniec

1999-01-01

4

Primary, non-exophytic, optic nerve germ cell tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumors of the optic chiasm are relatively uncommon and usually associated with phakomatoses such as neurofibromatosis. Even\\u000a more rare is the presentation of a primary, non-exophytic, isolated optic chiasm germ cell tumor (GCT). These tumors have\\u000a imaging characteristics nearly indistinguishable from optic chiasmatic gliomas (OCGs). Herein we describe two cases of young\\u000a men who presented with similar findings of progressive,

Michael L. DiLuna; Aimee M. Two; Gillian H. Levy; Toral Patel; Anita J. Huttner; Charles C. Duncan; Joseph M. Piepmeier

2009-01-01

5

[Vertebral primary malignant germ cell tumor of thoracic spine: an exceptional observation].  

PubMed

Vertebral primary malignant germ cell tumors are rarely located in thoracic spine. We report the case of a 44-year-old female, in which a symptomatology including dorsal rachidial pain, intercostal neuralgia, straight and transit disorder revealed a thoracic vertebral primary malignant germ cell tumor. The sole location of a vertebral primary malignant germ cell tumor in adult, exceptionally reported in the literature, prompted us to relate this observation. PMID:22677119

Mzabi, A; Ben Fredj Ismail, F; Hasni, I; Ksira, I; Sriha, B; Karmani, M; Rezgui, A; Amri, R; Derbali, F; Laouani Kechrid, C

2012-08-01

6

Generation of organized germ layers from a single mouse embryonic stem cell  

PubMed Central

Mammalian inner cell mass cells undergo lineage-specific differentiation into germ layers of endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm during gastrulation. It has been a long-standing challenge in developmental biology to replicate these organized germ layer patterns in culture. Here we present a method of generating organized germ layers from a single mouse embryonic stem cell cultured in a soft fibrin matrix. Spatial organization of germ layers is regulated by cortical tension of the colony, matrix dimensionality and softness, and cell–cell adhesion. Remarkably, anchorage of the embryoid colony from the 3D matrix to collagen-1-coated 2D substrates of ~1?kPa results in self-organization of all three germ layers: ectoderm on the outside layer, mesoderm in the middle and endoderm at the centre of the colony, reminiscent of generalized gastrulating chordate embryos. These results suggest that mechanical forces via cell–matrix and cell–cell interactions are crucial in spatial organization of germ layers during mammalian gastrulation. This new in vitro method could be used to gain insights on the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of germ layer formation.

Poh, Yeh-Chuin; Chen, Junwei; Hong, Ying; Yi, Haiying; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Junjian; Wu, Douglas C.; Wang, Lili; Jia, Qiong; Singh, Rishi; Yao, Wenting; Tan, Youhua; Tajik, Arash; Tanaka, Tetsuya S.; Wang, Ning

2014-01-01

7

Generation of organized germ layers from a single mouse embryonic stem cell.  

PubMed

Mammalian inner cell mass cells undergo lineage-specific differentiation into germ layers of endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm during gastrulation. It has been a long-standing challenge in developmental biology to replicate these organized germ layer patterns in culture. Here we present a method of generating organized germ layers from a single mouse embryonic stem cell cultured in a soft fibrin matrix. Spatial organization of germ layers is regulated by cortical tension of the colony, matrix dimensionality and softness, and cell-cell adhesion. Remarkably, anchorage of the embryoid colony from the 3D matrix to collagen-1-coated 2D substrates of ~1?kPa results in self-organization of all three germ layers: ectoderm on the outside layer, mesoderm in the middle and endoderm at the centre of the colony, reminiscent of generalized gastrulating chordate embryos. These results suggest that mechanical forces via cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions are crucial in spatial organization of germ layers during mammalian gastrulation. This new in vitro method could be used to gain insights on the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of germ layer formation. PMID:24873804

Poh, Yeh-Chuin; Chen, Junwei; Hong, Ying; Yi, Haiying; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Junjian; Wu, Douglas C; Wang, Lili; Jia, Qiong; Singh, Rishi; Yao, Wenting; Tan, Youhua; Tajik, Arash; Tanaka, Tetsuya S; Wang, Ning

2014-01-01

8

Primary Goods, Germ-Line Enhancements, and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germ-line genetic engineering procedures may influence the lives of untold millions of people far into the future. These techniques change the genetic material that is passed on to offspring and thus have the potential to change the human race as we know it. Because the effects are so enduring, this powerful technique must be used with caution. We must decide

Grant Maki

2006-01-01

9

Chemotherapy trials in recurrent primary intracranial germ cell tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gonadal germ cell tumors respond favorably to chemotherapy either at diagnosis or when they recur. Histologically similar tumors may arise in the CNS usually in the pineal or suprasellar regions. Although radiation therapy may produce a 5 year disease-free survival in excess of 60% in localized pure germinoma, gern cell tumors of other histology tend to recur. We have conducted

Jeffrey C. Allen; Georges Bosl; Russell Walker

1985-01-01

10

The influence of scaffold elasticity on germ layer specification of human embryonic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Mechanical forces are critical to embryogenesis, specifically, in the lineage-specification gastrulation phase, whereupon the embryo is transformed from a simple spherical ball of cells to a multi-layered organism, containing properly organized endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm germ layers. Several reports have proposed that such directed and coordinated movements of large cell collectives are driven by cellular responses to cell deformations and cell-generated forces. To better understand these environmental-induced cell changes, we have modeled the germ layer formation process by culturing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on three dimensional (3D) scaffolds with stiffness engineered to model that found in specific germ layers. We show that differentiation to each germ layer was promoted by a different stiffness threshold of the scaffolds, reminiscent of the forces exerted during the gastrulation process. The overall results suggest that three dimensional (3D) scaffolds can recapitulate the mechanical stimuli required for directing hESC differentiation and that these stimuli can play a significant role in determining hESC fate.

Zoldan, Janet; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D.; Lee, Christopher Y.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Langer, Robert; Levenberg, Shulamit

2011-01-01

11

RPLND or Primary Chemotherapy in Clinical Stage IIA/B Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In order to reduce therapy–related morbidity in patients with nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors in clinical stage IIA/B, we performed a prospective multicenter trial comparing the standard retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) +2 cycles of chemotherapy (arm A) with 3–4 cycles of primary chemotherapy (arm B).Methods: From February 1991 to July 1995, 57 participating centers from Germany and Austria

Lothar Weissbach; Henning Flechtner; Uwe Pichlmeier; Michael Hartmann; Lutz Keller

2000-01-01

12

Quantitative differences in tissue surface tension influence zebrafish germ layer positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides direct functional evidence that differential adhesion, measurable as quantitative differences in tissue surface tension, influences spatial positioning between zebrafish germ layer tissues. We show that embryonic ectodermal and mesendodermal tissues generated by mRNA?overexpression behave on long?time scales like immiscible fluids. When mixed in hanging drop culture, their cells segregate into discrete phases with ectoderm adopting an internal

Rebecca D. Burdine; Frank Jülicher; Malcolm S. Steinberg; Ramsey A. Foty

2008-01-01

13

Differences in Transcription Patterns between Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Produced from the Same Germ Layer Are Erased upon Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Little is known about differences between induced pluripotent stem cells produced from tissues originating from the same germ layer. We have generated human myoblast-derived iPS cells by retroviral transduction of human primary myoblasts with the OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4 and MYC coding sequences and compared them to iPS produced from human primary fibroblasts. When cultivated in vitro, these iPS cells proved similar to human embryonic stem cells in terms of morphology, expression of embryonic stemness markers and gene promoter methylation patterns. Embryonic bodies were derived that expressed endodermal, mesodermal as well as ectodermal markers. A comparative analysis of transcription patterns revealed significant differences in the gene expression pattern between myoblast- and fibroblast-derived iPS cells. However, these differences were reduced in the mesenchymal stem cells derived from the two iPS cell types were compared.

Pirozhkova, Iryna; Robert, Thomas; Guegan, Justine; Bilhou-Nabera, Chrystele; Busato, Florence; Tost, Jorg; Carnac, Gilles; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Lipinski, Marc; Vassetzky, Yegor

2013-01-01

14

Quantitative differences in tissue surface tension influence zebrafish germ layer positioning  

PubMed Central

This study provides direct functional evidence that differential adhesion, measurable as quantitative differences in tissue surface tension, influences spatial positioning between zebrafish germ layer tissues. We show that embryonic ectodermal and mesendodermal tissues generated by mRNA-overexpression behave on long-time scales like immiscible fluids. When mixed in hanging drop culture, their cells segregate into discrete phases with ectoderm adopting an internal position relative to the mesendoderm. The position adopted directly correlates with differences in tissue surface tension. We also show that germ layer tissues from untreated embryos, when extirpated and placed in culture, adopt a configuration similar to those of their mRNA-overexpressing counterparts. Down-regulating E-cadherin expression in the ectoderm leads to reduced surface tension and results in phase reversal with E-cadherin-depleted ectoderm cells now adopting an external position relative to the mesendoderm. These results show that in vitro cell sorting of zebrafish mesendoderm and ectoderm tissues is specified by tissue interfacial tensions. We perform a mathematical analysis indicating that tissue interfacial tension between actively motile cells contributes to the spatial organization and dynamics of these zebrafish germ layers in vivo.

Schotz, Eva-Maria; Burdine, Rebecca D.; Julicher, Frank; Steinberg, Malcolm S.; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Foty, Ramsey A.

2008-01-01

15

Treatment of a primary intracranial germ cell tumor with systemic chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Primary germ cell neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare tumors which generally respond to radiotherapy. Experience is limited in managing the refractory patient. We report a patient whose suprasellar dysgerminoma responded completely to 5,000 rad. Seven years later, disease recurrence was refractory to an additional 4,000 rad. Theorizing that the ''blood-brain barrier'' was no longer intact after extensive radiotherapy and tumor involvement of the ventricular system, the patient was treated with systemic bleomycin, cisplatin, and vinblastine. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the bleomycin and cisplatin entered the cerebrospinal fluid. Serial CT scans and CSF levels of beta-HCG confirmed the clinical impression of a partial remission. Subsequent tumor progression was refractory to therapy with intraventricular bleomycin. It is concluded that systemic chemotherapy may be beneficial in certain cases of CNS germ cell neoplasms.

Kirshner, J.J.; Ginsberg, S.J.; Fitzpatrick, A.V.; Comis, R.L.

1981-01-01

16

Primary Spinal Germ Cell Tumors: A Case Analysis and Review of Treatment Paradigms  

PubMed Central

Objective. Primary intramedullary spinal germ cell tumors are exceedingly rare. As such, there are no established treatment paradigms. We describe our management for spinal germ cell tumors and a review of the literature. Clinical Presentation. We describe the case of a 45-year-old man with progressive lower extremity weakness and sensory deficits. He was found to have enhancing intramedullary mass lesions in the thoracic spinal cord, and pathology was consistent with an intramedullary germ cell tumor. A video presentation of the case and surgical approach is provided. Conclusion. As spinal cord germinomas are highly sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy, a patient can be spared radical surgery. Diverse treatment approaches exist across institutions. We advocate biopsy followed by local radiation, with or without adjuvant chemotherapy, as the optimal treatment for these tumors. Histological findings have prognostic value if syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells (STGCs) are found, which are associated with a higher rate of recurrence. The recurrence rate in STGC-positive spinal germinomas is 33% (2/6), whereas it is only 8% in STGC-negative tumors (2/24). We advocate limited volume radiotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy in patients with high risk of recurrence. To reduce endocrine and neurocognitive side effects, cranio-spinal radiation should be used as a last resort in patients with recurrence.

Loya, Joshua J.; Jung, Henry; Temmins, Caroline; Cho, Nam; Singh, Harminder

2013-01-01

17

Gastrulation and the establishment of the three germ layers in the early horse conceptus.  

PubMed

Experimental studies and field surveys suggest that embryonic loss during the first 6 weeks of gestation is a common occurrence in the mare. During the first 2 weeks of development, a number of important cell differentiation events must occur to yield a viable embryo proper containing all three major germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). Because formation of the mesoderm and primitive streak are critical to the development of the embryo proper, but have not been described extensively in the horse, we examined tissue development and differentiation in early horse conceptuses using a combination of stereomicroscopy, light microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Ingression of epiblast cells to form the mesoderm was first observed on day 12 after ovulation; by Day 18 the conceptus had completed a series of differentiation events and morphologic changes that yielded an embryo proper with a functional circulation. While mesoderm precursor cells were present from Day 12 after ovulation, vimentin expression was not detectable until Day 14, suggesting that initial differentiation of mesoderm from the epiblast in the horse is independent of this intermediate filament protein, a situation that contrasts with other domestic species. Development of the other major embryonic germ layers was similar to other species. For example, ectodermal cells expressed cytokeratins, and there was a clear demarcation in staining intensity between embryonic ectoderm and trophectoderm. Hypoblast showed clear ?1-fetoprotein expression from as early as Day 10 after ovulation, and seemed to be the only source of ?1-fetoprotein in the early conceptus. PMID:24857628

Gaivão, Maria M F; Rambags, Björn P B; Stout, Tom A E

2014-07-15

18

A maternally established SoxB1/SoxF axis is a conserved feature of chordate germ layer patterning.  

PubMed

Despite deep evolutionary roots in the metazoa, the gene regulatory network driving germ layer specification is surprisingly labile both between and within phyla. In Xenopus laevis, SoxB1- and SoxF-type transcription factors are intimately involved in germ-layer specification, in part through their regulation of Nodal signaling. However, it is unclear if X. laevis is representative of the ancestral vertebrate condition, as the precise roles of SoxF and SoxB1 in germ-layer specification vary among vertebrates, and there is no evidence that SoxF mediates germ-layer specification in any invertebrate. To better understand the evolution of germ-layer specification in the vertebrate lineage, we analyzed the expression of soxB1 and soxF genes in embryos and larvae of the basal vertebrate lamprey, and the basal chordate amphioxus. We find that both species maternally deposit soxB1 mRNA in the animal pole, soxF mRNA in the vegetal hemisphere, and zygotically express soxB1 and soxF throughout nascent ectoderm and mesendoderm, respectively. We also find that soxF is excluded from the vegetalmost blastomeres in lamprey and that, in contrast to vertebrates, amphioxus does not express soxF in the oral epithelium. In the context of recent work, our results suggest that a maternally established animal/vegetal Sox axis is a deeply conserved feature of chordate development that predates the role of Nodal in vertebrate germ-layer specification. Furthermore, exclusion of this axis from the vegetal pole in lamprey is consistent with the presence of an extraembryonic yolk mass, as has been previously proposed. Finally, conserved expression of SoxF in the forming mouth across the vertebrates, but not in amphioxus, lends support to the idea that the larval amphioxus mouth is nonhomologous to the vertebrate mouth. PMID:23016978

Cattell, Maria V; Garnett, Aaron T; Klymkowsky, Michael W; Medeiros, Daniel M

2012-01-01

19

Primary mixed germ cell tumor of the liver with sarcomatous components  

PubMed Central

Germ cell tumor (GCT) of the liver is extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of hepatic mixed GCT with significant sarcomatous components and elevated serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP) in a 34-year-old man. Histopathologically, the tumor was composed of two GCTs components: yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma. The predominant components of immature teratoma consisted of several types of tissue that represented different germinal layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm) and showed varying degrees of differentiation with significant sarcomatous components. The yolk sac component showed positivity for AFP and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3). The immature teratoma components showed positivity for varying differentiation markers. Interphase cytogenetic analysis revealed that the yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma were positive for i(12p) and 12p over-representation. In particular, the rhabdomyoblastic components also showed typical i(12p) and 12p overrepresentation. This suggested that sarcomatous components may be associated with dedifferentiation or malignant transformation of certain mesenchymal components within teratoma.

Xu, Ai-Min; Gong, Shao-Juan; Song, Wei-Hua; Li, Xiao-Wei; Pan, Chun-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Jun; Wu, Meng-Chao

2010-01-01

20

Free primary alcohols in oils and waxes from germs, kernels and other components of nuts, seeds, fruits and cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of free primary alcohols in oils and waxes obtained from the germ, kernel, seed coat, shell and skin (peel)\\u000a of various nuts, seeds, fruits and cereals and from the chrysalis of silkworm was examined. These alcohols are usually present\\u000a in small amounts, along with large quantities of hydrocarbons, esters and glycerides in oils and waxes. Thus, it is

Kazuko Kawanishi; Kumlko Aoki; Yohei Hashimoto; Akira Matsunobu

1991-01-01

21

Germ cells are not the primary factor for sexual fate determination in goldfish.  

PubMed

The presence of germ cells in the early gonad is important for sexual fate determination and gonadal development in vertebrates. Recent studies in zebrafish and medaka have shown that a lack of germ cells in the early gonad induces sex reversal in favor of a male phenotype. However, it is uncertain whether the gonadal somatic cells or the germ cells are predominant in determining gonadal fate in other vertebrate. Here, we investigated the role of germ cells in gonadal differentiation in goldfish, a gonochoristic species that possesses an XX-XY genetic sex determination system. The primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the fish were eliminated during embryogenesis by injection of a morpholino oligonucleotide against the dead end gene. Fish without germ cells showed two types of gonadal morphology: one with an ovarian cavity; the other with seminiferous tubules. Next, we tested whether function could be restored to these empty gonads by transplantation of a single PGC into each embryo, and also determined the gonadal sex of the resulting germline chimeras. Transplantation of a single GFP-labeled PGC successfully produced a germline chimera in 42.7% of the embryos. Some of the adult germline chimeras had a developed gonad on one side that contained donor derived germ cells, while the contralateral gonad lacked any early germ cell stages. Female germline chimeras possessed a normal ovary and a germ-cell free ovary-like structure on the contralateral side; this structure was similar to those seen in female morphants. Male germline chimeras possessed a testis and a contralateral empty testis that contained some sperm in the tubular lumens. Analysis of aromatase, foxl2 and amh expression in gonads of morphants and germline chimeras suggested that somatic transdifferentiation did not occur. The offspring of fertile germline chimeras all had the donor-derived phenotype, indicating that germline replacement had occurred and that the transplanted PGC had rescued both female and male gonadal function. These findings suggest that the absence of germ cells did not affect the pathway for ovary or testis development and that phenotypic sex in goldfish is determined by somatic cells under genetic sex control rather than an interaction between the germ cells and somatic cells. PMID:22824426

Goto, Rie; Saito, Taiju; Takeda, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Takagi, Misae; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuto

2012-10-01

22

A Pathogenic Mosaic TP53 Mutation in Two Germ Layers Detected by Next Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Li-Fraumeni syndrome is caused by germline TP53 mutations and is clinically characterized by a predisposition to a range of cancers, most commonly sarcoma, brain tumours and leukemia. Pathogenic mosaic TP53 mutations have only rarely been described. Methods and Findings We describe a 2 years old child presenting with three separate cancers over a 6 month period; two soft tissue mesenchymal tumors and an aggressive metastatic neuroblastoma. As conventional testing of blood DNA by Sanger sequencing for mutations in TP53, ALK, and SDH was negative, whole exome sequencing of the blood DNA of the patient and both parents was performed to screen more widely for cancer predisposing mutations. In the patient's but not the parents' DNA we found a c.743 G>A, p.Arg248Gln (CCDS11118.1) TP53 mutation in 3–20% of sequencing reads, a level that would not generally be detectable by Sanger sequencing. Homozygosity for this mutation was detected in all tumor samples analyzed, and germline mosaicism was demonstrated by analysis of the child's newborn blood spot DNA. The occurrence of separate tumors derived from different germ layers suggests that this de novo mutation occurred early in embryogenesis, prior to gastrulation. Conclusion The case demonstrates pathogenic mosaicim, detected by next generation deep sequencing, that arose in the early stages of embryogenesis.

Williams, Richard D.; Side, Lucy; Hubank, Mike; West, Rebecca; Pearson, Katie; Sebire, Neil; Tarpey, Patrick; Futreal, Andrew; Brooks, Tony; Stratton, Michael R.; Anderson, John

2014-01-01

23

Sp1\\/egr-like zinc-finger protein required for endoderm specification and germ-layer formation in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

MUCH of our present knowledge of the biological processes involved in pattern formation in Drosophila is derived from segmentation analysis1, 2. Comparatively little is known about the genetic requirement and mechanisms underlying the formation and separation of germ layers by morphogenetic movements during gastrulation3. Here we show that theDrosophila gene huckebein (hkb), a member of the gap-gene class of segmentation

Günter Brönner; Quynh Chu-Lagraff; Chris Q. Doe; Barbara Cohen; Detlef Weigel; Heike Taubert; Herbert Jäckle

1994-01-01

24

An ancient role for nuclear beta-catenin in the evolution of axial polarity and germ layer segregation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The human oncogene beta-catenin is a bifunctional protein with critical roles in both cell adhesion and transcriptional regulation in the Wnt pathway. Wnt/beta-catenin signalling has been implicated in developmental processes as diverse as elaboration of embryonic polarity, formation of germ layers, neural patterning, spindle orientation and gap junction communication, but the ancestral function of beta-catenin remains unclear. In many animal embryos, activation of beta-catenin signalling occurs in blastomeres that mark the site of gastrulation and endomesoderm formation, raising the possibility that asymmetric activation of beta-catenin signalling specified embryonic polarity and segregated germ layers in the common ancestor of bilaterally symmetrical animals. To test whether nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is involved in axial identity and/or germ layer formation in 'pre-bilaterians', we examined the in vivo distribution, stability and function of beta-catenin protein in embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Here we show that N. vectensis beta-catenin is differentially stabilized along the oral-aboral axis, translocated into nuclei in cells at the site of gastrulation and used to specify entoderm, indicating an evolutionarily ancient role for this protein in early pattern formation.

Wikramanayake, Athula H.; Hong, Melanie; Lee, Patricia N.; Pang, Kevin; Byrum, Christine A.; Bince, Joanna M.; Xu, Ronghui; Martindale, Mark Q.

2003-01-01

25

Primary Germ Cell Tumor of the Mediastinum - Presenting as a Huge Mass  

PubMed Central

Germ cell tumors compromise 15-20% of all anterior mediastinal masses; 50-60% of these are benign mediastinal teratoma. There may be mature, immature, and rarely with malignant component within the tumor mass. There are more chances of malignancy with immature type. We are reporting a case in 20-year young male diagnosed as giant benign cystic teratoma which was adherent to superior vena cava. The patient underwent surgical excision. In follow up of 2 years, the patient is not having any complaints.

Dalal, Usha; Jora, Manjit Singh; Dalal, Ashwani K.; Attri, Ashok K.; Singal, Rikki; Gupta, Samita

2014-01-01

26

Variation in the Dorsal gradient distribution is a source for modified scaling of germ layers in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Specification of germ layers along the dorso-ventral (DV) axis by morphogenetic gradients is an ideal model to study scaling properties of gradients and cell fate changes during evolution. Classical anatomical studies in divergent insects (e.g. flies and grasshopper) revealed that the neuroectodermal size is conserved and originates similar numbers of neuroblasts of homologous identity [1-3]. In contrast, mesodermal domains vary significantly in closely related Drosophila species [4]. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of scaling of germ layers across Drosophila species, we quantified the Dorsal (Dl)/NFk-B gradient, the main morphogenetic gradient that initiates separation of the mesoderm, neuroectoderm and ectoderm [5-7]. We discovered a variable range of Toll activation across species and that Dl activates mesodermal genes at same threshold levels in melanogaster sibling species. We also show that the Dl gradient distribution can be modulated by nuclear size and packing densities. We propose that variation in mesodermal size occurs at a fast evolutionary rate and is an important mechanism to define the ventral boundary of the neuroectoderm.

Chahda, Juan Sebastian; Sousa-Neves, Rui; Mizutani, Claudia Mieko

2013-01-01

27

Heterochromatin protein 1? overexpression in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells elicits spontaneous differentiation into the three germ layers.  

PubMed

P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are pluripotent stem cells and have numerous morphological and biochemical properties in common with embryonic stem (ES) cells. However, P19 cells differentiate very ineffectively as embryoid bodies (EBs) without the specific chemical inducers whereas ES cells exhibit spontaneous differentiation to the three germ layers. Recently the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family protein HP1?, which is an epigenetic modulator that binds histone H3 methylated at lysine 9, is shown to be associated with the progression from pluripotent to differentiated status in ES cells. Therefore, to study the role of HP1? in the differentiation capacity of P19 cells, we have established a HP1?-overexpressing P19 cell line (HPl?-P19). Similar to the parental P19 cells, undifferentiated HP1?-P19 cells continued to express pluripotency marker genes. However, HP1?-P19 cells exhibited significant morphological differentiation including beating cardiomyocytes, as well as Tuj1-positive neuronal cells and Sox17-positive endodermal cells after EB formation under a normal culture condition. Moreover, real-time RT-qPCR analysis revealed that HP1?-P19 EB cells expressed various differentiation marker genes. Thus, HP1?-P19 cells could give rise to all three germ layers in EBs without any drug treatment. Therefore, HP1? affects the spontaneous differentiation potential of P19 cells, and might play major roles in the decision of cell fates in pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23313480

Morikawa, Kumi; Ikeda, Nobuhito; Hisatome, Ichiro; Shirayoshi, Yasuaki

2013-02-01

28

Effects of different feeder layers on short-term culture of prepubertal bovine testicular germ cells in-vitro.  

PubMed

Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are exceptional adult stem cells that transfer genes to new generations. This behavior makes them unique cells for the production of transgenic farm animals. However, this goal has been hampered by their spontaneous differentiation during in vitro culture. Therefore, the objective of this study was the evaluation of the effects of different feeders on in vitro short-term culture of prepubertal bovine testicular germ cells. The isolated cell suspensions containing SSCs were enriched by Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gelatin and were cultured in the presence of Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and basic Fibroblastic Growth Factor (bFGF). After 7 d of culture, colonies were harvested and cultured on four different feeders, including SIM mouse embryo-derived thioguanine and ouabain resistant (STO), mouse embryonic fibroblast, bovine Sertoli cells (BSC) and on a laminin-coated plate. The number and area of colonies were measured at seven, 11 and 14 d post-culture. The expression of germ cells markers was detected using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analyses on day 7, and quantitative real-time PCR at 14 d post-culture. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that colonies were positive for Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Thy-1, Oct-4, c-ret, ?6-integrin, ?1-integrin and negative for c-kit. In addition, the number and area of those colonies formed on the STO feeder were significantly greater than the other groups. Relative expressions of Thy-1 in the STO and in BSC groups were significantly higher than other groups but expression of Oct-4 was highest in the laminin group compared to other groups. In conclusion, STO might be a suitable feeder layer for in vitro propagation of bovine testicular germ cells. PMID:22289219

Nasiri, Z; Hosseini, S M; Hajian, M; Abedi, P; Bahadorani, M; Baharvand, H; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

2012-05-01

29

Fighting Germs  

MedlinePLUS

Home Body Fighting germs Fighting germs It may sound kind of disgusting, but germs are everywhere. They are so small that you can’t see them, but ... your body. There are four different types of germs: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. They can cause ...

30

Glo Germ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment helped a group of friends actually see how germs are spread. They were able to see how following health tips (like sneezing into your elbow instead of your hand) helped limit the amount of germs spread to others.

Tv, Agonfly

31

YKL-40 is differentially expressed in human embryonic stem cells and in cell progeny of the three germ layers.  

PubMed

The secreted glycoprotein YKL-40 participates in cell differentiation, inflammation, and cancer progression. High YKL-40 expression is reported during early human development, but its functions are unknown. Six human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines were cultured in an atmosphere of low or high oxygen tension, in culture medium with or without basic fibroblast growth factor, and on feeder layers comprising mouse embryonic fibroblasts or human foreskin fibroblasts to evaluate whether hESCs and their progeny produced YKL-40 and to characterize YKL-40 expression during differentiation. Secreted YKL-40 protein and YKL-40 mRNA expression were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Serial-sectioned colonies were stained for YKL-40 protein and for pluripotent hESC (OCT4, NANOG) and germ layer (HNF-3?, PDX1, CD34, p63, nestin, PAX6) markers. Double-labeling showed YKL-40 expression in OCT4-positive hESCs, PAX6-positive neuroectodermal cells, and HNF-3?-positive endodermal cells. The differentiating progeny showed strong YKL-40 expression. Abrupt transition between YKL-40 and OCT4-positive hESCs and YKL-40-positive ecto- and neuroectodermal lineages was observed within the same epithelial-like layer. YKL-40-positive cells within deeper layers lacked contact with OCT4-positive cells. YKL-40 may be important in initial cell differentiation from hESCs toward ectoderm and neuroectoderm, with retained epithelial morphology, whereas later differentiation into endoderm and mesoderm involves a transition into the deeper layers of the colony. PMID:22140133

Brøchner, Christian B; Johansen, Julia S; Larsen, Lars A; Bak, Mads; Mikkelsen, Hanne B; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding; Møllgård, Kjeld

2012-03-01

32

Repression of nodal expression by maternal B1-type SOXs regulates germ layer formation in Xenopus and zebrafish.  

PubMed

B1-type SOXs (SOXs 1, 2, and 3) are the most evolutionarily conserved subgroup of the SOX transcription factor family. To study their maternal functions, we used the affinity-purified antibody antiSOX3c, which inhibits the binding of Xenopus SOX3 to target DNA sequences [Development. 130(2003)5609]. The antibody also cross-reacts with zebrafish embryos. When injected into fertilized Xenopus or zebrafish eggs, antiSOX3c caused a profound gastrulation defect; this defect could be rescued by the injection of RNA encoding SOX3DeltaC-EnR, a SOX3-engrailed repression domain chimera. In antiSOX3c-injected Xenopus embryos, normal animal-vegetal patterning of mesodermal and endodermal markers was disrupted, expression domains were shifted toward the animal pole, and the levels of the endodermal markers SOX17 and endodermin increased. In Xenopus, SOX3 acts as a negative regulator of Xnr5, which encodes a nodal-related TGFbeta-family protein. Two nodal-related proteins are expressed in the early zebrafish embryo, squint and cyclops; antiSOX3c-injection leads to an increase in the level of cyclops expression. In both Xenopus and zebrafish, the antiSOX3c phenotype was rescued by the injection of RNA encoding the nodal inhibitor Cerberus-short (CerS). In Xenopus, antiSOX3c's effects on endodermin expression were suppressed by injection of RNA encoding a dominant negative version of Mixer or a morpholino against SOX17alpha2, both of which act downstream of nodal signaling in the endoderm specification pathway. Based on these data, it appears that maternal B1-type SOX functions together with the VegT/beta-catenin system to regulate nodal expression and to establish the normal pattern of germ layer formation in Xenopus. A mechanistically conserved system appears to act in a similar manner in the zebrafish. PMID:15302595

Zhang, Chi; Basta, Tamara; Hernandez-Lagunas, Laura; Simpson, Peter; Stemple, Derek L; Artinger, Kristin B; Klymkowsky, Michael W

2004-09-01

33

Primary CNS Teratocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Primary central nervous system (CNS) teratomas are rare tumors that consist of all three germ cell layers. We describe a young man with a primary malignant CNS teratocarcinoma presenting as leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Diagnosis of primary CNS teratocarcinomas is challenging; relentless pursuit of the diagnosis must follow even if early ancillary studies are inconclusive.

Vitorovic, Danilo; Rosenblum, Jordan; Thomas, Chinnamma; Lee, John; Biller, Jose

2012-01-01

34

Low NOx primary zones using jet mixing shear layer combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interacting radial and axial multi jet shear layer combustion system is described that has the rapid fuel and air mixing characteristics necessary for low NOx emissions. The radial jet has the fuel mixed with a proportion of the total primary zone flow and a 30% proportion was investigated. This radial jet was fuel rich at most primary zone operating

G. E. Andrews; A. R. W. G. Shahabadi

1988-01-01

35

Germ Tag  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this version of tag, a large group of learners model how the body fights infection. Learners act as germs, as lymphocytes, and as the body's cells threatened by germs. After playing one round, subsequent rounds can use different numbers of germs and/or lymphocytes to see how the infection rate is changed. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. They can also keep track of their progress in all of the Kinetic City activities, and compare their progress to other participants worldwide.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

36

Influence of commercially derived lipids and a surfactant on the mode of germination and process of germ-tube formation in primary conidia of two species of Erynia subgenus Neopandora (Zygomycotina: Entomophthorales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary conidia of the entomopathogens Erynia (subgenus Neopandora) delphacis (1 isolate) and Erynia ( Neopandora) neoaphidis\\u000a (3 isolates) were stimulated to form germ-tubes with Tween 20 and with free, long-chain fatty acids, each incorporated into\\u000a Entomophthora complete medium (ECM). When combined with other basal media (three tested), these compounds did not stimulate\\u000a germ-tube formation. Triacylglycerols and vegetable oils, added to

Aviva Uziel; Robert G. Kenneth

1998-01-01

37

Neonatal line as a linear evidence of live birth: Estimation of postnatal survival of a new born from primary tooth germs  

PubMed Central

Background: The presence of neonatal line indicates live birth and it is possible to estimate the exact period of survival of the infant in days by measuring the amount of postnatal hard tissue formation, and thus can be an evidence to the brutal act of infanticide. Materials and Methods: Primary tooth germs of both the arches were removed from the sockets of an infant who died few days after birth. Ground sections were made with hard tissue microtome. Decalcified sections were made from the crown of primary right mandibular canine and the sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. To visualize the neonatal line, the sections were subjected to light mocroscopy, polarized microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A developing permanent molar from a one and a half year old boy and ten fully developed deciduous molars were used as controls. Results: The ground sections of all the developing tooth germs showed the presence of neonatal line and the analysis of enamel showed six distinct cross striations along the enamel rod length indicating the period of survival of the baby to be six days which was later confirmed with the hospital records. Conclusion: Neonatal line could be used as an evidence of infanticide. Accurate detection of neonatal line with advanced techniques could rewrite this supplementary evidence of infanticide into substantial evidence.

Janardhanan, Mahija; Umadethan, B; Biniraj, KR; Kumar, RB Vinod; Rakesh, S

2011-01-01

38

What Are Germs?  

MedlinePLUS

... say we've been attacked! What Types of Germs Are There? Germs are found all over the ... diarrhea, nausea, and belly pain. Continue What Do Germs Do? Once germs invade our bodies, they snuggle ...

39

Influence of commercially derived lipids and a surfactant on the mode of germination and process of germ-tube formation in primary conidia of two species of Erynia subgenus Neopandora (Zygomycotina: Entomophthorales.  

PubMed

Primary conidia of the entomopathogens Erynia (subgenus Neopandora) delphacis (1 isolate) and Erynia (Neopandora) neoaphidis (3 isolates) were stimulated to form germ-tubes with Tween 20 and with free, long-chain fatty acids, each incorporated into Entomophthora complete medium (ECM). When combined with other basal media (three tested), these compounds did not stimulate germ-tube formation. Triacylglycerols and vegetable oils, added to the same media, allowed almost complete resporulation in the fungi. In both species, Tween 20 (0.1%) encouraged greater germ-tube production (41-69%) than the fatty acids (0.1%) (< or = 36%). For E. delphacis, Tween 20 and the fatty acids differed significantly, but for E. neoaphidis the differences were almost always insignificant. Myristic and oleic acids stimulated germ-tube formation in both species. Palmitic acid allowed almost complete resporulation of the fungi, except for one isolate of E. neoaphidis that formed germ-tubes. Linoleic acid, tested only for E. delphacis, was fungistatic to most conidia. Higher concentrations of the fatty acids (< or = 1%) did not increase germ-tube formation, except 1% oleic acid which affected E. delphacis alone (>80% germination and germ-tubes). Linoleic acid, and sometimes also myristic and oleic, were fungistatic and/or toxic, depending on their concentration and on medium composition. Addition of fatty acids to ECM usually extended the lag period, and altered the morphology of the conidia and germ-tubes. These phenomena were not observed with Tween 20. Colonies were formed by E. delphacis alone, stimulated by ECM supplemented with Tween 20 or fatty acids. The results are discussed with respect to biological and physiological aspects of germination, and with respect to the mode of action of the fatty acids and the surfactant. PMID:16284830

Uziel, A; Kenneth, R G

40

Pediatric primary central nervous system germ cell tumors of different prognosis groups show characteristic miRNome traits and chromosome copy number variations  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and heterogeneous neoplasms and vary in histological differentiation, prognosis and clinical behavior. Germinoma and mature teratoma are GCTs that have a good prognosis, while other types of GCTs, termed nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs), are tumors with an intermediate or poor prognosis. The second group of tumors requires more extensive drug and irradiation treatment regimens. The mechanisms underlying the differences in incidence and prognosis of the various GCT subgroups are unclear. Results We identified a distinct mRNA profile correlating with GCT histological differentiation and prognosis, and also present in this study the first miRNA profile of pediatric primary intracranial GCTs. Most of the differentially expressed miRNAs were downregulated in germinomas, but miR-142-5p and miR-146a were upregulated. Genes responsible for self-renewal (such as POU5F1 (OCT4), NANOG and KLF4) and the immune response were abundant in germinomas, while genes associated with neuron differentiation, Wnt/?-catenin pathway, invasiveness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (including SNAI2 (SLUG) and TWIST2) were abundant in NGMGCTs. Clear transcriptome segregation based on patient survival was observed, with malignant NGMGCTs being closest to embryonic stem cells. Chromosome copy number variations (CNVs) at cytobands 4q13.3-4q28.3 and 9p11.2-9q13 correlated with GCT malignancy and clinical risk. Six genes (BANK1, CXCL9, CXCL11, DDIT4L, ELOVL6 and HERC5) within 4q13.3-4q28.3 were more abundant in germinomas. Conclusions Our results integrate molecular profiles with clinical observations and provide insights into the underlying mechanisms causing GCT malignancy. The genes, pathways and microRNAs identified have the potential to be novel therapeutic targets.

2010-01-01

41

Germ Cell Tumors -- Childhood  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Germ Cell Tumor - Childhood Share This Page: Germ Cell Tumor - Childhood This section has been reviewed ... Editorial Board , 7/2013 Overview Cancer.Net Guide Germ Cell Tumor - Childhood Overview Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms ...

42

Germ cell differentiation from pluripotent cells.  

PubMed

Infertility is a medical condition with an increasing impact in Western societies with causes linked to toxins, genetics, and aging (primarily delay of motherhood). Within the different pathologies that can lead to infertility, poor quality or reduced quantity of gametes plays an important role. Gamete donation and therefore demand on donated sperm and eggs in fertility clinics is increasing. It is hoped that a better understanding of the conditions related to poor gamete quality may allow scientists to design rational treatments. However, to date, relatively little is known about human germ cell development in large part due to the inaccessibility of human development to molecular genetic analysis. It is hoped that pluripotent human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells may provide an accessible in vitro model to study germline development; these cells are able to differentiate to cells of all three primary embryonic germ layers, as well as to germ cells in vitro. We review the state of the art in germline differentiation from pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23329632

Medrano, Jose V; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Simón, Carlos

2013-01-01

43

Germ cell binding to rat Sertoli cells in vitro.  

PubMed

The interaction between male germ cells and Sertoli cells was studied in vitro by co-incubation experiments using isolated rat germ cells and primary cultures of Sertoli cells made germ cell-free by the differential sensitivity of germ cells to hypotonic shock. The germ cell/Sertoli cell interaction was examined morphologically with phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy and then quantified by measuring radioactivity bound to Sertoli cell cultures after co-incubation with added [3H]leucine-labeled germ cells. Germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures was the result of specific adhesion between these two cell types, and several features of this specific adhesion were observed. First, germ cells adhered to Sertoli cell cultures under conditions during which spleen cells and red blood cells did not. Second, germ cells had a greater affinity for Sertoli cell cultures than they had for cultures of testicular peritubular cells or cerebellar astrocytes. Third, germ cells fixed with paraformaldehyde adhered to live Sertoli cultures while similarly fixed spleen cells adhered less tightly. Neither live nor paraformaldehyde-fixed germ cells adhered to fixed Sertoli cell cultures. Fourth, germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures was not immediate but increased steadily and approached a maximum at 4 h of co-incubation. Saturation of germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures occurred when more than 4200 germ cells were added per mm2 of Sertoli cell culture surface. Finally, germ cell binding to Sertoli cell cultures was eliminated when co-incubation was performed on ice. Based on these observations, we concluded that germ cell adhesion to Sertoli cells was specific, temperature-dependent, and required a viable Sertoli cell but not necessarily a viable germ cell. These results have important implications for understanding the complex interaction between Sertoli cells and germ cells within the seminiferous tubule and in the design of future experiments probing details of this interaction. PMID:3442698

DePhilip, R M; Danahey, D G

1987-12-01

44

Snail and the microRNA-200 family act in opposition to regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and germ layer fate restriction in differentiating ESCs.  

PubMed

The reprogramming of somatic cells to inducible pluripotent stem cells requires a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. While differentiating ESCs can undergo the reverse process or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), little is known about the role of EMT in ESC differentiation and fate commitment. Here, we show that Snail homolog 1 (Snail) is expressed during ESC differentiation and is capable of inducing EMT on day 2 of ESC differentiation. Induction of EMT by Snail promotes mesoderm commitment while repressing markers of the primitive ectoderm and epiblast. Snail's impact on differentiation can be partly explained through its regulation of a number of ESC-associated microRNAs, including the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family. The miR-200 family is normally expressed in ESCs but is downregulated in a Wnt-dependent manner during EMT. Maintenance of miR-200 expression stalls differentiating ESCs at the epiblast-like stem cell (EpiSC) stage. Consistent with a role for activin in maintaining the EpiSC state, we find that inhibition of activin signaling decreases miR-200 expression and allows EMT to proceed with a bias toward neuroectoderm commitment. Furthermore, miR-200 requires activin to efficiently maintain cells at the epiblast stage. Together, these findings demonstrate that Snail and miR-200 act in opposition to regulate EMT and exit from the EpiSC stage toward induction of germ layer fates. By modulating expression levels of Snail, activin, and miR-200, we are able to control the order in which cells undergo EMT and transition out of the EpiSC state. PMID:21394833

Gill, Jennifer G; Langer, Ellen M; Lindsley, R Coleman; Cai, Mi; Murphy, Theresa L; Kyba, Michael; Murphy, Kenneth M

2011-05-01

45

Germ-Line Variants in Methyl-Group Metabolism Genes and Susceptibility to DNA Methylation in Normal Tissues and Human Primary Tumors1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant DNA methylation is recognized as being a common feature of human neoplasia. CpG island hypermethylation and global genomic hy- pomethylation occur simultaneously in the cancer cell. However, very little is known about the interindividual inherited susceptibility to these epigenetic processes. To address this matter, we have genotyped in 233 cancer patients (with colorectal, breast, or lung tumors), four germ-line

Maria F. Paz; Sonia Avila; Mario F. Fraga; Marina Pollan; Gabriel Capella; Miquel Angel Peinado; Montserrat Sanchez-Cespedes; James G. Herman; Manel Esteller

46

Diagnostic utility of novel stem cell markers SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in primary mediastinal germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and sometimes they pose diagnostic difficulty without immunohistochemical studies. Here, we investigated the diagnostic utility of 6 stem cell markers (SCMs) SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in 16 primary mediastinal seminomas, 3 embryonal carcinomas (ECs), 10 yolk sac tumors (YSTs), 7 teratomas (4 mature, 3 immature), and 1 choriocarcinoma. The percentage of tumor cells stained was scored as: 0 (no tumor cell staining), 1+ (< or =30%), 2+ (31% to 60%), 3+ (61% to 90%), and 4+ (>90%). The staining intensity of SCMs was scored as weak, moderate, or strong. We also compared them with currently used GCT markers placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), c-KIT, CD30, and glypican-3. All 16 seminomas showed staining for SALL4 (4+ in 15, 2+ in 1) (15 strong, 1 moderate), OCT4 (4+ in 11, 3+ in 4, 2+ in 1) (13 strong, 3 moderate), and UTF1 (4+ in 13, 3+ in 2, 2+ in 1) (7 strong, 5 moderate, 4 weak). Positive staining was shown by 9/9 seminomas tested for NANOG (4+ in 7, 2+ in 2) (8 strong, 1 weak), TCL1 (4+ strong in all), c-KIT (4+ in all), and PLAP (4+ in 5, 3+ in 1, 2+ in 2, 1+ in 1), but SOX2 staining was negative in all these tumors. All 3 ECs showed 4+ strong staining for SALL4, OCT4, and UTF1 but negative for TCL1. SOX2 staining was seen in 3/3 ECs (4+ strong in 1, 3+ weak to moderate in 2) whereas NANOG staining was seen in 2/3 ECs (2+ weak, 1+ moderate). CD30 staining was seen in 3/3 ECs (1+, 2+, 4+). Strong SALL4 staining was seen in 10/10 YSTs (4+ in 9, 2+ in 1). All 10 YSTs showed AFP (1+ in 7, 2+ in 1, 3+ in 2) and glypican-3 (1+ in 3, 2+ in 1, 3+ in 5, 4+ in 1) staining but only 4/10 YSTs showed PLAP staining (1+ in all 4). The mean percentage of YST cells stained with SALL4 was 92%, whereas it was 23% for AFP, 50% for glypican-3, and 4% for PLAP (P<0.01). Focal (1+) SALL4 (weak) and SOX2 (weak to moderate) staining was seen in 2/7 and 4/7 teratomas, respectively. The choriocarcinoma was negative for all 6 SCMs. Eleven thymomas and 6 thymic carcinomas were negative for 6 SCMs. No staining of NANOG and SOX2 was seen in 20 lymphomas (5 Hodgkin, 5 large B cell, 5 lymphoblastic, 5 anaplastic large cell) (other 4 SCMs in lymphomas earlier studied). Our study indicates that SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TLC1 are novel sensitive diagnostic markers for primary mediastinal GCTs, with high specificity. Of these 6 SCMs, SALL4 is the only 1 expressed in YST. These novel SCMs are more sensitive than the currently used markers for mediastinal GCTs. PMID:20410807

Liu, Aijun; Cheng, Liang; Du, Jun; Peng, Yan; Allan, Robert W; Wei, Lixin; Li, Jianping; Cao, Dengfeng

2010-05-01

47

DNA Methylation Is the Primary Silencing Mechanism for a Set of Germ Line and Tumor-Specific Genes with a CpG-Rich Promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subset of male germ line-specific genes, the MAGE-type genes, are activated in many human tumors, where they produce tumor-specific antigens recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes. Previous studies on gene MAGE-A1 indicated that transcription factors regulating its expression are present in all tumor cell lines whether or not they express the gene. The analysis of two CpG sites located in

CHARLES DE SMET; CHRISTOPHE LURQUIN; BERNARD LETHE; VALERIE MARTELANGE; THIERRY BOON

1999-01-01

48

The Transitioning Germ Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Germline constancy is a must for species continuity, but the life of the germ cell itself is full of change. The trek to and from the germ line includes numerous transitions and decisions deftly choreographed for the gametes' unique ability in nature to develop into a complex animal and pass on genetic information. This special section highlights the transitioning germ line and otherwise expands on intriguing aspects of these cells of heredity.

Beverly Purnell (AAAS;); John Travis (AAAS;)

2007-04-20

49

Testicular Germ Cell Cancer  

Cancer.gov

More than 90 percent of testicular cancer start in the germ cells, which are cells in the testicles and develop into sperm. This type of cancer is known as testicular germ cell cancer. Testicular germ cell cancer can be classified as either seminomas or nonseminomas, whose cells have different appearances under a microscope.1 Another difference is that nonseminomas typically grow and spread more quickly than seminomas.

50

Epigenetic regulation of germ cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

Germ cells and somatic cells have the identical genome. However, unlike the mortal fate of somatic cells, germ cells have the unique ability to differentiate into gametes that retain totipotency and produce an entire organism upon fertilization [1]. The processes by which germ cells differentiate into gametes, and those by which gametes become embryos, involve dramatic cellular differentiation accompanied by drastic changes in gene expression, which are tightly regulated by genetic circuitries as well as epigenetic mechanisms [2,3]. Epigenetic regulation refers to heritable changes in gene expression that are not due to changes in primary DNA sequence. The past decade has witnessed an ever-increasing understanding of epigenetic regulation in many different cell types/tissues during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. In this review, we focus on recent discoveries of epigenetic regulation of germ cell differentiation in various metazoan model organisms, including worms, flies, and mammals.

Eun, Suk Ho; Gan, Qiang; Chen, Xin

2010-01-01

51

Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC)  

MedlinePLUS

Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer (EGC) 95% of all testicular tumors are germ cell tumors. That is, the tumors originate in ... cells in the ovary (female gonads). Occasionally, however, germ cell tumors develop elsewhere in the body without ...

52

RNA Granules in Germ Cells  

PubMed Central

Germ granules” are cytoplasmic, nonmembrane-bound organelles unique to germline. Germ granules share components with the P bodies and stress granules of somatic cells, but also contain proteins and RNAs uniquely required for germ cell development. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of germ granule assembly, dynamics, and function. One hypothesis is that germ granules operate as hubs for the posttranscriptional control of gene expression, a function at the core of the germ cell differentiation program.

Voronina, Ekaterina; Seydoux, Geraldine; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Nagamori, Ippei

2011-01-01

53

Germ cells are forever.  

PubMed

Germ cells are the only cell type capable of generating an entirely new organism. In order to execute germline-specific functions and to retain the capacity for totipotency, germ cells repress somatic differentiation, interact with a specialized microenvironment, and use germline-specific networks of RNA regulation. PMID:18295574

Cinalli, Ryan M; Rangan, Prashanth; Lehmann, Ruth

2008-02-22

54

Cancer testis antigen expression in testicular germ cell tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Cancer testis antigens are encoded by germ line-associated genes that are present in normal germ cells of testis and ovary but not in differentiated tissues. Their expression in various human cancer types has been interpreted as 're-expression' or as intratumoral progenitor cell signature. Cancer testis antigen expression patterns have not yet been studied in germ cell tumorigenesis with specific emphasis on intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified as a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used to study MAGEA3, MAGEA4, MAGEC1, GAGE1 and CTAG1B expression in 325 primary testicular germ cell tumors, including 94 mixed germ cell tumors. Seminomatous and non-seminomatous components were separately arranged and evaluated on tissue microarrays. Spermatogonia in the normal testis were positive, whereas intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified was negative for all five CT antigens. Cancer testis antigen expression was only found in 3% (CTAG1B), 10% (GAGE1, MAGEA4), 33% (MAGEA3) and 40% (MAGEC1) of classic seminoma but not in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors. In contrast, all spermatocytic seminomas were positive for cancer testis antigens. These data are consistent with a different cell origin in spermatocytic seminoma compared with classic seminoma and support a progression model with loss of cancer testis antigens in early tumorigenesis of testicular germ cell tumors and later re-expression in a subset of seminomas. PMID:24232866

Bode, Peter K; Thielken, Andrea; Brandt, Simone; Barghorn, André; Lohe, Bernd; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger

2014-06-01

55

Genomic Landscape of Developing Male Germ Cells  

PubMed Central

Spermatogenesis is a highly orchestrated developmental process by which spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. This process involves many testis- or male germ cell-specific gene products whose expressions are strictly regulated. In the past decade the advent of high-throughput gene expression analytical techniques has made functional genomic studies of this process, particularly in model animals such as mice and rats, feasible and practical. These studies have just begun to reveal the complexity of the genomic landscape of the developing male germ cells. Over 50% of the mouse and rat genome are expressed during testicular development. Among transcripts present in germ cells, 40% – 60% are uncharacterized. A number of genes, and consequently their associated biological pathways, are differentially expressed at different stages of spermatogenesis. Developing male germ cells present a rich repertoire of genetic processes. Tissue-specific as well as spermatogenesis stage-specific alternative splicing of genes exemplifies the complexity of genome expression. In addition to this layer of control, discoveries of abundant presence of antisense transcripts, expressed psuedogenes, non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) including long ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and retrogenes all point to the presence of multiple layers of expression and functional regulation in male germ cells. It is anticipated that application of systems biology approaches will further our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of spermatogenesis.†

Lee, Tin-Lap; Pang, Alan Lap-Yin; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee

2010-01-01

56

Comparative Pathology of Ovarian Neoplasms. Iii. Germ Cell Tumors of Canine, Bovine, Feline, Rodent and Human Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Germ cell tumours represent approximately 25 per cent. of primary ovarian tumours in women but little is known of their incidence in many other mammalian species. Existing classifications of germ cell tumours are based almost entirely upon studies from wo...

L. P. Dehner H. J. Norris F. M. Garner H. B. Taylor

1969-01-01

57

Extragonadal retroperitoneal germ cell tumors without apparent testicular involvement. A search for the source.  

PubMed

Extratesticular germ cell neoplasms without apparent testicular primary tumors are rare. The origin of these neoplasms has been debated in the literature for decades. With the advent of effective chemotherapy for extratesticular germ cell neoplasms, the origin of these tumors becomes more than academic. We report on 3 cases of retroperitoneal germ cell neoplasms with microscopic intratesticular primary tumors. All patients with extragonadal germinal cell tumors of the testes should undergo thorough investigation for an occult testicular primary tumor despite a normal testis examination. We review previously reported cases of extratesticular germ cell neoplasms without an apparent testicular primary tumor. PMID:3012846

Saltzman, B; Pitts, W R; Vaughan, E D

1986-06-01

58

Environmentally induced transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming of primordial germ cells and the subsequent germ line.  

PubMed

A number of environmental factors (e.g. toxicants) have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. Transgenerational inheritance requires the germline transmission of altered epigenetic information between generations in the absence of direct environmental exposures. The primary periods for epigenetic programming of the germ line are those associated with primordial germ cell development and subsequent fetal germline development. The current study examined the actions of an agricultural fungicide vinclozolin on gestating female (F0 generation) progeny in regards to the primordial germ cell (PGC) epigenetic reprogramming of the F3 generation (i.e. great-grandchildren). The F3 generation germline transcriptome and epigenome (DNA methylation) were altered transgenerationally. Interestingly, disruptions in DNA methylation patterns and altered transcriptomes were distinct between germ cells at the onset of gonadal sex determination at embryonic day 13 (E13) and after cord formation in the testis at embryonic day 16 (E16). A larger number of DNA methylation abnormalities (epimutations) and transcriptional alterations were observed in the E13 germ cells than in the E16 germ cells. These observations indicate that altered transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming and function of the male germline is a component of vinclozolin induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. Insights into the molecular control of germline transmitted epigenetic inheritance are provided. PMID:23869203

Skinner, Michael K; Haque, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna M; Nilsson, Eric; Bhandari, Ramji; McCarrey, John R

2013-01-01

59

Conserved expression pattern of chicken DAZL in primordial germ cells and germ-line cells.  

PubMed

The autosomal gene deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL), which was identified as a member of the deleted in azoospermia (DAZ) family, is homologous to the Drosophila gene BOULE. The authors investigated the sequence similarities of chicken DAZL (cDAZL) with several invertebrate and vertebrate DAZL proteins using CLUSTAL X. A comparison of the primary sequence of cDAZL with other DAZL proteins indicated significant similarities: 70-82% with reptiles, 63-68% with mammals, 51-67% with amphibians, and 42-49% with fishes. The conserved expression pattern of cDAZL was examined by reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, and in situ hybridization during primordial germ cell (PGC) settlement in the gonads and germ-line development. Among several tissues examined on embryonic day E6.5, DAZL expression was detected specifically in male and female gonads. Quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization revealed strong cDAZL expression in PGCs. When the PGCs differentiated into germ cells, cDAZL expression was slightly decreased; however, expression was continuously detected in germ-line cells until the adult stage. We inferred that cDAZL expression was conserved in PGCs and during germ-line differentiation until the adult stage, making them a valuable molecular marker for studies of PGC differentiation and germ-line development in chickens. PMID:20537692

Rengaraj, D; Zheng, Y H; Kang, K S; Park, K J; Lee, B R; Lee, S I; Choi, J W; Han, J Y

2010-09-15

60

The Coherent Structure of Turbulent Mixing Layers. I. Similarity of the Primary Vortex Structure. II. Secondary Streamwise Vortex Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary spanwise organized vortex structure and the secondary streamwise vortex structure of turbulent mixing layers have been investigated. Flow visualization motion pictures of a constant density mixing layer were used to measure the properties of t...

L. P. Bernal

1981-01-01

61

15 INTRACRANIAL GERM CELL TUMORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracranial germ cell tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions which occur in children and adults. Within the classification of intracranial germ cell tumors, there are a variety of different tumor types which carry different prognoses. The diagnosis of an intracranial germ cell tumor usually requires histological informa- tion, but a subgroup of tumors will secrete specific tumor markers, including

J Bjornsson; B Scheithauer; H Okazakl; R W Leech

1984-01-01

62

AiGERM: A logic programming front end for GERM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AiGerm (Artificially Intelligent Graphical Entity Relation Modeler) is a relational data base query and programming language front end for MCC (Mission Control Center)/STP's (Space Test Program) Germ (Graphical Entity Relational Modeling) system. It is intended as an add-on component of the Germ system to be used for navigating very large networks of information. It can also function as an expert system shell for prototyping knowledge-based systems. AiGerm provides an interface between the programming language and Germ.

Hashim, Safaa H.

1990-01-01

63

Germs and Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... diaper Avoiding touching your eyes, nose or mouth Hand washing is one of the most effective and most overlooked ways to stop disease. Soap and water work well to kill germs. Wash for at least 20 seconds and rub your hands briskly. Disposable hand wipes or gel sanitizers also ...

64

Germs and the Body  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson explores germs, where they exist, and how they can affect the body. It also addresses a common misconception that students of all ages may have - that factors important to health are beyond their personal control. In studying bacteria, students will also learn preventative measures they can take to stay healthy.

Science Netlinks;

2002-08-01

65

No. 74: : Germs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Houston's College of Engineering presents this series about the machines that make our civilization run, and the people whose ingenuity created them. This episode is available in audio format. This page recounts the contributions af various persons to the eventual development of the germ theory of disease.

Lienhard, John H.

1997-01-01

66

Transient spine expansion and learning-induced plasticity in layer 1 primary motor cortex.  

PubMed

Experience-dependent regulation of synaptic strength in the horizontal connections in layer 1 of the primary motor cortex is likely to play an important role in motor learning. Dendritic spines, the primary sites of excitatory synapses in the brain, are known to change shape in response to various experimental stimuli. We used a rat motor learning model to examine connection strength via field recordings in slices and confocal imaging of labeled spines to explore changes induced solely by learning a simple motor task. We report that motor learning increases response size, while transiently occluding long-term potentiation (LTP) and increasing spine width in layer 1. This demonstrates learning-induced changes in behavior, synaptic responses, and structure in the same animal, suggesting that an LTP-like process in the motor cortex mediates the initial learning of a skilled task. PMID:18509029

Harms, Kimberly J; Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia S; Carter, D Rosy; Dunaevsky, Anna

2008-05-28

67

Energy distribution in white organic light-emitting diodes with three primary color emitting layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of organic light-emitting diodes with structures of ITO/ N, N'-bis(1-naphthyl)- N, N'-diphenyl,1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB)/tris(8-hydroquinolinato)aluminum(Alq3)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-l,10-phenanthroline(BCP)/Alq3:4-dicyanome-thylene-2-(tert-butyl)-6-methyl-4H-pyran(DCJTB)/Alq3/Al and ITO/NPB/BCP/Alq3/Alq3:DCJTB/Alq3/Al were studied. NPB was chosen as a hole-transporting/blue-emitting layer. Alq3 adjacent to BCP acted as a green emitting layer while that adjacent to the Al cathode acted as an electron-transporting layer. Alq3 doped with 2 wt.% DCJTB was used as a red emitting layer. The operating principles of the devices were explained by the mechanism of Förster energy transfer and the hole and exciton blocking effect of BCP. It was found that the spectral characteristics of the devices strongly depended on the relative location between the green emitting Alq3 layer and the BCP layer, as well as their thickness. Pure white emission with the CIE coordinates of (0.33, 0.33) was achieved by mixing the three primary colors in the device with the structure of ITO/NPB(30 nm)/ BCP(6 nm)/Alq3(30 nm)/Alq3:DCJTB(30 nm)/Alq3(30 nm)/Al. The BCP layer played an important role in distributing the exciton energy among the three emitting layers to achieve a balanced white light. The white emission of this device was largely insensitive to the driving voltage (15-27 V) with the insertion of the green emitting Alq3 layer.

Meng, LingChuan; Lou, ZhiDong; Yang, ShengYi; Deng, ZhaoRu

2011-01-01

68

Renal choriocarcinoma: gestational or germ cell origin?  

PubMed

Choriocarcinoma is a rare, highly malignant trophoblastic tumor with gestational or, rarely, germ cell origin. Primary extragenital localization is extremely rare. This report describes a choriocarcinoma case clinically mimicking a primary renal cell carcinoma with multiplex pulmonary metastases. Differentiation from a sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiation and identification of the exact origin, namely gestational or germ cell origin by molecular genetic methods is of great importance as it helps determine the prognosis and the most effective therapy of the disease. The Investigator Hexaplex ESS Kit was used for DNA polymorphism studies. This showed foreign alleles in the tumor DNA that confirmed the presence of paternal DNA and the gestational origin of the tumor. PMID:23172164

Vereczkey, Ildikó; Csernák, Erzsébet; Olasz, Judit; Küronya, Zsófia; Szentirmay, Zoltán; Tóth, Erika

2012-12-01

69

Patterns of the Kara Sea primary production in autumn: Biotic and abiotic forcing of subsurface layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary production and fundamental environmental factors were measured during September–October 1993, 2007 and 2011 in the Kara Sea. Relationships between the depth-integrated primary production (PPint), the surface chlorophyll a (Chl0) concentration and the maximum chlorophyll specific carbon rate within water column (Pbopt) had shown that only 12% of PPint variability were determined by Chl0 and there were strong correlations between PPint and Pbopt (R2 = 0.64). Thus, in the autumn PPint values were largely influenced by the phytoplankton assimilation activity. At the end of a vegetative season high (close or above 1 mg m? 3) values of Chl0 were not an index of phytoplankton productivity within photosynthetic layer where the organic matter synthesis rate was low which testifies the lack of correlation between Chl0 and PPint (R2 = 0.12) and between Chl0 and depth-integrated chlorophyll a (chl a) (R2 = 0.22). This conclusion is based on the low assimilation activity within water column and small thickness of the photosynthetic layer. The latter corresponds to low insolation and water transparency. The lack of correlation between surface and depth-integrated productivity parameters is the challenge for satellite PPint estimations. In turn PPint and Pbopt depended mainly on photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and weakly related to the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. At the end of a vegetative season PAR level, apparently, should be considered as the main factor for primary production in the Kara Sea. Comparison between the integrated primary production from shipboard in September and the simulated evaluations of productivity (PP models) suggests that PP models overestimate the in situ PPint by a factor of 3–7 in the different Kara Sea regions. Improving of Kara Sea primary production estimations implies the development of regional satellite chl a algorithm and local primary production model considering specific features of PP in this Arctic Ocean region.

Demidov, Andrey B.; Mosharov, Sergey A.; Makkaveev, Peter N.

2014-04-01

70

Retroperitoneal germ cell tumor diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration  

PubMed Central

Isolated extragonadal germ cell tumors can be primary in nature or metastatic from a burned out testicular cancer. Accurate diagnosis is critical as appropriate therapy can be highly curative. We present the case of an isolated extragonadal germ cell tumor in the retroperitoneum diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration. This case underscores the importance of considering germ cell tumors in the differential diagnosis of an unexplained retroperitoneal mass, particularly since immunophenotypic staining may be necessary to establish the diagnosis.

Womeldorph, Craig M; Zalupski, Mark M; Knoepp, Stewart M; Soltani, Mohammad; Elmunzer, B Joseph

2010-01-01

71

Correlation between macular changes and the peripapillary nerve fiber layer in primary open angle glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness and the early diagnosis is crucial for treatment and follow-up in the progression of the disease. Objective: To evaluate the changes in mean macular thickness and volume and compare them with the mean thickness of the peripapillary nerve fiber layer in primary open angle glaucoma, using Time Domain (TD) optical coherence tomography ( OCT). Method: The examinations were conducted on 275 eyes of 138 patients, as it follows: 203 eyes of 102 patients diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma in various stages of evolution, representing the study group, and 72 normal eyes from 36 patients, representing the control group. The study was conducted from March 2010 to December 2012. All the patients gave their consent, in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration. The study group showed a decrease in mean macular thickness and volume, as well as mean thickness of the peripapillary nerve fiber layer (RNFL) compared to the control group. According to the OCT measurements, the results of the study have shown that the decrease of the mean thickness of the RNFL is a better differentiator between glaucomatous and normal eyes compared to the decrease of the mean macular thickness and volume.

Manasia, D; Voinea, L; Vasinca, ID; Alexandrescu, C

2014-01-01

72

Germ Cell Intercellular Bridges  

PubMed Central

Stable intercellular bridges are a conserved feature of gametogenesis in multicellular animals observed more than 100 years ago, but their function was unknown. Many of the components necessary for this structure have been identified through the study of cytokinesis in Drosophila; however, mammalian intercellular bridges have distinct properties from those of insects. Mammalian germ cell intercellular bridges are composed of general cytokinesis components with additional germ cell–specific factors including TEX14. TEX14 is an inactive kinase essential for the maintenance of stable intercellular bridges in gametes of both sexes but whose loss specifically impairs male meiosis. TEX14 acts to impede the terminal steps of abscission by competing for essential component CEP55, blocking its interaction in nongerm cells with ALIX and TSG101. Additionally, TEX14-interacting protein RBM44, whose localization in stabile intercellular bridges is limited to pachytene and secondary spermatocytes, may participate in processes such as RNA transport but is nonessential to the maintenance of intercellular bridge stability.

Greenbaum, Michael P.; Iwamori, Tokuko; Buchold, Gregory M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

2011-01-01

73

Male Germ Cell Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of the male gamete occurs in sequential mitotic, meiotic, and postmeiotic phases. Many germ cell-specific transcripts are produced during this process. Their expression is develop- mentally regulated and stage specific. Some of these transcripts are product of genes that are male germ cell-specific homologs of genes expressed in somatic cells, while some are expressed from unique genes unlike any

EDWARD M. EDDY

2010-01-01

74

Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM) initiative is a grass- roots effort with the goal of establishing a community consensus on a chemical characterization of the Earth, its major reservoirs, and the fluxes between them. Long term goal of GERM is ...

H. Staudigel F. Albarede H. Shaw B. McDonough W. White

1996-01-01

75

Rapid adult experience-dependent anatomical plasticity in layer IV of primary somatosensory cortex.  

PubMed

Sensory deprivation, such as whisker deprivation, is one of the most common paradigms used to examine experience-dependent plasticity. Many of these studies conducted during development have demonstrated anatomical and synaptic neocortical plasticity with varying lengths of deprivation (for review, see Holtmaat and Svoboda, 2009). However, to date, there have been few studies exploring brief periods of experience-dependent neocortical plasticity in adulthood, similar to that observed from learning and memory paradigms (Siucinska and Kossut, 1996, 2004; Galvez et al., 2006; Chau et al., 2013). Examining both synapsin I and Golgi-Cox stained neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of unilaterally whisker-deprived adult mice, the current study demonstrates that 5 days of whisker deprivation results in more synapses in spared barrels and reduced synapses in deprived barrels. To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize anatomical changes in layer IV of primary somatosensory cortex after a brief period of sensory deprivation in adulthood. Furthermore, findings from the present study suggest that analyses from prolonged periods of either sensory deprivation or stimulation during adulthood are missing forms of plasticity that could provide better insight into various cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. PMID:24183785

Chau, Lily S; Akhtar, Omar; Mohan, Vijay; Kondilis, Athanasios; Galvez, Roberto

2014-01-16

76

Enzymatic saccharification of defatted corn germ.  

PubMed

Commercial defatted germ from wet milled corn was efficiently saccharified by a crude enzyme preparation from Aureobasidium sp. with yields of up to 200 mg glucose, 140 mg xylose, and 130 mg arabinose per g germ. These yields exceeded sugar composition estimates based on trifluoroacetic acid digestion. Neither chemical nor mechanical pretreatments were necessary. Results from independent lots of defatted germ were similar. Enzymatically digested germ residues were enriched to 40% (w/v) protein. Defatted germ from dry milled corn contained approx. 50% more starch than wet milled germ and was saccharified to produce up to 315 mg glucose per g germ with reduced yields of pentose sugars. PMID:15049363

Leathers, Timothy D

2004-02-01

77

Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

2014-05-30

78

Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors)  

MedlinePLUS

General Information About Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Childhood central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors form from germ cells. This summary is about germ cell tumors that start ...

79

General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... extragonadal germ cell tumors include chest pain and breathing problems. Malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors may cause ... have any of the following problems: Chest pain. Breathing problems. Cough. Fever . Headache. Change in bowel habits. ...

80

Aerosol Measurements in the Atmospheric Surface Layer at L'Aquila, Italy: Focus on Biogenic Primary Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two year measurements of aerosol concentration and size distribution (0.25 ?m < d < 30 ?m) in the atmospheric surface layer, collected in L'Aquila (Italy) with an optical particle counter, are reported and analysed for the different modes of the particle size distribution. A different seasonal behaviour is shown for fine mode aerosols (largely produced by anthropogenic combustion), coarse mode and large-sized aerosols, whose abundance is regulated not only by anthropogenic local production, but also by remote natural sources (via large scale atmospheric transport) and by local sources of primary biogenic aerosols. The observed total abundance of large particles with diameter larger than 10 ?m is compared with a statistical counting of primary biogenic particles, made with an independent technique. Results of these two observational approaches are analysed and compared to each other, with the help of a box model driven by observed meteorological parameters and validated with measurements of fine and coarse mode aerosols and of an atmospheric primary pollutant of anthropogenic origin (NOx). Except in winter months, primary biogenic particles in the L'Aquila measurement site are shown to dominate the atmospheric boundary layer population of large aerosol particles with diameter larger than 10 ?m (about 80 % of the total during summer months), with a pronounced seasonal cycle, contrary to fine mode aerosols of anthropogenic origin. In order to explain these findings, the main mechanisms controlling the abundance and variability of particulate matter tracers in the atmospheric surface layer are analysed with the numerical box-model.

Pitari, Giovanni; Coppari, Eleonora; De Luca, Natalia; Di Carlo, Piero; Pace, Loretta

2014-03-01

81

Stage-dependent DAZL localization in stallion germ cells.  

PubMed

Deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) is used as a germ cell marker in several species, including mice, rats, pigs, rhesus monkeys, bulls, and humans. Our objectives with this study were to investigate DAZL expression in stallion germ cells by using immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry, and western blotting, and to determine the effects of reproductive stage and breeding season on the DAZL-positive cell population in seminiferous tubule cross sections. Testes were obtained during routine castration procedures at a large animal clinic and routine field service castration. The reproductive stage of the stallions was classified as pre-pubertal (<1 yr), pubertal (1-1.5 yr), post-pubertal (2-3 yr), or adult (4-8 yr). Using immunofluorescent staining, we showed that DAZL is localized to the cytoplasm of some, but not all, spermatogonia in pre-pubertal and pubertal horses. In the post-pubertal and adult testes, DAZL immunostaining was observed in spermatogonia proximal to the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules; however, few spermatogonia attached to the basement membrane were not immunolabeled. DAZL immunostaining was also observed in primary spermatocytes, but not in secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, or spermatozoa. DAZL protein was not detected in Leydig, Sertoli, or myoid cells of the testes at any reproductive stage. The immunocytochemistry analysis showed that DAZL immunolabeling was also localized to the cytoplasm of isolated germ cells such as spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes. We conclude that DAZL can be used as a marker of pre-meiotic germ cells in stallions. PMID:24746554

Jung, H J; Song, H; Yoon, M J

2014-06-10

82

Measuring cell adhesion forces of primary gastrulating cells from zebrafish using atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

During vertebrate gastrulation, progenitor cells of different germ layers acquire specific adhesive properties that contribute to germ layer formation and separation. Wnt signals have been suggested to function in this process by modulating the different levels of adhesion between the germ layers, however, direct evidence for this is still lacking. Here we show that Wnt11, a key signal regulating gastrulation

Pierre-Henri Puech; Anna Taubenberger; Florian Ulrich; Michael Krieg; Daniel J. Muller; Carl-Philipp Heisenberg

2005-01-01

83

PKA, Germ Cells, and Fertility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Temporal and spatial regulation of PKA activity are essential for vigorous sperm motility and for the resumption of meiosis in oocytes, two events required for successful fertilization. Genetic mutations in mice that affect PKA signaling in germ cells lead to infertility and illustrate the importance of this pathway in mammalian reproduction.

2007-02-01

84

HISTORY OF GERM CELL MUTAGENESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Much of the early work on germ cell mutation analysis was conducted with nonmammalian species, but this historical overview will begin with the rodent studies that provided quantitative data on induced mutations. The initial studies of mutation induction utilized the newly develo...

85

Survival of patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: a review of the IGCC classification by Cox regression and recursive partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Germ Cell Consensus (IGCC) classification identifies good, intermediate and poor prognosis groups among patients with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). It uses the risk factors primary site, presence of nonpulmonary visceral metastases and tumour markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). The IGCC classification is easy to use and remember, but lacks flexibility.

M R van Dijk; E W Steyerberg; S P Stenning; E Dusseldorp; J D F Habbema; van Dijk

2004-01-01

86

Laminin in the male germ cells of Drosophila  

PubMed Central

To study genes that may be crucial for the male germ cell development of Drosophila we screened a cDNA expression library with a polyclonal antiserum against testis proteins of Drosophila hydei. We identified a cDNA fragment that exhibited a complete sequence similarity with the cDNA of the laminin B2 chain, an important component of the extracellular matrix. Transcripts of laminin B2 were detected in the RNA of male germ cells with the polymerase chain reaction and by in situ hybridization. We studied the reaction of different polyclonal antibodies including those against a Drosophila laminin B2-lac fusion protein, the entire Drosophila laminin complex, or against the mouse laminin complex and against laminin A and B1 chains with specific structures in developing male germ cells of Drosophila. Antigenic sites against laminin B2 were found in the lampbrush loops in primary spermatocyte nuclei, in nuclei of spermatids, and in heads of spermatozoa. The axonemes of elongating spermatids react with antibodies against the Drosophila laminin B1, B2 and laminin A chains. The possible biological functions of the laminin in the male germ cells of Drosophila are discussed.

1992-01-01

87

Germ cell sex determination in mammals.  

PubMed

One of the major decisions that germ cells make during their development is whether to differentiate into oocytes or sperm. In mice, the germ cells' decision to develop as male or female depends on sex-determining signalling molecules in the embryonic gonadal environment rather than the sex chromosome constitution of the germ cells themselves. In response to these sex-determining cues, germ cells in female embryos initiate oogenesis and enter meiosis, whereas germ cells in male embryos initiate spermatogenesis and inhibit meiosis until after birth. However, it is not clear whether the signalling molecules that mediate germ cell sex determination act in the developing testis or the developing ovary, or what these signalling molecules might be. Here, we review the evidence for the existence of meiosis-inducing and meiosis-preventing substances in the developing gonad, and more recent studies aimed at identifying these molecules in mice. In addition, we discuss the possibility that some of the reported effects of these factors on germ cell development may be indirect consequences of impairing sexual differentiation of gonadal somatic cells or germ cell survival. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of germ cell sex determination may provide candidate genes for susceptibility to germ cell tumours and infertility in humans. PMID:19218284

Kocer, Ayhan; Reichmann, Judith; Best, Diana; Adams, Ian R

2009-04-01

88

The coherent structure of turbulent mixing layers. 1: Similarity of the primary vortex structure. 2: Secondary streamwise vortex structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary spanwise organized vortex structure and the secondary streamwise vortex structure of turbulent mixing layers have been investigated. Flow visualization motion pictures of a constant density mixing layer were used to measure the properties of the large scale vortices. It was found that after an initial transition region mean properties of the large scale vortices reach the expected linear growth with downstream distance required by similarity. In the self-similar region, the vortex core area and visual thickness increase continuously during its life-span. A theoretical model of probability distribution function for the large-scale vortex circulation was developed. This distribution is found to be lognormal and to have a standard deviation, normalized with the mean of 0.28. From this model the mean life-span of the vortices could also be obtained and was found to be 0.67 times the mean life-span position. The streamwise streak pattern observed by Konrad (1976) and Breidenthal (1978) in plan-view pictures of the mixing layer was investigated, using flow visualization and spanwise concentration measurements. It was confirmed that this pattern is the results of a secondary vortex structure dominated by streamwise, counter-rotating vortices. A detailed description of its spatial relation to the primary, spanwise vortex structure is presented. From time average flow pictures, the onset position and initial scale of the secondary structures were determined.

Bernal, L. P.

1981-06-01

89

The Role of Surgery in the Management of Recurrent or Persistent Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo review the management of patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs) with persistent or recurrent disease following primary or secondary therapy, with particular attention devoted to the role of surgery.

Niels-Erik B. Jacobsen; Richard S. Foster

2007-01-01

90

The dazzle in germ cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem cells have demonstrated the capacity to differentiate into germ cells in vitro. Until recently, the molecular basis of early post-meiotic germ cell development was largely unknown. Now, two reports including one published here recently, have demonstrated the significant contribution of Dazl in the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into pre- and post-meiotic germ cells. Although factors that Dazl influences during this process have been identified, the underlying mechanisms warrant future studies. PMID:20008336

Kerr, Candace L; Cheng, Linzhao

2010-02-01

91

Comparison of relation between visual function index and retinal nerve fiber layer structure by optical coherence tomography among primary open angle glaucoma and primary angle closure glaucoma eyes  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To compare the visual field index (VFI) in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) eyes, and to study the correlation with disc variables on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in all stages of severity. Materials and Methods: Thirty POAG and PACG underwent Humphrey visual field 24-2 along with detailed examination. They also underwent stratus OCT imaging of the optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). The correlation of VFI with RNFL thickness was compared in POAG and PACG. Results: The VFI significantly differed between POAG and PACG, with POAG eyes apparently having a better VFI at all severities of glaucoma. There were statistically significant differences in the superior max (Smax) and inferior max (Imax) in early and moderate POAG and PACG eyes. In early and moderate glaucoma, multivariate regression showed that maximum correlation of the VFI was seen with the mean deviation (b = 1.7, P < 0.001), average and superior RNFL thickness (b = 2.1, P < 0.001 and b = 1.8, P = 0.03, respectively), and age (b = 0.7, P = 0.04); while no correlation was seen with intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length, sex, or other clinical variables. VFI did not correlate well with RNFL thickness or other disc variables on OCT in severe glaucoma. Conclusion: VFI may not serve as a useful indicator of visual function in severe glaucoma. More useful indicators are required to monitor glaucoma patients with severe damage.

Rao, Aparna

2014-01-01

92

Light and electron microscopic analyses of Vasa expression in adult germ cells of the fish medaka.  

PubMed

Germ cells of diverse animal species have a unique membrane-less organelle called germ plasm (GP). GP is usually associated with mitochondria and contains RNA binding proteins and mRNAs of germ genes such as vasa. GP has been described as the mitochondrial cloud (MC), intermitochondrial cement (IC) and chromatoid body (CB). The mechanism underlying varying GP structures has remained incompletely understood. Here we report the analysis of GP through light and electron microscopy by using Vasa as a marker in adult male germ cells of the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). Immunofluorescence light microscopy revealed germ cell-specific Vasa expression. Vasa is the most abundant in mitotic germ cells (oogonia and spermatogonia) and reduced in meiotic germ cells. Vasa in round spermatids exist as a spherical structure reminiscent of CB. Nanogold immunoelectron microscopy revealed subcellular Vasa redistribution in male germ cells. Vasa in spermatogonia concentrates in small areas of the cytoplasm and is surrounded by mitochondria, which is reminiscent of MC. Vasa is intermixed with mitochondria to form IC in primary spermatocytes, appears as the free cement (FC) via separation from mitochondria in secondary spermatocyte and becomes condensed in CB at the caudal pole of round spermatids. During spermatid morphogenesis, Vasa redistributes and forms a second CB that is a ring-like structure surrounding the dense fiber of the flagellum in the midpiece. These structures resemble those described for GP in various species. Thus, Vasa identifies GP and adopts varying structures via dynamic reorganization at different stages of germ cell development. PMID:24814190

Yuan, Yongming; Li, Mingyou; Hong, Yunhan

2014-07-15

93

Biology of metastases and its clinical implications: testicular germ-cell tumors.  

PubMed

This article deals with observations of the clinical behavior of metastatic germ cell cancers of testicular origin. Therefore, when we speak of biology of metastases, we refer to that seen by the clinician as opposed to the laboratory scientist. First, we will review our experience with chemotherapy for metastatic disease. From this we can gain insight into risk factors for relapse and survival. Furthermore, we can infer there are fundamental differences in the biology of germ cell cancers of testicular origin as opposed to primary mediastinal or primary retroperitoneal origin. Some of these differences are further discussed. We also identify "good risk" parameters and suggest criteria for expectant or conservative management postchemotherapy instead of postchemotherapy surgical management. Second, the diversity of metastases as evidenced by a wide histologic spectrum, is discussed in clinical terms. Among topics discussed are non-germ-cell malignant elements found within metastatic germ cell tumors, and possible mechanisms for their emergence. Third, the increasing awareness of long delayed, late relapse and its relative refractoriness to chemotherapy gives further insight into the clinical biology of metastatic germ cell cancer. The multipotential nature of the germ cell results in a wide variety of metastatic subtypes, each with its own clinical behavior. Therefore, a variety of clinical management strategies may be required based upon these different clinical behaviors. PMID:8806199

Donohue, J P; Foster, R S; Little, J S; Loehrer, P J; Einhorn, L E

1996-01-01

94

Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work and School  

MedlinePLUS

... Influenza (Flu) Share Compartir Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work & School On This Page Get ... mouth, eyes or nose. Stop the Spread of Germs Healthy habits can protect everyone from getting germs ...

95

The coherent structure of turbulent mixing layers. I. Similarity of the primary vortex structure. II. Secondary streamwise vortex structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary spanwise organized vortex structure and the secondary streamwise vortex structure of turbulent mixing layers have been investigated. Flow visualization motion pictures of a constant density mixing layer were used to measure the properties of the large scale vortices. It was found that after an initial transition region mean properties of the large scale vortices reach the expected linear growth with downstream distance required by similarity. In the self-similar region, the vortex core area and visual thickness increase continuously during its life-span. A theoretical model of probability distribution function for the large-scale vortex circulation was developed. This distribution is found to be lognormal and to have a standard deviation, normalized with the mean of 0.28. From this model the mean life-span of the vortices could also be obtained and was found to be 0.67 times the mean life-span position. The streamwise streak pattern observed by Konrad (1976) and Breidenthal (1978) in plan-view pictures of the mixing layer was investigated, using flow visualization and spanwise concentration measurements. It was confirmed that this pattern is the result of a secondary vortex structure dominated by streamwise, counterrotating vortices. A detailed description of its spatial relation to the primary, spanwise vortex structure is presented. From time average flow pictures, the onset position and initial scale of the secondary structures were determined. From concentration measurements, spanwise variations in mean properties, resulting from the secondary structure, were found. This also showed an increase of the spanwise scale with downstream distance and the existence of the streamwise vortices in the fully developed turbulent region. In this region the mean spacing is found approximately equal to the vorticity thickness.

Bernal, Luis Paulino

96

Imperfect hybrid layers created by an aggressive one-step self-etch adhesive in primary dentin are amendable to biomimetic remineralization in vitro  

PubMed Central

Degradation of hybrid layers created in primary dentin occurs as early as 6 months in vivo. Biomimetic remineralization utilizes “bottom-up” nanotechnology principles for interfibrillar and intrafibrillar remineralization of collagen matrices. This study examined whether imperfect hybrid layers created in primary dentin can be remineralized. Coronal dentin surfaces were prepared from extracted primary molars and bonded using Adper Prompt L-Pop and a composite. One millimeter-thick specimen slabs of the resin-dentin interface were immersed in a Portland cement-based remineralization medium that contained two biomimetic analogs to mimic the sequestration and templating functions of dentin noncollagenous proteins. Specimens were retrieved after 1–6 months. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was employed for evaluating the permeability of hybrid layers to Rhodamine B. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the status of remineralization within hybrid layers. Remineralization at different locations of the hybrid layers corresponded with quenching of fluorescence within similar locations of those hybrid layers. Remineralization was predominantly intrafibrillar in nature as interfibrillar spaces were filled with adhesive resin. Biomimetic remineralization of imperfect hybrid layers in primary human dentin is a potential means for preserving bond integrity. The success of the current proof-of-concept, laterally-diffusing remineralization protocol warrants development of a clinically-applicable biomimetic remineralization delivery system.

Kim, Jongryul; Vaughn, Ryan M.; Gu, Lisha; Rockman, Roy A.; Arola, Dwayne D.; Schafer, Tara E.; Choi, Kyungkyu; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

2009-01-01

97

Stochastic specification of primordial germ cells from mesoderm precursors in axolotl embryos  

PubMed Central

A common feature of development in most vertebrate models is the early segregation of the germ line from the soma. For example, in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified by germ plasm that is inherited from the egg; in mice, Blimp1 expression in the epiblast mediates the commitment of cells to the germ line. How these disparate mechanisms of PGC specification evolved is unknown. Here, in order to identify the ancestral mechanism of PGC specification in vertebrates, we studied PGC specification in embryos from the axolotl (Mexican salamander), a model for the tetrapod ancestor. In the axolotl, PGCs develop within mesoderm, and classic studies have reported their induction from primitive ectoderm (animal cap). We used an axolotl animal cap system to demonstrate that signalling through FGF and BMP4 induces PGCs. The role of FGF was then confirmed in vivo. We also showed PGC induction by Brachyury, in the presence of BMP4. These conditions induced pluripotent mesodermal precursors that give rise to a variety of somatic cell types, in addition to PGCs. Irreversible restriction of the germ line did not occur until the mid-tailbud stage, days after the somatic germ layers are established. Before this, germline potential was maintained by MAP kinase signalling. We propose that this stochastic mechanism of PGC specification, from mesodermal precursors, is conserved in vertebrates.

Chatfield, Jodie; O'Reilly, Marie-Anne; Bachvarova, Rosemary F.; Ferjentsik, Zoltan; Redwood, Catherine; Walmsley, Maggie; Patient, Roger; Loose, Mathew; Johnson, Andrew D.

2014-01-01

98

Stochastic specification of primordial germ cells from mesoderm precursors in axolotl embryos.  

PubMed

A common feature of development in most vertebrate models is the early segregation of the germ line from the soma. For example, in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified by germ plasm that is inherited from the egg; in mice, Blimp1 expression in the epiblast mediates the commitment of cells to the germ line. How these disparate mechanisms of PGC specification evolved is unknown. Here, in order to identify the ancestral mechanism of PGC specification in vertebrates, we studied PGC specification in embryos from the axolotl (Mexican salamander), a model for the tetrapod ancestor. In the axolotl, PGCs develop within mesoderm, and classic studies have reported their induction from primitive ectoderm (animal cap). We used an axolotl animal cap system to demonstrate that signalling through FGF and BMP4 induces PGCs. The role of FGF was then confirmed in vivo. We also showed PGC induction by Brachyury, in the presence of BMP4. These conditions induced pluripotent mesodermal precursors that give rise to a variety of somatic cell types, in addition to PGCs. Irreversible restriction of the germ line did not occur until the mid-tailbud stage, days after the somatic germ layers are established. Before this, germline potential was maintained by MAP kinase signalling. We propose that this stochastic mechanism of PGC specification, from mesodermal precursors, is conserved in vertebrates. PMID:24917499

Chatfield, Jodie; O'Reilly, Marie-Anne; Bachvarova, Rosemary F; Ferjentsik, Zoltan; Redwood, Catherine; Walmsley, Maggie; Patient, Roger; Loose, Mathew; Johnson, Andrew D

2014-06-01

99

Germ-free newborn baby.  

PubMed

Long term experience with germ-free animal experiments and technology encouraged us to apply the know-how in the field of the care of human neonates with presumed immunodeficiency. The program was carried out at the Faculty of Pediatrics of Charles University in Prague. The sterile caesarean section was performed within the plastic surgical isolator overlying the pregnant mother. A new type of this isolator adapted for the use in human medicine was designed and constructed. For the care of the neonate another special isolator was used. The whole isolator system included two rigid supply isolators, too. The newborn was sterile up to the age of 1 month. During this time, the newborns immunological capacity was investigated and found to be almost normal. Afterwards, the infant was gradually colonized with selected strains of bacteria and thus prepared for conventionalization. PMID:3657941

Trávnícek, J; Mandel, L

1987-01-01

100

Germ cell cancer risk in DSD patients.  

PubMed

The risk of germ cell cancer is elevated in many DSD patients, although not to the same extent. A number of risk factors have been identified recently, but their interplay and relative impact is currently not fully clear. Until the advent of reliable screening tools for the detection of pre-invasive cancer lesions, managing germ cell tumour risk focuses on the question if and when to perform biopsy or gonadectomy in most patients and how to interpret the histological findings. PMID:24786700

Cools, Martine

2014-05-01

101

Primary production within the sea-ice zone west of the Antarctic Peninsula: I—Sea ice, summer mixed layer, and irradiance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In shelf waters of the western Antarctic Peninsula (wAP), with abundant macro- and micronutrients, water-column stability has been suggested as the main factor controlling primary production; freshwater input from sea-ice melting stabilizes the upper water column by forming a shallow summer mixed layer. Retreating sea ice in the spring and summer thus defines the area of influence, the sea-ice zone (SIZ) and the marginal ice zone (MIZ). A 12-year time series (1995-2006) was analyzed to address two main questions: (1) what are the spatial and temporal patterns in primary production; and (2) to what extent and in what ways is primary production related to sea-ice dynamics. Data were collected on cruises performed during January of each year, at the height of the growth season, within the region bounded by 64°S and 64°W to the north and 68°S and 66°W to the south. Average daily integrated primary production varied by an order of magnitude, from ˜250 to ˜1100 mg C m -2 d -1, with an average cruise primary production of 745 mg C m -2 d -1. A strong onshore-offshore gradient was evident along the shelf with higher production observed inshore. Inter-annual regional production varied by a factor of 7: maximum rates were measured in 2006 (1788 mg C m -2 d -1) and minimum in 1999 (248 mg C m -2 d -1). The results support the hypothesis that primary production in the wAP shelf is related to sea-ice dynamics. To first order, shallower summer mixed-layer depths in the shelf correlated with late sea retreat and primary production. Principal component analysis showed that high primary production in January was associated with enhanced shelf production toward the coast and in the south, explaining 63% of the variability in space and time. This first mode captured the inter-annual variability in regional production. Temporal variability in primary production (time series of anomalies defined for each location) showed spatial dependence: higher primary production correlated with shallow mixed-layer depths only at mid-shelf; in coastal and offshore waters, primary production correlated with deeper mixed layers. Thus, coastal primary production can show a non-linear relationship with summer mixed layers. Under conditions of large biomass (>20 mg chl a m -3) and shallow mixed-layer depth (e.g., 5 m) phytoplankton production becomes light limited. This limitation is reduced with a deepening of the summer mixed layer (e.g., 20 m). Dominance of diatoms and the ability to adapt and photosynthesize at higher light levels characterized the large phytoplankton blooms. No significant regional trend in primary production was detected within the 12-year series. We conclude that the regional average primary production on the wAP shelf is associated with shallow summer mixed layers in conjunction with late sea-ice retreat. An opposite relationship is observed for the highest production rates in coastal waters, associated with large biomass, where a deepening of the summer mixed layer relieves light limitation.

Vernet, Maria; Martinson, Douglas; Iannuzzi, Richard; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Kozlowski, Wendy; Sines, Karie; Smith, Ray; Garibotti, Irene

2008-09-01

102

Layer 4 in Primary Visual Cortex of the Awake Rabbit: Contrasting Properties of Simple Cells and Putative Feedforward Inhibitory Interneurons  

PubMed Central

Extracellular recordings were obtained from two cell classes in layer 4 of the awake rabbit primary visual cortex (V1): putative inhibitory interneurons [suspected inhibitory interneurons (SINs)] and putative excitatory cells with simple receptive fields. SINs were identified solely by their characteristic response to electrical stimulation of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, 3+ spikes at >600 Hz), and simple cells were identified solely by receptive field structure, requiring spatially separate ON and/or OFF subfields. Notably, no cells met both criteria, and we studied 62 simple cells and 33 SINs. Fourteen cells met neither criterion. These layer 4 populations were markedly distinct. Thus, SINs were far less linear (F1/F0 < 1), more broadly tuned to stimulus orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequency, more sensitive to contrast, had much higher spontaneous and stimulus-driven activity, and always had spatially overlapping ON/OFF receptive subfields. SINs responded to drifting gratings with increased firing rates (F0) for all orientations and directions. However, some SINs showed a weaker modulated (F1) response sharply tuned to orientation and/or direction. SINs responded at shorter latencies than simple cells to stationary stimuli, and the responses of both populations could be sustained or transient. Transient simple cells were more sensitive to contrast than sustained simple cells and their visual responses were more frequently suppressed by high contrasts. Finally, cross-correlation between LGN and SIN spike trains confirmed a fast and precisely timed monosynaptic connectivity, supporting the notion that SINs are well suited to provide a fast feedforward inhibition onto targeted cortical populations.

Zhuang, Jun; Stoelzel, Carl R.; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Huff, Joseph M.; Hei, Xiaojuan; Alonso, Jose-Manuel

2013-01-01

103

Postnatal development of layer III pyramidal cells in the primary visual, inferior temporal, and prefrontal cortices of the marmoset  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in the processes of the generation and/or pruning of dendritic spines have been implicated in several mental disorders including autism and schizophrenia. We have chosen to examine the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a primate model to explore the processes. As a first step, we studied the postnatal development of basal dendritic trees and spines of layer-III pyramidal cells in the primary visual sensory cortex (V1), a visual association cortex (inferior temporal area, TE), and a prefrontal cortex (area 12, PFC). Basal dendrites in all three areas were longer in adulthood compared with those in the newborn. In particular, rapid dendritic growth occurred in both TE and PFC around the second postnatal month. This early growth spurt resulted in much larger dendritic arbors in TE and PFC than in V1. The density of the spines along the dendrites peaked at 3 months of age and declined afterwards in all three areas: the degree of spine pruning being greater in V1 than in TE and PFC. The estimates of the total numbers of spines in the basal dendrites of a single pyramidal cell were larger in TE and PFC than in V1 throughout development and peaked around 3 months after birth in all three areas. These developmental profiles of spines and dendrites will help in determining assay points for the screening of molecules involved in spinogenesis and pruning in the marmoset cortex.

Oga, Tomofumi; Aoi, Hirosato; Sasaki, Tetsuya; Fujita, Ichiro; Ichinohe, Noritaka

2012-01-01

104

Effect of diclofenac on germ cell apoptosis following testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that enhanced cell apoptosis is responsible for germ cell loss following testicular ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (Voltaren) is a prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitor, which is widely used in many testicular disorders. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of diclofenac (DIC) on germ cell apoptosis in the ischemic and contralateral testes following testicular IR in a rat. Forty rats were divided randomly into four experimental groups of ten rats each: group A (Sham)-Sham operated animals; group B (Sham-DIC)-Sham operated rats that were treated with DIC given subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg, once daily, 24, 48 and 72 h following operation; group C (IR) underwent 90 min of unilateral testicular IR; group D (IR-DIC)-rats underwent 90 min of unilateral testicular IR and were treated with DIC similarly to group B. Ninety-six hours following operation, the rats were sacrificed and testes were harvested. Johnsen's criteria and the number of germinal cell layers were used to categorize the spermatogenesis. TUNEL assay was used to determine germ cell apoptosis in both the ischemic and contralateral testes. Statistical analysis was performed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test, with P less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. Testicular ischemia in rats led to histological damage in the ipsilateral testis. In the contralateral testis, minimal damage was observed. Germ cell apoptosis in both the ischemic and the contralateral testes increased significantly after IR. Treatment with DIC did not change histologic parameters of spermatogenesis in both the ischemic and contralateral testes, but decreased germ cell apoptosis in both testes following testicular IR. We conclude that testicular ischemia causes an increase in germ cell apoptosis in the contralateral testis. Diclofenac may be beneficial for spermatogenesis following testicular IR by decreasing germ cell apoptosis. PMID:16283337

Mogilner, Jorge G; Lurie, Michael; Coran, Arnold G; Nativ, Ofer; Shiloni, Eitan; Sukhotnik, Igor

2006-01-01

105

Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma

2014-02-28

106

Differentiation of murine male germ cells to spermatozoa in a soft agar culture system  

PubMed Central

Establishment of an in vitro system that allows the development of testicular germ cells to sperm will be valuable for studies of spermatogenesis and future treatments for male infertility. In the present study, we developed in vitro culture conditions using three-dimensional agar culture system (SACS), which has the capacity to induce testicular germ cells to reach the final stages of spermatogenesis, including spermatozoa generation. Seminiferous tubules from testes of 7-day-old mice were enzymatically dissociated, and intratubular cells were cultured in the upper layer of the SACS in RPMI medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS). The lower layer of the SACS contained only RPMI medium supplemented with FCS. Colonies in the upper layer were isolated after 14 and 28 days of culture and were classified according to their size. Immunofluorescence and real-time PCR were used to analyse specific markers expressed in undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia (Vasa, Dazl, OCT-4, C-Kit, GFR-?-1, CD9 and ?-6-integrin), meiotic cells (LDH, Crem-1 and Boule) and post-meiotic cells (Protamine-1, Acrosin and SP-10). Our results reveal that it is possible to induce mouse testicular pre-meiotic germ cell expansion and induce their differentiation to spermatozoa in SACS. The spermatozoa showed normal morphology and contained acrosomes. Thus, our results demonstrate that SACS could be used as a novel in vitro system for the maturation of pre-meiotic mouse germ cells to post-meiotic stages and morphologically-normal spermatozoa.

Abu Elhija, Mahmoud; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Schlatt, Stefan; Huleihel, Mahmoud

2012-01-01

107

Differentiation of murine male germ cells to spermatozoa in a soft agar culture system.  

PubMed

Establishment of an in vitro system that allows the development of testicular germ cells to sperm will be valuable for studies of spermatogenesis and future treatments for male infertility. In the present study, we developed in vitro culture conditions using three-dimensional agar culture system (SACS), which has the capacity to induce testicular germ cells to reach the final stages of spermatogenesis, including spermatozoa generation. Seminiferous tubules from testes of 7-day-old mice were enzymatically dissociated, and intratubular cells were cultured in the upper layer of the SACS in RPMI medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS). The lower layer of the SACS contained only RPMI medium supplemented with FCS. Colonies in the upper layer were isolated after 14 and 28 days of culture and were classified according to their size. Immunofluorescence and real-time PCR were used to analyse specific markers expressed in undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia (Vasa, Dazl, OCT-4, C-Kit, GFR-?-1, CD9 and ?-6-integrin), meiotic cells (LDH, Crem-1 and Boule) and post-meiotic cells (Protamine-1, Acrosin and SP-10). Our results reveal that it is possible to induce mouse testicular pre-meiotic germ cell expansion and induce their differentiation to spermatozoa in SACS. The spermatozoa showed normal morphology and contained acrosomes. Thus, our results demonstrate that SACS could be used as a novel in vitro system for the maturation of pre-meiotic mouse germ cells to post-meiotic stages and morphologically-normal spermatozoa. PMID:22057383

Abu Elhija, Mahmoud; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Schlatt, Stefan; Huleihel, Mahmoud

2012-03-01

108

Changes in retinal nerve fibre layer, optic nerve head morphology, and visual field after acute primary angle closure  

PubMed Central

Aims/Purpose To determine and correlate the long-term changes in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness, optic nerve head (ONH) morphology, and visual fields after a single episode of acute primary angle closure (APAC). Methods This was a cross-sectional comparative study of patients at National University Hospital (Singapore) from 2000 to 2006 after an episode of unilateral APAC. The peripapillary and macular RNFL were measured using Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ONH configuration was assessed using Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT)-III. Humphrey perimetry was also performed, and the presence of disc pallor was noted. APAC eyes were compared with fellow eyes as matched controls. Results Twenty-five patients were assessed at a median of 33 months (range, 11–85 months) after APAC. OCT showed that there was a reduction in the peripapillary and outer macular RNFL thickness in APAC eyes compared with controls. Humphrey perimetry revealed significantly reduced mean deviation (P=0.006) and increased pattern standard deviation (P=0.045) in APAC eyes compared with controls. HRT-III showed no difference in mean rim area, rim volume, or cup–disc ratio between APAC eyes and controls. Disc pallor was present in nine APAC eyes (36%) but was absent in fellow eyes (P=0.002), and was associated with peripapillary RNFL thinning, visual field loss, and an increased interval between the onset of symptoms and normalization of intraocular pressure (P=0.023). Conclusion APAC results in peripapillary and outer macular RNFL loss, visual field defects, and optic disc pallor, even in cases in which the ONH configuration remains unchanged.

Sng, C C A; See, J S L; Ngo, C S; Singh, M; Chan, Y-H; Aquino, M C; Tan, A M; Shabana, N; Chew, P T K

2011-01-01

109

"Life in a Germ-Free World":  

PubMed Central

Summary: This article examines a specific technology, the germ-free "isolator," tracing its development across three sites: (1) the laboratory for the production of standard laboratory animals, (2) agriculture for the efficient production of farm animals, and (3) the hospital for the control and prevention of cross-infection and the protection of individuals from infection. Germ-free technology traveled across the laboratory sciences, clinical and veterinary medicine, and industry, yet failed to become institutionalized outside the laboratory. That germ-free technology worked was not at issue. Working, however, was not enough. Examining the history of a technology that failed to find widespread application reveals the labor involved in aligning cultural, societal, and material factors necessary for successful medical innovation.

Kirk, Robert G. W.

2012-01-01

110

Optimization of primary drying condition for pharmaceutical lyophilization using a novel simulation program with a predictive model for dry layer resistance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a novel simulation program to accurately predict the maximum product temperature and the primary drying time in lyophilization using the predictive model for dry layer resistance, which is the resistance of dried cake against water vapor flow. Ten percent sucrose aqueous solution was selected as a model formulation. It was demonstrated that the deviations between the predicted and measured maximum product temperature were attributed to the error of dry layer resistance at a given drying condition, which was different from the measured dry layer resistance in a preliminary lyophilization run for the simulation program. However, when the predictive model of dry layer resistance was used for the simulation program, the model remarkably enhanced the accuracy of the simulation program to predict the maximum product temperature and primary drying time under various operating conditions. Furthermore, the primary drying condition required for minimized drying at a close collapse temperature was successfully discovered through one preliminary run. Therefore, it is expected that the developed simulation program is useful for designing the lyophilization cycle without a trial and error approach. PMID:24492585

Kodama, Tatsuhiro; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Hosomi, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Masahito; Wakiyama, Naoki; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

2014-01-01

111

Turning Points in Science: Germ Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. Germ theory represents the culmination of the work of several individuals across time. Resources provided here will facilitate understanding of the early scientific community's concept of disease; the thinking that led to hypotheses relating germs to disease; the various observations and experiments that yielded information allowing for theorizing; the scientific community's reaction to and acceptance of the early investigators' findings; and the impacts of the theory on humanity.

Lefever, Mary

2007-11-01

112

GERM as a tool for space station documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GERM as a tool for space station documentation is presented in the form of viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: problem statement, hypermedia as a tool for documentation, description of GERM, technical approach, application development, and results and conclusions.

Crouse, Ken; Hardwick, Charles

1990-01-01

113

Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-Based Risk Model (GERM) Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software describes the transport and energy deposition of the passage of galactic cosmic rays in astronaut tissues during space travel, or heavy ion beams in patients in cancer therapy. Space radiation risk is a probability distribution, and time-dependent biological events must be accounted for physical description of space radiation transport in tissues and cells. A stochastic model can calculate the probability density directly without unverified assumptions about shape of probability density function. The prior art of transport codes calculates the average flux and dose of particles behind spacecraft and tissue shielding. Because of the signaling times for activation and relaxation in the cell and tissue, transport code must describe temporal and microspatial density of functions to correlate DNA and oxidative damage with non-targeted effects of signals, bystander, etc. These are absolutely ignored or impossible in the prior art. The GERM code provides scientists data interpretation of experiments; modeling of beam line, shielding of target samples, and sample holders; and estimation of basic physical and biological outputs of their experiments. For mono-energetic ion beams, basic physical and biological properties are calculated for a selected ion type, such as kinetic energy, mass, charge number, absorbed dose, or fluence. Evaluated quantities are linear energy transfer (LET), range (R), absorption and fragmentation cross-sections, and the probability of nuclear interactions after 1 or 5 cm of water equivalent material. In addition, a set of biophysical properties is evaluated, such as the Poisson distribution for a specified cellular area, cell survival curves, and DNA damage yields per cell. Also, the GERM code calculates the radiation transport of the beam line for either a fixed number of user-specified depths or at multiple positions along the Bragg curve of the particle in a selected material. The GERM code makes the numerical estimates of basic physical and biophysical quantities of high-energy protons and heavy ions that have been studied at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) for the purpose of simulating space radiation biological effects. In the first option, properties of monoenergetic beams are treated. In the second option, the transport of beams in different materials is treated. Similar biophysical properties as in the first option are evaluated for the primary ion and its secondary particles. Additional properties related to the nuclear fragmentation of the beam are evaluated. The GERM code is a computationally efficient Monte-Carlo heavy-ion-beam model. It includes accurate models of LET, range, residual energy, and straggling, and the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation (QMSGRG) nuclear database.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

2013-01-01

114

[Studies on primary aromatic amines (PAAs) migration from multi-layer plastic food packaging by HPLC method].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify of primary aromatic amines (PAAs) and to determine their migration from plastic food packaging. The magnitude of the migration of these substances from plastic food packaging consists a base for the evaluation of their compliance with the requirements of EU legislation and hazard for human health taking into account their migration into food. The unprinted and printed multi-layer plastic packaging (laminates), domestic and imported, were examined in these studies. PAAs migration tests from the laminates into food simulant (3% acetic acid) was performed according to the appropriate procedures recommended in the EU for testing migration from food contact articles under standard conditions reflecting the real use of laminates (10 days, 40 degrees C) and under ,, worst case scenario" conditions (2 h, 70 degrees C). PAAs present in migration solutions were concentrated on SPE columns and then seven PAAs (aniline, 1,3-phenylenediamine, 2, 6-toluenediamine, 2,4-toluenediamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline, 4,4'-methylenedianiline and 3,3 '-dimethylbenzidyne) were identified and determined by previously validated HPLC-DAD method. Depending on the migration conditions the PAAs content was different. When the "worst case scenario" conditions were applied the migration of 4,4 '-methylenedianiline (4,4 '-MDA) ranged from below detection limit (LOD = 0.51 microg/kg) up to 9.86 microg/kg, and aniline was released in the range from below detection limit (LOD = 0,98 microg/kg) up to 7.04 microg/kg. In two laminate samples of eight examined, the sum of PAAs (aniline and 4,4'-MDA) was 13.32 microg/kg and 14.72 microg/kg showing that the permitted limit (10 microg/kg) was exceeded. In the standard conditions, the migration of aniline and 4,4'-MDA was significantly lower Regarding the carcinogenic potential of PAAs, the laminates causing the amines migration above the permitted limit should not be used as food packaging. PMID:22435290

Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Pawlicka, Marzena; Starski, Andrzej; Pó?torak, Hanna; Kar?owski, Kazimierz

2011-01-01

115

Germ-line p53 mutations in 15 families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Germ-line mutations of the tumor-suppressor gene p53 have been observed in some families with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a familial cancer syndrome in which affected relatives develop a diverse set of early-onset malignancies including breast carcinoma, sarcomas, and brain tumors. The analysis of the p53 gene in LFS families has been limited, in most studies to date, to the region between exon 5 and exon 9. In order to determine the frequency and distribution of germ-line p53 mutations in LFS, we sequenced the 10 coding exons of the p53 gene in lymphocytes and fibroblast cell lines derived from 14 families with the syndrome. Germ-line mutations were observed in eight families. Six mutations were missense mutations located between exons 5 and 8. One mutation was a nonsense mutation in exon 6, and one mutation was a splicing mutation in intron 4, generating aberrant shorter p53 RNA(s). In three families, a mutation of the p53 gene was observed in the fibroblast cell line derived from the proband. However, the mutation was not found in affected relatives in two families and in the blood from the one individual, indicating that the mutation probably occurred during cell culture in vitro. In four families, no mutation was observed. This study indicates that germ-line p53 mutations in LFS are mostly located between exons 5 and 8 and that {approximately}50% of patients with LFS have no germ-line mutations in the coding region of the p53 gene. The observation of p53 mutations occurring during primary cultures of human fibroblasts shows that analysis for germ-line p53 mutations must be performed on cells that have not been grown in vitro. 49 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Frebourg, T.; Barbier, N.; Yan, Yu-xin [Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Charlestown, MA (United States); Friend, S.H. [Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Charlestown, MA (United States)]|[Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Garber, J.E.; Dreyfus, M.; Li, F.P. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Fraumeni, J. Jr. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1995-03-01

116

germ cell-less Acts to Repress Transcription during the Establishment of the Drosophila Germ Cell Lineage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, it has been shown that, during early Drosophila and C. elegans development, the germ cell precursors undergo a period of transcriptional quiescence [1–4]. Here, we report that Germ cell-less (GCL), a germ plasm component necessary for the proper formation of “pole cells,” the germ cell precursors in Drosophila[5, 6], is required for the establishment of this transcriptional quiescence. While

Judith L. Leatherman; Lissa Levin; Julie Boero; Thomas A. Jongens

2002-01-01

117

Germ Smart: Children's Activities in Disease Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is part of the "Children's Activity Series," a set of four supplemental teaching resources that promote awareness about health, family life, and cultural diversity for children in kindergarten through third grade. Nine activities are included in this booklet to help children be "germ smart" help children in kindergarten through third…

Scheer, Judith K.

118

Divergent RNA-Binding Proteins, DAZL and VASA, Induce Meiotic Progression in Human Germ Cells Derived In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of human germ cell development is limited in large part due to inaccessibility of early human development to molecular genetic analysis. Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been shown to differentiate to cells of all three embryonic germ layers, as well as germ cells in vitro, and thus may provide a model for the study of the genetics and epigenetics of human germline. Here, we examined whether intrinsic germ cell translational, rather than transcriptional, factors might drive germline formation and/or differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro. We observed that, with overexpression of VASA (DDX4) and/or DAZL (Deleted in Azoospermia Like), both hESCs and iPSCs differentiated to primordial germ cells, and maturation and progression through meiosis was enhanced. These results demonstrate that evolutionarily unrelated and divergent RNA-binding proteins can promote meiotic progression of human-derived germ cells in vitro. These studies describe an in vitro model for exploring specifics of human meiosis, a process that is remarkably susceptible to errors that lead to different infertility-related diseases.

Medrano, Jose v.; Ramathal, Cyril; Nguyen, Ha N.; Simon, Carlos; Pera, Renee A. Reijo

2013-01-01

119

Primary production within the sea-ice zone west of the Antarctic Peninsula: I—Sea ice, summer mixed layer, and irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In shelf waters of the western Antarctic Peninsula (wAP), with abundant macro- and micronutrients, water-column stability has been suggested as the main factor controlling primary production; freshwater input from sea-ice melting stabilizes the upper water column by forming a shallow summer mixed layer. Retreating sea ice in the spring and summer thus defines the area of influence, the sea-ice zone

Maria Vernet; Douglas Martinson; Richard Iannuzzi; Sharon Stammerjohn; Wendy Kozlowski; Karie Sines; Ray Smith; Irene Garibotti

2008-01-01

120

The fused toes locus is essential for somatic-germ cell interactions that foster germ cell maturation in developing gonads in mice.  

PubMed

Ovarian development absolutely depends on communication between somatic and germ cell components. In contrast, it is not until after birth that interactions between somatic and germ cells play an important role in testicular maturation and spermatogenesis. Previously, we discovered that Irx3 expression was localized specifically to female gonads during embryonic development; therefore, we sought to determine the function of this genetic locus in developing gonads of both sexes. The fused toes (Ft) mutant mouse is missing 1.6 Mb of chromosome 8, which includes the entire IrxB cluster (Irx3, Irx5, Irx6), Ftm, Fts, and Fto genes. Homozygote Ft mutant embryos die around embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5); therefore, to assess later development, we harvested gonads at E11.5 and transplanted them into nude mouse hosts. Our results show defects in somatic and germ cell maturation in developing gonads of both sexes. Testis development was normal initially; however, by 3-wk posttransplantation, expression of Sertoli and peritubular myoid cell markers were decreased. In many cases, gonocytes failed to migrate to structurally impaired basement membranes of seminiferous cords. Developmental abnormalities of the ovary appeared earlier and were more severe. Over time, the Ft mutant ovary formed very few primordial or primary follicles, which contained oocytes that failed to grow and were surrounded by scarce granulosa cells that expressed low levels of FOXL2. By 3 wk after transplantation, it was difficult to identify ovarian tissue in Ft mutant ovary transplants. In summary, we conclude that the Ft locus contains genes essential for somatic-germ cell interactions, without which the germ cell niche fails to mature in both sexes. PMID:21293032

Kim, Bongki; Kim, Youngha; Cooke, Paul S; Rüther, Ulrich; Jorgensen, Joan S

2011-05-01

121

Dynamics of testicular germ cell apoptosis in normal mice and transgenic mice overexpressing rat androgen-binding protein  

PubMed Central

The number and type of testicular germ cells undergoing apoptosis in different age groups of mice (from 7 to 360 days of age) was determined and compared in age-matched wild type (WT) control and in a transgenic (TG) mice homozygous to rat androgen binding protein (ABP) using flow cytometry. Flow cytometric quantification revealed that the total number of germ cells undergoing apoptosis did not differ significantly in WT and TG mice up to Day 14. From Day 21 to Day 60, the number of germ cells undergoing apoptosis was consistently higher in TG than in WT mice. Starting from Day 90, the number of germ cells undergoing apoptosis in TG mice was lower than controls until Day 360. In 21–60 days old TG mice, spermatogonia, S-Phase cells, and primary spermatocytes are the cell types undergoing apoptosis at significantly greater numbers than those in WT mice. However, starting from day 60, the total number of spermatids undergoing apoptosis was significantly lower in TG mice than in age-matched WT controls. TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) in testicular sections from TG mice of 21 and 30 days of age confirmed the presence of increased numbers of apoptotic germ cells compared to their age matched controls. These data indicate that the continuous presence of greater than physiological concentrations of ABP in the mouse testis has a biphasic effect on the frequency of apoptosis in germ cells. The initial pre-pubertal increase in testicular germ cell apoptosis may result from direct or indirect actions of ABP and is likely to determine the subsequent life-death balance of germ cell populations in TG mice, whereas the subsequent reduction may result from maturation depletion. A wave of apoptosis during the pre-pubertal period is required for normal spermatogenesis to develop, and our data indicate that this apoptotic wave may be regulated by ABP and/or androgens.

Jeyaraj, D Antony; Grossman, Gail; Petrusz, Peter

2003-01-01

122

Primary yolk sac tumor of the cerebellar vermis: A case report.  

PubMed

Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare and comprise 2-5% of all germ cell tumors. Seminoma/dysgerminoma, teratoma, yolk sac tumor (YST) and mixed germ cell tumors are few of the extragonadal germ cell tumors arising within the brain. Of these, primary pure YSTs arising in the brain are extremely rare and arise in the pineal (62%) and suprasellar (31%) regions. Primary YST occurring in the cerebellum is exceedingly rare, associated with a very poor prognosis and has been reported in less than 10 cases in literature. We herein report a case of primary pure yolk sac tumor in the cerebellar vermis in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24943765

Shenoy, Asha S; Desai, Heena M; Tyagi, Devendra K; Savant, Hemant V; Kavishwar, Vikas S; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshi

2014-01-01

123

NANOS3 function in human germ cell development.  

PubMed

Human infertility is common and frequently linked to poor germ cell development. Yet, human germ cell development is poorly understood, at least in part due to the inaccessibility of germ cells to study especially during fetal development. Here, we explored the function of a highly conserved family of genes, the NANOS genes, in the differentiation of human germ cells from human embryonic stem cells. We observed that NANOS-1, -2 and -3 mRNAs and proteins were expressed in human gonads. We also noted that NANOS3 was expressed in germ cells throughout spermatogenesis and oogenesis and thus, focused further efforts on this family member. NANOS3 expression was highest in human germ cell nuclei where the protein co-localized with chromosomal DNA during mitosis/meiosis. Reduced expression of NANOS3 (via morpholinos or short hairpin RNA) resulted in a reduction in germ cell numbers and decreased expression of germ cell-intrinsic genes required for the maintenance of pluripotency and meiotic initiation and progression. These data provide the first direct experimental evidence that NANOS3 functions in human germ cell development; indeed, NANOS3 is now one of just two genes that has been directly shown to function in germ cell development across diverse species from flies, worms, frogs and mice to humans [the other is BOULE, a member of the Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) gene family]. Findings may contribute to our understanding of the basic biology of human germ cell development and may provide clinical insights regarding infertility. PMID:21421998

Julaton, Vanessa T Angeles; Reijo Pera, Renee A

2011-06-01

124

Secondary ion emission from arachidic acid LB-layers under Ar +, Xe +, Ga + and SF 5 + primary ion bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of primary ion energy, mass and composition on sputtering and secondary ion emission of arachidic acid Langmuir–Blodgett mono- and multilayers, deposited on gold substrates, has been investigated. Ga+, Ar+, 129Xe+ and SF5+ in the energy range 5–25 keV were used as primary ions. Yields Y, damage cross-sections ?, and ion formation efficiencies E have been determined for selected

D. Stapel; O. Brox; A. Benninghoven

1999-01-01

125

Metformin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Ovarian Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-01-28

126

Glutathione S-transferase expression in the human testis and testicular germ cell neoplasia.  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzyme expression is altered in a variety of neoplasms and the enzymes are implicated in metabolism of carcinogens and resistance to drugs, including cisplatin. We have studied GST Alpha, Pi, Mu and microsomal isoenzyme expression by immunohistochemistry in normal and cryptorchid testes, intratubal germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN), seminoma and non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. In 16 stage II-IV malignant teratoma intermediate (MTI) both orchidectomy and post-treatment residual surgical masses were studied. All four isoenzymes were strongly expressed in Leydig and Sertoli cells. GST Pi was absent from normal spermatogonia but strongly expressed by the neoplastic germ cells of ITGCN and seminoma. GST Pi was strongly expressed in all elements of teratoma, irrespective of differentiation. There were no qualitative differences in expression between primary and post-chemotherapy metastases. GST Alpha expression in teratoma correlated with epithelial differentiation. GSTs may be important in normal spermatogenesis and protection of germ cells from teratogens and carcinogens. They may have a role in testicular tumour drug resistance but this role is not well defined. GST Pi is a new marker for ITGCN. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Klys, H. S.; Whillis, D.; Howard, G.; Harrison, D. J.

1992-01-01

127

Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

2014-03-18

128

Germ Cell Tumors of the Testes  

PubMed Central

Most malignant testicular neoplasms are of germ cell origin. They are divided into five basic types: seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, teratocarcinomas, adult teratomas and choriocarcinomas. Clinically they may present as an enlarging testicular mass, or with symptoms resulting from metastases or hormonal secretions. The treatment of choice for patients with seminomas is orchiectomy, followed by radiation therapy. This combination results in an 80 to 100 percent five-year survival rate in patients with nonmetastatic or locally metastatic disease. The treatment of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors is more controversial. An aggressive approach, however, with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy has resulted in an overall 78 percent survival rate. Several placental and fetal proteins are secreted by these tumors. Two of these, human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein, have been shown to be useful for the diagnosis of these neoplasms, for following the disease activity during therapy and for detection of recurrences.

Braunstein, Glenn D.; Friedman, Nathan B.; Sacks, Stephen A.; Skinner, Donald G.; Thompson, Ronald W.

1977-01-01

129

Analysis of chicken primordial germ cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are precursors of germline cells. Although avian PGCs have been used to produce transgenic birds,\\u000a their characteristics largely remain unknown. In this study, we isolated PGCs from chicken embryos at various developmental\\u000a stages and analyzed the gene expression. Using the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) as a marker of\\u000a chicken PGCs, we purified PGCs from

Makoto Motono; Takuya Ohashi; Ken-ichi Nishijima; Shinji Iijima

2008-01-01

130

Alvocidib and Oxaliplatin With or Without Fluorouracil and Leucovorin Calcium in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Germ Cell Tumors  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Extragonadal Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

2014-06-30

131

Mechanisms controlling primary and new production in a global ecosystem model Part I: The role of the large-scale upper mixed layer variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global general circulation model coupled to a simple six-compartment ecosystem model is used to study the extent to which global variability in primary and export production can be realistically predicted on the basis of advanced parameterizations of upper mixed layer physics, without recourse to introducing extra complexity in model biology. The ''K profile parameterization'' (KPP) scheme employed, combined with 6-hourly external forcing, is able to capture short-term periodic and episodic events such as diurnal cycling and storm-induced deepening. The model realistically reproduces various features of global ecosystem dynamics that have been problematic in previous global modelling studies, using a single generic parameter set. The realistic simulation of deep convection in the North Atlantic, and lack of it in the North Pacific and Southern Oceans, leads to good predictions of chlorophyll and primary production in these contrasting areas. Realistic levels of primary production are predicted in the oligotrophic gyres due to high frequency external forcing of the upper mixed layer (accompanying paper Popova et al., 2006) and novel parameterizations of zooplankton excretion. Good agreement is shown between model and observations at various JFOFS time series sites: BATS, KERFIX, Papa and station India. One exception is that the high zooplankton grazing rates required to maintain low chlorophyll in high-nutrient low-chlorophyll and oligotrophic systems lessened agreement between model and data in the northern North Atlantic, where mesozooplankton with lower grazing rates may be dominant. The model is therefore not globally robust in the sense that additional parameterizations were needed to realistically simulate ecosystem dynamics in the North Atlantic. Nevertheless, the work emphasises the need to pay particular attention to the parameterization of mixed layer physics in global ocean ecosystem modelling as a prerequisite to increasing the complexity of ecosystem models.

Popova, E. E.; Coward, A. C.; Nurser, G. A.; de Cuevas, B.; Fasham, M. J. R.; Anderson, T. R.

2006-07-01

132

Pediatric malignant germ cell tumors show characteristic transcriptome profiles.  

PubMed

Malignant germ cell tumors (GCT) of childhood are rare and heterogeneous neoplasms thought to arise from primordial germ cells. They vary substantially in their natural history and show important clinical differences from their adult counterparts. To address the biological basis for these observations, we have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of global gene expression patterns in pediatric malignant GCTs and compared these findings with published data on adult testicular GCTs (TGCT). Our study included 27 primary tumors and assessed the principal malignant histologic types of pediatric GCT, yolk sac tumor (YST; n = 18), and seminoma (n = 9). Analysis of Affymetrix U133A GeneChip data was performed using the statistical software environment R, including gene set enrichment analysis, with cross-validation at the RNA and protein level. Unsupervised analysis showed complete separation of YSTs and seminomas by global gene expression profiles and identified a robust set of 657 discriminatory transcripts. There was no segregation of tumors of the same histology arising at different sites or at different ages within the pediatric range. In contrast, there was segregation of pediatric malignant GCTs and adult malignant TGCTs, most notably for the YSTs. The pediatric seminomas were significantly enriched for genes associated with the self-renewing pluripotent phenotype, whereas the pediatric YSTs were significantly enriched for genes associated with a differentiation and proliferation phenotype. We conclude that histologic type is the key discriminator in pediatric malignant GCTs and that the observed clinical differences between malignant GCTs of children and adults are mirrored by significant differences in global gene expression. PMID:18519683

Palmer, Roger D; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Gooding, Emma L; Muralidhar, Balaji; Thornton, Claire M; Pett, Mark R; Roberts, Ian; Schneider, Dominik T; Thorne, Natalie; Tavaré, Simon; Nicholson, James C; Coleman, Nicholas

2008-06-01

133

Effect of allopurinol on germ cell apoptosis following testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that apoptosis is involved in germ cell loss following testicular ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Allopurinol (Allo) is as a free radical scavenger which prevents tissue damage caused by reperfusion and oxygenation after ischemia; however, its effect on apoptosis in this type of injury has not been studied. To examine the effect of allopurinol on germ cell apoptosis following testicular IR in a rat. Forty rats were divided randomly into 4 experimental groups of 10 rats each: group A (Sham)-Sham operated animals; group B (Sham-Allo)-Sham operated rats treated with allopurinol given PO (by gavage) at a dose of 200 mg/kg, once daily, immediately before and 24 h following operation; group C (IR)-rats underwent 90 min of unilateral testicular ischemia and 48 h of reperfusion; group D (IR-Allo)-rats underwent IR and were treated with allopurinol similar to group B. The ipsilateral and contralateral testes were harvested 48 h following operation. Johnsen's criteria and the number of germinal cell layers were used to categorize spermatogenesis. TUNEL assay was used to determine germ cell apoptosis. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA test, with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Testicular ischemia in rats led to histological damage in the ipsilateral testis. In the contralateral testis minimal damage was observed. Treatment with allopurinol increased significantly Johnsen's score in both the ischemic (7.3 +/- 0.5 vs 5.6 +/- 0.5, P < 0.05) and contralateral (8.9 +/- 0.1 vs 8.3 +/- 0.2, P < 0.05) testis, compared to IR-animals. Germ cell apoptosis in both the ischemic and the contralateral testis increased significantly after IR. Treatment with allopurinol resulted in a significant decrease in germ cell apoptosis in the ipsilateral testis, expressed as the number of positive tubules per 100 tubules (AI-1, (apoptotic index) threefold decrease, P < 0.005) and the number of apoptotic cells per 100 tubules (AI-2, fivefold decrease, P < 0.005) as well as a significant decrease in germ cell apoptosis in the contralateral testis (AI-1, 3.5-fold decrease, P < 0.05, AI-2- sixfold decrease, P < 0.005) compared to IR animals. In a rat model of testicular IR, treatment with allopurinol decreases germ cell apoptosis in both ischemic and contralateral testes and improves spermatogenesis. PMID:17985141

Sukhotnik, Igor; Meyer, Gil; Nativ, Ofer; Coran, Arnold G; Voskoboinik, Katya; Shiloni, Eitan; Mogilner, Jorge G

2008-01-01

134

The immunological responsiveness of germ-free mice thymectomized at birth. I. Antibody production and skin homograft rejection  

PubMed Central

The responses of conventional and germ-free mice thymectomized at birth to sheep erythrocytes and to skin homografts have been investigated. Antibody production to sheep erythrocytes was depressed to an equal extent in thymectomized germ-free and conventional mice. Skin graft rejection in thymectomized germ-free mice was impaired in some cases although the extent of the impairment was generally not as extreme as it was in thymectomized conventional mice. The implications of the results are discussed. It is concluded that a primary consequence of thymectomy is some degree of immunological impairment but that other factors operating in the conventional state, such as bacterial contamination, endotoxins and cross-reacting antigens, act to reduce even further the number of antigen-reactive cells available in an already limited pool of immunologically competent cells.

Miller, J. F. A. P.; Dukor, P.; Grant, Gwendoline; Sinclair, N. R. St C.; Sacquet, E.

1967-01-01

135

Germ tube-specific antigens of Candida albicans cell walls  

SciTech Connect

Studies were performed to characterize the surface differences between blastospores and germ tubes of the pathogenic, dimorphic yeast, Candida albicans, and to identify components of yeast cells responsible for these differences. Investigation of surfaces differences of the two growth forms was facilitated by the production of rabbit antiserum prepared against Formalin-treated yeast possessing germ tubes. To prepare antiserum specific for germ tubes, this serum was adsorbed with stationary phase blastospores. Whereas the unadsorbed antiserum reacted with both blastospore and germ tube forms by immunofluorescence and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the adsorbed antiserum did not react with blastospores but detected germ tube-specific antigens in hyphal forms. The differences between blastospores and germ tubes of Candida albicans, were further studied by comparing enzymatic digests of cell walls of both growth forms in radiolabeled organisms. Organisms were labeled either on the surface with /sup 125/I, or metabolically with (/sup 35/S) methionine or (/sup 3/H) mannose. Three-surface-located components (as shown by antibody adsorption and elution experiments) were precipitated from Zymolase digests. All three components were mannoproteins as shown by their ability to bind Concanavalin A, and to be labeled in protein labeling procedures, and two of these (200,000 and 155,000 molecular weight) were germ tube specific, as shown by their ability to be precipitated by germ tube-specific antiserum. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to C. albicans, using blastospores bearing germ tubes as immunogen.

Sundstrom, P.R.

1986-01-01

136

Regulating gene expression in the Drosophila germ line.  

PubMed

Germ cells are the ultimate stem cells because they have the potential to give rise to a new organism. Specified during early embryogenesis in most species, germ cells evade somatic differentiation by using mechanisms such as transcriptional silencing and translational control (Seydoux and Braun 2006; Cinalli et al. 2008). To identify germ-line targets of translational regulation and to understand their mechanism of regulation, we used publicly available databases to identify RNAs localized to germ plasm. Using a transgenic reporter assay, we find that these germ-line RNAs are both spatially and temporally regulated during both oogenesis and embryogenesis by their 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTRs) (Rangan et al. 2008). We find that many RNAs that are spatially and temporally regulated in the early embryo are also translationally regulated during oogenesis. However, RNAs that are similarly regulated during oogenesis are no longer coregulated during embryogenesis, demonstrating that cis-acting sequences within a single RNA are used differentially during the life cycle of the germ line. Our study emphasizes a multifaceted role of translational regulation in germ cells. Many aspects of cellular behavior are shared between germ cells and other stem cells; thus, analysis of the translational regulatory networks controlling translation during the germ-line life cycle may reveal important general features of RNA regulation in stem cells. PMID:19270081

Rangan, P; DeGennaro, M; Lehmann, R

2008-01-01

137

Primary intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatrics  

PubMed Central

Testicular sarcomas constitute only 1–2% of all testicular tumors and are mostly associated with germ cell tumor. Primary intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is rare and only 14 cases have been reported in the literature till date. It should be differentiated from germ cell tumor with sarcomatous component, other intratesticular spindle-cell sarcomas and paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma. Accurate diagnosis and early treatment is essential as it is an aggressive tumor with high metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Orchidectomy is the treatment of choice. Chemo-radiotherapy is recommended in case of recurrence and metastasis.

Nasit, Jitendra G.; Parikh, Biren; Trivedi, Priti; Shah, Manoj

2013-01-01

138

Primary intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatrics.  

PubMed

Testicular sarcomas constitute only 1-2% of all testicular tumors and are mostly associated with germ cell tumor. Primary intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is rare and only 14 cases have been reported in the literature till date. It should be differentiated from germ cell tumor with sarcomatous component, other intratesticular spindle-cell sarcomas and paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma. Accurate diagnosis and early treatment is essential as it is an aggressive tumor with high metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Orchidectomy is the treatment of choice. Chemo-radiotherapy is recommended in case of recurrence and metastasis. PMID:23671375

Nasit, Jitendra G; Parikh, Biren; Trivedi, Priti; Shah, Manoj

2013-01-01

139

Germ cell differentiation and proliferation in the developing testis of the South American plains viscacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).  

PubMed

Cell proliferation and cell death are essential processes in the physiology of the developing testis that strongly influence the normal adult spermatogenesis. We analysed in this study the morphometry, the expression of the proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cell pluripotency marker OCT-4, germ cell marker VASA and apoptosis in the developing testes of Lagostomus maximus, a rodent in which female germ line develops through abolished apoptosis and unrestricted proliferation. Morphometry revealed an increment in the size of the seminiferous cords with increasing developmental age, arising from a significant increase of PCNA-positive germ cells and a stable proportion of PCNA-positive Sertoli cells. VASA showed a widespread cytoplasmic distribution in a great proportion of proliferating gonocytes that increased significantly at late development. In the somatic compartment, Leydig cells increased at mid-development, whereas peritubular cells showed a stable rate of proliferation. In contrast to other mammals, OCT-4 positive gonocytes increased throughout development reaching 90% of germ cells in late-developing testis, associated with a conspicuous increase in circulating FSH from mid- to late-gestation. TUNEL analysis was remarkable negative, and only a few positive cells were detected in the somatic compartment. These results show that the South American plains viscacha displays a distinctive pattern of testis development characterized by a sustained proliferation of germ cells throughout development, with no signs of apoptosis cell demise, in a peculiar endocrine in utero ambiance that seems to promote the increase of spermatogonial number as a primary direct effect of FSH. PMID:21554773

Gonzalez, C R; Muscarsel Isla, M L; Fraunhoffer, N A; Leopardo, N P; Vitullo, A D

2012-08-01

140

Distribution of carotenoids in endosperm, germ, and aleurone fractions of cereal grain kernels.  

PubMed

To compare the distribution of carotenoids across the grain, non-corn and corn cereals were hand dissected into endosperm, germ and aleurone fractions. Total carotenoid content (TCC) and carotenoid composition were analysed using spectrophotometry and HPLC. Cereal carotenoid composition was similar; however, concentrations varied significantly (p<0.05). Endosperm fractions had TCC ranging from 0.88 to 2.27 and 14.17 to 31.35 mg/kg in non-corn cereals and corn, respectively. TCC, lutein and zeaxanthin in germ fractions were higher in non-corn cereals than in corn. Lutein and zeaxanthin contents were lower in non-corn cereal endosperms. The aleurone layer had zeaxanthin levels 2- to 5-fold higher than lutein among the cereals. Positive significant correlations (p<0.05) were found between TCC, carotenoids analysed by HPLC and DPPH results. This study is the first to report on carotenoid composition of the aleurone layer. Our findings suggest that the aleurone of wheat, oat, corn and germ of barley have significantly enhanced carotenoid levels. PMID:23561159

Ndolo, Victoria U; Beta, Trust

2013-08-15

141

Spike firing and IPSPs in layer V pyramidal neurons during beta oscillations in rat primary motor cortex (M1) in vitro.  

PubMed

Beta frequency oscillations (10-35 Hz) in motor regions of cerebral cortex play an important role in stabilising and suppressing unwanted movements, and become intensified during the pathological akinesia of Parkinson's Disease. We have used a cortical slice preparation of rat brain, combined with concurrent intracellular and field recordings from the primary motor cortex (M1), to explore the cellular basis of the persistent beta frequency (27-30 Hz) oscillations manifest in local field potentials (LFP) in layers II and V of M1 produced by continuous perfusion of kainic acid (100 nM) and carbachol (5 µM). Spontaneous depolarizing GABA-ergic IPSPs in layer V cells, intracellularly dialyzed with KCl and IEM1460 (to block glutamatergic EPSCs), were recorded at -80 mV. IPSPs showed a highly significant (P< 0.01) beta frequency component, which was highly significantly coherent with both the Layer II and V LFP oscillation (which were in antiphase to each other). Both IPSPs and the LFP beta oscillations were abolished by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline. Layer V cells at rest fired spontaneous action potentials at sub-beta frequencies (mean of 7.1+1.2 Hz; n = 27) which were phase-locked to the layer V LFP beta oscillation, preceding the peak of the LFP beta oscillation by some 20 ms. We propose that M1 beta oscillations, in common with other oscillations in other brain regions, can arise from synchronous hyperpolarization of pyramidal cells driven by synaptic inputs from a GABA-ergic interneuronal network (or networks) entrained by recurrent excitation derived from pyramidal cells. This mechanism plays an important role in both the physiology and pathophysiology of control of voluntary movement generation. PMID:24465488

Lacey, Michael G; Gooding-Williams, Gerard; Prokic, Emma J; Yamawaki, Naoki; Hall, Stephen D; Stanford, Ian M; Woodhall, Gavin L

2014-01-01

142

Human primordial germ cell-derived progenitors give rise to neurons and glia in vivo  

SciTech Connect

We derived a cell population from cultured human primordial germ cells from early human embryos. The derivates, termed embryoid body-derived (EBD) cells, displayed an extensive capacity for proliferation and expressed a panel of markers in all three germ layers. Interestingly, EBD cells were also positive for markers of neural stem/progenitor cells, such as nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. When these cells were transplanted into the brain cavities of fetal sheep and postnatal NOD-SCID mice or nerve-degenerated tibialis anterior muscles, they readily gave rise to neurons or glial cells. To our knowledge, our data are the first to demonstrate that EBD cells can undergo further neurogenesis under suitable environments in vivo. Hence, with the abilities of extensive expansion, self-renewal, and differentiation, EBD cells may provide a useful donor source for neural stem/progenitor cells to be used in cell-replacement therapies for diseases of the nervous system.

Teng, Yincheng [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The 6th People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China)] [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The 6th People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Chen, Bin [Center for Developmental Biology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1665 Kong Jiang Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)] [Center for Developmental Biology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1665 Kong Jiang Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Tao, Minfang, E-mail: Taomf@126.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The 6th People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China)] [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The 6th People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233 (China)

2009-12-18

143

The epigenetic regulator PLZF represses L1 retrotransposition in germ and progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Germ cells and adult stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis through a finely tuned program of responses to both physiological and stress related signals. PLZF, a member of the POK family of transcription factors, acts as an epigenetic regulator of stem cell maintenance in germ cells and in hematopoietic stem cells. We identified L1 retrotransposons as the primary targets of PLZF. PLZF-mediated DNA methylation induces silencing of the full length L1 gene and inhibit L1 retrotransposition. Furthermore, PLZF causes the formation of barrier-type boundaries by acting on inserted truncated L1 sequences in protein coding genes. Cell stress releases PLZF-mediated repression, resulting in L1 activation/retrotransposition and impaired spermatogenesis and myelopoiesis. These results reveal a novel mechanism of action by which, PLZF represses retrotransposons, safeguarding normal progenitor homeostasis.

Puszyk, William; Down, Thomas; Grimwade, David; Chomienne, Christine; Oakey, Rebecca J.; Solomon, Ellen

2013-01-01

144

The sensitivity of primary productivity to intra-seasonal mixed layer variability in the sub-Antarctic Zone of the Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal cycle of primary productivity is impacted by seasonal and intra-seasonal dynamics of the mixed layer through the changing balance between mixing and buoyancy forcing, which regulates nutrient supply and light availability. Of particular recent interest is the role of synoptic scale events in supplying nutrients, particularly iron, to the euphotic zone in the Sub Antarctic Zone (SAZ), where phytoplankton blooms occur throughout summer. In this study, we present high resolution measurements of net community production (NCP) constrained by ?O2/Ar ratios, and mixed layer depth (MLD) in the Atlantic SAZ. We found a non-linear relationship between NCP and MLD, with the highest and most variable NCP observed in shallow MLDs (< 45 m). We propose that NCP variability in the SAZ may be driven by alternating states of synoptic-scale deepening of the mixed layer, leading to the entrainment of iron (dFe), followed by restratification, allowing rapid growth in an iron replete, high light environment. Synoptic iron fluxes into the euphotic zone based on water column dFe profiles and high resolution glider MLD data, reveal a potentially significant contribution of "new iron" which could sustain NCP throughout summer. Future process studies will help elaborate these findings further.

Joubert, W. R.; Swart, S.; Tagliabue, A.; Thomalla, S. J.; Monteiro, P. M. S.

2014-03-01

145

A primary analysis of microwave brightness temperature of lunar surface from Chang-E 1 multi-channel radiometer observation and inversion of regolith layer thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In China's first lunar exploration project, Chang-E 1 (CE-1), a multi-channel microwave radiometer was aboard the satellite, with the purpose of measuring microwave brightness temperature (Tb) from lunar surface and surveying the global distribution of lunar regolith layer thickness. In this paper, the primary 621 tracks of swath data measured by CE-1 microwave radiometer from November 2007 to February 2008 are collected and analyzed. Using the nearest neighbor interpolation to collect the Tb data under the same Sun illumination, global distributions of microwave brightness temperature from lunar surface at lunar daytime and nighttime are constructed. Based on the three-layer media modeling (the top dust-soil, regolith and underlying rock media) for microwave thermal emission of lunar surface, the CE-1 measured Tb and its dependence upon latitude, frequency and FeO + TiO 2 content, etc. are discussed. The CE-1 Tb data at Apollo landing sites are especially chosen for validation and calibration on the basis of available ground measurements. Using the empirical dependence of physical temperature upon the latitude verified by the CE-1 multi-channel Tb data at Apollo landing sites, the global distribution of regolith layer thickness is further inverted from the CE-1 brightness temperature data at 3 GHz channel. Those inversions at Apollo landing sites and the characteristics of regolith layer thickness for lunar maria are well compared with the Apollo in situ measurements and the regolith thickness derived from the Earth-based radar data. Finally, the statistical distribution of regolith thickness is analyzed and discussed.

Fa, Wenzhe; Jin, Ya-Qiu

2010-06-01

146

Global DNA hypomethylation in intratubular germ cell neoplasia and seminoma, but not in nonseminomatous male germ cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Alterations in methylation of CpG dinucleotides at the 5 position of deoxycytidine residues (5mC) are a hallmark of cancer cells, including testicular germ cell tumors. Virtually all testicular germ cell tumors are believed to be derived from intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU), which is thought to arise from primordial germ cells. Prior studies revealed that seminomas contain reduced levels of global DNA methylation as compared with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Smiraglia et al have proposed a model whereby seminomas arise from IGCNU cells derived from primordial germ cells that have undergone 5mC erasure, and nonseminomas arise from IGCNU cells derived from primordial germ cells that have already undergone de novo methylation after the original erasure of methylation and contain normal 5mC levels. Yet the methylation status of IGCNU has not been determined previously. We used immunohistochemical staining against 5mC to evaluate global methylation in IGCNU and associated invasive testicular germ cell tumors. Strikingly, staining for 5mC was undetectable (or markedly reduced) in the majority of IGCNU and seminomas, yet there was robust staining in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. The lack of staining for 5mC in IGCNU and seminomas was also found in mixed germ cell tumors containing both seminomatous and nonseminomatous components. Lack of 5mC staining was not related to a lack of the maintenance methyltransferase (DNA methyltransferase 1) protein. We conclude that testicular germ cell tumors are derived in most cases from IGCNU cells that have undergone developmentally programmed 5mC erasure and that the degree of subsequent de novo methylation is most closely related to the differentiation state of the neoplastic cells. That is, IGCNU cells and seminoma cells remain unmethylated, whereas all other histological types appear to arise after de novo methylation.

Netto, Georges J; Nakai, Yasutomo; Nakayama, Masashi; Jadallah, Sana; Toubaji, Antoun; Nonomura, Norio; Albadine, Roula; Hicks, Jessica L; Epstein, Jonathan I; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G; De Marzo, Angelo M

2014-01-01

147

Bucky ball organizes germ plasm assembly in zebrafish.  

PubMed

In many animals, gamete formation during embryogenesis is specified by maternal cytoplasmic determinants termed germ plasm. During oogenesis, germ plasm forms a distinct cellular structure such as pole plasm in Drosophila or the Balbiani body, an aggregate of organelles also found in mammals. However, in vertebrates, the key regulators of germ plasm assembly are largely unknown. Here, we show that, at the beginning of zebrafish oogenesis, the germ plasm defect in bucky ball (buc) mutants precedes the loss of polarity, indicating that Buc primarily controls Balbiani body formation. Moreover, we molecularly identify the buc gene, which is exclusively expressed in the ovary with a novel, dynamic mRNA localization pattern first detectable within the Balbiani body. We find that a Buc-GFP fusion localizes to the Balbiani body during oogenesis and with the germ plasm during early embryogenesis, consistent with a role in germ plasm formation. Interestingly, overexpression of buc seems to generate ectopic germ cells in the zebrafish embryo. Because we discovered buc homologs in many vertebrate genomes, including mammals, these results identify buc as the first gene necessary and sufficient for germ plasm organization in vertebrates. PMID:19249209

Bontems, Franck; Stein, Amandine; Marlow, Florence; Lyautey, Jacqueline; Gupta, Tripti; Mullins, Mary C; Dosch, Roland

2009-03-10

148

Applying "gold standards" to in-vitro-derived germ cells.  

PubMed

Germ cells are the ultimate stem cells, and reports of their in vitro derivation generate excitement due to potential applications in reproductive medicine. To date, there is no firm evidence that meiosis, the hallmark of gametogenesis, can be faithfully replicated outside of the gonad. We propose benchmarks for evaluating in vitro derivation of germ cells, facilitating realization of their potential. PMID:24906145

Handel, Mary Ann; Eppig, John J; Schimenti, John C

2014-06-01

149

Germ cell transplantation in an azoospermic Klinefelter bull.  

PubMed

Germ cell transplantation is a technique that transfers donor testicular cells into recipient testes. A population of germ cells can colonize the recipient testis, initiate spermatogenesis, and produce sperm capable of fertilization. In the present study, a nonmosaic Klinefelter bull was used as a germ cell recipient. The donor cell suspension was introduced into the rete testis using ultrasound-guided puncture. A pulsatile administration of GnRH was performed to stimulate spermatogenesis. The molecular approach to detect donor cells was done by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction with allele discrimination based on a genetic mutation between donor and recipient. Therefore, a known genetic mutation, associated with coat-color phenotype, was used to calculate the ratio of donor to recipient cells in the biopsy specimens and ejaculates for 10 mo. After slaughtering, meiotic preparations were performed. The injected germ cells did not undergo spermatogenesis. Six months after germ cell transplantation, the donor cells were rejected, which indicates that the donor cells could not incorporate in the testis. The hormone stimulation showed that the testosterone-producing Leydig cells were functionally intact. Despite subfertility therapy, neither the recipient nor the donor cells underwent spermatogenesis. Therefore, nonmosaic Klinefelter bulls are not suitable as germ cell recipients. Future germ cell recipients in cattle could be mosaic Klinefelters, interspecies hybrids, bulls with Sertoli cell-only syndrome, or bulls with disrupted germ cell migration caused by RNA interference. PMID:12930718

Joerg, Hannes; Janett, Fredi; Schlatt, Stefan; Mueller, Simone; Graphodatskaya, Daria; Suwattana, Duangsmorn; Asai, Mika; Stranzinger, Gerald

2003-12-01

150

The Galactic Ecosystems Research and Mentorship (GERM) Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galactic Ecosystems Research and Mentorship (GERM) Initiative was established as a means of catalyzing engagement of Tufts University students in research and education relating to the inner workings of star-forming galaxies such as our own Milky Way galaxy. To date, the GERM Initiative has led to the creation of a seminar course on Galactic Ecosystems at Tufts, multiple papers

William H. Waller

2009-01-01

151

EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION [TO FEMALE GERM CELLS: BIOLOGY AND GENETIC RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

This is an editorial introduction to the special issue of utation Research, titled, emale Germ Cells: Biology and Genetic isk, which is an attempt to present a collection of papers that emphasize the distinct properties of female germ cells and their characteristic response to mu...

152

Localized maternal factors are required for zebrafish germ cell formation.  

PubMed

Maternally supplied factors in fertilized eggs play essential roles in the establishment of primordial germ cells. In zebrafish, cytoplasm at the distal ends of the first and second cleavage furrows has been assumed to contain germ lineage determinants, since maternal transcripts of germ lineage-specific genes are localized to ends of the cleavage furrows. To investigate whether these parts of cytoplasm are required for germ cell formation, we removed all four regions of the cytoplasm by glass capillary at the 4-cell stage. Histological analysis revealed that the ablation of cytoplasm at the ends of the cleavage planes resulted in a severe reduction in the number of germ cells. In addition, the expression of germ lineage markers was eliminated by cytoplasmic ablation. These results demonstrated that cytoplasm at the distal ends of cleavage furrows is essential for germ cell formation. We also found novel localization patterns for zDazl and brul mRNAs along the cleavage planes. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that localized cytoplasmic factors are indispensable for germ cell establishment in zebrafish. PMID:15031112

Hashimoto, Yoshiko; Maegawa, Shingo; Nagai, Terumi; Yamaha, Etsuro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Kunio; Inoue, Kunio

2004-04-01

153

HCG induced hyperthyreosis in germ cell cancer.  

PubMed

Human germ cell tumors have the unique capacity for totipotential differentiation. AFP (the product of normal yolk sac) and HCG (produced by trophoblastic tissues) are frequently produced by germ cell tumors. The a-subunit of the glycoprotein HCG is identical to that of several pituitary glycoprotein hormones (e.g. TSH, LH, FSH), whereas the b-subunit of HCG, TSH, LH and FSH is homologous but distinct in the terminal amino acid sequence suggesting that HCG is part of a superfamily of gestational hormones. However, the role of TSH within this hormone superfamily is still not yet established. A 24-year old patient was admitted to our clinic because of a widespread recurrence of a germ cell tumor (stage IIIC, Lugano classification). The routine hematologic and blood chemical tests were normal, yet, an elevated HCG was found. In addition, increased levels of the thyroid hormones FT3 and FT4 were seen, although, this was not associated with clinical symptoms of a hyperthyreosis. There was no history of hyperthyreosis and thyroidal autoantibody screening revealed normal titers. An ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland showed no abnormalities and no iodine exposure had occurred during the last months. To mobilize peripheral stem cells (PBSC) he was initially treated with paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) and ifosfamide (8.000 mg/m2)) followed by apheresis of PBSC. The patient was then entered in our phase-II-study for relapsing germ cell carcinomas using a high-dose chemotherapy regime (paclitaxel 175 mg/m2, ifosfamide 9.000 mg/m2, carboplatin 900 mg/m2, etoposide 900 mg/m2) with subsequent retransfusion of collected stem cells. Due to cranial metastases an cranial irradiation was also performed. After three courses of this protocol an excellent partial remission of the tumor lesions was achieved and the HCG value dramatically decreased. Due to elevated thyroidal hormones, the patient was initially treated with thiamazole (20 mg) resulting in decrease of the thyroidal hormones. Thus, the thiamazole dose was reduced to 5 mg and then omitted. The decrease of the thyroidal hormones FT3 and FT4 strongly correlated with the reduction of HCG values (r2 0.91 and 0.77, p < 0.0008). To date there is only slight evidence that enhanced HCG levels may cause, at least in part, a hyperthyreosis (e.g. gestational hyperthyreosis), however, the underlying biochemical mechanism still remains unclear. In this case report we have demonstrated a clear positive correlation between HCG levels and thyroidal hormones in a patient with germ cell tumor suggesting a direct stimulation of hormone producing thyroidal cells by HCG, however, this was not associated with clinical symptoms of hyperthyreosis. Currently, several in vitro studies are underway in our laboratory to further elucidate the biochemical mechanisms of HCG induced hyperthyreosis. PMID:11326684

Kellner, O; Voigt, W; Schneyer, U; Dempke, W; Schmoll, H J

2000-01-01

154

Protein interactions in Xenopus germ plasm RNP particles.  

PubMed

Hermes is an RNA-binding protein that we have previously reported to be found in the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles of Xenopus germ plasm, where it is associated with various RNAs, including that encoding the germ line determinant Nanos1. To further define the composition of these RNPs, we performed a screen for Hermes-binding partners using the yeast two-hybrid system. We have identified and validated four proteins that interact with Hermes in germ plasm: two isoforms of Xvelo1 (a homologue of zebrafish Bucky ball) and Rbm24b and Rbm42b, both RNA-binding proteins containing the RRM motif. GFP-Xvelo fusion proteins and their endogenous counterparts, identified with antisera, were found to localize with Hermes in the germ plasm particles of large oocytes and eggs. Only the larger Xvelo isoform was naturally found in the Balbiani body of previtellogenic oocytes. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments confirmed that Hermes and the Xvelo variants interact in germ plasm, as do Rbm24b and 42b. Depletion of the shorter Xvelo variant with antisense oligonucleotides caused a decrease in the size of germ plasm aggregates and loosening of associated mitochondria from these structures. This suggests that the short Xvelo variant, or less likely its RNA, has a role in organizing and maintaining the integrity of germ plasm in Xenopus oocytes. While GFP fusion proteins for Rbm24b and 42b did not localize into germ plasm as specifically as Hermes or Xvelo, BiFC analysis indicated that both interact with Hermes in germ plasm RNPs. They are very stable in the face of RNA depletion, but additive effects of combinations of antisense oligos suggest they may have a role in germ plasm structure and may influence the ability of Hermes protein to effectively enter RNP particles. PMID:24265795

Nijjar, Sarbjit; Woodland, Hugh R

2013-01-01

155

Origin and development of the germ line in sea stars  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes and integrates our current understanding of how sea stars make gametes. Although little is known of the mechanism of germ line formation in these animals, recent results point to specific cells and to cohorts of molecules in the embryos and larvae that may lay the ground work for future research efforts. A coelomic outpocketing forms in the posterior of the gut in larvae, referred to as the posterior enterocoel (PE), that when removed, significantly reduces the number of germ cell later in larval growth. This same PE structure also selectively accumulates several germ-line associated factors – vasa, nanos, piwi – and excludes factors involved in somatic cell fate. Since its formation is relatively late in development, these germ cells may form by inductive mechanisms. When integrated into the morphological observations of germ cells and gonad development in larvae, juveniles, and adults, the field of germ line determination appears to have a good model system to study inductive germ line determination to complement the recent work on the molecular mechanisms in mice. We hope this review will also guide investigators interested in germ line determination and regulation of the germ line in how these animals can help in this research field. The review is not intended to be comprehensive – sea star reproduction has been studied over 100 years and many reviews are comprehensive in their coverage of, for example, seasonal growth of the gonads in response to light, nutrient, and temperature. Rather the intent of this review is to help the reader focus on new experimental results attached to the historical underpinnings of how the germ cell functions in sea stars with particular emphasis to clarify the important areas of priority for future research.

Wessel, Gary M.; Fresques, Tara; Kiyomoto, Masato; Yajima, Mamiko; Zazueta, Vanesa

2014-01-01

156

Protein Interactions in Xenopus Germ Plasm RNP Particles  

PubMed Central

Hermes is an RNA-binding protein that we have previously reported to be found in the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles of Xenopus germ plasm, where it is associated with various RNAs, including that encoding the germ line determinant Nanos1. To further define the composition of these RNPs, we performed a screen for Hermes-binding partners using the yeast two-hybrid system. We have identified and validated four proteins that interact with Hermes in germ plasm: two isoforms of Xvelo1 (a homologue of zebrafish Bucky ball) and Rbm24b and Rbm42b, both RNA-binding proteins containing the RRM motif. GFP-Xvelo fusion proteins and their endogenous counterparts, identified with antisera, were found to localize with Hermes in the germ plasm particles of large oocytes and eggs. Only the larger Xvelo isoform was naturally found in the Balbiani body of previtellogenic oocytes. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments confirmed that Hermes and the Xvelo variants interact in germ plasm, as do Rbm24b and 42b. Depletion of the shorter Xvelo variant with antisense oligonucleotides caused a decrease in the size of germ plasm aggregates and loosening of associated mitochondria from these structures. This suggests that the short Xvelo variant, or less likely its RNA, has a role in organizing and maintaining the integrity of germ plasm in Xenopus oocytes. While GFP fusion proteins for Rbm24b and 42b did not localize into germ plasm as specifically as Hermes or Xvelo, BiFC analysis indicated that both interact with Hermes in germ plasm RNPs. They are very stable in the face of RNA depletion, but additive effects of combinations of antisense oligos suggest they may have a role in germ plasm structure and may influence the ability of Hermes protein to effectively enter RNP particles.

Nijjar, Sarbjit; Woodland, Hugh R.

2013-01-01

157

Metformin Hydrochloride and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ascites; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

2014-04-23

158

The germ line lineage in ukigori, Gymnogobius species (Teleostei: Gobiidae) during embryonic development.  

PubMed

In order to determine the origin and migration of ukigori primordial germ cells (PGCs), we observed the aggregation of vasa mRNA by whole mount in situ hybridization. To observe PGC migration in the germ layers, we analyzed HE-stained paraffin sections. The germ line lineages were derived from the edge of the first, second and third cleavage furrows. During subsequent cleavages, vasa mRNA aggregations were respectively taken into four to eight cells in each embryo and vasa expressing cells proliferated from the sphere stage. At the bud to early somitogenesis period, PGCs aligned from head to tail bud regions on both sides of the embryonic body. During the late somitogenesis period, PGCs mainly aggregated just underneath the body axis. After gut formation, PGCs aligned along both sides of the gut at the 4th- to 8th- somite regions. Finally, PGCs reached the genital ridge via the inside of the lateral plate mesoderm and dorsal peritoneum. These results suggest that localized patterns of vasa transcripts and the migration routes of PGCs are different among fish (Teleost) species, perhaps depending on the amount of germinal cytoplasm derived maternally and the timing of endoderm differentiation. PMID:15602693

Saito, Taiju; Otani, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Suzuki, Tohru; Nakatsuji, Takako; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

2004-12-01

159

Germ cell maturation and cellular associations in the seminiferous epithelial cycle of the chimpanzee.  

PubMed

Seminiferous tubule architecture, germ cell maturation steps and cellular associations (stages) of the spermatogenic cycle of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) are resolved. Cross sections of seminiferous tubules usually exhibit 2 to 4 stages, occasionally 1, and rarely 5; stages are not functionally sequential in structurally contiguous regions. The cellular maturation steps are: dark type A stem cell (Ad), pale type A (Ap), type B(B) spermatogonia; resting or preleptotene (P1), leptotene (L), zygotene (Z), pachytene (P), diplotene (Di) primary spermatocytes; meiotic divisions (M1, M2); secondary spermatocytes (2 degrees S); six developmental stages of the spermatid (Sa, Sb1, Sb2, Sc, Sd1, Sd2) composing spermiogenesis. The germ cell maturation steps characteristic of the six cellular associations (stages I-VI) are: Ad, Ap, B, P, Sa, Sd1 (I); Ad, Ap, B, PI, P, Sa, Sd2 (II); Ad, Ap, B, PI, L, P, Sb1 (III); Ad, Ap, PI, L, P, Sb2 (IV); Ad, Ap, L, Z, P, Di, Sc (V); Ad, Ap, B, Z, P, Di, 2 degrees S, Sc (VI). Surgical pressure trauma causes sloughing of some 2 degrees S spermatocytes and some Sa, Sb1, Sb2, Sd1, and Sd2 spermatids, resulting in missing generations, and disrupts Sertoli cell attachments, affecting germ cell development and associations. In structure and function, chimpanzee spermatogenesis appears most similar to the human. PMID:8650668

Smithwick, E B; Young, L G

1996-04-01

160

Characterization of germ cell-specific expression of the orphan nuclear receptor, germ cell nuclear factor.  

PubMed

Nuclear receptors, such as those for androgens, estrogens, and progesterones, control many reproductive processes. Proteins with structures similar to these receptors, but for which ligands have not yet been identified, have been termed orphan nuclear receptors. One of these orphans, germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF), has been shown to be germ cell specific in the adult and, therefore, may also participate in the regulation of reproductive functions. In this paper, we examine more closely the expression patterns of GCNF in germ cells to begin to define spatio-temporal domains of its activity. In situ hybridization showed that GCNF messenger RNA (mRNA) is lacking in the testis of hypogonadal mutant mice, which lack developed spermatids, but is present in the wild-type testis. Thus, GCNF is, indeed, germ cell specific in the adult male. Quantitation of the specific in situ hybridization signal in wild-type testis reveals that GCNF mRNA is most abundant in stage VII round spermatids. Similarly, Northern analysis and specific in situ hybridization show that GCNF expression first occurs in testis of 20-day-old mice, when round spermatids first emerge. Therefore, in the male, GCNF expression occurs postmeiotically and may participate in the morphological changes of the maturing spermatids. In contrast, female expression of GCNF is shown in growing oocytes that have not completed the first meiotic division. Thus, GCNF in the female is expressed before the completion of meiosis. Finally, the nature of the two different mRNAs that hybridize to the GCNF complementary DNA was studied. Although both messages contain the DNA binding domain, only the larger message is recognized by a probe from the extreme 3' untranslated region. In situ hybridization with these differential probes demonstrates that both messages are present in growing oocytes. In addition, the coding region and portions of the 3' untranslated region of the GCNF complementary DNA are conserved in the rat. PMID:9322952

Katz, D; Niederberger, C; Slaughter, G R; Cooney, A J

1997-10-01

161

PDGF mediates derivation of human embryonic germ cells.  

PubMed

Human embryonic germ cells (hEGCs) are a valuable and underutilized source of pluripotent stem cells. Unlike embryonic stem cells, which have been extensively studied, little is known about the factors that regulate hEGC derivation and maintenance. This study demonstrates for the first time a central role for selective activation of PDGFR signaling in the derivation and maintenance of pluripotency in hEGCs. In the study, hEGCs were found to express PDGF receptor ? at high levels compared to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). PDGF significantly improved formation of alkaline phosphatase (AP) positive hEGC colonies. We subsequently determined that PDGF activates the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway as phosphorylation of AKT was up-regulated in response to PDGF. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K signaling using small molecular inhibitor LY294002 led to significantly decreased AP positive hEGC colony formation whereas inhibition of MAPK pathway using U0126 had a negligible effect. We established a primary mechanism for PDGF mediated derivation and maintenance of hEGCs by demonstrating that OCT4 was upregulated and PTEN was suppressed in a dose dependent manner in response to PDGF. PMID:24485751

Li, Yang; Hong, Wan Xing; Lan, Baojin; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yinan; Kong, Lin; Li, Yaxuan; Zhou, Shixin; Liu, Ying; Feng, Ruopeng; Jiang, Sibo; He, Qihua; Tan, Jichun

2013-01-01

162

The making of a germ panic, then and now.  

PubMed

Over the last 2 decades, a heightened interest in germs has been evident in many aspects of American popular culture, including news coverage, advertisements, and entertainment media. Although clearly a response to the AIDS epidemic and other recent disease outbreaks, current obsessions with germs have some striking parallels with a similar period of intense anxiety about disease germs that occurred between 1900 and 1940. A comparison of these 2 periods of germ "panic" suggests some of the long-term cultural trends that contributed to their making. Both germ panics reflected anxieties about societal incorporation, associated with expanding markets, transportation networks, and mass immigration. They were also shaped by new trends in public health education, journalism, advertising, and entertainment media. In comparison to the first germ panic, the current discourse about the "revenge of the superbugs" is considerably more pessimistic because of increasing worries about the environment, suspicions of governmental authority, and distrust of expert knowledge. Yet, as popular anxieties about infectious disease have increased, public health scientists have been attracting favorable coverage in their role as "medical detectives" on the trail of the "killer germ." PMID:10667179

Tomes, N

2000-02-01

163

Temporal and spatial control of germ plasm RNAs  

PubMed Central

In many species germ cells form in a specialized germ plasm, which contains localized maternal RNAs [1–5]. In the absence of active transcription in early germ cells, these maternal RNAs encode germ cell components with critical functions in germ cell specification, migration and development [6, 7]. For several RNAs, localization has been correlated with release from translational repression, suggesting an important regulatory function linked to localization [3, 4, 8, 9]. To address the role of RNA localization and translational control more systematically, we assembled a comprehensive set of RNAs that are localized to polar granules, the characteristic germ plasm organelles. We find that the 3?-untranslated regions (UTRs) of all RNAs tested control RNA localization and instruct distinct temporal patterns of translation of the localized RNAs. We demonstrate necessity for translational timing by swapping the 3?UTR of polar granular component (pgc), which controls translation in germ cells, with that of nanos, which is translated earlier. Translational activation of pgc is concurrent with extension of its poly(A) tail length, but appears largely independent of the Drosophila CPEB homolog ORB. Our results demonstrate a role for 3?UTR mediated translational regulation in fine-tuning the temporal expression of localized RNA and may provide a paradigm for other RNAs that are found enriched at common cellular locations such as the leading edge of fibroblasts or the neuronal synapse.

Rangan, Prashanth; DeGennaro, Matthew; Jaime-Bustamante, Kean; Coux, Remi- Xavier; Martinho, Rui; Lehmann, Ruth

2009-01-01

164

Hedgehog does not guide migrating Drosophila germ cells  

PubMed Central

In many species, the germ cells, precursors of sperm and egg, migrate during embryogenesis. The signals that regulate this migration are thus essential for fertility. In flies, lipid signals have been shown to affect germ cell guidance. In particular, the synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate through the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) pathway is critical for attracting germ cells to their target tissue. In a genetic analysis of signaling pathways known to affect cell migration of other migratory cells, we failed to find a role for the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in germ cell migration. However, previous reports had implicated Hh as a germ cell attractant in flies and suggested that Hh signaling is enhanced through the action of the Hmgcr pathway. We therefore repeated several critical experiments and carried out further experiments to test specifically whether Hh is a germ cell attractant in flies. In contrast to previously reported findings and consistent with findings in zebrafish our data do not support the notion that Hh has a direct role in the guidance of migrating germ cells in flies.

Renault, Andrew D.; Ricardo, Sara; Kunwar, Prabhat S.; Santos, Ana; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle; Stein, Jennifer; Lehmann, Ruth

2009-01-01

165

The making of a germ panic, then and now.  

PubMed Central

Over the last 2 decades, a heightened interest in germs has been evident in many aspects of American popular culture, including news coverage, advertisements, and entertainment media. Although clearly a response to the AIDS epidemic and other recent disease outbreaks, current obsessions with germs have some striking parallels with a similar period of intense anxiety about disease germs that occurred between 1900 and 1940. A comparison of these 2 periods of germ "panic" suggests some of the long-term cultural trends that contributed to their making. Both germ panics reflected anxieties about societal incorporation, associated with expanding markets, transportation networks, and mass immigration. They were also shaped by new trends in public health education, journalism, advertising, and entertainment media. In comparison to the first germ panic, the current discourse about the "revenge of the superbugs" is considerably more pessimistic because of increasing worries about the environment, suspicions of governmental authority, and distrust of expert knowledge. Yet, as popular anxieties about infectious disease have increased, public health scientists have been attracting favorable coverage in their role as "medical detectives" on the trail of the "killer germ."

Tomes, N

2000-01-01

166

Regulation of CCN2 gene expression and possible roles in developing tooth germs.  

PubMed

CCN proteins are extracellular and cell-associated molecules involved in several developmental processes, but their expression patterns and regulation in tooth development remain unclear. Here we first determined the expression patterns of CCN genes in mouse tooth germs. We found that at early stages CCN2 was detected in dental lamina, dental mesenchyme, and primary enamel knot, while other CCN family members were expressed broadly. By the bell stage, all members were expressed in differentiating odontoblasts and ameloblasts, but CCN1 and CCN2 transcripts were conspicuous in differentiating osteoblasts in dental follicle. Next, we asked what signalling molecules regulate CCN2 expression and what roles CCN2 may have. We found that upon surgical removal of dental epithelium CCN2 was not longer expressed in dental mesenchyme in cultured bud stage germs. Implantation of beads pre-coated with BMPs and FGFs onto E12-13 mandibular explants induced CCN2 expression in dental mesenchyme. There was a dose-dependent effect of BMP-4 on CCN2 induction; a concentration of 100 ng/?l was able to induce strong CCN2 expression while a minimum concentration of 25 ng/?l was needed to elicit appreciable expression. Importantly, Noggin treatment inhibited endogenous and BMP-induced CCN2 expression, verifying that CCN2 expression in developing tooth germs requires BMP signalling. Lastly, we found that rCCN2 stimulated proliferation in dental mesenchyme in a dose-dependent manner. Together, the data indicate that expression of CCN genes is spatio-temporally regulated in developing tooth germs. CCN2 expression appears to depend on epithelial and mesenchymal-derived signalling factors, and CCN2 can elicit strong proliferation in dental mesenchyme. PMID:24112732

Kanyama, Manabu; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Sugito, Hiroki; Nagayama, Motohiko; Kuboki, Takuo; Pacifici, Maurizio; Koyama, Eiki

2013-11-01

167

Inverted Impacted Primary Maxillary Incisors: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Tooth impaction rarely occurs in primary dentition. Most of the primary teeth impactions are seen in second molars. The purpose of this article is to present a 4-year-old girl with bilateral impaction of inverted primary maxillary central incisors which trauma had displaced their tooth germ before erupting.

Seraj, B.; Ghadimi, S.; Mighani, G.; Zare, H.; Rabbani, M.

2012-01-01

168

Current management of malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary.  

PubMed

Malignant germ cell tumors are an uncommon type of ovarian cancer which account for fewer than 5% of the total in Western countries and 20% in Japan. In females younger than 20, they represent approximately two-thirds of malignant ovarian tumors. Immature teratoma, endodermal sinus tumor, dysgerminoma and mixed type account for the majority (more than 80%), while embryonal carcinoma and polyembryoma are very few. The age of the patients ranges from 6 to 69 years with a median of 16-20 years. Clinically, these tumors are characterized by rapid growth and extensive intraabdominal spread. The symptoms and signs range from 1 day to 6 months with a median of 4 weeks, and the patients usually present with abdominal pain, palpable mass, abdominal distention and vaginal bleeding, and a very few with amenorrhea and precocious puberty. The size of tumors varies from 7 cm to 40 cm with a median of 15-16 cm. The tumor is rarely bilateral (12-19%) and never so in cases of endodermal sinus tumor. Diagnosis depends mainly on age, abdominal symptoms, size and consistency of the tumor, and tumor markers AFP and hCG. Surgery is the first step of management followed by adjuvant therapy, which depends on the histologic type. Dysgerminoma is very sensitive to radiation while other germ cell tumors are not. A combination chemotherapy currently used is VAC or VBP. Both are highly effective. The VBP regimen seems to have a stronger cancerocidal effect, while the VAC regimen is less toxic. VAC produces excellent results in stage I, while VBP is more effective for advanced disease. Conservative surgery and a combination chemotherapy (VAC, VBP) are appropriate for young patients who desire to retain their fertility. Second-look laparotomy is still controversial. As long as AFP or hCG or both can be used to monitor the disease in patients positive for these sensitive and reliable markers, or in an early stage with complete resection, second-look laparotomy is not useful. Survival is associated with prognostic factors, i.e., histologic type, clinical staging operation, lymph node and residual tumor. Patients with endodermal sinus tumor or mixed type tumor had a poorer outcome. The survival rate was higher in patients with earlier disease (stage I or II) and those who underwent primary surgery. Metastasis to the lymph node is not related to prognosis. The presence and size of residual tumors after surgery were closely related to the prognosis. PMID:7661594

Aziz, M F

1995-08-01

169

Primary spinal yolk sac tumor with brain metastasis: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryObject  Central nervous system primary germ cell tumors are typically pineal or suprasellar. Primary germ cell tumors of the spinal axis are very rare, with only a few case reports of germinomas and teratomas described in the literature.Methods  We present the unique case of a 25-year-old woman with an intradural, extramedullary primary yolk sac tumor (YST) at and below the level of

Peter Kan; Oren N. Gottfried; Deborah T. Blumenthal; James K. Liu; Karen L. Salzman; Jeannette Townsend; Randy L. Jensen

2006-01-01

170

Exclusion of germ plasm proteins from somatic lineages by cullin-dependent degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many animals, establishment of the germ line depends on segregation of a specialized cytoplasm, or `germ plasm', to a small number of germline precursor cells during early embryogenesis. Germ plasm asymmetry involves targeting of RNAs and proteins to a specific region of the oocyte and\\/or embryo. Here we demonstrate that germ plasm asymmetry also depends on degradation of germline

Cynthia DeRenzo; Kimberly J. Reese; Geraldine Seydoux

2003-01-01

171

Developmental acquisition of genome-wide DNA methylation occurs prior to meiosis in male germ cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of germ cells is a highly ordered process that begins during fetal growth and is completed in the adult. Epigenetic modifications that occur in germ cells are important for germ cell function and for post-fertilization embryonic development. We have previously shown that male germ cells in the adult mouse have a highly distinct epigenetic state, as revealed by

C. C. Oakes; S. La Salle; D. J. Smiraglia; B. Robaire; J. M. Trasler

2007-01-01

172

Diagnostic difficulties before definitive treatment of an extragonadal retroperitoneal germ cell tumor.  

PubMed

A primary extragonadal germ cell tumor of the retroperitoneum was diagnosed in a 47-year-old man without elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, or lactate dehydrogenase levels. The diagnosis was made by histologic analysis after resection. The patient responded well to a combination of cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide, achieving a partial response with four cycles. Residual tumor resection revealed necrotic tissue only. The patient was alive and disease free 24 months after diagnosis. The diagnostic difficulties of this particular situation are discussed. PMID:11489725

Lassmann, J; Wille, A; Wiechen, K; Taupitz, M; Loening, S A

2001-08-01

173

The time relationship between ipsilateral testicular ischemia and germ cell apoptosis in the contralateral testis in rat.  

PubMed

Unilateral testicular ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in the rat is followed by histologic damage in the contralateral testis, which has been previously explained on immunologic grounds. There is evidence to suggest that apoptosis in the contralateral testis is involved in germ cell loss following IR injury to the testis. We examined the time-dependent effect of testicular ischemia on germ cell apoptosis in the contralateral testis in a rat. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-280 g, were subjected to testicular ischemia for 1, 2, 3 or 24 h. Twenty-four hours following onset of the ischemic insult, testes were harvested for immunohistochemical studies. Apoptosis was detected using TUNEL immunohistochemical assay. Testicular ischemia in rats led to histological damage, which was related to the duration of the ischemia. In the contralateral testis, the minimal damage included a decrease in number of germ cell layers, mild disorganization, and single cell apoptosis. Apoptosis in the contralateral testes increased significantly after 2, 3, and 24 h of ischemia and showed direct, time-related correlation with the duration of ischemia. We conclude that testicular ischemia causes an increase in germ cell apoptosis in the contralateral testis. The extent of apoptosis increases with the duration of the ischemia. PMID:16025273

Sukhotnik, Igor; Miselevich, Iness; Lurie, Michael; Nativ, Ofer; Coran, Arnold G; Mogilner, Jorge G

2005-07-01

174

Retinoic acid metabolism links the periodical differentiation of germ cells with the cycle of Sertoli cells in mouse seminiferous epithelium.  

PubMed

Homeostasis of tissues relies on the regulated differentiation of stem cells. In the epithelium of mouse seminiferous tubules, the differentiation process from undifferentiated spermatogonia (A(undiff)), which harbor the stem cell functions, to sperm occurs in a periodical manner, known as the "seminiferous epithelial cycle". To identify the mechanism underlying this periodic differentiation, we investigated the roles of Sertoli cells (the somatic supporting cells) and retinoic acid (RA) in the seminiferous epithelial cycle. Sertoli cells cyclically change their functions in a coordinated manner with germ cell differentiation and support the entire process of spermatogenesis. RA is known to play essential roles in this periodic differentiation, but its precise mode of action and its regulation remains largely obscure. We showed that an experimental increase in RA signaling was capable of both inducing A(undiff) differentiation and resetting the Sertoli cell cycle to the appropriate stage. However, these actions of exogenous RA signaling on A(undiff) and Sertoli cells were strongly interfered by the differentiating germ cells of intimate location. Based on the expression of RA metabolism-related genes among multiple cell types - including germ and Sertoli cells - and their regulation by RA signaling, we propose here that differentiating germ cells play a primary role in modulating the local RA metabolism, which results in the timed differentiation of A(undiff) and the appropriate cycling of Sertoli cells. Similar regulation by differentiating progeny through the modulation of local environment could also be involved in other stem cell systems. PMID:22200512

Sugimoto, Ryo; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi; Yoshida, Shosei

2012-01-01

175

Salmonella Is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Salmonella is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Salmonella can contaminate more than poultry and eggs. It ...

176

General Information about Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... with testicular germ cell tumors are treated in pediatric cancer centers, but the treatment is similar to that ... a doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer. The pediatric oncologist works with other health care providers who ...

177

Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our ...

A. J. Sigurdson B. I. Graubard C. B. Thomas I. M. Jones K. A. Mc Glynn L. Korde M. B. Cook M. H. Greene

2008-01-01

178

On the stability of analytic germs under ultradifferentiable perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let f be a real-analytic function germ at the origin in , whose critical locus contains a given real-analytic set X, and let Y be a germ of a closed subset at the origin. We study the stability of f under perturbations u that are flat on Y and that belong to a given Denjoy-Carleman non-quasianalytic class. We obtain a condition ensuring that f+u=f[circle, open][Phi] where [Phi] is a germ of diffeomorphism whose components belong to a (generally larger) Denjoy-Carleman class. Roughly speaking, this condition involves a Lojasiewicz-type separation property between Y and the complex zeros of a certain ideal associated with f and X. The relationship between the Denjoy-Carleman classes of u and [Phi] is controlled precisely by the inequality. This result extends, and simplifies, former work of the author on germs with isolated critical points.

Thilliez, Vincent

2007-04-01

179

Tritium effects on germ cells and fertility  

SciTech Connect

Primordial oocytes in juvenile mice show acute gamma-ray LD/sub 50/ as low as 6 rad. This provides opportunities for determining dose-response relations at low doses and chronic exposure in the intact animal - conditions of particular interest for hazard evaluation. Examined in this way, /sup 3/HOH in body water is found to kill murine oocytes exponentially with dose, the LD/sub 50/ level for chronic exposure being only 2..mu..Ci/ml (delivering 0.4 rad/day). At very low doses and dose rates, where comparisons between tritium and other radiations are of special significance for radiological protection, the RBE of tritium compared with /sup 60/Co gamma radiation reaches approximately 3. Effects on murine fertility from tritium-induced oocyte loss have been quantified by reproductive capacity measurements. Chronic low-level exposure has been examined also in three primate species - squirrel, rhesus, and bonnet monkeys. In squirrel monkeys the ovarian germ-cell supply is 99% destroyed by the time of birth from prenatal exposure to body-water levels of /sup 3/HOH (administered in maternal drinking water) of only 3 ..mu..Ci/ml, the LD/sub 50/ level being 0.5 ..mu..Ci/ml (giving 0.1 rad/day), one fourth that in mice. Though not completely ruled out, similar high sensitivity of female germ cells has not been found in macaques; and it probably does not occur in man. The exquisite radiosensitivity of primordial oocytes in mice is apparently due to vulnerability of the plasma membrane (or something of similar geometry and location), not DNA. Evidence for this comes from tritium data as well as neutron studies. Tritium administered as /sup 3/HOH, and therefore generally distributed, is much more effective in killing murine oocytes than is tritium administered as /sup 3/H-TdR, localized in the nucleus. This situation in the mouse may have implications for estimating radiation genetic risk in the human female.

Dobson, R.L.; Kwan, T.C.; Straume, T.

1982-11-19

180

Retroperitoneal Extragonadal Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumor with Synchronous Orbital Metastasis  

PubMed Central

A huge retroperitoneal tumor with a right orbital mass was detected and proved to be an extragonadal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor on biopsy. BEP chemotherapy caused some regression in orbital mass however no change in retroperitoneal tumor size as well as serum tumor marker levels occurred. Herein, we present a rarely seen entity of extragonadal retroperitoneal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor with synchronous orbital metastases and discuss its diagnosis and management.

Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Alt?nova, Serkan; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Ozcan, M. Fuat; Al?c?, Suleyman; Mem?s, Leyla; Balbay, M. Derya

2009-01-01

181

Germ cell nuclear factor: an orphan receptor with unexpected properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orphan receptor germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF) is a member of the superfamily of nuclear receptors. During embryogenesis\\u000a GCNF expression is restricted to the developing nervous system, whereas in the adult the receptor is also expressed during\\u000a specific stages in maturing germ cells of the ovary and testis. Therefore GCNF may participate in the regulation of neurogenesis\\u000a and reproductive

Holger Greschik; Roland Schüle

1998-01-01

182

Development, differentiation and manipulation of chicken germ cells.  

PubMed

Germ cells are the only cell type capable of transmitting genetic information to the next generation. During development, they are set aside from all somatic cells of the embryo. In many species, germ cells form at the fringe of the embryo proper and then traverse through several developing somatic tissues on their migration to the emerging gonads. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the only cells in developing embryos with the potential to transmit genetic information to the next generation. Unlike other species, in avian embryos, PGCs use blood circulation for transport to the future gonadal region. This unique accessibility of avian PGCs during early development provides an opportunity to collect and transplant PGCs. The recent development of methods for production of germline chimeras by transfer of PGCs, and long-term cultivation methods of chicken PGCs without losing their germline transmission ability have provided important breakthroughs for the preservation of germplasm , for the production of transgenic birds and study the germ cell system. This review will describe the development, migration, differentiation and manipulation of germ cells, and discuss the prospects that germ cell technologies offer for agriculture, biotechnology and academic research. PMID:23294359

Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

2013-01-01

183

Conversion of midbodies into germ cell intercellular bridges  

PubMed Central

Whereas somatic cell cytokinesis resolves with abscission of the midbody, resulting in independent daughter cells, germ cell cytokinesis concludes with the formation of a stable intercellular bridge interconnecting daughter cells in a syncytium. While many proteins essential for abscission have been discovered, until recently, no proteins essential for mammalian germ cell intercellular bridge formation have been identified. Using TEX14 as a marker for the germ cell intercellular bridge, we show that TEX14 co-localizes with the centralspindlin complex, mitotic kinesin-like protein 1 (MKLP1) and male germ cell Rac GTPase-activating protein (MgcRacGAP), and converts these midbody matrix proteins into stable intercellular bridge components. In contrast, septins (SEPT) 2, 7, and 9 are transitional proteins in the newly forming bridge. In cultured somatic cells, TEX14 can localize to the midbody in the absence of other germ cell specific factors, suggesting that TEX14 serves to bridge the somatic cytokinesis machinery to other germ cell proteins to form a stable intercellular bridge essential for male reproduction.

Greenbaum, Michael P.; Ma, Lang; Matzuk, Martin M.

2009-01-01

184

Baldness, acne and testicular germ cell tumours.  

PubMed

Androgen levels during critical periods of testicular development may be involved in the aetiology of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT). We evaluated the roles of adolescent and early adult life correlates of androgen exposure and TGCT in a hospital-based case-control study. TGCT cases (n=187) and controls (n=148), matched on age, race and state of residence, participated in the study. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations between TGCT and male pattern baldness, severe acne, markers of puberty onset and body size. Cases were significantly less likely to report hair loss than controls [odds ratio (OR): 0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 1.0]. Amount of hair loss, increasing age at onset and increasing rate of loss were all inversely associated with TGCT (rate of hair loss: p-trend=0.03; age at onset: p-trend=0.03; amount of hair loss: p-trend=0.01). History of severe acne was inversely associated with TGCT (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.9) and height was positively associated with TGCT (p-trend=0.02). Increased endogenous androgen levels during puberty and early adulthood may be associated with a decreased risk of TGCT. Additional studies of endogenous hormone levels during puberty and early adult life are warranted, especially studies evaluating the role of androgen synthesis, metabolism and uptake. PMID:21128977

Trabert, B; Sigurdson, A J; Sweeney, A M; Amato, R J; Strom, S S; McGlynn, K A

2011-08-01

185

Migration of sea urchin primordial germ cells.  

PubMed

Background: Small micromeres are produced at the fifth cleavage of sea urchin development. They express markers of primordial germ cells (PGCs), and are required for the production of gametes. In most animals, PGCs migrate from sites of formation to the somatic gonad. Here, we investigated whether they also exhibit similar migratory behaviors using live-cell imaging of small micromere plasma membranes. Results: Early in gastrulation, small micromeres transition from non-motile epithelial cells, to motile quasi-mesenchymal cells. Late in gastrulation, at 43 hr post fertilization (HPF), they are embedded in the tip of the archenteron, but remain motile. From 43-49 HPF, they project numerous cortical blebs into the blastocoel, and filopodia that contact ectoderm. By 54 HPF, they begin moving in the plane of the blastoderm, often in a directed fashion, towards the coelomic pouches. Isolated small micromeres also produced blebs and filopodia. Conclusions: Previous work suggested that passive translocation governs some of the movement of small micromeres during gastrulation. Here we show that small micromeres are motile cells that can traverse the archenteron, change position along the left-right axis, and migrate to coelomic pouches. These motility mechanisms are likely to play an important role in their left-right segregation. Developmental Dynamics 243:917-927, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24677545

Campanale, Joseph P; Gökirmak, Tufan; Espinoza, Jose A; Oulhen, Nathalie; Wessel, Gary M; Hamdoun, Amro

2014-07-01

186

Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated transduction of male germ line stem cells results in transgene transmission after germ cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored whether exposure of mam- malian germ line stem cells to adeno-associated virus (AAV), a gene therapy vector, would lead to stable transduction and transgene transmission. Mouse germ cells harvested from experimentally induced crypt- orchid donor testes were exposed in vitro to AAV vectors carrying a GFP transgene and transplanted to germ cell-depleted syngeneic recipient testes, resulting in colonization

Ali Honaramooz; Susan Megee; Wenxian Zeng; Margret M. Destrempes; Susan A. Overton; Jinping Luo; Hannah Galantino-Homer; Mark Modelski; Fangping Chen; Stephen Blash; David T. Melican; William G. Gavin; Sandra Ayres; Fang Yang; P. Jeremy Wang; Yann Echelard; Ina Dobrinski

2007-01-01

187

DEADSouth protein localizes to germ plasm and is required for the development of primordial germ cells in Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Summary DEADSouth mRNA is a component of germ plasm in Xenopus laevis and encodes a DDX25 DEAD-box RNA helicase. To determine the intracellular localization of DEADSouth protein, we injected mRNA encoding DEADSouth tagged with mCherry fluorescent protein into fertilized eggs from transgenic Xenopus expressing EGFP fused with a mitochondrial targeting signal. The DEADSouth-mCherry fusion protein was localized to the germ plasm, a mitochondria-rich region in primordial germ cells (PGCs). DEADSouth overexpression resulted in a reduction of PGC numbers after stage 20. Conversely, DEADSouth knockdown using an antisense locked nucleic acid gapmer inhibited movement of the germ plasm from the cortex to the perinuclear region, resulting in inhibition of PGC division at stage 12 and a decrease in PGC numbers at later stages. The knockdown phenotype was rescued by intact DEADSouth mRNA, but not mutant mRNA encoding inactive DEADSouth helicase. Surprisingly, it was also rescued by mouse vasa homolog and Xenopus vasa-like gene 1 mRNAs that encode DDX4 RNA helicases. The rescue was dependent on the 3? untranslated region (3?UTR) of DEADSouth mRNA, which was used for PGC-specific expression. The 3?UTR contributed to localization of the injected mRNA to the germ plasm, resulting in effective localization of DEADSouth protein. These results demonstrate that localization of DEADSouth helicase to the germ plasm is required for proper PGC development in Xenopus laevis.

Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Ayaka; Watanabe, Kenji; Orii, Hidefumi

2013-01-01

188

Global DNA methylation in fetal human germ cells and germ cell tumours: association with differentiation and cisplatin resistance.  

PubMed

Differences in the global methylation pattern, ie hyper- as well as hypo-methylation, are observed in cancers including germ cell tumours (GCTs). Related to their precursor cells, GCT methylation status differs according to histology. We investigated the methylation pattern of normal fetal, infantile, and adult germ cells (n = 103) and GCTs (n = 251) by immunohistochemical staining for 5-(m)cytidine. The global methylation pattern of male germ cells changes from hypomethylation to hypermethylation, whereas female germ cells remain unmethylated at all stages. Undifferentiated GCTs (seminomas, intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified, and gonadoblastomas) are hypomethylated, whereas more differentiated GCTs (teratomas, yolk sac tumours, and choriocarcinomas) show a higher degree of methylation. Embryonal carcinomas show an intermediate pattern. Resistance to cisplatin was assessed in the seminomatous cell line TCam-2 before and after demethylation using 5-azacytidine. Exposure to 5-azacytidine resulted in decreased resistance to cisplatin. Furthermore, after demethylation, the stem cell markers NANOG and POU5F1 (OCT3/4), as well as the germ cell-specific marker VASA, showed increased expression. Following treatment with 5-azacytidine, TCam-2 cells were analysed using a high-throughput methylation screen for changes in the methylation sites of 14,000 genes. Among the genes revealing changes, interesting targets were identified: ie demethylation of KLF11, a putative tumour suppressor gene, and hypermethylation of CFLAR, a gene previously described in treatment resistance in GCTs. PMID:20593487

Wermann, Hendrik; Stoop, Hans; Gillis, Ad J M; Honecker, Friedemann; van Gurp, Ruud J H L M; Ammerpohl, Ole; Richter, Julia; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Looijenga, Leendert H J

2010-08-01

189

Nutritive phagocyte incubation chambers provide a structural and nutritive microenvironment for germ cells of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, the green sea urchin.  

PubMed

Here we characterize the germinal epithelia of both sexes of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, the green sea urchin, throughout its annual gametogenic cycle, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemistry. In both sexes, germinal epithelia include two interacting cellular populations: nutritive phagocytes (NPs) and germ cells. After spring spawning, NPs accumulate nutrients; amitotic oogonia and often mitotic spermatogonia occur in clusters beneath NPs; and subsequent gametogenic stages are residual or absent. During the summer, NP nutrients are mobilized for use in vitellogenesis by residual primary oocytes or to support limited spermatogenesis. In addition, some residual primary oocytes may degenerate and be phagocytized by NPs. Significant nutrient mobilization from NPs and substantial gonial cell mitoses (indicative of new gametogenesis) occur in the fall. In both sexes, all of these changes are facilitated by NPs that form basal incubation chambers near the gonadal wall and within which germ cells are surrounded by nutrients released from the NPs. In females, germ cells at several stages of gametogenesis may be housed in separate chambers in the same NP. Primary oocytes also carry out jelly coat formation, meiosis, and cortical granule translocation within NP incubation chambers. In males, many NPs cooperate to provide large continuous chambers that contain spermatogenic cells at diverse stages. In both sexes these chambers persist throughout the year and isolate gametogenesis from the gonadal lumen. NPs become slender and shorten as their nutrients are depleted. Ova or spermatozoa are stored in the gonadal lumen. Post-spawning, NPs phagocytize differentiated germ cells while simultaneously enclosing intact gonial and residual gametogenic cells in basal chambers near the gonadal wall. In light of our observations, we suggest investigating proteins that may be important in the structural, phagocytic, and nutritive functions of NPs and for which corresponding genes have already been identified in the genome of S. purpuratus, the closely related purple sea urchin. PMID:16110092

Walker, Charles W; Harrington, Laura M; Lesser, Michael P; Fagerberg, Wayne R

2005-08-01

190

The DEAD-box protein MEL-46 is required in the germ line of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Background In the hermaphrodite of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the first germ cells differentiate as sperm. Later the germ line switches to the production of oocytes. This process requires the activity of a genetic regulatory network that includes among others the fem, fog and mog genes. The function of some of these genes is germline specific while others also act in somatic tissues. DEAD box proteins have been shown to be involved in the control of gene expression at different steps such as transcription and pre-mRNA processing. Results We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene mel-46 (maternal effect lethal) encodes a DEAD box protein that is related to the mammalian DDX20/Gemin3/DP103 genes. mel-46 is expressed throughout development and mutations in mel-46 display defects at multiple developmental stages. Here we focus on the role of mel-46 in the hermaphrodite germ line. mel-46(yt5) mutant hermaphrodites are partially penetrant sterile and fully penetrant maternal effect lethal. The germ line of mutants shows variable defects in oogenesis. Further, mel-46(yt5) suppresses the complete feminization caused by mutations in fog-2 and fem-3, two genes that are at the top and the center, respectively, of the genetic germline sex determining cascade, but not fog-1 that is at the bottom of this cascade. Conclusion The C. elegans gene mel-46 encodes a DEAD box protein that is required maternally for early embryogenesis and zygotically for postembryonic development. In the germ line, it is required for proper oogenesis. Although it interacts genetically with genes of the germline sex determination machinery its primary function appears to be in oocyte differentiation rather than sex determination.

Minasaki, Ryuji; Puoti, Alessandro; Streit, Adrian

2009-01-01

191

Development of germ cell transplants: morphometric and ultrastructural studies.  

PubMed

Mouse-to-mouse transplants were studied at 10 min, 9 h, 24 h, 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months post-transplantation. Data from a previous light microscope study were confirmed and extended using morphometric and ultrastructural techniques. As soon as 10 min after introduction of the germ cells from one mouse into the tubule lumen of a recipient mouse they developed relationships with small Sertoli cell processes. The extent of this surface-to-surface relationship increased in animals sacrificed up to 1 week post-transplantation. Most transplanted germ cells retained the characteristics of the donor germ cells after they had been isolated and pelleted. Nearly all transplanted cells eventually underwent phagocytosis by the recipient Sertoli cells. The presence of small apparent clones of germ cells after 1 week of transplantation indicated that some germ cells may divide and survive for short periods within the epithelium. No discernible qualitative subcellular changes in the host Sertoli cell accompanying the development of transplant spermatogenesis were noted. Macrophages were present in the region of the boundary tissue between myoid cells and appeared to increase in number in the peritubular tissue of transplanted testes. Images suggest that they migrated into the tubule to gain entrance to the lumen and there take on the form of activated macrophages. Some macrophages phagocytose sperm at 2 months and 3 months post-transplantation. A testis weight increase previously demonstrate to occur at 24 h post-introduction of germ cells was found to be due to an increase in the volume of the tubular lumen. The increase of lumen size at 24 h was not related to the volume of the injected material. It is suggested that the presence of injected cells, likely germ cells, in the tubule lumen stimulated increased secretion by the Sertoli cell. PMID:10481296

Parreira, G G; Ogawa, T; Avarbock, M R; França, L R; Hausler, C L; Brinster, R L; Russell, L D

1999-06-01

192

Relationship between genotoxicity biomarkers in somatic and germ cells: findings from a biomonitoring study.  

PubMed

A biomonitoring study to evaluate chromosome and DNA damage respectively in somatic and germ cells of a group of male workers exposed to styrene by using biomarkers of genotoxicity was carried out. Styrene-exposed workers from three different areas of Tuscany and healthy subjects, of comparable mean age, sex and lifestyle characteristics, as a control group not exposed to chemicals, have been enrolled. In addition to previous reports [L. Migliore, A. Naccarati, A. Zanello, R. Scarpato, L. Bramanti and M. Mariani (2002) Hum. Reprod., 17, 2912-2918; L. Migliore, A. Naccarati, F. Coppedè et al. (2006) Pharmacogenet. Genomics, 16, 87-99] we present now data on a cross-sectional investigation involving a homogeneous group of subjects for which data on both somatic and germ cells have been obtained from individuals (42 exposed and 25 controls). Somatic cell genotoxicity was assessed by analysing the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells (MNBN) in blood lymphocytes. The micronucleus assay was coupled with centromeric fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Primary DNA damage in germ cells was evaluated by alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) and the percentage of the tail DNA (%TD) was used as parameter of Comet evaluation. Moreover, to investigate the frequencies of aneuploidy and diploidy in sperm, we performed multicolour FISH, using DNA probes specific for the centromeric regions of sex chromosomes and chromosome 2, in decondensed sperm nuclei of samples with normal semen parameters in a subgroup of individuals. Mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids (MAPGA) in end of shift samples were determined as biomarkers of internal dose. MAPGA excretion was consistent with an exposure to styrene above the threshold limit value-time weighted average concentration of 20 p.p.m. Styrene workers showed significantly higher frequency of MNBN as compared to controls (13.8 +/- 5.2 versus 6.2 +/- 5.1; P < 0.001), due to higher proportions of both micronuclei (MN) arising from chromosomal breakage (C-MN) and harbouring whole chromosomes (C+MN). DNA damage in sperm cells was also higher among styrene-exposed, the %TD being 11.02 +/- 2.99 versus 7.42 +/- 2.30 in controls (P < 0.001). The incidence of aneuploidy and diploidy for the tested chromosomes in sperm did not show a statistically significant difference between workers and controls. However, a positive correlation was found between genotoxic damage detected in somatic and in germ cells, even after removing the effect of age (r = 0.475; P < 0.001). Although cytogenetic biomarkers detected both in somatic and germ cells were interrelated, no relationships were apparent with exposure parameters. Styrene exposure may increase the likelihood of both chromosome and DNA damage in somatic and germ cells, thus supporting the hypothesis of an interference on reproductive capacity among exposed workers. This is the first time that a field study shows a correlation between two biomarkers of genotoxicity evaluated at the same time in somatic and germ cells. PMID:16567349

Migliore, L; Colognato, R; Naccarati, A; Bergamaschi, E

2006-03-01

193

Amniotic fluid stem cell-based models to study the effects of gene mutations and toxicants on male germ cell formation  

PubMed Central

Male infertility is a major public health issue predominantly caused by defects in germ cell development. In the past, studies on the genetic regulation of spermatogenesis as well as on negative environmental impacts have been hampered by the fact that human germ cell development is intractable to direct analysis in vivo. Compared with model organisms including mice, there are fundamental differences in the molecular processes of human germ cell development. Therefore, an in vitro model mimicking human sperm formation would be an extremely valuable research tool. In the recent past, both human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been reported to harbour the potential to differentiate into primordial germ cells and gametes. We here discuss the possibility to use human amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells as a biological model. Since their discovery in 2003, AFS cells have been characterized to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, to be genomically stable, to have a high proliferative potential and to be non-tumourigenic. In addition, AFS cells are not subject of ethical concerns. In contrast to iPS cells, AFSs cells do not need ectopic induction of pluripotency, which is often associated with only imperfectly cleared epigenetic memory of the source cells. Since AFS cells can be derived from amniocentesis with disease-causing mutations and can be transfected with high efficiency, they could be used in probing gene functions for spermatogenesis and in screening for male reproductive toxicity.

Gundacker, Claudia; Dolznig, Helmut; Mikula, Mario; Rosner, Margit; Brandau, Oliver; Hengstschlager, Markus

2012-01-01

194

Hedgehog signalling promotes germ cell survival in the rat testis.  

PubMed

Hedgehog (Hh) signalling has a crucial role in testis development. Sertoli cell-derived desert hedgehog (DHH) guides the formation of testis cords and differentiation of foetal-type Leydig cells. Dhh mutant mice are infertile due to a block in germ cell differentiation, hypogonadism and hypoandrogenism. Hh signalling pathway components are also expressed in postnatal testis. In the rat testis the transcription factor of the Hh pathway, glioma-associated oncogene homologue (GLI1), is expressed by a wide variety of germ cells. This suggests that Hh signalling is involved in spermatogenesis at many different levels. Our data show that canonical Hh signalling is turned off in early condensing spermatids that strongly express the negative regulator of the pathway, suppressor of fused (SUFU). Most of the Hh pathway specific mRNAs display the highest values in stages II-VI of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle. The key endocrine regulator of germ cell differentiation, FSH, down-regulates Dhh mRNA levels in vitro. Hh signalling inhibition in vitro leads to massive apoptosis of germ cells. In prepubertal rat testis imatinib mesylate-induced inhibition of tyrosine kinases impinges on Dhh transcript levels and Hh signalling. Our data indicate that Hh signalling is part of the paracrine signalling network in the rat testis. It promotes the survival of germ cells and is suppressed by FSH. PMID:21893610

Mäkelä, Juho-Antti; Saario, Vuokko; Bourguiba-Hachemi, Sonia; Nurmio, Mirja; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Parvinen, Martti; Toppari, Jorma

2011-11-01

195

Composition and molecular weight distribution of carob germ protein fractions.  

PubMed

Biochemical properties of carob germ proteins were analyzed using a combination of selective extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALS), and electrophoretic analysis. Using a modified Osborne extraction procedure, carob germ flour proteins were found to contain approximately 32% albumin and globulin and approximately 68% glutelin with no prolamins detected. The albumin and globulin fraction was found to contain low amounts of disulfide-bonded polymers with relatively low M(w) ranging up to 5 x 10(6) Da. The glutelin fraction, however, was found to contain large amounts of high molecular weight disulfide-bonded polymers with M(w) up to 8 x 10(7) Da. When extracted under nonreducing conditions and divided into soluble and insoluble proteins as typically done for wheat gluten, carob germ proteins were found to be almost entirely ( approximately 95%) in the soluble fraction with only ( approximately 5%) in the insoluble fraction. As in wheat, SEC-MALS analysis showed that the insoluble proteins had a greater M(w) than the soluble proteins and ranged up to 8 x 10(7) Da. The lower M(w) distribution of the polymeric proteins of carob germ flour may account for differences in functionality between wheat and carob germ flour. PMID:20557053

Smith, Brennan M; Bean, Scott R; Schober, Tilman J; Tilley, Michael; Herald, Thomas J; Aramouni, Fadi

2010-07-14

196

[Importance of pathology for therapy planning of testicular germ cell tumors].  

PubMed

Testicular tumors can be divided into germ cell tumors and sex cord stromal tumors. Malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represent about 90-95?% of all testicular tumors and are the most common solid neoplasms in young men aged 20-40 years with an increasing incidence in industrialized countries. Treatment of TGCT is performed by an individual and risk-adapted approach taking primary tumor histology, histopathlogical and molecular prognostic risk factors, tumor stage and for metastasized tumors the response to systemic chemotherapy into consideration. Knowledge of the specific histopathology of the primary tumor and the prognostic factors is of utmost importance for the treating urologist and oncologist in order to avoid undertreatment or overtreatment. Established risk factors which have been validated in retrospective and prospective studies for clinical stage I non-seminomatous TGCT are the presence of vascular invasion and the percentage of embryonal carcinoma. In clinical stage I seminomas tumor size (>?4 cm) and presence of rete testis infiltration have been identified as risk factors in retrospective but not in prospective studies. Quantitative histopathology of the primary tumor is also important for the management of small residual masses following chemotherapy: if the masses are ??1 cm, postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is only indicated if the primary tumor contains ??50?% teratoma. Quantitative pathohistology of the resected residual masses is of importance for the decision-making process of a consolidating chemotherapy which is only of benefit if the amount of vital cancer tissue is >?10?%. Resection of residual hepatic and thoracic masses is indispensable. For gonadal stromal tumors knowledge of atypical nuclear forms, increased rate of mitosis and increased growth fractions are important for therapy planning. PMID:24771259

Heidenreich, A; Knüchel-Clarke, R; Pfister, D

2014-05-01

197

Functional Analysis of the Drosophila Embryonic Germ Cell Transcriptome by RNA Interference  

PubMed Central

In Drosophila melanogaster, primordial germ cells are specified at the posterior pole of the very early embryo. This process is regulated by the posterior localized germ plasm that contains a large number of RNAs of maternal origin. Transcription in the primordial germ cells is actively down-regulated until germ cell fate is established. Bulk expression of the zygotic genes commences concomitantly with the degradation of the maternal transcripts. Thus, during embryogenesis, maternally provided and zygotically transcribed mRNAs determine germ cell development collectively. In an effort to identify novel genes involved in the regulation of germ cell behavior, we carried out a large-scale RNAi screen targeting both maternal and zygotic components of the embryonic germ line transcriptome. We identified 48 genes necessary for distinct stages in germ cell development. We found pebble and fascetto to be essential for germ cell migration and germ cell division, respectively. Our data uncover a previously unanticipated role of mei-P26 in maintenance of embryonic germ cell fate. We also performed systematic co-RNAi experiments, through which we found a low rate of functional redundancy among homologous gene pairs. As our data indicate a high degree of evolutionary conservation in genetic regulation of germ cell development, they are likely to provide valuable insights into the biology of the germ line in general.

Bujna, Agnes; Vilmos, Peter; Spirohn, Kerstin; Boutros, Michael; Erdelyi, Miklos

2014-01-01

198

Chiral discotic columnar germs of nucleosome core particles.  

PubMed Central

In concentrated solution and in the presence of high concentrations of monovalent cations, nucleosome core particles order into a discotic columnar mesophase. This phase is limited to finite-sized hexagonal germs that further divide into six coiled branches, following an iterative process. We show how the structure of the germs comes from the competition between hexagonal packing and chirality with a combination of dendritic facetting and double-twist configurations. Geometrical considerations lead us to suspect that the chirality of the eukaryotic chromosomes may originate from the same competition.

Livolant, F; Leforestier, A

2000-01-01

199

Germ tube formation changes surface hydrophobicity of Candida cells.  

PubMed Central

Hydrophobic interaction is generally considered to play an important role in the adherence of microorganisms to eukaryotic cells and also to certain inert surfaces. Using a microbe adhesion assay to hydrocarbons (n-hexadecane), 68 strains of Candida albicans and 30 non-albicans strains were studied. Influence of source of isolate, age of the culture, and percentage of germ tube formation on adhesion were studied. C. albicans blastoconidia were found to be hydrophilic; conversely, blastoconidia of non-albicans strains were slightly more hydrophobic. Germ tube formation was associated with a significant rise in cell surface hydrophobicity.

Rodrigues, A G; Mardh, P A; Pina-Vaz, C; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Fonseca, A F

1999-01-01

200

Homotopy type of disentanglements of multi-germs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a complex analytic map f from n-space to p-space with n

germs it is known that the disentanglement is a wedge of spheres of possibly varying dimensions. In this paper we give a condition that allows us to deduce that the same is true for a large class of multi-germs.

Houston, Kevin

2009-05-01

201

Synaptonemal Complex Damage as a Measure of Chemical Mutagen Effects on Mammalian Germ Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As heritable chromosome anomalies are implicated in a variety of human disabilities, their induction in germ cells by environmental chemicals is viewed as a threat to health. Synaptonemal complex (SC) analysis is a novel approach for the detection of germ...

J. W. Allen G. K. DeWeese J. B. Gibson P. A. Poorman M. J. Moses

1987-01-01

202

A functional genomic screen in planarians identifies novel regulators of germ cell development.  

PubMed

Germ cells serve as intriguing examples of differentiated cells that retain the capacity to generate all cell types of an organism. Here we used functional genomic approaches in planarians to identify genes required for proper germ cell development. We conducted microarray analyses and in situ hybridization to discover and validate germ cell-enriched transcripts, and then used RNAi to screen for genes required for discrete stages of germ cell development. The majority of genes we identified encode conserved RNA-binding proteins, several of which have not been implicated previously in germ cell development. We also show that a germ cell-specific subunit of the conserved transcription factor CCAAT-binding protein/nuclear factor-Y is required for maintaining spermatogonial stem cells. Our results demonstrate that conserved transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms regulate germ cell development in planarians. These findings suggest that studies of planarians will inform our understanding of germ cell biology in higher organisms. PMID:20844018

Wang, Yuying; Stary, Joel M; Wilhelm, James E; Newmark, Phillip A

2010-09-15

203

A functional genomic screen in planarians identifies novel regulators of germ cell development  

PubMed Central

Germ cells serve as intriguing examples of differentiated cells that retain the capacity to generate all cell types of an organism. Here we used functional genomic approaches in planarians to identify genes required for proper germ cell development. We conducted microarray analyses and in situ hybridization to discover and validate germ cell-enriched transcripts, and then used RNAi to screen for genes required for discrete stages of germ cell development. The majority of genes we identified encode conserved RNA-binding proteins, several of which have not been implicated previously in germ cell development. We also show that a germ cell-specific subunit of the conserved transcription factor CCAAT-binding protein/nuclear factor-Y is required for maintaining spermatogonial stem cells. Our results demonstrate that conserved transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms regulate germ cell development in planarians. These findings suggest that studies of planarians will inform our understanding of germ cell biology in higher organisms.

Wang, Yuying; Stary, Joel M.; Wilhelm, James E.; Newmark, Phillip A.

2010-01-01

204

Influence of the yellow Locus on Sensitivity of Drosophila Germ Cells to Chemical Mutagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of theyellow (y) locus on germ cell sensitivity to the alkylating agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) has been studied in Drosophila. Since DNA repair is one of the most important factors that control cell sensitivity to mutagens, the approaches used in our experiments aimed at evaluating the relationship between germ-cell mutability and activity of DNA repair. Germ-cell mutability and

N. V. Savina; T. D. Kuzhir

2003-01-01

205

Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect.  

PubMed

Primordial germ cell (PGC) formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this "germ plasm" acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola) suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects. PMID:23789106

Ewen-Campen, Ben; Jones, Tamsin E M; Extavour, Cassandra G

2013-06-15

206

DNA Analysis in Samples From Younger Patients With Germ Cell Tumors and Their Parents or Siblings  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

2014-02-17

207

Regulative germ cell specification in axolotl embryos: a primitive trait conserved in the mammalian lineage.  

PubMed Central

How germ cells are specified in the embryos of animals has been a mystery for decades. Unlike most developmental processes, which are highly conserved, embryos specify germ cells in very different ways. Curiously, in mouse embryos germ cells are specified by extracellular signals; they are not autonomously specified by maternal germ cell determinants (germ plasm), as are the germ cells in most animal model systems. We have developed the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), a salamander, as an experimental system, because classic experiments have shown that the germ cells in this species are induced by extracellular signals in the absence of germ plasm. Here, we provide evidence that the germ cells in axolotls arise from naive mesoderm in response to simple inducing agents. In addition, by analysing the sequences of axolotl germ-cell-specific genes, we provide evidence that mice and urodele amphibians share a common mechanism of germ cell development that is ancestral to tetrapods. Our results imply that germ plasm, as found in species such as frogs and teleosts, is the result of convergent evolution. We discuss the evolutionary implications of our findings.

Johnson, Andrew D; Crother, Brian; White, Mary E; Patient, Roger; Bachvarova, Rosemary F; Drum, Matthew; Masi, Thomas

2003-01-01

208

Germ cell transplantation: a review and progress report on ICSI from spermatozoa generated in xenogeneic testes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the transplantation of donor male germ cells into xenogeneic recipient seminiferous tubules indicate that donor spermatogonia are capable of differentiating to form spermatozoa morphologically characteristic of the donor species. Germ cell transplantation procedures combined with developments in freezing, culturing or enrich- ing germ cell populations have applications of paramount importance in medicine, basic sciences and animal repro- duction.

N. Sofikitis; A. Kaponis; Y. Mio; D. Makredimas; D. Giannakis; Y. Yamamoto; N. Kanakas; H. Kawamura; J. Georgiou; M. Schrader; E. Lolis; X. Giannakopoulos; D. Loutradis; V. Tarlatzis; I. Miyagawa

2003-01-01

209

Evidence against a germ plasm in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a hemimetabolous insect  

PubMed Central

Summary Primordial germ cell (PGC) formation in holometabolous insects like Drosophila melanogaster relies on maternally synthesised germ cell determinants that are asymmetrically localised to the oocyte posterior cortex. Embryonic nuclei that inherit this “germ plasm” acquire PGC fate. In contrast, historical studies of basally branching insects (Hemimetabola) suggest that a maternal requirement for germ line genes in PGC specification may be a derived character confined principally to Holometabola. However, there have been remarkably few investigations of germ line gene expression and function in hemimetabolous insects. Here we characterise PGC formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a member of the sister group to Holometabola, thus providing an important evolutionary comparison to members of this clade. We examine the transcript distribution of orthologues of 19 Drosophila germ cell and/or germ plasm marker genes, and show that none of them localise asymmetrically within Oncopeltus oocytes or early embryos. Using multiple molecular and cytological criteria, we provide evidence that PGCs form after cellularisation at the site of gastrulation. Functional studies of vasa and tudor reveal that these genes are not required for germ cell formation, but that vasa is required in adult males for spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that Oncopeltus germ cells may form in the absence of germ plasm, consistent with the hypothesis that germ plasm is a derived strategy of germ cell specification in insects.

Ewen-Campen, Ben; Jones, Tamsin E. M.; Extavour, Cassandra G.

2013-01-01

210

On Facts and Conceptual Systems: Young Children's Integration of Their Understandings of Germs and Contagion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five studies investigated preschoolers' understanding of the biological germ theory of illness compared to that of 6- or 10- to 11-year-olds. Found that the younger the child, the less likely he or she was to judge germs as causes of illness. Studies undermined claim that preschoolers understand germs to be uniquely biological causal agents. (JPB)

Solomon, Gregg E. A.; Cassimatis, Nicholas L.

1999-01-01

211

An ultrastructural study of dentinogenesis and amelogenesis in rat molar tooth germs cultured in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molar tooth germs from three-day-old rats were cultured successfully for fourteen days, permitting the study of the development in vitro of both extracellular matrix and cellular elements such as odontoblasts and ameloblasts. The ultrastructure of the cultured tooth germs was compared with the ultrastructure of tooth germs in vivo at a comparable developmental stage. Progenitor cells of odontoblasts and ameloblasts

I. Gorter de Vries; P. C. Ameloot; D. Coomans; E. Wisse

1986-01-01

212

Avoiding bad genes: oxidatively damaged DNA in germ line and mate choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary August Weismann proposed that genetic changes in somatic cells cannot pass to germ cells and hence to next generations. Nevertheless, evidence is accumulat- ing that some environmental effects can promote herit- able changes in the DNA of germ cells, which implies that some somatic influence on germ line is possible. This influence is mostly detrimental and related to the

Alberto Velando; Roxana Torres; Carlos Alonso-Alvarez

2008-01-01

213

Strategy of Combined Treatment of Germ Cell Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histopathological entity ‘germ cell tumor’ (GCT) encompasses a number of histological subtypes. Pineal GCTs can be grossly divided into three categories: those with a good, intermediate, and poor prognostic. Germinoma and mature teratoma are curable and classified into the good prognostic group, whereas embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and other highly malignant neoplasms leave patients with a dismal prognosis.

Yutaka Sawamura

2009-01-01

214

Ballistic transfection of avian primordial germ cell in ovo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fowl the primordial germ cells accumulate in the germinal crescent to the anterior of the two-day embryo. A simple ballistic device has been used to fire tungsten particles (mean diameter 1.5 ?m) into this region. By coating these projectiles with vector DNA it is possible to transfect these cells. Hatchlings produced by this technique were raised to sexual

Ying Li; Joseph Behnam; Kenneth Simkiss

1995-01-01

215

GERM-LINE SPECIFIC FACTORS IN CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical mutagenesis test results ave not revealed evidence of germ-line specific mutagens. owever, conventional assays have indicated that there are male-female differences in mutagenic response, as well as quantitative/qualitative differences in induced mutations which depend u...

216

Female mouse germ cells form synchronously dividing cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oocytes from many invertebrates initiate development within distinctive cysts of interconnected cells, which are formed through synchronous divisions of a progenitor cell. Recently, processes underlying cyst formation have been extensively characterized at the molecular level in Drosophila. Defects in this process cause sterility in female flies. Early female mouse germ cells are organized as cell clusters as well, but it

Melissa E. Pepling; Allan C. Spradling

1998-01-01

217

Germline cysts: a conserved phase of germ cell development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germ cells in many vertebrate and invertebrate species initiate gametogenesis by forming groups of interconnected cells known as germline cysts. Recent studies using Xenopus, mouse and Drosophila are beginning to uncover the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control germline cyst formation and, in conjunction with morphological evidence, suggest that the process is highly conserved during evolution. This article discusses these

Melissa E Pepling; Margaret de Cuevas; Allan C Spradling

1999-01-01

218

Preschoolers' Understanding of Germs as Causes of Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined preschoolers' understanding of germs as causes of illness. Previous research suggests that preschoolers know that certain behaviors lead to illness without understanding why or how. In the first study, 22 children between 4 and 5 years old were presented with 12 brief stories describing characters engaged in either dangerous…

Kalish, Charles

219

Fetal age estimation using MSCT scans of deciduous tooth germs.  

PubMed

Evaluation of fetal age is an essential element in many fields such as anthropology, odontology, paleopathology, and forensic sciences. This study examines the correlation between fetal age, femoral diaphyseal length (considered as the gold standard), and deciduous tooth germs of fetuses aged 22 to 40 weeks amenorrhea (WA) based on computed tomography (MSCT) reconstructions. Qualitative and quantitative studies of femoral and deciduous tooth germ lengths were performed on 81 fetuses (39 females and 42 males). R software was used for statistical analyses. Intra-observer and inter-observer variabilities and the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Correlation coefficients (R (2)) and linear regression equations were calculated. Intra- and inter-observer variabilities were very satisfactory (intra-observer ICC???0.96, inter-observer ICC???0.95). Femoral length was significantly correlated with age (R (2)?=?0.9). The correlation coefficient between age and height, width, and dental volume was R (2)???0.73. Tooth germs were good indicators of fetal age. Our method appears to be reliable and reproducible, and the results of this study agreed with those of the literature. The dental formula provided a precise estimation of fetal age between 25 and 32 WA. Tooth germs were reliable indicators of fetal age, and multislice computed tomography was shown to be an innovative and reliable technology for this purpose. PMID:23828625

Minier, Marie; Maret, Delphine; Dedouit, Fabrice; Vergnault, Marion; Mokrane, Fathima-Zohra; Rousseau, Hervé; Adalian, Pascal; Telmon, Norbert; Rougé, Daniel

2014-01-01

220

Tropics, Germs, and Crops: How Endowments Influence Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does economic development depend on geographic endowments like temperate instead of tropical location, the ecological conditions shaping diseases, or an environment good for grains or certain cash crops? Or do these endowments of tropics, germs, and crops affect economic development only through institutions or policies? We test the endowment, institution, and policy views against each other using cross country evidence.

William Easterly; Ross E. Levine

2002-01-01

221

Tropics, germs, and crops: how endowments influence economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does economic development depend on geographic endowments like temperate instead of tropical location, the ecological conditions shaping diseases, or an environment good for grains or certain cash crops? Or do these endowments of tropics, germs, and crops affect economic development only through institutions or policies? We test the endowment, institution, and policy views against each other using cross country evidence.

William Easterly; Ross Levine

2003-01-01

222

Primary-energy dependence of the momentum transfer in reflection inner-shell-electron energy-loss spectra of layered transition-metal dichalcogenides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur L2.3 and titanium L2.3 and M2.3 inner-shell-electron energy-loss spectra in 1T-TiS2, 1T-TiSe2, 2H-TaS2, and 2H-MoS2 have been measured at various primary energies in the reflection mode. A remarkable primary-energy dependence is found. As the primary energy decreases, the first peak that is assigned to the unoccupied t2g band for the 1T compounds & band for 2H-TaS2 increases in intensity

Youichi Ohno

1987-01-01

223

Secondary ion emission from polymethacrylate LB-layers under 0.5–11 keV atomic and molecular primary ion bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary ion yields Y(Xiq) increase considerably when changing from atomic to molecular primary ions, whereas the parallel increase in the corresponding damage cross sections ?(Xiq) is much smaller. This results in a net increase of ion formation efficiencies E(Xiq)=Y\\/?. For a more detailed understanding of the complex sputtering and ion formation processes, in particular for molecular primary ion bombardment, the

D. Stapel; M Thiemann; A Benninghoven

2000-01-01

224

Interaction of Azospirillum lipoferum with Wheat Germ Agglutinin Stimulates Nitrogen Fixation  

PubMed Central

In vitro, the nitrogen fixation capability of A. lipoferum is efficiently increased in the presence of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). A putative WGA-binding receptor, a 32-kDa protein, was detected in the cell capsule. The stimulatory effect required N-acetyl-d-glucosamine dimer (GlcNAcdi) terminated sugar side chains of the receptor and was dependent on the number of GlcNAcdi links involved in receptor-WGA interface. Binding to the primary sugar binding sites on WGA had a larger stimulatory effect than binding to the secondary sites. The WGA-receptor complex generated stimulus led to elevated transcription of the nifH and nifA genes and of the glnBA gene cluster but not of the glnA gene from its own promoter. There may well be a signalling cascade contributing to the regulation of nitrogen fixation.

Karpati, Eva; Kiss, Peter; Ponyi, Tamas; Fendrik, Istvan; de Zamaroczy, Miklos; Orosz, Laszlo

1999-01-01

225

Production of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) germ-line chimera using transplantation of primordial germ cells isolated from cryopreserved blastomeres.  

PubMed

An efficient procedure for the cryopreservation of fish blastomeres followed by restoration through germ-line chimera formation was established. Blastomeres of the loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) were cryopreserved in 250-µL straws in Eagle's minimum essential medium with various concentrations of dimethyl-sulfoxide (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%), and the best concentration was combined with glycerol (1, 2, and 4%) and external cryoprotectants (1 or 2% sucrose; 2, 5, or 10% fetal bovine serum; 1 or 2% BSA). Postthaw viability of the blastomeres was used to optimize cryopreservation conditions. Donor blastomeres were injected with zebrafish green fluorescence protein-nos1 3' untranslated region mRNA and biotin dextran before cryopreservation in the optimal freeze medium. Host embryos were injected with zebrafish DsRed-nos1 3' untranslated region mRNA and reared to the blastula stage. Donor blastomeres were thawed at 25 °C for 10 s and transplanted to the host embryos either immediately or after incubation for 16 h at 20 °C. Donor and host primordial germ cell migration was visualized with fluorescent imaging during the early stages of embryogenesis, and also by histology in 4-d-old embryos. Transplantation of blastomeres immediately after thawing gave decreased hatching rates (approximately 3%) and generated a smaller percentage of germ-line chimeras (approximately 1.1%). In contrast, incubation of a cryopreserved sample for 16 h followed by transplantation of the green fluorescence protein-positive blastomeres improved the hatching rate to 90%, and successfully produced presumable germ-line chimeras at a rate of 16.5%. The improved survival rates and germ-line chimerism may be an effective method for gene banking and subsequent reconstitution of endangered fish genotypes. PMID:21398566

Yasui, G S; Fujimoto, T; Sakao, S; Yamaha, E; Arai, K

2011-08-01

226

Sexual differentiation of germ cell deficient gonads in the medaka, Oryzias latipes.  

PubMed

To determine whether germ cells perform any function in gonadal sexual differentiation, development of gonads in the medaka, Oryzias latipes, after exposure to busulfan was investigated. Busulfan suppressed proliferation of early germ cells, thus significantly reducing the number of germ cells and generating regions without germ cells in the developing gonads. Globular structures were observed in the parenchyma in these regions. The structure was male specific, developed at the same time as acinus (seminiferous tubule precursor), surrounded by the basal lamina, and contained characteristic desmosomes. These results strongly suggest that these globular structures are the precursors of seminiferous tubules devoid of germ cells. In the ovary, no follicles were observed but a well-developed ovarian cavity was evident. From these results we conclude that differentiation of gonadal parenchyma cells, except for follicular ones, is not germ cell dependent, though morphological differentiation of the somatic cells seems to follow the differentiation of germ cells. PMID:11550188

Shinomiya, A; Hamaguchi, S; Shibata, N

2001-09-01

227

Sexual differentiation of germ cells in XX mouse gonads occurs in an anterior-to-posterior wave  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiation of mouse embryonic germ cells as male or female is dependent on the somatic environment of the gonad rather than the sex chromosome constitution of the germ cell. However, little is known about the initiation of germ cell sexual differentiation. Here, we traced the initiation of germ cell sexual differentiation in XX gonads using the Stra8 gene, which we

Douglas B. Menke; Jana Koubova; David C. Page

2003-01-01

228

Identification of germ plasm-enriched mRNAs in Drosophila melanogaster by the cDNA microarray technique.  

PubMed

The development of embryonic germ cells in Drosophila depends on the germ plasm, the most posterior part of the ooplasm. The germ plasm is devoted to the formation of future germ cells and is known to contain all the factors that are necessary to induce germ cell fate. Besides having a characteristic organelle and protein distribution, the germ plasm also contains a large number of localized RNA species that have been shown to play crucial roles in germ cell determination. To identify germ plasm-enriched, localized transcripts, we used a two-step method composed of cDNA microarray (containing 3200 annotated Drosophila cDNAs) and in situ RNA hybridization techniques. We compared germ plasm deficient, normal and ectopic germ plasm conditions in the cDNA microarray experiments. RNA species whose concentration increased when ectopic germ plasm was present and decreased when the germ plasm was missing were selected. These candidates were then subjected to a second screen which compared the distribution of the given RNA in wild type embryos and in eggs with ectopic germ plasm. Finally, 17 RNA species were found to be enriched in the germ plasm. Based on these data, we estimate that around 1% of the Drosophila genes encode for germ plasm-enriched, localized transcripts. We conclude that this combination of microarray and in situ hybridization techniques is a simple but powerful experimental design for the genome-wide identification of genes coding for germ plasm localized transcripts. PMID:15939385

Szuperák, Milán; Zvara, Agnes; Erdélyi, Miklós

2005-06-01

229

Effects of kernel breakage and fermentation on corn germ integrity and oil quality.  

PubMed

To investigate the ability of corn germ to withstand the fuel ethanol fermentation process without major damage to germ integrity and germ oil quality, five treatments were designed to explore degerming before fermentation (front-end) and after fermentation (tail-end), and the feasibility of breaking the kernel with minimum shear forces (wet-split). Germ from low-shear (wet-split) tail-end degerming maintained its integrity during the process. The wet-grind pretreatment caused 22% germ damage, and the subsequent fermentation caused 18% additional germ damage. The germ recovered after fermentation showed physical strength similar to that of those isolated by wet means before fermentation. The oils extracted from the tail-end germ fractions had the same low free fatty acid (FFA) content (2%) and similar low peroxide value (2 meq/kg) as those extracted at the front end. The good oil quality of the tail-end germ fraction was attributed to excellent germ integrity. The oil recovered after traditional dry-grind ethanol production was highly deteriorated, with 22% FFAs and 9 meq/kg peroxide value because the germ was broken into small pieces during dry grinding. So long as kernel-breakage or size-reduction pretreatments are conducted to retain intact germs or keep them in large pieces before fermentation, the germ can survive the cooking, starch hydrolysis, and yeast metabolism during the ethanol fermentation process. These findings lay a foundation for developing new degerming strategies where the germ can be isolated during or after fermentation, which could be easily integrated into the conventional dry-grind corn ethanol process. PMID:20804123

Wang, Hui; Wang, Tong; Johnson, Lawrence A

2010-09-22

230

Testicular germ cell tumour presenting as thyrotoxicosis.  

PubMed

A case is reported of a patient who presented to his family doctor with a short history of cough with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Carbimazole treatment had little effect and his symptoms worsened to include severe shortness of breath. He was investigated further and found to have multiple lung and liver metastases from an unknown primary site. Biopsy and subsequent post-mortem investigations revealed a testicular tumour and a grossly elevated serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) concentration. The biochemical and clinical thyrotoxicosis is presumed to be due to the thyrotrophic activity of excess hCG secretion, in a situation analogous to that seen in hydatidiform mole or in hyperemesis gravidarum. PMID:15117443

Tilbrook, L K; Slater, J; Blainey, A D

2004-05-01

231

Human-specific organization of primary visual cortex: alternating compartments of dense Cat-301 and calbindin immunoreactivity in layer 4A.  

PubMed

There is evidence that the cortical anatomy of the magnocellular (M) visual pathway, which carries information about motion and luminance contrast, was modified in human evolution. Recent results indicate that layer 4A of humans contains a meshwork of tissue bands that stain densely for nonphosphorylated neurofilament (NPNF), a protein that is preferentially expressed in elements of the M pathway, whereas apes and monkeys lack a comparable pattern. Here we examined the distribution of staining for Cat-301 -- a monoclonal antibody well established to stain M-related structures preferentially -- in area V1 of humans, apes (chimpanzees, orangutan), Old World monkeys (macaques) and New World monkeys (spider monkeys, squirrel monkeys). Single-staining experiments, using a peroxidase-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) reaction, revealed alternating zones of dark and light staining for Cat-301 in layer 4A of humans, similar to those observed with NPNF. Double-staining studies in humans revealed that Cat-301-immunoreactive somas and neuropil were localized within the same tissue bands that stained strongly for NPNF and, furthermore, that these bands alternated with irregularly shaped territories that stained very strongly for calbindin. Nonhuman primates, by contrast to humans, displayed weak Cat-301 and calbindin staining in layer 4A. The co-localization of Cat-301 and NPNF in human layer 4A, and the weak staining for these molecules in layer 4A of other primates, suggests that the cortical representation of the M channel was modified in recent human evolution. The calbindin-rich compartments in human layer 4A cannot be related to a particular geniculostriate pathway on neurochemical grounds; they may constitute an interneuronal population that increased in human evolution. PMID:12050080

Preuss, Todd M; Coleman, Ghislaine Q

2002-07-01

232

Layers and Layers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson has students create their own rock layers by slowly adding and observing how different types of sediment interact when layered upon each other. This lesson is meant to illustrate how we can use these layers to discover the relative age of an object found in that layer by utilizing the Law of Superposition.

Tremarco, Cheri

2011-10-07

233

289. Adenoviral-Mediated p53 Gene Therapy (Advexin) in a Patient with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome with a Mixed Germ Cell Tumor: Tolerability and Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Li-Fraumeni syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by familial clustering of malignancies, predominantly sarcomas, breast cancer, brain tumors and adrenocortical carcinoma; an inordinate pattern of multiple primaries; and occurrence at a young age. Approximately 70% of the cases can be attributed to TP53 germ-line mutation 73% of which are located in the coding regions of exons 5 to 8.

Neil Senzer; Jeffrey Lamont; John Nemunaitis

2006-01-01

234

In Search of a Germ Theory Equivalent for Chronic Disease  

PubMed Central

The fight against infectious disease advanced dramatically with the consolidation of the germ theory in the 19th century. This focus on a predominant cause of infections (ie, microbial pathogens) ultimately led to medical and public health advances (eg, immunization, pasteurization, antibiotics). However, the resulting declines in infections in the 20th century were matched by a rise in chronic, noncommunicable diseases, for which there is no single underlying etiology. The discovery of a form of low-grade systemic and chronic inflammation (“metaflammation”), linked to inducers (broadly termed “anthropogens”) associated with modern man-made environments and lifestyles, suggests an underlying basis for chronic disease that could provide a 21st-century equivalent of the germ theory.

2012-01-01

235

Tagged mutagenesis by efficient Minos-based germ line transposition.  

PubMed

Germ line gene transposition technology has been used to generate "libraries" of flies and worms carrying genomewide mutations. Phenotypic screening and DNA sequencing of such libraries provide functional information resulting from insertional events in target genes. There is also a great need to have a fast and efficient way to generate mouse mutants in vivo to model developmental defects and human diseases. Here we describe an optimized mammalian germ line transposition system active during early mouse spermatogenesis using the Minos transposon. Transposon-positive progeny carry on average more than 2 new transpositions, and 45 to 100% of the progeny carry an insertion in a gene. The optimized Minos-based system was tested in a small rapid dominant functional screen to identify mutated genes likely to cause measurable cardiovascular "disease" phenotypes in progeny/embryos. Importantly this system allows rapid screening for modifier genes. PMID:19884347

de Wit, Ton; Dekker, Sylvia; Maas, Alex; Breedveld, Guido; Knoch, Tobias A; Langeveld, An; Szumska, Dorota; Craig, Roger; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Grosveld, Frank; Drabek, Dubravka

2010-01-01

236

Tagged Mutagenesis by Efficient Minos-Based Germ Line Transposition ? †  

PubMed Central

Germ line gene transposition technology has been used to generate “libraries” of flies and worms carrying genomewide mutations. Phenotypic screening and DNA sequencing of such libraries provide functional information resulting from insertional events in target genes. There is also a great need to have a fast and efficient way to generate mouse mutants in vivo to model developmental defects and human diseases. Here we describe an optimized mammalian germ line transposition system active during early mouse spermatogenesis using the Minos transposon. Transposon-positive progeny carry on average more than 2 new transpositions, and 45 to 100% of the progeny carry an insertion in a gene. The optimized Minos-based system was tested in a small rapid dominant functional screen to identify mutated genes likely to cause measurable cardiovascular “disease” phenotypes in progeny/embryos. Importantly this system allows rapid screening for modifier genes.

de Wit, Ton; Dekker, Sylvia; Maas, Alex; Breedveld, Guido; Knoch, Tobias A.; Langeveld, An; Szumska, Dorota; Craig, Roger; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Grosveld, Frank; Drabek, Dubravka

2010-01-01

237

Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumor with pure hepatoid differentiation.  

PubMed

We describe a germ cell tumor of anterior mediastinal origin, with pure hepatoid differentiation and elevated serum AFP in a 41-year-old man. This is the first report of such a neoplasm analyzed by conventional stains and immunohistochemistry. Hepatocellular differentiation was proved by immunoreactivity with HepPar-1 and alpha-fetoproein (AFP), membranous expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA-poly) in a canalicuar pattern, and focal expression of cytokeratin 19 in abortive ductular structures. Our investigation shows that mediastinal germ cell tumors with hepatoid components typically arise in middle-aged men; they are of pure hepatoid differentiation, as demonstrated here, or exclusively associated with yolk sac structures. PMID:12530574

Theuerkauf, Ingo; Axmann, Cristoph; Wolff, Martin; Tschubel, Klaus; Fischer, Hans-Peter

2002-01-01

238

Germ cell apoptosis in the testes of normal stallions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis in testicular germ cells has been demonstrated in many mammalian species. However, little is known about the stallion (Equus caballus) and rates of apoptosis during spermatogenesis. Morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis reported in other species were used to confirm that the TdT-mediated dUTP Nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay is an acceptable method for identification and quantification of apoptotic

Noah L Heninger; Christophe Staub; Terry L Blanchard; Larry Johnson; Dickson D Varner; David W Forrest

2004-01-01

239

Glucose influence on germ tube production in Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of different glucose concentrations was tested in a minimal synthetic medium onCandida albicans strain. After 18 hours of starvation, germ-tube (GT) production, amount of consumed glucose, oxygen and the pH of the medium\\u000a were checked every hour from the beginning through the end of the experiment. Optimal GT production was obtained with 1 g\\/l\\u000a of glucose. At this

V. Vidotto; G. Accattatis; Q. Zhang; G. Campanini; S. Aoki

1996-01-01

240

Gender differences in germ-cell mutagenesis and genetic risk.  

PubMed

Current international classification systems for chemical mutagens are hazard-based rather than aimed at assessing risks quantitatively. In the past, germ-cell tests have been mainly performed with a limited number of somatic cell mutagens, and rarely under conditions aimed at comparing gender-specific differences in susceptibility to mutagen exposures. There are profound differences in the genetic constitution, and in hormonal, structural, and functional aspects of differentiation and control of gametogenesis between the sexes. A critical review of the literature suggests that these differences may have a profound impact on the relative susceptibility, stage of highest sensitivity and the relative risk for the genesis of gene mutation, as well as structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in male and female germ cells. Transmission of germ-cell mutations to the offspring may also encounter gender-specific influences. Gender differences in susceptibility to chemically derived alterations in imprinting patterns may pose a threat for the health of the offspring and may also be transmitted to future generations. Recent reports on different genetic effects from high acute and from chronic low-dose exposures challenge the validity of conclusions drawn from standard methods of mutagenicity testing. In conclusion, research is urgently needed to identify genetic hazards for a larger range of chemical compounds, including those suspected to disturb proper chromosome segregation. Alterations in epigenetic programming and their health consequences will have to be investigated. More attention should be paid to gender-specific genetic effects. Finally, the database for germ-cell mutagens should be enlarged using molecular methodologies, and genetic epidemiology studies should be performed with these techniques to verify human genetic risk. PMID:17156773

Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Adler, Ilse-Dore; Carere, Angelo; Pacchierotti, Francesca

2007-05-01

241

Intraperitoneal germ cell transplantation in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.  

PubMed

Germ cell transplantation offers promising applications in finfish aquaculture and the preservation of endangered species. Here, we describe an intraperitoneal spermatogonia transplantation procedure in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Through histological analysis of early gonad development, we first determined the best suitable stage at which exogenous germ cells should be transplanted into the recipients. For the transplantation procedure, donor testes from a transgenic Nile tilapia strain carrying the medaka ?-actin/enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene were subjected to enzymatic dissociation. These testicular cells were then stained with PKH26 and microinjected into the peritoneal cavity of the recipient fish. To confirm colonization of the donor-derived germ cells, the recipient gonads were examined by fluorescent and confocal microscopy. PKH26-labeled cells exhibiting typical spermatogonial morphology were incorporated into the recipient gonads and were not rejected within 22 days posttransplantation. Long-term survival of transgenic donor-derived germ cells was then verified in the gonads of 5-month-old recipients and in the milt and vitelogenic oocytes of 1-year-old recipients, by means of PCR using EGFP-specific primers. EGFP-positive milt from adult male recipients was used to fertilize non-transgenic oocytes and produced transgenic offspring expressing the donor-derived phenotype. These results imply that long-term survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the donor-derived spermatogonia into vitelogenic oocytes and functional spermatozoa are all possible. Upon further improvements in the transplantation efficiency, this intraperitoneal transplantation system could become a valuable tool in the conservation of genetic resources for cichlid species. PMID:24096828

Farlora, Rodolfo; Hattori-Ihara, Shoko; Takeuchi, Yukata; Hayashi, Makoto; Octavera, Anna; Alimuddin; Yoshizaki, Goro

2014-06-01

242

Wheat Germ Lectin Sorption by Chitosan Polyelectrolyte Complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible application of polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of chitosan and copolymers of maleic acid with N-vinylpyrrolidone, styrene, and ethylene and\\/or cross-linked chitin sorbents (CLCS) synthesized on the basis of PEC for sorption of wheat germ lectin (WGL) was studied. The synthesis of spherically granulated sorbents was shown. Compared to unmodified chitosan, there was a significant increase in sorption capacity of

N. A. Samoilova; M. A. Krayukhina; I. A. Yamskov

2002-01-01

243

Primary-energy dependence of the momentum transfer in reflection inner-shell-electron energy-loss spectra of layered transition-metal dichalcogenides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur L2.3 and titanium L2.3 and M2.3 inner-shell-electron energy-loss spectra in 1T-TiS2, 1T-TiSe2, 2H-TaS2, and 2H-MoS2 have been measured at various primary energies in the reflection mode. A remarkable primary-energy dependence is found. As the primary energy decreases, the first peak that is assigned to the unoccupied t2g band for the 1T compounds & band for 2H-TaS2 increases in intensity relative to the second peak. The peak positions are almost unchanged. They are in agreement with those of band-structure calculations and x-ray absorption spectra. The primary-energy dependence has been discussed mainly in terms of the breakdown of dipole selection rules due to momentum transfer involved in the inelastic scattering process and anisotropy in electronic structures.

Ohno, Youichi

1987-11-01

244

Human DAZL, DAZ and BOULE genes modulate primordial germ-cell and haploid gamete formation.  

PubMed

The leading cause of infertility in men and women is quantitative and qualitative defects in human germ-cell (oocyte and sperm) development. Yet, it has not been possible to examine the unique developmental genetics of human germ-cell formation and differentiation owing to inaccessibility of germ cells during fetal development. Although several studies have shown that germ cells can be differentiated from mouse and human embryonic stem cells, human germ cells differentiated in these studies generally did not develop beyond the earliest stages. Here we used a germ-cell reporter to quantify and isolate primordial germ cells derived from both male and female human embryonic stem cells. By silencing and overexpressing genes that encode germ-cell-specific cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins (not transcription factors), we modulated human germ-cell formation and developmental progression. We observed that human DAZL (deleted in azoospermia-like) functions in primordial germ-cell formation, whereas closely related genes DAZ and BOULE (also called BOLL) promote later stages of meiosis and development of haploid gametes. These results are significant to the generation of gametes for future basic science and potential clinical applications. PMID:19865085

Kee, Kehkooi; Angeles, Vanessa T; Flores, Martha; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Reijo Pera, Renee A

2009-11-12

245

Germ cell development in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera); Vasa and Nanos expression  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of specification of germ-cells in insect embryos has indicated that in many taxa the germ cells form early in development, and their formation is associated with pole plasm, germ plasm or an organelle called the oosome. None of these morphological features associated with germ cell formation have been identified in the Honeybee Apis mellifera. In this study I report the cloning and expression analysis of Honeybee homologues of vasa and nanos, germ cell markers in insects and other animals. Results Apis vasa and nanos RNAs are present in early honeybee embryos, but the RNAs clear rapidly, without any cells expressing these germ cell markers past stage 2. These genes are then only expressed in a line of cells in the abdomen from stage 9 onwards. These cells are the developing germ cells that are moved dorsally by dorsal closure and are placed in the genital ridge. Conclusion This study of the expression of germ cell markers in the honeybee implies that in this species either germ cells are formed by an inductive event, late in embryogenesis, or they are formed early in development in the absence of vasa and nanos expression. This contrasts with germ cell development in other members of the Hymenoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera.

Dearden, Peter K

2006-01-01

246

Germ plasm in Eleutherodactylus coqui, a direct developing frog with large eggs  

PubMed Central

Background RNAs for embryo patterning and for germ cell specification are localized to the vegetal cortex of the oocyte of Xenopus laevis. In oocytes of the direct developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui, orthologous RNAs for patterning are not localized, raising the question as to whether RNAs and other components of germ plasm are localized in this species. Methods To identify germ plasm, E. coqui embryos were stained with DiOC6(3) or examined by in situ hybridization for dazl and DEADSouth RNAs. The cDNAs for the E. coqui orthologues were cloned by RT-PCR using degenerate primers. To examine activity of the E. coqui orthologues, RNAs, made from constructs of their 3'UTRs with mCherry, were injected into X. laevis embryos. Results Both DiOC6(3) and dazl and DEADSouth in situs identified many small islands at the vegetal surface of cleaving E. coqui embryos, indicative of germ plasm. Dazl was also expressed in primordial germ cells in the genital ridge. The 3'UTRs of E. coqui dazl and DEADSouth directed primordial germ cell specific protein synthesis in X. laevis. Conclusions E. coqui utilizes germ plasm with RNAs localized to the vegetal cortex to specify primordial germ cells. The large number of germ plasm islands suggests that an increase in the amount of germ plasm was important in the evolution of the large E. coqui egg.

2011-01-01

247

Tre1, a G Protein-Coupled Receptor, Directs Transepithelial Migration of Drosophila Germ Cells  

PubMed Central

In most organisms, germ cells are formed distant from the somatic part of the gonad and thus have to migrate along and through a variety of tissues to reach the gonad. Transepithelial migration through the posterior midgut (PMG) is the first active step during Drosophila germ cell migration. Here we report the identification of a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), Tre1, that is essential for this migration step. Maternal tre1 RNA is localized to germ cells, and tre1 is required cell autonomously in germ cells. In tre1 mutant embryos, most germ cells do not exit the PMG. The few germ cells that do leave the midgut early migrate normally to the gonad, suggesting that this gene is specifically required for transepithelial migration and that mutant germ cells are still able to recognize other guidance cues. Additionally, inhibiting small Rho GTPases in germ cells affects transepithelial migration, suggesting that Tre1 signals through Rho1. We propose that Tre1 acts in a manner similar to chemokine receptors required during transepithelial migration of leukocytes, implying an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of transepithelial migration. Recently, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 was shown to direct migration in vertebrate germ cells. Thus, germ cells may more generally use GPCR signaling to navigate the embryo toward their target.

2003-01-01

248

Germ cell sex prior to meiosis in the rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Germ cells make two major decisions when they move from an indeterminate state to their final stage of gamete production. One decision is sexual commitment for sperm or egg production, and the other is to maintain mitotic division or entry into meiosis. It is unclear whether the two decisions are made as a single event or separate events, because there has been no evidence for the presence of germ cell sex prior to meiosis. Here we report direct evidence in the fish rainbow trout that gonia have distinct sexuality. We show that dazl expression occurs in both male and female gonia but exhibits differential intracellular distribution. More strikingly, we show that boule is highly expressed in male gonia but absent in female gonia. Therefore, mitotic gonia possess sex, sperm/egg decision and mitosis/meiosis decision are two independent events, and sperm/egg decision precedes mitosis/meiosis decision in rainbow trout, making this organism a unique vertebrate model for mechanistic understanding of germ cell sex differentiation and relationship between the two decisions. PMID:21337009

Li, Mingyou; Shen, Qian; Wong, Foong Mei; Xu, Hongyan; Hong, Ni; Zeng, Lingbing; Liu, Lin; Wei, Qiwei; Hong, Yunhan

2011-01-01

249

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replicates in testicular germ cells, alters spermatogenesis, and induces germ cell death by apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

Like other arteriviruses, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is shed in semen, a feature that is critical for the venereal transmission of this group of viruses. In spite of its epidemiological importance, little is known of the association of PRRSV or other arteriviruses with gonadal tissues. We experimentally infected a group of boars with PRRSV 12068-96, a virulent field strain. By combined use of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we detected infection by PRRSV in the testes of these boars. The PRRSV testicular replication in testis centers on two types of cells: (i) epithelial germ cells of the seminiferous tubules, primarily spermatids and spermatocytes, and (ii) macrophages, which are located in the interstitium of the testis. Histopathologically, hypospermatogenesis, formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs), and abundant germ cell depletion and death were observed. We obtained evidence that such germ cell death occurs by apoptosis, as determined by a characteristic histologic pattern and evidence of massive DNA fragmentation detected in situ (TUNEL [terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated digoxigenin-UTP nick end labeling] assay). Simultaneously with these testicular alterations, we observed that there is a significant increase in the number of immature sperm cells (mainly MGCs, spermatids, and spermatocytes) in the ejaculates of the PRRSV-inoculated boars and that these cells are infected with PRRSV. Our results indicate that PRRSV may infect target cells other than macrophages, that these infected cells can be primarily responsible for the excretion of infectious PRRSV in semen, and that PRRSV induces apoptosis in these germ cells in vivo.

Sur, J H; Doster, A R; Christian, J S; Galeota, J A; Wills, R W; Zimmerman, J J; Osorio, F A

1997-01-01

250

Cancers by Body Location/System: Unknown Primary  

Cancer.gov

In English En español In English En español Cancers by Body Location/System: Unknown Primary To find a cancer: select a body location or system — AIDS-RelatedBreastDigestive/GastrointestinalEndocrine and NeuroendocrineEye GenitourinaryGerm CellGynecologicHead

251

SALL4 is a novel diagnostic marker for testicular germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) sometimes can be challenging without ancillary markers. Here we performed an immunohistochemical study of a novel stem cell marker SALL4 in a large series of 110 primary testicular GCTs (65 pure and 45 mixed) containing the following types of tumors and/or tumor components: 50 intratubular germ cell neoplasias (ITGCNs), 62 classic seminomas, 2 spermatocytic seminomas, 39 embryonal carcinomas (EC), 5 pediatric and 26 postpubertal yolk sac tumors (YST), 7 pediatric and 25 postpubertal teratomas, and 5 choriocarcinomas. We compared SALL4 with OCT4 in all GCTs, and SALL4 to alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and glypican-3 in all YSTs. To test SALL4 specificity, 23 testicular non-GCTs (10 Leydig cell tumors, 4 Sertoli cell tumors, 3 adenomatoid tumors, 3 paratesticular rhabdomyosarcomas, 2 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and 1 rete testis papillary cystadenoma) and 275 nontesticular tumors (158 metastatic carcinomas, 12 metastatic melanomas, 11 primary and 2 metastatic mesotheliomas, and 72 primary and 20 metastatic sarcomas) were also stained for SALL4. All ITGCNs, classic seminomas, and ECs demonstrated strong SALL4 and OCT4 staining in more than 90% tumor cells. All 31 YSTs (5 pediatric and 26 postpubertal) showed strong positive SALL4 staining in more than 90% tumor cells but had negative OCT4 staining. Both spermatocytic seminomas showed positive SALL4 staining in 80% to 95% tumor cells in all 3 types of tumor cells with weak-to-moderate staining intensity. Mononucleated trophoblastic cells were variably positive for SALL4 staining in all 5 choriocarcinomas. Focal SALL4 staining was seen in 4 of 7 pediatric and 23 of 27 postpubertal teratomas. OCT4 staining was not seen in any spermatocytic seminoma, choriocarcinoma, or teratoma. No SALL4 staining was seen in all 23 testicular non-GCTs. Of 275 nontesticular tumors, only 10 carcinomas and 1 sarcoma showed focal (<25% tumor cells) weak SALL4 staining. The only non-neoplastic cells within the testis stained with SALL4 were spermatogonia and few primary spermatocytes. AFP staining was seen in 29 of 31 YST but it was often focal and patchy. Although all 31 YSTs showed glypican-3 staining, 14 (45%) show staining in less than 30% tumor cells. Our findings indicate that SALL4 is a novel sensitive and relatively specific marker for testicular GCTs. SALL4 is a more sensitive marker than AFP and glypican-3 for YST. PMID:19390421

Cao, Dengfeng; Li, Jianping; Guo, Charles C; Allan, Robert W; Humphrey, Peter A

2009-07-01

252

Generation of germ-line chimera zebrafish using primordial germ cells isolated from cultured blastomeres and cryopreserved embryoids.  

PubMed

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the only cells in developing embryos with the potential to transmit genetic information to the next generation. In our previous study, a single PGC transplanted into a host differentiated into fertile gametes and produced germ-line chimeras of cyprinid fish, including zebrafish. In this study, we aimed to induce germ-line chimeras by transplanting donor PGCs from various sources (normal embryos at different stages, dissociated blastomeres, embryoids, or embryoids cryopreserved by vitrification) into host blastulae, and compare the migration rates of the PGCs towards the gonadal ridge. Isolated, cultured blastomeres not subject to mesodermal induction were able to differentiate into PGCs that retained their motility. Moreover, these PGCs successfully migrated towards the gonadal ridge of the host and formed viable gametes. Motility depended on developmental stage and culture duration: PGCs obtained at earlier developmental stages and with shorter cultivation periods showed an increased rate of migration to the gonadal ridge. Offspring were obtained from natural spawning between normal females and chimeric males. These results provide the basis for new methods of gene preservation in zebrafish. PMID:21302258

Kawakami, Yutaka; Goto-Kazeto, Rie; Saito, Taiju; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Higaki, Shogo; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

2010-01-01

253

Production of fertile zebrafish (Danio rerio) possessing germ cells (gametes) originated from primordial germ cells recovered from vitrified embryos.  

PubMed

This study aimed to produce fertile zebrafish (Danio rerio) possessing germ cells (gametes) that originated from cryopreserved primordial germ cells (PGCs). First, to improve the vitrification procedure of PGCs in segmentation stage embryos, dechorionated yolk-intact and yolk-removed embryos, the PGCs of which were labeled with green fluorescent protein, were cooled rapidly after serial exposures to equilibration solution (ES) and vitrification solution (VS), which contained ethylene glycol, DMSO, and sucrose. Yolk removal well prevented ice formation in the embryos during cooling and improved the viability of cryopreserved PGCs. The maximum recovery rate of live PGCs in the yolk-removed embryos vitrified after optimum exposure to ES and VS was estimated to be about 90%, and about 50% of the live PGCs showed pseudopodial movement. Next, to elucidate the ability of cryopreserved PGCs to differentiate into functional gametes, PGCs recovered from the yolk-removed embryos (striped-type) that were vitrified under the optimum exposure to ES and VS were transplanted individually into 218 sterilized recipient blastulae (golden-type). Two days after the transplantation, 7.5% (14/187) of morphologically normal embryos had PGC(s) in the genital ridges. Six (5 males and 1 female) of the 14 recipient embryos developed into mature fish and generated progeny with characteristics inherited from PGC donors. In conclusion, we demonstrated the successful cryopreservation of PGCs by vitrification of yolk-removed embryos and the production of fertile zebrafish possessing germ cells that originated from the PGCs in vitrified embryos. PMID:20154175

Higaki, Shogo; Eto, Yoshiki; Kawakami, Yutaka; Yamaha, Etsuro; Kagawa, Noriko; Kuwayama, Masashige; Nagano, Masashi; Katagiri, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

2010-04-01

254

Differential interactions between transforming growth factor-beta3/TbetaR1, TAB1, and CD2AP disrupt blood-testis barrier and Sertoli-germ cell adhesion.  

PubMed

The biochemical basis that regulates the timely and selective opening of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to migrating preleptotene/leptotene spermatocytes at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle in adult rat testes is virtually unknown. Recent studies have shown that cytokines (e.g. transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta3) may play a crucial role in this event. However, much of this information relies on the use of toxicants (e.g. CdCl(2)), making it difficult to relay these findings to normal testicular physiology. Here we report that overexpression of TGF-beta3 in primary Sertoli cells cultured in vitro indeed perturbed the tight junction (TJ) barrier with a concomitant decline in the production of BTB constituent proteins as follows: occludin, N-cadherin, and ZO-1. Additionally, local administration of TGF-beta3 to testes in vivo was shown to reversibly perturb the BTB integrity and Sertoli-germ cell adhesion via the p38 MAPK and ERK signaling pathways. Most importantly, the simultaneous activation of p38 and ERK signaling pathways is dependent on the association of the TGF-beta3-TbetaR1 complex with adaptors TAB1 and CD2AP because if TbetaR1 was associated preferentially with CD2AP, only Sertoli-germ cell adhesion was perturbed without compromising the BTB. Collectively, these data illustrate that local production of TGF-beta3, and perhaps other TGF-betas and cytokines, by Sertoli and germ cells into the microenvironment at the BTB during spermatogenesis transiently perturbs the BTB and Sertoli-germ cell adhesion to facilitate germ cell migration when the activated TbetaRI interacts with adaptors TAB1 and CD2AP. However, TGF-beta3 selectively disrupts Sertoli-germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium to facilitate germ cell migration without compromising BTB when TbetaRI interacts only with adaptor CD2AP. PMID:16617054

Xia, Weiliang; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

2006-06-16

255

Seasonal spermatogenic cycle and morphology of germ cells in the viviparous lizard Mabuya brachypoda (Squamata, Scincidae).  

PubMed

We describe seasonal variations of the histology of the seminiferous tubules and efferent ducts of the tropical, viviparous skink, Mabuya brachypoda, throughout the year. The specimens were collected monthly, in Nacajuca, Tabasco state, Mexico. The results revealed strong annual variations in testicular volume, stages of the germ cells, and diameter and height of the epithelia of seminiferous tubules and efferent ducts. Recrudescence was detected from November to December, when initial mitotic activity of spermatogonia in the seminiferous tubules were observed, coinciding with the decrease of temperature, photoperiod and rainy season. From January to February, early spermatogenesis continued and early primary and secondary spermatocytes were developing within the seminiferous epithelium. From March through April, numerous spermatids in metamorphosis were observed. Spermiogenesis was completed from May through July, which coincided with an increase in temperature, photoperiod, and rainfall. Regression occurred from August through September when testicular volume and spermatogenic activity decreased. During this time, the seminiferous epithelium decreased in thickness, and germ cell recruitment ceased, only Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were present in the epithelium. Throughout testicular regression spermatocytes and spermatids disappeared and the presence of cellular debris, and scattered spermatozoa were observed in the lumen. The regressed testes presented the total suspension of spermatogenesis. During October, the seminiferous tubules contained only spermatogonia and Sertoli cells, and the size of the lumen was reduced, giving the appearance that it was occluded. In concert with testis development, the efferent ducts were packed with spermatozoa from May through August. The epididymis was devoid of spermatozoa by September. M. brachypoda exhibited a prenuptial pattern, in which spermatogenesis preceded the mating season. The seasonal cycle variations of spermatogenesis in M. brachypoda are the result of a single extended spermiation event, which is characteristic of reptilian species. PMID:22806886

Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Uribe, Mari Carmen

2012-11-01

256

Risk and prognostic significance of metachronous contralateral testicular germ cell tumours  

PubMed Central

Background: Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) patients are at increased risk of developing a contralateral testicular germ cell tumour (CTGCT). It is unclear whether TGCT treatment affects CTGCT risk. Methods: The risk of developing a metachronous CTGCT (a CTGCT diagnosed ?6 months after a primary TGCT) and its impact on patient's prognosis was assessed in a nationwide cohort comprising 3749 TGCT patients treated in the Netherlands during 1965–1995. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), comparing CTGCT incidence with TGCT incidence in the general population, and cumulative CTGCT incidence were estimated and CTGCT risk factors assessed, accounting for competing risks. Results: Median follow-up was 18.5 years. Seventy-seven metachronous CTGCTs were diagnosed. The SIR for metachronous CTGCTs was 17.6 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 13.9–22.0). Standardised incidence ratios remained elevated for up to 20 years, while the 20-year cumulative incidence was 2.2% (95% CI 1.8–2.8%). Platinum-based chemotherapy was associated with a lower CTGCT risk among non-seminoma patients (hazard ratio 0.37, 95% CI 0.18–0.72). The CTGCT patients had a 2.3-fold (95% CI 1.3–4.1) increased risk to develop a subsequent non-TGCT cancer and, consequently, a 1.8-fold (95% CI 1.1–2.9) higher risk of death than patients without a CTGCT. Conclusion: The TGCT patients remain at increased risk of a CTGCT for up to 20 years. Treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy reduces this risk.

Schaapveld, M; van den Belt-Dusebout, A W; Gietema, J A; de Wit, R; Horenblas, S; Witjes, J A; Hoekstra, H J; Kiemeney, L A L M; Louwman, W J; Ouwens, G M; Aleman, B M P; van Leeuwen, F E

2012-01-01

257

EPCAM-A novel molecular target for the treatment of pediatric and adult germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are thought to develop from totipotent primordial germ cells. Although the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) is expressed on embryonic stem cells as well as different tumor cells, it has not yet been extensively studied in GCTs. We analyzed EPCAM expression by quantitative RT-PCR in 48 fresh-frozen GCT specimens of different histology (10 mature teratoma, MT; 6 immature teratoma, IT; 7 dysgerminoma; 6 mixed malignant GCTs; 19 yolk sac tumor, YST) and in the GCT cell lines NCCIT, TE76.T, JAR and 2102Ep, and correlated its expression with AFP and hCG protein levels, histologic differentiation, and clinical follow-up data. EPCAM protein was visualized by immunohistochemistry of selected corresponding paraffin embedded tumor tissues. EPCAM was expressed in malignant but not in benign GCTs irrespective of age, sex, site and clinical stage of tumor (P = 0.001). In primary teratomas, EPCAM expression increased with their grade of immaturity (mean 2(-?Ct) values: MT 0.23, IT 1.61, P = 0.007) and significantly correlated with serum AFP (P = 0.03) and hCG (P = 0.03) levels in malignant GCTs. Particularly high EPCAM levels were found in nonseminomatous GCTs such as YSTs (8.49) and choriocarcinoma (13.54). Immunohistochemical analysis verified gene expression data showing a distinct EPCAM staining in YST. Similarly in vitro, highest EPCAM expression was measured in GCT cell lines comprising yolk sac (2102Ep: 5.59) or choriocarcinoma (JAR: 10.65) components. This first comprehensive analysis of EPCAM in GCTs revealed high EPCAM expression in YSTs and choriocarcinomas. Thus, these nonseminomatous GCTs may be interesting targets for EPCAM immunotherapy, which has to be evaluated in further studies. PMID:22987628

Schönberger, Stefan; Okpanyi, Vera; Calaminus, Gabriele; Heikaus, Sebastian; Leuschner, Ivo; Nicholson, James C; Stoecklein, Nikolas H; Schneider, Dominik T; Borkhardt, Arndt

2013-01-01

258

Epigenetic programming of the germ line: effects of endocrine disruptors on the development of transgenerational disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic programming of the germ line occurs during embryonic development in a sex-specific manner. The male germ line becomes imprinted following sex determination. Environmental influences can alter this epigenetic programming and affect not only the developing offspring, but also potentially subsequent generations. Exposure to an endocrine disruptor (i.e. vinclozolin) during embryonic gonadal sex determination can alter the male germ-line epigenetics

Matthew D Anway; Michael K Skinner

2008-01-01

259

Windows for sex-specific methylation marked by DNA methyltransferase expression profiles in mouse germ cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acquisition of genomic methylation in the male germ line is initiated prenatally in diploid gonocytes, while DNA methylation in the female germ line is initiated postnatally in growing oocytes. We compared the temporal expression patterns of the DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, and DNMT3l in the male and female germ lines. DNMT1 expression was examined by immunocytochemistry and Northerns

Sophie La Salle; Carmen Mertineit; Teruko Taketo; Peter B Moens; Timothy H Bestor; Jacquetta M Trasler

2004-01-01

260

Loss of heterozygosity of selected tumor suppressor genes in human testicular germ cell tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are histologically heterogenous neoplasms with a variable malignant potential. Two main groups of germ cell tumors occur in men: seminomas and nonseminomas. In the present study, a set of four tumor suppressor genes was investigated in testicular cancers. CDH1, APC, p53, and nm23-H1 genes were tested for loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Thirty-eight testicular germ

Tomislav Vladuši?; Reno Hraš?an; Ivana Vrhovac; Božo Krušlin; Marija Gamulin; Mislav Grgi?; Nives Pe?ina-Šlaus; Jasna Franeki? ?oli?

2010-01-01

261

From Young Children's Ideas about Germs to Ideas Shaping a Learning Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with highlighting young children’s ideas about the nature, location and appearance of germs, as well as their reasoning strands about germs’ ontological category and biological functions. Moreover, it is concerned with exploring how all these could be taken into account for shaping a potentially fruitful learning environment. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 35 preschoolers (age 4.5-5.5) of public kindergartens in the broader area of Patras, we attempted to trace their ideas about what germs are, where they may be found, whether they are good or bad and living or non-living and how they might look like in a drawing. Moreover, children were required to attribute a series of biological functions to dogs, chairs and germs, and finally to create a story with germs holding a key-role. The analysis of our qualitative data within the “NVivo” software showed that the informants make a strong association of germs with health and hygiene issues, locate germs mostly in our body and the external environment, are not familiar with the ‘good germs’-idea, and draw germs as ‘human-like’, ‘animal-like’ or ‘abstract’ entities. Moreover, they have significant difficulties not only in employing biological functions as criteria for classifying germs in the category of ‘living’, but also in just attributing such functions to germs using a warrant. Finally, the shift from our findings to a 3-part learning environment aiming at supporting preschoolers in refining their initial conceptualization of germs is thoroughly discussed in the paper.

Ergazaki, Marida; Saltapida, Konstantina; Zogza, Vassiliki

2010-11-01

262

A zebrafish homologue of the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 is a germ-cell guidance receptor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germ cells preserve an individual's genetic information and transmit it to the next generation. Early in development germ cells are set aside and undergo a specialized developmental programme, a hallmark of which is the migration from their site of origin to the future gonad. In Drosophila, several factors have been identified that control germ-cell migration to their target tissues; however, the germ-cell chemoattractant or its receptor have remained unknown. Here we apply genetics and in vivo imaging to show that odysseus, a zebrafish homologue of the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor Cxcr4, is required specifically in germ cells for their chemotaxis. odysseus mutant germ cells are able to activate the migratory programme, but fail to undergo directed migration towards their target tissue, resulting in randomly dispersed germ cells. SDF-1, the presumptive cognate ligand for Cxcr4, shows a similar loss-of-function phenotype and can recruit germ cells to ectopic sites in the embryo, thus identifying a vertebrate ligand-receptor pair guiding migratory germ cells at all stages of migration towards their target.

Knaut, Holger; Werz, Christian; Geisler, Robert; Tübingen 2000 Screen Consortium; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

2003-01-01

263

A new glycosylated dihydrophaseic acid from cacao germs (Theobroma cacao L.).  

PubMed

Cacao beans are composed of cacao nibs and germs. Although numerous chemical and physiological studies on cacao nib compounds have been reported, there is little information on cacao germ compounds. We therefore analyzed an extract from the cacao germ, and found two compounds that were specific to the germ. One of these two compounds was identified as the new glycosylated abscisic acid metabolite, dihydrophaseic acid-4'-O-6?-(?-ribofuranosyl)-?-glucopyranoside, and the other as the known compound, dihydrophaseic acid-4'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:21821944

Sannohe, Yumiko; Gomi, Shuichi; Murata, Takashi; Ohyama, Makoto; Yonekura, Kumiko; Kanegae, Minoru; Koga, Jinichiro

2011-01-01

264

Testicular germ cell tumors and related research from a historical point of view.  

PubMed

In this brief overview of the history of testicular germ cell tumors, we touch upon the key events and personalities that have contributed to our current understanding of germ cell tumors in general, and those of the testis in particular. The intricacies of human germ cell tumor pathology and histogenesis have been elucidated in part by contributions in the field of experimental pathology and developmental biology. Correlation between clinical oncologic findings, pathology and experimental studies of germ cell tumors and related topics ushered the era of cellular and genetic engineering that have revolutionized contemporary cell and molecular biology. PMID:23784830

Damjanov, Ivan; Wewer-Albrechtsen, Nicolai

2013-01-01

265

Signaling from germ cells mediated by the rhomboid homolog stet organizes encapsulation by somatic support cells.  

PubMed

Germ cells normally differentiate in the context of encapsulating somatic cells. However, the mechanisms that set up the special relationship between germ cells and somatic support cells and the signals that mediate the crucial communications between the two cell types are poorly understood. We show that interactions between germ cells and somatic support cells in Drosophila depend on wild-type function of the stet gene. In males, stet acts in germ cells to allow their encapsulation by somatic cyst cells and is required for germ cell differentiation. In females, stet function allows inner sheath cells to enclose early germ cells correctly at the tip of the germarium. stet encodes a homolog of rhomboid, a component of the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway involved in ligand activation in the signaling cell. The stet mutant phenotype suggests that stet facilitates signaling from germ cells to the epidermal growth factor receptor on somatic cells, resulting in the encapsulation of germ cells by somatic support cells. The micro-environment provided by the surrounding somatic cells may, in turn, regulate differentiation of the germ cells they enclose. PMID:12223409

Schulz, Cordula; Wood, Cricket G; Jones, D Leanne; Tazuke, Salli I; Fuller, Margaret T

2002-10-01

266

Ultrastructure of putative germ granules in the penaeid shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus.  

PubMed

Knowledge about the specification of the germ line in penaeid shrimp would allow development of techniques to control germ cell formation and/or fate to produce reproductively sterile shrimp for genetic copyright purposes. Recent studies have traced the localization of an RNA-enriched intracellular body (ICB) in the putative germ line of four penaeid shrimp species. It is hypothesized that the ICB may serve as a putative germ granule and marker of germ line fate. In this study semi-thin and ultra-thin sections of Marsupenaeus japonicus embryos were prepared, and the dimensions and ultrastructure of the ICB was examined at different stages of embryogenesis. The ICB was an aggregation of electron dense granules, small vesicles and multi-vesicular bodies (MVBs), similar to germ granules from other species. Lamellar membranes and mitochondria were localized at the periphery of the ICB. Using fluorescence microscopy, microtubules were also observed between the centrosome and the ICB. The localization of the ICB in the D lineage and putative germ cell line, the enrichment of RNA in the ICB, and the ultrastructural similarities to other germ granules characterized in this study support the hypothesis that the ICB contains germ granules. PMID:23183128

Grattan, R M; McCulloch, R J; Sellars, M J; Hertzler, P L

2013-03-01

267

Genetic Evidence That the Ovo Locus Is Involved in Drosophila Germ Line Sex Determination  

PubMed Central

Zygotically contributed ovo gene product is required for the survival of female germ cells in Drosophila melanogaster. Trans-allelic combinations of weak and dominant ovo mutations (ovo(D)) result in viable germ cells that appear to be partially transformed from female to male sexual identity. The ovo(D2) mutation is partially suppressed by many Sex-lethal alleles that affect the soma, while those that affect only the germ line fail to interact with ovo(D2). One of two loss-of-function ovo alleles is suppressed by a loss-of-function Sex-lethal allele. Because ovo mutations are germ line dependent, it is likely that ovo is suppressed by way of communication between the somatic and germ lines. A loss-of-function allele of ovo is epistatic to germ line dependent mutations in Sex-lethal. The germ line dependent sex determination mutation, sans fille, and ovo(D) mutations show a dominant synergistic interaction resulting in partial transformation of germ line sexual identity. The ovo locus appears to be involved in germ line sex determination and is linked in some manner to sex determination in the soma.

Oliver, B.; Pauli, D.; Mahowald, A. P.

1990-01-01

268

Retinoic acid induces mouse bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) stem cells into male germ-like cells in a two-dimensional cell culture system.  

PubMed

We have examined the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on differentiation of bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells into male germ cells. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated from the femur of 3-4-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) system was used to sort CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells. RT-PCR was used to follow the expression of pluripotency markers. Sorted CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells were cultured in an undifferentiated condition on a feeder layer of mitomycin C-inactivated C2C12. The embryoid-like bodies were differentiated into male germ cells by retinoic acid. To identify the expression of male germ specific markers, differentiated cells were analysed by means of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence staining. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence show that bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells express pluripotency markers, Oct4, Nanog, Rex-1, SOX-2 and AP. The purified CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) formed structures like embryoid bodies when plated over a feeder layer; these bodies were alkaline phosphatase positive. When cells were induced by RA, bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) were positive for Mvh, Dazl, Piwil2, Dppa3 and Stra8, that known molecular markers of male germ cells. Thus RA can induce differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells into male germ cells in vitro. Negative results for the gene expression analysis of female germ cells markers, GDF9 and ZP3, confirmed this conclusion. PMID:24677291

Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Soleimani, Masoud; Abdolvahabi, Mir Abbas; Nayernia, Karim; Shirazi, Reza

2014-06-01

269

Aggregation behaviour and stability of maize germ oil body suspension.  

PubMed

To utilize maize germ oil bodies as ingredients in the food industry, zeta potential determination and particle diameter analysis were used in this study as indicators of the stability of maize germ oil body suspensions. The stability and aggregation properties of maize germ oil body suspensions were studied at different pH and ion strength conditions, and different thermal treatments. Zeta potential measurement, mean particle size determination, and confocal laser scanning microscopy were also performed. The zeta potential and mean particle diameter of the oil bodies were easily affected by salt (7.05mV and d32=1.43?m at 100mM NaCl) and pH (23.30, 15.00, -16.43mV and d32=1.02, 2.55, and 0.95?m at pH 3, pH 4, and pH 7, respectively). Results demonstrated that aggregation and instability of the oil bodies were promoted by high salt concentrations and acidic pH but not by heating. The association between oil bodies and surfactant properties resulted in the disruption of hydrophobic interactions among oil body surface proteins because of the smaller mean particle sizes and the reduced negative charges (-75.73mV and d32=0.46?m at pH 3). Thus, the oil body aggregation behavior and stability of proteins are based on hydrophobic interactions present on the surface of the oil bodies. PMID:24996296

Sukhotu, Rujira; Shi, Xiaodi; Hu, Qi; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng; Guo, Shuntang

2014-12-01

270

Sirt1 deficiency attenuates spermatogenesis and germ cell function.  

PubMed

In mammals, Sirt1, a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, functions as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deactylase, and has important physiological roles, including the regulation of glucose metabolism, cell survival, and mitochondrial respiration. The initial investigations of Sirt1 deficient mice have revealed a phenotype that includes a reduced lifespan, small size, and an increased frequency of abnormal sperm. We have now performed a detailed analysis of the molecular and functional effects of Sirt1 deficiency in the germ line of Sirt1 knock-out (-/-) mice. We find that Sirt1 deficiency markedly attenuates spermatogenesis, but not oogenesis. Numbers of mature sperm and spermatogenic precursors, as early as d15.5 of development, are significantly reduced ( approximately 2-10-fold less; Pgerm cells, we compared the efficiency of generating embryos and viable offspring in in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiments using gametes from Sirt1-/- and sibling Sirt1+/- mice. While viable animals were derived in both Sirt1-/- X wild type and Sirt1-/- X Sirt1-/- crosses, the efficiency of producing both 2-cell zygotes and viable offspring was diminished when IVF was performed with Sirt1-/- sperm and/or oocytes. Together, these data support an important role for Sirt1 in spermatogenesis, including spermatogenic stem cells, as well as germ cell function. PMID:18270565

Coussens, Matthew; Maresh, John G; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Maeda, Gregg; Allsopp, Richard

2008-01-01

271

Hemin induces germ tube formation in Candida albicans.  

PubMed Central

Hemin induced germination of Candida albicans blastoconidia when cells grown up to the early exponential phase were shifted from 28 to 37 degrees C (70 to 75% of cells exhibited germ tubes). N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), another inducer of myceliation in this fungus, caused a similar effect. The combination of hemin and GlcNAc resulted in a higher percentage (95%) of blastoconidial germination. These results suggest that in addition to temperature, hemin levels and carbon source may coordinately regulate the expression of subsets of genes involved in the yeast-to-mycelium transition in C. albicans.

Casanova, M; Cervera, A M; Gozalbo, D; Martinez, J P

1997-01-01

272

Mediastinal germ cell tumour with massive pulmonary involvement  

PubMed Central

Multimodality treatment, with chemotherapy and surgery, is potentially curative in case of non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. The authors present the case of a primitive mediastinal GTC with bilateral lung metastases. The patient was treated with five cycles of chemotherapy. Restaging showed reduction of the extent and of 18 FDG intake and ?-HCG serum levels. The patient underwent two-step surgical excision of the tumours: mediastinal lesion and 35 lung metastases were resected by a right thoracotomy and 39 metastases were removed by a left thoracotomy. Histology showed absence of viable tumour in all the specimens. Twelve months after surgery the patient is free of disease.

Kawamukai, Kenji; Di Saverio, Salomone; Antonacci, Filippo; Lacava, Nicola; Boaron, Maurizio

2011-01-01

273

Simultaneous linearization of holomorphic germs in presence of resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let f_{1}, ..., f_{m} be m? 2 germs of biholomorphisms of C^{n} , fixing the origin, with (df_{1})_{O} diagonalizable and such that f_{1} commutes with f_{h} for any h=2,..., m . We prove that, under certain arithmetic conditions on the eigenvalues of (df_{1})_{O} and some restrictions on their resonances, f_{1}, ..., f_{m} are simultaneously holomorphically linearizable if and only if there exists a particular complex manifold invariant under f_{1}, ..., f_{m} .

Raissy, Jasmin

274

Mediastinal germ cell tumour with massive pulmonary involvement.  

PubMed

Multimodality treatment, with chemotherapy and surgery, is potentially curative in case of non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. The authors present the case of a primitive mediastinal GTC with bilateral lung metastases. The patient was treated with five cycles of chemotherapy. Restaging showed reduction of the extent and of 18 FDG intake and ?-HCG serum levels. The patient underwent two-step surgical excision of the tumours: mediastinal lesion and 35 lung metastases were resected by a right thoracotomy and 39 metastases were removed by a left thoracotomy. Histology showed absence of viable tumour in all the specimens. Twelve months after surgery the patient is free of disease. PMID:22688492

Kawamukai, Kenji; Di Saverio, Salomone; Antonacci, Filippo; Lacava, Nicola; Boaron, Maurizio

2011-01-01

275

Primary Aldosteronism  

MedlinePLUS

... ABOUT OUR SITE › Primary Aldosteronism Share: Fact Sheet Primary Aldosteronism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors ... MD, FRCP William Young, MD, MSc What is primary aldosteronism? Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a type of ...

276

Prognosis after salvage treatment for unselected male patients with germ cell tumours.  

PubMed Central

Long-term outcome of salvage treatment was reviewed in 67 unselected male patients relapsing during or after their primary cisplatin-based chemotherapy for metastatic germ cell tumours. Seven patients underwent only surgery and/or radiotherapy as curatively intended salvage treatment. Thirty-five patients (52%) had a complete or partial response to salvage treatment, 20 (57%) of whom relapsed again. With a median follow-up of 90 months (range 3-143 months) 20 patients (30%) are alive with no evidence of disease, 15 continuously disease-free and five currently disease-free. The 5 year survival from start of salvage treatment is 37% for the group as a whole. Multivariate analysis identified age < or = 35 years, complete response to primary treatment and a relapse-free interval > 3 months as independent predictors of favourable outcome of salvage treatment. A group of patients with these good-risk factors (42%) had a 5 year survival of 72% compared with the remaining patients (58%) with a 5 year survival of only 11%. Whereas patients with good-risk features may be adequately managed by conventional salvage treatment, the remaining patients carry a very poor prognosis and require innovative and more aggressive approaches.

Gerl, A.; Clemm, C.; Schmeller, N.; Hartenstein, R.; Lamerz, R.; Wilmanns, W.

1995-01-01

277

Identification of genes expressed in the hermaphrodite germ line of C. elegans using SAGE  

PubMed Central

Background Germ cells must progress through elaborate developmental stages from an undifferentiated germ cell to a fully differentiated gamete. Some of these stages include exiting mitosis and entering meiosis, progressing through the various stages of meiotic prophase, adopting either a male (sperm) or female (oocyte) fate, and completing meiosis. Additionally, many of the factors needed to drive embryogenesis are synthesized in the germ line. To increase our understanding of the genes that might be necessary for the formation and function of the germ line, we have constructed a SAGE library from hand dissected C. elegans hermaphrodite gonads. Results We found that 4699 genes, roughly 21% of all known C. elegans genes, are expressed in the adult hermaphrodite germ line. Ribosomal genes are highly expressed in the germ line; roughly four fold above their expression levels in the soma. We further found that 1063 of the germline-expressed genes have enriched expression in the germ line as compared to the soma. A comparison of these 1063 germline-enriched genes with a similar list of genes prepared using microarrays revealed an overlap of 460 genes, mutually reinforcing the two lists. Additionally, we identified 603 germline-enriched genes, supported by in situ expression data, which were not previously identified. We also found >4 fold enrichment for RNA binding proteins in the germ line as compared to the soma. Conclusion Using multiple technological platforms provides a more complete picture of global gene expression patterns. Genes involved in RNA metabolism are expressed at a significantly higher level in the germ line than the soma, suggesting a stronger reliance on RNA metabolism for control of the expression of genes in the germ line. Additionally, the number and expression level of germ line expressed genes on the X chromosome is lower than expected based on a random distribution.

Wang, Xin; Zhao, Yongjun; Wong, Kim; Ehlers, Peter; Kohara, Yuji; Jones, Steven J; Marra, Marco A; Holt, Robert A; Moerman, Donald G; Hansen, Dave

2009-01-01

278

Management of good-risk metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis: Current concepts and controversies  

PubMed Central

Introduction/Methods: Approximately 30% of nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors (NSGCT) of the testis present with metastatic disease. In 1997, the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) stratified all patients with metastatic NSGCT into various risk groups based on serum tumor markers and presence of visceral disease. We review the literature and present optimal stage-dependent management strategies in patients with favorable-risk metastatic NSGCT. Results: Primary chemotherapy (3 cycles BEP or 4 cycles EP) has been shown to be the preferred modality in patients with Clinical Stage IS (cIS) and in patients with bulky metastatic disease (?CS IIb) due to their high risk of systemic disease and recurrence. Primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection appears to be the most efficient primary therapy for retroperitoneal disease <2 cm (CS IIa), with adjuvant chemotherapy reserved for patients who are pathologically advanced (>5 nodes involved, single node > 2 cm) and for those who are non-compliant with surveillance regimens. Following primary chemotherapy, STM and radiographic evaluation are used to assess treatment response. For patients with normalization of STM and retroperitoneal masses < 1 cm, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection or observation with treatment at disease progression are considered options. Due to risk of teratoma or chemoresistant GCT, masses >1 cm and extra-retroperitoneal masses should be treated with surgical resection, which should be performed with nerve-sparing, if possible. Conclusions: In patients with favorable disease based on IGCCCG criteria, clinical stage, STM, and radiographic evaluation are used to guide appropriate therapy to provide excellent long-term cure rates (>92%) in patients with metastatic NSGCT.

Jayram, Gautam; Szmulewitz, Russell Z.; Eggener, Scott E.

2010-01-01

279

Unraveling the molecular targets pertinent to junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis using the Adjudin-induced germ cell depletion model  

PubMed Central

During spermatogenesis, extensive restructuring takes place at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface, which is regulated via intriguing interactions among cytokines, proteases, protease inhibitors, kinases, phosphatases, and transcription factors. This in turn determines the steady-state levels of integral membrane proteins at the cell junctions. We sought to further expand these observations using the Adjudin model. Adjudin is a potential male contraceptive that targets Sertoli–germ cell adhesion, causing exfoliation of spermatids and spermatocytes, but not spermatogonia, from the seminiferous epithelium. This model thus provides the means to identify crucial regulatory molecules and signaling pathways pertinent to junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis. In this study, genome-wide expression profiling of rat testes after treatment with Adjudin at the time of extensive junction restructuring was performed. Differentially regulated genes, such as cytokines, proteases, protease inhibitors, cell junction-associated proteins, and transcription factors pertinent to junction restructuring were identified. These data were consistent with earlier findings; however, much new information was obtained which has been deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus data repository website: http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/geo/ with Accession number: GSE5131. The primary signaling events pertinent to junction restructuring in the testis induced by Adjudin were also delineated using bioinformatics. These findings were also consistent with recently published reports. The identified molecular signatures or targets pertinent to junction dynamics in the testis as reported herein, many of which have not been investigated, thus offer a framework upon which the regulation of junction restructuring events at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface pertinent to spermatogenesis can be further studied.

Xia, Weiliang; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

2009-01-01

280

Issues in identifying germ tube positive yeasts by conventional methods.  

PubMed

Candida speciation is vital for epidemiology and management of candidiasis. Nonmolecular conventional methods often fail to identify closely related germ tube positive yeasts from clinical specimens. The present study was conducted to identify these yeasts and to highlight issues in conventional versus molecular methods of identification. A total of 98 germ tube positive yeasts from high vaginal swabs were studied over a 12-month period. Isolates were examined with various methods including growth at 42 °C and 45 °C on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), color development on CHROMagar Candida medium, chlamydospore production on corn meal agar at 25 °C, carbohydrate assimilation using ID 32C system, and polymerase chain reaction using a single pair of primers targeting the hyphal wall protein 1 (Hwp1) gene. Of all the isolates studied, 97 were molecularly confirmed as C. albicans and one isolate was identified as C. dubliniensis. No C. africana was detected in this study. The molecular method used in our study was an accurate and useful tool for discriminating C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. africana. The conventional methods, however, were less accurate and riddled with many issues that will be discussed in further details. PMID:24375729

Yazdanpanah, Atta; Khaithir, Tzar Mohd Nizam

2014-01-01

281

Somatic mutations of KIT in familial testicular germ cell tumours.  

PubMed

Somatic mutations of the KIT gene have been reported in mast cell diseases and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Recently, they have also been found in mediastinal and testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), particularly in cases with bilateral disease. We screened the KIT coding sequence (except exon 1) for germline mutations in 240 pedigrees with two or more cases of TGCT. No germline mutations were found. Exons 10, 11 and 17 of KIT were examined for somatic mutations in 123 TGCT from 93 multiple-case testicular cancer families. Five somatic mutations were identified; four were missense amino-acid substitutions in exon 17 and one was a 12 bp in-frame deletion in exon 11. Two of seven TGCT from cases with bilateral disease carried KIT mutations compared with three out of 116 unilateral cases (P=0.026). The results indicate that somatic KIT mutations are implicated in the development of a minority of familial as well as sporadic TGCT. They also lend support to the hypothesis that KIT mutations primarily take place during embryogenesis such that primordial germ cells with KIT mutations are distributed to both testes. PMID:15150569

Rapley, E A; Hockley, S; Warren, W; Johnson, L; Huddart, R; Crockford, G; Forman, D; Leahy, M G; Oliver, D T; Tucker, K; Friedlander, M; Phillips, K-A; Hogg, D; Jewett, M A S; Lohynska, R; Daugaard, G; Richard, S; Heidenreich, A; Geczi, L; Bodrogi, I; Olah, E; Ormiston, W J; Daly, P A; Looijenga, L H J; Guilford, P; Aass, N; Fosså, S D; Heimdal, K; Tjulandin, S A; Liubchenko, L; Stoll, H; Weber, W; Einhorn, L; Weber, B L; McMaster, M; Greene, M H; Bishop, D T; Easton, D; Stratton, M R

2004-06-14

282

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Mediates Human Embryonic Germ Cell Derivation  

PubMed Central

Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) have proven to be a source of pluripotent stem cells called embryonic germ cells (EGCs). Unlike embryonic stem cells, virtually little is known regarding the factors that regulate EGC survival and maintenance. In mice, the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has been shown to be required for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells, and disruptions in this gene lead to defects in mouse PGC specification. Here, we sought to determine whether recombinant human BMP4 could influence EGC derivation and/or human PGC survival. We found that the addition of recombinant BMP4 increased the number of human PGCs after 1 week of culture in a dose-responsive manner. The efficiency of EGC derivation and maintenance in culture was also enhanced by the presence of recombinant BMP4 based on alkaline phosphatase and OCT4 staining. In addition, an antagonist of the BMP4 pathway, Noggin, decreased PGC proliferation and led to an increase in cystic embryoid body formation. Quantitative real-time (qRT)–polymerase chain reaction analyses and immunostaining confirmed that the constituents of the BMP4 pathway were upregulated in EGCs versus PGCs. Downstream activators of the BMP4 pathway such as ID1 and phosphorylated SMADs 1 and 5 were also expressed, suggesting a role of this growth factor in EGC pluripotency.

Hiller, Marc; Liu, Cyndi; Blumenthal, Paul D.; Gearhart, John D.

2011-01-01

283

Isolation of teleost primordial germ cells using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) generate gametes, the only cells that can transmit genetic information to the next generation. A previous report demonstrated that a fusion construct of green fluorescent protein (gfp) and zebrafish nos 1 3UTR mRNA could be used to label PGCs in a number of fish species. Here, we sought to exploit this labeling strategy to isolate teleost PGCs by flow cytometry (FCM), and to use these isolated PGCs to examine germ cell migration to the gonadal region. In zebrafish, medaka and goldfish, the PGCs were labeled by injecting the gfp-nos1 3UTR mRNA into 1- 4 cell embryos. When the embryos had developed to the somitogenesis or later stages, they were enzymatically disaggregated and GFP positive cells isolated using FCM. PGCs in the different species clustered in the same segments of the FCM scatter diagrams for total embryonic cells produced by plotting the forward scatter intensity against GFP intensity. In situ hybridization showed that the sorted zebrafish cells expressed vasa RNA in their cytoplasm, suggesting that they were PGCs. When the migration ability of the sorted cells from zebrafish was examined in an in vivo transplantation experiment, approximately 30% moved to the gonadal region of host embryos. These observations demonstrate that PGCs can be isolated without use of transgenic fishes and that the isolated PGCs retain the ability to migrate. Our data indicate that this technique will be of value for isolating PGCs from a range of fish species. PMID:21302257

Goto-Kazeto, Rie; Saito, Taiju; Takagi, Misae; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

2010-01-01

284

Caroubin: A Gluten-like Protein Isolated from Carob Bean Germ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(4):488-492 In 1935, Bienenstock and coworkers claimed the presence of gluten-like material in the germ of the carob seed. The viscoelastic properties of the water-insoluble proteins isolated from carob germ, which we propose to call caroubin, have been confirmed by dynamic (Gand G\\

Pierre Feillet; Thérèse Marie Roulland

1998-01-01

285

Weierstrass preparation and division theorems for the ring of germs of superanalytic functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this paper is to show that Weierstrass preparation and division theorems hold for the ring of germs of superanalytic functions at a given point. This ring is the tensor product of the ring of germs of analytic functions at that point and a fini...

C. L. Yankov

1989-01-01

286

Germ-Line Gene Modification and Disease Prevention: Some Medical and Ethical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable debate about the ethics of human germ-line gene modification. As a result of recent advances in the micromanipulation of embryos and the laboratory development of transgenic mice, a lively discussion has begun concerning both the technical feasibility and the ethical acceptability of human germ-line modification for the prevention of serious disease. This article summarizes some of

Nelson A. Wivel; Leroy Walters

1993-01-01

287

Next generation organelles: structure and role of germ granules in the germline.  

PubMed

Germ cells belong to a unique class of stem cells that gives rise to eggs and sperm, and ultimately to an entire organism after gamete fusion. In many organisms, germ cells contain electron-dense structures that are also known as nuage or germ granules. Although germ granules were discovered more than 100 years ago, their composition, structure, assembly, and function are not fully understood. Germ granules contain non-coding RNAs, mRNAs, and proteins required for germline development. Here we review recent studies that highlight the importance of several protein families in germ granule assembly and function, including germ granule inducers, which initiate the granule formation, and downstream components, such as RNA helicases and Tudor domain-Piwi protein-piRNA complexes. Assembly of these components into one granule is likely to result in a highly efficient molecular machine that ensures translational control and protects germline DNA from mutations caused by mobile genetic elements. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that different somatic cells, including stem cells and neurons, produce germ granule components that play a crucial role in stem cell maintenance and memory formation, indicating a much more diverse functional repertoire for these organelles than previously thought. PMID:23011946

Gao, Ming; Arkov, Alexey L

2013-08-01

288

Plzf is required in adult male germ cells for stem cell self-renewal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult germline stem cells are capable of self-renewal, tissue regeneration and production of large numbers of differentiated progeny. We show here that the classical mouse mutant luxoid affects adult germline stem cell self-renewal. Young homozygous luxoid mutant mice produce limited numbers of normal spermatozoa and then progressively lose their germ line after birth. Transplantation studies showed that germ cells from

F William Buaas; Andrew L Kirsh; Manju Sharma; Derek J McLean; Jamie L Morris; Michael D Griswold; Dirk G de Rooij; Robert E Braun

2004-01-01

289

Brain as Sanctuary Site of Relapse in Germ Cell Cancer Patients Previously Treated with Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Background: Post chemotherapy isolated relapse to the brain of germ cell cancer is potentially curable.Patients and methods: We reviewed the experience of germ cell cancer with cerebral metastases at the CRC Wessex Medical Oncology Unit in Southampton. Patients were classified according to their presentation (initial diagnosis, solitary relapse or widespread). Treatment and outcome of these patients is presented and

S. J. Crabb; J. J. McKendrick; G. M. Mead

2002-01-01

290

Allergic Sensitization to Bovine ?-Lactoglobulin: Comparison between Germ-Free and Conventional BALB\\/c Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ suggests that high hygienic standards met in western countries lead to a lack of microbial exposure, thus promoting the development of atopy by preventing the proper maturation of the immune system. Germ-free animals are deprived of the immune stimulation that occurs during postnatal gut colonization by commensal bacteria. Germ-free mice could thereby provide an attractive model

S. Hazebrouck; L. Przybylski-Nicaise; S. Ah-Leung; K. Adel-Patient; G. Corthier; J.-M. Wal; S. Rabot

2009-01-01

291

From Young Children's Ideas about Germs to Ideas Shaping a Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with highlighting young children's ideas about the nature, location and appearance of germs, as well as their reasoning strands about germs' ontological category and biological functions. Moreover, it is concerned with exploring how all these could be taken into account for shaping a potentially fruitful learning…

Ergazaki, Marida; Saltapida, Konstantina; Zogza, Vassiliki

2010-01-01

292

GENETIC ANOMALIES IN MAMMALIAN GERM CELLS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE FOR HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

The induction of heritable mutations in germ cells represents a potential health concern. his paper will highlight several themes in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis and their implications in reproductive and developmental risk. dditionally, factors that influence the yield of g...

293

SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEX DAMAGE AS A MEASURE OF CHEMICAL MUTAGEN EFFECTS ON MAMMALIAN GERM CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

As heritable chromosome anomalies are implicated in a variety of human disabilities, their induction in germ cells by environmental chemicals is viewed as a threat to health. Synaptonemal complex (SC) analysis is a novel approach for the detection of germ-line chromosomal damage....

294

Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: factors influencing gonadal histology including germ cell pathology.  

PubMed

Patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome are at an increased risk for the development of gonadal germ cell cancer. Residual androgen receptor (AR) activity and abnormal gonadal location may influence the survival of atypical germ cells and the development of other histopathological features. To assess this, we evaluated 37 gonads from 19 patients with complete androgen insensitivity (ranging in age from 3 months to 18 years). Histological abnormalities were examined using hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and sections stained for POU5F1 and KITLG, markers of early changes in germ cells at risk for malignant transformation. Hamartomatous nodules (HNs), Leydig cell hyperplasia (LCH), decreased germ cells, tubular atrophy and stromal fibrosis were more pronounced as age increased (P<0.001). Expected residual AR activity acted as a positive predictor only for non-malignant germ cell survival in (post)pubertal patients (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical studies indicated that delayed maturation of germ cells was present in three patients, whereas intermediate changes that occurred between delayed maturation and intratubular germ cell neoplasia, designated pre-intratubular germ cell neoplasia, were identified in four cases. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia was observed in one patient. Neither POU5F1 nor KITLG expression was dependent on expected residual AR activity. An independent effect of inguinal versus abdominal position of the gonads was difficult to assess because inguinal gonads were present primarily in the youngest individuals. In conclusion, many histological changes occur increasingly with age. Expected residual AR activity contributes to better survival of the general germ cell population in (post)pubertal age; however, it did not seem to have an important role in the survival of the germ cells at risk for malignant transformation (defined by POU5F1 positivity and KITLG overexpression) in complete androgen insensitivity. Comparison of the high percentage of patients in our study that were carrying germ cells with delayed maturation or pre-intratubular germ cell neoplasia with previously reported cumulative risk of tumor development in adult patients indicates that not all such precursor lesions in complete androgen insensitivity will progress to invasive germ cell cancer. PMID:24186138

Kaprova-Pleskacova, Jana; Stoop, Hans; Brüggenwirth, Hennie; Cools, Martine; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Drop, Stenvert L S; Snajderova, Marta; Lebl, Jan; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Looijenga, Leendert H J

2014-05-01

295

SST broth, a new serum free germ tube induction medium for identification of Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Three serum free media viz, sucrose solution, starch solution and SST broth have been formulated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate these three different serum free media for induction of germ tubes by Candida albicans and to compare their efficacy with the pooled human serum. Out of 50 C. albicans isolates 47 (94 %) and 49 (98 %) produced germ tubes in pooled human serum and SST broth, respectively. Germ tube production was positive in 40 (80 %) and 36 (72 %) isolates, respectively in sucrose solution and starch solution. This study reports SST broth as a new stable and less expensive germ tube induction medium, which requires less time for preparation and can be used without any safety concerns. SST broth is found to be more effective than pooled human serum for induction of germ tubes by C. albicans isolates. PMID:24497187

Raghunath, Pendru; Seshu Kumari, K; Subbannayya, K

2014-07-01

296

TACE/ADAM17 is involved in germ cell apoptosis during rat spermatogenesis.  

PubMed

The pathways leading to male germ cell apoptosis in vivo are poorly understood, but are highly relevant for the comprehension of sperm production regulation by the testis. In this work, we show the evidence of a mechanism where germ cell apoptosis is induced through the inactivation and shedding of the extracellular domain of KIT (c-kit) by the protease TACE/a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) during the first wave of spermatogenesis in the rat. We show that germ cells undergoing apoptosis lacked the extracellular domain of the KIT receptor. TACE/ADAM17, a membrane-bound metalloprotease, was highly expressed in germ cells undergoing apoptosis as well. On the contrary, cell surface presence of ADAM10, a closely related metalloprotease isoform, was not associated with apoptotic germ cells. Pharmacological inhibition of TACE/ADAM17, but not ADAM10, significantly prevented germ cell apoptosis in the male pubertal rat. Induction of TACE/ADAM17 by the phorbol-ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced germ cell apoptosis, which was prevented when an inhibitor of TACE/ADAM17 was present in the assay. Ex-vivo rat testis culture showed that PMA induced the cleavage of the KIT extracellular domain. Isolation of apoptotic germ cells showed that even though protein levels of TACE/ADAM17 were higher in apoptotic germ cells than in nonapoptotic cells, the contrary was observed for ADAM10. These results suggest that TACE/ADAM17 is one of the elements triggering physiological germ cell apoptosis during the first wave of spermatogenesis. PMID:20501791

Lizama, Carlos; Rojas-Benítez, Diego; Antonelli, Marcelo; Ludwig, Andreas; Bustamante-Marín, Ximena; Brouwer-Visser, Jurriaan; Moreno, Ricardo D

2010-08-01

297

PUMA regulates germ cell loss and primordial follicle endowment in mice.  

PubMed

The number of primordial follicles initially established within the ovary is influenced by the extent of germ cell death during foetal ovarian development, but the mechanisms that mediate this death have not been fully uncovered. In this study, we identified BBC3 (PUMA) (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis, also known as BCL2-binding component 3), a pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein belonging to the BCL2 family, as a critical determinant of the number of germ cells during ovarian development. Targeted disruption of the Bbc3 gene revealed a significant increase in the number of germ cells as early as embryonic day 13.5. The number of germ cells remained elevated in Bbc3(-/-) female mice compared with WT female mice throughout the remainder of embryonic and early postnatal life, resulting in a 1.9-fold increase in the number of primordial follicles in the ovary on postnatal day 10. The increase in the number of germ cells observed in the ovaries of Bbc3(-/-) mice could not be attributed to the altered proliferative activity of germ cells within the ovaries. Furthermore, BBC3 was found to be not required for the massive germ cell loss that occurs during germ cell nest breakdown. Our data indicate that BBC3 is a critical regulator of germ cell death that acts during the migratory phase of oogenesis or very soon after the arrival of germ cells in the gonad and that BBC3-mediated cell death limits the number of primordial follicles established in the initial ovarian reserve. PMID:24859845

Myers, Michelle; Morgan, F Hamish; Liew, Seng H; Zerafa, Nadeen; Gamage, Thilini Upeksha; Sarraj, Mai; Cook, Michele; Kapic, Ileana; Sutherland, Antony; Scott, Clare L; Strasser, Andreas; Findlay, Jock K; Kerr, Jeffrey B; Hutt, Karla J

2014-08-01

298

Nodal signaling regulates the entry into meiosis in fetal germ cells.  

PubMed

The mechanisms regulating the entry into meiosis in mammalian germ cells remain incompletely understood. We investigated the involvement of the TGF-? family members in fetal germ cell meiosis initiation. Nodal, a member of the TGF-? family, and its target genes are precociously expressed in embryonic gonads and show sexual dimorphism in favor of the developing testis. Nodal receptor genes, Acvr2a and Acvr2b, Alk4, and Tdgf1/Cripto, were identified in male germ cells. Nodal itself, Tdgf1, and Lefty1 and Lefty2 are targets of Nodal signaling and were all found specifically expressed in male germ cells. To elucidate the role of this signaling pathway, activin-like kinases that mediate TGF-?/Nodal/activin signaling were inhibited in 11.5 d postconception testis in organotypic culture. Activin-like kinases inhibition disrupted normal male germ cell development and induced germ cell entry into meiosis such as that observed in female germ cells at the equivalent stage. Interestingly Stra8, the gatekeeper of the mitotic/meiotic switch, was induced independently of any change of either Cyp26b1 or Fgf9 expression, the two genes currently identified as testicular meiotic inhibitors. On the other hand, recombinant Nodal significantly dampened Stra8 expression and germ cell meiosis in cultured 11.5 d postconception ovaries. Our results allowed us to propose for the first time an autocrine role of Nodal during the development of germ cells and indicate that members of the TGB-? family may reinforce the male fate and prevent meiosis in embryonic germ cells. PMID:22396454

Souquet, Benoit; Tourpin, Sophie; Messiaen, Sébastien; Moison, Delphine; Habert, René; Livera, Gabriel

2012-05-01

299

Overexpression of peroxisomal testis-specific 1 protein induces germ cell apoptosis and leads to infertility in male mice  

PubMed Central

?Peroxisomal testis-specific 1 gene (Pxt1) is the only male germ cell–specific gene that encodes a peroxisomal protein known to date. To elucidate the role of Pxt1 in spermatogenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing a c-MYC-PXT1 fusion protein under the control of the PGK2 promoter. Overexpression of Pxt1 resulted in induction of male germ cells’ apoptosis mainly in primary spermatocytes, finally leading to male infertility. This prompted us to analyze the proapoptotic character of mouse PXT1, which harbors a BH3-like domain in the N-terminal part. In different cell lines, the overexpression of PXT1 also resulted in a dramatic increase of apoptosis, whereas the deletion of the BH3-like domain significantly reduced cell death events, thereby confirming that the domain is functional and essential for the proapoptotic activity of PXT1. Moreover, we demonstrated that PXT1 interacts with apoptosis regulator BAT3, which, if overexpressed, can protect cells from the PXT1-induced apoptosis. The PXT1-BAT3 association leads to PXT1 relocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In summary, we demonstrated that PXT1 induces apoptosis via the BH3-like domain and that this process is inhibited by BAT3.

Kaczmarek, Karina; Studencka, Maja; Meinhardt, Andreas; Wieczerzak, Krzysztof; Thoms, Sven; Engel, Wolfgang; Grzmil, Pawel

2011-01-01

300

Female germ cells of Drosophila require zygotic ovo and otu product for survival in larvae and pupae respectively  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the genesovo orotu can cause abnormal proliferation of XX germ cells, which leads to so-called ovarian tumors, or they can lead to the elimination of XX germ cells, such that adult females possess empty ovaries. Males carryingovo orotu mutations are unaffected. To find out when this sexual dimorphism affects germ cells, we analyzed the requirement of embryos and

Susanne Staab; Monica Steinmann-Swicky

1996-01-01

301

Regulatory influence of germ cells on sertoli cell function in the pre-pubertal rat after acute irradiation of the testis.  

PubMed

While germ cell regulation of Sertoli cells has been extensively explored in adult rats in vivo, in contrast, very little is known about germ cell influence on Sertoli cell function at the time when spermatogenesis begins and develops. In the present study various Sertoli cell parameters (number, testicular androgen binding protein (ABP) and testin, serum inhibin-B and, indirectly, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) were investigated after the exposure of 19-day-old rats to a low dose of 3 Grays of gamma-rays. Differentiated spermatogonia were the primary testicular targets of the gamma-rays, which resulted in progressive maturation depletion, sequentially and reversibly affecting all germ cell classes. Testicular weight declined to a nadir when pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids were depleted from the seminiferous epithelium and complete or near complete recovery of spermatogenesis and testicular weight was observed at the end of the experiment. Blood levels of FSH and ABP were normal during the first 11 days after irradiation, when spermatogonia and early spermatocytes were depleted. While the number of Sertoli cells was not significantly affected by the irradiation, from days 11-66 after gamma-irradiation, ABP production declined and FSH levels increased when pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids were depleted and the recovery of these parameters was only observed when spermatogenesis was fully restored. Comparison of the pattern of change in serum levels of inhibin-B and testicular levels of testin and of germ cell numbers strongly suggest a relationship between the disappearance of spermatocytes and spermatids from the seminiferous epithelium and the decrease in levels of inhibin-B and increase in levels of testin from 7 to 36 days post-irradiation. Levels of testin and inhibin-B were restored before spermatogenesis had totally returned to normal. In conclusion, this in vivo study shows that pre-pubertal Sertoli cell function is under the complex control of various germ cell classes. This control presents clear differences when compared with that previously observed in adult animals and depends on the Sertoli cell parameter of interest, as well as on the germ cell type. PMID:11114978

Guitton, N; Touzalin, A M; Sharpe, R M; Cheng, C Y; Pinon-Lataillade, G; Méritte, H; Chenal, C; Jégou, B

2000-12-01

302

Primary Syphilis  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Primary Syphilis Information for adults A A A This image displays a painless ulcer with a red base, typical of primary syphilis. Overview Primary syphilis is a disease caused ...

303

Germ cell sex determination: a collaboration between soma and germline.  

PubMed

Sex determination is regulated very differently in the soma vs. the germline, yet both processes are critical for the creation of the male and female gametes. In general, the soma plays an essential role in regulating sexual identity of the germline. However, in some species, such as Drosophila and mouse, the sex chromosome constitution of the germ cells makes an autonomous contribution to germline sexual development. Here we review how the soma and germline cooperate to determine germline sexual identity for some important model systems, the fly, the worm and the mouse, and discuss some of the implications of 'dual control' (soma plus germline) as compared to species where germline sex is dictated only by the surrounding soma. PMID:21030233

Murray, Sheryl M; Yang, Shu Yuan; Van Doren, Mark

2010-12-01

304

Glucose influence on germ tube production in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The influence of different glucose concentrations was tested in minimal synthetic medium on Candida albicans strain. After 18 hours of starvation, germ-tube (GT) production, amount of consumed glucose, oxygen and the pH of the medium were checked every hour from the beginning through the end of the experiment. Optimal GT production was obtained with 1 g/l of glucose. At this concentration the greatest glucose and oxygen consumption were also noted. No pH variations in the medium were observed in all of the glucose concentrations used. At 3 and 5 g/l glucose concentrations a lower GT production were obtained. The Crab-tree effect might interfere with GT production when glucose concentration is higher than 1 g/l. This data may support the hypothesis that GT production is strictly glucose dependent. PMID:8817932

Vidotto, V; Accattatis, G; Zhang, Q; Campanini, G; Aoki, S

1996-01-01

305

miRNA regulation of Sdf1 chemokine signaling provides genetic robustness to germ cell migration  

PubMed Central

microRNAs function as genetic rheostats to control gene output. Based on their role as modulators, it has been postulated that microRNAs canalize development and provide genetic robustness. Here, we uncover a novel regulatory layer of chemokine signaling by microRNAs that confers genetic robustness on primordial-germ-cell (PGC) migration. In zebrafish, PGCs are guided to the gonad by the ligand Sdf1a, which is regulated by sequestration receptor Cxcr7b. We find that miR-430 regulates sdf1a- and cxcr7-mRNAs. Using Target Protectors, we demonstrate that miR-430-mediated regulation of endogenous sdf1a and cxcr7b (i) facilitates dynamic expression of sdf1a by clearing its mRNA from previous expression domains, (ii) modulates the levels of the decoy receptor Cxcr7b to avoid excessive depletion of Sdf1a and (iii) buffers against variation in gene dosage of chemokine signaling components to ensure accurate PGC migration. Our results indicate that losing microRNA-mediated regulation can expose otherwise buffered genetic lesions leading to developmental defects.

Staton, Alison A.; Knaut, Holger; Giraldez, Antonio J.

2011-01-01

306

Adult mice cloned from migrating primordial germ cells  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that the genomes of gonadal germ cells at 11.5–19.5 days postcoitum (dpc) are incompetent to support full-term development of cloned mouse embryos. In this study, we performed nuclear transfer using primordial germ cells (PGCs) from earlier stages at 8.5–10.5 dpc. When PGC nuclei at 8.5, 9.5, and 10.5 dpc were transferred into enucleated oocytes, seven cloned embryos developed into full-term offspring. Of these, five, all derived from 8.5- or 9.5-dpc PGCs, developed into healthy adults with normal fertility. Of the remaining two offspring derived from 10.5-dpc PGCs, one died shortly after birth, and the other showed slight growth retardation but subsequently developed into a fertile adult. We examined allele-specific methylation at the imprinted H19 and Snrpn loci in 9.5- to 11.5-dpc PGCs. Although the beginning of methylation erasure was evident on the H19 paternal allele at 9.5 dpc, most PGCs did not demonstrate significant erasure of paternal allele-specific methylation until 10.5 dpc. Maternal allele-specific methylation was largely erased from Snrpn by 10.5 dpc. By 11.5 dpc, the majority of PGCs showed nearly complete or complete erasure of allele-specific methylation in both H19 and Snrpn. These results demonstrate that at least some genomic imprints remain largely intact in 8.5- to 9.5-dpc PGCs and then undergo erasure at ?10.5 dpc as the PGCs enter the genital ridges. Thus, migrating PGCs at 8.5–9.5 dpc can be successfully used as donors for nuclear transfer, whereas gonadal PGCs at 11.5 dpc and later are incompetent to support full-term development.

Yamazaki, Yukiko; Low, Eleanor W.; Marikawa, Yusuke; Iwahashi, Kazuhiro; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; McCarrey, John R.; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo

2005-01-01

307

Wheat germ cell-free platform for eukaryotic protein production.  

PubMed

We describe a platform that utilizes wheat germ cell-free technology to produce protein samples for NMR structure determinations. In the first stage, cloned DNA molecules coding for proteins of interest are transcribed and translated on a small scale (25 microL) to determine levels of protein expression and solubility. The amount of protein produced (typically 2-10 microg) is sufficient to be visualized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The fraction of soluble protein is estimated by comparing gel scans of total protein and soluble protein. Targets that pass this first screen by exhibiting high protein production and solubility move to the second stage. In the second stage, the DNA is transcribed on a larger scale, and labeled proteins are produced by incorporation of [(15)N]-labeled amino acids in a 4 mL translation reaction that typically produces 1-3 mg of protein. The [(15)N]-labeled proteins are screened by (1)H-(15)N correlated NMR spectroscopy to determine whether the protein is a good candidate for solution structure determination. Targets that pass this second screen are then translated in a medium containing amino acids doubly labeled with (15)N and (13)C. We describe the automation of these steps and their application to targets chosen from a variety of eukaryotic genomes: Arabidopsis thaliana, human, mouse, rat, and zebrafish. We present protein yields and costs and compare the wheat germ cell-free approach with alternative methods. Finally, we discuss remaining bottlenecks and approaches to their solution. PMID:16930128

Vinarov, Dmitriy A; Loushin Newman, Carrie L; Markley, John L

2006-09-01

308

X-ray micro-analysis of the mineralization patterns in developing enamel in hamster tooth germs exposed to fluoride in vitro during the secretory phase of amelogenesis  

SciTech Connect

The developing enamel from three-day-old hamster first maxillary (M1) molar tooth germs exposed to fluoride (F-) in vitro was analyzed for its mineral content by means of the energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis technique. The aim of this study was to obtain semi-quantitative data on the F(-)-induced hypermineralization patterns in the enamel and to confirm that the increase in electron density observed in micrographs of F(-)-treated enamel is indeed due to an increase in mineral content in the fluorotic enamel. The tooth germs were explanted during the early stages of secretory amelogenesis and initially cultured for 24 hr in the presence of 10 ppm F- in the culture medium. The germs were then cultured for another 24 hr without F-. In order to compare the ultrastructural results directly with the microprobe data, we used the same specimens for both investigations. The net calcium counts (measurement minus background counts) in the analyses were used as a measure of the mineral content in the enamel. The aprismatic pre-exposure enamel, deposited in vivo before the onset of culture, was the most hypermineralized region in the fluorotic enamel, i.e., it contained the highest amount of calcium measured. The degree of the F(-)-induced hypermineralization gradually decreased (but was not abolished) in the more mature regions of the enamel. The unmineralized enamel matrix secreted during the initial F- treatment in vitro mineralized during the subsequent culture without F-. The calcium content in this enamel layer was in the same order of magnitude as that recorded for the newly deposited enamel in control tooth germs cultured without F-.

Lyaruu, D.M.; Blijleven, N.; Hoeben-Schornagel, K.; Bronckers, A.L.; Woeltgens, J.H.

1989-09-01

309

Activating c-kit Gene Mutations in Human Germ Cell Tumors  

PubMed Central

The c-kit gene encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor (KIT) that is required in normal spermatogenesis and is expressed in seminomas and dysgerminomas, a subset of human germ cell tumors (GCTs). To determine whether activating mutations of the c-kit gene occur in GCTs, primary tissue samples of 33 testicular and ovarian tumors were examined for mutations in the juxtamembrane and phosphotransferase domains by polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing. A novel missense mutation (D816H) was found in the phosphotransferase domain in tumors of seminoma/dysgerminoma differentiation. The c-kit alleles in nonneoplastic tissues from these patients were wild type, suggesting that the mutant alleles were acquired and selected for during malignant transformation. In cell transfection experiments, the D816H mutant protein was a constitutively activated kinase and was constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine residues. This is the first description of an activating c-kit mutation in GCTs and is evidence that the KIT signal transduction pathway is important in the pathogenesis of neoplasms with seminoma differentiation.

Tian, Qingsheng; Frierson, Henry F.; Krystal, Geoffrey W.; Moskaluk, Christopher A.

1999-01-01

310

Cellular analyses of the mitotic region in the Caenorhabditis elegans adult germ line.  

PubMed

The Caenorhabditis elegans germ line provides a model for understanding how signaling from a stem cell niche promotes continued mitotic divisions at the expense of differentiation. Here we report cellular analyses designed to identify germline stem cells within the germline mitotic region of adult hermaphrodites. Our results support several conclusions. First, all germ cells within the mitotic region are actively cycling, as visualized by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling. No quiescent cells were found. Second, germ cells in the mitotic region lose BrdU label uniformly, either by movement of labeled cells into the meiotic region or by dilution, probably due to replication. No label-retaining cells were found in the mitotic region. Third, the distal tip cell niche extends processes that nearly encircle adjacent germ cells, a phenomenon that is likely to anchor the distal-most germ cells within the niche. Fourth, germline mitoses are not oriented reproducibly, even within the immediate confines of the niche. We propose that germ cells in the distal-most rows of the mitotic region serve as stem cells and more proximal germ cells embark on the path to differentiation. We also propose that C. elegans adult germline stem cells are maintained by proximity to the niche rather than by programmed asymmetric divisions. PMID:16672375

Crittenden, Sarah L; Leonhard, Kimberly A; Byrd, Dana T; Kimble, Judith

2006-07-01

311

Influence of sex chromosome constitution on the genomic imprinting of germ cells.  

PubMed

Germ cells in XY male mice establish site-specific methylation on imprinted genes during spermatogenesis, whereas germ cells in XX females establish their imprints in growing oocytes. We showed previously that in vitro, sex-specific methylation patterns of pluripotent stem cell lines derived from germ cells were influenced more by the sex chromosome constitution of the cells themselves than by the gender of the embryo from which they had been derived. To see whether the same situation would prevail in vivo, we have now determined the methylation status of H19 expressed from the maternal allele, and the expression and methylation status of a paternally expressed gene Peg3, in germ cells from sex-reversed and control embryos. For these imprinted genes, we conclude that the female imprint is a response of the germ cells to undergoing oogenesis, rather than to their XX chromosome constitution. Similarly, both our XY and our sex-reversed XX male germ cells clearly showed a male rather than a female pattern of DNA methylation; here, however, the sex chromosome constitution had a significant effect, with XX male germ cells less methylated than the XY controls. PMID:16847261

Durcova-Hills, Gabriela; Hajkova, Petra; Sullivan, Stephen; Barton, Sheila; Surani, M Azim; McLaren, Anne

2006-07-25

312

Generation of male differentiated germ cells from various types of stem cells.  

PubMed

Infertility is a major and largely incurable disease caused by disruption and loss of germ cells. It affects 10-15% of couples, and male factor accounts for half of the cases. To obtain human male germ cells 'especially functional spermatids' is essential for treating male infertility. Currently, much progress has been made on generating male germ cells, including spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids, from various types of stem cells. These germ cells can also be used in investigation of the pathology of male infertility. In this review, we focused on advances on obtaining male differentiated germ cells from different kinds of stem cells, with an emphasis on the embryonic stem (ES) cells, the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). We illustrated the generation of male differentiated germ cells from ES cells, iPS cells and SSCs, and we summarized the phenotype for these stem cells, spermatocytes and spermatids. Moreover, we address the differentiation potentials of ES cells, iPS cells and SSCs. We also highlight the advantages, disadvantages and concerns on derivation of the differentiated male germ cells from several types of stem cells. The ability of generating mature and functional male gametes from stem cells could enable us to understand the precise etiology of male infertility and offer an invaluable source of autologous male gametes for treating male infertility of azoospermia patients. PMID:24534952

Hou, Jingmei; Yang, Shi; Yang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yun; Hai, Yanan; Chen, Zheng; Guo, Ying; Gong, Yuehua; Gao, Wei-Qiang; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

2014-06-01

313

Germ-Granule Components Prevent Somatic Development in the C. elegans Germline.  

PubMed

Specialized ribonucleoprotein organelles collectively known as germ granules are found in the germline cytoplasm from worms to humans [1]. In Drosophila, germ granules have been implicated in germline determination [2]. C. elegans germ granules, known as P granules, do not appear to be required for primordial germ cell (PGC) determination [3], but their components are still needed for fertility [4-6]. One potential role for P granules is to maintain germline fate and totipotency. This is suggested by the loss of P granules from germ cells that transform into somatic cell types, e.g., in germlines lacking MEX-3 and GLD-1 or upon neuronal induction by CHE-1 [7, 8]. However, it has not been established whether loss of P granules is the cause or effect of cell fate transformation. To test cause and effect, we severely compromised P granules by simultaneously knocking down factors that nucleate granule formation (PGL-1 and PGL-3) and promote their perinuclear localization (GLH-1 and GLH-4) [9] and investigated whether this causes germ cells to lose totipotency and initiate somatic reprogramming. We found that compromising P granules causes germ cells to express neuronal and muscle markers and send out neurite-like projections, suggesting that P granules maintain totipotency and germline identity by antagonizing somatic fate. PMID:24746798

Updike, Dustin L; Knutson, Andrew Kek?pa'a; Egelhofer, Thea A; Campbell, Anne C; Strome, Susan

2014-05-01

314

NOTCH1 Gain of Function in Germ Cells Causes Failure of Spermatogenesis in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

NOTCH1 is a member of the NOTCH receptor family, a group of single-pass trans-membrane receptors. NOTCH signaling is highly conserved in evolution and mediates communication between adjacent cells. NOTCH receptors have been implicated in cell fate determination, as well as maintenance and differentiation of stem cells. In the mammalian testis expression of NOTCH1 in somatic and germ cells has been demonstrated, however its role in spermatogenesis was not clear. To study the significance of NOTCH1 in germ cells, we applied a cre/loxP approach in mice to induce NOTCH1 gain- or loss-of function specifically in male germ cells. Using a Stra8-icre transgene we produced mice with conditional activation of the NOTCH1 intracellular domain (NICD) in germ cells. Spermatogenesis in these mutants was progressively affected with age, resulting in decreased testis weight and sperm count. Analysis of downstream target genes of NOTCH1 signaling showed an increased expression of Hes5, with a reduction of the spermatogonial differentiation marker, Neurog3 expression in the mutant testis. Apoptosis was significantly increased in mouse germ cells with the corresponding elevation of pro-apoptotic Trp53 and Trp63 genes' expression. We also showed that the conditional germ cell-specific ablation of Notch1 had no effect on spermatogenesis or male fertility. Our data suggest the importance of NOTCH signaling regulation in male germ cells for their survival and differentiation.

Huang, Zaohua; Rivas, Bryan; Agoulnik, Alexander I.

2013-01-01

315

Dietary Manipulation Implicates Lipid Signaling in The Regulation of Germ Cell Maintenance in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Reproduction in C. elegans relies on continuously proliferating germ cells which, during germline development, exit mitosis, undergo meiosis and differentiate into gametes. Supplementing the diet of C. elegans with dihommogamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6, DGLA), a long chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, results in sterile worms that lack germ cells. The effect is remarkably specific for DGLA, as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with similar physical properties have little or no effect on fertility. Germ cells undergoing mitosis during larval stages are especially sensitive to DGLA, but exposure to DGLA during adulthood also reduces germ cells and brood size, in part by inducing inappropriate apoptosis of meiotic germ cells. Mutant strains with defects in fatty acid desaturation and elongation display altered susceptibility to DGLA, indicating that the sterility effect of the dietary lipid depends on the amount of DGLA present in membranes as well as on the capacity to convert DGLA to other fatty acids. We propose that DGLA produces a signal that interacts with one or more pathways regulating germ cell survival. Our DGLA findings are the first report of a role for a specific fatty acid affecting the development and maintenance of germ cells in C. elegans.

Watts, Jennifer L.; Browse, John

2006-01-01

316

Multiple regulatory regions control the transcription of medaka germ gene vasa.  

PubMed

Numerous regulatory DNA regions and trans-acting protein factors controlling transcription have been characterized for many genes that are expressed in somatic cells. Little is known about the transcriptional control of germ genes, and no cell culture system has been explored for quantitative reporter assay of germ gene transcription in vitro. Here we report the development of such an in vitro system and the identification of regulatory regions in the medaka germ gene vasa. We established the medaka germ cell line SG3 as a suitable in vitro system for analyzing germ gene transcription. Transgenic production revealed that VAS, a 5.1-kb genomic fragment of medaka vasa, possessed regulatory regions essential for germ cell-specific transcription. Importantly, reporter assays revealed 11 positive and negative regulatory regions alternatively positioned throughout VAS including the first intron. Strikingly, the regulatory regions may act in additive, non-additive and dependent manners. We show that a 39-bp element within one regulatory region is able to interact with the nuclear factor(s) of vasa-expressing embryos and testes. These results demonstrate the complexity of transcriptional control of medaka vasa and provide important insights into opposing mechanisms underlying germ gene transcription. PMID:23232104

Li, Mingyou; Guan, Guijun; Hong, Ni; Hong, Yunhan

2013-04-01

317

The Fog-3 Gene and Regulation of Cell Fate in the Germ Line of Caenorhabditis Elegans  

PubMed Central

In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, germ cells normally adopt one of three fates: mitosis, spermatogenesis or oogenesis. We have identified and characterized the gene fog-3, which is required for germ cells to differentiate as sperm rather than as oocytes. Analysis of double mutants suggests that fog-3 is absolutely required for spermatogenesis and acts at the end of the regulatory hierarchy controlling sex determination for the germ line. By contrast, mutations in fog-3 do not alter the sexual identity of other tissues. We also have characterized the null phenotype of fog-1, another gene required for spermatogenesis; we demonstrate that it too controls the sexual identity of germ cells but not of other tissues. Finally, we have studied the interaction of these two fog genes with gld-1, a gene required for germ cells to undergo oogenesis rather than mitosis. On the basis of these results, we propose that germ-cell fate might be controlled by a set of inhibitory interactions among genes that specify one of three fates: mitosis, spermatogenesis or oogenesis. Such a regulatory network would link the adoption of one germ-cell fate to the suppression of the other two.

Ellis, R. E.; Kimble, J.

1995-01-01

318

Most regions of mouse epididymis are able to phagocytose immature germ cells.  

PubMed

The role of the epididymis as a quality control organ in preventing infertile gametes entering the ejaculate has been extensively explored, and it has been suggested that a specific region of mammalian epididymis is able to phagocytose abnormal germ cells. This study examines whether the epithelium of certain zones of the mouse epididymis can act as a selection barrier by removing immature germ cells from the lumen by phagocytosis. To detect the presence of immature germ cells in the epididymis, we generated transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the deleted in azoospermia-like (mDazl) promoter to easily identify immature germ cells under fluorescence microscopy. Using this technique, we observed that during the first stage of spermatogenesis in prepuberal mice, a wave of immature germ cells is released into the epididymis and that the immature epididymis is not able to react to this abnormal situation. By contrast, when immature germ cells were artificially released into the epididymis in adult mice, a phagocytic response was observed. Phagosomes appeared inside principal cells of the epididymal epithelium and were observed to contain immature germ cells at different degradation stages in different zones of the epididymis, following the main wave of immature germ cells. In this paper, we describe how the epididymal epithelium controls sperm quality by clearing immature germ cells in response to their artificially induced massive shedding into the epididymal lumen. Our observations indicate that this phenomenon is not restricted to a given epididymis region and that phagocytic capacity is gradually acquired during epididymal development. PMID:23988666

Ramos-Ibeas, P; Pericuesta, E; Fernández-González, R; Ramírez, M A; Gutierrez-Adan, A

2013-01-01

319

Zebrafish Germline Chimeras Produced by Transplantation of Ovarian Germ Cells into Sterile Host Larvae1  

PubMed Central

High frequency production of zebrafish germline chimeras was achieved by transplanting ovarian germ cells into sterile Danio hybrid recipients. Ovarian germ cells were obtained from 3-mo-old adult Tg(vasa:DsRed2-vasa);Tg(bactin:EGFP) double transgenic zebrafish by discontinuous Percoll gradient centrifugation. An average of 755 ± 108 DsRed-positive germ cells was recovered from each female. For transplantations, a total of approximately 620 ± 242 EGFP-positive cells of which 12 ± 4.7 were DsRed-positive germ cells were introduced into the abdominal cavity under the swim bladder of 2-wk-old sterile hybrid larvae. Six weeks after transplantation, a total of 10 recipients, obtained from 2 different transplantations, were examined, and 2 individuals (20%) were identified that possessed a large number of DsRed- and EGFP-positive cells in the gonadal region. The transplanted ovarian germ cells successfully colonized the gonads and differentiated into sperm in the male hybrid recipients. Of 67 adult recipients, 12 (18%) male chimeric fish reproduced and generated normal offspring when paired with wild-type zebrafish females. The fertilization efficiency ranged from 23% to 56%. Although the fertile male chimeras were generated by transplantation of ovarian germ cells, the F1 generation produced by the male chimeras contained both male and female progeny, indicating that male sex determination in zebrafish is not controlled by sex chromosome heterogamy. Our findings indicate that a population of ovarian germ cells that are present in the ovary of adult zebrafish can function as germline stem cells, able to proliferate and differentiate into testicular germ cells and functional sperm in male recipients. The high frequency of germline chimera formation achieved with the ovarian germ cells and the convenience of identifying the chimeras in the sterile host background should make this transplantation system useful for performing genetic manipulations in zebrafish.

Wong, Ten-Tsao; Saito, Taiju; Crodian, Jennifer; Collodi, Paul

2011-01-01

320

Identification of X-linked genes required for migration and programmed cell death of Drosophila melanogaster germ cells.  

PubMed Central

Drosophila germ cells form at the posterior pole of the embryo and migrate to the somatic gonad. Approximately 50% of the germ cells that form reach their target. The errant cells within the embryo undergo developmentally regulated cell death. Prior studies have identified some autosomal genes that regulate germ cell migration, but the genes that control germ cell death are not known. To identify X-linked genes required for germ cell migration and/or death, we performed a screen for mutations that disrupt these processes. Here we report the identification of scattershot and outsiders, two genes that regulate the programmed death of germ cells. The scattershot gene is defined by a mutation that disrupts both germ cell migration and the death of germ cells ectopic to the gonad. Maternal and zygotic expression of scattershot is required, but the migration and cell death functions can be genetically uncoupled. Zygotic expression of wild-type scattershot rescues germ cell pathfinding, but does not restore the programmed death of errant cells. The outsiders gene is required zygotically. In outsiders mutant embryos, the appropriate number of germ cells is incorporated into the gonad, but germ cells ectopic to the gonad persist.

Coffman, Clark R; Strohm, Rachel C; Oakley, Fredrick D; Yamada, Yukiko; Przychodzin, Danielle; Boswell, Robert E

2002-01-01

321

Extragonadal mixed germ cell tumor of the right arm: description of the first case in the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Extragonadal localization of germ cell tumors (GCTs) is rare; to the best of our knowledge, a location in the soft tissue of the arm has never been previously reported in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 37-year-old man who presented with a primary malignant mixed non-seminomatous GCT (teratocarcinoma variety) in the right arm, treated by a combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and surgery. After 18 months of close follow-up, no locoregional recurrence or distant metastases have been detected. Conclusions A combination of chemotherapy and surgery is the most appropriate treatment strategy for extragonadal GCTs, to ensure both local and systemic control.

2012-01-01

322

Expression of DPP6 in Meckel's cartilage and tooth germs during mouse facial development.  

PubMed

Dipeptidyl peptidase-like protein 6 (DPP6), a member of the dipeptidyl aminopeptidase family, plays distinct roles in brain development, but its expression in embryonic Meckel's cartilage and tooth germs development is unknown. We analyzed the expression pattern of DPP6 in Meckel's cartilage and tooth germs development using in situ hybridization. DPP6 was detected in different patterns in Meckel's cartilage and tooth germs during mouse facial development from 11.5 to 13.5 days post-coitus (dpc) embryos. The expression pattern of DPP6 suggests that it may be involved in mandible and tooth development. PMID:23750656

Du, J; Fan, Z; Ma, X; Wu, Y; Liu, S; Gao, Y; Shen, Y; Fan, M; Wang, S

2014-01-01

323

Human germ cell differentiation from pluripotent embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Although 10-15 % of couples are infertile, little is known of the diverse, underlying pathologies in men and women with poor germ cell production; furthermore, for those with few or no high-quality germ cells, there are few options available for treatment. Thus, over the last decade, concerted efforts have been aimed at developing a biological system to probe the fundamentals of human egg and sperm production via pluripotent stem cell cells with the hopes of informing clinical decisions and ultimately providing alternative methods for therapy which may include developing a source of germ cells ultimately for reproductive purposes. PMID:24782029

Medrano, Jose V; Simon, Carlos; Pera, Renee Reijo

2014-01-01

324

Germ tube mediated invasion of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibian skin is host dependent.  

PubMed

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, a fungal skin disease in amphibians and driver of worldwide amphibian declines.We focussed on the early stages of infection by Bd in 3 amphibian species with a differential susceptibility to chytridiomycosis. Skin explants of Alytes muletensis, Litoria caerulea and Xenopus leavis were exposed to Bd in an Ussing chamber for 3 to 5 days. Early interactions of Bd with amphibian skin were observed using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. To validate the observations in vitro, comparison was made with skin from experimentally infected frogs. Additional in vitro experiments were performed to elucidate the process of intracellular colonization in L. caerulea. Early interactions of Bd with amphibian skin are: attachment of zoospores to host skin, zoospore germination, germ tube development, penetration into skin cells, invasive growth in the host skin, resulting in the loss of host cell cytoplasm. Inoculation of A. muletensis and L. caerulea skin was followed within 24 h by endobiotic development, with sporangia located intracellularly in the skin. Evidence is provided of how intracellular colonization is established and how colonization by Bd proceeds to deeper skin layers. Older thalli develop rhizoid-like structures that spread to deeper skin layers, form a swelling inside the host cell to finally give rise to a new thallus. In X. laevis, interaction of Bd with skin was limited to an epibiotic state, with sporangia developing upon the skin. Only the superficial epidermis was affected. Epidermal cells seemed to be used as a nutrient source without development of intracellular thalli. The in vitro data agreed with the results obtained after experimental infection of the studied frog species. These data suggest that the colonization strategy of B. dendrobatidis is host dependent, with the extent of colonization most likely determined by inherent characteristics of the host epidermis. PMID:22911798

Van Rooij, Pascale; Martel, An; D'Herde, Katharina; Brutyn, Melanie; Croubels, Siska; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

2012-01-01

325

Multimodality therapy for CNS mixed malignant germ cell tumors (MMGCT): results of a phase II multi-institutional study.  

PubMed

In order to improve outcomes for CNS mixed malignant germ cell tumors (MMGCT) we sought to increase complete responses (CR) to initial therapy, through intensifying neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CHT1) with added ifosfamide, encouraging second-look surgery, and administering dose-intensive, stem cell-supported chemotherapy (CHT2) to patients with residual tumor, all prior to radiation therapy (RT). Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy or elevated germ cell tumor markers. After tumor staging was completed, patients received four cycles of chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide and ifosfamide, "CHT1"). In patients with primary; for disseminated tumors or < CR before RT, craniospinal irradiation (CSI) plus boosts to primary site(s) and bulky metastases. 26 patients (19 M0, 7 M+) were enrolled. The diagnosis was established by histology (20) or elevated markers (6). Objective responses to CHT1 were complete in 12/22 patients with evaluable disease and partial in 10; 8 additional tumors were rendered CR prior to RT (5 surgical CRs: 3 initial, 2 second-look; 3 CRs to CHT2). Thus, 20/26 patients (77 %) were free of disease (CR) prior to RT. Six-year relapse-free survival was 63 ± 10 %; overall survival was 68 ± 9 %. Of 16 M0 patients who received only WVRT, four relapsed in the spine, outside the radiation field. The relatively high frequency (25 %) of relapse outside the initial RT volume highlights the limitations of initial staging criteria and the curative potential of conventional and high dose chemotherapy. CSI remains the standard of care for CNS MMGCT, even for patients with localized disease. PMID:24700239

Robertson, Patricia L; Jakacki, Regina; Hukin, Juliette; Siffert, Joao; Allen, Jeffrey C

2014-05-01

326

Electron microscopical localization of chitin in the cuticle of Halicryptus spinulosus and Priapulus caudatus (Priapulida) using gold-labelled wheat germ agglutinin: phylogenetic implications for the evolution of the cuticle within the Nemathelminthes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of the cuticle of adult and larval Priapulus caudatus and Halicryptus spinulosus is investigated and new features of cuticle formation during moulting are described. For the localization of chitin by TEM\\u000a wheat germ agglutinin coupled to colloidal gold was used as a marker. Proteinaceous layers of the cuticle are revealed by\\u000a digestion with pronase. The cuticle of larval

C. Lemburg

1998-01-01

327

Human endogenous retrovirus rec interferes with germ cell development in mice and may cause carcinoma in situ, the predecessor lesion of germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are among the most common malignancies in young men. We have previously documented that patients with GCT frequently produce serum antibodies directed against proteins encoded by human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) type K sequences. Transcripts originating from the env gene of HERV-K, including the rec-relative of human immunodeficiency virus rev, are highly expressed in GCTs. We report here that mice that inducibly express HERV-K rec show a disturbed germ cell development and may exhibit, by 19 months of age, changes reminiscent of carcinoma in situ, the predecessor lesion of classic seminoma in humans. This provides the first direct evidence that the expression of a human endogenous retroviral gene previously established as a marker in human germ cell tumors may contribute to organ-specific tumorigenesis in a transgenic mouse model. PMID:15735668

Galli, Uwe M; Sauter, Marlies; Lecher, Bernd; Maurer, Simone; Herbst, Hermann; Roemer, Klaus; Mueller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus

2005-04-28

328

Germ cell mutations of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis with TALE nucleases.  

PubMed

Summary: Targeted mutagenesis of genes-of-interest, or gene-knockout, is a powerful method to address the functions of genes. Engineered nucleases have enabled this approach in various organisms because of their ease of use. The ascidian Ciona intestinalis is an excellent organism to analyze gene functions by means of genetic technologies. In our previous study, we reported mutagenesis of Ciona somatic cells with TALE nucleases (TALENs) by electroporating expression constructs. In this study, we report germ cell mutagenesis of Ciona by microinjecting mRNAs encoding TALENs. TALEN mRNAs introduced mutations to target genes in both somatic and germ cells. TALEN-mediated mutations in the germ cell genome were inherited by the next generation. We conclude that knockout lines of Ciona that have disrupted target genes can be established through TALEN-mediated germ cell mutagenesis. genesis 52:431-439, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24619765

Yoshida, Keita; Treen, Nicholas; Hozumi, Akiko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Sasakura, Yasunori

2014-05-01

329

A Human Germ Line Antibody Light Chain with Hydrolytic Properties Associated with Multimerization Status  

PubMed Central

Antibodies with nucleophilic or catalytic properties often have these characteristics encoded in their germ line genes. Because hydrolytic activity has been reported to be associated with light chain V regions, we have begun an analysis of germ line light chain proteins that could be the basis for affinity maturation into hydrolytic or other reactive antibodies. We produced the germ line A18b light chain and characterized its hydrolytic, nucleophilic, and tertiary structural activities. This light chain was purified to >99% purity and found to hydrolyze aminomethylcoumarin-peptide and larger protein substrates and bind a fluorophosphonate probe. Mutation of putative catalytic residues only resulted in loss of activity of a tetrameric but not dimeric form of the light chain. These biochemical properties provide a framework for understanding the structure-function relationships of germ line antibodies.

Sharma, Vikram; Heriot, William; Trisler, Kirk; Smider, Vaughn

2009-01-01

330

Genetic Contributions to the Association between Adult Height and Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have an unusual incidence pattern relative to the majority of other neoplasms. TGCT incidence peaks at approx. 30 years and rapidly declines thereafter. Research into TGCT aetiology has, thus, focused upon pre-natal, per...

B. I. Graubard M. B. Cook S. I. Berndt S. J. Chanock V. M. Chia

2011-01-01

331

Examination of plants in lunar (germ free) soil in Plant Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Charles Walkenshaw, Manned Spacecraft Center botanist, examines sorghum and tobacco plants in lunar (germ free) soil in the Plant Laboratory of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The soil was brought back from the Moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts.

1969-01-01

332

Analysis of Maize Seed Germs by Photoacoustic Microscopy and Photopyroelectric Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A knowledge about thermal parameters of structural components of maize seed is of great relevance in the seed technology practice. The objective of the present study was to determine the thermal effusivity of germs of maize ( Zea mays L.) of different genotypes by means of the photopyroelectric technique (PPE) in the inverse configuration and obtaining the thermal imaging of these samples by photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). Germs from crystalline maize (white pigment), semi-crystalline maize (yellow pigment), and floury maize (blue pigment) were used in this investigation. The results show differences between germs of maize seeds mainly in the values of their thermal effusivities. The thermal images showed minimum inhomogeneity of these seed germs. Characterizations of thermal parameters in seeds are important in agriculture and food production and could be particularly useful to define their quality and determine their utility. PPE and PAM can be considered as potential diagnostic tools for the characterization of agriculture seeds.

Pacheco, A. Domínguez; Aguilar, C. Hernández; Cruz-Orea, A.

2013-05-01

333

Conservation of Migration and Differentiation Circuits in Primordial Germ Cells Between Avian Species  

PubMed Central

Abstract Germ cell differentiation in reverse-sexed reproductive organs and interspecies germ line chimeras provides insight into the mechanism of germ cell development and represents a useful tool for conservation of endangered birds. We investigated the migration and survival capacity of male chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) in female chicken embryos and in quail and Korean ring-necked pheasant embryos of both sexes. Interestingly, the PGCs were successfully reintroduced in all cases. Furthermore, the cells survived in the recipient gonads until hatching regardless of sex and species of the recipient. In the case of male recipient chickens, PGC-derived offspring were produced. However, the reverse-sexed female chickens, quails and pheasants of both sexes did not generate any male donor PGC-derived progeny. These results suggest that migration and survival circuits in chicken PGCs are conserved in both sexes and between avian species during embryonic development.

PARK, Tae Sub; HAN, Jae Yong

2013-01-01

334

GAGA protein is essential for male germ cell development in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The Drosophila Trithorax-like (Trl) gene encodes a GAGA factor which regulates a number of developmentally important genes. In this study, we identify a new function for Drosophila GAGA factor in male germ cell development. Trl mutants carrying strong hypomorphic alleles display loss of primordial germ cells during their migration in embryogenesis and severe disruption in mitochondria structure during early spermatogenesis. The mutation resulted in small testes formation, a deficit of germ cells, abnormal mitochondrial morphogenesis, spermatocyte death through autophagy, and partial or complete male sterility. Pleiotropic mutation effects can be explained by the misexpression of GAGA factor target genes, the products of which are required for germ cell progression into mature sperm. genesis 52:738-751, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24817547

Dorogova, Natalia V; Fedorova, Elena V; Bolobolova, Elena Us; Ogienko, Anna A; Baricheva, Elina M

2014-08-01

335

Identification of Novel Long Noncoding RNA Transcripts in Male Germ Cells  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence from these studies suggested that the male germ cell transcriptome is more complex than previously envisioned. In addition to protein-coding genes, the transcriptome also encodes a significant number of nonprotein-coding transcripts. These noncoding (nc) RNAs appear to be involved in a variety of cellular activities, ranging from simple housekeeping to complex regulatory functions. A class of ncR-NAs known as long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) were recently shown to be expressed in a developmentally regulated manner during brain and embryonic stem cell development. This protocol aims to predict and identify potential lncRNA candidates using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) data. We also illustrate how to validate the potential lncRNAs by expression analyses using real-time PCR and Northern Blot. Potential lncRNA candidates in male germ cells are identified using our previously established male germ cell SAGE database (GermSAGE).

Lee, Tin-Lap; Xiao, Amy; Rennert, Owen M.

2013-01-01

336

Long noncoding RNA-based chromatin control of germ cell differentiation: a yeast perspective.  

PubMed

Germ cell differentiation, the cellular process by which a diploid progenitor cell produces by meiotic divisions haploid cells, is conserved from the unicellular yeasts to mammals. Over the recent years, yeast germ cell differentiation process has proven to be a powerful biological system to identify and study several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that play a central role in regulating cellular differentiation by acting directly on chromatin. Remarkably, in the well-studied budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the lncRNA-based chromatin regulations of germ cell differentiation are quite different. In this review, we present an overview of these regulations by focusing on the mechanisms and their respective functions both in S. cerevisiae and in S. pombe. Part of these lncRNA-based chromatin regulations may be conserved in other eukaryotes and play critical roles either in the context of germ cell differentiation or, more generally, in the development of multicellular organisms. PMID:24249577

Hiriart, Edwige; Verdel, André

2013-12-01

337

Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was evident in the students' understandings and images of microbes. Students also viewed germs as a human problem rather than seeing microorganisms as an independent member of the ecosystem. Teachers' explanations about germs varied in explicitness based on the grade level they taught while medical professionals based their understandings on formal knowledge and tended to use explicit technical language in their explanations of the phenomena.

Rua, Melissa Jo

338

Modeling cell elongation during germ band retraction: cell autonomy versus applied anisotropic stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphogenetic process of germ band retraction in Drosophila embryos involves coordinated movements of two epithelial tissues—germ band and amnioserosa. The germ band shortens along its rostral-caudal or head-to-tail axis, widens along its perpendicular dorsal-ventral axis, and uncurls from an initial ‘U’ shape. The amnioserosa mechanically assists this process by pulling on the crook of the U-shaped germ band. The amnioserosa may also provide biochemical signals that drive germ band cells to change shape in a mechanically autonomous fashion. Here, we use a finite-element model to investigate how these two contributions reshape the germ band. We do so by modeling the response to laser-induced wounds in each of the germ band’s spatially distinct segments (T1-T3, A1-A9) during the middle of retraction when segments T1-A3 form the ventral arm of the ‘U’, A4-A7 form its crook, and A8-A9 complete the dorsal arm. We explore these responses under a range of externally applied stresses and internal anisotropy of cell edge tensions—akin to a planar cell polarity that can drive elongation of cells in a direction parallel to the minimum edge tension—and identify regions of parameter space (edge-tension anisotropy versus stress anisotropy) that best match previous experiments for each germ band segment. All but three germ band segments are best fit when the applied stress anisotropy and the edge-tension anisotropy work against one another—i.e., when the isolated effects would elongate cells in perpendicular directions. Segments in the crook of the germ band (A4-A7) have cells that elongate in the direction of maximum external stress, i.e., external stress anisotropy is dominant. In most other segments, the dominant factor is internal edge-tension anisotropy. These results are consistent with models in which the amnioserosa pulls on the crook of the germ band to mechanically assist retraction. In addition, they suggest a mechanical cue for edge-tension anisotropy whereby cells do not globally orient their internal elongation axis towards the amnioserosa, but instead orient this axis perpendicular to the local principal stress direction.

Lynch, Holley E.; Veldhuis, Jim; Brodland, G. Wayne; Hutson, M. Shane

2014-05-01

339

Progesterone regulates chicken embryonic germ cell meiotic initiation independent of retinoic acid signaling.  

PubMed

The signaling molecule retinoic acid (RA) is known to trigger germ cells to enter meiosis. However, RA may not be the only secreted inducer of meiosis. Our previous data indicate that luteinizing hormone also promotes germ cell meiotic initiation by upregulating 3?HSDII transcription. Here, using chicken embryos, we investigate the role of progesterone (P4) in regulating germ cell meiotic initiation. Progesterone treatment at embryonic Day 9.5 accelerated germ cell meiosis entry in the female chicken embryos. However, P4 treatment in vivo did no influence on testicular germ cells but triggered their meiotic initiation in the cultured testes. As treatment with an RA receptor (RAR) inhibitor did not block the stimulatory effect of P4 on germ cell meiotic initiation, this P4 stimulatory effect seems to be independent of RAR-mediated signaling. The abundance of RA metabolism-related enzymes and RAR (RAR?) mRNAs did not differ significantly between P4-treated and control individuals. The RA concentration in the ovaries remained unchanged by P4 treatment in vivo. Because no inhibition by the P4 receptor (PR) nuclear receptor antagonist mifepristone on P4 effect was observed in either in vitro or in vivo experiments, the effect of P4 on germ cell meiotic initiation is probably mediated by membrane PRs (mPR). The mPR?, mPR?, and mPR? mRNAs were all expressed in the embryonic ovaries. The expression of mPR? and mPR? was higher than that of mPR?. Immunohistochemical results showed that mPR?-positive cells were mainly scattered in the ovarian cortex area where most germ cells were distributed. The mPR?-positive cells were widely distributed in the ovaries, and positive cells were clustered with a similar morphology to that of germ cell clusters. In conclusion, P4 may regulate embryonic germ cell meiotic initiation independent of RA signaling through the membrane PRs. This study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of germ cell meiotic initiation in the chicken. PMID:24786395

Mi, Yuling; He, Bin; Li, Jian; Zhang, Caiqiao

2014-07-15

340

Modeling cell elongation during germ band retraction: cell autonomy versus applied anisotropic stress  

PubMed Central

The morphogenetic process of germ band retraction in Drosophila embryos involves coordinated movements of two epithelial tissues – germ band and amnioserosa. The germ band shortens along its rostral-caudal or head-to-tail axis, widens along its perpendicular dorsal-ventral axis, and uncurls from an initial ‘U’ shape. The amnioserosa mechanically assists this process by pulling on the crook of the U-shaped germ band. The amnioserosa may also provide biochemical signals that drive germ band cells to change shape in a mechanically autonomous fashion. Here, we use a finite-element model to investigate how these two contributions reshape the germ band. We do so by modeling the response to laser-induced wounds in each of the germ band’s spatially distinct segments (T1-T3, A1-A9) during the middle of retraction when segments T1-A3 form the ventral arm of the ‘U’, A4-A7 form its crook, and A8-A9 complete the dorsal arm. We explore these responses under a range of externally applied stresses and internal anisotropy of cell edge tensions – akin to a planar cell polarity that can drive elongation of cells in a direction parallel to the minimum edge tension – and identify regions of parameter space (edge-tension anisotropy versus stress anisotropy) that best match previous experiments for each germ band segment. All but three germ band segments are best fit when the applied stress anisotropy and the edge-tension anisotropy work against one another – i.e., when the isolated effects would elongate cells in perpendicular directions. Segments in the crook of the germ band (A4-A7) have cells that elongate in the direction of maximum external stress, i.e., external stress anisotropy is dominant. In most other segments, the dominant factor is internal edge-tension anisotropy. These results are consistent with models in which the amnioserosa pulls on the crook of the germ band to mechanically assist retraction. In addition, they suggest a mechanical cue for edge-tension anisotropy whereby cells do not globally orient their internal elongation axis towards the amnioserosa, but instead orient this axis perpendicular to the local principal stress direction.

Lynch, Holley E.; Veldhuis, Jim; Brodland, G. Wayne; Hutson, M. Shane

2014-01-01

341

Immunohistochemical study of nuclear changes associated with male germ cell death and spermiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study on the effects of gestational and lactational exposure of para-nonylphenol on male rats, we noted in both\\u000a induced and uninduced rats, that variations in cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining patterns were associated with distinct nuclear\\u000a alterations in mainly basally located germ cells (spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes). These were re-analysed and\\u000a compared with cleaved caspase-3-labeled germ cells in the

Leon M. McCluskySean; Sean Patrick; Irene E. J. Barnhoorn; Jacobus C. van Dyk; Christiaan de Jager; Maria S. Bornman

2009-01-01

342

Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants'

Melissa Jo Rua

1999-01-01

343

Effect of diclofenac on germ cell apoptosis following testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that enhanced cell apoptosis is responsible for germ cell loss following testicular ischemia-reperfusion\\u000a (IR) injury. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (Voltaren) is a prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitor, which\\u000a is widely used in many testicular disorders. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of diclofenac (DIC)\\u000a on germ cell apoptosis in the ischemic and contralateral

Jorge G. Mogilner; Michael Lurie; Arnold G. Coran; Ofer Nativ; Eitan Shiloni; Igor Sukhotnik

2006-01-01

344

Effect of allopurinol on germ cell apoptosis following testicular ischemia–reperfusion injury in a rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that apoptosis is involved in germ cell loss following testicular ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury.\\u000a Allopurinol (Allo) is as a free radical scavenger which prevents tissue damage caused by reperfusion and oxygenation after\\u000a ischemia; however, its effect on apoptosis in this type of injury has not been studied. To examine the effect of allopurinol\\u000a on germ cell apoptosis following

Igor Sukhotnik; Gil Meyer; Ofer Nativ; Arnold G. Coran; Katya Voskoboinik; Eitan Shiloni; Jorge G. Mogilner

2008-01-01

345

Site-specific Derivatives of Wheat Germ Calmodulin INTERACTIONS WITH TROPONIN AND SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat germ calmodulin (CaM) was derivatized at its single cysteine (CysZ7) with either the fluorescent re- agent, N-(iodoacetylaminoethyl)-5-naphthylamine-l- sulfonic acid (I-EDANS) or the photoactivable cross- linker benzophenone-4-maleimide. Comparison of the native and derivatized wheat germ CaMs with native bovine testis CaM indicates that the concentrations of these proteins required for half-maximal stimulation of either erythrocyte membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity or cardiac

Gale M. StrasburgS; Margaret Hogan; David D. ThomasOII; Charles F. Louis

346

Serum Proteins of Germ-free Rats fed Water-soluble Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE germ-free animal with its more controlled environment and reduced reticuloendothelial system has become a valuable tool in microbiological and immunological investigations. In the germ-free rat a deficit in immune proteins causes low levels of serum beta- and gamma-globulins1. However, the animal is still subject to the variable reticuloendothelial system stimulating factors occurring in the steam-sterilized diets generally used. This

B. S. Wostmann; G. B. Olson; J. R. Pleasants

1965-01-01

347

Localisation of RNAs into the Germ Plasm of Vitellogenic Xenopus Oocytes  

PubMed Central

We have studied the localisation of mRNAs in full-grown Xenopus laevis oocytes by injecting fluorescent RNAs, followed by confocal microscopy of the oocyte cortex. Concentrating on RNA encoding the Xenopus Nanos homologue, nanos1 (formerly Xcat2), we find that it consistently localised into aggregated germ plasm ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles, independently of cytoskeletal integrity. This implies that a diffusion/entrapment-mediated mechanism is active, as previously reported for previtellogenic oocytes. Sometimes this was accompanied by localisation into scattered particles of the “late”, Vg1/VegT pathway; occasionally only late pathway localisation was seen. The Xpat RNA behaved in an identical fashion and for neither RNA was the localisation changed by any culture conditions tested. The identity of the labelled RNP aggregates as definitive germ plasm was confirmed by their inclusion of abundant mitochondria and co-localisation with the germ plasm protein Hermes. Further, the nanos1/Hermes RNP particles are interspersed with those containing the germ plasm protein Xpat. These aggregates may be followed into the germ plasm of unfertilized eggs, but with a notable reduction in its quantity, both in terms of injected molecules and endogenous structures. Our results conflict with previous reports that there is no RNA localisation in large oocytes, and that during mid-oogenesis even germ plasm RNAs localise exclusively by the late pathway. We find that in mid oogenesis nanos1 RNA also localises to germ plasm but also by the late pathway. Late pathway RNAs, Vg1 and VegT, also may localise into germ plasm. Our results support the view that mechanistically the two modes of localisation are extremely similar, and that in an injection experiment RNAs might utilise either pathway, the distinction in fates being very subtle and subject to variation. We discuss these results in relation to their biological significance and the results of others.

Nijjar, Sarbjit; Woodland, Hugh R.

2013-01-01

348

Essential Role of brc-2 in Chromosome Integrity of Germ Cells in C. elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

ÄêÅJO, an ortholog of BRCA2 in C~ÉåçêÜ~ÄÇáíáë=ÉäÉÖ~åë, is essential in the maintenance of genetic integrity. InK=ÉäÉJ Ö~åë, cellular location correlates with meiotic progression, and transgene-induced cosuppression is observed in the germ line but not in somatic cells. We used these unique features to dissect the role of ÄêÅJO in the germ line from that in somatic cells. få=ëáíì hybridization of

Eunkyong Ko; Junho Lee; Hyunsook Lee

349

Patterns of codon recognition by isoacceptor aminoacyl-tRNAs from wheat germ.  

PubMed Central

Isoacceptors of Ala-, Arg-, Glu-, Gln-, Ile-, Leu-, Lys-, Ser-, Thr- and Val-tRNAs from wheat germ have been resolved by reverse phast chromatography. Codon recognition properties have been determined on isolated fractions of each of these aa-tRNAs and codon assignments have been made to a number of isoacceptors. Evolutionary changes which have occurred in patterns of codon recognition by isoacceptor aa-tRNAs in wheat germ and other organisms are discussed.

Hatfield, D; Rice, M

1978-01-01

350

Differentiating germ cells can revert into functional stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many tissues including blood, skin, gut and germ cells are continuously maintained by tissue stem cells. Under certain conditions, however, other organs can undergo repair using stem-cell-like progenitors generated by cell de-differentiation. Cell fates have been broadened experimentally, but mechanisms allowing de-differentiation to a stem cell state are poorly known. Germline stem cells begin to differentiate by forming interconnected germ

Toshie Kai; Allan Spradling

2004-01-01

351

Pathogenesis of Renal Disease Due to Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Germ-Free Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic colitis and acute renal failure. We used a germ-free mouse model to investigate the role of host factors, Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), and bacterial strain in disease due to EHEC. Germ-free male and female Swiss-Webster mice that were 3 days to 12 weeks old were orally inoculated with 1

Kathryn A. Eaton; David I. Friedman; Gayle J. Francis; Jessica S. Tyler; Vincent B. Young; Jennifer Haeger; Galeb Abu-Ali; Thomas S. Whittam

2008-01-01

352

Germ cells of the centipede Strigamia maritima are specified early in embryonic development.  

PubMed

We provide the first systematic description of germ cell development with molecular markers in a myriapod, the centipede Strigamia maritima. By examining the expression of Strigamia vasa and nanos orthologues, we find that the primordial germ cells are specified from at least the blastoderm stage. This is a much earlier embryonic stage than previously described for centipedes, or any other member of the Myriapoda. Using these genes as markers, and taking advantage of the developmental synchrony of Strigamia embryos within single clutches, we are able to track the development of the germ cells throughout embryogenesis. We find that the germ cells accumulate at the blastopore; that the cells do not internalize through the hindgut, but rather through the closing blastopore; and that the cells undergo a long-range migration to the embryonic gonad. This is the first evidence for primordial germ cells displaying these behaviours in any myriapod. The myriapods are a phylogenetically important group in the arthropod radiation for which relatively little developmental data is currently available. Our study provides valuable comparative data that complements the growing number of studies in insects, crustaceans and chelicerates, and is important for the correct reconstruction of ancestral states and a fuller understanding of how germ cell development has evolved in different arthropod lineages. PMID:24930702

Green, Jack E; Akam, Michael

2014-08-15

353

Bisphenol A exposure modifies DNA methylation of imprint genes in mouse fetal germ cells.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic environmental toxin widely used for the production of plastics. Human frequent exposure to this chemical has been proposed to be a potential public health risk. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of BPA on DNA methylation of imprinting genes in fetal mouse germ cell. Pregnant mice were treated with BPA at doses of 0, 40, 80 and 160 ?g BPA/kg body weight/day from 0.5 day post coitum. DNA methylation of imprinting genes, Igf2r, Peg3 and H19, was decreased with the increase of BPA concentration in fetal mouse germ cells (p < 0.01).The relative mRNA levels of Nobox were lower in BPA-treated group compared to control (BPA free) in female fetal germ cells, but in male fetal germ cells, a significant higher in Nobox expression was observed in BPA-treated group compared to control. Decreased mRNA expression of specific meiotic genes including Stimulated by Stra8 and Dazl were obtained in the female fetal germ cells. In conclusion, BPA exposure can affect the DNA methylation of imprinting genes in fetal mouse germ cells. PMID:22699882

Zhang, Xi-Feng; Zhang, Lian-Jun; Feng, Yan-Ni; Chen, Bo; Feng, Yan-Min; Liang, Gui-Jin; Li, Lan; Shen, Wei

2012-09-01

354

Occurrence and exposure assessment of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize germ, refined corn oil and margarine.  

PubMed

Analytical methods were validated for the analysis of fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in maize germ, corn oil and margarine. A survey of 74 samples consisting of 12 wet-milled maize germ, 12 dry-milled maize germ, 25 refined corn oil, and 25 corn oil margarine was conducted. Results revealed that 100% and 87.5% of maize germ samples presented FB1 and FB2, respectively, attaining concentrations for the sum of both toxins of 1302±541 ?g kg(-1) in wet-milled and 820±831 ?g kg(-1) in dry-milled maize germ. The lower incidence of FB1, FB2 and DON in edible oil and margarine (4-8%) may be related with the industrial processes for their obtaining besides the high water-solubility of these mycotoxins. In contrast, 25% of maize germ samples were positive for ZEA as well as 32% of corn oil and 24% of margarine, which may be related with its lipophilic nature. A number of samples exceeded the maximum limits indicating that strict control is needed, though estimated dietary exposure was less than 0.2% tolerable daily intakes in all cases. PMID:24056029

Escobar, Jacqueline; Lorán, Susana; Giménez, Isabel; Ferruz, Elena; Herrera, Marta; Herrera, Antonio; Ariño, Agustín

2013-12-01

355

Primordial Germ Cell-Like Cells Differentiated In Vitro from Skin-Derived Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Background We have previously demonstrated that stem cells isolated from fetal porcine skin have the potential to form oocyte-like cells (OLCs) in vitro. However, primordial germ cells (PGCs), which must also be specified during the stem cell differentiation to give rise to these putative oocytes at more advanced stages of culture, were not systematically characterized. The current study tested the hypothesis that a morphologically distinct population of cells derived from skin stem cells prior to OLC formation corresponds to putative PGCs, which differentiate further into more mature gametes. Methodology/Principal Findings When induced to differentiate in an appropriate microenvironment, a subpopulation of morphologically distinct cells, some of which are alkaline phosphatase (AP)-positive, also express Oct4, Fragilis, Stella, Dazl, and Vasa, which are markers indicative of germ cell formation. A known differentially methylated region (DMR) within the H19 gene locus, which is demethylated in oocytes after establishment of the maternal imprint, is hypomethylated in PGC-like cells compared to undifferentiated skin-derived stem cells, suggesting that the putative germ cell population undergoes imprint erasure. Additional evidence supporting the germ cell identity of in vitro-generated PGC-like cells is that, when labeled with a Dazl-GFP reporter, these cells further differentiate into GFP-positive OLCs. Significance The ability to generate germ cell precursors from somatic stem cells may provide an in vitro model to study some of the unanswered questions surrounding early germ cell formation.

Linher, Katja; Dyce, Paul; Li, Julang

2009-01-01

356

Prevention of airborne contamination and cross-contamination in germ-free mice by laminar flow.  

PubMed

The efficacy of horizontal and vertical laminar flow units (equipped with high-efficiency air filters) in the prevention of cross-contamination between cages and of contamination from outside has been demonstrated. With germ-free mice and using germ-free standard techniques for sterilization and for the transfer of germ-free mice into the cabinets via a standard entry lock, it was found that during an observation period of 2 weeks the animals remain ;negative'. Other experiments were performed with equally good results in cabinets equipped with a hinged flap, closing 95% of the open front side. When the flap was closed the air flow could be reduced accordingly, thus reducing the noise level and the risk of dehydration.Experiments made with germ-free mice in a ;down-flow unit' were also invariably good.In another type of experiment, cages with conventional mice were placed in the cabinets between cages with germ-free animals at varying distances. If all animals were maintained on wire mesh (to minimize the aerosol production of dust) and if the ;conventional' cages were at a distance of 10 cm. from ;germ-free cages' the latter remained bacteria-free during test periods of one week.The use of ;laminar flow isolators' for the isolation of human patients is mentioned. PMID:5291754

van der Waaij, D; Andreas, A H

1971-03-01

357

Fenvalerate induces germ cell apoptosis in mouse testes through the Fas/FasL signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Fenvalerate has a potentially adverse effect on male reproduction and spermatogenesis, whereas the precise mechanism remains obscure. The present study investigated the effects of fenvalerate on germ cell apoptosis in testes. Adult male mice were administered with fenvalerate (15 or 60 mg/kg) by gavage for 28 days. Germ cell apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The number of TUNEL+ germ cells per tubule and the percentage of tubules with TUNEL+ germ cells were significantly increased in testes of mice treated with fenvalerate in a dose-dependent manner. TUNEL+ germ cells were observed mainly in stages VII-VIII and also stages IX-XII seminiferous tubules in testes. Additional experiments showed that fenvalerate increased the level of active caspase-8 and caspase-3 in testes. In addition, fenvalerate upregulated the expression of Fas and FasL in testes. No significant difference on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in testes was observed between fenvalerate-treated mice and controls. Fenvalerate did not affect the leakage of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytoplasm. In addition, fenvalerate did not cause the activation of caspase-9 in testes. Taken together, these results suggest that fenvalerate induces germ cell apoptosis in testes through the Fas/FasL signaling pathway. PMID:21279716

Zhao, Xian-Feng; Wang, Qun; Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Hua; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Xu, De-Xiang

2011-09-01

358

NANOG promoter methylation and expression correlation during normal and malignant human germ cell development  

PubMed Central

Testicular germ cell tumors are the most frequent malignant tumors in young Caucasian males, with increasing incidence. The actual model of tumorigenesis is based on the theory that a block in maturation of fetal germ cells lead to formation of the intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified. Early fetal germ cells and undifferentiated germ cell tumors express pluripotency markers such as the transcription factor NANOG. It has been demonstrated that epigenetic modifications, such as promoter DNA methylation, are able to silence gene expression in normal and cancer cells. Here we show that OCT3/4-SOX2 mediated expression of NANOG can be silenced by methylation of promoter CpG-sites. We found that global methylation of DNA decreased from fetal spermatogonia to mature sperm. In contrast, CpGs in the NANOG promoter were found hypomethylated in spermatogonia and hypermethylated in sperm. This selective repression might reflect the cells need to suppress pluripotency in order to prevent malignant transformation. Finally, methylation of CpGs in the NANOG promoter in germ cell tumors and derived cell lines correlated to differentiation state.

Nettersheim, Daniel; Bierman, Katharina; Gillis, Ad JM; Steger, Klaus; Looijenga, Leendert HJ

2011-01-01

359

Influence of Exposure to Benzo[a]pyrene on Mice Testicular Germ Cells during Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to assess the toxicological effect of exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, B[a]P, on germ cells during spermatogenesis. Mice were exposed to B[a]P at 1, 10, 50, and 100?mg/kg/day for 30 days via oral ingestion. Germ cells, including spermatogonia, spermatocytes, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatids, were recovered from testes of mice exposed to B[a]P, while mature spermatozoa were isolated from vas deferens. Reproductive organs were collected and weighed. Apoptotic response of germ cells and mature spermatozoa were qualified using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxy-UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. B[a]P exposure at ?10?mg/kg/day for 30 days did not significantly alter concentrations of germ cells and mature spermatozoa and apoptotic response in germ cells and mature spermatozoa. Exposure to B[a]P at 50 and 100?mg/kg/day induced testicular atrophy and yielded a significant reduction in the concentrations of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatid cells as compared with the control. Also, mature spermatozoa experienced decreased concentrations and viability. B[a]P-exposed mice experienced a significant increase in apoptotic germ cells as compared to the control mice. However, the mice dose concentrations were not relevant for comparison to human exposure.

Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Bocca, Silvina M.

2013-01-01

360

Primary thrombocythemia  

MedlinePLUS

Primary thrombocythemia is when the bone marrow is making too many platelets without a known cause. Platelets ... Primary thrombocythemia is caused by too much growth of a type of cell that is used to ...

361

Sidestream tobacco smoke is a male germ cell mutagen  

PubMed Central

Active cigarette smoking increases oxidative damage, DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and heritable mutations in sperm. However, little is known regarding the effects of second-hand smoke on the male germ line. We show here that short-term exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke or sidestream tobacco smoke (STS), the main component of second-hand smoke, induces mutations at an expanded simple tandem repeat locus (Ms6-hm) in mouse sperm. We further show that the response to STS is not linear and that, for both mainstream tobacco smoke and STS, doses that induced significant increases in expanded simple tandem repeat mutations in sperm did not increase the frequencies of micronucleated reticulocytes and erythrocytes in the bone marrow and blood of exposed mice. These data show that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can cause tandem repeat mutations in sperm under conditions that may not induce genetic damage in somatic cells. Although the relationship between noncoding tandem repeat instability and mutations in functional regions of the genome is unclear, our data suggest that paternal exposure to second-hand smoke may have reproductive consequences that go beyond the passive smoker.

Marchetti, Francesco; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Williams, Andrew; Polyzos, Aris; Berndt-Weis, M. Lynn; Yauk, Carole L.

2011-01-01

362

Fermented wheat germ extract - nutritional supplement or anticancer drug?  

PubMed Central

Background Fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) is a multisubstance composition and, besides others, contains 2-methoxy benzoquinone and 2, 6-dimethoxy benzoquinone which are likely to exert some of its biological effects. FWGE interferes with anaerobic glycolysis, pentose cycle and ribonucleotide reductase. It has significant antiproliferative effects and kills tumor cells by the induction of apoptosis via the caspase-poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-pathway. FWGE interacts synergistically with a variety of different anticancer drugs and exerted antimetastatic properties in mouse models. In addition, FWGE modulates immune response by downregulation of MHC-I complex and the induction of TNF-? and various interleukins. Data in the F-344 rat model provide evidence for a colon cancer preventing effect of FWGE. Clinical data from a randomized phase II trial in melanoma patients indicate a significant benefit for patients treated with dacarbazine in combination with FWGE in terms of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Similarly, data from studies in colorectal cancer suggested a benefit of FWGE treatment. Besides extension of OS and PFS, FWGE improved the quality of life in several studies. Conclusion In conclusion, available data so far, justify the use of FWGE as a non-prescription medical nutriment for cancer patients. Further randomized, controlled and large scale clinical studies are mandatory, to further clarify the value of FWGE as a drug component of future chemotherapy regimens.

2011-01-01

363

Pathogen germs response to low-dose radiation — medical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The side effects of radiation therapy in the case of microbial loading of irradiated organs was considered as phenomenological basis of the experiment carried out on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC germ) exposed to low X-ray doses. The inoculum was prepared in a liquid culture medium with standard composition, the volumes of 3 ml identical samples (in sterile glass tubes) being irradiated in hospital conditions. Five experimental variants were developed corresponding to irradiation time durations between 25 and 100 minutes. The spectro-colorimetric assay was accomplished at 560 nm and 420 nm, the resulting average values (for three repetitions) being analyzed from the viewpoint of cell density in the irradiated variants compared to control ones. The resistance to antibiotics of the irradiated bacteria was tested on agarized cultures against five antibiotic molecules (ampicillin, cloramphenicol, tetracycline, tobramicin and ofloxacin) by assessing the diameter of inhibition growth areas in each case. The increase of the inhibition area diameter with up to 15% (in the case of tetracycline) was noticed for the lowest irradiation time for all five antibiotics, which is suggesting a weakening of the bacteria resistance to the pharmaceutical agents following the X-ray treatment. This was concordant with the results of the spectro-colorimetric assay of the cell density within the directly irradiated bacteria cultures. The main issue of this study is concerning the optimization of the radiotherapy protocol in patients with potential microbial loading.

Poiata, A.; Focea, R.; Creanga, D.

2012-04-01

364

Morphometric Approach to Pulp Fibroblast Development in Tooth Germ  

PubMed Central

This paper builds a morphometric framework for the analysis of dental pulp fibroblast evolution during tooth development. We investigated 15 tooth germs (cases) organized, by histological criteria, in three groups corresponding to cap, early bell, and late bell stages, respectively. Each group comprised five cases. The morphometric description used the following parameters: area (A), perimeter (P)—automatically extracted by a color segmentation technique, and form factor (FF)—calculated as 4?A/P2. The designed framework operated at inter- and intragroup levels. The intergroup analysis quantified the differences between groups, in the sense of a relative distance (RD) adequately defined by mean-value scaling. We showed that the stage of early bell is approximately 5 times closer to late bell than to cap. The quantification procedure required concomitant information about A, P parameters (as P versus A dependences, or FF values), whereas the procedure failed for A or P separately used. The intragroup analysis quantified the similarity of the cases belonging to the same stage. We proved that, unlike the intergroup tests, the individual exploitation of all three descriptors A, P, and FF is effective, yielding highly compatible results. Within any group, most cases presented RDs less than 10% from the group mean value, regardless of the descriptor type.

Caruntu, Irina-Draga; Savinescu, Sergiu Daniel; Amalinei, Cornelia

2014-01-01

365

The origin and migration of primordial germ cells in sturgeons.  

PubMed

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) arise elsewhere in the embryo and migrate into developing gonadal ridges during embryonic development. In several model animals, formation and migration patterns of PGCs have been studied, and it is known that these patterns vary. Sturgeons (genus Acipenser) have great potential for comparative and evolutionary studies of development. Sturgeons belong to the super class Actinoptergii, and their developmental pattern is similar to that of amphibians, although their phylogenetic position is an out-group to teleost fishes. Here, we reveal an injection technique for sturgeon eggs allowing visualization of germplasm and PGCs. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the PGCs are generated at the vegetal pole of the egg and they migrate on the yolky cell mass toward the gonadal ridge. We also provide evidence showing that PGCs are specified by inheritance of maternally supplied germplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the migratory mechanism is well-conserved between sturgeon and other remotely related teleosts, such as goldfish, by a single PGCs transplantation (SPT) assay. The mode of PGCs specification in sturgeon is similar to that of anurans, but the migration pattern resembles that of teleosts. PMID:24505272

Saito, Taiju; Pšeni?ka, Martin; Goto, Rie; Adachi, Shinji; Inoue, Kunio; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

2014-01-01

366

Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 and prediction of death in patients with metastatic testicular germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

The International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group study of patients with metastatic testicular germ cell tumors showed that catalytic concentration of serum lactate dehydrogenase (S-LD), serum alpha-fetoprotein concentration (S-AFP), and serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentration (S-hCG) predicted death from tumor. The recent international TNM classification (T primary tumor, N lymph node metastasis, M distant metastasis) is based on these results. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether catalytic concentration of S-LD isoenzyme 1 (S-LD-1) was a better predictor than the criteria used for the international classification. In an evaluation series of 44 patients from Odense University Hospital, Denmark, a raised S-LD-1 (>1.0 x upper limit of reference values) had a predictive value for death from tumor in 5-years observation of 46%. The predictive value was 46% for S-LD, 25% for S-AFP, and 40% for S-hCG. A normal SLD-1 had a predictive value for survival over 5-years observation of 100%. It was 81% for S-LD, 75% for SAFP, and 77% for S-hCG. The fraction of the patients who died of tumor and had a raised tumor marker value was 100% for S-LD-1, 46% for S-LD, 9% for S-AFP, and 18% for S-hCG. The fraction of patients with a normal serum tumor marker value among those who survived was 61% for S-LD-1, 81% for S-LD, 94% for SAFP, and 94% for S-hCG. A validation series of 37 patients treated at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center showed similar findings. Combining the patients in the two series, a raised value of SLD-1 classified more patients into a subgroup with an impaired survival (53%) than S-LD (35%), S-AFP (6%), or S-hCG (11%), and the high risk subgroups based on the international classification (40%). The findings have implications for the staging and treatment of patients with metastatic testicular germ cell tumors. PMID:11256799

von Eyben, F E; Blaabjerg, O; Hyltoft-Petersen, P; Madsen, E L; Amato, R; Liu, F; Fritsche, H

2001-01-01

367

Germ cell control of testin production is inverse to that of other Sertoli cell products.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that germ cells can regulate testins, two newly identified Sertoli cell proteins that are associated with junctional complexes. To investigate this possibility, several parameters of Sertoli cell function were investigated over 2-120 days post exposure of the rat testes to x-rays (3 Grays). The irradiation-induced loss of spermatogonia resulted in a maturation-depletion process progressively affecting all germ cell classes. Testis weight began to decrease when the most numerous germ cell type (spermatids) began to decline. A complete or near complete recovery of spermatogenesis and of the testis weight had occurred by day 120 post irradiation. There was no significant change in FSH, epididymal androgen-binding protein, and tubule fluid levels during the first weeks after irradiation, when the seminiferious epithelium was depleted of spermatogonia and germ cells up to early spermatids. In contrast, when the number of the more mature forms of spermatids declined (between day 21 and 54), FSH rose and androgen-binding protein as well as fluid production declined. The subsequent recovery of these parameters was also highly correlated with the number of late spermatids. By contrast, testicular testin contents reacted to the depletion of germ cells with a biphasic increase; a doubling occurred when spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and early spermatids were absent (days 4-28), and a 7-fold rise occurred by day 37 when the number of late spermatids had decreased by 50%. By day 54, when the sperm counts had reached a nadir, testin contents had returned to levels corresponding to about four times the control levels; they progressively recovered thereafter. These observations support the postulate that germ cells negatively regulate testins. This possibility was investigated with in vitro experiments showing that addition of germ cell-conditioned medium to Sertoli cell monolayers inhibited testin secretion in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion this study; 1) highlights the complex interplay between the various germ cell classes in the control of the Sertoli cell function in the adult testis; 2) establishes that germ cell effects may be opposite on different Sertoli cell products; 3) demonstrates that several classes of germ cells negatively control testicular testin contents; and 4) emphasizes the particular role of late spermatids in Sertoli cell regulation. PMID:8504757

Jégou, B; Pineau, C; Velez de la Calle, J F; Touzalin, A M; Bardin, C W; Cheng, C Y

1993-06-01

368

A Mini-Review of Familial Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors: An Additional Manifestation of the Familial Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction While testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common malignancy in young men, germ cell tumors in women are uncommon. Familial clustering, epidemiologic evidence of increased risk with family or personal history of TGCT, and associations with genitourinary tract anomalies suggest an underlying genetic predisposition to TGCT, but traditional linkage studies have yet to identify a highlypenetrant TGCT cancer susceptibility gene. In this paper, we investigate the familial occurrence of testicular and ovarian germ cell tumors. Methods We report a family in which a TGCT and an ovarian germ cell tumor (OGCT) occurred in two siblings, summarize the existing literature on familial occurrences of OGCT, either alone or in combination with extragonadal or TGCTs, and compare the incidence of familial and sporadic testicular and ovarian GCTs. Sporadic GCT data were obtained from the US Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry. Results We identified 16 reports of OGCT occurring in conjunction with either ovarian, testicular or extragonadal GCT. In these familial cases, the mean age at onset of female dysgerminoma was younger than that noted in the general population (age 17 vs age 24, p=0.01). In SEER, the incidence of TGCT was 15 times higher than that of OGCT. Histologic distributions in males and females showed distinctly different patterns. Discussion Although the incidence of OGCTs in the general population is quite low, its occurrence in multiple members of the same family and in families with TGCT suggests that a gene conferring susceptibility to GCTs may exist in some families.

Giambartolomei, Claudia; Mueller, Christine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Korde, Larissa A.

2009-01-01

369

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Intrauterine Period, Promotes Caspase Dependent and Independent DNA Fragmentation in Sertoli-Germ Cells  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the effect of cigarette smoke exposure during intrauterine period on neonatal rat testis. Methods. Twenty-five rats were randomized to be exposed to cigarette smoke with the Walton Smoking Machine or to room air during their pregnancies. The newborn male rats (n = 21) were grouped as group 1 (n = 15) which were exposed to cigarette smoke during intrauterine life and group 2 (n = 6) which were exposed to room air during intrauterine life. The orchiectomy materials were analyzed with TUNEL immunofluorescent staining for detection of DNA damage. To detect apoptosis, immunohistochemical analyses with caspase-3 were performed. Primary outcomes were apoptotic index and immunohistochemical scores (HSCORES); secondary outcomes were Sertoli-cell count and birth-weight of rats. Results. Sertoli cell apoptosis was increased in group 1 (HSCORE = 210.6 ± 41.9) when compared to group 2 (HSCORE = 100.0 ± 17.8) (P = 0.001). Sertoli cell count was decreased in group 1 (P = 0.043). The HSCORE for the germ cells was calculated as 214.0 ± 46.2 in group 1 and 93.3 ± 10.3 in group 2 (P = 0.001) referring to an increased germ cell apoptosis in group 1. The apoptotic indexes for group 1 were 49.6 ± 9.57 and 29.98 ± 2.34 for group 2 (P = 0.001). The immunofluorescent technique demonstrated increased DNA damage in seminiferous epithelium in group 1. Conclusions. Intrauterine exposure to cigarette smoke adversely affects neonatal testicular structuring and diminishes testicular reserve.

Yuksel, Beril; Kilic, Sevtap; Lortlar, Nese; Tasdemir, Nicel; Sertyel, Semra; Bardakci, Yesim; Aksu, Tarik; Batioglu, Sertac

2014-01-01

370

Survival of patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: a review of the IGCC classification by Cox regression and recursive partitioning.  

PubMed

The International Germ Cell Consensus (IGCC) classification identifies good, intermediate and poor prognosis groups among patients with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). It uses the risk factors primary site, presence of nonpulmonary visceral metastases and tumour markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). The IGCC classification is easy to use and remember, but lacks flexibility. We aimed to examine the extent of any loss in discrimination within the IGCC classification in comparison with alternative modelling by formal weighing of the risk factors. We analysed survival of 3048 NSGCT patients with Cox regression and recursive partitioning for alternative classifications. Good, intermediate and poor prognosis groups were based on predicted 5-year survival. Classifications were further refined by subgrouping within the poor prognosis group. Performance was measured primarily by a bootstrap corrected c-statistic to indicate discriminative ability for future patients. The weights of the risk factors in the alternative classifications differed slightly from the implicit weights in the IGCC classification. Discriminative ability, however, did not increase clearly (IGCC classification, c=0.732; Cox classification, c=0.730; Recursive partitioning classification, c=0.709). Three subgroups could be identified within the poor prognosis groups, resulting in classifications with five prognostic groups and slightly better discriminative ability (c=0.740). In conclusion, the IGCC classification in three prognostic groups is largely supported by Cox regression and recursive partitioning. Cox regression was the most promising tool to define a more refined classification. British Journal of Cancer (2004) 90, 1176-1183. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6601665 www.bjcancer.com Published online 24 February 2004 PMID:15026798

van Dijk, M R; Steyerberg, E W; Stenning, S P; Dusseldorp, E; Habbema, J D F

2004-03-22

371

Uredospore germination and germ tube penetration of Puccinia striiformis in seedling leaves of resistant and susceptible wheat varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences were observed in spore germination and germ tube penetration of race 60 ofPuccinia striiformis on some wheat varieties. Of the five wheat varieties investigatedTriticum spelta var.album was the most resistant, strongly inhibiting spore germination and retarding germ tube penetration. On the hexaploid wheat varieties the germ tube penetrated through the stomata, whereas on the tetraploid varieties it did so

R. W. Stubbs; J. M. Plotnikova

1972-01-01

372

Differential expression of sex-linked and autosomal germ-cell-specific genes during spermatogenesis in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined expression during spermatogenesis in the mouse of three Y-linked genes, 11 X-linked genes and 22 autosomal genes, all previously shown to be germ-cell-specific and expressed in premeiotic spermatogonia, plus another 21 germ-cell-specific autosomal genes that initiate expression in meiotic sper- matocytes. Our data demonstrate that, like sex-linked housekeeping genes, germ-cell-specific sex-linked genes are subject to meiotic sex-chromosome

P. Jeremy Wang; David C. Page; John R. McCarrey

2005-01-01

373

Model of the biotic cycle "plants germs - microorganisms" by affect heavy metal salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of wheat germ roots exposed to heavy metal salts (ZnSO4) was studied experimentally and theoretically. During the experiment the plant seeds were preliminarily treated with an experimental microbial association. As a result, data were obtained about the decrease of the inhibiting effect of zinc on the growth of wheat germ roots where the seeds had been treated with the microbial association. To understand such effect, calculations were made to reveal the specific growth rate of a germ root depending on the inhibitor concentration with and without microorganism association treatment. It was shown that in case with the wheat germ roots the seeds of which had been treated with the microorganisms the inhibition constant (kI = 45 MPC (Maximum Permissible Concentration) was higher than in the case with the roots growing out of the seeds that hadn't been treated with the microorganisms (kI = 32 MPC). One of possible reasons for the decrease of growth inhibition of wheat germ roots by zinc salt is the protective function of microorganism's treatment of the seeds. To verify and confirm the experimental results, a mathematical model was created imitating the interaction between wheat germ roots and microbial association exposed to an inhibitor. Investigation of the model proved that the microbial association has a positive effect on the growth of wheat germ roots exposed to an inhibitor. The experimental and theoretical results agreed quantitatively. It was found out that the increase of the inhibitor concentration led to the effect of maximum relief of zinc inhibiting impact. The work is supported by grants Yenissei 07-04-96806.

Pisman, Tamara

374

Novel somatic and germline mutations in intracranial germ cell tumours.  

PubMed

Intracranial germ cell tumours (IGCTs) are a group of rare heterogeneous brain tumours that are clinically and histologically similar to the more common gonadal GCTs. IGCTs show great variation in their geographical and gender distribution, histological composition and treatment outcomes. The incidence of IGCTs is historically five- to eightfold greater in Japan and other East Asian countries than in Western countries, with peak incidence near the time of puberty. About half of the tumours are located in the pineal region. The male-to-female incidence ratio is approximately 3-4:1 overall, but is even higher for tumours located in the pineal region. Owing to the scarcity of tumour specimens available for research, little is currently known about this rare disease. Here we report the analysis of 62 cases by next-generation sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array and expression array. We find the KIT/RAS signalling pathway frequently mutated in more than 50% of IGCTs, including novel recurrent somatic mutations in KIT, its downstream mediators KRAS and NRAS, and its negative regulator CBL. Novel somatic alterations in the AKT/mTOR pathway included copy number gains of the AKT1 locus at 14q32.33 in 19% of patients, with corresponding upregulation of AKT1 expression. We identified loss-of-function mutations in BCORL1, a transcriptional co-repressor and tumour suppressor. We report significant enrichment of novel and rare germline variants in JMJD1C, which codes for a histone demethylase and is a coactivator of the androgen receptor, among Japanese IGCT patients. This study establishes a molecular foundation for understanding the biology of IGCTs and suggests potentially promising therapeutic strategies focusing on the inhibition of KIT/RAS activation and the AKT1/mTOR pathway. PMID:24896186

Wang, Linghua; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Burstein, Matthew D; Terashima, Keita; Chang, Kyle; Ng, Ho-Keung; Nakamura, Hideo; He, Zongxiao; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Lewis, Lora; Wang, Mark; Suzuki, Tomonari; Nishikawa, Ryo; Natsume, Atsushi; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William; Adekunle, Adesina; Sun, Jiayi; Qiao, Yi; Marth, Gábor; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Leal, Suzanne M; Wheeler, David A; Lau, Ching C

2014-07-10

375

Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

2008-01-18

376

Wheat germ agglutinin is selectively transported to multivesicular bodies.  

PubMed

Colloidal iron dextran particles bearing wheat germ agglutinin (WGA/FeDex) were bound by glycoconjugates expressed at the surface of HepG2 cells. Bound WGA/FeDex was internalized when cells were incubated at 37 degrees C and accumulated in intracellular structures which have the same buoyant density as the plasma membrane when examined on Percoll density gradients. The intracellular structures containing WGA/FeDex were identified as multivesicular bodies (MVB) by transmission electron microscopy. WGA/FeDex was not transported to lysosomes nor did it interfere with uptake and transport of GalBSA to lysosomes by the asialoglycoprotein receptor. WGA/FeDex was seen predominantly in non-coated invaginations at the cell surface, suggesting it may enter cells at a different site than GalBSA/FeDex. Highly enriched plasma membranes and MVBs containing superparamagnetic [125I]WGA/FeDex particles were prepared by high gradient magnetic affinity chromatography (HIMAC). Plasma membranes prepared by HIMAC were enriched 30-fold for [125I]WGA/FeDex, 15-fold for alkaline phosphodiesterase I, and 9-fold for galactosyltransferase relative to the crude post-nuclear homogenate and consisted entirely of plasmalemmal sheets. Intracellular structures containing WGA/FeDex were enriched 35-fold for [125I]WGA/FeDex, 10-fold for alkaline phosphodiesterase I, and 10-fold for galactosyltransferase but did not contain lysosomal beta-galactosidase. WGA/FeDex has a different ultimate destination in HepG2 cells than ligands internalized by the asialoglycoprotein receptor and can be used to obtain highly enriched plasma membranes and MVBs from cultured cells. PMID:1680682

Becich, M J; Mahklouf, S; Baenziger, J U

1991-06-01

377

Interaction between DMRT1 function and genetic background modulates signaling and pluripotency to control tumor susceptibility in the fetal germ line  

PubMed Central

Dmrt1(doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1) is a regulator of testis development in vertebrates that has been implicated in testicular germ cell tumors of mouse and human. In the fetal mouse testis Dmrt1 regulates germ cell pluripotency in a strain-dependent manner. Loss of Dmrt1 in 129Sv strain mice results in a >90% incidence of testicular teratomas, tumors consisting cells of multiple germ layers; by contrast, these tumors have never been observed in Dmrt1 mutants of C57BL/6J (B6) or mixed genetic backgrounds. To further investigate the interaction between Dmrt1 and genetic background we compared mRNA expression in wild type and Dmrt1 mutant fetal testes of 129Sv and B6 mice at embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5), prior to overt tumorigenesis. Loss of Dmrt1 caused misexpression of overlapping but distinct sets of mRNAs in the two strains. The mRNAs that were selectively affected included some that changed expression only in one strain or the other and some that changed in both strains but to a greater degree in one versus the other. In particular, loss of Dmrt1 in 129Sv testes caused a more severe failure to silence regulators of pluripotency than in B6 testes. A number of genes misregulated in 129Sv mutant testes also are misregulated in human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), suggesting similar etiology between germ cell tumors in mouse and man. Expression profiling showed that DMRT1 also regulates pluripotency genes in the fetal ovary, although Dmrt1 mutant females do not develop teratomas. Pathway analysis indicated disruption of several signaling pathways in Dmrt1 mutant fetal testes, including Nodal, Notch, and GDNF. We used a Nanos3-cre knock-in allele to perform conditional gene targeting, testing the GDNF coreceptors Gfra1 and Ret for effects on teratoma susceptibility. Conditional deletion of Gfra1 but not Ret in fetal germ cells of animals outcrossed to 129Sv caused a modest but significant elevation in tumor incidence. Despite some variability in genetic background in these crosses, this result is consistent with previous genetic mapping of teratoma susceptibility loci to the region containing Gfra1. Using Nanos3-cre we also uncovered a strong genetic interaction between Dmrt1 and Nanos3, suggesting parallel functions for these two genes in fetal germ cells. Finally, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) analysis to identify a number of potentially direct DMRT1 targets. This analysis suggested that DMRT1 controls pluripotency via transcriptional repression of Esrrb, Nr5a2/Lrh1, and Sox2. Given the strong evidence for involvement of DMRT1 in human TGCT, the downstream genes and pathways identified in this study provide potentially useful candidates for roles in the human disease.

Krentz, Anthony D.; Murphy, Mark W.; Zhang, Teng; Sarver, Aaron L.; Jain, Sanjay; Griswold, Michael D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Zarkower, David

2013-01-01

378

Sexual dimorphism of gonadal structure and gene expression in germ cell-deficient loach, a teleost fish.  

PubMed

Germ cell-deficient fish usually develop as phenotypic males. Thus, the presence of germ cells is generally considered to be essential for female gonadal differentiation or the maintenance of ovarian structure. However, little is known of the role of germ cells in the determination of the sexual fate of gonadal somatic cells. We have established an inducible germ cell deficiency system in the loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, Cypriniformes: Cobitidae), a small freshwater fish, using knockdown of the dead end gene with a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide. Interestingly, loach lacking germ cells could develop as either phenotypic males or females, as characterized morphologically by the presence or absence of bony plates in the pectoral fins, respectively. The phenotypic males and females had testicular and ovarian structures, respectively, but lacked germ cells. Gene expression patterns in these male and female germ cell-deficient gonads were essentially the same as those in gonads of normal fish. Our observations indicate that sexually dimorphic gonads can develop in germ cell-deficient loach. In contrast to the situation in other model fish species, the gonadal somatic cells in phenotypic females autonomously differentiated into ovarian tissues and also played a role in the maintenance of gonadal structure. On the basis of our observations, we propose two possible models to explain the role of germ cells in sex determination in fish. PMID:20855617

Fujimoto, Takafumi; Nishimura, Toshiya; Goto-Kazeto, Rie; Kawakami, Yutaka; Yamaha, Etsuro; Arai, Katsutoshi

2010-10-01

379

Sexual dimorphism of gonadal structure and gene expression in germ cell-deficient loach, a teleost fish  

PubMed Central

Germ cell-deficient fish usually develop as phenotypic males. Thus, the presence of germ cells is generally considered to be essential for female gonadal differentiation or the maintenance of ovarian structure. However, little is known of the role of germ cells in the determination of the sexual fate of gonadal somatic cells. We have established an inducible germ cell deficiency system in the loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, Cypriniformes: Cobitidae), a small freshwater fish, using knockdown of the dead end gene with a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide. Interestingly, loach lacking germ cells could develop as either phenotypic males or females, as characterized morphologically by the presence or absence of bony plates in the pectoral fins, respectively. The phenotypic males and females had testicular and ovarian structures, respectively, but lacked germ cells. Gene expression patterns in these male and female germ cell-deficient gonads were essentially the same as those in gonads of normal fish. Our observations indicate that sexually dimorphic gonads can develop in germ cell-deficient loach. In contrast to the situation in other model fish species, the gonadal somatic cells in phenotypic females autonomously differentiated into ovarian tissues and also played a role in the maintenance of gonadal structure. On the basis of our observations, we propose two possible models to explain the role of germ cells in sex determination in fish.

Fujimoto, Takafumi; Nishimura, Toshiya; Goto-Kazeto, Rie; Kawakami, Yutaka; Yamaha, Etsuro; Arai, Katsutoshi

2010-01-01

380

Gender differences in the induction of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations in rodent germ cells  

SciTech Connect

Germ cell mutagenicity testing provides experimental data to quantify genetic risk for exposed human populations. The majority of tests are performed with exposure of males, and female data are relatively rare. The reason for this paucity lies in the differences between male and female germ cell biology. Male germ cells are produced throughout reproductive life and all developmental stages can be ascertained by appropriate breeding schemes. In contrast, the female germ cell pool is limited, meiosis begins during embryogenesis and oocytes are arrested over long periods of time until maturation processes start for small numbers of oocytes during the oestrus cycle in mature females. The literature data are reviewed to point out possible gender differences of germ cells to exogenous agents such as chemicals or ionizing radiation. From the limited information, it can be concluded that male germ cells are more sensitive than female germ cells to the induction of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations. However, exceptions are described which shed doubt on the extrapolation of experimental data from male rodents to the genetic risk of the human population. Furthermore, the female genome may be more sensitive to mutation induction during peri-conceptional stages compared to the male genome of the zygote. With few exceptions, germ cell experiments have been carried out under high acute exposure to optimize the effects and to compensate for the limited sample size in animal experiments. Human exposure to environmental agents, on the other hand, is usually chronic and involves low doses. Under these conditions, gender differences may become apparent that have not been studied so far. Additionally, data are reviewed that suggest a false impression of safety when responses are negative under high acute exposure of male rodents while a mutational response is induced by low chronic exposure. The classical (morphological) germ cell mutation tests are not performed anymore because they are animal and time consuming. Nevertheless, information is needed to place genetic risk extrapolations on more solid grounds and thereby to prevent an increased genetic burden to future generations. It is pointed out that modern molecular methodologies are available now to experimentally address the open questions.

Adler, Ilse-Dore [GSF-Institute of Experimental Genetics, Neuherberg D-85758 (Germany); Carere, Angelo [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome 00161 (Italy); Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula [Institute of Genetechnology/Microbiology, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld D-33501 (Germany)]. E-mail: EiRi@uni-bielefeld.de; Pacchierotti, Francesca [Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, Rome 00060 (Italy)

2007-05-15

381

Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia Inhibits Germ Tube and Biofilm Formation by C. albicans  

PubMed Central

The virulence factors of Candida albicans are germ tube and biofilm formation, adherence to host tissues, and production of hydrolytic enzymes. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia extract on the germ tube and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Serum containing the three subinhibitory concentrations of leaf extract was inoculated with C. albicans, incubated, and viewed under a light microscope. Number of cells with germ tube was recorded and the results were analysed using Scheffe test for pairwise comparison. Biofilms were grown on coverslips in the presence of plant extracts and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Planktonic cells were grown in the presence of plant extract for 6?h and processed for electron microscopy (TEM). The crude plant extract significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the germ tube formation of C. albicans at 3.125 (85.36%), 1.56 (61.91%), and 0.78?mg/mL (26.27%) showing a concentration dependent effect. SEM results showed concentration dependent reduction in biofilm and hyphae formation. TEM results showed that the plant extract caused damage to the cell wall and cell membrane. DVA extract has ability to reduce virulence of C. albicans by inhibiting germ tube and biofilm formation through damage to the cell wall. Therefore, it has therapeutic potential.

Naicker, Serisha Devi

2013-01-01

382

[Testicular cancer - a matter of geography? : Epidemiology and etiopathogenesis of germ cell tumors].  

PubMed

More than 90?% of testicular tumors are germ cell tumors. There is no doubt that ethnicity is one of the single overriding etiological factors in the development of these tumors. White males living in western industrialized countries, particularly in northern Europe show the highest incidence rates, whereas black males in Africa show the lowest. These differences are the result of interaction of genetic factors and exogenous noxious agents. Some of these agents are chemical substances with an estrogen-like effect. Many exogenous substances have been blamed for causing testicular cancer, but clear epidemiological evidence is lacking for most cases. Some well-established risk factors prevail, such as cryptorchidism, familial association, gonadal dysgenesis (intersex) and germ cell tumor in the contralateral testis. In terms of importance, overalimentation appears to outweigh occupation. The development of germ cell tumors is assumed to have an intrauterine origin through defect gonocytes which evolve into atypical germ cells of unclassified intratubular germ cell neoplasms. The trigger event is, however, the appearance of isochromosome 12p, which makes these cells aggressive and results in overt invasive testicular cancer. PMID:24744184

Mikuz, G

2014-05-01

383

Identification of a novel male germ cell-specific gene TESF-1 in mice  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian spermatogenesis is precisely regulated by many germ cell-specific factors. In search for such a germ cell-specific factor, we have identified a novel mouse gene testis-specific factor 1 (TESF-1). Messenger RNA of TESF-1 was found only in the testis and its expression appeared to be regulated in a developmental manner. Further analysis demonstrated that the expression of TESF-1 was specifically in male germ cells, supported by the observation that we were not able to detect the TESF-1 mRNA from at/at homozygous mutant testes, which lack germ cells. The deduced amino acid sequence of TESF-1 contains a leucine-zipper motif, a potential nuclear localization signal, and two cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation sites. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged TESF-1 fusion protein was expressed in COS-7 cells and localized primarily in the nucleus. Taken together, these results indicate that TESF-1 is a novel male germ cell-specific gene, and its protein product may function as a nuclear factor involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis.

Fan Jun [Department of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States); Graham, Matthew [Department of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States); Akabane, Hiroto [Department of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States); Richardson, Laura L. [Department of Anatomy and Pathology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States); Zhu Guozhang [Department of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States)]. E-mail: zhu4@marshall.edu

2006-02-03

384

The Epigenetics of Germ-line Immortality: Lessons from an Elegant Model System  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic mechanisms are thought to help regulate the unique transcription program that is established in germ cell development. During the germline cycle of many organisms, the epigenome undergoes waves of extensive resetting events, while a part of epigenetic modification remains faithful to specific loci. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying these events, how loci are selected for, or avoid, reprogramming, or even why these events are required. In particular, although the significance of genomic imprinting phenomena involving DNA methylation in mammals is now well accepted, the role of histone modification as a transgenerational epigenetic mechanism has been the subject of debate. Such epigenetic mechanisms may help regulate transcription programs and / or the pluripotent status conferred on germ cells, and contribute to germ line continuity across generations. Recent studies provide new evidence for heritability of histone modifications through germ line cells and its potential effects on transcription regulation both in the soma and germ line of subsequent generations. Unraveling transgenerational epigenetic mechanisms involving highly conserved histone modifications in elegant model systems will accelerate the generation of new paradigms and inspire research in a wide variety of fields, including basic developmental studies and clinical stem cell research.

Furuhashi, Hirofumi; Kelly, William G.

2014-01-01

385

P granules extend the nuclear pore complex environment in the C. elegans germ line  

PubMed Central

The immortal and totipotent properties of the germ line depend on determinants within the germ plasm. A common characteristic of germ plasm across phyla is the presence of germ granules, including P granules in Caenorhabditis elegans, which are typically associated with the nuclear periphery. In C. elegans, nuclear pore complex (NPC)–like FG repeat domains are found in the VASA-related P-granule proteins GLH-1, GLH-2, and GLH-4 and other P-granule components. We demonstrate that P granules, like NPCs, are held together by weak hydrophobic interactions and establish a size-exclusion barrier. Our analysis of intestine-expressed proteins revealed that GLH-1 and its FG domain are not sufficient to form granules, but require factors like PGL-1 to nucleate the localized concentration of GLH proteins. GLH-1 is necessary but not sufficient for the perinuclear location of granules in the intestine. Our results suggest that P granules extend the NPC environment in the germ line and provide insights into the roles of the PGL and GLH family proteins.

Updike, Dustin L.; Hachey, Stephanie J.; Kreher, Jeremy

2011-01-01

386

Fertility and germline transmission of donor haplotype following germ cell transplantation in immunocompetent goats.  

PubMed

Transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells into syngeneic or immunosuppressed recipient mice or rats can result in donor-derived spermatogenesis and fertility. Recently, this approach has been employed to introduce a transgene into the male germline. Germ-cell transplantation in species other than laboratory rodents, if successful, holds great promise as an alternative to the inefficient methods currently available to generate transgenic farm animals that can produce therapeutic proteins in their milk or provide organs for transplantation to humans. To explore whether germ-cell transplantation could result in donor-derived spermatogenesis and fertility in immunocompetent recipient goats, testis cells were transplanted from transgenic donor goats carrying a human alpha-1 antitrypsin expression construct to the testes of sexually immature wild-type recipient goats. After puberty, sperm carrying the donor-derived transgene were detected in the ejaculates of two out of five recipients. Mating of one recipient resulted in 15 offspring, one of which was transgenic for the donor-derived transgene. This is the first report of donor cell-derived sperm production and transmission of the donor haplotype to the next generation after germ-cell transplantation in a nonrodent species. Furthermore, these results indicate that successful germ-cell transplantation is feasible between immunocompetent, unrelated animals. In the future, transplantation of genetically modified germ cells may provide a more efficient alternative for production of transgenic domestic animals. PMID:12801978

Honaramooz, Ali; Behboodi, Esmail; Megee, Susan O; Overton, Susan A; Galantino-Homer, Hannah; Echelard, Yann; Dobrinski, Ina

2003-10-01

387

Generation of a germ cell-specific mouse transgenic Cre line, Vasa-Cre  

PubMed Central

Summary Cell type-specific genetic modification using the Cre/loxP system is a powerful tool for genetic analysis of distinct cell lineages. Because of the exquisite specificity of Vasa expression (confined to the germ cell lineage in invertebrate and vertebrate species), we hypothesized that a Vasa promoter-driven transgenic Cre line would prove useful for the germ cell lineage-specific inactivation of genes. Here we describe a transgenic mouse line, Vasa-Cre, where Cre is efficiently and specifically expressed in germ cells. Northern analysis showed that transgene expression was confined to the gonads. Cre-mediated recombination with the Rosa26-lacZ reporter was observed beginning at ~e15, and was >95% efficient in male and female germ cells by birth. There was no ectopic activity in most adults, although some animals showed more widespread lacZ expression. This Vasa-Cre transgenic line should thus prove useful for genetic analysis of diverse aspects of germ cell function and gametogenesis.

Gallardo, Teresa; Shirley, Lane; John, George; Castrillon, Diego H.

2008-01-01

388

Caste determination in a polyembryonic wasp involves inheritance of germ cells  

PubMed Central

Social insects are characterized by the development of castes in which some colony members reproduce whereas others function as altruistic helpers. The conditional switch controlling caste formation usually involves environmental stimuli that act on processes that regulate development of individuals. Unlike other social species, embryos of polyembryonic wasps develop clonally to produce large numbers of genetically identical offspring and two morphologically distinct castes. All embryos in a clone exist in an identical environment, the host, yet develop into either reproductive larvae that mature into adult wasps or soldier larvae whose function is defense. Here, we report that caste determination in Copidosoma floridanum involves inheritance of germ cells. Expression of a C. floridanum homolog (Cf-vas) of the germ cell marker Vasa indicated that the B4 blastomere in four cell-stage embryos is specified as a primordial germ cell. Vas expression later in development further indicated that embryos developing into reproductive larvae possess primordial germ cells whereas embryos developing into soldier larvae do not. Ablation of the B4 blastomere resulted in most broods containing only soldiers whereas ablation of other blastomeres produced broods containing both castes. These results indicate that soldier larvae are obligately sterile and reveal a previously unknown role for germ cells in caste formation.

Donnell, David M.; Corley, Laura S.; Chen, Gang; Strand, Michael R.

2004-01-01

389

Female mice lack adult germ-line stem cells but sustain oogenesis using stable primordial follicles  

PubMed Central

Whether or not mammalian females generate new oocytes during adulthood from germ-line stem cells to sustain the ovarian follicle pool has recently generated controversy. We used a sensitive lineage-labeling system to determine whether stem cells are needed in female adult mice to compensate for follicular losses and to directly identify active germ-line stem cells. Primordial follicles generated during fetal life are highly stable, with a half-life during adulthood of 10 mo, and thus are sufficient to sustain adult oogenesis without a source of renewal. Moreover, in normal mice or following germ-cell depletion with Busulfan, only stable, single oocytes are lineage-labeled, rather than cell clusters indicative of new oocyte formation. Even one germ-line stem cell division per 2 wk would have been detected by our method, based on the kinetics of fetal follicle formation. Thus, adult female mice neither require nor contain active germ-line stem cells or produce new oocytes in vivo.

Lei, Lei; Spradling, Allan C.

2013-01-01

390

Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia Inhibits Germ Tube and Biofilm Formation by C. albicans.  

PubMed

The virulence factors of Candida albicans are germ tube and biofilm formation, adherence to host tissues, and production of hydrolytic enzymes. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia extract on the germ tube and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Serum containing the three subinhibitory concentrations of leaf extract was inoculated with C. albicans, incubated, and viewed under a light microscope. Number of cells with germ tube was recorded and the results were analysed using Scheffe test for pairwise comparison. Biofilms were grown on coverslips in the presence of plant extracts and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Planktonic cells were grown in the presence of plant extract for 6?h and processed for electron microscopy (TEM). The crude plant extract significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the germ tube formation of C. albicans at 3.125 (85.36%), 1.56 (61.91%), and 0.78?mg/mL (26.27%) showing a concentration dependent effect. SEM results showed concentration dependent reduction in biofilm and hyphae formation. TEM results showed that the plant extract caused damage to the cell wall and cell membrane. DVA extract has ability to reduce virulence of C. albicans by inhibiting germ tube and biofilm formation through damage to the cell wall. Therefore, it has therapeutic potential. PMID:24223612

Naicker, Serisha Devi; Patel, Mrudula

2013-01-01

391

Toll-like receptor 11-initiated innate immune response in male mouse germ cells.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) may infect the testis and impair testicular function. Mechanisms underlying testicular innate immune response to these two pathogens remain to be clarified. The present study examined the function of TLR11, which can be recognized by T. gondii-derived profilin and UPEC, in initiating innate immune response in male mouse germ cells. TLR11 is predominantly expressed in spermatids. Profilin and UPEC induced the expressions of different inflammatory cytokine profiles in the germ cells. In particular, profilin induced the expressions of macrophage chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), interleukin 12 (IL12), and interferon gamma (IFNG) through nuclear factor KB (NFKB) activation. UPEC induced the expressions of MCP1, IL12, and IFNG, as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA), IL6, and IFNB, through the activation of NFKB, IFN regulatory factor 3, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Evidence showed that profilin induced the innate response in male germ cells through TLR11 signaling, and UPEC triggered the response through TLR11 and other TLR-signaling pathways. We also provided evidence that local injection of profilin or UPEC induces the innate immune response in the germ cells. Data describe TLR11-mediated innate immune function of male germ cells in response to T. gondii profilin and UPEC stimulations. This system may play a role in testicular defense against T. gondii and UPEC infections in mice. PMID:24403550

Chen, Qiaoyuan; Zhu, Weiwei; Liu, Zhenghui; Yan, Keqin; Zhao, Shutao; Han, Daishu

2014-02-01

392

Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors: cellular classification and clinical and imaging features.  

PubMed

Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors (OMGCTs) are heterogeneous tumors that are derived from the primitive germ cells of the embryonic gonad. OMGCTs are rare, accounting for about 2.6% of all ovarian malignancies, and typically manifest in adolescence, usually with abdominal pain, a palpable mass, and elevated serum tumor marker levels, which may serve as an adjunct in the initial diagnosis, monitoring during therapy, and posttreatment surveillance. Dysgerminoma, the most common malignant germ cell tumor, usually manifests as a solid mass. Immature teratomas manifest as a solid mass with scattered foci of fat and calcifications. Yolk sac tumors usually manifest as a mixed solid and cystic mass. Capsular rupture or the bright dot sign, a result of increased vascularity and the formation of small vascular aneurysms, may be present. Embryonal carcinomas and polyembryomas rarely manifest in a pure form and are more commonly part of a mixed germ cell tumor. Some OMGCTs have characteristic features that allow a diagnosis to be confidently made, whereas others have nonspecific features, which make them difficult to diagnose. However, imaging features, the patient's age at presentation, and tumor markers may help establish a reasonable differential diagnosis. Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors spread in the same manner as epithelial ovarian neoplasms but are more likely to involve regional lymph nodes. Preoperative imaging may depict local extension, peritoneal disease, and distant metastases. Suspicious areas may be sampled during surgery. Because OMGCTs are almost always unilateral and are chemosensitive, fertility-sparing surgery is the standard of care. ©RSNA, 2014. PMID:24819795

Shaaban, Akram M; Rezvani, Maryam; Elsayes, Khaled M; Baskin, Henry; Mourad, Amr; Foster, Bryan R; Jarboe, Elke A; Menias, Christine O

2014-01-01

393

The degenerative fate of germ cells not conforming to stage in the pubertal golden hamster testis  

PubMed Central

In the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), pubertal establishment of spermatogenesis includes a defined period (d 26–30 of life) during which elongation of spermatids is selectively arrested. The resulting appearance of germ cell associations not conforming to stage and the phenomenon of desynchronisation-related germ cell degeneration are analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively by means of light and ‘retrospective’ electron microscopy. From d 26 onwards, the portion of tubules containing non-stage conforming germ cell associations gradually increases up to 37.5% of sectioned tubules on d 32. Concomitantly, the degree of desynchronisation rises to a maturational gap between spermatids and associated younger germ cells of 7 stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, i.e. of fully half a cycle. Beyond d 32, the frequency of desynchronised tubule segments decreases again. Some of the arrested round spermatids and, eventually, all belatedly elongating spermatids degenerate and are lost from the epithelium. Thus a regular maturation of advanced spermatids does not succeed under non-stage conforming conditions. Possibly it is not the desynchronisation between the associated germ cell generations and the spermatids by itself that impedes normal further development of the latter cells. Instead this may be due to the maturational delay of the stage-aberrant cells by several stages compared to the seminiferous epithelium as a whole and, especially, in relation to the stage-conditioned functional state of the neighbouring Sertoli cells.

MIETHING, ANDREAS

1998-01-01

394

TOPAZ1, a Novel Germ Cell-Specific Expressed Gene Conserved during Evolution across Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Background We had previously reported that the Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) approach was relevant for the isolation of new mammalian genes involved in oogenesis and early follicle development. Some of these transcripts might be potential new oocyte and granulosa cell markers. We have now characterized one of them, named TOPAZ1 for the Testis and Ovary-specific PAZ domain gene. Principal Findings Sheep and mouse TOPAZ1 mRNA have 4,803 bp and 4,962 bp open reading frames (20 exons), respectively, and encode putative TOPAZ1 proteins containing 1,600 and 1653 amino acids. They possess PAZ and CCCH domains. In sheep, TOPAZ1 mRNA is preferentially expressed in females during fetal life with a peak during prophase I of meiosis, and in males during adulthood. In the mouse, Topaz1 is a germ cell-specific gene. TOPAZ1 protein is highly conserved in vertebrates and specifically expressed in mouse and sheep gonads. It is localized in the cytoplasm of germ cells from the sheep fetal ovary and mouse adult testis. Conclusions We have identified a novel PAZ-domain protein that is abundantly expressed in the gonads during germ cell meiosis. The expression pattern of TOPAZ1, and its high degree of conservation, suggests that it may play an important role in germ cell development. Further characterization of TOPAZ1 may elucidate the mechanisms involved in gametogenesis, and particularly in the RNA silencing process in the germ line.

Baillet, Adrienne; Le Bouffant, Ronan; Volff, Jean Nicolas; Luangpraseuth, Alix; Poumerol, Elodie; Thepot, Dominique; Pailhoux, Eric; Livera, Gabriel; Cotinot, Corinne; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice

2011-01-01

395

Vasa Identifies Germ Cells and Critical Stages of Oogenesis in the Asian Seabass  

PubMed Central

Germ cells produce sperm and eggs for reproduction and fertility. The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer), a protandrous marine fish, undergoes male-female sex reversal and thus offers an excellent model to study the role of germ cells in sex differentiation and sex reversal. Here we report the cloning and expression of vasa as a first germ cell marker in this organism. A 2241-bp cDNA was cloned by PCR using degenerate primers of conserved sequences and gene-specific primers. This cDNA contains a polyadenylation signal and a full open reading frame for 645 amino acid residues, which was designated as Lcvasa for the seabass vasa, as its predicted protein is homologous to Vasa proteins. The Lcvasa RNA is maternally supplied and specific to gonads in adulthood. By chromogenic and fluorescent in situ hybridization we revealed germ cell-specific Lcvasa expression in both the testis and ovary. Importantly, Lcvasa shows dynamic patterns of temporospatial expression and subcellular distribution during gametogenesis. At different stages of oogenesis, for example, Lcvasa undergoes nuclear-cytoplasmic redistribution and becomes concentrated preferentially in the Balbiani body of stage-II~III oocytes. Thus, the vasa RNA identifies both female and male germ cells in the Asian seabass, and its expression and distribution delineate critical stages of gametogenesis.

Xu, Hongyan; Lim, Menghuat; Dwarakanath, Manali; Hong, Yunhan

2014-01-01

396

Mechanism of neutrophil chemiluminescence induced by wheat germ agglutinin: partial characterization of the antigens recognized by wheat germ agglutinin  

SciTech Connect

Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) stimulated neutrophils to produce significant levels of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Since WGA is known to bind N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) oligomers and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA), we attempted to determine which binding property of WGA is essential for induction of CL. The succinylated form of WGA (SuWGA), which is no longer able to bind NANA, was still able to induce CL. N-Acetylglucosamine at a concentration of 20 mmol/L almost completely inhibited WGA-induced CL production by neutrophils, whereas bovine submaxillary gland mucin, a potent blocker of NANA binding of WGA, failed to inhibit CL production. Lectins with the GlcNAc-binding property were examined for their ability to induce CL. Those that have higher valences and have a tendency to bind GlcNAc oligomers in the internal portion of glycoconjugates were able to induce CL, whereas those that have low valences and bind terminal GlcNAc of glycoconjugates failed to induce CL even at high concentrations. Attempts were made to characterize the neutrophil membrane proteins recognized by WGA. Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of 25,000 daltons were identified by a 50 mmol/L GlcNAc elution of WGA gels loaded with /sup 125/I-labeled neutrophil membrane proteins. Elution with 500 mumol/L GlcNAc trimer produced several glycoproteins of different molecular weights in addition to the glycoproteins of 25,000 daltons. /sup 125/I-labeled WGA and SuWGA were used for autoradiographic analysis of cell extracts of the neutrophils separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. WGA recognized multiple glycoproteins of different molecular weights, whereas SuWGA bound only a few of them. Glycoproteins of 25,000 daltons, probably corresponding to those identified by 50 mmol/L GlcNAc elution, were also recognized.

Ozaki, Y.; Iwata, J.; Ohashi, T.

1984-11-01

397

Primary Hyperparathyroidism  

MedlinePLUS

... PHPT. Rarely, parathyroid cancer causes PHPT. What is PRiMaRY hYPERPaRathYROiDisM? The body’s parathyroid glands—four pea-sized glands in the neck—produce parathyroid hormone (PTH). Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a condition in which an ...

398

Genetic Alteration of the c-myc Protooncogene (MYC) in Human Primary Breast Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the genomic organization of the c-myc locus (MYC) from 121 human primary breast carcinomas. Two types of alterations were observed: (i) the c-myc protooncogene appeared to be amplified 2- to 15-fold in 38 (32%) of the carcinoma DNAs and (ii) a non-germ-line c-myc-related fragment of variable size was detected in 5 primary breast carcinoma DNAs. With three

Chantal Escot; Charles Theillet; Rosette Lidereau; Frederique Spyratos; Marie-Helene Champeme; Jean Gest; Robert Callahan

1986-01-01

399

Non-viral transfection of goat germline stem cells by nucleofection results in production of transgenic sperm after germ cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

Germline stem cells (GSCs) can be used for large-animal transgenesis, in which GSCs that are genetically manipulated in vitro are transplanted into a recipient testis to generate donor-derived transgenic sperm. The objectives of this study were to explore a non-viral approach for transgene delivery into goat GSCs and to investigate the efficiency of nucleofection in producing transgenic sperm. Four recipient goats received fractionated irradiation at 8 weeks of age to deplete endogenous GSCs. Germ-cell transplantations were performed 8-9 weeks post-irradiation. Donor cells were collected from testes of 9 week-old goats, enriched for GSCs by Staput velocity sedimentation, and transfected by nucleofection with a transgene construct harboring the human growth hormone gene under the control of the goat beta-casein promoter (GBC) and a chicken beta-globin insulator (CBGI) sequence upstream of the promoter. For each recipient, transfected cells from 10 nucleofection reactions were pooled, mixed with non-transfected cells to a total of 1.5×108 cells in 3ml, and transplanted into one testis (n = 4 recipients) by ultrasound-guided cannulation of the rete testis. The second testis of each recipient was removed. Semen was collected starting at 9 months after transplantation for a period of over a year (a total of 62 ejaculates from 4 recipients). Nested genomic PCR for hGH and CBGI sequences demonstrated that 31.3%±12.6% of ejaculates were positive for both hGH and CBGI. This study provides proof-of-concept that non-viral transfection (nucleofection) of primary goat germ cells followed by germ cell transplantation results in transgene transmission to sperm in recipient goats.

Zeng, W.; Tang, Lin; Bondareva, A.; Luo, J.; Megee, S. O.; Modelski, M.; Blash, S.; Melican, D.T.; Destrempes, M.M.; Overton, S.A.; Gavin, W.G.; Ayres, S.; Echelard, Y.; Dobrinski, I.

2011-01-01

400

Involvement of Bcl2 family proteins in germ cell apoptosis during testicular development in the rat and pro-survival effect of stem cell factor on germ cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large part of germ cells die apoptotically during testicular development in rodents. In the present study, a wave of germ cell apoptosis was observed between days 10 and 30 of postnatal life by in situ 3?-end labeling and DNA fragmentation analysis. To explore the potential involvement of Bcl-2 family members in this process, the expression and localization of some

Wei Yan; Janne Suominen; Michel Samson; Bernard Jégou; Jorma Toppari

2000-01-01