The papers by Subramanyam (1996) and Kasanen, Kinnunen, and Niskanen (KKN, 1996) both consider why managers manipulate accounting accruals. Subramanyam finds that discretionary accruals are associated with several performance measures, and concludes that managers' accrual choices increase the informativeness of accounting earnings. However, a strong competing alternative is that the ‘Jones model’ systematically mismeasures discretionary accruals, so that they contain
Victor L. Bernard; Douglas J. Skinner
Customer relationship management (CRM) typically involves tracking individual customer behavior over time, and using this\\u000a knowledge to configure solutions precisely tailored to the customers' and vendors' needs. In the context of choice, this implies\\u000a designing longitudinal models of choice over the breadth of the firm's products and using them prescriptively to increase\\u000a the revenues from customers over their lifecycle. Several
Wagner Kamakura; Carl F. Mela; Asim Ansari; Anand Bodapati; Pete Fader; Raghuram Iyengar; Prasad Naik; Scott Neslin; Baohong Sun; Peter C. Verhoef; Michel Wedel; Ron Wilcox
Discusses the reliability of technology products that support knowledge management, particularly in higher education. Presents a conceptual framework for knowledge management technology, evaluates available software products, concludes that most products perform poorly, and offers recommendations for knowledge management strategies. (LRW)
Chapman, Linda D. R.; Coukos, Eleni D.; Pisapia, John
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features, methods of diagnosis and localization, and results of treatment in 105 patients with primary aldosteronism seen between 1969 and 1981. Coincident with the use of computed tomography (CT), /sup 131/I-6-beta-iodomethyl norcholesterol scans (NP-59), and postural response studies, the study group was temporally divided into pre-1976 and post-1976 groups, and subdivided into groups with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) due to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Our results indicate that aldosterone postural response studies and CT differentiate and localize APA and IHA reliably. Adrenalectomy is a safe and effective treatment for APA, whereas medical treatment alone is preferable for IHA.
Grant, C.S.; Carpenter, P.; van Heerden, J.A.; Hamberger, B.
This article presents an approach to enrollment management based on target marketing strategies developed from a choice-based segmentation methodology. Students are classified into "switchable" or "non-switchable" segments based on their probability of selecting specific majors. A modified multinomial logit choice model is used to identify…
Young, Mark R.
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…
\\u000a The need to manage depression more effectively in primary care is well established. Major depressive disorder is a common,\\u000a chronic but episodic and costly condition for which primary care physicians provide the majority of care (1). Among nonpsychotic\\u000a patients, symptom composition and severity differs little from adults presenting to psychiatrists (2). Patients who have chronic\\u000a medical conditions such as diabetes
Larry Culpepper; Peggy Johnson
Drawing on a year and a half of ethnographic research in three New York City small high schools, this study examines the role of the school in managing school choice and asks what social processes are associated with principals' disparate approaches. Although district policy did not allow principals to select students based on their performance,…
Jennings, Jennifer L.
This paper discusses the geography of parental choice in a rural locale and shows how a group of parents negotiated their way through the process of primary school choice. Using ethnographic data collected through interviews and observations with parents and staff from three rural primary schools in England, the research utilises Bourdieu's…
Walker, Marion; Clark, Gordon
Publishers of academic journals can be seen as service providers to authors, in addition to the traditional role of providers of research results to readers. The purpose of this study was to analyse how author choices of journal in construction management are affected by quality and service perceptions. Seven journals were identified and for each 2006 article, one author e?mail
Purpose – This research aims to explore the role of values, family, and non-family influences on career choice in management among a sample of US MBA students. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires from 109 students in a mid-sized university located on the west coast of the USA. The respondents were in the first semester of their MBA
Eddy S. W. Ng; Ronald J. Burke; Lisa Fiksenbaum
In the English National Health Service (NHS), patients are now expected to choose the time and place of treatment and even choose the actual treatment. However, the theory on which patient choice is based and the implementation of patient choice are controversial. There is evidence to indicate that attitudes and abilities to make choices are relatively sophisticated and not as straightforward as policy developments suggest. In addition, and surprisingly, there is little research on whether making individual choices about care is regarded as a priority by the largest NHS patient group and the single largest group for most GPs—older people. This conceptual paper examines the theory of patient choice concerning accessing and engaging with healthcare provision and reviews existing evidence on older people and patient choice in primary care.
Harding, Andrew J. E.; Sanders, Frances; Lara, Antonieta Medina; van Teijlingen, Edwin R.; Wood, Cate; Galpin, Di; Baron, Sue; Crowe, Sam; Sharma, Sheetal
In many coastal regions, oil spills can be considered as one of the most important and certainly the most noticeable forms of marine pollution. Efficient contingency management responding to oil spills on waters, which aims at minimizing pollution effects on coastal resources, turns out to be critically important. Such a decision making highly depends on the importance attributed to different coastal economic and ecological resources. Economic uses can, in principal, be addressed by standard measures such as value added. However, there is a missing of market in the real world for natural goods. Coastal resources such as waters and beach cannot be directly measured in money terms, which increases the risk of being neglected in a decision making process. This paper evaluates these natural goods of coastal environment in a hypothetical market by employing stated choice experiments. Oil spill management practice in German North Sea is used as an example. Results from a pilot survey show that during a combat process, beach and eider ducks are of key concerns for households. An environmental friendly combat option has to be a minor cost for households. Moreover, households with less children, higher monthly income and a membership of environmental organization are more likely to state that they are willing to pay for combat option to prevent coastal resources from an oil pollution. Despite that choice experiments require knowledge of designing questionnaire and statistical skills to deal with discrete choices and conducting a survey is time consumed, the results have important implications for oil spill contingency management. Overall, such a stated preference method can offer useful information for decision makers to consider coastal resources into a decision making process and can further contribute to finding a cost-effective oil preventive measure, also has a wide application potential in the field of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).
Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W.
The study aimed to determine the management philosophies of primary school principals. Stratification method of sampling was used in the study. The study sample consisted of 33 school principals and 132 teachers serving at primary education schools in Isparta in the academic year 2008-2009. The "Manager Philosophy Scale" developed by Tanriogen and…
We set out to determine whether expanding Medicaid managed care in Texas is the solution to the challenges faced by the state of meeting the healthcare needs of a rapidly growing Medicaid population while addressing its own fiscal limitations. We reviewed the Texas Medicaid program, the potential effects of federal healthcare reform, and the state political climate through the perspectives (advantages and disadvantages) of the primary stakeholders: patients, practitioners, hospitals, and insurers. Research was performed through online, federal and state regulatory, and legislative review. In addition, we reviewed government and peer-reviewed reports and articles pertaining to issues related to Medicaid populations, healthcare practitioners, and hospitals that serve them. Each primary stakeholder had potential advantages and disadvantages associated with the expansion of Medicaid managed care. We conclude that expanding Medicaid managed care, if done in a manner responsive to the needs of recipients, can meet enrollees' healthcare needs while controlling the state's costs. PMID:23038487
Reddy, Swapna; Finley, Marisa; Posey, Dan; Rohack, James J
This study describes patterns of choosing a provider and of consumer satisfaction among prepaid Medicaid beneficiaries in Monroe County, New York, and compares their level of satisfaction to that of fee-for-service Medicaid beneficiaries. Two interview surveys were conducted with AFDC and HR (general assistance) Medicaid eligibles, the first under the fee-for-service system servicing the Medicaid population, and the second 18 months after the introduction of a mandatory, prepaid managed care system for Medicaid beneficiaries. The results show significant ethnic differences in patient choice of provider and provider site. Given the choice, Medicaid beneficiaries switch from clinics as their usual source of care to private physician practice. Under prepayment, white Medicaid beneficiaries tripled their affiliations with private doctors, while "others" doubled theirs. The results also demonstrate higher levels of patient satisfaction with "humaneness of doctors" and with "quality of care" among those beneficiaries under prepaid care, than previously documented for those under fee-for-service. The evaluations of humaneness and quality of medical system may reflect the respondents' perceptions that the process of receiving care under prepaid, managed care is somehow different, no longer second class, and better that it was under the fee-for-service Medicaid.
Temkin-Greener, H; Winchell, M
There is growing realization that persons with bipolar disorder may exclusively be seen in primary (general medical) care settings, notably because of limited access to mental health care and stigma in seeking mental health treatment. At least two clinical practice guidelines for bipolar disorder recommend collaborative chronic care models (CCMs) to help integrate mental health care to better manage this illness. CCMs, which include provider guideline support, self-management support, care management, and measurement-based care, are well-established in primary care settings, and may help primary care practitioners manage bipolar disorder. However, further research is required to adapt CCMs to support complexities in diagnosing persons with bipolar disorder, and integrate decision-making processes regarding medication safety and tolerability in primary care. Additional implementation studies are also needed to adapt CCMs for persons with bipolar disorder in primary care, especially those seen in smaller practices with limited infrastructure and access to mental health care.
Kilbourne, Amy M.; Goodrich, David E.; O'Donnell, Allison N.; Miller, Christopher J.
Hypertension is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke and heart failure. This article discusses treatments for primary hypertension, including lifestyle interventions and drug therapy, and blood pressure measurement. PMID:24772796
This article offers a personal account of a primary mathematics teacher's current practice and how it developed through participation in a professional development programme. This alternative to fixed-ability teaching is based on creating opportunities for learners to exercise choice and on an understanding of mathematics as connected. Key…
Milik, Amy; Boylan, Mark
The neuronal activity in the primary somatosensory cortex was collected when monkeys performed a haptic–haptic DMS task. We found that, in trials with correct task performance, a substantial number of cells showed significant differential neural activity only when the monkeys had to make a choice between two different haptic objects. Such a difference in neural activity was significantly reduced in incorrect response trials. However, very few cells showed the choice-only differential neural activity in monkeys who performed a control task that was identical to the haptic–haptic task but did not require the animal to either actively memorize the sample or make a choice between two objects at the end of a trial. From these results, we infer that the differential activity recorded from cells in the primary somato-sensory cortex in correct performance reflects the neural process of behavioral choice, and therefore, it is a neural correlate of decision-making when the animal has to make a haptic choice.
Wang, Liping; Li, Xianchun; Hsiao, Steven S.; Bodner, Mark; Lenz, Fred; Zhou, Yong-Di
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168...PROVISIONS Definitions Â§ 440.168 Primary care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case...
...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168...PROVISIONS Definitions Â§ 440.168 Primary care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case...
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168...PROVISIONS Definitions Â§ 440.168 Primary care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case...
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168...PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.168 Primary care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case...
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168...PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.168 Primary care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case...
Objectives To determine the effect of using the NHS Choices website on primary care consultations in England and Wales. We examined the hypothesis that using NHS Choices may reduce the frequency of primary care consultations among young, healthy users. Design Two cross-sectional surveys of NHS Choices users. Setting Survey of NHS Choices users using an online pop-up questionnaire on the NHS Choices website and a snapshot survey of patients in six general practices in London. Participants NHS Choices website users and general practice patients. Main outcome measures For both surveys, we measured the proportion of people using NHS Choices when considering whether to consult their GP practice and on subsequent frequency of primary care consultations. Results Around 59% (n = 1559) of online and 8% (n = 125) of general practice survey respondents reported using NHS Choices in relation to their use of primary care services. Among these, 33% (n = 515) of online and 18% (n = 23) of general practice respondents reported reduced primary care consultations as a result of using NHS Choices. We estimated the equivalent capacity savings in primary care from reduced consultations as a result of using NHS Choices to be approximately £94 million per year. Conclusions NHS Choices has been shown to alter healthcare-seeking behaviour, attitudes and knowledge among its users. Using NHS Choices results in reduced demand for primary care consultations among young, healthy users for whom reduced health service use is likely to be appropriate. Reducing potentially avoidable consultations can result in considerable capacity savings in UK primary care.
Murray, Joanna; Majeed, Azeem; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Lee, John Tayu; Nelson, Paul
Objectives Offering antenatal sickle cell and thalassaemia (SCT) screening early in pregnancy can maximize the range of post-screening choices available, however these benefits should not be obtained at the expense of informed choice. This study examined whether offering this screening in primary care at the time of pregnancy confirmation compromises women making informed choices. Design Partial factorial, cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting 25 general practices in two socially deprived UK areas. Participants 464 pregnant women offered antenatal SCT screening. Intervention Practices were randomly allocated to offer pregnant women screening: i) in primary care at time of pregnancy confirmation, with parallel partner testing (n = 191), ii) in primary care at time of pregnancy confirmation, with sequential partner testing (n = 158), or iii) in secondary care by midwives, with sequential partner testing (standard care, n = 115). Main outcome Informed choice – a classification based on attitudes, knowledge and test uptake. Results 91% of woman underwent screening. About a third (30.6%) made an informed choice to accept or decline screening: 34% in primary care parallel group; 23.4% in primary care sequential and 34.8% in secondary care sequential. Allowing for adjustments, rates of informed choice did not vary by intervention group: secondary care versus primary care with parallel partner testing OR 1.07 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.02); secondary care versus primary care with sequential partner testing OR 0.67 (95% CI 0.36 to 1.25). Uninformed choices were generally attributable to poor knowledge (65%). Conclusion Offering antenatal SCT screening in primary care did not reduce the likelihood that women made informed choices. Rates of informed choice were low and could be increased by improving knowledge.
Brown, Katrina; Dormandy, Elizabeth; Reid, Erin; Gulliford, Martin; Marteau, Theresa
OBJECTIVE: This review synthesizes available evidence for managing clinically significant dysphoric symptoms encountered in primary\\u000a care, when formal criteria for major depression or dysthymia are not met. Discussion is focused on premenstrual dysphoric\\u000a disorder (PMDD) and minor depression because of their significant prevalence in the primary care setting and the lack of clear\\u000a practice guidelines for addressing each illness.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN:
Ronald T. Ackermann; John W. Williams
Purpose: Although multiple studies examine institutional transitions of learning management systems (LMS) or compare their merits, studies examining students' free choice of access on parallel LMSs for the same course are absent from the literature. In order to investigate usage in a free-choice situation, identical content was posted at the…
Porter, Gavin W.
The Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont and New York, USA and Quebec, Canada includes a large lake and watershed with complex management issues. A transboundary comprehensive management plan prepared for the lake includes 11 goals across many issue areas. We developed a choice experiment to examine public preferences for alternative Lake Champlain management scenarios across these issue areas. Five ecosystem
Robyn L. Smyth; Mary C. Watzin; Robert E. Manning
The management of the Matang Mangrove Wetlands in Perak State, Malaysia is under review. To assist decision makers in determining the optimal management strategy, a choice modelling application was undertaken to estimate the non-market values provided under different management options. Implicit prices for environmental attributes including the area of environmental forest protected, the number of bird species protected and the
JAMAL OTHMAN; JEFF BENNETT; RUSSELL BLAMEY
Since the 1980 Education Act, school caterers have been operating within a commercial context and therefore can only provide the foods that they know that children will eat. At the same time, nutritionists have been concerned that the greater degree of choice that children now have at lunchtime is resulting in the more frequent consumption of meals of poor nutritional
Carol Noble; Michael Corney; Anita Eves; Michael Kipps; Margaret Lumbers
Objectives To identify whether and how pharmacy faculty members are addressing the issue of medication management in primary or secondary schools in their teaching, research, and service activities, and to ascertain the extent to which they think the issue is an important one. Methods Four hundred ninety-nine faculty members completed a questionnaire inquiring about the research, teaching, and service activities in which they participated that related to medication management in schools. Results Only 33 subjects (6.6%) addressed the topic of medication management in schools in their courses; only 13 (2.6%) conducted research on the topic; and only 30 (6%) were involved in service in this area. On the other hand, 432 respondents (86.6%) believed that the issue of medication management in schools was either somewhat or extremely important. Conclusions There is a large gap between the number of subjects that think medication management in schools is an important topic and the number who actually include the topic in teaching, research, and or service.
Reutzel, Thomas; Watkins, Melissa
In contrast to primary open angle glaucoma, preventive interventions in primary angle closure disease (PACD) can sometimes be definitive. Data from randomized, controlled trials - and where this is not available - principles grounded in known biology, biological plausibility, logic, preferred practice and personal experience have been synthesized to develop explicit clinical algorithms for management of the spectrum of PACD. The mainstay of first-line intervention is usually a laser iridotomy: a commonly necessary but sometimes insufficient manoeuvre in PACD. The crucial stepwise considerations after iridotomy are: whether the angle is open or closed; whether the IOP can be medically controlled; the extent of PAS, and the presence of visually significant cataract. Indication for subsequent interventions--which may include iridoplasty, cataract surgery, trabeculectomy or phacotrabeulectomy--are herein based on an arbitrary threshold (180 degrees) for angle opening and extent of PAS following initial treatment. PMID:23009061
Thomas, Ravi; Walland, Mark J
This article aims to describe the experiences of district nurses regarding their work situation after the free-choice system in primary care in Sweden was implemented. The study comprised a total of 17 semi-structured narratives with district nurses. The narratives were analysed using manifest qualitative content analysis. One category,'being an underused resource', and three subcategories, 'being financially aware','being flexible' and 'being appealing', were identified. A focus on economic benefit can limit the cooperation and exchange of experiences within and between different care units, which could have a negative impact on the quality of care due to competition between different care providers. Underused resources and restrictions in terms of improvement skills have an impact on job satisfaction and the working environment, and affect the quality of care as a result. PMID:24800324
Hollman, Djana; Lennartsson, Sandra; Rosengren, Kristina
Managing student behavior is often looked upon as a sidebar in teaching. The lack of formal classroom management training in teacher education programs reveals the low importance placed on this skill. As a result, teachers are often very well prepared to instruct, but in terms of effectively understanding the behavior of students--particularly…
Acuna, Miguel T.
In the UK public service organisations are increasingly working together in new partnerships, networks and alliances, largely stimulated by government legislation, which aims to encourage 'joined-up' policy-making. This is particularly prevalent in health-care where local government, health authorities and trusts, voluntary and community groups are extending existing, and developing new, forms of partnership, particularly around Health Improvement Programmes and new primary care organisations. This paper explores two main aspects of how these new interorganizational relationships are being developed and managed and is based on research conducted in one case study locality. First, the new structures of partnership in primary care are mapped out, together with discussion on why these particular patterns of relationship between statutory and voluntary sector organisations have emerged, exploring both centrally and locally determined influences. Secondly, the paper explores the tensions associated with working within new policy-making and management structures, and how the additional demands of audit, performance measurement and the sheer pace of change, pose a potential threat to the partnership process. PMID:11560743
This paper reports the results of a pilot valuation study, which was undertaken to investigate whether the public located around the Severn Estuary derive positive economic values from its sustainable management. One hundred members of the public took part in a choice experiment, the results of which indicate that overall the public derives positive and significant values from sustainable management
Ekin Birol; Victoria Cox
A multicriteria decision-aid method, Electre II, was applied to the real choice process of a solid waste management system in the Uusimaa region, Finland. The criteria used were chosen by a supervision group. The weights of the criteria were defined by the managers of environmental and technical affairs of each municipality in Uusimaa, Finland. The use of the Electre II
J. Hokkanen; P. Salminen; E. Rossi; M. Ettala
Management and marketing professors classified multiple-choice questions in four widely adopted introductory textbooks in their respective disciplines according to the two basic cognitive levels of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives: knowledge and intellectual ability and skill. Eighty-seven percent of management and 65% of marketing questions measure the lower level, knowledge. Textbook test files classify the cognitive level of their questions,
David R. Hampton; Kathleen A. Krentler; Aleza B. Martin
This study applied a multinomial logit model to understand why farmers choose to burn, incorporate or remove rice straw in the field. Four hundred randomly selected farmers were interviewed in four major rice-producing provinces covering the 2009 wet and 2010 dry seasons. Results of the model with burning as the baseline category indicate farm type, location dummies, number of household members with older than 13 years, cow ownership and distance from farm to house as significant variables influencing farmers' choice of straw incorporation or removal over burning. Significant perception variables are the negative impacts of open-field burning, awareness of environmental regulations and attitude towards incentives. Other factors significantly influencing the decision to incorporate over-burn are training attendance and perceptions of effects of straw incorporation. Income from non-rice farming, total area cultivated, tenure status, presence of burning and solid waste management provincial ordinances are significant factors affecting choice to remove over burn. Continually providing farmers' training in rice production, increasing demand for rice straw for other uses, and increasing awareness of environmental laws and regulations are policy directions recommended. PMID:24519228
Launio, Cheryll C; Asis, Constancio A; Manalili, Rowena G; Javier, Evelyn F; Belizario, Annabelle F
The goal of this study was to explore the demographics and career influences (in terms of experiences and relationships) of students currently enrolled in accredited Construction Management (CM) programs in one Midwestern state. It was limited to one state due to the regional differences in construction shown by a 1996 Business Roundtable (BRT) study (The Business Roundtable, 2000). Numerous factors
Daphene Cyr Koch; James Greenan; Kathryne Newton
Much of the literature on risk perception and management has asked how society should resolve the question, ''How safe is safe enough'' There has been political and technical disagreement over the types of answers that may be given, as well as over the so...
R. Cantor S. Rayner
Hypertension causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, owing to its deleterious effects on the cardiovascular and renal systems. Primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of reversible hypertension, affecting 5%-18% of adults with hypertension. PA is estimated to result from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in two-thirds of patients, and from unilateral aldosterone-secreting adenoma in approximately one-third. Suspected cases are initially screened by measurement of the plasma aldosterone-renin-ratio, and may be confirmed by additional noninvasive tests. Localization of aldostosterone hypersecretion is then determined by computed tomography imaging, and in selective cases with adrenal vein sampling. Solitary adenomas are managed by laparoscopic or robotic resection, while bilateral hyperplasia is treated with mineralocorticoid antagonists. Biochemical cure following adrenalectomy occurs in 99% of patients, and hemodynamic improvement is seen in over 90%, prompting a reduction in quantity of anti-hypertensive medications in most patients. End-organ damage secondary to hypertension and excess aldosterone is significantly improved by both surgical and medical treatment, as manifested by decreased left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness, and proteinuria, highlighting the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperaldosteronism. Although numerous independent predictors of resolution of hypertension after adrenalectomy for unilateral adenomas have been described, the Aldosteronoma Resolution Score is a validated multifactorial model convenient for use in daily clinical practice.
Aronova, Anna; III, Thomas J Fahey; Zarnegar, Rasa
Hypertension causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, owing to its deleterious effects on the cardiovascular and renal systems. Primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of reversible hypertension, affecting 5%-18% of adults with hypertension. PA is estimated to result from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in two-thirds of patients, and from unilateral aldosterone-secreting adenoma in approximately one-third. Suspected cases are initially screened by measurement of the plasma aldosterone-renin-ratio, and may be confirmed by additional noninvasive tests. Localization of aldostosterone hypersecretion is then determined by computed tomography imaging, and in selective cases with adrenal vein sampling. Solitary adenomas are managed by laparoscopic or robotic resection, while bilateral hyperplasia is treated with mineralocorticoid antagonists. Biochemical cure following adrenalectomy occurs in 99% of patients, and hemodynamic improvement is seen in over 90%, prompting a reduction in quantity of anti-hypertensive medications in most patients. End-organ damage secondary to hypertension and excess aldosterone is significantly improved by both surgical and medical treatment, as manifested by decreased left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness, and proteinuria, highlighting the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperaldosteronism. Although numerous independent predictors of resolution of hypertension after adrenalectomy for unilateral adenomas have been described, the Aldosteronoma Resolution Score is a validated multifactorial model convenient for use in daily clinical practice. PMID:24944753
Aronova, Anna; Iii, Thomas J Fahey; Zarnegar, Rasa
. Acute renal failure in children requiring dialysis can be managed with a variety of modalities, including peritoneal dialysis,\\u000a intermittent hemodialysis, and continuous hemofiltration or hemodiafiltration. The choice of dialysis modality to be used\\u000a in managing a specific patient is influenced by several factors, including the goals of dialysis, the unique advantages and\\u000a disadvantages of each modality, and institutional resources.
Joseph T. Flynn
This paper describes some aspects of the organization and management of 14 schools that have been participating in the voucher demonstration in Alum Rock, California. The kinds of alternative programs being offered, the allocation of decision-making within the participating schools, and the effects of parent choice are briefly discussed. An…
Rasmussen, Roger L.
The choice of an appropriate dialysate calcium (Ca) concentration is crucial in the management of dialysis patients: an excessive Ca load has been associated with vascular calcifications, whereas Ca depletion can worsen secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and decrease bone mass. In haemodialysis (HD), Ca transfer by diffusion depends on the concentration gradient between dialysate and blood, and a gain of Ca
Fabio Malberti; Pietro Ravani
Purpose: The paper addresses the influence of culture and gender on the choice of a management career among men and women MBA students in Israel, the USA, the UK, Turkey, Cyprus, Hungary and India. The culture by gender comparison enabled an examination of five theories: two that focused on culture (Hofstede's and an application of Schneider's ASA…
Malach-Pines, Ayala; Kaspi-Baruch, Oshrit
INTRODUCTION We report a recently observed case of primary umbilical endometriosis (UE), with the main aim to discuss the management of this rare condition. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 24-year-old woman complained of a painful nodule on her umbilical region, bleeding with her menstrual cycle. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic superficial mass in the umbilicus and no signs of intra-abdominal endometriosis. Excision of the nodule under local anesthesia was performed. Histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of umbilical endometriosis. Neither symptoms nor signs of local recurrence have been observed after 24 months. DISCUSSION UE should be taken into account in differential diagnosis of umbilical disorders even in young nulliparous women with no typical symptoms of pelvic endometriosis. Although there is a substantial agreement about the necessity of surgery, treatment options are either local excision of the lesion or removal of the whole umbilicus with or without laparoscopic exploration of the peritoneal cavity. The decision should be tailored for the individual patient, taking into consideration the size of the lesion, the duration of symptoms and the presence of possible pelvic endometriosis. CONCLUSION Local excision saving the umbilicus may be the treatment of choice in patients with small UE lesions.
Fancellu, Alessandro; Pinna, Antonio; Manca, Alessandra; Capobianco, Giampiero; Porcu, Alberto
Pulmonary blastoma is a rare primary lung neoplasm, in that monophasic variety is far too rare. There are no specific clinical features seen for pulmonary blastoma; computed tomography and histopathology are diagnostic. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice; however, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be required in large and aggressive tumors.
This article describes a local involvement in a project to evaluate a remote system of wound management, incorporating the use of digital and mobile technology. It outlines how this involvement influenced the current system of 'tele wound care' (remote wound management) in a large community organisation. The system allows remote wound assessment, management advice and ongoing monitoring of wounds to ensure that the dressing choice remains appropriate and that timely wound care support can be provided to community nurses, practice nurses and GPs. PMID:24912832
Developments in information technologies have been impacting upon educational organizations. Principals have been using management information systems to improve the efficiency of administrative services. The aim of this research is to explore principals' perceptions about management information systems and how school management information…
The Lake Champlain Basin in Vermont and New York, USA and Quebec, Canada includes a large lake and watershed with complex management issues. A transboundary comprehensive management plan prepared for the lake includes 11 goals across many issue areas. We developed a choice experiment to examine public preferences for alternative Lake Champlain management scenarios across these issue areas. Five ecosystem attributes (water clarity-algae blooms, public beach closures, land use change, fish consumption advisories and the spread of water chestnut, an invasive plant) were varied across three levels and arrayed into paired comparisons following an orthogonal fractional factorial design. Two thousand questionnaires were distributed to basin residents, each including nine paired comparisons that required trading off two, three or four attributes. Completed surveys yielded 6541 responses which were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The results showed that although water clarity and beach closures were important, safe fish consumption was the strongest predictor of choice. Land use pattern and water chestnut distribution were weaker but also significant predictors, with respondents preferring less land development and preservation of the agricultural landscape. Current management efforts in the Lake Champlain Basin are heavily weighted toward improving water clarity by reducing phosphorus pollution. Our results suggest that safe fish consumption warrants additional management attention. Because choice experiments provide information that is much richer than the simple categorical judgments more commonly used in surveys, they can provide managers with information about tradeoffs that could be used to enhance public support and maximize the social benefits of an ecosystem management program. PMID:18262328
Smyth, Robyn L; Watzin, Mary C; Manning, Robert E
In this chapter, we review the EU’s approaches to the regulation of food traceability, which embrace a range of priorities\\u000a covering risk management, provenance of food by its place and nature of production, and the enabling of consumer choice. In\\u000a particular, the focus is on the reforms to food safety regulation and food law since 1997, and the way traceability
Alessandro Arienzo; Christian Coff; David Barling
Summary Twenty-six patients with perforation of sigmoidal diverticulitis and acute diffuse peritonitis were managed surgically by\\u000a onestage and multistaged procedures. Based on comparative results revealed in this study (Table 6), it is believed that primary\\u000a resection and anastomosis should be the procedure of choice in the management of this condition. Occasionally, a proximal\\u000a colostomy may be performed if the integrity of
N. V. Dandekar; W. J. McCann
Dunblane Primary School, Scotland, and Columbine High School, USA. Two headline tragedies that have led to trauma for their pupils and staff. Trauma that could be devastating because of the psychological impact and the practical requirements a crisis brings. Children's social and personal development can be negatively affected, their academic…
Presents initial findings of research into problems encountered by recently appointed (Welsh) primary headteachers. Focuses on findings from a 1994 study exploring headteachers' perceptions of three categories of problems: internal, external, and staffing-related. Internal and staffing problems posed the most serious challenges for beginning…
Bleeding symptoms are common in healthy children but occasionally may indicate an underlying congenital or acquired bleeding diathesis. The rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) comprise inherited deficiencies of coagulation factors I (congenital fibrinogen deficiencies), II, V, VII, X, XI, and XIII and combined factor deficiencies, most notably of factors V and VIII and of vitamin K-dependent factors. These disorders often manifest during childhood and may present with recurrent or even serious or life-threatening bleeding episodes, particularly during the neonatal period. Accordingly, primary care and other nonhematologist pediatric providers should be familiar with the clinical presentation and initial evaluation of these rare disorders. Bleeding manifestations generally vary within the same RBD and may be indistinguishable from 1 RBD to another or from other more common bleeding disorders. Serious bleeding events such as intracranial hemorrhage may be heralded by less serious bleeding symptoms. The results of initial coagulation studies, especially prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, are often helpful in narrowing down the potential factor deficiency, with factor XIII deficiency being an exception. Consultation with a hematologist is advised to facilitate accurate diagnosis and to ensure proper management and follow-up. The approach to bleeding episodes and invasive procedures is individualized and depends on the severity, frequency, and, in the case of procedures, likelihood of bleeding. Prophylaxis may be appropriate in children with recurrent serious bleeding and specifically after life-threatening bleeding episodes. When available, specific purified plasma-derived or recombinant factor concentrates, rather than fresh frozen plasma or cryoprecipitate, are the treatment of choice. PMID:24127475
Acharya, Suchitra S
Objective To examine whether low-income parents of children enrolled in the New York State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) choose managed care plans with better quality of care. Data Sources 2001 New York SCHIP evaluation data; 2001 New York State Managed Care Plan Performance Report; 2000 New York State Managed Care Enrollment Report. Study Design Each market was defined as a county. A final sample of 2,325 new enrollees was analyzed after excluding those in markets with only one SCHIP plan. Plan quality was measured using seven Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey (CAHPS) and three Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) scores. A conditional logit model was applied with plan and individual/family characteristics as covariates. Principle Findings There were 30 plans in the 45 defined markets. The choice probability increased 2.5 percentage points for each unit increase in the average CAHPS score, and the association was significantly larger in children with special health care needs. However, HEDIS did not show any statistically significant association with plan choice. Conclusions Low-income parents do choose managed care plans with higher CAHPS scores for their newly enrolled children, suggesting that overall quality could improve over time because of the dynamics of enrollment.
Liu, Hangsheng; Phelps, Charles E; Veazie, Peter J; Dick, Andrew W; Klein, Jonathan D; Shone, Laura P; Noyes, Katia; Szilagyi, Peter G
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease caused by progressive inflammatory destruction\\u000a of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, and ultimately cirrhosis. PSC occurs primarily in patients with underlying ulcerative\\u000a colitis and affects primarily young to middle-aged men. PSC is believed to be an autoimmune disease mediated by immune dysregulation\\u000a in patients with genetic susceptibility. One possible mechanism
Phunchai Charatcharoenwitthaya; Keith D. Lindor
Primary congenital glaucoma is a worldwide diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Although medical management is often a temporizing measure, early surgical intervention is the definitive treatment. As the abundance of surgical treatment options continues to expand, the authors will compare and contrast the available options and attempt to provide a consensus on surgical management.
Chang, Ta C.; Cavuoto, Kara M.
This paper reports on the development of a tool that generates randomised, non-multiple choice assessment within the BlackBoard Learning Management System interface. An accepted weakness of multiple-choice assessment is that it cannot elicit learning outcomes from upper levels of Biggs' SOLO taxonomy. However, written assessment items require…
Nineteen cases of primary malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system were reported. The clinical characteristics, diagnostic procedure and therapeutic method, especially concerning chemotherapy, were analysed. The following conclusions were obtained: 1) histological classifications and surgical procedures were not factors involved in prognosis. 2) radiotherapy was regarded as an effective but a palliative treatment. 3) combined chemotherapy for systemic malignant lymphoma, such as VEMP, VEP, COPP, seemed to be of little use for intracranial malignant lymphoma. 4) intra-arterial administration of high-dose methotrexate, ACNU and intravenous administration of high-dose cytosine arabinoside can be expected to be a useful chemotherapeutic approach. PMID:2215864
Hayashi, A; Kyuma, Y; Kuwabara, T; Fujitsu, K; Shinonaga, M; Yamaguchi, K; Sekido, K; Chiba, Y; Yamashita, T; Oda, M
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder, frequently asymptomatic. Notwithstanding, mild PHPT may cause adverse skeletal effects that include high bone remodeling, reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and increased fracture risk. The definitive therapy for symptomatic and asymptomatic PHPT (aPHPT) is parathyroidectomy, which has been shown to increase BMD. In patients who choose not to be treated surgically or have contraindications for surgery, medical therapy should include drugs designed to protect the skeleton and/or to lower serum calcium, such as bisphosphonates, hormone replacement, and/or calcimimetic agents. However, there are currently no fracture data for any of these options. Obviously, there is the need for larger randomized controlled trials with fractures as end-points to evaluate the efficacy of medical treatment. PMID:21985981
Francucci, C M; Ceccoli, L; Caudarella, R; Rilli, S; Vescini, F; Boscaro, M
Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is a rare malignancy accounting for <1% of genitourinary cancers, with a predilection for men and African-Americans. The sites and histology of urethral carcinoma vary by gender and anatomical location. Squamous cell carcinoma is most common among both genders but adenocarcinomas are noted in 15-35% of cases among women. Obstructive or irritative symptoms and haematuria are common modes of presentation. Clinical evaluation includes cystourethroscopy with biopsy and examination under anaesthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a highly effective method to image the primary tumour while def?ning the potential involvement of surrounding structures. Most tumours are localised, with regional metastases to nodal sites seen in up to 30% of cases in both genders, while distant metastases at presentation are rare (0-6%), but occur in up to 40% of cases with recurrent disease. Among men, the two most important prognostic factors are disease location and stage. Low-stage tumours (T1-2) and tumours involving the fossa navicularis or the penile urethra have a better prognosis than higher stage tumours (>T2 or N+) and lesions involving the bulbomembranous urethra. In women, in addition to stage and location, the size of the tumour has also prognostic implications. While surgery and radiation therapy (RT) are of benefit in early stage disease, advanced stage PUC requires multimodal treatment strategies to optimise local control and survival. These include induction chemotherapy followed by surgery or RT and concurrent chemoradiation with or without surgery. The latter strategy has been used successfully to treat other human papillomavirus-related cancers of the vagina, cervix and anus and may be of value in achieving organ preservation. Given the rarity of PUC, prospective multi-institutional studies are needed to better define the optimal treatment approach for this disease entity. PMID:24447439
Dayyani, Farshid; Hoffman, Karen; Eifel, Patricia; Guo, Charles; Vikram, Raghu; Pagliaro, Lance C; Pettaway, Curtis
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is mandated to promote improvements in automotive occupant protection by specifying vehicle crash-worthiness regulations in terms of forces and accelerations measured during test crashes. A primary focus of these Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) has been in the area of energy-management during the \\
Lorraine C. Yu-Hallada; Edward T. Kuczynski; Mark Weierstall
Abstract This paper presents a hybrid neuro-fuzzy methodology,to identify appropriate,global logistics (GL) operational modes used for global supply,chain management.,The proposed,methodological,framework,includes three main,developmental phases: (1) establishment of a GL strategic hierarchy, (2) formulation of GL-mode identification rules, and (3) develop- ment,of a GL-mode choice model. By integrating advanced,multi-criteria decision-making,(MCDM) techniques including fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (Fuzzy-AHP), Fuzzy-MCDM, and the technique for
National rural policy places the local primary school as a key resource within the rural community, yet as a consequence of countywide financial constraints, some small schools are undergoing reorganization, involving amalgamation, federation and school closure. This article considers the complexities involved in the workings of the English rural…
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the liver of unclear etiology, characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis of bile ducts. It primarily affects middle-aged men and is associated with 4-fold increased mortality as compared with an age- and sex-matched population. Progressive biliary and hepatic damage results in portal hypertension and hepatic failure in a significant majority of patients over a 10- to 15-year period from the initial diagnosis. In addition, PSC confers a markedly increased risk of hepatobiliary cancer, including cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, as compared with the general population, and cancer is the leading cause of mortality in patients with PSC. It is associated with inflammatory bowel disease in 70% of patients and increases the risk of colorectal cancer almost 10-fold. Despite significant research efforts in this field, the pathogenic mechanisms of PSC are still incompletely understood, although growing evidence supports the role of genetic and immunologic factors. There are no proven medical therapies that alter the natural course of the disease. Thus, liver transplantation is the only available treatment for patients with advanced PSC, with excellent outcomes in this population. PMID:23454027
Singh, Siddharth; Talwalkar, Jayant A
Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), a rare variant of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, may cause various neurological symptoms and signs. The best therapeutic strategy is still a matter of debate. High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) is the most active compound and should be used as the backbone for any chemotherapy applied. Several other chemotherapeutic drugs have been assessed in combination with HD-MTX, but no standard has yet been defined. Whole-brain radiotherapy is active against PCNSL, but typically does not confer long-lasting remission and is associated with significant neurotoxicity in many patients. The recently published G-PCNSL-SG1 trial has shown that consolidating whole-brain radiotherapy after HD-MTX-based chemotherapy does not prolong overall survival and may therefore be deferred. Combined systemic and intraventricular polychemotherapy, or high-dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation may offer cures to younger patients. Improving treatment regimens without adding significant (neuro-)toxicity should be the focus of ongoing and future studies. PMID:22594897
Roth, Patrick; Korfel, Agnieszka; Martus, Peter; Weller, Michael
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the liver of unclear etiology, characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis of bile ducts. It primarily affects middle aged men, and is associated with 4-fold increased mortality as compared to ageand gender-matched population. Progressive biliary and hepatic damage results in portal hypertension and hepatic failure in a significant majority of patients over a 10–15 year period from initial diagnosis. In addition, PSC confers a markedly increased risk of hepatobiliary cancer, including cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer as compared to the general population, and cancer is the leading cause of mortality in patients with PSC. It is associated with inflammatory bowel disease in 70% patients, and increases the risk of colorectal cancer almost 10-fold. Despite significant research efforts in this field, the pathogenic mechanisms of PSC are still incompletely understood, although growing evidence supports the role of genetic and immunologic factors. There are no proven medical therapies that alter the natural course of the disease. Thus, liver transplantation is the only available treatment for patients with advanced PSC, with excellent outcomes in this population.
Singh, Siddharth; Talwalkar, Jayant A.
The association between facility-level organizational features and management of mental health services was assessed based on a survey of directors from 219 VA primary care facilities. Overall, 26.4% of VA primary care facilities referred patients with depression, while 72.6% and 46.1% referred patients with serious mental illness and substance use disorders, respectively Staffing mix (i.e., physician extenders such as nurse
Amy M. Kilbourne; Harold Alan Pincus; Kathleen Schutte; JoAnn E. Kirchner; Gretchen L. Haas; Elizabeth M. Yano
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common disorder that requires close collaboration between the primary care physician and nephrologist. Most aspects of early CKD can be managed in the primary care setting with nephrology input. As the disease progresses, many aspects of care should be transitioned to the nephrologist, especially as the patient nears end-stage renal disease, when dialysis and transplantation must be addressed. PMID:24789588
Sakhuja, Ankit; Hyland, Jennifer; Simon, James F
Psychosis is broadly defined as the presence of delusions and hallucinations. It can be organic or functional. The former is secondary to an underlying medical condition, such as delirium or dementia, the latter to a psychiatric disorder, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. The identification and treatment of psychosis is vital as it is associated with a 10% lifetime risk of suicide and significant social exclusion. Psychosis can be recognised by taking a thorough history, examining the patient's mental state and obtaining a collateral history. The history usually enables a distinction to be made between bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other causes. Early symptoms often include low mood, declining educational or occupational functioning, poor motivation, changes in sleep, perceptual changes, suspiciousness and mistrust. The patient's appearance, e.g. unkempt or inappropriately attired, may reflect their predominant mental state. There may be signs of agitation, hostility or distractibility. Speech may be disorganised and difficult to follow or there may be evidence of decreased speech. Mood may be depressed or elated or change rapidly. Patients may describe abnormal thoughts and enquiry into thoughts of suicide should be routine. Disturbances of thought such as insertion or withdrawal may be present along with perceptual abnormalities i.e. illusions, hallucinations. Insight varies during the course of a psychotic illness but should be explored as it has implications for management. All patients presenting with first episode psychosis for which no organic cause can be found should be referred to the local early intervention service. In patients with a known diagnosis consider referral if there is: poor response or nonadherence to treatment; intolerable side effects; comorbid substance misuse; risk to self or others. PMID:21714473
Saunders, Kate; Brain, Susannah; Ebmeier, Klaus P
Psoriasis is a common chronic disfiguring skin disease. Its management depends on the extent of disease, sites affected, comorbidities, and patient's background or lifestyle. In the UK, psoriasis treatment starts in the primary care with range of topical applications, including steroids, vitamin D analogues and coal tar. However, psoriasis is associated with physical, psychological and metabolic comorbidities which could not be improved by topical therapy. The aim of this review is to address the challenge in managing these comorbidities within primary care. PMID:22067641
Aldeen, Taha; Basra, Mohammad
Fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread pain disorder commonly associated with comorbid symptoms, including fatigue and nonrestorative sleep. As in the management of other chronic medical disorders, the approach for fibromyalgia management follows core principles of comprehensive assessment, education, goal setting, multimodal treatment including pharmacological (eg, pregabalin, duloxetine, milnacipran) and nonpharmacological therapies (eg, physical activity, behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, education), and regular education and monitoring of treatment response and progress. Based on these core management principles, this review presents a framework for primary care providers through which they can develop a patient-centered treatment program for patients with fibromyalgia. This proactive and systematic treatment approach encourages ongoing education and patient self-management and is designed for use in the primary care setting.
Arnold, Lesley M.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Dunegan, L. Jean; Turk, Dennis C.
Background: Around 2 million people are living with or beyond cancer in the UK. However, experiences and needs following primary treatment are relatively neglected. Following treatment, survivors may feel particularly vulnerable and face threats to their identity. We present a conceptual framework to inform areas of self-management support to facilitate recovery of health and well-being following primary cancer treatment. Methods: To explain the framework, we draw on data from two studies: UK-wide consultation about cancer patients' research priorities and survivors' self-management in the year following primary cancer treatment. Results: Self-confidence may be low following treatment. Recovery includes rebuilding lost confidence. Support to manage the impact of cancer on everyday life was a priority. Self-management support included health professionals, peers, employers, family, friends and online resources. However, support was not always available and confidence to access support could be low. Conclusion: Cancer survivors may struggle to self-manage following primary treatment where confidence is low or support is lacking. Low confidence may be a significant barrier to accessing support. Supporting recovery of self-confidence is an important aspect of recovery alongside physical and psychosocial problems in the context of changing health care and cancer follow-up.
Foster, C; Fenlon, D
The majority of patients seeking medical advice for allergic diseases are first seen in a primary care setting. Correct diagnosis with identification of all offending allergens is an absolute prerequisite for appropriate management of allergic disease by the general practitioner. Allergy diagnostic tests recommended for use in primary care are critically reviewed in accordance with the significant workload in a primary care setting. Simplified pathways for recognition and diagnosis of allergic diseases are proposed, that should be further adapted to local (national) conditions. PMID:24628378
Jutel, M; Papadopoulos, N G; Gronlund, H; Hoffman, H-J; Bohle, B; Hellings, P; Braunsthal, G-J; Muraro, A; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Zuberbier, T; Agache, I
Conservation biology requires the development of practical tools and techniques to minimize con- flicts arising from human modification of ecosystems. We applied behavioral theory of primary and secondary repellents to predator management by using aversive stimulus devices (electronic training collars) and dis- ruptive stimulus devices (behavior-contingent audio and visual repellents) in a multipredator ( Canis lupus, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Ursus spp.)
JOHN A. SHIVIK; ADRIAN TREVES; PEGGY CALLAHAN
T he incidence of diabetes has increased exponentially over the last 50 years, meaning that the management of diabetes solely by specialist healthcare professionals is no longer feasible. Since the 1970s, primary and community healthcare professionals have increasingly treated patients with diabetes. Advances in diabetes equipment and new treatments have further enabled patients to be treated more conveniently and this
An estimated 64% of the adult population in the United States is either overweight or obese. Because obesity affects such a large percentage of the population and carries with it numerous health risks, it is essential that physicians treat obesity and encourage healthy-weight maintenance within the primary care setting. Effective weight management will require providing the appropriate physical environment for
James O. Hill; Holly Wyatt
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic disease that affects up to 20% of the population of Western countries and accounts for around 5% of a primary-care physician's workload. A better under- standing of how GERD affects many aspects of patients' lives may aid the management of patients in pri- mary care. We conducted a systematic review of the effect
Harley Liker; Pali Hungin; Ingela Wiklund
The incidence of diabetes has increased exponentially over the last 50 years, meaning that the management of diabetes solely by specialist healthcare professionals is no longer feasible. Since the 1970s, primary and community healthcare professionals have increasingly treated patients with diabetes. Advances in diabetes equipment and new treatments have further enabled patients to be treated more conveniently and this has
Describes a prototype computer interaction with primary school students in Hong Kong that uses Image Map Technology in English and Chinese. Discusses possible enhancements by comparisons with games on other Web sites and considers management issues including hardware, software, user training, and funding. (Author/LRW)
Cheung, Derek; Siu, Brian
Background: Most patients with osteoarthritis (OA) are treated by primary care physicians (in this article, pri- mary care physicians are family physicians and general internists). Objective: To describe and compare the self-reported practice patterns of family physicians and general inter- nists for the evaluation and management of severe OA of the knee, including factors that might influence re- ferral for
Lorrie A. Mamlin; Catherine A. Melfi; Michael L. Parchman; Benjamin Gutierrez; Deborah I. Allen; Barry P. Katz; Robert S. Dittus; David A. Heck; Deborah A. Freund
Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL), previously called primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL), is a rare and fatal ocular malignancy. PVRL is a subset of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), mostly a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The diagnosis of PVRL is often challenging as it often masquerades as chronic uveitis. PVRL requires invasive procedures for tissue diagnosis. Cytology/pathology, molecular pathology (immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor gene rearrangement), immunohistochemistry, biophysical technology (flow cytometry), and cytokine analysis (interleukine-10) are often required. The therapies that have been successful in systemic lymphomas have not been reliably effective in PVRL and PCNSL. Current management of PVRL involves aggressive chemotherapy (methotrexate and rituximab) and radiation therapy. PVRL normally responds well to initial treatment; however, relapse rate and CNS involvement are high, resulting in poor prognosis and limited survival. A professional team of medical experts in ophthalmology, oncology (particularly neuro-oncology), and pathology is essential for optimizing patient management.
Chan, Chi-Chao; Sen, H. Nida
Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) has a well-known potential as an indirect discriminative marker between patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and healthy subjects, but real-life experience and usefulness in young children is sparsely reported. Three nNO sampling methods were examined and compared as first-line tests for PCD. Healthy subjects, confirmed PCDs, consecutive referrals with PCD-like symptoms and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) had nNO sampled during breath hold (BH-nNO), oral exhalation against resistance (OE-R-nNO) and tidal breathing (TB-nNO) aiming to expand age range into infancy. 282 subjects, 117 consecutive referrals, 59 PCDs, 49 CF patients and 57 healthy subjects, were included. All methods separated significantly between PCD and non-PCD, including CF with reliability, in ranking order BH-nNO>OE-R-nNO>TB-nNO. Acceptability in children ranked in reverse order. A problematic high fraction (39%) of false positive TB-nNO was found in young children. An unexpected large fraction (6.8%) of PCDs had nNO values above cut-off. nNO is a helpful first-line tool in real-life PCD work-up in all age groups if the sampling method is chosen according to age. nNO can be misleading in a few patients with true PCD. Further studies are strongly needed in young children. PMID:20525709
Marthin, J K; Nielsen, K G
Bipolar disorder affects between 1.3 percent and 1.6 percent of the general population. According to available evidence, prevalence rates appear to be even higher in primary care settings. The diagnosis and management of patients with bipolar disorder are potentially complicated by a number of factors, including underdiagnosis due to the predominance of depressive symptoms; high levels of psychiatric comorbidity; a comparatively high suicide rate; continuing controversies in the pharmacological management of the disorder; and a potentially elevated cost-of-care contributed by the prescription of brand-name medications as well as laboratory monitoring at baseline and intermittently for lithium and atypical antipsychotics and serum levels for lithium and some anticonvulsants. All of these factors seem to result in an understandable hesitancy on the behalf of primary care clinicians to diagnose and assume care for these complex patients. Mental health professionals need to remain mindful of these issues when arranging dispositions for patients.
Sansone, Lori A.
Opinion statement The incidence of primary cutaneous melanoma continues to increase and is a growing public health problem. By virtue of its\\u000a metastatic potential, melanoma accounts for most of the deaths from cutaneous malignancies. Management of cutaneous melanoma\\u000a has undergone a paradigm shift in recent years. Clinical studies have furthered our understanding of the biology of this disease\\u000a and have changed
Jeffrey D. Wagner; Debra Bergman
Thyroid diseases are common, and most can be safely and effectively managed in primary care. Two of the most common reasons for thyroid function testing are fatigue and obesity, but the vast majority of affected patients do not have hypothyroidism. There is no plausible basis for the assertion that hypothyroidism commonly occurs despite normal thyroid function tests. In primary hypothyroidism all patients, except the elderly and those with ischaemic heart disease, can safely be started on a full replacement dose of thyroxine; the aim is to restore thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) to normal. Triiodothyronine (T3) has no role in the treatment of primary hypothyroidism. Subclinical thyroid disease should not be treated except in certain well defined situations. Its main importance lies in the increased risk of progression to overt thyroid disease. The development of hyperthyroidism is easily overlooked, and it is important to maintain a high index of suspicion, especially in the elderly. The most common causes are Graves' disease and thyroiditis (especially postpartum), and in the elderly toxic nodular goitre and amiodarone. Patients taking amiodarone should have their thyroid function checked every 6 months. Patients with overt hyperthyroidism should be referred for specialist management; beta-blockers and sometimes anti-thyroid drugs may be initiated in primary care. Most thyroid nodules, especially those detected incidentally on ultrasound scanning, are benign. Indications for referral include newly occurring nodules >1cm in diameter, painful nodules, and nodules that are increasing in size. PMID:20075403
Todd, C H
We prospectively assessed the safety and cost saving of a small-bore drain based procedure for outpatient management of first episodes of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Patients were managed by observation alone or insertion of an 8.5-F "pig-tail" drain connected to a one-way valve, according to size and clinical tolerance of the pneumothorax. All patients were reassessed after 4 h, on the first working day after discharge and on day 7. Patients still exhibiting air leak on day 4 underwent thoracoscopy. The primary end-point was complete lung re-expansion at day 7. 60 consecutive patients entered the study. 48 (80%) met the definition of large pneumothorax. The success rate was 83%. The 1-year recurrence rate was 17%. 36 (60%) patients were discharged after 4 h and 50% had full outpatient management. No severe complication was observed. The mean ± SD length of hospitalisation was 2.3 ± 3.1 days. This policy resulted in about a 40% reduction in hospital stay-related costs. The present study supports the use of a single system combined with a well-defined management algorithm including safe discharge criteria, as an alternative to manual aspiration or chest tube drainage. This approach participates in healthcare cost-savings. PMID:23766331
Massongo, Massongo; Leroy, Sylvie; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Vaniet, Fabien; Dhalluin, Xavier; Chahine, Bachar; Sanfiorenzo, Céline; Genin, Michaël; Marquette, Charles-Hugo
This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…
Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.
Abstract Objective To assess the current identification and management of patients with dementia in a primary care setting; to determine the accuracy of identification of dementia by primary care physicians; to examine reasons (triggers) for referral of patients with suspected dementia to the geriatric assessment team (GAT) from the primary care setting; and to compare indices of identification and management of dementia between the GAT and primary care network (PCN) physicians and between the GAT and community care (CC). Design Retrospective chart review and comparisons, based on quality indicators of dementia care as specified in the Third Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia, were conducted from matching charts obtained from 3 groups of health care providers. Setting Semirural region in the province of Alberta involving a PCN, CC, and a GAT. Participants One hundred patients who had been assessed by the GAT randomly selected from among those diagnosed with dementia or mild cognitive impairment by the GAT. Main outcome measures Diagnosis of dementia and indications of high-quality dementia care listed in PCN, CC, and GAT charts. Results Only 59% of the patients diagnosed with dementia by the GAT had a documented diagnosis of dementia in their PCN charts. None of the 12 patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment by the GAT had been diagnosed by the PCN. Memory decline was the most common reason for referral to the GAT. There were statistically significant differences between the PCN and the GAT on all quality indicators of dementia, with underuse of diagnostic and functional assessment tools and lack of attention to wandering, driving, medicolegal, and caregiver issues, and underuse of community supports in the PCN. There was higher congruence between CC and the GAT on assessment and care indices. Conclusion Dementia care remains a challenge in primary care. Within our primary care setting, there are opportunities for synergistic collaboration among the health care professionals from the PCN, CC, and the GAT. Currently they exist as individual entities in the system. An integrated model of care is required in order to build capacity to meet the needs of an aging population.
Parmar, Jasneet; Dobbs, Bonnie; McKay, Rhianne; Kirwan, Catherine; Cooper, Tim; Marin, Alexandra; Gupta, Nancy
The development of alloantibody inhibitors against factor VIII (FVIII) represents the most significant complication of haemophilia care. Inhibitors tend to develop early in the course of treatment in about 20-30% of patients with severe haemophilia who receive on-demand or prophylactic FVIII therapy. Many factors are associated with inhibitor formation, including disease severity, major FVIII gene defects, family history and non-Caucasian race, as well as age at first treatment, intensity of early treatment, use of prophylaxis and product choice. As these latter treatment-related variables are modifiable, they provide opportunity to minimize inhibitor incidence at the clinical level. Data from the Bonn Centre in Germany have indicated an overall success rate of 78% for immune tolerance induction (ITI) therapy, with a failure rate of 15% and with some treatments either ongoing (3%) or withdrawn (4%). Similarly, data from the G-ITI study, the largest international multicentre ITI study using a single plasma-derived (pd) FVIII/von Willebrand factor (VWF) product, have demonstrated success rates (complete and partial) in primary and rescue ITI of 87% and 74%, respectively, with 85% of poor prognosis patients achieving success. Favourable clinical results based on success rates and time to tolerization continue to be reported for use of pdFVIII/VWF in ITI, with pdFVIII/VWF having a particular role in patients who require rescue ITI and those with a poor prognosis for success. Data from prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies, such as RES.I.ST (Rescue Immune Tolerance Study), are eagerly awaited. Another factor to consider with ITI therapy is cost; preliminary data from an updated decision analytic model have provided early evidence that ITI has an economic advantage compared with on-demand or prophylactic therapy. PMID:24975701
Oldenburg, J; Austin, S K; Kessler, C M
Primary central nervous cell lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon neoplasm of the brain, leptomeninges, and rarely the spinal cord. Initially thought to be characteristically associated with congenital, iatrogenic, or acquired immunosuppression, PCNSL is now recognized with increasing frequency in immunocompetent individuals. The role of surgery is limited to establishing diagnosis, as PCNSL is often multifocal with a propensity to involve the subarachnoid space. A whole-brain radiation volume has empirically been used to adequately address the multifocal tumor frequently encountered at the time of PCNSL diagnosis. Despite high rates of response after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), rapid recurrence is common and long-term survival is the exception. Chemotherapy alone or in combination with WBRT has more recently become the treatment of choice. Most effective regimens contain high-dose methotrexate and or other agents that are capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. High response rates and improved survival with the use of chemotherapy has led to treatment strategies that defer or eliminate WBRT in hopes of lessening the risk of neurotoxicity attributed to WBRT. Unfortunately, elimination of WBRT is also associated with a higher rate of relapse. Combined chemotherapy and WBRT regimens are now being explored that use lower total doses of radiation and altered fractionation schedules with the aim of maintaining high rates of tumor control while minimizing neurotoxicity. Pretreatment, multifactor prognostic indices have recently been described that may allow selection of treatment regimens that strike an appropriate balance of risk and benefit for the individual PCNSL patient.
Schultz, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Bovi, Joseph, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)
This narrative review examines randomized controlled trials of the management of obesity in primary care practice, in light of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ decision to support intensive behavioral weight loss counseling provided by physicians and related health professionals. Mean weight losses of 0.1–2.3 kg were observed with brief (10- to 15-min) behavioral counseling delivered by primary care providers (PCPs) at monthly to quarterly visits. Losses increased to 1.7–7.5 kg when brief PCP counseling was combined with weight loss medication. Collaborative treatment, in which medical assistants delivered brief monthly behavioral counseling in conjunction with PCPs, produced losses of 1.6–4.6 kg in periods up to two years. Remotely delivered, intensive (>monthly contact) behavioral counseling, as offered by telephone, yielded losses of 0.4–5.1 kg over the same period. Further study is needed of the frequency and duration of visits required to produce clinically meaningful weight loss (>5%) in primary care patients. In addition, trials are needed that examine the cost-effectiveness of PCP-delivered counseling, compared with that potentially provided by registered dietitians or well-studied commercial programs.
Carvajal, Raymond; Wadden, Thomas A; Tsai, Adam G; Peck, Katherine; Moran, Caroline H
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) remain the commonest reason for acute consultations in primary care in resource-rich countries. Their spectrum and severity has changed from the time that antibiotics were discovered, largely from improvements in the socioeconomic determinants of health as well as vaccination. The benefits from antibiotic treatment for common RTIs have been shown to be largely overstated. Nevertheless, serious infections do occur. Currently, no clinical features or diagnostic test, alone or in combination, adequately determine diagnosis, aetiology, prognosis, or response to treatment. This narrative review focuses on emerging evidence aimed at helping clinicians reduce and manage uncertainty in treating RTIs. Consultation rate and prescribing rate trends are described, evidence of increasing rates of complications are discussed, and studies and the association with antibiotic prescribing are examined. Methods of improving diagnosis and identifying those patients who are at increased risk of complications from RTIs, using clinical scoring systems, biomarkers, and point of care tests are also discussed. The evidence for alternative management options for RTIs are summarised and the methods for changing public and clinicians' beliefs about antibiotics, including ways in which we can improve clinician–patient communication skills for management of RTIs, are described.
Stanton, Naomi; Francis, Nick A; Butler, Chris C
Objective: Healthcare service in Thailand is stratified into three levels with different facilities of care. This cross-sectional survey study described diabetes management, diabetes control, and late complication status among patients managed in urban primary health care clinics. Material and method: Thirty-seven primary health care units were randomly selected. Each unit enrolled up to 30 patients having been managed in the
Background\\/Aims Primary care is expected to develop strategies to manage obese patients as part of coronary heart disease and diabetes national service frameworks. Little is known about current manage- ment practices for obesity in this setting. The aim of this study is to examine current approaches to obesity management in UK primary care and to identify potential gaps in care.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobehavioral condition that affects most patients throughout their lives and is associated with occupational underachievement, psychiatric comorbidity, and substance abuse. Primary care physicians (PCPs) are at the forefront of helping patients with ADHD manage symptoms and overcome functional impairments. In this article, the problems of recognizing and effectively managing ADHD are explored through the presentation of 2 composite patient cases based on real patients in the authors' practices. Both cases highlight maturational changes in ADHD-related problems as patients develop through childhood, adolescence, and into adulthood. The striking differences between the cases serve to illustrate the highly varied clinical presentation and developmental trajectories of ADHD, moderated by family environment, patient characteristics, and life events. Emphasis is placed on understanding the crucial developmental turning points from early childhood through adulthood at which patients with ADHD are most likely to need increased support and specialized behavioral interventions. Diagnosis of adult ADHD is also reviewed, including an overview of potentially clinically relevant patient characteristics that should alert PCPs to the possible presence of ADHD and use of the World Health Organization's rapid 6-item adult ADHD Self-Report Scale as a screening device. The present discussion challenges PCPs to recognize the varied presentations of what ADHD "looks like," and describes the need for PCPs to establish and maintain working partnerships with families, patients, and mental health care professionals in their local communities to successfully treat ADHD across the lifespan. PMID:21904083
Goodman, David W; Lasser, Robert A; Babcock, Thomas; Pucci, Michael L; Solanto, Mary V
BACKGROUND: Chronic disease management requires input from multiple health professionals, both specialist and primary care providers. This study sought to assess the impact of co-ordinated multidisciplinary care in primary care, represented by the delivery of formal care planning by primary care teams or shared across primary-secondary teams, on outcomes in stroke, relative to usual care. METHODS: A Systematic review of
Geoffrey K Mitchell; Robyn M Brown; Lars Erikssen; Jennifer J Tieman
Traceability systems are information tools implemented within and between firms in food chains to improve logistics and transparency or to reduce total food safety damage costs. Information about location and condition of products is critical when food safety incidents arise. This paper uses a principal-agent model to investigate the optimal choice of voluntary traceability in terms of precision of information
Traceability systems are information tools implemented within and between firms in food chains to improve logistics and transparency or to reduce total food safety damage costs. Information about location and condition of products is critical when food safety incidents arise. This paper uses a principal-agent model to investigate the optimal choice of voluntary traceability in terms of precision of information
Diogo M. Souza Monteiro; Julie A. Caswell
Objective To establish which attributes of conservative treatments for prostate cancer are most important to men. Design Discrete choice experiment. Setting Two London hospitals. Participants 129 men with non-metastatic prostate cancer, mean age 70 years; 69 of 118 (58%) with T stage 1 or 2 cancer at diagnosis. Main outcome measures Men's preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of
Mark Sculpher; Stirling Bryan; Pat Fry; Patricia de Winter; Heather Payne; Mark Emberton
The integrated natural disaster risk management (INDRM) has become an important strategy and model in contemporary disaster management. It is a comprehensive and integrated approach that embraces the management of all types of natural disasters and all phases of the disaster management cycle, focuses on disaster hazard and vulnerability, i.e. the underlying conditions of disasters, and emphasizes a multi-level, multi-dimensional,
Jiquan Zhang; Norio Okada; Hirokazu Tatano
Self-managed learning groups are regularly used in higher education. However, there is little direct evidence as to strategies that can enhance their efficacy, or the factors that influence students' engagement with the process of self-management. If students are expected to manage their out-of-class collaborative learning experiences, then…
Lizzio, Alf; Wilson, Keithia
Wealth Management (WM) is an advanced type of financial planning that provides high net worth individuals (HNWI) and families with private financial services, such as asset management, banking, estate planning, investment management, and legal resources. The goal of WM is sustaining and growing long-term wealth of clients. Financial service providers in Europe and North America have been providing WM services
Vincent F. Yu; Hsiu-I Ting
Physicians and administrators have little hope of responding appropriately to the challenges of the health care market without data to support decision making. Desired Mayo Clinic s Primary Care Practice was to have the ability to access and integrate data from many platforms in many formats from the Enterprise and bring this information to the desktop in a robust interactive display. The solution was delivery of the data to the Web through an interface using Java with access to Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) tools for summarization, graphical display and reporting. Communicating major trends, assisting in planning and management, visually displaying alerts in summary data and individual patients that are all possible through an easy-to-use Web application. To really understand what the summarized data represents, the physicians must be able to drill down, download and explore their own detail data. A pilot project was developed to test the capabilities of the development environment, the acceptance Web tools, the ability to deliver timely information and the methodology of using a multi-dimensional database to define the data. The Family Medicine practice at four separate locations was chosen for the demonstration project. Two practices in Rochester, MN and practices in two smaller towns, totaling 50 physicians and administrative personnel, were the first clients using the system. A cross-functional team examined a variety of development issues such as data sources, data definitions, levels of security, data analysis types, and style of display. Demonstrations of the prototype met with an overwhelming positive response from administrators and department leaders. The Physician Patient Management solution collects, analyzes, and communicates the information needed to meet today s health care challenges. PMID:11080032
Van Grevenhof P; Rahman; Cabanela; Naessens; Lassig
Post-Keynesian economics is one of the many heterodox schools of thought in economics, such as the Marxist, Institutionalist\\u000a and neo-Ricardian schools. Its members mainly deal with macroeconomic issues, but post-Keynesian economics also has a theory\\u000a of the firm and a theory of consumer choice. As with most other heterodox variants of economics, post-Keynesian economics\\u000a is based on four presuppositions: its
Objective: To describe the cost savings achieved in a health maintenance organization (HMO)-sponsored primary care-based case management and disease management programs. Methods: The HMO-sponsored programs recruited patients in the primary care setting and relied on clinical guidelines and HMO-employed patient education nurses and case management nurses. Total per member per month (PMPM) charges for medical services and changes in selected
Jaan Sidorov; Franz Joseph Fisher; Sabrina Girolami; Otto Wolke
The most appropriate primary outcome measure for reproductive medicine has been discussed frequently. In 2003 the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology recommended that the outcome measure of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and non-ART should be singleton live birth. Although live birth is indeed the aim of clinical practice, and there is no discussion that it should be reported in infertility trials, we hereby provide arguments that plead for using ongoing pregnancy as the primary outcome in such trials. We feel that ongoing pregnancy best serves the many purposes of a primary outcome and best reflects the effectiveness of a treatment. PMID:24786739
Braakhekke, Miriam; Kamphuis, Esme I; Dancet, Eline A; Mol, Femke; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben W
Management methods that are said to make American companies “Japanese in style” are examined. The notion that Japanese organizational performance can be duplicated by adopting Japanese management methods is disputed. It is suggested that management methods operate through their influence on the nature of the employee-organization relationship. Since this relationship is influenced by many factors other than management methods, it
The basic philosophy of organization and management of a learning resource center is to maximize the effectiveness/efficiency for the use of all resources and establish proper management control and cost effectiveness. Qualities should include accountability, consistent service, reliable professional consulting, and standardized procedures. A…
We reviewed the literature on the detection and management of mental health disorders within the context of pediatric primary care. Pediatricians have displayed a low sensitivity and high specificity in research investigating the detection of mental health impairment in children. Active management efforts characterize approaches to identified cases with more recently trained primary care pediatricians displaying a wider range of
E. Wayne Holden; Wendy B. Schuman
Critics have suggested communitarizing the European Union's common foreign and security policy in order to increase its effectiveness. Drawing on rationalist theories of regimes and institutional choice, this paper argues that the delegation of competencies to the EU's supranational institutions is unlikely to make European crisis management more effective. Crisis management policy is best understood as a fast co-ordination game
Background In modern life science research it is very important to have an efficient management of high throughput primary lab data. To realise such an efficient management, four main aspects have to be handled: (I) long term storage, (II) security, (III) upload and (IV) retrieval. Findings In this paper we define central requirements for a primary lab data management and discuss aspects of best practices to realise these requirements. As a proof of concept, we introduce a pipeline that has been implemented in order to manage primary lab data at the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK). It comprises: (I) a data storage implementation including a Hierarchical Storage Management system, a relational Oracle Database Management System and a BFiler package to store primary lab data and their meta information, (II) the Virtual Private Database (VPD) implementation for the realisation of data security and the LIMS Light application to (III) upload and (IV) retrieve stored primary lab data. Conclusions With the LIMS Light system we have developed a primary data management system which provides an efficient storage system with a Hierarchical Storage Management System and an Oracle relational database. With our VPD Access Control Method we can guarantee the security of the stored primary data. Furthermore the system provides high performance upload and download and efficient retrieval of data.
Objective. To describe the attitudes and approaches of primary care pediatricians in the identifi- cation and management of postpartum and other mater- nal depression. Methods. A national survey of randomly selected pri- mary care pediatricians reported their management of the last recalled case of postpartum or other maternal depres- sion, barriers to care, their attitudes about recognition and management, confidence
Ardis L. Olson; Kathi J. Kemper; Kelly J. Kelleher; Cristina S. Hammond; Barry S. Zuckerman; Allen J. Dietrich
Primary school children have low resistance to diseases. In order to live a healthy life, they should be equipped with health literacy skills. Effective primary school health services can only be achieved with the collaboration of related parties. Turkish schools generally do not employ permanent health personnel, and school health services are generally taken to be synonymous with health screening.
I. Bak?r Arabaci
LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe nutritional needs of an infant with primary oxalosis (PHO) while on dialysis and after kidney\\/liver transplantation.Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PHO) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism in which excessive oxalate synthesis and lack of excretion cause nephrocalcinosis, renal failure and systemic oxalate deposition. Infants with PHO have a significant morbidity and mortality,
J. DeVee; T. Bunchman; R. Parekh; J. Kerestes-Smith
In pool type FBRs primary sodium pumps (PSP), operating in parallel, circulate the sodium through the core to remove the nuclear\\u000a heat. The pumps suck the sodium from cold pool and supply it to a spherical header at the bottom; subsequently the sodium\\u000a flows through pipes from the spherical header into the grid plate, before entering the core subassemblies. Under
R. Srinivasan; P. Chellapandi; S. C. Chetal
The launch strategy for a new product is a crucial decision issue for marketing managers. Little agreement exists however about the content of a launch strategy and about the individual and combined effects of its constituent parts on new-product success. In this study, the relative importance of some launch strategy tactics (pricing, promotion, product assortment and competitive advantage) on the
Jan P. L. Schoormans
Globalization has led to an increased emphasis on cultural diversity and its influences on personal, social, and organizational practices. As the world becomes a smaller place, the potential for conflict in our daily interactions is increasing. Research investigating the influence of culture on conflict management and resolution behaviors has demonstrated that individualism and collectivism do indeed influence a person's style
Ritu Kaushal; Catherine T. Kwantes
Due to initiatives such as the clean development mechanism (CDM), reducing greenhouse gas emissions for a developing country can offer an important route to attracting investment in a variety of qualifying project areas, including waste management. To date CDM projects have been largely confined to schemes that control emission from landfill, but projects that avoid landfilling are beginning to be
J. R. Barton; I. Issaias; E. I. Stentiford
The article combines consideration of the range of contextual factors that impact on management strategy and HR in the post-merger period (such as corporate structures and cultures, pressures from shareholders and regulatory and legal environments at national and international level) with an examination of the interests and power of various groups of actors within the firm. Specifically, we apply a
Chris Rees; Tony Edwards
Students with diabetes deserve a school nurse who can effectively manage the disease. Tensions between the school and families sometimes emerge when a child with diabetes goes to school. To resolve these tensions in Colorado, stakeholders collaborated to implement a statewide program to meet the needs of students with diabetes. Colorado school…
Bobo, Nichole; Wyckoff, Leah; Patrick, Kathleen; White, Cathy; Glass, Sue; Carlson, Jessie Parker; Perreault, Christine
Patients with chronic conditions make day-to-day decisions about—self- manage—their illnesses. This reality introduces a new chronic disease para- digm: the patient-professional partnership, involving collaborative care and self-management education. Self-management education complements tra- ditional patient education in supporting patients to live the best possible quality of life with their chronic condition. Whereas traditional patient edu- cation offers information and technical skills,
Thomas Bodenheimer; Kate Lorig; Halsted Holman; Kevin Grumbach
Recognition of food components that induce functional gut symptoms in patient's functional bowel disorders (FBD) has been challenging. Food directly or indirectly provides considerable afferent input into the enteric nervous system. There is an altered relationship between the afferent input and perception/efferent response in FBD. Defining the nature of food-related stimuli may provide a means of minimizing such an input and gut symptoms. Using this premise, reducing the intake of FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols)--poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that, by virtue of their small molecular size and rapid fermentability, will distend the intestinal lumen with liquid and gas--improves symptoms in the majority of patients. Well-developed methodologies to deliver the diet via dietician-led education are available. Another abundant source of afferent input is natural and added food chemicals (such as salicylates, amines, and glutamates). Studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the low food chemical dietary approach. A recent placebo-controlled trial of FODMAP-poor gluten provided the first valid evidence that non-celiac gluten intolerance might actually exist, but its prevalence and underlying mechanisms require elucidation. Food choice via the low FODMAP and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for functional gut symptoms. PMID:22488077
Gibson, Peter R; Shepherd, Susan J
The right mix of policy, institutional arrangements and use of technology provides the framework for a country's approach to disaster mitigation. Worldwide, there has been a shift away from a strictly 'top-down' approach relying on government alone, to a combination of 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches. The aim is to enhance the indigenous coping mechanisms of vulnerable communities; draw on their cooperative spirit and energy; and empower them through appropriate information and contextual knowledge to mitigate natural disasters. In light of this, the paper examines India's use of space technology in its disaster management efforts. Poverty alleviation and disaster management are almost inseparable in many parts of the country, as vulnerability to natural disasters is closely aligned with poverty. Addressing these issues together requires integrated knowledge systems. The paper examines how knowledge inputs from space technology have strengthened the national resolve to combat natural disasters in conjunction with alleviating rural poverty. PMID:18498370
Srivastava, Sanjay K
AIM: To assess the effectiveness of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) on glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and selected self-reported measures. METHODS: We compared patients who received a diabetes self-care behavioral intervention, the CDSMP developed at the Stanford University, with controls who received usual care on their HbA1c and selected self-reported measures, including diabetes self-care activities, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), pain and fatigue. The subjects were a subset of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that took place at seven regional clinics of a university-affiliated integrated healthcare system of a multi-specialty group practice between January 2009 and June 2011. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from randomization to 12 mo. Data were analyzed using multilevel statistical models and linear mixed models to provide unbiased estimates of intervention effects. RESULTS: Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were generally comparable between the two groups. The average baseline HbA1c values in the CDSMP and control groups were 9.4% and 9.2%, respectively. Significant reductions in HbA1c were seen at 12 mo for the two groups, with adjusted changes around 0.6% (P < 0.0001), but the reductions did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.885). Few significant differences were observed in participants’ diabetes self-care activities. No significant differences were observed in the participants’ HRQOL, pain, or fatigue measures. CONCLUSION: The CDSMP intervention may not lower HbA1c any better than good routine care in an integrated healthcare system. More research is needed to understand the benefits of self-management programs in primary care in different settings and populations.
Forjuoh, Samuel N; Ory, Marcia G; Jiang, Luohua; Vuong, Ann M; Bolin, Jane N
Nesting colonial waterbirds along the Atlantic Coast of the United States face a number of landscape-level threats including human disturbance, mammalian predator expansion, and habitat alteration. There have been changes from 1977 to the mid-1990s in use of nesting habitats and populations of a number of seabird species of concern in the region, including black skimmers Rynchops niger Linnaeaus, common terns Sterna hirundo Linnaeaus, gull-billed terns Sterna nilotica Linnaeaus, least terns Sterna antillarum Lesson, royal terns Sterna maxima Boddaert, and sandwich terns Sterna sandvicensis Cabot. These species form colonies primarily on the following habitat types: large, sandy barrier or shoal islands, natural estuarine or bay islands (mostly marsh), man-made islands of dredged deposition materials (from navigation channels), and the mainland. Significant changes in the use of the dredged material islands have occurred for these species in New Jersey and North Carolina, but not in Virginia. Population declines and changes in bird habitat use appear to be at least partially associated with the conditions and management of the existing dredged material islands, coastal policy changes associated with creating new dredged material islands, and competing demands for sand for beach augmentation by coastal communities. As these and other coastal habitats become less suitable for colonial waterbirds, other manmade sites, such as bridges and buildings have become increasingly more important. In regions with intense recreational demands, coastal wildlife managers need to take a more aggressive role in managing natural and man-made habitats areas and as stakeholders in the decision-making process involving dredged materials and beach sand allocation.
Erwin, R.M.; Allen, D.H.; Jenkins, D.
Megaureter with urolithiasis is an uncommon entity. These stones may be located in the kidney, ureter or both. Management of these cases is difficult due to free mobility and stone multiplicity. As there are no guidelines about the management, the surgeon usually manages according to her/his experience, stone location or burden. The goal is to remove the stones and reimplant the ureters in the same session, if possible. We describe single-stage management of one such patient who presented with bilateral multiple ureteral and left renal stones. The left ureteral stones were first flushed into the kidney by the ureteroscope. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy was then performed and stones were removed intact. The patient was then turned supine and the location of right ureteral stones was confirmed by fluoroscopy in the same location (right lower ureter). The patient underwent successful bilateral ureteroneocystostomy with simultaneous removal of right lower ureteral stones. PMID:24879732
Kumar, Arvind; Goel, Apul; Singh, Manmeet; Sankwar, Satya Narayan
Introduction: Primary care physicians (PCPs) treat a high proportion of chronic pain patients but often lack training about how to assess and address issues associated with prescribing opioids when they are an appropriate component of therapy. The result may be that they may avoid treating these patients, which can lead to an undertreatment of…
Chiauzzi, Emil; Trudeau, Kimberlee J.; Zacharoff, Kevin; Bond, Kathleen
Recently, advances in information technology and an increased willingness to share primary biodiversity data are enabling unprecedented access to it. By combining presences of species data with electronic cartography via a number of algorithms, estimating niches of species and their areas of distribution becomes feasible at resolutions one to three orders of magnitude higher than it was possible a few
Jorge Soberon; T. Peterson
Two children with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) underwent vitrectomy and lensectomy via the pars plana to remove the fibrovascular stalk. Postoperatively the eyes were quiet, only a slight vitreous haze obscured the fundus view in the immediate postoperative period, and the stumps of the stalks retracted. Early surgical treatment of PHPV may prevent later serious complications. Images
Peyman, G A; Sanders, D R; Nagpal, K C
Isolated primary nocturnal enuresis is a functional disorder Its conventional treatment is based around lifestyle changes, rehabilitation with an alarm system and medication. Osteopathy offers a complementary or alternative treatment but studies need to be carried out to determine its effectiveness. PMID:23789172
Burguete, Emmanuel; Dubois, Thibault
Due to initiatives such as the clean development mechanism (CDM), reducing greenhouse gas emissions for a developing country can offer an important route to attracting investment in a variety of qualifying project areas, including waste management. To date CDM projects have been largely confined to schemes that control emission from landfill, but projects that avoid landfilling are beginning to be submitted. In considering the waste options which might be suitable for developing countries certain ones, such as energy from waste, have been discounted for a range of reasons related primarily to the lack of technical and other support services required for these more sophisticated process trains. The paper focuses on six options: the base case of open dumping; three options for landfill (passive venting, gas capture with flaring, and gas capture with energy production), composting and anaerobic digestion with electricity production and composting of the digestate. A range of assumptions were necessary for making the comparisons based on the effective carbon emissions, and these assumptions will change from project to project. The highest impact in terms of carbon emissions was from using a sanitary landfill without either gas flaring or electricity production; this was worse than the baseline case using open dumpsites. Landfills with either flaring or energy production from the collected gas both produced similar positive carbon emissions, but these were substantially lower than both open dumping and sanitary landfill without flaring or energy production. Composting or anaerobic digestion with energy production and composting of the digestate were the two best options with composting being neutral in terms of carbon emissions and anaerobic digestion being carbon negative. These generic conclusions were tested for sensitivity by modifying the input waste composition and were found to be robust, suggesting that subject to local study to confirm assumptions made, the opportunity for developing CDM projects to attract investment to improved waste management infrastructure is significant. Kyoto credits in excess of 1 tCO2e/t of waste could be realised. PMID:18053701
Barton, J R; Issaias, I; Stentiford, E I
This study investigated the management of education in primary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. As a correlational research, the study population comprised all the 694 primary schools in the State. Out of this, a sample of 320 schools was selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments were used to collect data for the…
Adeyemi, T. O.
AIM: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary health care providers regarding the identification and management of domestic violence in a hospital based primary health care setting. METHOD: A survey of all clinicians and nursing staff of the outpatient, casualty and antenatal clinics in University Malaya Medical Centre using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Hundred and eight out of
Sajaratulnisah Othman; Noor Azmi Mat Adenan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceptions of a sample of Hong Kong principals and teachers of the extent to which quality management (QM) has been effectively implemented in primary schools. The features of QM improvement implemented in Hong Kong primary schools include: values and duties, systems and teams(ST) resources and…
Cheng, Alison Lai Fong; Yau, Hon Keung
Objective To determine whether managed care controls were associated with reduced access to specialists and worse outcomes among primary care patients with pain. Data Sources/Study Setting Patient, physician, and office manager questionnaires collected in the Seattle area in 1996–1997, plus data abstracted from patient records and health plans. Study Design A prospective cohort study of 2,275 adult patients with common pain problems recruited in the offices of 261 primary care physicians in Seattle. Data Collection Patients completed a waiting room questionnaire and follow-up surveys at the end of the first and sixth months to measure access to specialists and outcomes. Intensity of managed care controls measured by plan managed care index and benefit/cost-sharing indexes, office managed care index, physician compensation, financial incentives, and use of clinical guidelines. Principal Findings A financial withhold for referral was associated with a lower likelihood of referral to a physician specialist, a greater likelihood of seeing a specialist without referral, and a lower patient rating of care from the primary physician. Otherwise, patients in more managed offices and with greater out-of-network plan benefits had greater access to specialists. Patients with more versus less managed care had similar health outcomes, but patients in more managed offices had lower ratings of care provided by their primary physicians. Conclusions Increased managed care controls were generally not associated with reduced access to specialists and worse health outcomes for primary care patients with pain, but patients in more managed offices had lower ratings of care provided by their primary physicians.
Grembowski, David E; Martin, Diane; Diehr, Paula; Patrick, Donald L; Williams, Barbara; Novak, Louise; Deyo, Richard; Katon, Wayne; Dickstein, Deborah; Engelberg, Ruth; Goldberg, Harold
Purpose: Making choices about everyday activities is a normal event for many adults. However, when an adult moves into an assisted living (AL) community, making choices becomes complicated by perceived needs and community practices. This study examines the relationship between choice and need in the context of practices, using medication…
Carder, Paula C.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Schumacher, John G.
Solar radiation management (SRM) could be used to offset some or all anthropogenic radiative forcing, with the goal of reducing some of the associated climatic change. However, the degree of compensation will vary, with residual climate changes larger in some regions than others. Similarly, the insolation reduction that best compensates climate changes in one region may not be the same as for another, leading to concerns about equity. We show that optimizing the latitudinal and seasonal distribution of insolation reduction can improve the fidelity with which SRM offsets anthropogenic climate change. Using the HadCM3L general circulation model, we consider three trade-offs: the trade-off between minimizing global rms climate changes and minimizing residual changes at the worst-off location, the trade-off between minimizing global rms climate changes and the average solar reduction required to do so, and the trade-off between minimizing global rms climate changes and maximizing Northern Hemisphere September sea ice, for a given average solar reduction. First, the residual temperature and precipitation changes in the worst-off region can be reduced by 30% relative to uniform insolation reduction, with only a modest impact on global root-mean-square (rms) changes; this has implications for managing regional inequalities. Second, the same rms residual climate changes can be obtained with up to 30% less insolation reduction than with a uniform distribution, implying that it may be possible to reduce side effects and risks of SRM (e.g., ozone depletion from sulfate). Finally, allowing spatial and temporal variability increases the range of trade-offs to be considered, such as the relative importance of restoring Northern Hemisphere sea ice versus minimizing overall climate impacts, or the relative weighting between temperature and precipitation residuals. This raises the question of how to weight different objectives. In summary, decisions involving SRM do not need to be reduced to a single "global thermostat"The trade-off between minimizing the global-rms normalized temperature and precipitation changes, and minimizing the worst-case change over any grid-cell, both expressed in number of standard deviations of inter-annual variability. Curves are plotted for uniform and non-uniform solar insolation reduction (SIR).
MacMartin, D. G.; Keith, D.; Kravitz, B.; Caldeira, K.
There are only scarce data on the management of nonagenarians with breast cancer, and more particularly on the place of radiation therapy (RT). We report a retrospective study on patients aged 90 years old or older, with breast cancer, receiving RT. Records from RT departments from five institutions were reviewed to identify patients 90 years old of age and older undergoing RT over past decade for breast cancer. Tumors' characteristics were examined, as well treatment specificities and treatment intent. 44 patients receiving RT courses were identified, mean age 92 years. Treatment was given with curative and palliative intent in 72.7% and 27.3% respectively. Factors associated with a curative treatment were performance status (PS), place of life, previous surgery, and tumor stage. Median total prescribed dose was 40 Gy (23-66). Hypo fractionation was used in 77%. Most toxicities were mild to moderate. RT could not be completed in 1 patient (2.3%). No long-term toxicity was reported. Among 31 patients analyzable for effectiveness, 24 patients (77.4%) had their diseased controlled until last follow-up, including 17 patients (54.8%) experiencing complete response. At last follow-up, 4 patients (12.9%) were deceased, cancer being cause of death for two of them. The study shows that breast/chest RT is feasible in nonagenarians. Although the definitive benefit of RT could not be addressed here, hypofractionated therapy allowed a good local control with acceptable side effects. PMID:24725451
Méry, Benoite; Assouline, Avi; Rivoirard, Romain; Bosacki, Claire; Auberdiac, Pierre; Falk, Alexander T; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Jacquin, Jean-Philippe; Merrouche, Yacine; Chargari, Cyrus; Magné, Nicolas
Summary: Primary antibody deficiencies are the most common primary immunodeficiency diseases. They are a heterogeneous group of disorders with various degrees of dysfunctional antibody production resulting from a disruption of B-cell differentiation at different stages. While there has been tremendous recent progress in the understanding of some of these disorders, the etiology remains unknown for the majority of patients. As there is a large spectrum of underlying defects, the age at presentation varies widely, and the clinical manifestations range from an almost complete absence of B cells and serum immunoglobulins to selectively impaired antibody responses to specific antigens with normal total serum immunoglobulin concentrations. However, all of these disorders share an increased susceptibility to infections, affecting predominantly the respiratory tract. A delay of appropriate treatment for some diseases can result in serious complications related to infections, while timely diagnosis and adequate therapy can significantly decrease morbidity and increase life expectancy and quality of life.
Fried, Ari J.; Bonilla, Francisco A.
Acute otitis media (AOM) is diagnosed on the basis of acute onset of pain and fever; a red, bulging tympanic membrane; and middle ear effusion. AOM is managed with analgesia (paracetamol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Antibiotic therapy is minimally effective for most patients; it is most effective for children < 2 years with bilateral otitis media and for children with
Hasantha Gunasekera; Tony E O’Connor; Shyan Vijayasekaran; Chris B. Del Mar
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease. The etiology of this disorder is unknown and there are no effective medical therapies. PSC is associated with inflammatory bowel disease and an increased risk for hepatobiliary and colorectal malignancies. The aim of this review is to highlight the clinical features and diagnostic approach to patients with suspected PSC, characterize associated comorbidities, review screening strategies for PSC associated malignancies and review contemporary and future therapies.
Eaton, John E.; Talwalkar, Jayant A.
Women frequently present to their general practitioner (GP) stating they have been trying for some time to get pregnant and failed. All GPs must be able to deal with the range of initial presentations in terms of history taking, examination and routine investigation. Treatment may be initiated in primary care, although at present most GPs are likely to refer to secondary care. In the future more GPs will undertake treatment themselves or refer to a GP with a special interest at Primary Care Trust (PCT) level. Both clomiphene and metformin either separately or together can be used in appropriate cases in primary care and are likely to lead to a high success rate and the prevention of unnecessary referrals to secondary care. GPs need to provide ongoing care throughout investigation and treatment for infertility and deal with subsequent outcomes both positive and negative. GPs as well as women themselves must be involved in the development of local guidelines from the outset together with secondary care specialists and those working on behalf of the PCT. It has yet to be shown that any guideline reduces NHS costs or improves patient outcomes. PMID:12869770
Smith, Lindsay F P
Clinicians managing older patients with chronic pain play an important role. This paper explores the attitudes of primary care clinicians (PCPs) toward chronic nonmalignant pain management and their experiences using a clinical decision support system. Our investigation followed a qualitative approach based on grounded theory. Twenty-one PCPs…
Ruiz, Jorge G.; Qadri, S. Sobiya; Nader, Samir; Wang, Jia; Lawler, Timothy; Hagenlocker, Brian; Roos, Bernard A.
Financial management in primary schools has changed in the UK with the introduction of the Schools Financial Value Standard (SFVS). There is increasing delegation of financial responsibility to the management team in the school, increasing the role of the head teacher and the governing body as part of overall responsibility for the strategic…
Fitzgerald, Sarah; Drake, Julie
Classroom behaviour management is an essential skill required by all teacher graduates to facilitate instruction in curriculum content. This article describes the classroom behaviour management (CBM) content on offer in Australian undergraduate primary education programs. To date, no nationwide studies exist that report the CBM instruction on…
O'Neill, Sue C.; Stephensen, Jennifer
Reports on interviews with six headteachers of Roman Catholic primary schools on the composition and responsibilities of their senior management teams. Findings explore the reasons for the schools' success and, in particular, the centrality of the Catholic faith and the practice of the senior management teams. (Contains 23 references.) (MLF)
The Michigan Academic Consortium brought together four universities' nursing schools to address advanced practice issues in nurse-managed primary health care. The collaboration enabled participants to leverage financial resources and take advantage of partnership opportunities. Challenges included multiple management practices, competition, and…
Pohl, Joanne M.; Bostrom, Andrea C.; Talarczyk, Geraldine; Cavanagh, Stephen
Investigations with large-scale forest lysimeter research of the lowlands of Northeast Germany - Results and consequences for the choice of tree species and forest management Introduction At present about 28 % - i.e. 1.9 million hectares - of the Northeast German Lowlands are covered with forests. The Lowlands are among the driest and at the same time the most densely
Climate change will pose increasingly significant challenges to managers of parks and other forms of protected areas around the world. Over the past two decades, numerous scientific publications have identified potential adaptations, but their suitability from legal, policy, financial, internal capacity, and other management perspectives has not been evaluated for any protected area agency or organization. In this study, a panel of protected area experts applied a Policy Delphi methodology to identify and evaluate climate change adaptation options across the primary management areas of a protected area agency in Canada. The panel identified and evaluated one hundred and sixty five (165) adaptation options for their perceived desirability and feasibility. While the results revealed a high level of agreement with respect to the desirability of adaptation options and a moderate level of capacity pertaining to policy formulation and management direction, a perception of low capacity for implementation in most other program areas was identified. A separate panel of senior park agency decision-makers used a multiple criterion decision-facilitation matrix to further evaluate the institutional feasibility of the 56 most desirable adaptation options identified by the initial expert panel and to prioritize them for consideration in a climate change action plan. Critically, only two of the 56 adaptation options evaluated by senior decision-makers were deemed definitely implementable, due largely to fiscal and internal capacity limitations. These challenges are common to protected area agencies in developed countries and pervade those in developing countries, revealing that limited adaptive capacity represents a substantive barrier to biodiversity conservation and other protected area management objectives in an era of rapid climate change.
Lemieux, Christopher J.; Scott, Daniel J.
In recent years, the definition of cardiomyopathy has been restricted to the idiopathic forms of myocardial disease and has been grouped into three general categories: (1) congestive or dilated cardiomyopathy, (2) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and (3) restrictive cardiomyopathy. The history and physical examination and echocardiography appear to be the most helpful in the clinical recognition of these disorders. In general, the prognosis of patients with congestive cardiomyopathy is guarded. Their survival primarily depends on the natural history and progression of the disease as well as the response to treatment with anticongestive drugs. The recent advent of vasodilator therapy has provided additional help to the patient with refractory congestive heart failure. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy appears to be much more frequently recognized since the advent of echocardiography. The young patient has a much higher incidence of serious complications (combined right and left ventricular outflow obstruction, more generalized hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and sudden death), and the patient presenting in later life appears to have fewer associated complications. There is a familial association with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, although the true incidence and full expression of the association is not well understood at present. The majority of adult patients acieve prolonged survival with medical and/or surgical treatment. The restrictive cardiomyopathies are probably the least well understood. All three subgroups (Löffler's endocarditis, primary restrictive cardiomyopathy, and endomyocardial fibrosis) have a guarded prognosis. The acute form (Löffler's endocarditis) is characterized by a debilitating illness with death usually within a couple of months; however, a small percentage of these patients can have long survival and may actually evolve into a more chronic form, i.e., primary restrictive cardiomyopathy or endomyocardial fibrosis. The latter two restrictive myopathies usually have a slow indolent course, and their prognosis is primarily determined by the amount of myocardial damage and endocardial fibrosis. PMID:6445779
Seward, J B; Tajik, A J
Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of heterogeneous neoplasms with more than 50 histological subtypes exhibiting major differences in terms of pathogenesis, genetic alterations and clinical behavior. Sarcomas represent approximately 1% of malignancies with retroperitoneal sarcomas representing 10-15% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Surgery is currently the only modality which offers the chance of cure. Surgery for retroperitoneal sarcomas presents specific challenges due their location in a complex space surrounded by vital structures and visceral organs often prohibiting resection with wide margins. Furthermore, even after complete resection local recurrence is common and the leading cause of death. In this article the authors describe the initial investigations, prognostic factors and optimal surgical management. The evidence and current research as regards the role of multimodality treatment is reviewed and discussed. PMID:24524274
Miah, Aisha B; Hannay, Jonathan; Benson, Charlotte; Thway, Khin; Messiou, Christina; Hayes, Andrew J; Strauss, Dirk C
Objectives In the UK, there have been a number of national initiatives to promote earlier detection and prompt referral of patients presenting to primary care with signs and symptoms of cancer. The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of a range of primary care staff in promoting earlier presentation, detection and referral of patients with symptoms suggestive of cancer. Setting Six primary care practices in northwest England. Participants: 39 primary care staff from a variety of disciplines took part in five group and four individual interviews. Results The global theme to emerge from the interviews was ‘managing risk’, which had three underpinning organising themes: ‘complexity’, relating to uncertainty of cancer diagnoses, service fragmentation and plethora of guidelines; ‘continuity’, relating to relationships between practice staff and their patients and between primary and secondary care; ‘conflict’ relating to policy drivers and staff role boundaries. A key concern of staff was that policymakers and those implementing cancer initiatives did not fully understand how risk was managed within primary care. Conclusions Primary care staff expressed a range of views and opinions on the benefits of cancer initiatives. National initiatives did not appear to wholly resolve issues in managing risk for all practitioners. Staff were concerned about the number of guidelines and priorities they were expected to implement. These issues need to be considered by policymakers when developing and implementing new initiatives.
Cook, Neil; Thomson, Gillian; Dey, Paola
In the last two decades, considerable evidence on home blood pressure monitoring has accumulated and current guidelines recommend its wide application in clinical practice. First, several outcome studies have shown that the ability of home blood pressure measurements in predicting preclinical target organ damage and cardiovascular events is superior to that of the conventional office blood pressure measurements and similar to that of 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. Second, cross-sectional studies showed considerable agreement of home blood pressure measurements with ambulatory monitoring in detecting the white-coat and masked hypertension phenomena, in both untreated and treated subjects. Third, studies have shown larger blood pressure decline by using home blood pressure monitoring instead of office measurements for treatment adjustment. Fourth, in treated hypertensives, home blood pressure monitoring has been shown to improve long-term adherence to antihypertensive drug treatment and thus, has improved hypertension control rates. These data suggest that home blood pressure should no longer be regarded as only a screening tool that requires confirmation by ambulatory monitoring. Provided that an unbiased assessment is obtained according to current recommendations, home blood pressure monitoring should have primary role in diagnosis, treatment adjustment, and long-term follow-up of most cases with hypertension. PMID:24924993
Stergiou, George S; Kollias, Anastasios; Zeniodi, Marilena; Karpettas, Nikos; Ntineri, Angeliki
Background Nurses constitute the majority of the health workforce in South Africa and they play a major role in providing primary health care (PHC) services. Job satisfaction influences nurse retention and successful implementation of health system reforms. This study was conducted in light of renewed government commitment to reforms at the PHC level, and to contribute to the development of solutions to the challenges faced by the South African nursing workforce. The objective of the study was to determine overall job satisfaction of PHC clinic nursing managers and the predictors of their job satisfaction in two South African provinces. Methods During 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Stratified random sampling was used to survey a total of 111 nursing managers working in PHC clinics. These managers completed a pre-tested Measure of Job Satisfaction questionnaire with subscales on personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, training, pay, career prospects and standards of care. Mean scores were used to measure overall job satisfaction and various subscales. Predictors of job satisfaction were determined through multiple logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 108 nursing managers completed the survey representing a 97% response rate. The mean age of respondents was 49 years (SD?=?7.9) and the majority of them (92%) were female. Seventy-six percent had a PHC clinical training qualification. Overall mean job satisfaction scores were 142.80 (SD?=?24.3) and 143.41 (SD?=?25.6) for Gauteng and Free State provinces respectively out of a maximum possible score of 215. Predictors of job satisfaction were: working in a clinic of choice (RRR?=?3.10 (95% CI: 1.11 to 8.62, P?=?0.030)), being tired at work (RRR?=?0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.50, P?=?0.001)) and experience of verbal abuse (RRR?=?0.18 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.55, P?=?0.001). Conclusion Allowing nurses greater choice of clinic to work in, the prevention of violence and addressing workloads could improve the practice environment and job satisfaction of PHC clinic nursing managers.
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes of primary school managers regarding epilepsy among school children in Erbil City, Iraq. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary schools between 18 June and 18 August 2013. A total of 80 primary school managers were selected to answer a questionnaire covering three domains: socio-demographical characteristics, knowledge of epilepsy and attitudes towards epilepsy. Results: More than half of the participants (55%) had spent less than 10 years in school administration. More than one-third (37.5%) of the participants believed that epilepsy was an infectious disease, and over half of the respondents (53.75%) stated that epilepsy cannot be treated or prevented. Conclusion: Although the respondents’ attitudes towards pupils with epilepsy were generally positive, their knowledge of epilepsy was imperfect; thus, an epilepsy education campaign is required. This should focus on the causes of epilepsy and its management.
Abdulla, Salih A.
The sinopulmonary tract is the major site of infection in patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes, and structural lung damage arising from repeated sepsis is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality. Patients with common variable immunodeficiency may, in addition, develop inflammatory lung disease, often associated with multi-system granulomatous disease. This review discusses the presentation and management of lung disease in patients with primary antibody deficiency.
Tarzi, M D; Grigoriadou, S; Carr, S B; Kuitert, L M; Longhurst, H J
PURPOSE: To describe a preliminary investigation of a model of naltrexone therapy and counselling for use by primary care providers and evaluate its impact on drinking behaviors in a cohort of alcohol-dependent subjects.PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects enrolled in this study were 29 alcohol-dependent individuals. They were managed within a primary care treatment model located at a university-affiliated substance research
Patrick G O’Connor; Conor K Farren; Bruce J Rounsaville; Stephanie S O’Malley
Introduction The very particular natures of infertility problem and infertility care make them different from other medical problems and services in developing countries. Even after the referral to specialists, the family physicians are expected to provide continuous support for these couples. This place the primary care service at the heart of all issues related to infertility. The aim of the work: to improve family physicians' attitude and practice about the approach to infertility management within primary care setting. Methods This study was conducted in the between June and December 2010. The study sample comprised 100 family physician trainees in the family medicine department and working in family practice centers or primary care units. They were asked to fill a questionnaire about their personal characteristics, attitude, and practice towards support, investigations, and treatment of infertile couples. Results Hundred family physicians were included in the study. They were previously received training in infertility management. Favorable attitude scores were detected among (68%) of physicians and primary care was considered a suitable place for infertility management among (77%) of participants. There was statistically significant difference regarding each of age groups, gender and years of experience with the physicians? attitude. There was statistically significant difference regarding gender, perceiving PHC as an appropriate place to manage infertility and attitude towards processes of infertility management with the physicians? practice. Conclusion Favorable attitude and practice were determined among the study sample. Supporting the structure of primary care and evidence-based training regarding infertility management are required to improve family physicians' attitude and practice towards infertility management.
Eldein, Hebatallah Nour
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of physician training on management of depression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Primary care physicians were randomly assigned to a depression management intervention that included an educational program.\\u000a A before-and-after design evaluated physician practices for patients not enrolled in the intervention trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: One hundred nine primary care physicians in 2 health maintenance organizations located in the Midwest and
Elizabeth H. B. Lin; Gregory E. Simon; David J. Katzelnick; Steven D. Pearson
Primary care attitudes affecting the use of strong opioids in pain management have changed considerably in the last 3 decades. Forces that have shaped current attitudes and trends in opioid prescribing include historical influences, regulatory factors, and technologic and scientific advances. The article identifies for primary care physicians the current challenges and issues surrounding the use of opioid analgesics for noncancer pain and examines how new technology and expanding knowledge have been applied to existing opioids such as morphine, oxymorphone, and fentanyl to address continuing challenges in pain management. PMID:16513905
We review research from the 1990s that examines the determinants and consequences of accounting choice, structuring our analysis around the three types of market imperfections that influence managers’ choices: agency costs, information asymmetries, and externalities affecting non-contracting parties. We conclude that research in the 1990s made limited progress in expanding our understanding of accounting choice because of limitations in research
Thomas D Fields; Thomas Z Lys; Linda Vincent
Background Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) with disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) can reduce relapse frequency and delay disability progression. Although adherence to DMDs is difficult to measure accurately, evidence suggests that poor adherence is common and can compromise treatment success. There are likely to be multiple factors underlying poor adherence. To better understand these factors, the global MS Choices Survey investigated patient and physician perspectives regarding key aspects of MS diagnosis, treatment adherence and persistence, and disease management. Methods The survey was conducted in seven countries and involved patients with MS (age 18–60 years; MS diagnosis for ?1 year; current treatment with a DMD) and physicians (neurologist for 3–30 years; treating ?15 patients with MS per average month; >60% of time spent in clinical practice). Separate questionnaires were used for physicians and patients, each containing approximately 30 questions. Results Questionnaires were completed by 331 patients and 280 physicians. Several differences were observed between the responses of patients and physicians, particularly for questions relating to treatment adherence. Overall, the proportion of patients reporting taking a treatment break (31%) was almost twice that estimated by physicians (on average 17%). The reasons cited for poor adherence also differed between patients and physicians. For example, more physicians cited side effects as the main reason for poor patient adherence (82%), than responding patients (42%). Conclusions Physicians may underestimate the scale of poor adherence to DMDs, which could impact on their assessment of treatment efficacy and result in inappropriate treatment escalation. In addition, disparities were identified between patient and physician responses regarding the underlying reasons for poor adherence. Improvements in the dialog between patients and neurologists may increase adherence to DMDs.
Rinon, Alberto; Buch, Mandy; Holley, Derek; Verdun, Elisabetta
In addition to environmental and economic benefits, systematic application of sustainable waste management in elementary education buildings also makes a positive contribution to the education of future generations. This study examines elementary schools in Istanbul, which are part of the Eco-Schools International Programme. This programme was established in 1994 with European Union support and it aims to introduce environmental management systems into primary schools within the scope of ISO 14001/EMAS. A questionnaire study was administered on the theme of litter management and sustainable waste management within elementary schools located in the Asian and European parts of Istanbul city, and the findings of a field survey were examined. Questionnaire findings were gathered under five themes: litter management, composting of organic waste, re-use of school materials, reducing consumption-selection of recycled products, waste management and sorting of recyclable materials. PMID:21159739
Kayihan, Kutlu Sevinç; Tönük, Seda
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether providing information on arthritis self-management through general practitioners (GPs) increases the quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis and whether additional case management provided by practice nurses shows better results. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, controlled, 3-arm trial that included 1,021 patients from 75 primary care practices in Germany. GPs were randomized to intervention group
Thomas Rosemann; Stefanie Joos; Gunter Laux; Jochen Gensichen; Joachim Szecsenyi
OBJECTIVE To determine whether managed care is associated with reduced access to mental health specialists and worse outcomes among primary care patients with depressive symptoms. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Offices of 261 primary physicians in private practice in Seattle. PATIENTS Patients (N = 17,187) were screened in waiting rooms, enrolling 1,336 adults with depressive symptoms. Patients (n = 942) completed follow-up surveys at 1, 3, and 6 months. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS For each patient, the intensity of managed care was measured by the managedness of the patient's health plan, plan benefit indexes, presence or absence of a mental health carve-out, intensity of managed care in the patient's primary care office, physician financial incentives, and whether the physician read or used depression guidelines. Access measures were referral and actually seeing a mental health specialist. Outcomes were the Symptom Checklist for Depression, restricted activity days, and patient rating of care from primary physician. Approximately 23% of patients were referred to mental health specialists, and 38% saw a mental health specialist with or without referral. Managed care generally was not associated with a reduced likelihood of referral or seeing a mental health specialist. Patients in more-managed plans were less likely to be referred to a psychiatrist. Among low-income patients, a physician financial withhold for referral was associated with fewer mental health referrals. A physician productivity bonus was associated with greater access to mental health specialists. Depressive symptom and restricted activity day outcomes in more-managed health plans and offices were similar to or better than less-managed settings. Patients in more-managed offices had lower ratings of care from their primary physicians. CONCLUSIONS The intensity of managed care was generally not associated with access to mental health specialists. The small number of managed care strategies associated with reduced access were offset by other strategies associated with increased access. Consequently, no adverse health outcomes were detected, but lower patient ratings of care provided by their primary physicians were found.
Grembowski, David E; Martin, Diane; Patrick, Donald L; Diehr, Paula; Katon, Wayne; Williams, Barbara; Engelberg, Ruth; Novak, Louise; Dickstein, Deborah; Deyo, Richard; Goldberg, Harold I
Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of using treatment models for major depression in primary care settings. Nonetheless, translating these models into enduring changes in routine primary care has proved difficult. Various health system and organizational barriers prevent the integration of these models into primary care settings. This article discusses barriers to introducing and sustaining evidence-based depression management services in community-based primary care practices and suggests organizational and financial solutions based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Depression in Primary Care Program. It focuses on strategies to improve depression care in medical settings based on adaptations of the chronic care model and discusses the challenges of implementing evidence-based depression care given the structural, financial, and cultural separation between mental health and general medical care.
Kilbourne, Amy M; Schulberg, Herbert C; Post, Edward P; Rollman, Bruce L; Belnap, Bea Herbeck; Pincus, Harold Alan
Background Evidence-based quality improvement models for depression have not been fully implemented in routine primary care settings. To date, few studies have examined the organizational factors associated with depression management in real-world primary care practice. To successfully implement quality improvement models for depression, there must be a better understanding of the relevant organizational structure and processes of the primary care setting. The objective of this study is to describe these organizational features of routine primary care practice, and the organization of depression care, using survey questions derived from an evidence-based framework. Methods We used this framework to implement a survey of 27 practices comprised of 49 unique offices within a large primary care practice network in western Pennsylvania. Survey questions addressed practice structure (e.g., human resources, leadership, information technology (IT) infrastructure, and external incentives) and process features (e.g., staff performance, degree of integrated depression care, and IT performance). Results The results of our survey demonstrated substantial variation across the practice network of organizational factors pertinent to implementation of evidence-based depression management. Notably, quality improvement capability and IT infrastructure were widespread, but specific application to depression care differed between practices, as did coordination and communication tasks surrounding depression treatment. Conclusions The primary care practices in the network that we surveyed are at differing stages in their organization and implementation of evidence-based depression management. Practical surveys such as this may serve to better direct implementation of these quality improvement strategies for depression by improving understanding of the organizational barriers and facilitators that exist within both practices and practice networks. In addition, survey information can inform efforts of individual primary care practices in customizing intervention strategies to improve depression management.
Objective To determine whether an educational package could influence the management of menorrhagia, increase the appropriateness of choice of non-hormonal treatment, and reduce referral rates from primary to secondary care. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting General practices in East Anglia. Subjects 100 practices (348 doctors) in primary care were recruited and randomised to intervention (54) and control (46). Interventions An educational package based on principles of “academic detailing” with independent academics was given in small practice based interactive groups with a visual presentation, a printed evidence based summary, a graphic management flow chart, and a follow up meeting at 6 months. Outcome measures All practices recorded consultation details, treatments offered, and outcomes for women with regular heavy menstrual loss (menorrhagia) over 1 year. Results 1001 consultation data sheets for menorrhagia were returned. There were significantly fewer referrals (20% v 29%; odds ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval 0.41 to 0.99) and a significantly higher use of tranexamic acid (odds ratio 2.38; 1.61 to 3.49) in the intervention group but no overall difference in norethisterone treatment compared with controls. There were more referrals when tranexamic acid was given with norethisterone than when it was given alone. Those practices reporting fewer than 10 cases showed the highest increase in prescribing of tranexamic acid. Conclusions The educational package positively influenced referral for menorrhagia and treatment with appropriate non-hormonal drugs. Key messagesMenorrhagia (regular excessive menstruation) affects many women and treatment is a considerable use of resourcesAppropriate non-hormonal treatments are not always offered before referral, which often results in therapeutic surgeryAn educational package with independent academics in small informal groups presenting visual, graphic, and written material can positively influence doctors’ behaviourIncreasing appropriate non-hormonal treatments for menorrhagia results in fewer referrals
Fender, Guy R K; Prentice, Andrew; Gorst, Tess; Nixon, Richard M; Duffy, Stephen W; Day, Nicholas E; Smith, Stephen K
Although evidence of effectiveness is limited, care management based outside primary care practices or hospitals is receiving increased attention. The University of Michigan (UM) Complex Care Management Program (CCMP) provides care management for uninsured and underinsured, high-utilizing patients in multiple primary care practices. To inform development of optimal care management models, we describe the CCMP model and characteristics and health care utilization patterns of its patients. Of a consecutive series of 49 patients enrolled at CCMP in 2011, the mean (SD) age was 48 (+/- 14); 23 (47%) were women; and 29 (59%) were White. Twenty-eight (57%) had two or more chronic medical conditions, 39 (80%) had one or more psychiatric condition, 28 (57%) had a substance abuse disorder, and 11 (22%) were homeless. Through phone, e-mail, and face-to-face contact with patients and primary care providers (PCPs), care managers coordinated health and social services and facilitated access to medical and mental health care. Patients had a mean (SD) number of hospitalizations and emergency room (ER) visits in 6 months prior to enrollment of2.2 (2.5) and 4.2 (4.3), respectively, with a nonstatistically significant decrease in hospitalizations, hospital days, and emergency room visits in 6 months following enrollment in CCMP. Centralized care management support for primary care practices engages high-utilizing patients with complex medical and behavioral conditions in care management that would be difficult to provide through individual practices and may decrease health care utilization by these patients. PMID:24761538
Williams, Brent C; Paik, Jamie L; Haley, Laura L; Grammatico, Gina M
Background Primary care settings play a vital role in the early detection and appropriate management of musculoskeletal conditions in paediatric populations. However, little data exist regarding these conditions in a primary care context or on the presentation of specific musculoskeletal disorders in children. The aim of this study was to estimate the caseload and describe typical management of musculoskeletal conditions in children and adolescents presenting to primary care in Australia. Methods An analysis of data from the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) study was performed. The BEACH study is a continuous national study of general practice (GP) activity in Australia. We identified all GP encounters with children and adolescents over the past five years and extracted data on demographic details, the problems managed, and GP management of each problem. SAS statistical software was used to calculate robust proportions and after adjustment for the cluster, the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results From the period April 2006 to March 2011, there were 65,279 encounters with children and adolescents in the BEACH database. Of the 77,830 problems managed at these encounters, 4.9% (95%CI 4.7% to 5.1%) were musculoskeletal problems. The rate of musculoskeletal problems managed increased significantly with age, however there was a significant decrease for girls aged 15–17 years. Upper and lower limb conditions were the most common, followed by spine and trunk conditions. Spine and trunk conditions were significantly more likely to be managed with medication, but less likely to receive imaging, than upper or lower limb problems. Conclusions Musculoskeletal problems in children and adolescents present a significant burden and an important challenge to the primary health care system in Australia. There is variability in rates of presentation between different age groups, gender and affected body region.
A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey
Dysmenorrhea is a problem that girls and women face and often manage themselves with or without support from health professionals. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescents with dysmenorrhea (N = 150) in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The aims of the study were to determine their knowledge of menstruation and primary dysmenorrhea,…
Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Babatunde, Oluwayemisi A.
The paper presents some specific aspects of the implementation of the quality management in the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory, from IFIN-HH, the owner of the primary Romanian standard in radioactivity. The description of the accreditation, according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005, is presented.
Sahagia, Maria; Razdolescu, Anamaria Cristina; Luca, Aurelian; Ivan, Constantin ['Horia Hulubei' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), 407 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-6, Magurele, Ilfov County, RO-077125 (Romania)
This study, which was funded by the office of research and development (ORD) in the University of Botswana, surveyed 65 primary schools in South Central region in Botswana, which aimed at establishing the perceptions of senior management teams dominant leadership style. The study was done in three phases; the first phase started in June 2008 to…
Mhozya, C. M.
The paper presents some specific aspects of the implementation of the quality management in the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory, from IFIN-HH, the owner of the primary Romanian standard in radioactivity. The description of the accreditation, according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005, is presented.
Sahagia, Maria; Razdolescu, Anamaria Cristina; Luca, Aurelian; Ivan, Constantin
This article analyses the impact of processes of globalization on both policy and practice in relation to primary school leadership and management in England and Finland. Data are drawn from case study research carried out from 1994-1996 in six schools in Finland and six schools in England and a follow-up study on teacher professionalism…
Webb, Rosemary; Vulliamy, Graham; Sarja, Anneli; Hamalainen, Seppo
The multi-tasking of classroom or learning support assistants (LSAs) is a well-established phenomenon in English primary schools. As their roles have become better defined and specifically funded an element of role specialism has become essential. However, the management and direction of LSAs does not always appear to be clearly or effectively…
Mistry, Malini; Burton, Neil; Brundrett, Mark
Previously published guidelines for the diagnosis and management of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) require updating largely due to the introduction of new classes of therapeutic agents, and a greater understanding of the disease pathophysiology. However, treatment- related decisions still remain principally dependent on clinical expertise or patient preference rather than high-quality clini- cal trial evidence. This consensus docu- ment aims
Drew Provan; Roberto Stasi; Adrian C. Newland; Victor S. Blanchette; Paula Bolton-Maggs; James B. Bussel; Beng H. Chong; Douglas B. Cines; Terry B. Gernsheimer; Bertrand Godeau; John Grainger; Ian Greer; Beverley J. Hunt; Paul A. Imbach; Gordon Lyons; Robert McMillan; Francesco Rodeghiero; Miguel A. Sanz; Michael Tarantino; Joan Young; David J. Kuter
We conducted this study to estimate the rate of, and identify risk factors for, recurrent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) following primary surgical repair. The study consisted of a retrospective cohort study of 142 women who underwent primary surgical management of POP in 1993 and were followed up to 10 years. Prolapse severity was graded using an established classification system of clinical descriptors. Hazard ratios (HR) for recurrent POP were determined using Cox regression. 36 recurrent cases were identified (recurrence rate: 3.7 per 100 woman-years). A cystocele was the most frequent element of primary (87%) and recurrent (72%) prolapse. No predictors of the likelihood of recurrence were identified, though recurrence was somewhat more common among women with a history of two or fewer vaginal deliveries vs three or more (HR = 1.6; 95% confidence interval = 0.81-3.3). Recurrent POP following surgical management is common. Our ability to predict recurrence is limited. PMID:18682876
Fialkow, Michael F; Newton, Katherine M; Weiss, Noel S
This paper reports a qualitative pilot study exploring primary care health practitioners' perspectives on the management of insomnia following the extensive media coverage on the adverse effects of zolpidem in 2007-08. General practitioners and community pharmacists were recruited throughout metropolitan Sydney, New South Wales using a convenience sampling and snowballing technique. Demographic information was collected from each participant followed by a semistructured interview. In total 22 participants were interviewed, including eight general practitioners and 14 community pharmacists. Interview transcripts were analysed using 'framework analysis'. Participants' responses illuminated some of the key issues facing primary care practitioners in the management of insomnia. Practitioners perceived there to be an overreliance on pharmacotherapy among insomnia patients and inadequate support for directing patients to alternative treatment pathways if they require or prefer non-pharmacological management. Current prescribing trends appear to favour older benzodiazepines in new cases of insomnia whereas some successful sporadic users of zolpidem have continued to use zolpidem after the media coverage in 2007-08. The findings of this pilot study suggest the need to address the limitations in the management of insomnia within the current health care system, to revise and disseminate updated insomnia guidelines and to provide educational opportunities and resources to primary care practitioners concerning management options. PMID:24200195
Cheung, Janet M Y; Atternäs, Kristina; Melchior, Madeleine; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Fois, Romano A; Saini, Bandana
Introduction The Chronic Care Model (CCM) uses a systematic approach to restructuring medical care to create partnerships between health systems and communities. The objective of this study was to describe how researchers have applied CCM in US primary care settings to provide care for people who have diabetes and to describe outcomes of CCM implementation. Methods We conducted a literature review by using the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, CINAHL, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition and the following search terms: “chronic care model” (and) “diabet*.” We included articles published between January 1999 and October 2011. We summarized details on CCM application and health outcomes for 16 studies. Results The 16 studies included various study designs, including 9 randomized controlled trials, and settings, including academic-affiliated primary care practices and private practices. We found evidence that CCM approaches have been effective in managing diabetes in US primary care settings. Organizational leaders in health care systems initiated system-level reorganizations that improved the coordination of diabetes care. Disease registries and electronic medical records were used to establish patient-centered goals, monitor patient progress, and identify lapses in care. Primary care physicians (PCPs) were trained to deliver evidence-based care, and PCP office–based diabetes self-management education improved patient outcomes. Only 7 studies described strategies for addressing community resources and policies. Conclusion CCM is being used for diabetes care in US primary care settings, and positive outcomes have been reported. Future research on integration of CCM into primary care settings for diabetes management should measure diabetes process indicators, such as self-efficacy for disease management and clinical decision making.
Stellefson, Michael; Stopka, Christine
To help public schools experience free-market competition, Secretary of Education Lamar Alexander and President Bush propose parental choice among private, parochial, and public schools, supported by public financing for program design and tuition grants. Sidebars highlight church/state separation concerns and school choice experiments in…
Primary aldosteronism is the most common cause of secondary hypertension, accounting for about 10% of all forms of high blood pressure. Life-time pharmacological therapy is the treatment of choice for primary aldosteronism due to idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IHA), while adrenalectomy is effective in curing most patients with an aldosterone producing adenoma (APA). Far from being a benign form of hypertension, primary aldosteronism is characterized by the development of cardiovascular renal and metabolic complications, including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation and stroke, microalbuminuria, renal cysts as well as metabolic syndrome, glucose impairment and diabetes mellitus. We review recent clinical experience with the above mentioned complications and long-term outcomes of blood pressure normalization and cardiac, renal and gluco-metabolic complications in patients with primary aldosteronism, after medical treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and surgical treatment. We conclude that removal of adrenal adenoma results in normalization of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and of kalaemia and improvement of blood pressure levels in all patients. Complete resolution of hypertension is achieved in nearly half of treated patients. Moreover, unilateral adrenalectomy is the best treatment to have the regression of cardiovascular, renal and metabolic complications in patients with APA. On the other hand, targeted medical treatment with aldosterone antagonists improves blood pressure control and appears able to prevent the progression of cardiac and metabolic complications in patients with IHA. PMID:19356005
Giacchetti, Gilberta; Turchi, Federica; Boscaro, Marco; Ronconi, Vanessa
The CPN seeks to enhance the care of patients by judicious expenditure of health care dollars, currently for the Unit "Community" Network, but ultimately also for other insurers who would enter risk-sharing relationships with the CPN. Improvements in health care delivery will be made in enhanced access to primary care, including telephone access to nurse triage; in collaboration and communication between the selected consultant and the referring primary care giver, including an electronic network allowing for selected information sharing; and in renewing medicine's collective commitment to care provided as close to home as possible, or in the home if this is the highest quality. The care of the uninsured remains a challenge and a normal obligation from which the CPN does not shrink. The economic realities of primary care delivery must be improved, with additional resources allocated being substantially rededicated to patient care. The patient's control of the selection of the site of health care and the absence of incentives to their primary care provider for a referral pattern different than the patient's choice will remain important to the CPN. The CPN hopes to provide the diplomacy between third party payers to enhance collaboration and minimize competition in the delivery of care in communities. PMID:9020619
Abstract Conclusion: Computed tomography (CT) of the neck, chest, abdomen and pelvis is the most appropriate initial investigation following a fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma in cervical lymph nodes with unknown primary. PET-CT should be considered as the next step if the initial CT fails to identify the primary site, but its true value is yet to be determined. Objective: To review investigation strategies for metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary presenting as cervical lymphadenopathy, and to develop a management algorithm. Methods: This was a retrospective case note study from two regional head and neck cancer centres in the UK. Adult patients with FNAC diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma in cervical lymph nodes between 1998 and 2008, with a minimum 5-year follow-up, were included. Patients with a clinically obvious primary tumour or a previous history of adenocarcinoma were excluded. Results: This study examined 41 cases. CT of the neck, chest, abdomen and pelvis was the most useful initial investigation. It identified the primary tumour site in 16/28 cases (57%), detected the primary tumour and led to revision of the FNAC diagnosis in 1 case (2.4%), and was necessary for the final diagnosis of true unknown primary in 12 cases (29.3%). Targeted imaging was not helpful. PMID:24847947
Pepper, Christopher; Pai, Irumee; Hay, Ashley; Deery, Alastair; Wilson, Philip; Williamson, Peter; Pitkin, Lisa
Maintained dedication to primary care has fostered a public health delivery system with exceptional outcomes in Costa Rica. For more than a decade, management commitments have been part of Costa Rican health reform. We assessed the effect of the Costa Rican management commitments on access and quality of care and on compliance with their intended objectives. We constructed seven hypotheses on opinions of primary care providers. Through a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach, we tested these hypotheses and interpreted the research findings. Management commitments consume an excessive proportion of consultation time, inflate recordkeeping, reduce comprehensiveness in primary care consultations, and induce a disproportionate consumption of hospital emergency services. Their formulation relies on norms in need of optimization, their control on unreliable sources. They also affect professionalism. In Costa Rica, management commitments negatively affect access and quality of care and pose a threat to the public service delivery system. The failures of this pay-for-performance-like initiative in an otherwise well-performing health system cast doubts on the appropriateness of pay-for-performance for health systems strengthening in less advanced environments. PMID:24919308
Soors, Werner; De Paepe, Pierre; Unger, Jean-Pierre
Background Based on data from large multicentre US trials, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) is advocating a stepped-care model for the management of depression, with ‘case management’ or ‘collaborative care’ for selected patients in primary care. Aim To conduct a pilot study examining the use of graduate mental health workers case managing depressed primary care NHS patients. Design of study A randomised controlled trial comparing usual GP care with or without case management over 16 weeks of acute antidepressant drug treatment. Setting Three primary care practices in the North East of England. Method Patients with depression, aged 18–65 years, who had failed to adequately respond to antidepressant treatment, were randomised to the two treatments. Assessments were made at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks using a combination of observer and self ratings. Results Randomisation of 62 patients required screening of 1073 potential patients. There was little difference in outcome between the two treatment arms but a gradual improvement in symptoms over time was seen. Client satisfaction was assessed as high across both treatments. Conclusion While this pilot study confirmed the integrity of the study protocol and the suitability of the outcome measures and randomisation procedure, it raises questions regarding the practicality of recruitment and feasibility of the intervention. It would be crucial to address these issues prior to the implementation of a large multi-centre randomised controlled trial.
McMahon, Lindsay; Foran, Karin M; Forrest, Stephen D; Taylor, Michelle L; Ingram, Graham; Rajwal, Madhuri; Cornwall, Peter L; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish
Lack of sufficient accessible community-based health care services for individuals with developmental disabilities has led to disparities in health outcomes and an overreliance on expensive models of care delivered in hospitals and other safety net or state-subsidized providers. A functioning community-based primary health care model, with an…
Kastner, Theodore A.; Walsh, Kevin K.
Background In contrast to surveys in cardiologist settings, presentation and management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in primary care patients\\u000a is less well studied.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and results The prospective ATRIUM (Outpatient\\u000a Registry Upon Morbidity of Atrial Fibrillation) collected data from patients with AF seen by 730 physicians representing a random sample\\u000a of all primary care physicians in Germany. ATRIUM enrolled 3,667 patients (mean
Thomas Meinertz; Wilhelm Kirch; Ludger Rosin; David Pittrow; Stefan N. Willich; Paulus Kirchhof
Background Primary care is recognised to have an important role in the delivery of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is evidence that CKD management is currently suboptimal, with a range of practitioner concerns about its management. Aim To explore processes underpinning the implementation of CKD management in primary care. Design and setting Qualitative study in general practices participating in a chronic kidney disease collaborative undertaken as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses (n = 21). Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for generation and analysis of the data. Results A predominant theme was anxiety about the disclosure of early-stage CKD with patients. The tensions experienced related to identifying and discussing CKD in older people and patients with stage 3A, embedding early-stage CKD within vascular care, and the distribution of work within the practice team. Participants provided accounts of work undertaken to resolve the difficulties encountered, with efforts having tended to focus on reassuring patients. Analysis also highlighted how anxiety surrounding disclosure influenced, and was shaped by, the organisation of care for people with CKD and associated long-term conditions. Conclusion Offering reassurance alone may be of limited benefit, and current management of early-stage CKD in primary care may miss opportunities to address susceptibility to kidney injury, improve self-management of vascular conditions, and improve the management of multimorbidity.
Blakeman, Tom; Protheroe, Joanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne
Bold steps are necessary to improve quality of care for patients with chronic diseases and increase satisfaction of both primary care physicians and patients. Office-based chronic disease management (CDM) workers can achieve these objectives by offering self-management support, maintaining disease registries, and monitoring compliance from the point of care. CDM workers can provide the missing link by connecting patients, primary care physicans, and CDM services sponsored by health plans or in the community. CDM workers should be supported financially by Medicare, Medicaid, and commercial health plans through reimbursements to physicians for units of service, analogous to California’s Comprehensive Perinatal Services Program. Care provided by CDM workers should be standardized, and training requirements should be sufficiently flexible to ensure wide dissemination. CDM workers can potentially improve quality while reducing costs for preventable hospitalizations and emergency department visits, but evaluation at multiple levels is recommended.
Across the nation, food service establishments using onsite wastewater treatment systems often experience pretreatment system and\\/or drain field performance problems. This study used statistical analysis of restaurant management practice and primary cuisine type to observe their influence on five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total fats, oils, and greases (FOG), total suspended solids (TSS), and daily flow. Twenty-eight Texas restaurants were
O. A. Garza; B. J. Lesikar; R. A. Persyn; A. L. Kenimer; M. T. Anderson
This article analyses the impact of processes of globalization on both policy and practice in relation to primary school leadership and management in England and Finland. Data are drawn from case study research carried out from 1994–1996 in six schools in Finland and six schools in England and a follow?up study on teacher professionalism (2001–2002) that involved 37 of the
Rosemary Webb; Graham Vulliamy; Anneli Sarja; Seppo Hämäläinen
This paper examines the role of management accounting systems (MAS) design on the relationship between: (1) strategic business unit (SBU) strategy and SBU performance and (2) perceived environmental uncertainty (PEU) on SBU performance. MAS design was defined in terms of the extent to which managers use broad scope MAS information for managerial decision making. The responses of 62 SBU managers,
Vincent K. Chong; Kar Ming Chong
Background Community-based support will become increasingly important for people with dementia, but currently services are fragmented and the quality of care is variable. Case management is a popular approach to care co-ordination, but evidence to date on its effectiveness in dementia has been equivocal. Case management interventions need to be designed to overcome obstacles to care co-ordination and maximise benefit. A successful case management methodology was adapted from the United States (US) version for use in English primary care, with a view to a definitive trial. Medical Research Council guidance on the development of complex interventions was implemented in the adaptation process, to capture the skill sets, person characteristics and learning needs of primary care based case managers. Methods Co-design of the case manager role in a single NHS provider organisation, with external peer review by professionals and carers, in an iterative technology development process. Results The generic skills and personal attributes were described for practice nurses taking up the case manager role in their workplaces, and for social workers seconded to general practice teams, together with a method of assessing their learning needs. A manual of information material for people with dementia and their family carers was also created using the US intervention as its source. Conclusions Co-design produces rich products that have face validity and map onto the complexities of dementia and of health and care services. The feasibility of the case manager role, as described and defined by this process, needs evaluation in ‘real life’ settings.
The National Strategy for Suicide Prevention (2012) has set a goal to reduce suicides by 20 % within 5 years. Suicide rates are higher in older adults compared to most other age groups, and the majority of suicide completers have visited their primary care physician in the year before suicide. Primary care is an ideal setting to identify suicide risk and initiate mental health care. We review risk factors for late-life suicide; methods to assess for different levels of suicidality; and recent research developments regarding both effective assessment and management of suicide risk among older primary care patients. We highlight that broader scale screening of suicide risk may be considered in light of findings that suicidality can occur even in the absence of major risk factors like depression. We also highlight collaborative care models targeting suicide risk, and recent innovative interventions that aim to prevent the development of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior. PMID:25030971
Raue, Patrick J; Ghesquiere, Angela R; Bruce, Martha L
Power and collegial relations among nurses on a number of hospital wards were analysed using a mixed methodology. Half the wards had adopted primary nursing whilst the rest continued with hierarchical management structures. Nurses' interactions were recorded as they worked, as were those that occurred during the shift handover period. The nurses' own perceptions of their collegial relations were measured using a 'Likert scale' type of questionnaire. Qualitative analysis of the observational data suggested that genuine differences in the nature of the power relations existed between the laterally and hierarchically managed wards. Some of the nurses on the primary nursing wards were observed to identify and discuss solutions to their patients' nursing problems, whereas these were either not followed-up or referred to other health care workers on the traditionally managed wards. Statistical analysis of the questionnaires suggested that nurses on the primary nursing wards found their collegial communication to be significantly more collaborative than that of the nurses on the hierarchical wards. Comparison between specialties did not reveal a statistical difference. PMID:2312925
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of physician training on management of depression. DESIGN Primary care physicians were randomly assigned to a depression management intervention that included an educational program. A before-and-after design evaluated physician practices for patients not enrolled in the intervention trial. SETTING One hundred nine primary care physicians in 2 health maintenance organizations located in the Midwest and Northwest regions of the United States. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS Computerized pharmacy and visit data from a group of 124,893 patients who received visits or prescriptions from intervention and usual care physicians. INTERVENTIONS Primary care physicians received education on diagnosis and optimal management of depression over a 3-month training period. Methods of education included small group interactive discussions, expert demonstrations, role-play, and academic detailing of pharmacotherapy, criteria for urgent psychiatric referrals, and case reviews with psychiatric consultants. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Pharmacy and visit data provided indicators of physician management of depression: rate of newly diagnosed depression, new prescription of antidepressant medication, and duration of pharmacotherapy. One year after the training period, intervention and usual care physicians did not differ significantly in the rate of new depression diagnosis (P = .95) or new prescription of antidepressant medicines (P = .10). Meanwhile, patients of intervention physicians did not differ from patients of usual care physicians in adequacy of pharmacotherapy (P = .53) as measured by 12 weeks of continuous antidepressant treatment. CONCLUSIONS After education on optimal management of depression, intervention physicians did not differ from their usual care colleagues in depression diagnosis or pharmacotherapy.
Lin, Elizabeth H B; Simon, Gregory E; Katzelnick, David J; Pearson, Steven D
As primary care practitioners are the health professionals closest to patients' everyday lives, they are most likely to experience the impact of policies that support the patient choice agenda. The government's approach to increasing patient choice has been subject to criticism by those sceptical of its politics and by those concerned with its influence on health providers and some patient groups. A perspective missing from the debate is one informed by research on the psychology of choice. Some psychologists have argued that a seemingly inbuilt preference for choice can adversely affect the decision-making process and that presenting healthcare decisions as choices may result in less reasoned decision making. It is important that GPs encourage patients to make reasoned healthcare decisions that are informed by an evaluation of the options rather than by a simple preference for choice. Patients are likely to be less satisfied with, and experience more regret about, choices made without reasoning.
Bryant, Louise D; Bown, Nicola; Bekker, Hilary L; House, Allan
Recurrent wheezing is common in preschool-aged children, with 1 in 3 children experiencing at least 1 acute wheezing illness before the age of 3 years. These children represent a diverse group, with some going on to present with asthma at school age and others experiencing complete resolution of symptoms. The primary care physician is faced with a dilemma of when to recommend daily therapy. He or she must also answer parents' concerns, often expressed as, "Does my child have asthma?" and "Will my child have to take medication the rest of his or her life?" This article presents recent studies and recommendations that can guide the physician in approaching the child and the parent with rational management. The emphasis is on viewing recurrent wheezing as a continuum requiring a plan of monitoring that starts with the very first episode. Using background information from the parents and a history of the child's allergic disposition, one can discuss with parents the risks of developing asthma and, together with planned monitoring, prescribe appropriate management. The primary care physician can plan management by using the Asthma Predictive Index and employing specific questions for features present during the intervals between acute episodes. Together with close monitoring, the physician will have a compass that effectively directs rational management. PMID:19820274
Bloomberg, Gordon R
Several challenging ethical issues have been associated with the shift to managed healthcare in the United States. Our objective was to develop, implement, and evaluate a curriculum designed to help physicians identify and examine ethical issues encountered in the managed care setting. The curriculum was developed during a year-long workshop at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. The content of the curriculum was established through literature review, focus group discussions with physicians, and a needs assessment of targeted learners (primary care physicians practicing in managed care settings). Some of the key issues addressed in the curriculum include: changing professional responsibilities of physicians; fair use of resources; and threats to the doctor-patient relationship as a consequence of the new healthcare delivery system. The 7.5-h curriculum was taught over five sessions using varied teaching methods. Evaluations demonstrated that the curriculum was successful in increasing learner awareness of ethical issues confronted in the managed care environment and improved learner knowledge in these areas. The physician-learners reported that this educational experience would change their teaching of medical students and residents. After completing the curriculum, learners felt that they were at least somewhat better able to cope with ethical challenges encountered in the managed care setting. Future research might examine whether such a curriculum could positively affect physician behavior or enhance physician satisfaction with the managed care setting. PMID:11260744
Wright, Scott M.; Carrese, Joseph A.
Clinically localized prostate cancer is typically managed by well established therapies like radical prostatectomy, brachytherapy, and external beam radiation therapy. While many patients can be cured with definitive local therapy, some will have biochemical recurrence (BCR) of disease detected by a rising serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Management of these patients is nuanced and controversial. The natural history indicates that a majority of patients with BCR will not die from prostate cancer but from other causes. Despite this, a vast majority of patients with BCR are empirically treated with non-curable systemic androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), with its myriad of real and potential side effects. In this review article, we examined the very definition of BCR after definitive local therapy, the current status of imaging studies in its evaluation, the need for additional therapies, and the factors involved in the decision making in the choice of additional therapies. This review aims to help clinicians with the management of patients with BCR. The assessment of prognostic factors including absolute PSA level, time to recurrence, PSA kinetics, multivariable nomograms, imaging, and biopsy of the prostatic bed may help stratify the patients into localized or systemic recurrence. Patients with low-risk of systemic disease may be cured by a salvage local therapy, while those with higher risk of systemic disease may be offered the option of ADT or a clinical trial. An algorithm incorporating these factors is presented.
Darwish, Oussama M.; Raj, Ganesh V.
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors based upon the sex of the patient and physician and their interaction in primary care practice. METHODS We evaluated CVD risk factor management in 4,195 patients cared for by 39 male and 16 female primary care physicians in 30 practices in southeastern New England. RESULTS Many of the sex-based differences in CVD risk factor management on crude analysis are lost once adjusted for confounding factors found at the level of the patient, physician, and practice. In multilevel adjusted analyses, styles of CVD risk factor management differed by the sex of the physician, with more female physicians documenting diet and weight loss counseling for hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–4.40) and obesity (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.30–3.51) and more physical activity counseling for obesity (OR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.30–3.18) and diabetes (OR = 6.55; 95% CI, 2.01–21.33). Diabetes management differed by the sex of the patient, with fewer women receiving glucose-lowering medications (OR = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.94), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy (OR = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22–0.72), and aspirin prophylaxis (OR = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.15–0.58). CONCLUSION Quality of care as measured by patients meeting CVD risk factors treatment goals was similar regardless of the sex of the patient or physician. Selected differences were found in the style of CVD risk factor management by sex of physician and patient.
Tabenkin, Hava; Eaton, Charles B.; Roberts, Mary B.; Parker, Donna R.; McMurray, Jerome H.; Borkan, Jeffrey
Primary care has changed remarkably with chronic disease burden growth. Nurse case managers assist with this chronic disease by providing if not significantly better care, than equivalent care to that provided by usual primary care providers. Chronic disease management requires patient-centered skills and tools, such as registries, panel management, review of home data, communicating with patients outside of face-to-face care, and coordinating multiple services. Evidence reviewed in this article demonstrates that registered nurse care managers (RNCM) perform many actions required for diabetes chronic disease management including initiation and titration of medications with similar or improved physiologic and patient satisfaction outcomes over usual care providers. Selection and training of the nurse case managers is of utmost importance for implementation of a successful chronic disease management program. Evidence based guidelines, algorithms, protocols, and adequate ongoing education and mentoring are generally cited as necessary support tools for the nurse case managers. PMID:24816751
Watts, Sharon A; Lucatorto, Michelle
Background There has been growing interest regarding the impact of telemonitoring and its ability to reduce the increasing burden of chronic diseases, including chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD), on healthcare systems. A number of randomised trials have been undertaken internationally and synthesised into various systematic reviews to establish an evidence base for this model of care. This study sought to synthesise and critically evaluate this large body of evidence to inform clinicians, researchers and policy makers. Methods A systematic review of systematic reviews investigating the impact of telemonitoring interventions in the primary care management of CVD was conducted. Reviews were included if they explored primary care based telemonitoring in either CVD, heart failure or hypertension, were reported in the English language and were published between 2000 and 2013. Data was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer using a standardised form. Two assessors then rated the quality of each review using the Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ). Results Of the 13 included reviews, four focused on telemonitoring interventions in hypertension or CVD management and the remaining 9 reviews investigated telemonitoring in HF management. Seven reviews scored a five or above on the OQAQ evidencing good quality reviews. Findings suggest that telemonitoring can contribute to significant reductions in blood pressure, decreased all-cause and HF related hospitalisations, reduced all-cause mortality and improved quality of life. Telemonitoring was also demonstrated to reduce health care costs and appears acceptable to patients. Conclusion Telemonitoring has the potential to enhance primary care management of CVD by improving patient outcomes and reducing health costs. However, further research needs to explore the specific elements of telemonitoring interventions to determine the relative value of the various elements. Additionally, the ways in which telemonitoring care improves health outcomes needs to be further explored to understand the nature of these interventions.
Objective: Primary cervical spinal tumors are rare tumors of the spine and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Such tumors include multiple myeloma, chordomas, giant cell tumors, hemangiomas, osteosarcomas, chondrosarcomas, synovial sarcomas, aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC), hemangiomas, eosinophilic granulomas, osteoid osteomas, and osteoblastomas. We review the surgical decision-making process and identify critical key steps for surgical complication avoidance. We also present case illustrations demonstrating such pathological diagnoses and surgical treatments performed. Methods: We retrospectively review the literature regarding the most common primary cervical spinal tumors that have undergone surgical resection with or without adjuvant treatment. Results: En bloc resection of primary cervical tumors resulted in significantly increased progression-free survival and overall survival. From the limited data, adjuvant treatment with proton-beam therapy for chordomas has potential benefit. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for Ewing's sarcoma and osteogenic sarcoma has shown some promise, with en bloc resection demonstrating stronger benefit for osteogenic sarcoma. Discussion: En bloc resection for primary spinal tumors has proven to be the standard of care in spinal oncology. Adjuvant and neo-adjuvant treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy variants (conventional, proton beam, cyberknife) need to be studied further in most primary tumor types to become standard of care. Chordoma management is more widely studied with en bloc resection and adjuvant proton-beam therapy demonstrating improved progression-free survival and overall survival. Surgical management and adjuvant treatment strategies are case dependent, depending on tumor histology, patient neurological examination, prior surgeries at that level, and prior adjuvant treatment. PMID:24716731
Kaloostian, Paul E; Gokaslan, Ziya L
Climate change will pose increasingly significant challenges to managers of parks and other forms of protected areas around the world. Over the past two decades, numerous scientific publications have identified potential adaptations, but their suitability from legal, policy, financial, internal capacity, and other management perspectives has not been evaluated for any protected area agency or organization. In this study, a
Christopher J. Lemieux; Daniel J. Scott
Project Choice was begun with the goal of increasing the number of inner-city students who graduate on time. Ewing M. Kauffman and his business and foundation associates designed and elected to test a model that used the promise of postsecondary education or training as the incentive to stay in school. This report details the evolution of Project…
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.
This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity's personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking), it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole. PMID:24455660
Goel, Nishu Singh
Background The Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Ballabgarh, run by All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi has a computerized Health Management Information System (HMIS) since 1988. The HMIS at Ballabgarh has undergone evolution and is currently in its third version which uses generic and open source software. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computerized Health Management Information System in rural health system in India. Methods The data for evaluation were collected by in-depth interviews of the stakeholders i.e. program managers (authors) and health workers. Health Workers from AIIMS and Non-AIIMS Primary Health Centers were interviewed to compare the manual with computerized HMIS. A cost comparison between the two methods was carried out based on market costs. The resource utilization for both manual and computerized HMIS was identified based on workers' interviews. Results There have been no major hardware problems in use of computerized HMIS. More than 95% of data was found to be accurate. Health workers acknowledge the usefulness of HMIS in service delivery, data storage, generation of workplans and reports. For program managers, it provides a better tool for monitoring and supervision and data management. The initial cost incurred in computerization of two Primary Health Centers was estimated to be Indian National Rupee (INR) 1674,217 (USD 35,622). Equivalent annual incremental cost of capital items was estimated as INR 198,017 (USD 4213). The annual savings is around INR 894,283 (USD 11,924). Conclusion The major advantage of computerization has been in saving of time of health workers in record keeping and report generation. The initial capital costs of computerization can be recovered within two years of implementation if the system is fully operational. Computerization has enabled implementation of a good system for service delivery, monitoring and supervision.
More than 20 North American academic centers account for the majority of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) procedures for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), with smaller numbers performed at additional sites. Given the importance of a timely diagnosis of these rare diseases and the diversity of practice sites, there is a need for guidance as to best practices in management of patients with PIDs before, during, and in follow-up for definitive treatment. In this conference report of immune deficiency experts and HCT physicians who care for patients with PIDs, we present expert guidance for (1) PID diagnoses that are indications for HCT, including severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), combined immunodeficiency disease, and other non-SCID diseases; (2) the critical importance of a high degree of suspicion of the primary care physician and timeliness of diagnosis for PIDs; (3) the need for rapid referral to an immune deficiency expert, center with experience in HCT, or both for patients with PIDs; (4) medical management of a child with suspicion of SCID/combined immunodeficiency disease while confirming the diagnosis, including infectious disease management and workup; (5) the posttransplantation follow-up visit schedule; (6) antimicrobial prophylaxis after transplantation, including gamma globulin administration; and (7) important indications for return to the transplantation center after discharge. Finally, we discuss the role of high-quality databases in treatment of PIDs and HCT as an element of the infrastructure that will be needed for productive multicenter clinical trials in these rare diseases. PMID:20004776
Griffith, Linda M; Cowan, Morton J; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Puck, Jennifer M; Buckley, Rebecca H; Candotti, Fabio; Conley, Mary Ellen; Fleisher, Thomas A; Gaspar, H Bobby; Kohn, Donald B; Ochs, Hans D; O'Reilly, Richard J; Rizzo, J Douglas; Roifman, Chaim M; Small, Trudy N; Shearer, William T
Introduction. Prescription for diabetes care is an important practice in primary care. Methods. This is a descriptive study carried out on at primary care clinics over a five-month period at Al Imam Medical Complex, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It was cross-sectional study of 160 female diabetic patients, who visited the services between January and May, 2012. Data were collected from the medical records on the clinical characteristics and drugs prescribed for their diabetic management. Results. The majority of the sample population (82%) was older than 40?years old. Half of them had concomitant hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. There were 500 prescriptions for diabetes management. More than 57% of participants were on two or more drugs for hyperglycemia. Metformin was the most common drug prescribed. Metformin and sulphonylurea were the most common combined medications. Most of cases ( 70%) were on a combination of antihypertensive drugs. ACE or ARBs and diuretic was the most common combined prescriptions. Statins and aspirin were used by 41% and 23.8% of the research population, respectively. Conclusion. Polypharmacy is a feature in diabetes care. Most of the prescription practice for diabetic care follows the recommended guidelines for hyperglycemia and hypertension. Management of dyslipidemia among diabetic patients, however, is an area that needs to be developed.
ALHreashy, Fouzia A.; Mobierek, Abdulelah F.
Background Obesity affects 25% of the UK adult population but modest weight loss can reduce the incidence of obesity-related chronic disease. Some effective weight loss treatments exist but there is no nationally available National Health Service (NHS) treatment service, and general practitioners (GPs) rarely discuss weight management with patients or support behavior change. Evidence shows that commercial weight management services, that most primary care trusts have 'on prescription', are more effective than primary care treatment. Methods/design We propose a controlled trial where patients will be randomized to receive either the offer of help by referral to a weight management service and follow-up to assess progress, or advice to lose weight on medical grounds. The primary outcome will be weight change at 12-months. Other questions are: what actions do people take to manage their weight in response to the two GP intervention types? How do obese patients feel about GPs opportunistically discussing weight management and how does this vary by intervention type? How do GPs feel about raising the issue opportunistically and giving the two types of brief intervention? What is the cost per kg/m2 lost for each intervention? Research assistants visiting GP practices in England (n?=?60) would objectively measure weight and height prior to GP consultations and randomize willing patients (body mass index 30+, excess body fat, 18+ years) using sealed envelopes. Full recruitment (n?=?1824) is feasible in 46 weeks, requiring six sessions of advice-giving per GP. Participants will be contacted at 3 months (postintervention) via telephone to identify actions they have taken to manage their weight. We will book appointments for participants to be seen at their GP practice for a 12-month follow-up. Discussion Trial results could make the case for brief interventions for obese people consulting their GP and introduce widespread simple treatments akin to the NHS Stop Smoking Service. Likewise, the intervention could be introduced in the Quality and Outcomes Framework and influence practice worldwide. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN26563137.
AimsTo assess changes over two years in the health status and management of a cohort of people with Type 2 diabetes from different ethnic groups within a primary care diabetes annual review programme in New Zealand.
Hosnah Agban; C. Raina Elley; Tim Kenealy; Elizabeth Robinson
Acute low back pain is a common reason for patient calls or visits to a primary care clinician. Despite a large differential diagnosis, the precise etiology is rarely identified, although musculoligamentous processes are usually suspected. For most patients, back symptoms are nonspecific, meaning that there is no evidence for radicular symptoms or underlying systemic disease. Because episodes of acute, nonspecific low back pain are usually self-limited, many patients treat themselves without contacting their primary care clinician. When patients do call or schedule a visit, evaluation and management by primary care clinicians is appropriate. The history and physical examination usually provide clues to the rare but potentially serious causes of low back pain, as well as to identify patients at risk for prolonged recovery. Diagnostic testing, including plain x-rays, is often unnecessary during the initial evaluation. For patients with acute, nonspecific low back pain, the primary emphasis of treatment should be conservative care, time, reassurance, and education. Current recommendations focus on activity as tolerated (though not active exercise while pain is severe) and minimal if any bed rest. Referral for physical treatments is most appropriate for patients whose symptoms are not improving over 2 to 4 weeks. Specialty referral should be considered for patients with a progressive neurologic deficit, failure of conservative therapy, or an uncertain or serious diagnosis. The prognosis for most patients is good, although recurrence is common. Thus, educating patients about the natural history of acute low back pain and how to prevent future episodes can help ensure reasonable expectations.
Atlas, Steven J; Deyo, Richard A
The current study investigates the impact of patient factors, surgical factors, and blood management on postoperative length of stay (LOS) in 516 patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Age, gender, type of anticoagulation, but not body mass index (BMI) were found to be highly significant predictors of an increased LOS. Allogeneic transfusion and the number of allogeneic units significantly increased LOS, whereas donation and/or transfusion of autologous blood did not. Hemoglobin levels preoperatively until 48 hours postoperatively were negatively correlated with LOS. After adjusting for confounding factors through Poisson regression, age (p = 0.001) and allogeneic blood transfusion (p = 0.002) were the most significant determinants of LOS. Avoiding allogeneic blood plays an essential role in reducing the overall length of stay after primary total knee arthroplasty.
Monsef, Jad B; Della Valle, Alejandro G; Mayman, David J; Marx, Robert G; Ranawat, Amar S; Boettner, Friedrich
Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009in people with diabetes. The management of cardiovascular risk factors\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009in people with diabetes in primary care was compared with National\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines.A cross-sectional study\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009in 26 general practices, with a combined list size of 256,188 patients,\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009participating in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex Primary Care Research
Alide Petri; Simon de Lusignan; John Williams; Tom Chan; Azeem Majeed
Objective To describe National Health Service (NHS) resource use and pharmacological management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in routine UK primary care. Design Multicentre retrospective study. Setting Seven primary care practices in England, one in Wales. Patients Patients with AF were identified and approached for consent. Data were collected on the first 12?weeks post-diagnosis (‘initiation’) and, for established patients, up to the most recent 3?years of management (‘maintenance’). Results Data collected on 825 patients with AF, 56% men. Mean age (at diagnosis) 70.5?years. Mean 2.4 (SD 2.2) visits to primary care per patient during the initiation phase; 1.5 (SD 1.8) per patient-year during the maintenance phase. Mean 0.4 (SD 0.6) inpatient admissions for AF per patient during the initiation phase and 0.1 (SD 0.3) per patient-year during the maintenance phase. The mean length of hospital stay per admitted patient was 5.6?days during initiation and 6.4?days per patient-year during maintenance. During the initiation phase, 46.1% (143/310) patients received a ?-blocker and 97 (31.3%) received no rate/rhythm control. Only 234 (75.5%) patients received thromboprophylaxis in the 12?weeks postdiagnosis and 674 (87.7%) in the maintenance phase. 440 (57.2%) patients were deemed to be at high risk of stroke at the end of the maintenance phase; 55% (242/440) of these were receiving appropriate anticoagulation therapy. Conclusions The results suggest that there are opportunities for optimisation of treatment and there is significant NHS resource associated with AF management, the details of which are invaluable for future healthcare planning and policy development in this area.
Kassianos, George; Arden, Chris; Hogan, Simon; Dew, Robert; Fuat, Ahmet
Climate change will pose increasingly significant challenges to managers of parks and other forms of protected areas around\\u000a the world. Over the past two decades, numerous scientific publications have identified potential adaptations, but their suitability\\u000a from legal, policy, financial, internal capacity, and other management perspectives has not been evaluated for any protected\\u000a area agency or organization. In this study, a
Christopher J. LemieuxDaniel; Daniel J. Scott
Headache continues to be a frequent cause of emergency department (ED) use, accounting for 2% of all visits. The majority of these headaches prove to be benign but painful exacerbations of chronic headache disorders, such as migraine, tension-type, and cluster. The goal of ED management is to provide rapid and quick relief of benign headache, without causing undue side effects, as well as recognizing headaches with malignant course. Though these headaches have distinct epidemiologies and clinical phenotypes, there is overlapping response to therapy: non-steroidals, triptans, dihydroergotamine, and the anti-emetic dopamine-antagonists may play a therapeutic role for each of these acute headaches. Because these headaches often recur over the days and months following ED discharge, the responsibility of the emergency physician includes identifying as yet unmet treatment needs and ensuring successful transition of care of these patients to an outpatient healthcare provider. Herein, we review the diagnostic criteria and management strategies for the primary headache disorders.
Friedman, Benjamin Wolkin; Grosberg, Brian Mitchell
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) aneurysms are rare but associated with significant mortality (25-40%) when complicated by rupture or thrombosis. Symptomatic SMA aneurysms, asymptomatic aneurysms of ?2 cm size and pseudoaneurysms need intervention. We report a case of a 6.5-cm symptomatic SMA aneurysm managed by open surgical repair. At intraoperative exploration, the aneurysm was recognized to be a pseudoaneurysm with a narrow neck (1 mm defect in the native vessel) and was dealt by primary repair. Clinical presentation, the role of radiological investigations and management are discussed. Detailed preoperative assessment of the anatomical characters is essential in planning the intervention for SMA aneurysms. The required information can be obtained by selective interventional angiogram or computed tomographic angiogram with three-dimensional reconstruction. Multi-institutional prospective databases might provide better evidence regarding the timing of intervention, treatment modality, postinterventional follow-up and surveillance of patients with mesenteric aneurysms. PMID:21715550
Dasari, Bobby V M; Mullan, Michael; Lau, Louis; Loan, William; Lee, Bernard
Aim To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary health care providers regarding the identification and management of domestic violence in a hospital based primary health care setting. Method A survey of all clinicians and nursing staff of the outpatient, casualty and antenatal clinics in University Malaya Medical Centre using a self-administered questionnaire. Results Hundred and eight out of 188 available staff participated. Sixty-two percent of the clinicians and 66.9% of the nursing staff perceived the prevalence of domestic violence within their patients to be very rare or rare. Majority of the clinicians (68.9%) reported asking their patients regarding domestic violence 'at times' but 26.2% had never asked at all. Time factor, concern about offending the patient and unsure of how to ask were reported as barriers in asking for domestic violence by 66%, 52.5% and 32.8% of the clinicians respectively. Clinicians have different practices and levels of confidence within the management of domestic violence. Victim-blaming attitude exists in 28% of the clinicians and 51.1% of the nursing staff. Less than a third of the participants reported knowing of any written protocol for domestic violence management. Only 20% of the clinicians and 6.8% of the nursing staff had ever attended any educational program related to domestic violence. Conclusion Lack of positive attitude and positive practices among the staff towards domestic violence identification and management might be related to inadequate knowledge and inappropriate personal values regarding domestic violence.
Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Mat Adenan, Noor Azmi
Background The increasing number of patients with chronic diseases represents a challenge for health care systems. The Chronic Care Model suggests a multi-component remodelling of chronic disease services to improve patient outcomes. To meet the complex and ongoing needs of patients, chronic disease prevention and management (CDPM) has been advocated as a key feature of primary care producing better outcomes, greater effectiveness and improved access to services compared to other sectors. The objective of this study is to evaluate the adaptation and implementation of an intervention involving the integration of chronic disease prevention and management (CDPM) services into primary health care. Methods/Design The implementation of the intervention will be evaluated using descriptive qualitative methods to collect data from various stakeholders (decision-makers, primary care professionals, CDPM professionals and patients) before, during and after the implementation. The evaluation of the effects will be based on a combination of experimental designs: a randomized trial using a delayed intervention arm (n = 326), a before-and-after design with repeated measures (n = 163), and a quasi-experimental design using a comparative cohort (n = 326). This evaluation will utilize self-report questionnaires measuring self-efficacy, empowerment, comorbidity, health behaviour, functional health status, quality of life, psychological well-being, patient characteristics and co-interventions. The study will take place in eight primary care practices of the Saguenay region of Quebec (Canada). To be included, patients will have to be referred by their primary care provider and present at least one of the following conditions (or their risk factors): diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma. Patients presenting serious cognitive problems will be excluded. Discussion In the short-term, improved patient self-efficacy and empowerment are expected. In the mid-term, we expect to observe an improvement in health behaviour, functional health status, quality of life and psychological well-being. At the organizational level, the project should lead to coordinated service delivery, improved patient follow-up mechanisms and enhanced interprofessional collaboration. Integration of CDPM services at the point of care in primary care practices is a promising innovation in care delivery that needs to be thoroughly evaluated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01319656
Objective: To examine how to screen for and establish a correct diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and to identify the outcomes associated with untreated ADHD. Data Sources: PubMed was searched using the key words ADHD, adult, diagnosis, and primary care from the years 1999 to 2009. Study Selection: This search produced 50 publications. Data Extraction: Publications were screened for data specific to the diagnosis or management of adult patients with ADHD in the primary care setting. Data Synthesis: The estimated prevalence of ADHD in adults throughout the United States is 4.4% or approximately 10 million adults. Adults with ADHD by definition must experience impairment from the symptoms of ADHD in at least 2 areas of their life. Despite significant impairment, only 1 in 10 adults with ADHD have received ADHD treatment within the past year. Given the high rates of undertreatment, primary care physicians, who provide much of the general adult mental health care in the United States, are increasingly charged with making the diagnosis of ADHD in adults. ADHD symptoms are often masked by comorbid psychiatric conditions or patient adaptations such as choice of occupation. One of the ADHD assessment tools, a short 6-item screener, can simplify identification and management of ADHD in adults and help identify which patients may require further evaluation. Conclusions: Primary care physicians should consult with other members of the health care community such as psychiatrists and psychologists when necessary, but should also develop a level of comfort with diagnosing and treating ADHD.
Patients with urologic conditions may present to a primary care physician (PCP) in the emergency department or in the PCP's office. Some conditions are true emergencies that require immediate surgical intervention. Others may require medical treatment or possibly simply reassuring the patient that there is no serious medical problem. Sometimes the diagnosis can be easily made, whereas other times the PCP needs to be able to rule out serious causes for a presenting problem and execute a guideline-recommended patient work up, to make a final diagnosis. Sometimes recommended diagnostic tests may not be readily available. When a PCP believes that a patient may have a serious urologic condition and is unsure of the appropriate patient management strategy, then he or she must quickly refer the patient to a urologist. This article describes common urology-related issues-hematuria, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test interpretation, phimosis and paraphimosis, acute scrotal pain and masses in the child and adult, urinary tract infection, renal colic, and castration-treatment-induced bone loss. It provides insights into decision-making processes for patient management of some urologic conditions, and information about managing sequelae and side effects of long term treatment. It includes practical diagnostic suggestions and patient management strategies based on the authors' years of urologic clinical practice experience. PMID:24978632
Barkin, Jack; Rosenberg, Matt T; Miner, Martin
Because operating room (OR) management decisions with optimal choices are made with ubiquitous biases, decisions are improved with decision-support systems. We reviewed experimental social-psychology studies to explore what an OR leader can do when working with stakeholders lacking interest in learning the OR management science but expressing opinions about decisions, nonetheless. We considered shared information to include the rules-of-thumb (heuristics) that make intuitive sense and often seem "close enough" (e.g., staffing is planned based on the average workload). We considered unshared information to include the relevant mathematics (e.g., staffing calculations). Multiple studies have shown that group discussions focus more on shared than unshared information. Quality decisions are more likely when all group participants share knowledge (e.g., have taken a course in OR management science). Several biases in OR management are caused by humans' limited abilities to estimate tails of probability distributions in their heads. Groups are more susceptible to analogous biases than are educated individuals. Since optimal solutions are not demonstrable without groups sharing common language, only with education of most group members can a knowledgeable individual influence the group. The appropriate model of decision-making is autocratic, with information obtained from stakeholders. Although such decisions are good quality, the leaders often are disliked and the decisions considered unjust. In conclusion, leaders will find the most success if they do not bring OR management operational decisions to groups, but instead act autocratically while obtaining necessary information in 1:1 conversations. The only known route for the leader making such decisions to be considered likable and for the decisions to be considered fair is through colleagues and subordinates learning the management science. PMID:24108254
Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Braun, Michael T; Van Swol, Lyn
OBJECTIVE: To analyze primary care staffing in HMOs and to review the literature on primary care organization and performance in managed care organizations, with an emphasis on the delivery of primary care to the elderly and chronically ill. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Analysis of primary care staffing: InterStudy HMO census data on primary care (n = 1,956) and specialist (n = 1,777) physician staffing levels from 1991 through 1995. Primary care organization and performance for the chronically ill and elderly were analyzed using a review of published research. STUDY DESIGN: For the staffing-level models, the number of primary care and specialist physicians per 100,000 enrollees was regressed on HMO characteristics (HMO type [group, staff, network, mixed], HMO enrollment, federal qualification, profit status, national affiliation) and community characteristics (per capita income, population density, service area size, HMO competition). For the review of organization and performance, literature published was summarized in a tabular format. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of physician staffing shows that group and staff HMOs have fewer primary care and specialist physicians per 100,000 enrollees than do network and mixed HMOs, which have fewer than IPAs. Larger HMOs use fewer physicians per 100,000 enrollees than smaller HMOs. Federally qualified HMOs have fewer primary care and specialist physicians per 100,000 enrollees. For-profit, nationally affiliated, and Blue Cross HMOs have more primary care and specialist physicians than do local HMOs. HMOs in areas with high per capita income have more PCPs per 100,000 and a greater proportion of PCPs in the panel. HMO penetration decreases the use of specialists, but the number of HMOs increases the use of primary care and specialist physicians in highly competitive markets. Under very competitive conditions, HMOs appear to compete by increasing access to both PCPs and specialists, with a greater emphasis on access to specialists. The review of research on HMO performance suggests that access to PCPs is better in MCOs. But access to specialists and hospitals is lower and more difficult in MCOs than FFS. Data do not suggest that processes of care, given access, are different in MCOs and FFS. MCO enrollees are more satisfied with financial aspects of a health plan and less satisfied with other aspects of health plan organization. There are potential problems with outcomes, with some studies finding greater declines among the chronically ill in MCOs than FFS. We found a variety of innovative care programs for the elderly, based on two fundamentally different approaches: organization around primary care or organizing around specialty care. Differences between the performance of the two approaches cannot be evaluated because of the small amount of research done. It is difficult to say how well particular programs perform and if they can be replicated. The innovative programs described in the literature tend to be benchmark programs developed by HMOs with a strong positive reputation.
Wholey, D R; Burns, L R; Lavizzo-Mourey, R
Primary malignant melanoma originating in the small bowel is extremely rare. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with a preoperative bleeding duodenal tumor. A standard pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination ascertained the diagnosis of a duodenal malignant melanoma with locoregional lymphatic spread. A thorough postoperative investigation did not reveal any primary melanotic lesions. Thus, the diagnosis of a primary melanoma originating from the duodenum was suggested. Fourteen months after surgery, the patient had no evidence of recurrence. Primary malignant melanoma of the duodenum is an existing, though unusual, oncologic entity. Aggressive surgery remains the treatment of choice offering both symptom palliation and long-term survival. PMID:18622334
Korkolis, Dimitris P; Apostolaki, Katerina; Gontikakis, Emmanuel; Plataniotis, George D; Siskos, Dimitris; Xinopoulos, Dimitris; Dimitroulopoulos, Dimitris; Papantoniou, Nikitas; Biteli, Maria; Vassilopoulos, Perikles P
This study sought to determine whether medical students who participate in a global health elective in a low-income country select residencies in primary care at higher rates compared with their classmates and US medical graduates in general. Given the projected increase in demand for primary care physicians, particularly in underserved areas, understanding possible factors that encourage training in primary care or enhance interest in the care of underserved populations may identify opportunities in medical school training. The authors used data from the Office of Student Affairs, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine and the National Residency Matching Program to compare rates of primary care residency selection from 2004 to 2012. Residency selections for students who participated in the SUNY Downstate School of Public Health Global Health Elective were compared with those of their classmates and with residency match data for US seniors. In 7 of the 8 years reviewed, students who participated in the SUNY Downstate School of Public Health Global Health Elective selected primary care residencies at rates higher than their classmates. Across years, 57% of the students who completed the elective matched to primary care residences, which was significantly higher than the 44% for the remainder of Downstate's medical student class (p?=?0.0023). In 6 of the 8 years, Downstate students who participated in the Global Health Elective selected primary care residencies at rates higher than US medical school seniors in general; rates were the same for both Downstate Global Health Elective students and US medical school seniors in 2009. Students who participated in a global health experience in a low-income country selected primary care residencies at higher rates than their classmates and US medical school graduates in general. Understanding how these experiences correlate with residency selection requires further investigation; areas of future study are discussed. PMID:24091733
Bruno, Denise Marie; Imperato, Pascal James; Szarek, Michael
Objective To investigate the effectiveness of supplementing information and advice on analgesia and exercise from a general practitioner with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as a non-drug form of analgesia to reduce pain intensity in patients with tennis elbow. Design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial in primary care. Setting and 38 general practices in the West Midlands, UK. Participants 241 adults consulting with a first or new (no consultation in previous six months) clinical diagnosis of tennis elbow. Interventions Participants were randomly allocated to either primary care management alone, consisting of a consultation with a general practitioner followed by information and advice on exercises, or primary care management plus TENS to be used once a day for 45 minutes over six weeks (or until symptom resolution) for pain relief. Outcome measures The primary outcome was self reported intensity of elbow pain (0-10 rating scale) at six weeks. Primary and secondary outcomes were measured at baseline and at six weeks, six months, and 12 months by postal questionnaire. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results 121 participants were randomised to primary care management plus TENS and 120 to primary care management only (first episode, n=197 (82%); duration <1-3 months, n=138 (57%)). Adherence to exercise and TENS recommendations reported at six weeks was low; only 42 participants in the primary care management plus TENS group met a priori defined adherence criteria. Both intervention groups showed large improvements in pain and secondary outcomes, especially during the first six weeks of follow-up. However, no clinically or statistically significant differences were seen between groups at any follow-up timepoint. At the primary endpoint (six weeks), the between group difference in improvement of pain was ?0.33 (95% confidence interval ?0.96 to 0.31; P=0.31) in favour of the primary care management only group, with adjustment for age, sex, and baseline pain score. Conclusions This trial does not provide evidence for additional benefit of TENS as an adjunct to primary care management of tennis elbow. Poor adherence to interventions is evidence of the challenges of implementing self management treatment strategies in primary care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN87141084.
Background Obesity, a threatening pandemic, has an important public health implication. Before proper medication is available, primary care providers will have a distinguished role in prevention and management. Their performance may be influenced by many factors but their personal motivation is still an under-researched area. Methods The knowledge, attitudes and practice were reviewed in this questionnaire study involving a representative sample of 10% of all Hungarian family physicians. In different settings, 521 practitioners (448 GPs and 73 residents/vocational trainees) were questioned using a validated questionnaire. Results The knowledge about multimorbidity, a main consequence of obesity was balanced. Only 51% of the GPs were aware of the diagnostic threshold for obesity; awareness being higher in cities (60%) and the highest among residents (90%). They also considered obesity an illness rather than an aesthetic issue. There were wider differences regarding attitudes and practice, influenced by the the doctors’ age, gender, known BMI, previous qualification, less by working location. GPs with qualification in family medicine alone considered obesity management as higher professional satisfaction, compared to physicians who had previously other board qualification (77% vs 68%). They measured their patients’ waist circumference and waist/hip ratio (72% vs 62%) more frequently, provided the obese with dietary advice more often, while this service was less frequent among capital-based doctors who accepted the self-reported body weight dates by patients more commonly. Similar reduced activity and weight-measurement in outdoor clothing were more typical among older doctors. Diagnosis based on BMI alone was the highest in cities (85%). Consultations were significantly shorter in practices with a higher number of enrolled patients and were longer by female providers who consulted longer with patients about the suspected causes of developing obesity (65% vs 44%) and offered dietary records for patients significantly more frequently (65% vs 52%). Most of the younger doctors agreed that obesity management was a primary care issue. Doctors in the normal BMI range were unanimous that they should be a model for their patients (94% vs 81%). Conclusion More education of primary care physicians, available practical guidelines and higher community involvement are needed to improve the obesity management in Hungary.
An innovative sludge management system based on separation of treatment and disposal of primary and secondary sludge is discussed with reference to a sewage treatment plant of 500,000 equivalent person capacity. Secondary sludge, if treated separately from primary sludge, can be recovered in agriculture considering its relatively high content of nitrogen and phosphorus and negligible presence of pathogens and micropollutants. One typical outlet for primary sludge is still incineration which can be optimised by rendering the process auto thermal and significantly reducing the size of the incineration plant units (dryer, fluidised bed furnace, boiler and units for exhaust gas treatment) in comparison with those required for mixed sludge incineration. Biogas produced in anaerobic digestion is totally available for energy conversion when sludge treatment separation is performed, while in the other case a large proportion may be used as fuel in incineration, thus reducing the net electric energy conversion from 0.85-0.9 to 0.35-0.4 MW for the plant considered. PMID:15581006
Mininni, G; Braguglia, C M; Ramadori, R; Tomei, M C
Primary care practitioners (PCPs) have been encouraged to screen all adults for obesity and to offer behavioral weight loss counseling to affected individuals. However, there is limited research and guidance on how to provide such intervention in primary care settings. This led the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in 2005 to issue a request for applications to investigate the management of obesity in routine clinical care. Three institutions were funded under a cooperative agreement to undertake the Practice-based Opportunities for Weight Reduction (POWER) trials. The present article reviews selected randomized controlled trials, published prior to the initiation of POWER, and then provides a detailed overview of the rationale, methods, and results of the POWER trial conducted at the University of Pennsylvania (POWER-UP). POWER-UP’s findings are briefly compared with those from the two other POWER Trials, conducted at Johns Hopkins University and Harvard University/Washington University. The methods of delivering behavioral weight loss counseling differed markedly across the three trials, as captured by an algorithm presented in the article. Delivery methods ranged from having medical assistants and PCPs from the practices provide counseling to using a commercially-available call center, coordinated with an interactive web-site. Evaluation of the efficacy of primary care-based weight loss interventions must be considered in light of costs, as discussed in relation to the recent treatment model proposed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
Wadden, Thomas A.; Volger, Sheri; Tsai, Adam G.; Sarwer, David B.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Diewald, Lisa; Carvajal, Raymond; Moran, Caroline H.; Vetter, Marion
Objective: To estimate the cost of completing all chronic care tasks recommended by the Central Australian Rural Practitioners Association Standard Treatment Manual (CARPA STM) for patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design and setting: The study was conducted at a health service in a remote Central Australian Aboriginal community between July 2010 and May 2011. The chronic care tasks required were ascertained from the CARPA STM. The clinic database was reviewed for data on disease prevalence and adherence to CARPA STM guidelines. Recommended tasks were observed in a time-and-motion study of clinicians' work. Clinicians were interviewed about systematic management and its barriers. Expenditure records were analysed for salary and administrative costs. Main outcome measures: Diabetes and CKD prevalence; time spent on chronic disease care tasks; completion of tasks recommended by the CARPA STM; barriers to systematic care identified by clinicians; and estimated costs of optimal primary care management of all residents with diabetes or CKD. Results: Projected annual costs of best-practice care for diabetes and CKD for this community of 542 people were $900 792, of which $645 313 would be met directly by the local primary care service. Estimated actual expenditure for these conditions in 2009-10 was $446 585, giving a projected funding gap of $198 728 per annum, or $1733 per patient. High staff turnover, acute care workload and low health literacy also hindered optimal chronic disease care. Conclusion: Barriers to optimal care included inadequate funding and workforce issues. Reduction of avoidable hospital admissions and overall costs necessitates adequate funding of primary care of chronic disease in remote communities. PMID:24938349
Gador-Whyte, Andrew P; Wakerman, John; Campbell, David; Lenthall, Sue; Struber, Janet; Hope, Alex; Watson, Colin
Recognition, management, and prevention of medical complications and comorbidities after liver transplant is the key to improved long-term outcomes. Beyond allograft-related complications, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, renal dysfunction, and malignancies are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Primary care physicians have an important role in improving outcomes of liver transplant recipients and are increasingly relied on for managing these complex patients. This review serves to assist the primary care physician in the long-term management issues of liver transplant recipients. PMID:22763347
Singh, Siddharth; Watt, Kymberly D
Improving the quality and efficiency of primary health care system is a key challenge. In this regard, problems that have accumulated in the system over the past decade - a weak material base of outpatient-polyclinic institutions, especially in rural areas; a surplus of medical personnel; lack of control by local, regional and central authorities--still remain as serious obstacle. The issue of financing the provided health services, is also particularly important, given the fact that a significant portion of the cost of medical services is covered by the patient directly. And as a consequence, the low level of applications for outpatient-polyclinic assistance due to declining affordability of medical services. In connection with the foregoing, the authors of the paper raise the question of implementing strict, multi-component system of quality control of medical care for patients. In particular, they propose: to base modern organization works on improving the quality of primary health care system on the principles of general management theory; Modern management of service quality should be clearly oriented towards the needs of the population in health care, its structure and dynamics; accessibility, incentives, determined by economic and technological competition characteristic to the market; Modern quality management, regardless of ownership and scale of outpatient-polyclinic establishment should optimally combine the actions, methods and tools that provide, on the one hand--the organization of diagnostic and therapeutic-prophylactic processes meeting the needs of the people, and on the other--the introduction of new methods and means to ensure the modern level of medical care; Schematic diagram of quality control mechanism organically interacts with the market research and includes a block of policy development in terms of quality. PMID:19644201
Dzhakeli, I V; Edzhibadze, O I; Gerzmava, O Kh
Background Two key elements to improve the quality of care for people with long-term conditions in primary care are improved clinical information systems to support delivery of evidence-based care, and enhanced self-management support. Although both elements are viewed as necessary, their interaction is not well understood. Aim To explore the use of computer-based ‘disease management’ templates and their relevance to self-management dialogue within clinical encounters. Design and setting Qualitative study of general practices located in three primary care trusts in the north of England. Method A qualitative mixed methods study was conducted that included comparative analysis of (1) observations of general practice consultations (n = 86); and (2) interviews with health professionals in general practice (n = 17). Results The analysis suggested that use of the computer templates reinforced a checklist approach to consultations, which included professionals working through several self-management topics framed as discrete behaviours. As a consequence, conversation tended to become focused on the maintenance of the professional-patient relationship at the expense of expansion in self-management dialogue. The computer templates also shaped how patient-initiated self-management dialogue was managed when it arose, with a shift towards discussion around medical agendas. Conclusion In order to enhance the management of long-term conditions in primary care, the design and implementation of clinical information systems to improve evidence-based care need to take into account their potential impact on supporting self-management.
Blakeman, Tom; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Reeves, David; Rogers, Anne; Bower, Peter
A poll was conducted at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons to determine current practices among its members in primary total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. This article summarizes the audience responses to a number of multiple choice questions concerning perioperative management and operative practice patterns and preferences including anesthetic choices, blood management, surgical approaches, implant selection, implant fixation, bearing surface choice, postoperative rehabilitation, recommended postoperative activity restrictions, and antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:20580196
Berry, Daniel J; Bozic, Kevin J
The objective of this study was to determine whether a videoconference-based telehealth network can increase hypertension management knowledge and self-assessed competency among primary care providers (PCPs) working in urban Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). We created a telehealth network among 6 urban FQHCs and our institution to support a 12-session educational program designed to teach state-of-the-art hypertension management. Each 1-hour session included a brief lecture by a university-based hypertension specialist, case presentations by PCPs, and interactive discussions among the specialist and PCPs. Twelve PCPs (9 intervention and 3 controls) were surveyed at baseline and immediately following the curriculum. The mean number of correct answers on the 26-item hypertension knowledge questionnaire increased in the intervention group (13.11 [standard deviation (SD)]=3.06) to 17.44 [SD=1.59], P<.01) but not among controls (14.33 [SD=3.21] to 13.00 [SD=3.46], P=.06). Similarly, the mean score on a 7-item hypertension management self-assessed competency scale increased in the intervention group (4.68 [SD=0.94] to 5.41 [SD=0.89], P<.01) but not among controls (5.28 [SD=0.43] to 5.62 [SD=0.67], P=.64). This model holds promise for enhancing hypertension care provided by urban FQHC providers. PMID:22235823
Masi, Christopher; Hamlish, Tamara; Davis, Andrew; Bordenave, Kristine; Brown, Stephen; Perea, Brenda; Aduana, Glen; Wolfe, Marcus; Bakris, George; Johnson, Daniel
Delay discounting rates are predictive of drug use status, the likelihood of becoming abstinent, and a variety of health behaviors. Rates of delay discounting may also be related to other relevant behaviors associated with addiction, such as the frequency at which individuals redeem contingency management voucher earnings. This study examined the discounting rates of 152 participants in a buprenorphine treatment program for opioid abuse. Participants received up to 12 weeks of buprenorphine treatment combined with contingency management. Participant’s drug use was measured via urine specimens submitted 3 times a week. Successive negative urine specimens were reinforced with increasing amounts of money. After each negative urine specimen, a participant could either redeem his or her earnings or accumulate it in an account. Analysis of the frequency of redemptions showed that participants with higher rates of delay discounting at study intake redeemed their earnings significantly more often than participants with lower rates of discounting. Age and income also predicted redemption rates. We suggest that delay discounting rates can be used to predict redemption behaviors in a contingency management treatment program and that these findings are consistent with the recent theory of the competing neurobehavioral decision systems.
Bickel, Warren K.; Jones, Bryan A.; Landes, Reid D.; Christensen, Darren R.; Jackson, Lisa; Mancino, Michael
In recent years India has seen an explosion in low-fee private (LFP) schooling aimed at the poorer strata of society. This marketisation of primary education is a reaction to the well-documented failings of the government system. This paper looks at LFP schooling in one rural district of Uttar Pradesh, and compares government to low cost private…
Background The Egyptian government is considering embarking on a new wave of health sector reform. Although primary care is seen as central to the anticipated reforms, little is known about the current morbidity and utilization patterns in Egyptian publicly funded primary care. We conducted this survey study of patient encounters to describe the demographic characteristics of patients attending publicly-funded primary care practices, the relative frequency of conditions encountered in these practices, and the rates of drug prescription, investigation and referral. Method Cross-sectional survey of twelve primary care practices and 2458 patient consultations. Additional secondary data were collected from five of the twelve practices for preventive services provided at these practices i.e. immunizations, family planning and ante-natal care. Results 54% of the attendances were for people below the age of twenty, of which 54% were females. In patients above the age of twenty, women accounted for 73% of consultations. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reason for encounter, accounting for 24% of the presentations, followed by gastroenteritis (10%), intestinal parasites (5%), and lower respiratory tract infections (5%). Over 97% of patients were prescribed at least one drug, whereas investigation and referral rates were low (15% and 5% respectively). When the analysis was repeated for practices where data on both curative and preventive services were available (5 practices and 2146 consultations), substantial proportions of patients were found to seek care for immunizations (25%), family planning (12%), and ante-natal care (11%). Conclusion Most patients utilizing primary care practices in Egypt seek care for minor and preventive services with relatively few consultations for more serious conditions. There is also a pattern of prescribing drugs to most primary care patients which may reflect over-prescribing by primary care doctors.
This study compares colposcopy referrals of 2 management strategies: oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA testing (Hybrid Capture 2 assay, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) and repeat cytology. In the New Technology in Cervical Cancer Trial, 22,708 subjects were randomly assigned to undergo both HPV and liquid-based cytologic testing. Women aged 35 to 60 years old with unsatisfactory cytologic findings were directly referred for colposcopy if the HPV test result was positive, and were referred for repeat cytologic examination if the HPV test result was negative; women aged 25 to 35 years old were referred for repeat cytologic examination independent of HPV test results. A positive or a second unsatisfactory cytologic examination referred women for colposcopy. Five hundred sixty women had unsatisfactory cytologic findings. Colposcopy referral was not significant and slightly higher with HPV testing than repeat cytologic test (9.8% vs 6.8%, P = .11). When cytologic testing was repeated 36.8% were unavailable for follow-up and most of the colposcopies were performed in HPV-negative women. For unsatisfactory cytologic findings, HPV triage is a more logical and efficient management strategy than a repeat cytologic test. PMID:22706859
Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Guido; Confortini, Massimo; Dalla Palma, Paolo; De Lillo, Margherita; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Maioli, Patrizia; Pellegrini, Antonella; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Segnan, Nereo; Zaffina, Leandra M T; Zorzi, Manuel; Ronco, Guglielmo
The Santa Coloma de Gramenet Primary Care Service has designed a new tool to standardize and automate the process of planning the number of needed health care workers. The tool is divided in two parts: a calculator, which gives guidance on the foreseeable risk depending on the activity and the health care workers' workload, and sentinel indicators; the main is the "welfare basic level", that is the percentage structure of visited patients and their delay at 2, 3 and 7 calendar days, assessing the impact on the care of the population. The results of its use in the summer of 2010 have demonstrated its efficiency by lowering the needed workers with respect to 2009, achieving a better distribution according to the workload and improving the economic management. Given that the necessary data are accessible through computerized databases and its simple use, we believe it to be exportable to other fields. PMID:21715065
Fabregat, Amèlia; Martín, José Antonio; Moreno, Nemesio; Reina, M Dolores; Serrat, Aureli
Acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) usually results from coronary atherosclerotic plaque disruption with superimposed thrombus formation. Detection of coronary thrombi is a poor prognostic indicator, which is mostly proportional to their size and composition. Particularly, intracoronary thrombi impair both epicardial blood flow and myocardial perfusion, by occluding major coronary arteries and causing distal embolization, respectively. Thus, although primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the preferred treatement strategy in STEMI setting, the associated use of adjunctive antithrombotic drugs and/or percutaneous thrombectomy is crucial to optimize therapy of STEMI patients, by improving either angiographical and clinical outcomes. This review article will focus on the prognostic significance of intracoronary thrombi and on current antithrombotic pharmacological and interventional strategies used in the setting of STEMI to manage thrombotic lesions.
Vecchio, Sabine; Varani, Elisabetta; Chechi, Tania; Balducelli, Marco; Vecchi, Giuseppe; Aquilina, Matteo; Ricci Lucchi, Giulia; Dal Monte, Alessandro; Margheri, Massimo
Sudden hearing loss is a rapid loss of neurosensory hearing that may occur within hours or days in an apparently healthy patient. Its origins are variable and multifactorial. Most patients do not recover hearing if not treated, and some even develop cophosis (deafness) in the affected ear. It is an otological emergency, as early therapeutic management offers a better hearing prognosis. As there is limited knowledge on this condition, it may be underdiagnosed in Primary Health Care Centers. It should be suspected in patients with abrupt hearing loss or tinnitus. Sophisticated instruments are not required for its diagnosis, just a detailed history, basic otoscopy, and proper interpretation of the hearing test. In this way, an accurate diagnosis is achieved in most cases, which is confirmed by audiometry. PMID:24071487
Muñoz-Proto, F; Carnevale, C; Bejarano-Panadés, N; Ferrán-de la Cierva, L; Mas-Mercant, S; Sarría-Echegaray, P
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with bronchiectasis, chronic rhinosinusitis, infertility and situs inversus. Estimates of prevalence vary widely, but is probably between 1:10,000- 1:40,000 in most populations. A number of observational studies indicate that access to services to diagnose and manage patients with PCD vary both between and within countries. Diagnosis is often delayed and frequently missed completely. The prognosis of patients with PCD is variable, but evidence suggests that it is improved by early diagnosis and specialist care. This article briefly reviews the literature concerning PCD and the evidence that specialist care will improve healthcare outcomes. The article specifically refers to a new national service in the UK. PMID:23764568
Lucas, Jane S; Chetcuti, Philip; Copeland, Fiona; Hogg, Claire; Kenny, Tom; Moya, Eduardo; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Walker, Woolf T
Tooth intrusion is the most common trauma during early infancy. Primary maxillary central incisors are the most affected teeth. There are a few treatment approaches which depend upon the severity of the trauma, and the treatment must be managed professionally. In this case report, a 3-year-old girl with a history of trauma 40 days before referring to our pediatric clinic is presented. Deciduous maxillary right central incisor was intruded through labial and alveolar socket and completely covered with soft tissue. The intruded deciduous incisor tooth was surgically extracted and impression was taken under general anesthesia. The removable partial prosthesis was completed by using the patient's own extracted tooth. Using natural crown on removable prosthesis gives psychological satisfaction to the patient and his/her family, and can be better tolerated since its shape, size, and color are exactly in harmony.
Altunsoy, Mustafa; Bilgin, Mehmet Selim
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of rare disorders. This study was devised in order to compare management of these diseases in the northern hemisphere, given the variability of practice among clinicians in North America. The members of two international societies for clinical immunologists were asked about their management protocols in relation to their PID practice. An anonymous internet questionnaire, used previously for a survey of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), was offered to all full members of the European Society for Immunodeficiency (ESID). The replies were analysed in three groups, according to the proportion of PID patients in the practice of each respondent; this resulted in two groups from North America and one from Europe. The 123 responses from ESID members (23·7%) were, in the majority, very similar to those of AAAAI respondents, with > 10% of their practice devoted to primary immunodeficiency. There were major differences between the responses of these two groups and those of the general AAAAI respondents whose clinical practice was composed of < 10% of PID patients. These differences included the routine use of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) for particular types of PIDs, initial levels of IVIg doses, dosing intervals, routine use of prophylactic antibiotics, perceptions of the usefulness of subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy (SCIg) and of the risk to patients' health of policies adopted by health-care funders. Differences in practice were identified and are discussed in terms of methods of health-care provision, which suggest future studies for ensuring continuation of appropriate levels of immunoglobulin replacement therapies.
Hernandez-Trujillo, H S; Chapel, H; Lo Re III, V; Notarangelo, L D; Gathmann, B; Grimbacher, B; Boyle, J M; Hernandez-Trujillo, V P; Scalchunes, C; Boyle, M L; Orange, J S
Context: In 2012, comprehensive clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) were published regarding the management of hypothyroidism. Objective: We sought to document current practices in the management of primary hypothyroidism and compare these results with recommendations made in the 2012 American Thyroid Association (ATA)/American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) hypothyroidism CPGs. In addition, we sought to examine differences in management among international members of U.S.-based endocrine societies and to compare survey results with those obtained from a survey of ATA members performed 12 years earlier. Methods: Clinical members of The Endocrine Society (TES), the ATA, and the AACE were asked to take a web-based survey consisting of 30 questions dealing with testing, treatment, and modulating factors in the management of primary hypothyroidism. Results: In total, 880 respondents completed the survey, including 618 members of TES, 582 AACE members, and 208 ATA members. North American respondents accounted for 67.6%, Latin American 9.7%, European 9.2%, Asia and Oceania 8.1%, and Africa and Middle East 5.5%. Overt hypothyroidism would be treated using l-T4 alone by 99.2% of respondents; 0.8% would use combination l-T4 and liothyronine (l-T3) therapy. Generic l-T4 would be used by 49.3% and a brand name by 49.9%. The rate of replacement would be gradual (38.5%); an empiric dose, adjusted to achieve target (33.6%); or a calculated full replacement dose (27.8%). A target TSH of 1.0 to 1.9 mU/L was favored in the index case, but 3.0 to 3.9 mU/L was the most commonly selected TSH target for an octogenarian. Persistent hypothyroid symptoms despite achieving a target TSH would prompt testing for other causes by 84.3% of respondents, a referral to primary care by 11.3%, and a change to l-T4 plus l-T3 therapy by 3.6%. Evaluation of persistent symptoms would include measurement of T3 levels by 21.9% of respondents. Subclinical disease with a TSH 5.0 to 10.0 mU/L would be treated without further justification by 21.3% of respondents, or in the presence of positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (62.3%), hypothyroid symptoms (60.9%), high low-density lipoprotein (52.9%), or goiter (46.6%). The TSH target for a newly pregnant patient was <2.5 mU/L for 96.1% of respondents, with 63.5% preferring a TSH target <1.5 mU/L. Thyroid hormone levels would be checked every 4 weeks during pregnancy by 67.7% and every 8 weeks by an additional 21.4%. A hypothyroid patient with TSH of 0.5 mU/L who becomes pregnant would receive an immediate l-T4 dose increase by only 36.9% of respondents. Conclusion: The current survey of clinical endocrinologists catalogs current practice patterns in the management of hypothyroidism and demonstrates 1) a nearly exclusive preference for l-T4 alone as initial therapy, 2) the widespread use of age-specific TSH targets for replacement therapy, 3) a low threshold for treating mild thyroid failure, 4) meticulous attention to TSH targets in the pregnant and prepregnant woman, and 5) a highly variable approach to both the rate and means of restoring euthyroidism for overt disease. Both alignment and focal divergence from recent CPGs are demonstrated. PMID:24527720
Burch, Henry B; Burman, Kenneth D; Cooper, David S; Hennessey, James V
This study describes a culturally relevant intervention using a collaborative depression care model to integrate mental health and primary care services for depressed low income Chinese-Americans at a community health center. A total of 6,065 patients were screened for depression. Of the 341 who screened positive, 57 participated and were randomly assigned to receive either enhanced physician care with care management (32) or enhanced physician care only (25). All enrolled participants were assessed at baseline and 4 monthly follow-up visits for depression, physical and mental health functioning, and perceived stigma toward receiving depression care, to determine the impact, if any, of their mental health treatment. Both groups reported significant reduction of depressive symptoms and improved mental health functioning from baseline to follow-up assessments although there was no significant difference between the two groups. Although the study found no advantage to adding the care management component in the treatment of depression, screening and assertive treatment of immigrant Chinese Americans who tend to underutilize mental health services is important and consistent with the increased adoption of team based care models in patient centered medical homes. High refusal rates for enrollment in the study have implications for future study designs for this group. PMID:22015960
Kwong, Kenny; Chung, Henry; Cheal, Karen; Chou, Jolene C; Chen, Teddy
Primary care organizations are under-represented in research on quality improvement and risk management (RM), yet the potential for improving patient safety is possibly greater given the extent that clinical judgement is required to achieve a service tailored to the individual's personal health and lifestyle. This paper examines how a health authority in England promoted interventions to improve RM in General Practice that included the practices' own initiatives, significant event audit (SEA) and the Medical Defence Union's workshops which included SEA. All 75 practices were approached before the programmes and when they were finished, eight months later. The practice manager from each practice completed an audit of RM activities, from which a RM competence score was derived. Up to six staff per practice completed the Learning organization Culture Questionnaire (LCQ) at both times. There was evidence of improved competence in RM over the period of the study, particularly through a widening breadth of staff involved and in formal recording systems. There was little evidence that these improvements were mediated by organizational culture. It is argued that future interventions should more closely target specific competences (e.g. recording systems for adverse events, root cause analysis to understand error generation) and enable staff to see tangible personal and organizational benefits for the extra effort involved. PMID:17524220
Wallace, Louise M; Boxall, Matthew; Spurgeon, Peter; Barwell, Fred
Experts from six Latin American countries met to discuss critical issues and needs in the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD). The diagnosis of PIDD is generally made following referral to an immunology centre located in a major city, but many paediatricians and general practitioners are not sufficiently trained to suspect PIDD in the first place. Access to laboratory testing is generally limited, and only some screening tests are typically covered by government health programmes. Specialised diagnostic tests are generally not reimbursed. Access to treatment varies by country reflecting differences in healthcare systems and reimbursement policies. An online PIDD Registry Programme for Latin America has been available since 2009, which will provide information about PIDD epidemiology in the region. Additional collaboration across countries appears feasible in at least two areas: a laboratory network to facilitate the diagnosis of PIDD, and educational programmes to improve PIDD awareness. In total, these collaborations should make it possible to advance the diagnosis and management of PIDD in Latin America. PMID:21167629
Condino-Neto, A; Franco, J L; Trujillo-Vargas, C; Espinosa-Rosales, F J; Leiva, L E; Rodriguez-Quiroz, F; King, A; Lagos, M; Oleastro, M; Bezrodnik, L; Grumach, A S; Costa-Carvalho, B T; Sorensen, R U
Chronic pain is one of the most common presenting problems in primary care. Standards and guidelines have been developed for managing chronic pain, but it is unclear whether primary care providers routinely engage in guideline-concordant care. The purpose of this study is to develop a tool for extracting information about the quality of pain care in the primary care setting. Quality indicators were developed through review of the literature, input from an interdisciplinary panel of pain experts, and pilot testing. A comprehensive coding manual was developed, and inter-rater reliability was established. The final tool consists of 12 dichotomously scored indicators assessing quality and documentation of pain care in three domains: assessment, treatment, and reassessment. Presence of indicators varied widely. The tool is reliable and can be utilized to gather valuable information about pain management in the primary care setting. PMID:24904702
Dorflinger, Lindsey M; Gilliam, Wesley P; Lee, Allison W; Kerns, Robert D
Purpose Describe the pharmacotherapeutic management of primary-care patients with chronic noncancer pain, assess their satisfaction with pain treatment, and identify the determinants of their satisfaction. Methods A cohort study was conducted in Quebec (Canada). Patients reporting chronic noncancer pain with an average pain intensity of at least 4 on a 0–10 scale (10= worst possible pain) and having an active analgesic prescription from a primary-care physician were recruited. They completed a telephone interview and a self-administered questionnaire to document their pain, emotional well-being, satisfaction with treatment, and barriers/beliefs/attitudes about pain and its treatment. Information on pharmacotherapy was based on an administrative provincial database and pharmacies’ charts. Determinants of patients’ satisfaction were identified using multivariate linear regression models. Results Four hundred and eighty six patients participated. Their mean age was 58.4 years and they had had pain for a mean of 11.7 years (standard deviation, ±11.1) at an average pain intensity of 6.5 in the past week. Although 90% reported adverse gastrointestinal effects, 36.4% and 54.4% of these patients took no over-the-counter or prescribed medication for constipation or nausea, respectively. On a scale from 0–100, the mean overall satisfaction score was 64.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] =63.5–65.9). Patient satisfaction was low, particularly regarding the “information about pain and its treatment” (mean 50.6; 95% CI =47.6–53.7) and “treatment efficacy” (mean 53.6; 95% CI =51.5–55.6) subscales. The overall treatment satisfaction score decreased with more pain disability, probable depression and anxiety, more barriers to pain treatment, higher incidence of nausea, and use of over-the-counter analgesics. Conclusion In primary care, patients’ level of satisfaction with their pain treatment is not optimal. This study underlines how the expanded scope of practice of community pharmacists may allow them to play a pivotal role in providing information, discussing barriers to pain treatment, and monitoring pain disability, and by appropriately managing pharmacotherapy to optimize effectiveness while minimizing adverse effects.
Jouini, Ghaya; Choiniere, Manon; Martin, Elisabeth; Perreault, Sylvie; Berbiche, Djamal; Lussier, David; Hudon, Eveline; Lalonde, Lyne
Background Effective implementation of change in healthcare organisations involves multiple professional and organisational groups and is often impeded by professional and organisational boundaries that present relatively impermeable barriers to sharing knowledge and spreading work practices. Informed by the theory of communities of practice (CoPs), this study explored the effects of intra-organisational and inter-organisational boundaries on the implementation of service improvement within and across primary healthcare settings and on the development of multiprofessional and multi-organisational CoPs during this process. Methods The study was conducted within the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester—a collaborative partnership between the University of Manchester and local National Health Service organisations aiming to undertake applied health research and enhance its implementation in clinical practice. It deployed a qualitative embedded case study design, encompassing semistructured interviews, direct observation and documentary analysis, conducted in 2010–2011. The sample included practice doctors, nurses, managers and members of the CLAHRC implementation team. Findings The study showed that in spite of epistemic and status differences, professional boundaries between general practitioners, practice nurses and practice managers co-located in the same practice over a relatively long period of time could be successfully bridged, leading to the formation of multiprofessional CoPs. While knowledge circulated relatively easily within these CoPs, barriers to knowledge sharing emerged at the boundary separating them from other groups existing in the same primary care setting. The strongest boundaries, however, lay between individual general practices, with inter-organisational knowledge sharing and collaboration between them remaining unequally developed across different areas due to historical factors, competition and strong organisational identification. Manipulated emergence of multi-organisational CoPs in the context of primary care may thus be problematic. Conclusions In cases when manipulated emergence of new CoPs is problematic, boundary issues could be addressed by adopting a developmental perspective on CoPs, which provides an alternative to the analytical and instrumental perspectives previously described in the CoP literature. This perspective implies a pragmatic, situational approach to mapping existing CoPs and their characteristics and potentially modifying them in the process of service improvement through the combination of internal and external facilitation.
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized. Total waste generation increased 9.8%, but it was possible to reduce the volume of non-recyclable materials (11%) and increase the volume of recyclable materials (4%). It was also possible to segregate organic waste (7%), which was forwarded for production of compost. The rate of infectious waste generation in critical areas decreased from 0.021 to 0.018 kg/procedure. Many improvements have been observed, and now the PHC complies with most of legal requirements, offers periodic training and better biosafety conditions to workers, has reduced the volume of waste sent to sanitary landfills, and has introduced indicators for monitoring its own performance. This evaluation method might subsidize the creation and evaluation of medical waste management plans in similar heath institutions.
Moreira, A.M.M., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil); Guenther, W.M.R. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil)
Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD), patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio), we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk) and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey). Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.
Background An aging population means that chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, are becoming more prevalent and demands for care are rising. Members of primary care teams should organize and coordinate patient care with a view to improving quality of care and impartial adherence to evidence-based practices for all patients. The aims of the present study were: to ascertain the prevalence of diabetes in an Italian population, stratified by age, gender and citizenship; and to identify the rate of compliance with recommended guidelines for monitoring diabetes, to see whether disparities exist in the quality of diabetes patient management. Methods A population-based analysis was performed on a dataset obtained by processing public health administration databases. The presence of diabetes and compliance with standards of care were estimated using appropriate algorithms. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to assess factors affecting compliance with standards of care. Results 1,948,622 Italians aged 16+ were included in the study. In this population, 105,987 subjects were identified as having diabetes on January 1st, 2009. The prevalence of diabetes was 5.43% (95% CI 5.33-5.54) overall, 5.87% (95% CI 5.82-5.92) among males, and 5.05% (95% CI 5.00-5.09) among females. HbA1c levels had been tested in 60.50% of our diabetic subjects, LDL cholesterol levels in 57.50%, and creatinine levels in 63.27%, but only 44.19% of the diabetic individuals had undergone a comprehensive assessment during one year of care. Statistical differences in diabetes care management emerged relating to gender, age, diagnostic latency period, comorbidity and citizenship. Conclusions Process management indicators need to be used not only for the overall assessment of health care processes, but also to monitor disparities in the provision of health care.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) represents 10–15% of all cerebrovascular events, and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. In contrast to ischemic cerebrovascular disease in which acute therapies have proven beneficial, ICH remains a more elusive condition to treat, and no surgical procedure has proven to be beneficial. Aspects pertinent to medical ICH management include cessation or minimization of hematoma enlargement, prevention of intraventricular extension, and treatment of edema and mass effect. Therapies focusing on these aspects include prothrombotic (hemostatic) agents, antihypertensive strategies, and antiedema therapies. Therapies directed towards the reversal of antithrombosis caused by antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents are frequently based on limited data, allowing for diverse opinions and practice styles. Several newer anticoagulants that act by direct thrombin or factor Xa inhibition have no natural antidote, and are being increasingly used for various prophylactic and therapeutic indications. As such, these new anticoagulants will inevitably pose major challenges in the treatment of patients with ICH. Ongoing issues in the management of patients with ICH include the need for effective treatments that not only limit hematoma expansion but also result in improved clinical outcomes, the identification of patients at greatest risk for continued hemorrhage who may most benefit from treatment, and the initiation of therapies during the hyperacute period of most active hemorrhage. Defining hematoma volume increases at various anatomical locations that translate into clinically meaningful outcomes will also aid in directing future trials for this disease. The focus of this review is to underline and discuss the various controversies and challenges involved in the medical management of patients with primary and antithrombotic-related ICH.
Background: primary and secondary insomnia, especially among older adults, is frequently encountered by family physicians. Pharmacological interventions, although effective in some circumstances, can be detrimental in others. Non-pharmacological management of insomnia may allow the patients to self-administer the treatment. Objectives: review of published literature of assessment tools and treatments for primary and secondary insomnia. Results: two frequently used self-reporting methods
LYNDAL PETIT; F.-A. SARAZAN; N. Azad
ObjectiveTo develop and evaluate the acceptability and use of an integrated electronic prescribing and drug management system (MOXXI) for primary care physicians.DesignA 20-month follow-up study of MOXXI (Medical Office of the XXIst Century) implementation in 28 primary care physicians and 13,515 consenting patients.MeasurementMOXXI was developed to enhance patient safety by integrating patient demographics, retrieving active drugs from pharmacy systems, generating
Robyn Tamblyn; Allen Huang; Yuko Kawasumi; Gillian Bartlett; Roland M. Grad; André Jacques; Martin Dawes; Michal Abrahamowicz; Robert Perreault; Laurel Taylor; Nancy Winslade; Lise Poissant; Alain Pinsonneault
The relationship between tap water and health has been a topic of public concern and calls for better management in Canada since well-publicized contamination events in two provinces (Ontario and Saskatchewan) in 2000-2001. This study reports the perspectives on health risks from tap water and corresponding use of, and spending on, bottled water in a number of different communities in Canada. In 2009-2010, four First Nations communities (three from Ontario and one from Saskatchewan) and a geographically diverse sample of non-First Nations Canadians were surveyed about their beliefs concerning health risks from tap water and their spending practices for bottled water as a substitute. Responses to five identical questions were examined, revealing that survey respondents from Ontario First Nations communities were more likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe bottled water is safer than tap water (OR 1.6); more likely to report someone became ill from tap water (OR 3.6); more likely to express water and health concerns related to tap water consumption (OR 2.4); and more likely to spend more on bottled water (OR 4.9). On the other hand, participants from one Saskatchewan First Nations community were less likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe that someone had become ill from drinking tap water (OR 3.8), less likely to believe bottled water is safer than tap (OR 2.0), and less likely to have health concerns with tap water (OR 1.5). These differences, however, did not translate into differences in the likelihood of high bottled water expenditures or being a 100% bottled water consumer. The paper discusses how the differences observed may be related to water supply and regulation, trust, perceived control, cultural background, location, and past experience. PMID:24886757
Dupont, Diane; Waldner, Cheryl; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Plummer, Ryan; Carter, Blair; Cave, Kate; Zagozewski, Rebecca
The relationship between tap water and health has been a topic of public concern and calls for better management in Canada since well-publicized contamination events in two provinces (Ontario and Saskatchewan) in 2000–2001. This study reports the perspectives on health risks from tap water and corresponding use of, and spending on, bottled water in a number of different communities in Canada. In 2009–2010, four First Nations communities (three from Ontario and one from Saskatchewan) and a geographically diverse sample of non-First Nations Canadians were surveyed about their beliefs concerning health risks from tap water and their spending practices for bottled water as a substitute. Responses to five identical questions were examined, revealing that survey respondents from Ontario First Nations communities were more likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe bottled water is safer than tap water (OR 1.6); more likely to report someone became ill from tap water (OR 3.6); more likely to express water and health concerns related to tap water consumption (OR 2.4); and more likely to spend more on bottled water (OR 4.9). On the other hand, participants from one Saskatchewan First Nations community were less likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe that someone had become ill from drinking tap water (OR 3.8), less likely to believe bottled water is safer than tap (OR 2.0), and less likely to have health concerns with tap water (OR 1.5). These differences, however, did not translate into differences in the likelihood of high bottled water expenditures or being a 100% bottled water consumer. The paper discusses how the differences observed may be related to water supply and regulation, trust, perceived control, cultural background, location, and past experience.
Dupont, Diane; Waldner, Cheryl; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Plummer, Ryan; Carter, Blair; Cave, Kate; Zagozewski, Rebecca
Purulent skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) requiring medical attention are often managed in primary care, although in the United States they account for only a small percentage of total primary care office visits. According to Medical Expenditure Pa...
Background In response to the increasing demand for better chronic disease management and improved health care efficiency in Ontario, nursing roles have expanded in the primary health care setting. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of specialized nurses who have a clinical role in patient care in optimizing chronic disease management among adults in the primary health care setting. Data Sources and Review Methods A literature search was performed using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database. Results were limited to randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews and were divided into 2 models: Model 1 (nurse alone versus physician alone) and Model 2 (nurse and physician versus physician alone). Effectiveness was determined by comparable outcomes between groups in Model 1, or improved outcomes or efficiency in Model 2. Results Six studies were included. In Model 1, there were no significant differences in health resource use, disease-specific measures, quality of life, or patient satisfaction. In Model 2, there was a reduction in hospitalizations and improved management of blood pressure and lipids among patients with coronary artery disease. Among patients with diabetes, there was a reduction in hemoglobin A1c but no difference in other disease-specific measures. There was a trend toward improved process measures, including medication prescribing and clinical assessments. Results related to quality of life were inconsistent, but patient satisfaction with the nurse-physician team was improved. Overall, there were more and longer visits to the nurse, and physician workload did not change. Limitations There was heterogeneity across patient populations, and in the titles, roles, and scope of practice of the specialized nurses. Conclusions Specialized nurses with an autonomous role in patient care had comparable outcomes to physicians alone (Model 1) based on moderate quality evidence, with consistent results among a subgroup analysis of patients with diabetes based on low quality evidence. Model 2 showed an overall improvement in appropriate process measures, disease-specific measures, and patient satisfaction based on low to moderate quality evidence. There was low quality evidence that nurses working under Model 2 may reduce hospitalizations for patients with coronary artery disease. The specific role of the nurse in supplementing or substituting physician care was unclear, making it difficult to determine the impact on efficiency. Plain Language Summary Nurses with additional skills, training, or scope of practice may help improve the primary care of patients with chronic diseases. This review found that specialized nurses working on their own could achieve health outcomes that were similar to those of doctors. It also found that specialized nurses who worked with doctors could reduce hospital visits and improve certain patient outcomes related to diabetes, coronary artery disease, or heart failure. Patients who had nurse-led care were more satisfied and tended to receive more tests and medications. It is unclear whether specialized nurses improve quality of life or doctor workload.
A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories--basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers--accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal trans boundary HW movements despite international regulations. PMID:20015592
Negative lifestyle habits (potential risks for chronic kidney disease, CKD) are rarely modified by physicians in a conventional health-care model (CHCM). Multidisciplinary strategies may have better results; however, there is no information on their application in the early stages of CKD. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare a multiple intervention model versus CHCM on lifestyle and renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CKD stage 1–2. In a prospective cohort study, a family medicine unit (FMU) was assigned a multiple intervention model (MIM) and another continued with conventional health-care model (CHCM). MIM patients received an educational intervention guided by a multidisciplinary team (family physician (FP), social worker, dietitian, physical trainer); self-help groups functioned with free activities throughout the study. CHCM patients were managed only by the FP, who decided if patients needed referral to other professionals. Thirty-nine patients were studied in each cohort. According to a lifestyle questionnaire, no baseline differences were found between cohorts, but results reflected an unhealthy lifestyle. After 6 months of follow-up, both cohorts showed significant improvement in their dietary habits. Compared to CHCM diet, exercise, emotional management, knowledge of disease, and adherence to treatment showed greater improvement in the MIM. Blood pressure decreased in both cohorts, but body mass index, waist circumference, and HbA1C significantly decreased only in MIM. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was maintained equally in both cohorts, but albuminuria significantly decreased only in MIM. In conclusion, MIM achieves better control of lifestyle-related variables and CKD risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients with CKD stage 1–2. Broadly, implementation of a MIM in primary health care may produce superior results that might assist in preventing the progression of CKD.
Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M; Martinez-Ramirez, Hector R; Cortes-Sanabria, Laura
Pharmacists are in an ideal position to assess, monitor and treat adherence-related problems that can adversely affect patients' health outcomes. To accomplish these goals, pharmacists must accept the responsibilities and challenges of a primary care provider. They also must assume an interdisciplinary role in collaborative drug therapy management. Strategies to monitor and improve adherence are key components of pharmaceutical care
Gloria J. Nichols-English; Melanie Provost; Dayin Koompalum; Hua Chen; Masood Athar
Background Late-life depression is associated with chronic illness, disability, and a poor prognosis. Primary care management may be in need of improvement. Aim To compare the effects of an intervention programme that aims to improve the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of depression in patients aged =55 years with the effects of usual care. Design of study Cluster randomised controlled trial.
Marwijk van H. W. J; H. Ader; Haan de M; A. Beekman
Description of the various modalities of breast and ovarian cancer risk management, patient choices and their outcome in a single-center cohort of 158 unaffected women carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation. Between 1998 and 2009, 158 unaffected women carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation were prospectively followed. The following variables were studied: general and gynecological characteristics, data concerning any prophylactic procedures, and data concerning the outcome of these patients. Median age at inclusion was 37 years and median follow-up was 54 months. Among the 156 women who received systematic information about prophylactic mastectomy, 5.3 % decided to undergo surgery within 36 months after disclosure of genetic results. Prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy was performed in 68 women. Among women in whom follow-up started between the ages of 40 and 50 years, prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, within 24 months after start of follow-up, in 83.7 and 52 % of women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, respectively. Twenty four women developed breast cancer. Ovarian cancer was detected during prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy in two women (2.9 %). In this cohort of French women carrying BRCA1/2 mutations, prophylactic mastectomy was a rarely used option. However, good compliance with prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy was observed. This study confirms the high breast cancer risk in these women. PMID:22711610
This, Pascale; de la Rochefordière, Anne; Savignoni, Alexia; Falcou, Marie Christine; Tardivon, Anne; Thibault, Fabienne; Alran, Séverine; Fourchotte, Virgine; Fitoussi, Alfred; Couturaud, Benoit; Dolbeault, Sylvie; Salmon, Remy J; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Asselain, Bernard; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique
OBJECTIVES. To identify the demographics and compare diabetes control in ethnic minority group diabetes patients with Chinese diabetes patients who are managed in primary care settings and to explore strategies to improve their care. DESIGN. Retrospective case series. SETTING. General Outpatient Clinic of a Hong Kong Hospital Authority hospital. PATIENTS. Chinese type 2 diabetes patients and ethnic minority groups who had been regularly followed up with annual assessments carried out between 1 March 2012 to 28 February 2013 were recruited. Their serum levels of fasting glucose, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, haemoglobin A1c levels, lipid profile, blood pressure, and co-morbidities were retrieved from the Clinical Management System. Student's t test and analysis of variance were used to evaluate continuous variables and the Chi squared test for categorical data. All statistical tests were two-sided, and a P value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS. Among 4346 type 2 diabetes patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, 3966 (91.3%) patients were Chinese and 380 (8.7%) were from the ethnic minority groups. Compared with Chinese diabetes patients, the latter were much younger and more obese (both P<0.001). Their glycaemic control was poorer than age- and sex-matched Chinese diabetes patients (P=0.006). Control of systolic blood pressure was similar in the two groups, but the mean diastolic blood pressure was higher in the ethnic minority groups than in the controls (78 ± 11 mm Hg vs 73 ± 11 mm Hg; P<0.001). With regard to lipid control, their total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels were similar, but high-density lipoprotein levels were much lower in the ethnic minority groups than their Chinese counterparts (1.19 ± 0.33 mmol/L vs 1.28 ± 0.36 mmol/L; P=0.001). Among the five major ethnic minority groups with diabetes, Pakistani patients had particularly poor glycaemic control and the Nepalese had the poorest diastolic blood pressure control. CONCLUSIONS. Ethnic minority groups are an integral part of the Hong Kong population. Compared with Chinese diabetes patients, those from the ethnic minorities were much younger and more obese. Deficiencies exist in the comprehensive management of diabetes in these ethnic minorities, particularly with respect to glycaemic control. Culturally tailored health care interventions are therefore warranted to promote patient education and clinical effectiveness and to improve their long-term health status. PMID:24493686
Chen, C Xr; Chan, K H
The United States has more than 1.5 million immigrants from countries in Africa and the Middle East where female genital cutting (FGC) is known to occur. Often, FGC occurs in infancy and childhood in the countries where it is practiced, but patients of any age can present with complications. Lack of understanding of this common problem can potentially alienate and lower quality of care for this patient population. We provide an introduction to the practice of FGC and practice guidelines for the primary care physician. We reviewed original research, population-based studies, and legal research from PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL plus, PsycINFO, and Legal Trac. The terms searched included female genital cutting, female genital circumcision, and female genital mutilation alone and with the term complications or health consequences; no limit on date published. Legal databases were searched using the above terms, as well as international law and immigration law. Editorials and review articles were excluded. This review discusses the different types of FGC, important cultural considerations for physicians caring for patients with FGC, the common early and late medical complications and their management, and psychosocial issues associated with FGC. Current laws pertaining to FGC are briefly reviewed, as well as implications for patients seeking asylum status in the United States because of FGC. Finally, the article presents evidence-based, culturally sensitive approaches to discussions of FGC with girls and women for whom this is an issue. PMID:23726401
Hearst, Adelaide A; Molnar, Alexandra M
The current article aims to translate the PREMIS (Physician Readiness to Manage Intimate Partner Violence) survey into the Greek language and test its validity and reliability in a sample of primary care physicians. The validation study was conducted in 2010 and involved all the general practitioners serving two adjacent prefectures of Greece (n = 80). Maximum-likelihood factor analysis (MLF) was used to extract key survey factors. The instrument was further assessed for the following psychometric properties: (a) scale reliability, (b) item-specific reliability, (c) test-retest reliability, (d) scale construct validity, and (e) internal predictive validity. The MLF analysis of 23 opinion items revealed a seven-factor solution (preparation, constraint, workplace issues, screening, self-efficacy, alcohol/drugs, victim understanding), which was statistically sound (p = .293). Most of the newly derived scales displayed satisfactory internal consistency (? ? .60), high item-specific reliability, strong construct, and internal predictive validity (F = 2.82; p = .004), and high repeatability when retested with 20 individuals (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] > .70). The tool was found appropriate to facilitate the identification of competence deficits and the evaluation of training initiatives. PMID:22158688
Papadakaki, Maria; Prokopiadou, Dimitra; Petridou, Eleni; Kogevinas, Manolis; Lionis, Christos
The presence of accessory roots is rare in the primary dentition. Complete knowledge and understanding of tooth anatomy is essential to carry out high quality dental treatment with excellent outcome. In addition, the persistent primary tooth and its missing permanent successor in the dental arch pose several hurdles in front of the clinician due to doubtful survival of primary tooth. In this paper, highlights the root canal treatment of a rarest four rooted retained primary maxillary second molar.
OBJECTIVE To determine primary care physician screening, treatment, and control rates for hypertension and to examine whether type of physician payment model affected these rates. DESIGN A cross-sectional chart abstraction study. SETTING Community health centres (salary), primary care networks (capitation), or traditional fee-for- service practices in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS A total of 135 primary care physicians, 45 from each of the
Karen Tu; Karen Cauch-Dudek; Zhongliang Chen
The UK National Health Service (NHS) is undergoing cataclysmic change following the election of the first Labour Government in 18 years. This is primarily embodied in the implementation of the White Paper The New NHS Modern-Dependable, which has resulted in the creation of primary care groups (PCGs) and primary care trusts (PCTs). The task facing both PCGs and PCTs is a radically new and complex one, requiring a new set of leadership skills to the traditional command and control style management. Leadership theories have evolved over the past 70 years. However, it was not until the 1980s that a major change in the paradigm of thinking around what is the nature of leadership occurred. The interaction between the leader and his/her followers is explored in what has become known as transformational leadership theories, developed by Bass and Avolio. Recent studies have, however, questioned the applicability of leadership models derived in the USA, to other cultures. This paper explores the leadership behaviours required for the management boards of PCGs and PCTs. A qualitative research method "Grounded Theory" approach was chosen for this study of leadership. The Repertory Grid technique was used to collect data. There are a number of implications arising from the findings of this study for both leadership models in general, and more specifically, for the development of leadership skills in both PCGs and PCTs. PMID:11407187
Gaughan, A C
This study included 235 patients with missile injuries of the facial skeleton, who were treated in the Maxillofacial Unit of the Hospital of Specialized Surgery in Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq, during a period of 4 years of war, since Iraq became the international battlefield for terrorism. There were 195 men and 40 women, with ages ranging from 1 to 70 years (mean, 39.5 years); all patients had severe facial injuries and posttraumatic missile deformities, including 27 patients with orbital injuries. This study also evaluates the management of the immediate, intermediate, and secondary phases.Deformities of the facial skeleton as a complication of missile injuries were classified into the following cases: 95 patients (40.43%) had bone loss, 72 patients (30.64%) had soft-tissue loss, 33 patients (14.05%) had orbital injuries, and 35 patients (14.90%) had other deformities of scar contracture, fistula, and sinus formation.The bony defects of the mandible were reconstructed by both bone chips carried by osteomesh tray harvested from the iliac crest in 24 patients and by block of corticocancellous bone graft from the iliac crest in 38 patients for reconstruction of the mandible, 4 cases for maxillary reconstruction, and 4 cases of orbital floor defect. K-wire was used in 23 cases for holding missing segments of the mandible. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the face was done in 72 cases, local flaps were used in 30 cases, regional flaps including lateral cervical flap in 10 cases, and cervicofacial flaps in 11 cases. The orbit was reconstructed by bone graft, lyophilized dura, and silastic implant. Low-velocity bullet injury to the frontal part of the head was treated by coronal flap, as an access in 6 cases required craniotomy and dura was reconstructed by galea or temporalis muscle. Scar contracture was treated by scar revision, and sinus tract was excised at the same time of scar revision. Primary phase required an urgent airway management, controlling an active bleeding by surgical intervention; most entrance and exit wounds as well as retained missile were located in the cheek, chin, and mandibular body. Few cases were reported of mortality due to complication related to head injuries. PMID:20613559
Deferasirox (DSX) is the principal option currently available for iron-chelation-therapy (ICT), principally in the management of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), while in primary myelofibrosis (PMF) the expertise is limited. We analyzed our experience in 10 PMF with transfusion-dependent anemia, treated with DSX from September 2010 to December 2013. The median dose tolerated of DSX was 750 mg/day (10 mg/kg/day), with 3 transient interruption of treatment for drug-related adverse events (AEs) and 3 definitive discontinuation for grade 3/4 AEs. According to IWG 2006 criteria, erythroid responses with DSX were observed in 4/10 patients (40%), 2 of them (20%) obtaining transfusion independence. Absolute changes in median serum ferritin levels (Delta ferritin) were greater in hematologic responder (HR) compared with non-responder (NR) patients, already at 6 months of ICT respect to baseline. Our preliminary data open new insights regarding the benefit of ICT not only in MDS, but also in PMF with the possibility to obtain an erythroid response, overall in 40 % of patients. HR patients receiving DSX seem to have a better survival and a lower incidence of leukemic transformation (PMF-BP). Delta ferritin evaluation at 6 months could represent a significant predictor for a different survival and PMF-BP. However, the tolerability of the drug seems to be lower compared to MDS, both in terms of lower median tolerated dose and for higher frequency of discontinuation for AEs. The biological mechanism of action of DSX in chronic myeloproliferative setting through an independent NF-?B inhibition could be involved, but further investigations are required.
Elli, Elena Maria; Belotti, Angelo; Aroldi, Andrea; Parma, Matteo; Pioltelli, Pietro; Pogliani, Enrico Maria
Background Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is the popular method for treating primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). Nevertheless,\\u000a the optimal management of pneumothorax recurrence after VATS remains unclear. This study evaluated the efficacies of various\\u000a treatment methods.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Between 1992 and 2008, 53 cases of recurrent ipsilateral pneumothoraces were noted after 978 VATS treatments for PSP. The\\u000a primary treatments included 19 observations, 14 pleural
Jin-Shing Chen; Hsao-Hsun Hsu; Shuenn-Wen Kuo; Pei-Ming Huang; Jan-Ming Lee; Yung-Chie Lee
Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…
Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.
Positive behavior management has been recommended as a more acceptable form of classroom management than traditional behavioral modification. This paper discusses the application of stimulus and contingency control methods (positive behavior management) to elicit more socially and academically acceptable behavior from elementary school children.…
BACKGROUND: The WISE (Whole System Informing Self-management Engagement) approach encompasses creating, finding, and implementing appropriate self-care support for people with long-term conditions. A training package for primary care to introduce the approach was developed and underwent formative evaluation. This entailed exploring the acceptability of the WISE approach and its effectiveness in changing communication within consultations. The study aimed to refine
Anne Kennedy; Carolyn Chew-Graham; Thomas Blakeman; Andrew Bowen; Caroline Gardner; Joanne Protheroe; Anne Rogers; Linda Gask
The European Course on HPV Associated Pathology (ECHPV) was founded in 1990 by a group of clinicians, pathologists, and virologists to teach important principles for the practice and management of human papillomavirus (HPV) disease to gynaecologists, dermatologists, and other medical disciplines. These guidelines are intended to assist the practice of primary care physicians for diagnosis and treatment of anogenital warts. Key Words: anogenital warts; human papillomavirus; condylomata acuminata; guidelines
von Krogh, G; Lacey, C; Gross, G; Barrasso, R; Schneider, A
Background As a major public health issue in China and worldwide, late-life depression is associated with physical limitations, greater\\u000a functional impairment, increased utilization and cost of health care, and suicide. Like other chronic diseases in elders such\\u000a as hypertension and diabetes, depression is a chronic disease that the new National Health Policy of China indicates should\\u000a be managed in primary care
Shulin Chen; Yeates Conwell; Baihua Xu; Helen Chiu; Xin Tu; Yan Ma
The increasing prevalence of chronic conditions has implications for health care provision, particularly primary care which acts as the gatekeeper to other services and provides long-term support for patients with enduring needs. One means of coping with this increasing patient demand centres on enhancing the ability of patients to successfully self- manage the day-to-day realities of their condition in partnership
J. H. Barlow; J. Sturt; H. Hearnshaw
Objective To describe the design, implementation, baseline data, and feasibility of establishing a disease management program for smoking cessation in rural primary care. Method The study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating a disease management program for smoking cessation. The intervention combined pharmacotherapy, telephone counseling, and physician feedback, and repeated intervention over two years. The program began in 2004 and was implemented in 50 primary care clinics across the State of Kansas. Results Of eligible patients, 73% were interested in study participation. 750 enrolled participants were predominantly Caucasian, female, employed, and averaged 47.2 years of age (SD=13.1). In addition to smoking, 427 (57%) had at least one additional major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease or stroke). Participants smoked on average 23.7 (SD=10.4) cigarettes per day, were contemplating (61%) or preparing to quit (30%), were highly motivated and confident of their ability to quit smoking, and reported seeing their physicians multiple times in the past twelve months (Median=3.50; Mean=5.48; SD=6.58). Conclusion Initial findings demonstrate the willingness of patients to enroll in a two-year disease management program to address nicotine dependence, even among patients not ready to make a quit attempt. These findings support the feasibility of identifying and enrolling rural smokers within the primary care setting.
Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Cupertino, Ana-Paula; Mussulman, Laura M.; Nazir, Niaman; Greiner, K. Allen; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.
This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil columns were established in the laboratory, each receiving synthetic feed solutions comprising different ratios and concentrations of peptone-yeast and humic acid as the primary substrate to investigate the effect on removal of six TOrCs (atenolol, caffeine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, primidone, and trimethoprim). Based on abiotic control experiments, adsorption was not identified as a significant attenuation mechanism for primidone, gemfibrozil and diclofenac. Caffeine, atenolol and trimethoprim displayed initial adsorptive losses, however, adsorption coefficients derived from batch tests confirmed that adsorption was limited and in the long-term experiment, biodegradation was the dominant attenuation process. Within a travel time of 16 h, caffeine - an easily degradable compound exhibited removal exceeding 75% regardless of composition or concentration of the primary substrate. Primidone - a poorly degradable compound, showed no removal in any column regardless of the nature of the primary substrate. The composition and concentration of the primary substrate, however, had an effect on attenuation of moderately degradable TOrCs, such as atenolol, gemfibrozil and diclofenac, with the primary substrate composition seeming to have a larger impact on TOrC attenuation than its concentration. When the primary substrate consisted mainly of refractory substrate (humic acid), higher removal of the moderately degradable TOrCs was observed. The microbial communities in the columns receiving more refractory carbon, were noted to be more diverse and hence likely able to express a wider range of enzymes, which were more suitable for TOrC transformation. The effect of the primary substrate on microbial community composition, diversity and gene expression potential confirmed its influence on TOrC degradation. PMID:24921962
Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Ouf, Mohamed; Drewes, Jörg E
A coauthor of "Who Chooses, Who Loses?" (1996) argues that choice does little to desegregate schools or break down ethnic family enclaves. Choice schools are usually founded on publicly financed organizations. Choice appears to increase parental involvement without substantially improving student achievement. Choice schools need clear plans for…
Background As primary care practices evolve into medical homes, there is an increasing need for effective models to shift from visit-based to population-based strategies for care. However, most medical teams lack tools and training to manage panels of patients. As part of a study comparing different approaches to panel management at the Manhattan and Brooklyn campuses of the VA New York Harbor Healthcare System, we created a toolkit of strategies that non-clinician panel management assistants (PMAs) can use to enhance panel-wide outcomes in smoking cessation and hypertension. Methods We created the toolkit using: 1) literature review and consultation with outside experts, 2) key informant interviews with staff identified using snowball sampling, 3) pilot testing for feasibility and acceptability, and 4) further revision based on a survey of primary care providers and nurses. These steps resulted in progressively refined strategies for the PMAs to support the primary care team. Results Literature review and expert consultation resulted in an extensive list of potentially useful strategies. Key informant interviews and staff surveys identified several areas of need for assistance, including help to manage the most challenging patients, providing care outside of the visit, connecting patients with existing resources, and providing additional patient education. The strategies identified were then grouped into 5 areas – continuous connection to care, education and connection to clinical resources, targeted behavior change counseling, adherence support, and patients with special needs. Conclusions Although panel management is a central aspect of patient-centered medical homes, providers and health care systems have little guidance or evidence as to how teams should accomplish this objective. We created a toolkit to help PMAs support the clinical care team for patients with hypertension or tobacco use. This toolkit development process could readily be adapted to other behaviors or conditions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01677533
A former primary headteacher examines problems inherent in the doubly loaded teaching head's role in small (British) primary schools. The demands posed by recent changes have been exacerbated by the headteacher's lack of real freedom to determine an appropriate balance between teaching and managerial responsibilities. Headteachers' special…
Health care clinical and financial risk is a multivectored problem, requiring multivectored solutions that extend beyond primary care. Worksite clinics have emerged that leverage empowered primary care, but incorporate a range of tactics aimed at driving appropriate care and cost by disrupting health care's perverse incentives. This article describes some of those approaches and shows evidence of the performance that can result. PMID:24402068
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN:A prospective evaluation of the effectiveness of otolaryngology evaluation, treatment, and referral guidelines developed collaboratively by otolaryngologists and primary care physicians on referrals and access to otolaryngology. Comparisons of appropriate to unnecessary referrals, the percentage of patients referred with disorders addressed to those without disorders addressed in the guidelines, access to otolaryngology, and questionnaire evaluations of primary care
MICHAEL S. BENNINGER; FRANCES KING; RICHARD D. NICHOLS
Addresses the challenge of meeting the requirements of the United Kingdom's new National Health Service in primary care, while at the same time protecting conditions for counseling as a creative rather than a mechanical process. The profession of counseling and psychotherapy in primary care needs to rapidly find its place within the new…
Following substantial changes throughout the Australian education system, primary schools are no longer in the protected position of having a regulated flow of clients, a predetermined curriculum, and marginal levels of staff development. This book reviews the impact of this change on Australian primary schools, the people who are involved with…
Townsend, Tony, Ed.
OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the current management of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) between primary care physicians and general otolaryngologists. STUDY DESIGN: Written survey of physician practice patterns. METHODS: A multiple choice and Likert scale survey was mailed to 1306 otolaryngologists and primary care physicians in the upper midwest with respect to management of SSHL. RESULTS: A significant number
Nima L. Shemirani; Madeline Schmidt; David R. Friedland
The chapters in this book originated as papers for a conference, School Choice and Educational Change, held in March 2000 at Michigan State University. An introductory chapter provides a comparative analysis of the lessons learned from international experience with school-choice policies, based on a review of case studies in several countries. The…
Plank, David N., Ed.; Sykes, Gary, Ed.
In southern Vietnam it is not uncommon that children under 5 years of age die from pneumonia. Reduction of severity and mortality has to rely on proper case management by mothers and health workers on both grass root level and referral level. The responsibility of training of clinical skills of ARI case management in the southern provinces of Vietnam has
Nguyen Thi Ngoc Anh; Tran Tan Tram; Tran Ngoc Huu; F Karup Pedersen; Karin Mogensen; Else Andersen
Many cancer survivors suffer from chronic pain related to treatment. Pain management in the survivor is similar to chronic noncancer pain, with the important caveat that new or worsening pain must be promptly assessed for malignancy. This article reviews cancer survivorship, identifies common pain problems, and discusses strategies for management. PMID:23640011
Davies, Pamela Stitzlein
This nationwide study was conducted to assess the extent of adherence of primary-care physicians to the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended guidelines on the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), antimicrobials, and prescribing of other drugs used in treating symptoms of acute diarrhoea in Bahrain. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was carried out in primary-care health centres. During a six-week survey period
Abdulrahman Y. Ismaeel; Awatif H. H. Damanhori; Reginald P. Sequeira; Giuseppe A. Botta
AIM: To evaluate the methods and outcome of gallbladder preservation in surgical treatment of primary bile duct stones. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with primary bile duct stones and intact gallbladders received stone extraction by two operative approaches, 23 done through the intrahepatic duct stump (RBD-IDS, the RBD-IDS group) after partial hepatectomy and 12 through the hepatic parenchyma by retrograde puncture (RBD-RP,
Ming-Guo Tian; Wei-Jin Shi; Xin-Yuan Wen; Hai-Wen Yu; Jing-Shan Huo; Dong-Feng Zhou
We compared perceptions about the practice environment and the job satisfaction of physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), and primary care physicians in a large group–model HMO. The data source was a self-administered mail survey (average response rate = 79%). PA\\/NPs and primary care physicians reported that professional autonomy was not a problem and were satisfied with most aspects of
Donald K. Freeborn; Roderick S. Hooker; Clyde R. Pope
Investigations with large-scale forest lysimeter research of the lowlands of Northeast Germany - Results and consequences for the choice of tree species and forest management Introduction At present about 28 % - i.e. 1.9 million hectares - of the Northeast German Lowlands are covered with forests. The Lowlands are among the driest and at the same time the most densely wooded regions in Germany. The low annual precipitation between 500 and 600 mm and the light sandy soils with their low water storage capacity and a high porosity lead to a limited water availability. Therefore the hydrological functions of forests play an important role in the fields of regional water budget, water supply and water distribution. Experimental sites Lysimeters are suitable measuring instruments in the fields of granular soils and loose rocks to investgate evaporation and seepage water. The usage of lysimeter of different construction has a tradition of more than 100 years in this region. To investigate the water consumption of different tree species, lysimeters were installed at Britz near Eberswalde under comparable site conditions. In the early 1970s nine large-scale lysimeters were built with an area of 100 m2 and a depth of 5 m each. In 1974 the lysimeters were planted, together with their environment, with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), larch (Larix decidua L.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] FRANCO) as experimental stands of 0.5 ha each according to the usual management practices. Therefore the "Large-scale lysimeters of Britz" are unparalleled in Europe. It was the initial aim of the experiment to find out the influence of the species and age of the growing stock growing on identical sandy soil under comparable weather conditions on both natural groundwater recharge and evaporation. Future forests in the north-eastern lowlands of Germany shall be mixed stands with as large a number of different species as possible. And this is also the aim of forest conversion in Land Brandenburg. The programme requires scientific attendance and foundation. In particular it shall be examined how the hydro-ecological conditions - which often are the limiting factor for forest growth in this area - would change with underplanted pine and larch and how these conditions may benefit from stand-structural and forestry measures. This is why several lysimeter stands were changed as follows: Ø Larch underplanted with beech Ø Scots pine underplanted with beech Ø Scots pine underplanted with oak Results Forests with their special hydrological properties have a substantial influence on the water budget, water supply and water distribution of entire landscapes. The tree species is of outstanding importance for deep seepage under forest stands. The sum of transpiration gives a rough overview about the water budget of the forest stand. More important for the detection of interactions between the compartments is the partitioning of the whole evaporation into individual evaporation components. Under the given precipitation and soil conditions, the course of interception and hence, the amount of seepage water depend on the crown structure in the stand. Depending on the amount of interception of the tree canopy and the duration of the leaching phase in spring, the mixed stands range between pure pine and pure beech. Making use of silvicultural methods and adequate stand treatment, forestry is able to control the water budget of landscapes.
Background At present, there are no guidelines on prevention and management of postpartum haemorrhage in primary midwifery care in the Netherlands. The first step towards implementing guidelines is the development of a set of quality indicators for prevention and management of postpartum haemorrhage for primary midwifery supervised (home) birth in the Netherlands. Methods A RAND modified Delphi procedure was applied. This method consists of five steps: (1) composing an expert panel (2) literature research and collection of possible quality indicators, (3) digital questionnaire, (4) consensus meeting and (5) critical evaluation. A multidisciplinary expert panel consisting of five midwives, seven obstetricians and an ambulance paramedic was assembled after applying pre-specified criteria concerning expertise in various domains relating to primary midwifery care, secondary obstetric care, emergency transportation, maternal morbidity or mortality audit, quality indicator development or clinical guidelines development and representatives of professional organisations. Results After literature review, 79 recommendations were selected for assessment by the expert panel. After a digital questionnaire to the expert panel seven indicators were added, resulting in 86 possible indicators. After excluding 41 indicators that panel members unanimously found invalid, 45 possible indicators were assessed at the consensus meeting. During critical evaluation 18 potential indicators were found to be overlapping and two were discarded due to lack of measurability. Conclusions A set of 25 quality indicators was considered valid for testing in practice.
Uzbekistan has a well-developed primary care system, with universal access to care, but faces challenges in improving the quality of clinical care provided. This study aimed to identify barriers to quality improvement by focusing on one common condition, Chronic Heart Failure (CHF), for which there are evidence-based international guidelines for management. To identify the challenges to improving the quality of care for CHF in line with such guidelines we took a qualitative approach, interviewing 15 physicians and 30 patients in detail about their experiences of CHF management. Despite recent improvements to the training of primary care physicians, their access to up-to-date information was limited, and they were disproportionately reliant on information from pharmaceutical companies. The main barriers to implementing international standards of care were: reluctance of physicians (and patients) to abandon ineffective interventions; enduring, system-wide incentives for clinically unnecessary hospitalization; and the lack of structural support for evidence-based health services improvement. Patients were in general positive about adherence to medications, but faced some problems in affording drugs and hospital care. Future interventions to strengthen primary care should be implemented with evaluations of their impact on the processes and outcomes of care for chronic conditions. PMID:22987825
Ahmedov, Mohir; Green, Judith; Azimov, Ravshan; Avezova, Guloyim; Inakov, Sherzod; Mamatkulov, Bahrom
Objectives The purpose of this project was to assess the utility and feasibility of a telephone-based systematic clinical assessment service, the Behavioral Health Laboratory (BHL), in the context of primary care. The BHL is a clinical service that provides primary care providers with an assessment and a summary of mental health and substance abuse (MH/SA) symptoms and provides treatment decision support, including triage to specialty MH/SA services. The BHL was implemented to assist in the evaluation of patients who screened positively for depression at an annual clinical appointment or who were identified through routine care. Methods Results from systematic screening of primary care patients were extracted during a period of 6 months prior to implementation of the BHL and after implementation of the BHL. Descriptive results of the 580 evaluations conducted during this time were available. Results Results suggest an association between the implementation of the BHL and an increase in the proportion of patients screened for depression in primary care. In addition, there was an increase in the proportion of patients who screened positively (2.8% vs 7.0%). The BHL was successful in providing a comprehensive assessment for 78% of those referred. Significant co-occurring mental illness and substance misuse were found among those assessed. Conclusions Introducing the BHL into primary care was associated with an apparent change in clinical practice in primary care at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center. Not only were more patients identified, the broad-based approach of the BHL identified significant comorbidity with alcohol misuse, illicit drugs, and suicidal ideation, symptoms likely to have been missed in routine clinical practice. The BHL offers a practical, low-cost method of assessment, monitoring, and treatment planning for patients identified in primary care with MH/SA needs.
Oslin, David W; Ross, Jennifer; Sayers, Steve; Murphy, John; Kane, Vince; Katz, Ira R
Chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) affects a high proportion of primary care patients and carries a large human and economic burden. In response to the widespread perception that pain has been under-diagnosed and undertreated, regulatory bodies have encouraged more comprehensive services addressing pain syndromes. Significant hurdles exist in treating CNCP in primary care settings including a relative lack of training, lower physician satisfaction in treating pain patients, lack of objective measures and the risks associated with opioid treatment including addiction. Additionally, interventional therapies and pharmacotherapy often do not provide complete symptomatic relief. Here, we describe a multidimensional and interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of CNCP. The utility of collaborations with behavioral and addiction medicine specialists optimizes care and advances models of patient treatment within a primary care patient-centered medical home.
Brensilver, Matthew; Tariq, Shabana; Shoptaw, Steven
Background Dementia is one of the most disabling and burdensome diseases. Incontinence in people with dementia is distressing, adds to carer burden, and influences decisions to relocate people to care homes. Successful and safe management of incontinence in people with dementia presents additional challenges. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of first diagnosis in primary care of urinary and faecal incontinence among people aged 60–89 with dementia, and the use of medication or indwelling catheters for urinary incontinence. Methods and Findings We extracted data on 54,816 people aged 60–89 with dementia and an age-gender stratified sample of 205,795 people without dementia from 2001 to 2010 from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a United Kingdom primary care database. THIN includes data on patients and primary care consultations but does not identify care home residents. Rate ratios were adjusted for age, sex, and co-morbidity using multilevel Poisson regression. The rates of first diagnosis per 1,000 person-years at risk (95% confidence interval) for urinary incontinence in the dementia cohort, among men and women, respectively, were 42.3 (40.9–43.8) and 33.5 (32.6–34.5). In the non-dementia cohort, the rates were 19.8 (19.4–20.3) and 18.6 (18.2–18.9). The rates of first diagnosis for faecal incontinence in the dementia cohort were 11.1 (10.4–11.9) and 10.1 (9.6–10.6). In the non-dementia cohort, the rates were 3.1 (2.9–3.3) and 3.6 (3.5–3.8). The adjusted rate ratio for first diagnosis of urinary incontinence was 3.2 (2.7–3.7) in men and 2.7 (2.3–3.2) in women, and for faecal incontinence was 6.0 (5.1–7.0) in men and 4.5 (3.8–5.2) in women. The adjusted rate ratio for pharmacological treatment of urinary incontinence was 2.2 (1.4–3.7) for both genders, and for indwelling urinary catheters was 1.6 (1.3–1.9) in men and 2.3 (1.9–2.8) in women. Conclusions Compared with those without a dementia diagnosis, those with a dementia diagnosis have approximately three times the rate of diagnosis of urinary incontinence, and more than four times the rate of faecal incontinence, in UK primary care. The clinical management of urinary incontinence in people with dementia with medication and particularly the increased use of catheters is concerning and requires further investigation. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Grant, Robert L.; Drennan, Vari M.; Rait, Greta; Petersen, Irene; Iliffe, Steve
The NCCN Guidelines for Occult Primary tumors provide recommendations for the evaluation, workup, management, and follow-up of patients with occult primary tumors (cancers of unknown primary). These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points of the 2014 NCCN Occult Primary panel meeting. The panel discussed gene expression profiling (GEP) for the identification of the tissue of origin and concluded that, although GEP has a diagnostic benefit, a clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. The panel recommends against GEP as standard management, although 20% of the panel believes the diagnostic benefit of GEP warrants its routine use. In addition, the panel discussed testing for actionable mutations (eg, ALK) to help guide choice of therapy, but declined to add this recommendation. PMID:24994917
Ettinger, David S; Handorf, Charles R; Agulnik, Mark; Bowles, Daniel W; Cates, Justin M; Cristea, Mihaela; Dotan, Efrat; Eaton, Keith D; Fidias, Panagiotis M; Gierada, David; Gilcrease, G Weldon; Godby, Kelly; Iyer, Renuka; Lenzi, Renato; Phay, John; Rashid, Asif; Saltz, Leonard; Schwab, Richard B; Shulman, Lawrence N; Smerage, Jeffrey B; Stevenson, Marvaretta M; Varadhachary, Gauri R; Zager, Jonathan S; Zhen, Weining Ken; Bergman, Mary Anne; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A
Intermittent catheterisation is the demanded therapy of bladder paralysis during the spinal shock. We investigated the realisation of this concept. In 1994 after first treatment in other hospitals 97 patients were treated in the Thuringian Spinal Cord Centre Sülzhayn. The primary treatment of the paralysed bladder was: indwelling catheter: 44 patients (45.4%), suprapubic catheter: 30 patients (30.9%). Only 15 patients (15.5%) were catheterized intermittently. No urological treatment was carried out in seven cases. Conclusion: The primary treatment of bladder analysis in spinal cord injured patients has to be improved. PMID:9206912
Zermann, D H; Markgraf, E; Lindner, H; Huschke, T; Schröder, S; Schubert, J
As a peritoneal surface malignancy, primary peritoneal papillary serous carcinoma (PPPSC) almost always occurs in women. Our search of the literature found only two previous case reports of men with PPPSC, both with very short survival. We report the case of a 63-year-old man with PPPSC, treated effectively with cytoreductive surgery and docetaxel-based hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy following six cycles of docetaxel-based laparoscopic neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and cisplatin-based systemic chemotherapy. Furthermore, we detected intraoperative intraperitoneal spreading of the tumor after the oral administration of 5-amino levulinic acid (5-ALA). The patient remains in good health without ascites 18 months after his diagnosis. Thus, primary peritoneal papillary serous carcinoma should be managed by intraperitoneal chemotherapy combined with peritonectomy procedures. Moreover, the intraoperative detection of the intraperitoneal spreading of the tumor after administering oral 5-ALA shows that this is an exciting and promising diagnostic technique, which needs to be confirmed by further studies. PMID:23435809
Canbay, Emel; Ishibashi, Haruaki; Sako, Shouzou; Kitai, Toshiyuki; Nishino, Eisei; Hirano, Masamitsu; Mizumoto, Akiyoshi; Endo, Yoshio; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro; Yonemura, Yutaka
The incidence of all skin cancers is increasing. If The health of the nation targets are to be addressed, incidence figures need to be more accurate. Solar damage is the major causal factor in all skin cancers. Certain individual risk factors also play an important part, especially in the development of malignant melanoma. Prevention and early detection are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality from skin cancer. This paper considers the role of primary care skin screening clinics and cutaneous surgery facilities in the early detection and management of skin cancer. It also illustrates the value of a team approach in primary care in the prevention and early detection of skin cancer and in the more accurate recording of incidence rates.
PURPOSE Pain, a common reason for visits to primary care physicians, is often not well managed. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of pain management interventions suitable for primary care physicians. METHODS Patients from 14 rural primary care practices (47 physicians) who reported diverse pain problems with (n = 644) or without (n = 693) psychosocial problems were randomized to usual-care or intervention groups. All patients in the intervention group received information tailored to their problems and concerns (INFO). These patients’ physicians received feedback about their patients’ problems and concerns (FEED). A nurse-educator (NE) telephoned patients with pain and psychosocial problems to teach problem-solving strategies and basic pain management skills. Outcomes were assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form and the Functional Interference Estimate at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS Patients with pain and psychosocial problems randomized to INFOFEED+NE significantly improved on the bodily pain (P = .011), role physical (P = .025), vitality (P <.001), role emotional (P = .048), and the Functional Interference Estimate (P = .027) scales compared with usual-care patients at 6 months. These improvements were maintained at the 12-month assessment even though these patients had received, on average, only 3 telephone calls. Compared with usual-care patients, at 6 months patients who received INFOFEED alone experienced minimal improvements that were not sustained at the 12-month assessment. CONCLUSIONS For patients with pain and psychosocial problems, telephone-based assistance resulted in significant, sustained benefit in pain and psychosocial problems.
Ahles, Tim A.; Wasson, John H.; Seville, Janette L.; Johnson, Deborah J.; Cole, Bernard F.; Hanscom, Brett; Stukel, Therese A.; McKinstry, Elizabeth
Purpose Event-free survival following all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) –based therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) averages 70% at 5 years. While arsenic trioxide (ATO) can induce remissions in 95% of relapsed patients, few studies have addressed the integration of ATO into the primary management of APL. This study examines the efficacy of a single cycle of ATO-based consolidation therapy in a treatment regimen designed to decrease exposure to other cytotoxic agents. Patients and Methods After induction with ATRA and daunorubicin (DRN), untreated patients with APL received 3 days of cytarabine and DRN followed by 30 doses of ATO beginning on day 8. Molecular remitters received 2 years of risk-based maintenance therapy. Results Forty-one of 45 patients receiving induction therapy achieved remission; four patients died (one before treatment was initiated). Thirty-seven patients received consolidation and maintenance; of these one patient relapsed (CNS) and one died in remission during maintenance therapy (hepatic sickle cell crisis). With a median follow-up of 2.7 years, estimated disease-free survival was 90%; overall survival for all patients was 88%. Despite a total anthracycline dose of only 360 mg/m2, cardiac ejection fraction decreased by ? 20% in 20% of patients. Conclusion These data, combined with other recent studies using ATO in the primary management of APL, demonstrate the important role that ATO can play in the primary management of this curable disease. Future studies should continue to focus on reducing the toxicity of treatment without increasing the relapse rate.
Gore, Steven D.; Gojo, Ivana; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Morris, Lawrence; Devetten, Marcel; Jamieson, Katarzyna; Redner, Robert L.; Arceci, Robert; Owoeye, Ibitayo; Dauses, Tianna; Schachter-Tokarz, Esther; Gallagher, Robert E.
Background In the UK, chronic disease, including chronic kidney disease (CKD) is largely managed in primary care. We developed a tool to assess practitioner confidence and knowledge in managing CKD compared to other chronic diseases. This questionnaire was part of a cluster randomised quality improvement interventions in chronic kidney disease (QICKD; ISRCTN56023731). Methods The questionnaire was developed by family physicians, primary care nurses, academics and renal specialists. We conducted three focus groups (n?=?7, 6, and 8) to refine the questionnaire using groups of general practitioners, practice nurses and trainees in general practice. We used paper based versions to develop the questionnaire and online surveys to test it. Practitioners in a group of volunteer, trial practices received the questionnaire twice. We measured its reliability using Cohen’s Kappa (K). Results The practitioners in the focus groups reached a consensus as to the key elements to include in the instrument. We achieved a 73.1% (n?=?57/78) initial response rate for our questionnaire; of these 57, 54 completed the questionnaire a second time. Family physicians made up the largest single group of respondents (47.4%, n?=?27). Initial response showed more female (64.9%, n?=?37) than male (35.1%, n?=?20) respondents. The reliability results from retesting showed that there was moderate agreement (k?>?0.4) on all questions; with many showing substantial agreement (k?>?0.6). There was substantial agreement in the questions about loop diuretics (k?=?0.608, CI 0.432-0.784, p?0.001), confidence in managing hypertension (k?=?0.628, 95%CI 0.452-0.804, p?0.001), diastolic blood pressure treatment thresholds in CKD (k?=?0.608, 95%CI 0.436-0.780, p?0.001) and the rate of decline of eGFR that would prompt referral (k?=?0.764, 95%CI 0.603-0.925, p?0.001). Conclusion The QICKD-CCQ is a reliable instrument for measuring confidence and knowledge among primary care practitioners on CKD management in the context of UK primary care.
Background Compared to existing literature on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little published adult data are available, particularly outside of the United States. Using General Practitioner (GP) questionnaires from the United Kingdom, this study aimed to examine a number of issues related to ADHD in adults, across three cohorts of patients, adults who received ADHD drug treatment in childhood/adolescence but stopped prior to adulthood; adults who received ADHD drug treatment in childhood/adolescence and continued treatment into adulthood and adults who started ADHD drug treatment in adulthood. Methods Patients with a diagnosis of ADHD and prescribed methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine were identified using data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN). Dates when these drugs started and stopped were used to classify patients into the three cohorts. From each cohort, 50 patients were randomly selected and questionnaires were sent via THIN to their GPs. GPs returned completed questionnaires to THIN who forwarded anonymised copies to the researchers. Datasets were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Overall response rate was 89% (133/150). GPs stated that in 19 cases, the patient did not meet the criteria of that group; the number of valid questionnaires returned was 114 (76%). The following broad trends were observed: 1) GPs were not aware of the reason for treatment cessation in 43% of cases, 2) patient choice was the most common reason for discontinuation (56%), 3) 7% of patients who stopped pharmacological treatment subsequently reported experiencing ADHD symptoms, 4) 58% of patients who started pharmacological treatment for ADHD in adulthood received pharmacological treatment for other mental health conditions prior to the ADHD being diagnosed. Conclusion This study presents some key findings relating to ADHD; GPs were often not aware of the reason for patients stopping ADHD treatment in childhood or adolescence. Patient choice was identified as the most common reason for treatment cessation. For patients who started pharmacological treatment in adulthood, many patients received pharmacological treatment for comorbidities before a diagnosis of ADHD was made.
In recent years, art education has been recognized as a suitable tool for enhancing emotional intelligence and nurturing a child's creative development. However, it seems that the education of art has lost the race against other primary school subjects, with only a minimal number of lessons being taught. The establishment of the afternoon art…
Calls for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in primary care have been based largely on considerations of the availability and accessibility of resources rather than with reference to a firm evidence base. Treatments such as cognitive—behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy, which have proven effective for CFS in secondary and specialist care settings, have not been adequately tested
Alison J. Wearden; Carolyn Chew-Graham
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with type 2 diabetes will impose an increasing burden on primary care over the next few decades. Several mutually reinforcing factors account for the increased CVD risk among patients with diabetes, including hypertriglyceridaemia, the importance of which has been generally underestimated. A consensus from the literature suggests that fasting triglyceride levels of 1.7 mmol\\/L or above
A study used a Personal Construct Theory/Repertory Grid approach to examine the work of 12 Welsh primary headteachers. Analysis of thematic work-activity grids suggests principals have a more coherent view of their work (as centered on children and education) than Henry Mintzberg's observational studies portrayed. (Contains 36 references.) (MLH)
Jones, Norah; Connolly, Michael
Strategies are required to reduce the personal, societal and healthcare burden caused by cerebrovascular disease. Urgent medical intervention after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) can prevent recurrent stroke, and modern healthcare has to respond rapidly to the patient with TIA. The primary care practitioner contributes to stroke prevention by rapidly and accurately diagnosing TIA and arranging urgent specialist assessment. Diagnosis of
D S Lasserson
OBJECTIVEThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of telemedical echocardiographically assisted neonatal cardiovascular evaluation in a primary care setting.BACKGROUNDNeonates with congenital heart disease are frequently born far from pediatric subspecialty centers and can be clinically unstable at presentation. Recent advances in telecommunication technology have made it possible to transmit echocardiographic images over long distances. This technology may
Guy R Randolph; Donald J Hagler; Bijoy K Khandheria; Eric R Lunn; Walter J Cook; James B Seward; Patrick W O’Leary
This book describes how and why educational choice movements will affect public education. It uses a public-choice approach to argue that both the supporters and opponents of private and school choice have failed to address several critical issues. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 is devoted to the rationale for contracting out…
This book represents a considerable revision and expansion of Public Choice II (1989). Six new chapters have been added, and several chapters from the previous edition have been extensively revised. The discussion of empirical work in public choice has been greatly expanded. As in the previous editions, all of the major topics of public choice are covered. These include: why
Dennis C. Mueller
Argues that choice with responsibility belongs to the child, there must be a gradual continuous assumption of responsibility, and the choice with responsibility is a learning process. It is important to avoid offering choices that are not authentic. Adults also have responsibilities in fostering children's growth along these lines. (BF/JH)
Veach, Davia M.
Although Jonathan Kozol is well-informed about choice program imperfections, schools of choice are superior to traditional schools. In places like East Harlem, school choice is helping transform youngsters from captive, disenfranchised malcontents to true students involved in their education. The challenge is to make every district school worthy…
Although rational choice theory has made considerable advances in other social sciences, its progress in sociology has been limited. Some sociologists' reser- vations about rational choice arise from a misunderstanding of the theory. The first part of this essay therefore introduces rational choice as a general theoretical perspective, or family of theories, which explains social outcomes by construct- ing models
Michael Hechter; Satoshi Kanazawa
Context Activating patients with heart failure (HF) to adhere to physician advice has not translated into clinical benefit, but past trials have had methodologic limitations. Objective To determine the value of self-management counseling plus HF education, over HF education alone, on the primary endpoint of death or HF hospitalization. Design, Setting, and Patients A single center behavioral efficacy trial in 902 patients with mild to moderate systolic or diastolic dysfunction, randomized between 2001–2004. Interventions All patients were offered 18 contacts and 18 HF educational tip sheets over the course of 1 year. Patients randomized to education received tip sheets in the mail and phone calls to check comprehension. Patients randomized to self-management received tip sheets in groups and were taught self-management skills to implement the advice. Main Outcome Measure Death or HF hospitalization, blindly adjudicated by cardiologists. Intent-to-treat results were analyzed as time-to-event and accelerated failure time models were used for non-proportional hazards. Results Patients were an average of 63.6 years, 47% female, 40% minority, 52% with family income <$30,000/year, and 23% with diastolic dysfunction. The self-management arm was no different from the education arm on the primary endpoint (Wilcoxon p=0.58). Post-hoc analyses on pre-specified subgroups revealed a significant income x treatment interaction (log-logistic estimate=0.64, p=0.02). Patients with income <$30,000 in self-management had a slower time to event than those in education (p=0.05) and were no different than higher income patients in either treatment arm. Conclusions The addition of self-management counseling to HF education does not reduce death or HF hospitalizations in patients with mild to moderate HF. Future trials should evaluate tailored outpatient HF management featuring ongoing education and comprehension checks for all, augmented by group-based skill development for those more economically disadvantaged. Such an approach may be a cost-effective, timely, and simple option for reducing HF costs.
Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E.; Richardson, Dejuran; Janssen, Imke; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Flynn, Kristin J.; Grady, Kathleen L.; Rucker-Whitaker, Cheryl S.; Eaton, Claudia; Avery, Elizabeth
Background Antithrombotic treatment is a continuous therapy that is often performed in general practice and requires careful safety management. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a best-practice model that applies major elements of case management and patient education, can improve antithrombotic management in primary healthcare in terms of reducing major thromboembolic and bleeding events. Methods This 24-month cluster-randomized trial will be performed with 690 adult patients from 46 practices. The trial intervention will be a complex intervention involving general practitioners, healthcare assistants, and patients with an indication for oral anticoagulation. To assess adherence to medication and symptoms in patients, as well as to detect complications early, healthcare assistants will be trained in case management and will use the Coagulation-Monitoring List (Co-MoL) to regularly monitor patients. Patients will receive information (leaflets and a video), treatment monitoring via the Co-MoL and be motivated to perform self-management. Patients in the control group will continue to receive treatment as usual from their general practitioners. The primary endpoint is the combined endpoint of all thromboembolic events requiring hospitalization and all major bleeding complications. Secondary endpoints are mortality, hospitalization, strokes, major bleeding and thromboembolic complications, severe treatment interactions, the number of adverse events, quality of anticoagulation, health-related quality of life, and costs. Further secondary objectives will be investigated to explain the mechanism by which the intervention is effective: patients’ assessment of chronic illness care, self-reported adherence to medication, general practitioners’ and healthcare assistants’ knowledge, and patients’ knowledge and satisfaction with shared decision making. Practice recruitment is expected to take place between July and December 2012. Recruitment of eligible patients will start in July 2012. Assessment will occur at three time points: baseline and follow-up after 12 months and after 24 months. Discussion The efficacy and effectiveness of individual elements of the intervention, such as antithrombotic interventions, self-management concepts in orally anticoagulated patients, and the methodological tool of case management, have already been extensively demonstrated. This project foresees the combination of several proven instruments, as a result of which we expect to profit from a reduction in the major complications associated with antithrombotic treatment. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN41847489
Background Low-back pain is responsible for significant disability and costs in industrialized countries. Only a minority of subjects suffering from low-back pain will develop persistent disability. However, this minority is responsible for the majority of costs and has the poorest health outcomes. The objective of the Clinic on Low-back pain in Interdisciplinary Practice (CLIP) project was to develop a primary care interdisciplinary practice model for the clinical management of low-back pain and the prevention of persistent disability. Methods Using previously published guidelines, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, a clinical management model for low-back pain was developed by the project team. A structured process facilitating discussions on this model among researchers, stakeholders and clinicians was created. The model was revised following these exchanges, without deviating from the evidence. Results A model consisting of nine elements on clinical management of low-back pain and prevention of persistent disability was developed. The model's two core elements for the prevention of persistent disability are the following: 1) the evaluation of the prognosis at the fourth week of disability, and of key modifiable barriers to return to usual activities if the prognosis is unfavourable; 2) the evaluation of the patient's perceived disability every four weeks, with the evaluation and management of barriers to return to usual activities if perceived disability has not sufficiently improved. Conclusion A primary care interdisciplinary model aimed at improving quality and continuity of care for patients with low-back pain was developed. The effectiveness, efficiency and applicability of the CLIP model in preventing persistent disability in patients suffering from low-back pain should be assessed.
Poitras, Stephane; Rossignol, Michel; Dionne, Clermont; Tousignant, Michel; Truchon, Manon; Arsenault, Bertrand; Allard, Pierre; Cote, Manon; Neveu, Alain
Objective: To assess the role of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in the management of a recurrent primary spontaneous pneumothorax after a prior talc pleurodesis. Methods: From 1996 to 2002, we retrospectively reviewed all patients who were treated for a recurrent primary spontaneous pneumothorax after a previous talc pleurodesis. Data on the talc procedure and the recurrent pneumothorax, delay between both,
Christophe Doddoli; Fabrice Barlesi; Anne Fraticelli; Pascal Thomas; Philippe Astoul; Roger Giudicelli; Pierre Fuentes
Objective: To assess the role of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in the management of a recurrent primary spontaneous pneumothorax after a prior talc pleurodesis. Methods: From 1996 to 2002, we retrospectively reviewed all patients who were treated for a recurrent primary spontaneous pneumothorax after a previous talc pleurodesis. Data on the talc procedure and the recurrent pneumothorax, delay between both,
Christophe Doddoli; Fabrice Barlési; Anne Fraticelli; Pascal Thomas; Philippe Astoul; Roger Giudicelli; Pierre Fuentes
The objectives of this work are: (1) Be able to recognize characteristic symptoms of intermittent claudication (2) Diagnose PAD on the basis of history, physical exam, and simple limb blood pressure measurements (3) Recognize the significance of peripheral artery disease as a marker for coronary or cerebrovascular atherosclerosis (4) Provide appropriate medical management of atherosclerosis risk factors-- including use of antiplatelet therapy to reduce risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and death (5) Manage symptoms of intermittent claudication with program of smoking cessation, exercise, and medication The diagnosis of intermittent claudication secondary to peripheral artery disease (PAD) can often be made on the basis of history and physical examination. Additional evaluation of PAD is multi-modal and the techniques used will vary depending on the nature and severity of the patient's presenting problem. Most patients can be appropriately managed without referral for specialized diagnostic services or interventions.
Dawson, David L.
This paper examines the theoretical underpinnings of the adoption of innovations, and applies this knowledge to the uptake of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) amongst Australian farmers. We examine the specific features of the EMS process that might encourage or inhibit EMS adoption. We also consider elements of the EMS process to assess their utility in promoting adoption of various other innovations. We evaluate the EMS process in the light of two characteristics previously found to influence adoption of improved natural resource management practices - 'relative advantage' and 'trialability'. Drawing on literature, and our research and experience with farmers, we conclude that there are inherent features of EMS that promote the adoption of new practices, and that the elements of the EMS process actually create an on-going process of culture change as it is implemented. We believe that the EMS process offers significant advantages to farmers seeking to improve production whilst simultaneously meeting societal expectations for enhanced natural resource management. PMID:22776757
Carruthers, Genevieve; Vanclay, Frank
Growth failure associated with severe primary insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency (SPIGFD), a condition defined as basal IGF-1 standard deviation score (SDS) less than or equal to -3 and height SDS less than or equal to -3 in a child with normal or elevated levels of growth hormone, can be successfully treated with the recombinant human IGF-1 mecasermin. In this review, we describe the most safe and effective way to use mecasermin in the treatment of patients with SPIGFD, including how to initiate dosing, key side effects, and how to monitor treatment. Finally, mention of how to reinitiate therapy is made, given the recent drug shortage with mecasermin. PMID:24639006
Cohen, Jay; Blethen, Sandra; Kuntze, Joyce; Smith, Susan L; Lomax, Kathleen G; Mathew, Puthenpurackal M
Objective: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a common treatment for prostate cancer with numerous side effects. We assess primary care physicians’ (PCPs) knowledge of ADT side effects and their interest in increasing their knowledge in this area. Methods: A list of active Canadian PCPs was obtained using the Canadian Medical Directory. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to 600 randomly selected physicians. We collected PCPs’ demographic information, experience with ADT management, knowledge regarding ADT side effects and desired sources for obtaining knowledge on ADT management. Results: In total, we received 103 completed questionnaires. Of these, 89% of PCPs had patients on ADT. One-third of respondents prescribed ADT and over half of them administered ADT annually. Thirty-eight percent felt their knowledge of ADT side effects was inadequate and 50% felt uncomfortable counselling patients on ADT. Many PCPs were less familiar with the incidence of functional side effects of ADT (i.e., hot flashes, fatigue and erectile dysfunction) compared to life-threatening side effects (i.e., cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome, fractures). In terms of increasing their knowledge of ADT side effects, 82% of PCPs would use educational resources if they were available (52% and 32% preferred continued medical education [CME] events and educational pamphlets, respectively). Conclusions: PCPs play an important role in managing ADT side effects. There is poor awareness of the prevalence of ADT side effects, and many are uncomfortable in managing these side effects. These areas may be addressed through CME programs and educational pamphlets.
Soeyonggo, Tony; Locke, Jennifer; Giudice, Maria Elizabeth Del; Alibhai, Shabbir; Fleshner, Neil Eric; Warde, Padraig
The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the extent of dissemination of asthma guidelines among primary health care physicians in Greece. Sixty-five of 80 primary care physicians (response rate 80.2%) answered a questionnaire about asthma morbidity, manner of choice of treatment and asthma management plans. One out of 12 patients who were examined by a primary care physician
K. I. Gourgoulianis; B. Hamos; K. Christou; Despina Rizopoulou; A. Efthimiou
With greater awareness of sexual exploitation, professional sexual misconduct, and the sexual issues of public figures, a growing awareness of the problem of sexual addiction is emerging. As a result of public awareness, more cases will be brought to the attention of primary care providers. When primary care providers are confronted by problematic sexual behavior that fits the parameters of addictive illness, they should know what the implications are in order to make appropriate clinical decisions and to evaluate treatment approaches. The purpose of this article is to summarize the nature of the problem, to review critical issues in assessment, to provide treatment options, and to suggest critical factors for monitoring progress. PMID:11271127
Carnes, P; Schneider, J P
Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…
Stein, Joan Z.; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.
School leadership is significant for student learning, but increased workload and complexity are believed to be in part responsible for the difficulties internationally in managing succession, with experienced leaders leaving the profession prematurely and potential future leaders reluctant to take on the role. This article draws on a national…
Woods, Charlotte; Armstrong, Paul; Pearson, Diana
Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…
Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.; Townley, Nancy A.
Background. The rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity among children is one of the most challenging dilemmas facing pediatricians today. While the medical community struggles to develop effective strategies for the treatment of this epidemic, timely iden- tification of obesity by pediatric health care providers remains the crucial initial step in the management of obesity. Objective. Direct assessment of pediatric clinicians'
Sarah Harvey O'Brien; Richard Holubkov; Evelyn Cohen Reis
Objective: Chronic hepatitis C infection afflicts millions of people worldwide. Although antiviral treatments are increasingly effective, many hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients avoid treatment, do not complete or respond to treatment, or have contraindications. Self-management interventions are one option for promoting behavioral changes leading to…
Groessl, Erik J.; Ho, Samuel B.; Asch, Steven M.; Stepnowsky, Carl J.; Laurent, Diana; Gifford, Allen L.
Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a useful water resource management option for water storage and reuse. Its increased use is recognized in adaptation to the ever increasing problem of water availability, both in timing and flow. Challenges in the ASR process may arise from...
Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a useful water resource management option for water storage and reuse. Its increased use is recognized in adaptation to the ever increasing problem of water availability, both in timing and flow. Challenges in the ASR process may arise from...
Breast cancer cells can metastasize early in the devel- opment of primary tumors. Adjuvant chemotherapy improves disease-free survival and overall survival (OS) in patients with early-stage breast cancer, both in pre- menopausal and postmenopausal women. Tamoxifen improves OS in patients whose tumors are estrogen-recep- tor-positive, regardless of age. Although the relative risk reduction with these interventions is the same for
FRANCISCO J. ESTEVA; G ABRIEL N. HORTOBAGYI
The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the early subjective and functional result and outcome after primary implantation of humeral endoprosthesis in severely comminuted humeral head fractures in elderly patients. From 1993 to 1995, 27 humeral head fractures (27 patients) were treated by primary implantation of a Neer II modular shoulder prosthesis. Of these, 23 patients were women, 4 patients were men. The average age of patients was 76 (48-91) years. Postoperatively, one shoulder had to be mobilized under general anesthesia. Of the 27 patients 21 could be clinically examined after 16 (3-29) months postoperatively; 4 patients had died in the meantime, 2 did not come to the control examination because of a great distance and because they were happy. The average Constant Score was 48 (25-76) points; the difference to the other shoulder was 30 (18-69) points. Of the 21 patients 19 were satisfied by the result and 20 would reaccept the same procedure. These preliminary results suggest that primary shoulder prosthesis in humeral head fractures in the elderly patient is a valuable alternative option. PMID:9480556
Boss, A; Hintermann, B
Land use, soil management, and cropping systems affect stock, distribution, and residence time of soil organic carbon (SOC). Therefore, SOC stock and its depth distribution and association with primary and secondary particles were assessed in long-term experiments at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds near Coshocton, Ohio, through *13C techniques. These measurements were made for five land use and soil management
P. Puget; Rattan Lal; R Cesar C. Izaurralde; M. Post; Lloyd Owens
Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) occurs due to an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder of the metabolism of glyoxylate, which causes excessive oxalate production. The most frequent and serious disorder is due to enzyme deficit of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (PH type I) specific to hepatic peroxisome. As oxalate is not metabolised in humans and is excreted through the kidneys, the kidney is the first organ affected, causing recurrent lithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and early renal failure. With advance of renal failure, particularly in patients on haemodialysis (HD), calcium oxalate is massively deposited in tissues, which is known as oxalosis. Diagnosis is based on family history, the presence of urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis, hyperoxaluria, oxalate deposits in tissue forming granulomas, molecular analysis of DNA and enzyme analysis if applicable. High diagnostic suspicion is required; therefore, unfortunately, in many cases it is diagnosed after its recurrence following kidney transplantation. Conservative management of this disease (high liquid intake, pyridoxine and crystallisation inhibitors) needs to be adopted early in order to delay kidney damage. Treatment by dialysis is ineffective in treating excess oxalate. After the kidney transplant, we normally observe a rapid appearance of oxalate deposits in the graft and the results of this technique are discouraging, with very few exceptions. Pre-emptive liver transplantation, or simultaneous liver and kidney transplants when there is already irreversible damage to the kidney, is the treatment of choice to treat the underlying disease and suppress oxalate overproduction. Given its condition as a rare disease and its genetic and clinical heterogeneity, it is not possible to gain evidence through randomised clinical trials. As a result, the recommendations are established by groups of experts based on publications of renowned scientific rigour. In this regard, a group of European experts (OxalEurope) has drawn up recommendations for diagnosis and treatment, which were published in 2012. PMID:24798559
Lorenzo, Víctor; Torres, Armando; Salido, Eduardo
Background: A large proportion of people with depression and anxiety go unrecognised by their general practitioner (GP). Case-finding does not appear to be effective on its own. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of case-finding followed by computer-generated patient-specific guidelines with usual care for the management of common mental disorders in primary care. Design of study: Individual patient randomised controlled trial. Setting: Five general practices in Bristol and Cardiff. Method: 762 individuals aged ?16 years scoring ?12 on the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised were randomised. The experimental intervention required participants to complete a computerised psychosocial assessment that generated a report for the GP including patient-specific treatment recommend-ations. The control patients were treated as usual with access to locally agreed guidelines. Results: Participants' 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) score dropped irrespective of treatment allocation. The experimental group had a significantly lower GHQ score at 6 weeks, but not at 6 months. Recovery at 6 months was 3% greater among those receiving the experimental intervention (95% confidence interval [CI] = ?4 to 10). Treatment was not significantly associated with quality of life or patient satisfaction. Conclusion: Only small benefits are likely from using case-finding followed by patient-specific guidelines to improve clinical management of common mental disorders in primary care. However, depression and anxiety are important public health problems so the utility of such systems should be further investigated.
Thomas, Hollie V; Lewis, Glyn; Watson, Margaret; Bell, Truda; Lyons, Ita; Lloyd, Keith; Weich, Scott; Sharp, Deborah
This study was conducted to investigate the management aspects of medical solid waste (MSW) at primary health care centres in Nablus and Salfit governorates in the West Bank, Palestine. We interviewed 190 health care staff from primary health care centres in this area. The most frequent type of waste produced was sharps waste: only 5.3% of respondents said this was never produced. Infectious waste was the second most frequent type produced. Only 40.4% of the respondents stated that hazardous MSW was always treated. Over 80% said that non-sharps MSW was separated into its different components, but almost 20% said that sharps were not placed in special containers. We recorded a mean of 34 g of hazardous solid waste and 55 g of non-hazardous solid waste generated per outpatient per day. Staff awareness and training, separation of MSW, establishment of simple treatment facilities are the major measures suggested for improvement of the waste management practices. PMID:24995739
Al-Khatib, I A
The UK NICE guideline on the Diagnosis and Assessment of Food Allergy in Children and Young People was published in 2011, highlighting the important role of primary care physicians, dietitians, nurses and other community based health care professionals in the diagnosis and assessment of IgE and non-IgE-mediated food allergies in children. The guideline suggests that those with suspected IgE-mediated disease and those suspected to suffer from severe non-IgE-mediated disease are referred on to secondary or tertiary level care. What is evident from this guideline is that the responsibility for the diagnostic food challenge, ongoing management and determining of tolerance to cow’s milk in children with less severe non-IgE-mediated food allergies is ultimately that of the primary care/community based health care staff, but this discussion fell outside of the current NICE guideline. Some clinical members of the guideline development group (CV, JW, ATF, TB) therefore felt that there was a particular need to extend this into a more practical guideline for cow’s milk allergy. This subset of the guideline development group with the additional expertise of a paediatric gastroenterologist (NS) therefore aimed to produce a UK Primary Care Guideline for the initial clinical recognition of all forms of cow’s milk allergy and the ongoing management of those with non-severe non-IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy in the form of algorithms. These algorithms will be discussed in this review paper, drawing on guidance primarily from the UK NICE guideline, but also from the DRACMA guidelines, ESPGHAN guidelines, Australian guidelines and the US NIAID guidelines.
Background: Not enough is known about the association between practice size and clinical outcomes in primary care. We examined this association between 1997 and 2005, in addition to the impact of the Quality and Outcomes Framework, a pay-for-performance incentive scheme introduced in the United Kingdom in 2004, on diabetes management. Methods: We conducted a retrospective open-cohort study using data from the General Practice Research Database. We enrolled 422 general practices providing care for 154 945 patients with diabetes. Our primary outcome measures were the achievement of national treatment targets for blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and total cholesterol. Results: We saw improvements in the recording of process of care measures, prescribing and achieving intermediate outcomes in all practice sizes during the study period. We saw improvement in reaching national targets after the introduction of the Quality and Outcomes Framework. These improvements significantly exceeded the underlying trends in all practice sizes for achieving targets for cholesterol level and blood pressure, but not for HbA1c level. In 1997 and 2005, there were no significant differences between the smallest and largest practices in achieving targets for blood pressure (1997 odds ratio [OR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82 to 1.16; 2005 OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.06 in 2005), cholesterol level (1997 OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.16; 2005 OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.40) and glycated hemoglobin level (1997 OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.14; 2005 OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.19). Interpretation: We found no evidence that size of practice is associated with the quality of diabetes management in primary care. Pay-for-performance programs appear to benefit both large and small practices to a similar extent.
Vamos, Eszter P.; Pape, Utz J.; Bottle, Alex; Hamilton, Fiona Louise; Curcin, Vasa; Ng, Anthea; Molokhia, Mariam; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher
Primary malignant spinal tumors and solitary vertebral metastases of selected tumor entities in the thoracolumbar spine are indications for total en bloc spondylectomy (TES). This study aimed to describe our oncological and surgical management and to analyze the treatment results by management with TES for extra- and intracompartmental solitary spinal metastases and primary malignant vertebral bone tumors. In 15 patients (3 malignant bone tumors and 12 solitary metastases), tumors were distributed in the thoracic (n = 8) and lumbar (n = 7) spine. Tumors were classified as intra- (n = 8) and extracompartmental (n = 7). All patients underwent TES via a laterally extended posterior approach followed by dorsoventral reconstruction. Function and quality of life were assessed by Oswestry disability index (ODI) and SF-36 score. At follow-up (100%; mean: 33 ± 22 months), 11 patients had no evidence of disease. Two patients were alive with the disease and two were dead of the disease (no primary bone tumors). Histology revealed negative margins (R0) in all patients with wide (n = 11) and marginal (n = 4) resections. Two patients developed pulmonal metastases of which they died at 4 and 16 months of survival. No local recurrence was observed. Major complications did not occur. TES resulted in an acceptable outcome in the quality of life and function. TES is a demanding procedure reaching wide to marginal resections in a curative approach. In conjunction with multimodal therapies, local recurrences can effectively be prevented while control of distant disease needs to be improved. Proper selection of adequate patients combined with careful surgical planning are prerequisites for low complication rates, acceptable function and improved overall prognosis.
Melcher, Ingo; Khodadadyan-Klostermann, Cyrus; Tohtz, Stefan; Smolny, Mirko; Stockle, Ulrich; Haas, Norbert P.; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter
Background As part of a trial aiming to improve care for patients with chronic (systolic) heart failure, a standardized, multifaceted case management approach was evaluated in German general practices. It consisted of regular telephone monitoring, home visits, health counselling, diagnostic screening and booklets for patients. Practice-based doctors' assistants (equivalent to a nursing role) adopted these new tasks and reported regularly to the employing general practitioner (GP). Objective To explore GPs' perceptions of case management, subsequent changes in relationships within the practice team and the potential future role. Method Twenty-four GPs participated in five moderated, semi-structured, audio-taped focus groups. Full transcription and thematic content analysis was undertaken. Results GPs rated all elements and instruments of case management conducted by doctors' assistants feasible, except for the geriatric assessment as patients had not been at risk. GPs perceived difficulties in their own role in delivering health behaviour counselling. Relationships between doctors' assistants and patients and between GPs and patients or doctors' assistants remained stable or improved. All GPs perceived a variety of role changes in doctors' assistants including more in-depth medical knowledge and higher responsibilities yielding more recognition by patients and GPs. Some GPs suggested transferring the case management programme to other chronic conditions and that it should form part of a further education curriculum for doctors' assistants. Conclusion This primary care-based case management model characterized by the orchestrated delegation of tasks to doctors' assistants offers a promising strategy of enhanced chronic illness care, but it needs further adaptation and evaluation.
Peters-Klimm, Frank; Olbort, Rebecca; Campbell, Stephen; Mahler, Cornelia; Miksch, Antje; Baldauf, Annika; Szecsenyi, Joachim
A common refrain in chronic disease management is that patients and clinicians need to enact new roles: patients as their own caregivers; clinicians as professional supporters of patient self-management activities. These roles are central to self-management support (SMS), an approach that emphasizes a clinical partnership, and promotes patient identification and achievement of realistic and short-term behavioral goals. With SMS, behavior change is the desired end, not the means to a desired biomedical end. Shifting SMS concepts into clinical practice has proven to be difficult and inconsistent, creating potential, unknown risks or harms to patients. We completed a discourse analysis of 16 clinical dialogues between diabetic patients and clinicians, collected during a study of six Ontario Family Health Teams, to explore the questions of risks and harms relating to SMS implementation. We observed varying degrees of incomplete implementation of SMS, as well as interactions that actively negated the core principles. Contrary to SMS principles, clinicians tended to emphasize behavioral changes as means to achieve biomedical ends, though to varying degrees. We present two appointments in detail, highlighting how linking behavior change closely with biomedical measures often elicited face-saving defenses from patients. The subsequent dialogue shifted attention away from problem solving and behavior change into active negotiation of responsibility and identity. Interactions that oriented more to SMS concepts elicited fewer defensive maneuvers from patients. Our analysis helps explicate one additional mechanism by which self-management talk threatens the clinical relationship, and highlights a promising method to mitigate this threat. PMID:24632054
Thille, Patricia; Ward, Natalie; Russell, Grant
...of the Act provides that a beneficiary enrolled in a primary care case management system or Medicaid managed care organization...prepayment basis. (2) A beneficiary enrolled in a primary care case-management system, a Medicaid MCO, or...
...of the Act provides that a recipient enrolled in a primary care case management system or Medicaid managed care organization...prepayment basis. (2) A recipient enrolled in a primary care case-management system, a Medicaid MCO, or...
...of the Act provides that a recipient enrolled in a primary care case management system or Medicaid managed care organization...prepayment basis. (2) A recipient enrolled in a primary care case-management system, a Medicaid MCO, or...
...of the Act provides that a beneficiary enrolled in a primary care case management system or Medicaid managed care organization...prepayment basis. (2) A beneficiary enrolled in a primary care case-management system, a Medicaid MCO, or...
Background Benzodiazepine (BZD), the long-term treatment of which is harmful for cognitive function, is widely prescribed by General Practitioners in Spain. Based on studies performed in other countries we designed a nurse-led BZD withdrawal program adapted to Spanish Primary Care working conditions. Results A pseudo-experimental (before-after) study took place in two Primary Care Centres in Barcelona. From a sample of 1150 patients, 79 were identified. They were over 44 years old and had been daily users of BZD for a period exceeding six months. Out of the target group 51 patients agreed to participate. BZD dosage was reduced every 2-4 weeks by 25% of the initial dose with the optional support of Hydroxyzine or Valerian. The rating measurements were: reduction of BZD prescription, demographic variables, the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) to measure quality of life, the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Scale, and the Goldberg Depression and Anxiety Scale. By the end of the six-month intervention, 80.4% of the patients had discontinued BZD and 64% maintained abstinence at one year. An improvement in all parameters of the Goldberg scale (p <0.05) and in the mental component of SF-12 at 3.3 points (p = 0.024), as well as in most components of the MOS scale, was observed in the group that had discontinued BZD. No significant differences in these scales before and after the intervention were observed in the group that had not discontinued. Conclusions At one year approximately 2/3 of the patients had ceased taking BZD. They showed an overall improvement in depression and anxiety scales, and in the mental component of the quality of life scale. There was no apparent reduction in the sleep quality indicators in most of the analysed components. Nurses in a Primary Care setting can successfully implement a BZD withdrawal program.
A case report is presented of a 62-year-old man with adenocarcinoma of unknown primary (ACUP) who was admitted with massive ascites from intraperitoneal carcinomatosis secondary to a gastrointestinal tract malignancy. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis confirmed extensive neoplasm. A near-total omentectomy was performed, and he was given postoperative systemic chemotherapy. Although his expected survival was 3 to 6 months, he lived 20 months, enjoying a good quality of life until the end. Cytoreductive surgery should be offered to some patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis because it may provide significant palliation. PMID:16125606
Spurgeon, Jade M; Cotlar, Alvin M
Current treatments have failed to stem the continuing rise in health care resource use and fatalities associated with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Reduction of severity and prevention of new exacerbations are therefore important in disease management, especially for patients with frequent exacerbations. Acute exacerbation treatment includes short-acting bronchodilators, systemic corticosteroids, and antibiotics if bacterial infections are present. Oxygen and/or ventilatory support may be necessary for life-threatening conditions. Rising health care costs have provided added impetus to find novel therapeutic approaches in the primary care setting to prevent and rapidly treat exacerbations before hospitalization is required. Proactive interventions may include risk reduction measures (eg, smoking cessation and vaccinations) to reduce triggers and supplemental pulmonary rehabilitation to prevent or delay exacerbation recurrence. Long-term treatment strategies should include individualized management, addressing coexisting nonpulmonary conditions, and the use of maintenance pharmacotherapies, eg, long-acting bronchodilators as monotherapy or in combination with inhaled corticosteroids to reduce exacerbations. Self-management plans that help patients recognize their symptoms and promptly access treatments have the potential to prevent exacerbations from reaching the stage that requires hospitalization.
Yawn, Barbara P; Thomashow, Byron
Background The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the implementation of case management (CM) interventions in primary health care (PHC) and to develop strategies to enhance its adoption by PHC practices. Methods This study was designed as a systematic mixed studies review (including quantitative and qualitative studies) with synthesis based on the diffusion of innovation model. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database (1995 to August 2012) to identify quantitative (randomized controlled and nonrandomized) and qualitative studies describing the conditions limiting and facilitating successful CM implementation in PHC. The methodological quality of each included study was assessed using the validated Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Results Twenty-three studies (eleven quantitative and 12 qualitative) were included. The characteristics of CM that negatively influence implementation are low CM intensity (eg, infrequent follow-up), large caseload (more than 60 patients per full-time case manager), and approach, ie, reactive rather than proactive. Case managers need specific skills to perform their role (eg, good communication skills) and their responsibilities in PHC need to be clearly delineated. Conclusion Our systematic review supports a better understanding of factors that can explain inconsistent evidence with regard to the outcomes of dementia CM in PHC. Lastly, strategies are proposed to enhance implementation of dementia CM in PHC.
Khanassov, Vladimir; Vedel, Isabelle; Pluye, Pierre
Abstract Unknown primary tumors (UPTs) represent an entity of great clinical and biological interest, whose origin cannot be determined even after medical workup. To better understand their pathogenesis by outlining their genetic composition, 20 UPTs were investigated by G-banding, supplemented with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Comparative Genomic Hybridization analyses. The data obtained were sufficient to reach a diagnosis in five cases — four lymphomas and one Ewing sarcoma — demonstrating that in a subset of UPTs, cytogenetics can be an adjunct for differential diagnosis. In the remaining 15 UPTs, an aggressive cytogenetic pattern was revealed. The most frequently rearranged chromosome regions were 1q21, 3p13, 6q15-23, 7q22, 11p12-5, and 11q14-24, pinpointing gene loci probably associated with the peculiar pathogenesis of UPTs. The preferential involvement of 4q31, 6q15, 10q25, and 13q22 in adenocarcinomas (whereas 11q22 is involved in the rest of the carcinomas) — in addition to the marked divergence in the mean average of chromosomal changes, 16 and 3, respectively — demonstrates genotypic differences between the two histologic subgroups. Furthermore, the significantly shorter survival in cases displaying massive chromosome changes compared with those having a few changes indicates that the cytogenetic pattern might be used as a tool to assess prognosis in UPTs, even without the detection of their primary site.
Pantou, Dimitra; Tsarouha, Haroula; Papadopoulou, Anna; Mahaira, Louiza; Kyriazoglou, Ioannis; Apostolikas, Nikiforos; Markidou, Sophia; Trangas, Theoni; Pandis, Nikos; Bardi, Georgia
Despite centuries of speculation about how to manage negative emotions, little is actually known about which emotion-regulation strategies people choose to use when confronted with negative situations of varying intensity. On the basis of a new process conception of emotion regulation, we hypothesized that in low-intensity negative situations, people would show a relative preference to choose to regulate emotions by engagement reappraisal, which allows emotional processing. However, we expected people in high-intensity negative situations to show a relative preference to choose to regulate emotions by disengagement distraction, which blocks emotional processing at an early stage before it gathers force. In three experiments, we created emotional contexts that varied in intensity, using either emotional pictures (Experiments 1 and 2) or unpredictable electric stimulation (Experiment 3). In response to these emotional contexts, participants chose between using either reappraisal or distraction as an emotion-regulation strategy. Results in all experiments supported our hypothesis. This pattern in the choice of emotion-regulation strategies has important implications for the understanding of healthy adaptation. PMID:21960251
Sheppes, Gal; Scheibe, Susanne; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J
This book shows how educators can become more versatile managers and more artistic leaders. In part 1, chapter 1 shows why reframing--the use of multiple lenses--is vital to effective leadership and management. It introduces the four basic lenses for organizational analysis--the structural, human resource, political, and symbolic frames--and show…
Bolman, Lee G.; Deal, Terrence E.
OBJECTIVES 1)To assess the awareness of pediatricians regarding the potential problems caused by children taking their medications before or during school hours 2) To identify the types of interventions pediatricians use to manage these issues 3)To assess the views of pediatricians regarding how well the process of medication management is handled by the schools that their patients attend. METHODS Thirty-five pediatricians completed a questionnaire inquiring about their prescribing habits for children under the age of 18, their views on the possible effects medications may have on children while at school, and what they do to minimize problems that may be associated with taking or being under the influence of medications while at school. RESULTS The largest group of responding physicians (42.9%; n = 15) selected “Somewhat Common” when asked how common it is that they prescribe medications that must be used before or during school hours. The majority of responding pediatricians surveyed (62%; n = 21) believe that taking medications at school can create special problems. The majority of respondents (59.4%; n = 19) disagree with the statement that “Medications in Illinois schools are well managed by a trained agent. These pediatricians utilize a variety of strategies to minimize problems caused by medication use during or before school, and the most common of these is the prescribing of sustained release products. CONCLUSIONS Pediatricians who responded to a survey are aware of potential problems associated with children being under the influence of, or taking medications during school hours. As a result, many have devised ways to ameliorate and/or prevent potential problems.
Reutzel, Thomas J.; Baich, Brandy L.
Family physicians are responsible for diagnosing and treating the majority of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and co-morbid depression. As a result of the impact of co-morbid depression on patient self-care and treatment outcomes, screening for depression in the context of a structured approach to case management and patient follow up is recommended in people with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the need for improved recognition and treatment of depression in diabetes; and makes expert recommendations with regard to integrating screening tools and therapies into a busy family or general medical practice setting. PMID:23280258
Hermanns, Norbert; Caputo, Salvatore; Dzida, Grzegorz; Khunti, Kamlesh; Meneghini, Luigi F; Snoek, Frank
California Policy Choices is an annual, edited volume seeking to improve public policy choices made in California political systems. It does so not by advocating particular policy choices, but by analyzing the consequences of choices already made, by incr...
J. J. Kirlin D. R. Winkler
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), first described in the mid-1850s, is a complex liver disease that is heterogeneous in its presentation. PSC is characterized by chronic cholestasis associated with chronic inflammation of the biliary epithelium, resulting in multifocal bile duct strictures that can affect the entire biliary tree. Chronic inflammation leads to fibrosis involving the hepatic parenchyma and biliary tree, which can lead to cirrhosis and malignancy. The etiology of PSC is not fully understood, which in part explains the lack of effective medical therapy for this condition. However, we have begun to better understand the molecular pathogenesis of PSC. The recognition of specific clinical subtypes and their pattern of progression could improve phenotypic and genotypic classification of the disease. We review our current understanding of this enigmatic disorder and discuss important topics for future studies. PMID:23827861
Eaton, John E; Talwalkar, Jayant A; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Gores, Gregory J; Lindor, Keith D
Background Approximately 25% of so-called high utilizers of medical care are estimated to suffer from depression. A large proportion of these individuals remain undiagnosed and untreated. This study aims to examine the effects of a systematic screening and collaborative treatment program on depression severity in small primary care practices of the German outpatient health care system. Method High utilizers of primary care who screened positive for depressive symptoms on the Brief Psychiatric Health Questionnaire (B-PHQ) were further diagnosed using the DIA-X, a standardized diagnostic interview, performed by trained and supervised interviewers. Patients with major depression were randomized (cluster randomization by practice) to (a) a six-month treatment program of pharmacotherapy, standardized patient and provider education, and physician and patient counseling or (b) six months of usual medical care. All subjects were followed for a 12-month observation period using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating scale (HAMD-17) rated by the treating physicians and the B-PHQ-9 rated by the patients. Results A total of 63 high utilizer patients were included in the trial (17 male, 46 female), 19 randomized to intervention, 44 to usual care. The mean age was 49.7 (SD 13.8). Most patients had one or more somatic co-morbidities. There was no significant difference in response (defined as a decrease in the HAMD-17 sum score of at least 50%) after six months of treatment (50% vs. 42%, p = 0.961, all analyses adjusted for age) and after 12 months of treatment (83% vs. 54%, p = 0.282) between groups. Using patient self-rating assessments with the B-PHQ-9 questionnaire the intervention was superior to treatment as usual at six months (83% vs. 16%, p = 0.000). There was no significant difference in HAMD-17 depression severity at six months between the groups (10.5 (SD 7.6) vs. 12.3 (SD 7.8), p = 0.718), but a trend at 12 months (4.7 (SD 8.0) vs. 11.2 (SD 7.4), p = 0.083). Again, using B-PHQ-9 sum scores depression severity was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the treatment as usual group after six months (6.4 (SD 5.2) vs. 11.5 (SD 5.8), p = 0.020), but not at 12 months (7.9 (SD 8.7) vs. 9.0 (SD 5.2), p = 0.858). Conclusion A systematic collaborating treatment program for depression in high utilizers in primary care showed superiority to treatment as usual only in terms of patientsÂ´ self-assessment but not according to physiciansÂ´ assessment. The advance of the intervention group at 6 months was lost after 12 months of follow-up. Overall, positive results from similar trials in the US health care systems could not be confirmed in a German primary care setting.
Nearly one quarter of patients with lung cancer present with locally advanced disease where concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the current standard of care for patients with good performance status. Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy consistently showed an improvement in survival compared with sequential chemoradiotherapy, at the expense of an increase in the toxicity profile. Over the past decades, several encouraging biomarkers such as transforming growth factor-beta and radioprotective agents such as amifostine were studied but without reaching approval for patient care. We reviewed the prevalence and risk factors for different adverse effects associated with the combined chemoradiotherapy modality, especially dermatitis, mucositis, esophagitis, and pneumonitis. These adverse effects can further be divided into acute, subacute, and chronic. Dermatitis is usually rare and responds well to topical steroids and usual skin care. Acute esophagitis occurs in 30% of patients and is treated with proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, local anesthetic, and dietary changes. Radiation pneumonitis is a subacute complication seen in 15% of patients and is usually managed with steroids. Chronic adverse effects such as radiation fibrosis and esophageal stricture occur approximately 6 months after completion of radiation therapy and are usually permanent. In this review, complications of chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced lung cancer are delineated, and approaches to their management are described. Given that treatment interruption is associated with a worse outcome, patients are aggressively treated with a curative intent. Therefore, planning for treatment adverse effects improves patient tolerance, compliance, and outcome. PMID:23708070
Yazbeck, Victor Y; Villaruz, Liza; Haley, Marsha; Socinski, Mark A
With the increasing number of older adults in the population, the office-based clinician can expect to see more people with UI. Continued UI research is warranted, especially research that includes older adults who reside in the community and frail elderly women who are still living in the community. Better outcome measures should be developed to assess the effectiveness of interventions for UI. Reliance on information obtained from voiding diaries is used extensively, yet the reliability and validity for any specific instrument have not been tested with older adults. Hopelessness and spiritual distress, as precursors to health decline and how they impact on quality of life, should be studied in older adults with UI. Given the prevalence of UI, should it be considered a public health problem for which population-based interventions are used? What is known is that older adults demonstrate significant improvement in symptoms of UI when education, counseling, support, and encouragement in behavior management and lifestyle interventions are provided. When motivated and positive, even frail older adults experience improvement in the severity of urine leakage. Perhaps the single most important action that the office-based clinician can take is to start asking every older adult about UI and to follow with the basic approaches to evaluation and management described in this article. PMID:16140124
Keilman, Linda J
The Italian Law no. 38/2010 requires that the physician reports in the medical record the type and the intensity of pain, analgesic therapies and clinical results. We developed a training model for 256 primary care physicians (GPs). After a period of intensive training on the content of the law no. 38, diagnostic and pharmacological approach of pain, we carried out a clinical audit by a web based clinical record to assess doctor's compliance to Law no. 38 and the use of opioids. 2631 patients were assessed (age 71,5±13,7 years; median 74). The mean of chronic non oncologic pain intesity was 5.41±2.0 (static) and 6.10±2.32 (dynamic). After a systematic measurement of pain, a better control of patients was achieved (2.22±2.12 points lower for static, 2.37±2.34 lower for dynamic pain (p<0.001 vs basal time). An increased use of opioids have been detected. GPs have also used strong opioids in opioid-naïve patients, avoiding the first or the second step if intensity of pain detected was severe. In fact, a greater pain control was achieved with oxycodone compared to tramadol or codeine (all of them with normal release and combined with acetaminophen). Chronic non cancer pain remains one of the major clinical problems in the primary care setting, especially in the elderly. The standard measurement of parameters related to pain and the proper use of opioids depends on the scientific update and how this is delivered. GPs are crucial to implement the Law 38 and to increase the degree of complexity of the patient to be properly admitted to a SPOKE/HUB center. PMID:24770542
Mammucari, Massimo; Muscas, Fabrizio; Arpino, Giovanni; Aronica, Alberto; Russo, Pasquale; Visconti, Marco
Background:Since the introduction of the Quality and Outcomes framework, there has been some evidence of improvement in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in the United Kingdom through increasing rates of smoking cessation advice and immunisations against influenza. However, it is unknown whether disease-specific management criteria, disease outcomes and diagnosis have improved.Aims:To describe changes in the management and outcomes of patients with COPD in UK general practice between 2000 and 2009.Methods:The study was done on a retrospective cohort using data from The Health Improvement Network UK primary care database. We calculated age at diagnosis of COPD and death, total number of short-term oral corticosteroid courses and consultations, and proportion of patients with very severe COPD and on triple inhaled therapy for each year between 2000 and 2009.Results:We identified 92,576 patients with COPD. The mean age at COPD diagnosis decreased from 68.1 years in 2000 to 66.7 years in 2009. The mean age at death increased from 78.2 years in 2000 to 78.8 years in 2009. The number of prescribed courses of oral corticosteroids increased from 0.6 in 2000 to 0.8 in 2009. The number of consultations increased from 9.4 in 2004 to 11.3 in 2009. The risk of having very severe COPD decreased from 9.4% in 2004 to 6.8% in 2009. The likelihood of patients with very severe COPD receiving triple therapy increased from 25% in 2004 to 59% in 2009.Conclusions:The trends suggest that management and outcomes observed in patients with COPD may have improved since the year 2000. PMID:24990313
James, Gareth D; Donaldson, Gavin C; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Nazareth, Irwin
Background Current management in primary care of depression, with or without comorbid physical illness, has been found to be suboptimal. We therefore conducted a systematic review to identify clinician perceived barriers to and facilitators for good depression care. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search to identify qualitative and quantitative studies published in the UK since 2000 of GPs' and practice nurses' attitudes to the management of depression. We used principles from meta-ethnography to identify common and refuted themes across studies. Results We identified 7 qualitative and 10 quantitative studies; none concerned depression and co-morbid physical illness of any kind. The studies of managing patients with a primary diagnosis of depression indicated that GPs and PNs are unsure of the exact nature of the relationship between mood and social problems and of their role in managing it. Among some clinicians, ambivalent attitudes to working with depressed people, a lack of confidence, the use of a limited number of management options and a belief that a diagnosis of depression is stigmatising complicate the management of depression. Conclusions Detection and management of depression is considered complex. In particular, primary care clinicians need guidance to address the social needs of depressed patients. It is not known whether the same issues are important when managing depressed people with co-morbid physical illness.
Background The present study’s aim has been to investigate, identify and interpret the views of pediatric primary healthcare providers on the recognition and management of maternal depression in the context of a weak primary healthcare system. Methods Twenty six pediatricians and health visitors were selected by using purposive sampling. Face to face in-depth interviews of approximately 45 minutes duration were conducted. The data were analyzed by using the framework analysis approach which includes five main steps: familiarization, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, charting, mapping and interpretation. Results Fear of stigmatization came across as a key barrier for detection and management of maternal depression. Pediatric primary health care providers linked their hesitation to start a conversation about depression with stigma. They highlighted that mothers were not receptive to discussing depression and accepting a referral. It was also revealed that the fragmented primary health care system and the lack of collaboration between health and mental health services have resulted in an unfavorable situation towards maternal mental health. Conclusions Even though pediatricians and health visitors are aware about maternal depression and the importance of maternal mental health, however they fail to implement detection and management practices successfully. The inefficiently decentralized psychiatric services but also stigmatization and misconceptions about maternal depression have impeded the integration of maternal mental health into primary care and prevent pediatric primary health care providers from implementing detection and management practices.
Background As the population ages, the relative and absolute number of age-associated diseases such as dementia will increase. Evaluation of the suitability and intake of medication and pharmacological treatment is an important aspect of care for people with dementia, especially if they live at home. Regular medication reviews and systematic cooperation between physicians and pharmacists are not common in routine care. Medication management (MM), based on such a comprehensive home medication review could help to reduce drug-related problems and costs. The present article presents a medication management specifically for the application in the ambulatory setting and describes its implementation as part of a larger trial. Methods/design A home medication review (HMR) and MM is implemented as part of the DelpHi study, a population based prospective, cluster-randomized controlled intervention study to test the efficacy and efficiency of the implementation of a collaborative care model in primary care. Participants: people with dementia (PWD) and their caregivers are recruited by the patient’s general practitioner. Inclusion criteria are a positive screening result for dementia, living at home and regular intake of drugs. PWD are asked to specify their regular pharmacy which is asked to participate in the study, too. Intervention: a comprehensive HMR is conducted as computer-assisted personal interview by specifically qualified Dementia Care Manager (DCM) at the people’s home. It includes detailed information about drugs taken, their storage, administration, adherence and adverse events. The MM is conducted in cooperation between DCM, pharmacist and general practitioner and consists of a pharmaceutical evaluation, pharmaceutical recommendations and their application. Pharmacists are trained and provided with regularly updated information. The MM is designed to give information and recommendations concerning antidementia drugs, occurrence of drug related problems, intake of anticholinergic drugs, potentially clinically relevant drug-drug-interactions, adverse drug events and medication adherence. Discussion The DelpHi-approach for medication management employs comprehensive instruments and procedures in the primary care setting under routine care conditions, and this approach should be useful in improving pharmacotherapy as part of the comprehensive treatment and care for people with dementia. Trial registration The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01401582.
A family medicine practice in a large multi-specialty clinic undertook a quality improvement initiative focusing on blood pressure control. Current rooming procedures were reviewed, including obtaining accurate and reliable blood pressures. All rooming staff were instructed how to take an accurate blood pressure and were observed at random over a 3-month period to ensure continued accuracy. Rooming staff (medical assistants and licensed practical nurses) were engaged to give patient education and to arrange a standard 2-week follow-up with a rooming staff team member (nurse visit) if the patient's blood pressure was elevated. Clinicians were educated briefly about the importance of managing hypertension regardless of reason for visit. Blood pressure control (<140/90) in patients age 18-85 without diabetes improved from 68.4% to 75.8% in 3 months. PMID:22970534
Gindlesberger, Danielle R
Niacin is a B-complex vitamin which has been used for decades for the management of mixed dyslipidemias and primary hypercholesterolemia. It decreases the risk of cardiovascular events either when used as a monotherapy or in combination with other lipid lowering medications. However, a major limitation to its use is niacin-induced flushing occurring even with the extended-release formulations. Laropiprant, a selective prostaglandin-2 receptor inhibitor, specifically targets the cascade of events causing the flushing. It has been recently used in combination with extended-release niacin. This article will review the early experience with this combination with focus on efficacy, safety, tolerability and current place in therapy. Early data are promising and suggest that more patients in clinical practice will benefit from niacin combined with laropiprant. Ongoing clinical trials will provide a better insight on the long-term safety of the drug and its efficacy for reducing cardiovascular events.
Hussein, Ayman A; Nicholls, Stephen J
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are highly prevalent illnesses, but the literature suggests they are under-detected and suboptimally managed by primary care practitioners (PCPs). In this paper, we propose and use an evaluation method, using digitally simulated patients (avatars) to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning of PCPs and compared it to the traditional use of paper-based cases. Verbal (think-aloud) protocols were captured in the context of a diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning task. Propositional and semantic representational analysis of simulation data during evaluation, showed specific deficiencies in PCP reasoning, suggesting a promise of this technology in training and evaluation in mental health. Avatars are flexible and easily modifiable and are also a cost-effective and easy-to-disseminate educational tool. PMID:22884757
Satter, Rachel M; Cohen, Trevor; Ortiz, Pierina; Kahol, Kanav; Mackenzie, James; Olson, Carol; Johnson, Mina; Patel, Vimla L
Gemination and fusion are morphological dental anomalies, characterized by the formation of a clinically wide tooth. Gemination occurs when one tooth bud tries to divide, while fusion occurs if two buds unite. The terms double teeth, double formation, conjoined teeth, geminifusion, vicinifusion and dental twinning are often used to describe fusion and gemination. Double teeth are associated with clinical problems such as poor esthetics, spacing problems and caries susceptibility. Management of such cases requires a comprehensive knowledge of the clinical entity as well as the problems associated with it. This report presents a case of primary double tooth in a 6-year-old boy involving maxillary left central incisor. The anomalous tooth was carious and pulpally involved. This was treated conservatively by endodontic treatment and esthetic rehabilitation was done with direct composite restoration using a silicone buildup guide. The treated tooth was followed up until exfoliation.
Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar; Ragavendra, T. Raju; Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Vanka, Amit; Duddu, Mahesh Kumar; Patil, Anand Kumar G.
Management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) requires careful thought so that the most appropriate treatment can be targeted to each individual patient. Initial choices in the management of LUTS\\/BPH include watchful waiting, medical therapies and surgical interventions. A decision on treatment choice should be taken together with the patient. It should be based
Mark J. Speakman
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. The diagnosis of PA is of clinical importance for choosing the appropriate treatment, meaning, surgery for the unilateral disease, and inclusion of aldosterone antagonists in the antihypertensive treatment for the bilateral disease. Current diagnostic approaches showed that the prevalence of PA is much higher than previously estimated. There is still controversy regarding the true prevalence of PA in hypertensive patients. The gold standard for differentiating between unilateral and bilateral disease is the adrenal vein sampling (AVS), a method that is invasive and is performed accurately in only few dedicated centers. Non invasive methods (imaging) for discriminating the two entities are: the CT scan, MRI and iodocholesterol (NP-59) scintigraphy performed under dexamethasone suppression. But the accuracy of imaging compared to AVS is suboptimal and can result in wrong therapeutic decisions. NP-59 scintigraphy is a non-invasive functional imaging technique that reveals the adrenal cortical autonomic function and could have of incremental value over anatomical imaging. In conclusion, in previous years NP-59 scintigraphy was used infrequently, but recently with the advent of hybrid single photon emission tomography (SPET/CT) systems the interest in NP-59 scintigraphy has been renewed. Studies comparing NP-59 SPET/CT imaging with AVS are warranted in order to establish its diagnostic accuracy. PMID:23865085
Spyridonidis, Trifon J; Apostolopoulos, Dimitris J
This article aims to help primary care physicians negotiate gaps in current guidelines for postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). The objectives of this article are to: 1) briefly review the available guidelines and identify their strengths and weaknesses; 2) review the gaps in the guidelines; 3) review new data that were not included in the most recent guidelines; 4) provide expert opinion on how the new data and current guidelines can be used to make treatment decisions; and 5) review several important dimensions of care (eg, tolerability, dosing) and provide guidance. In general, all guidelines recognize the ?2? ligands, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), opioids, and tramadol as efficacious systemic options, with topical lidocaine serving as an efficacious nonsystemic approach for localized PHN treatment. The first-line treatment options typically recommended in the guidelines are ?2? ligands and TCAs, while opioids and tramadol are often recommended as second- or third-line options. Since the latest guidelines were published, newer agents (eg, topical capsaicin [8%] patch and gastroretentive gabapentin) have met the standard as first-line therapy with the publication of ? 1 randomized controlled trial. However, gabapentin enacarbil has not met this standard due to a lack of a published randomized controlled trial in PHN. PMID:23933906
Harden, R Norman; Kaye, Alan David; Kintanar, Thomas; Argoff, Charles E
Chronic constipation (CC) may impact on quality of life. There is substantial patient dissatisfaction; possible reasons are failure to recognize underlying constipation, inappropriate dietary advice and inadequate treatment. The aim of these practical guidelines intended for primary care physicians, and which are based on Asian perspectives, is to provide an approach to CC that is relevant to the existing health-care infrastructure. Physicians should not rely on infrequent bowel movements to diagnose CC as many patients have one or more bowel movement a day. More commonly, patients present with hard stool, straining, incomplete feeling, bloating and other dyspeptic symptoms. Physicians should consider CC in these situations and when patients are found to use laxative containing supplements. In the absence of alarm features physicians may start with a 2-4 week therapeutic trial of available pharmacological agents including osmotic, stimulant and enterokinetic agents. Where safe to do so, physicians should consider regular (as opposed to on demand dosing), combination treatment and continuous treatment for at least 4 weeks. If patients do not achieve satisfactory response, they should be referred to tertiary centers for physiological evaluation of colonic transit and pelvic floor function. Surgical referral is a last resort, which should be considered only after a thorough physiological and psychological evaluation.
Ghoshal, Uday C; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Chua, Andrew Seng Boon; Myung, Seung-Jae; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Wu, Justin C Y; Chen, Min-Hu; Gong, Xiao-Rong; Lu, Ching-Liang; Chen, Chien-Lin; Pratap, Nitesh; Abraham, Philip; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Ke, Meiyun; Ricaforte-Campos, Jane D; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Abdullah, Murdani
From January 1992 to October 1992, nine patients with unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma were treated either by liver resection combined with transarterial on-target chemotherapy (n = 4) or by transarterial on-target chemotherapy alone (n = 5). All nine patients were seen with diffuse spread of their disease and were considered as refractory to surgical treatment. The patients who had liver resection combined with alcohol transtumoral injection of the residual tumor in the liver remnant and transarterial lipiodol on-target chemotherapy, responded well and were seen postoperatively with a significant decrease in size of their residual tumor, which was found histologically to have advanced necrotic changes. Similarly, the remaining patients, who had only alcohol injection and frequent administration of on-target chemotherapy, were seen with necrosis of their tumor and with decrease in its size. The fetoprotein serum levels were decreased in all patients. None of the patients showed systemic effects from the use of chemotherapy, nor did they demonstrate any hepatotoxic side effects. PMID:1336477
Lygidakis, N J; Savanis, G; Konstantinidou, A E; Markidou, S; Touloupakis, E; Pavlis, T; Saleh, M; Eftichidou, E; Stringaris, K; Tavernaraki, A
Primary epithelial submandibular gland (SMG) tumours are uncommon, accounting for 8-12% of all salivary gland neoplasms, and most studies come from large specialised centres. There is little published about the relative frequency and outcome of SMG tumours treated in general hospitals. A retrospective study from two district general hospitals over a 10 year period (1996-2005). Seventeen benign (68%) and eight malignant (32%) tumours were included. A painless mass was the most common presentation. Pain and paraesthesia were not pathognomonic of malignancy. Pleomorphic adenoma accounted for all 17 benign tumours and adenoid cystic carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) accurately identified 78% of the benign tumours but none of the malignant tumours. Pre-operative imaging was also unable to distinguish malignant from benign tumours. Incomplete excision was reported in 20% of cases and was more common for malignant tumours. It may be difficult to distinguish benign from malignant SMG tumours on clinical examination and pre-operative investigations. Any suspected submandibular tumour should be considered for early treatment even when FNAC is suggestive of a benign tumour. PMID:18676173
Ethunandan, M; Davies, B; Pratt, C A; Puxeddu, R; Brennan, P A
Thirty-seven patients with 18 primary advanced or persistent, 16 local recurrent, and three local metastatic tumors of the head and neck were treated with a combination of interstitial low-dose iridium-192 radiation therapy and interstitial 915-MHz microwave hyperthermia supplemented by external radiation therapy. Twenty-eight lesions received an additional external radiation dose of 21-61 Gy. Interstitial hyperthermia was applied immediately before Ir-192 was placed and after its removal for 45-60 minutes at 41 degrees C-44 degrees C. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 45 months. At 3 months, complete remission occurred in 25 lesions (68%); partial remission, in nine (24%); and no change or progressive disease, in three (8%). At 12 months of follow-up in 32 lesions, local control was achieved in 23 (72%), with the patients alive, and in four (12%), with the patients dead. There were five local recurrences, one of which occurred after complete response. Lesion type, tumor volume, radiation dose, and thermal quality at high minimum temperature were identified as prognostic factors influencing complete remission. The combined treatment was well tolerated.
Seegenschmiedt, M.H.; Sauer, R.; Fietkau, R.; Karlsson, U.L.; Brady, L.W. (Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany, F.R.))
Gastrointestinal lymphoma is the most common form of extranodal lymphoma, accounting for 30%–40% of cases. The most commonly involved site is the stomach (60%–75% of cases), followed by the small bowel, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum. The most common histological subtypes are diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Helicobacter pylori infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of MALT gastric lymphoma, but its role in gastric diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is controversial. The therapeutic approach for patients with gastric NHL has been revised over the last 10 years. Conservative treatment with anthracycline-based chemotherapy alone or in combination with involved-field radiotherapy has replaced gastrectomy as standard therapy in cases with DLBCL. Additionally, MALT lymphomas are mainly treated with antibiotics alone, which can induce lasting remissions in those cases associated with H. pylori infection. Nevertheless, various therapeutic aspects for primary gastric lymphomas are still controversial and several questions remain unanswered. Among others, the role of rituximab, consolidation radiotherapy as well as H. pylori eradication in histological aggressive subtypes warrants better clarification.
Psyrri, A.; Papageorgiou, S.; Economopoulos, T.
A case is presented of a 52 year-old male seen in a Primary Care nursing clinic for a type 2 diabetes mellitus metabolic control. The frequency of the visits increased due to perceived difficulties caused by changing the medical treatment. A focused interview was conducted under functional health patterns framework. The patient was unable to write or read, had not worked for the last 25 years, and expressed a lack of control over his self-care. An action plan was prepared, prioritizing Ineffective Health Maintenance, Powerlessness, and Impaired Social Interaction NANDA-I nursing diagnoses. The goals were set at improving knowledge and control over his disease and participating in leisure activities. To achieve these, the social health resources in the area were contacted, and agreed that the patient could attend activities that could improve his self-care and his quality of life. An improvement in his diabetes control was observed in the following evaluations, with an increase in his level of knowledge and self-care. The Primary Health care nurse should consider available community resources by using a comprehensive approach to chronic diseases for their therapeutic benefit and management, especially in those patients with adverse sociocultural conditions. PMID:24786984
Pérez-Vico-Díaz de Rada, Lucía; González-Suárez, Miriam; Duarte-Clíments, Gonzalo; Brito-Brito, Pedro Ruymán
The authors describe how Latino students are underrepresented in public schools of choice. They provide evidence to refute the claim that Latino students who choose to leave assigned public schools enroll in religious schools instead. Charter schools stand out as the type of public schools of choice where Latino students are well represented.…
Gastic, Billie; Coronado, Diana Salas
Previous research debates whether public school choice improves students' academic outcomes, but there is little examination of its effects on their nonacademic outcomes. We use data from a nationally representative sample of high school students, a previously developed Tiebout choice measure, and metropolitan-level data on teenage arrest rates to…
Dills, Angela K.; Hernandez-Julian, Rey
Each year 12,500 school children from different regions of the United States read and vote on the newly published children's and young adults' trade books that they like best. The Children's Choices for 2008 list is the 34th in a series that first appeared as "Classroom Choices" in the November 1975 issue of "The Reading Teacher" (RT), a…
Reading Teacher, 2008
Examines tense, aspect, and voice choices in the reporting verbs in a corpus of research articles from the "Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine." Investigates how such choices correlate with other syntactic elements in the citations, as well as with the discourse functions of the citations in their contexts. (TB)
Hawes, Thomas; Thomas, Sarah
Both New Labour and the Conservatives are keen to emphasise choice and diversity in crucial areas of public provision--and particularly with regard to education and health. In this article, "FORUM" co-Editor Clyde Chitty concentrates on recent proposals by the two main parties for promoting greater choice in secondary schooling in England. This…
One year ago, the "Wall Street Journal" dubbed 2011 "the year of school choice," opining that "this year is shaping up as the best for reformers in a very long time." School-choice laws took great strides in 2011, both in the number of programs that succeeded across states and also in the size and scope of the adopted programs. Yet education…
Depression symptoms contribute to significant morbidity and health care utilization. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of symptom improvement (to remission) on outpatient clinical visits by depressed primary care patients. This study was a retrospective chart review analysis of 1733 primary care patients enrolled into collaborative care management (CCM) or usual care (UC) with 6-month follow-up data. Baseline data (including demographic information, clinical diagnosis, and depression severity) and 6-month follow-up data (Patient Health Questionnaire scores and the number of outpatient visits utilized) were included in the data set. To control for individual patient complexity and pattern of usage, the number of outpatient visits for 6 months prior to enrollment also was measured as was the presence of medical comorbidities. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that clinical remission at 6 months was an independent predictor of outpatient visit outlier status (>8 visits) (odds ratio [OR] 0.609, confidence interval (CI) 0.460-0.805, P<0.01) when controlling for all other independent variables including enrollment into CCM or UC. The OR of those patients not in remission at 6 months having outpatient visit outlier status was the inverse of this at 1.643 (CI 1.243-2.173). The most predictive variable for determining increased outpatient visit counts after diagnosis of depression was increased outpatient visits prior to diagnosis (OR 4.892, CI 3.655-6.548, P<0.01). In primary care patients treated for depression, successful treatment to remission at 6 months decreased the likelihood of the patient having more than 8 visits during the 6 months after diagnosis. PMID:24495212
Meunier, Matthew R; Angstman, Kurt B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Oberhelman, Sara S; Rohrer, James E; Katzelnick, David J; Matthews, Marc R
Background This paper reports original research on choice and control in childbirth. Eight women were interviewed as part of a wider investigation into locus of control in women with pre-labour rupture of membranes at term (PROM) . Methods The following study uses concurrent analysis to sample and analyse narrative aspects of relevant literature along with these interviews in order to synthesise a generalisable analysis of the pertinent issues. The original PROM study had found that women experienced a higher degree of control in hospital, a finding that appeared at odds with contemporary notions of choice. However, this paper contextualises this finding by presenting narratives that lucidly subscribe to the dominant discourse of hospital as the safest place to give birth, under the premise of assuring a live healthy baby irrespective of their management type. Results This complex narrative is composed of the following themes: 'perceiving risk', 'being prepared', 'reflecting on experience', maintaining control' and relinquishing control'. These themes are constructed within and around the medical, foetocentric, risk averse cultural context. Primary data are presented throughout to show the origins and interconnected nature of these themes. Conclusions Within this context it is clear that there is a highly valued role for competent health professionals that respect, understand and are capable of facilitating genuine choice for women.
Background GPs currently deal with COPD. The aim of this study was to review COPD management, data collection in medical records, and adherence to GOLD guidelines of 12 GPs from rural areas of Northern Italy and to assess changes after an educational program (EP). Methods From 2004 to 2008 medical records of patients, defined as COPD by GPs, were analyzed. Data collection in terms of tests prescription, Forced Expiratory Volume at first second (FEV1), smoking habits and actual drug treatment were reviewed at baseline and 1 year after EP. Results 437 patients were defined as COPD. GPs prescribed more chest X-rays than spirometry (99% vs. 74%, p<0.001), FEV1 was registered only in 50% of the population. GPs prescribed “correct” or “doubtful” (not related to FEV1) therapy in 38% and 56% of patients, respectively. Only smoking habit registration increased significantly (p<0.05) after EP. Conclusions Adherence to COPD Guidelines is suboptimal and data collection is poor. The EP did not change significantly GPs’ practice: i) COPD diagnosis is largely clinical, ii) usage of spirometry is poor, GPs prescribe more chest X-rays iii) a small proportion of patients receive respiratory therapy, iv) therapy is often incorrect or not related to FEV1, v) correct clinical practice is influenced by the number of COPD patients and number of dedicated visits.
This study was performed to confirm the existence of immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID) in Pakistan. Clinicopathological features of 12 patients with histologically confirmed disease were analysed. Patients were mostly young males with median age of 24.6 years. Two thirds belonged to poor socioeconomic class. Main presenting features were chronic diarrhoea and weight loss. Eleven patients had radiologic evidence of malabsorption syndrome. Endoscopic findings of mucosal thickening, edema, and flattened villi were present in the majority. Patients had both secretory and non-secretory types of disease. Six patients presented with stage A disease. Four responded to antibiotics or steroids, although mucosal abnormalities persisted in three. Two stage A patients evolved into stage C disease, one was lost to follow-up, the other is alive with disease. Three patients presented with stage B disease. Two responded completely to chemotherapy, the third refused treatment and expired after 16 months. Three patients had stage C disease at diagnosis. They received aggressive combination chemotherapy and remain in complete remission with a median follow-up of 2.2 years. This is the first series of patients with IPSID reported from Pakistan. Clinicopathological features and therapeutic results are consistent with the experience elsewhere. Increased awareness may result in early diagnosis and better management. PMID:7674998
Malik, I A; Shamsi, Z; Shafquat, A; Aziz, Z; Shaikh, H; Jafri, W; Khan, M A; Khan, A H
Acute pharyngotonsillitis is one of the most frequent causes of visits in the primary care pediatrician'office. Group A b-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) or Streptococcus pyogenes causes 15-30% of cases of acute pharyngotonsillitis in pediatric age. Children with pharyngotonsillitis due to GABHS commonly present sore throat, fever more than 38 °C, tonsillar exudate, and tender cervical adenopathy, but the severity of illness ranges from mild throat pain to classic exudative tonsillitis with high fever. The McIsaac criteria is a clinical scoring system to predict the likelihood of streptococcal infection among children. This score is based on 5 clinical criteria: age 3-14 years, fever more than 38°C, tonsillar swelling or exudate, tender and enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and absence of cough, but none of these findings is specific for GABHS pharyngotonsillitis. Culture of a throat swab on a blood agar plate (BAP) remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. Because of the major disadvantage of culturing throat swabs on BAP culture is the delay in obtaining the results (at least 1 day), in the past decades rapid antigen detection test (RAD) were introduced for the rapid identification of GABHS directly from throat swabs. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of GABHS pharyngotonsillitis provides positive benefits, including prevention of complications, such as acute rheumatic fever and peritonsillar abscess and reduce the acute morbidity associated with the illness. Conversely, improper diagnosis may result in negative consequences, including unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions that confer increased health care costs and contibute to the development of bacterial resistance. PMID:24608583
Vicedomini, D; Lalinga, G; Lugli, N; D'Avino, A
Sustained bronchodilation using inhaled medications in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) grades 2 and 3 (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines) has been shown to have clinical benefits on long-term symptom control and quality of life, with possible additional benefits on disease progression and longevity. Aggressive diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic COPD is an integral and pivotal part of COPD management, which usually begins with primary care physicians. The current standard of care involves the use of one or more inhaled bronchodilators, and depending on COPD severity and phenotype, inhaled corticosteroids. There is a wide range of inhaler devices available for delivery of inhaled medications, but suboptimal inhaler use is a common problem that can limit the clinical effectiveness of inhaled therapies in the real-world setting. Patients’ comorbidities, other physical or mental limitations, and the level of inhaler technique instruction may limit proper inhaler use. This paper presents information that can overcome barriers to proper inhaler use, including issues in device selection, steps in correct technique for various inhaler devices, and suggestions for assessing and monitoring inhaler techniques. Ensuring proper inhaler technique can maximize drug effectiveness and aid clinical management at all grades of COPD.
Yawn, Barbara P; Colice, Gene L; Hodder, Rick
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate subthreshold diode-laser micropulse (SDM) photocoagulation as a primary and secondary line of treatment for clinically significant diabetic macular edema (CSDME). Methods In this prospective nonrandomized case series, 220 cases of nonischemic CSDME were managed primarily and secondarily by SDM photocoagulation on a 15% duty cycle with a mean power of 828 mW and a spot size of 75–125 ?m. SDM treatment was repeated at 3–4-month intervals if residual leakage was observed. Additional intravitreal pharmacologic therapy was used according to the response. Follow-up varied from 12 to 19 (mean 14±2.8) months. Novel software designed by the authors was used to record the subvisible threshold laser applications and their parameters on the fundus image of the eye. Evaluation of the results of treatment was done using fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Primary outcome measures included changes in visual acuity and foveal thickness at OCT. Secondary outcome measures included visual loss of one or more Snellen lines and laser scars detectable on fundus biomicroscopy or fluorescein angiography. Results In the primary treatment group, there was significant improvement or stabilization of visual acuity after the first 3–4 months, which was stable thereafter. Visual acuity was stable in the secondary treatment group. A corresponding reduction of macular thickness on OCT was noted during the follow-up period in both groups. Additional therapy included repeat SDM photocoagulation, intravitreal injection of triamcinolone, and pars plana vitrectomy. Laser marks seen as changes in retinal pigment epithelium on fundus biomicroscopy and fluorescein angiography were noted in 3.3% and 5.7% of cases. Our novel software could accurately record the location of all SDM-invisible applications. Conclusion Micropulse laser is an effective minimal intensity therapy that offers the clear advantage of minimizing or avoiding laser-induced visible retinal burn/scarring while reducing the foveal thickness in the management of selected cases of CSDME. Future prospective studies should include the use of SDM photocoagulation as a combined minimally invasive therapy to consolidate the prompt but temporary effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor or anti-inflammatory agents. Virtual localization of SDM-invisible applications using our proprietary software could be used to guide further retreatments.
Othman, Ihab Saad; Eissa, Sherif Ahmed; Kotb, Mohamed S; Sadek, Sherin Hassan
Primary malignant lymphoma of the cervix is a rare disease. Because the number of reports of this cancer is limited, there is no consensus on its management, prognosis or the efficacy of various treatments. Primary malignant lymphoma of the cervix stage Ib was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman. The patient was treated with 6 courses of CHOP chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). Clinical and pathological responses were complete. This case supports current thinking in that, in selected young patients with primary malignant lymphoma of the cervix who desire to preserve fertility and ovarian functions, combination chemotherapy regimens such as CHOP are the treatment of choice. PMID:18712992
Hanprasertpong, Jitti; Hanprasertpong, Tharangrut; Thammavichit, Theerinthorn; Kongkabpan, Daolada; Tungsinmunkong, Kobkul; Chandeying, Nutthaporn
Fibrinogen plays several key roles in the maintenance of hemostasis. Its cleavage by thrombin and subsequent polymerization to form fibrin strands provides the structural network required for effective clot formation. During cases of acute blood loss, attempts to maintain circulating volume and tissue perfusion often involve the infusion of crystalloids, colloids, and red blood cells. Intravascular volume resuscitation, although vital, frequently results in dilution of the remaining clotting factors and onset of dilutional coagulopathy. In such cases, fibrinogen is the first coagulation factor to decrease to critically low levels. There currently is a lack of awareness among physicians regarding the significance of fibrinogen during acute bleeding and, at many centers, fibrinogen is not monitored routinely during treatment. We reviewed current studies that demonstrate the importance of considering fibrinogen replacement during the treatment of acquired bleeding across clinical settings. If depleted, the supplementation of fibrinogen is key for the rescue and maintenance of hemostatic function; however, the threshold at which such intervention should be triggered is currently poorly defined. Although traditionally performed via administration of fresh frozen plasma or cryoprecipitate, the use of lyophilized fibrinogen (concentrate) is becoming more prevalent in some countries. Recent reports relating to the efficacy of fibrinogen concentrate suggest that it is a viable alternative to traditional hemostatic approaches, which should be considered. The prospective study of fibrinogen supplementation in acquired bleeding is needed to accurately assess the range of clinical settings in which this management strategy is appropriate, the most effective method of supplementation and a comprehensive safety profile of fibrinogen concentrate used for such an approach. PMID:21965371
Levy, Jerrold H; Szlam, Fania; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Sniecienski, Roman M
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely preventable and prevention expenditures are relatively low. The randomised controlled SPRING-trial (SPRING-RCT) shows that cardiovascular risk management by practice nurses in general practice with and without self-monitoring both decreases cardiovascular risk, with no additional effect of self-monitoring. For considering future approaches of cardiovascular risk reduction, cost effectiveness analyses of regular care and additional self-monitoring are performed from a societal perspective on data from the SPRING-RCT. Methods Direct medical and productivity costs are analysed alongside the SPRING-RCT, studying 179 participants (men aged 50–75 years, women aged 55–75 years), with an elevated cardiovascular risk, in 20 general practices in the Netherlands. Standard cardiovascular treatment according to Dutch guidelines is compared with additional counselling based on self-monitoring at home (pedometer, weighing scale and/ or blood pressure device) both by trained practice nurses. Cost-effectiveness is evaluated for both treatment groups and patient categories (age, sex, education). Results Costs are €98 and €187 per percentage decrease in 10-year cardiovascular mortality estimation, for the control and intervention group respectively. In both groups lost productivity causes the majority of the costs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is approximately €1100 (95% CI: -5157 to 6150). Self-monitoring may be cost effective for females and higher educated partic