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|This article focuses on the interaction between students and institutions as they move toward decisions related to college attendance. Enrollment managers will find this information useful as they work within their institution to develop and revise long-term recruiting strategies that benefit both the institution and future students. Typically,…
Customer relationship management (CRM) typically involves tracking individual customer behavior over time, and using this\\u000a knowledge to configure solutions precisely tailored to the customers' and vendors' needs. In the context of choice, this implies\\u000a designing longitudinal models of choice over the breadth of the firm's products and using them prescriptively to increase\\u000a the revenues from customers over their lifecycle. Several
Wagner Kamakura; Carl F. Mela; Asim Ansari; Anand Bodapati; Pete Fader; Raghuram Iyengar; Prasad Naik; Scott Neslin; Baohong Sun; Peter C. Verhoef; Michel Wedel; Ron Wilcox
|Discusses the reliability of technology products that support knowledge management, particularly in higher education. Presents a conceptual framework for knowledge management technology, evaluates available software products, concludes that most products perform poorly, and offers recommendations for knowledge management strategies. (LRW)|
Chapman, Linda D. R.; Coukos, Eleni D.; Pisapia, John
|This article presents an approach to enrollment management based on target marketing strategies developed from a choice-based segmentation methodology. Students are classified into "switchable" or "non-switchable" segments based on their probability of selecting specific majors. A modified multinomial logit choice model is used to identify…
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…
Purpose – This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of
Satisfaction of franchisees and employee-managers affects the overall performance of a franchise system. We argue that different actors in the same franchise system need to be treated in different ways. The franchisor's choice of control mechanisms affects the satisfaction of franchisees and employee-managers differently. To our knowledge this is the first study that gathers primary data from franchisees and employee-managers
A typical household has a home mortgage as its most significant financial contract. The form of this contract is correspondingly important. This paper studies the choice between a fixed-rate (FRM) and an adjustable-rate (ARM) mortgage. In an environment with uncertain inflation, a nominal FRM has risky real capital value whereas an ARM has a stable real capital value. However an
The purpose of this study was to examine factors identified by patients as relevant to health human resources (HHR) planning for primary healthcare (PHC). Eleven focus groups were conducted in British Columbia and a thematic analysis was undertaken, informed by a needs-based HHR planning framework. Three themes emerged: (a) the importance of geographic context, (b) change management at the practice level and (c) the need for choices and changes in delivery of PHC. Findings suggest that more attention could be focused on overcoming geographic barriers to providing services, change management within office-based practices, and providing support structures that allow primary care providers to work closer to their full scope of practice. That these factors align with many strategic directions set out by government and planners signals the readiness for change in how PHC is delivered and HHR planned.
Purpose – This paper extends the debate on gender and career choice using the case study of managers in charity shops in the UK, a group that have previously not been researched. The charity retail sector has undergone considerable change over the last few years, particularly in its effort to professionalize. As a result shop managers' positions have changed from
|Drawing on a year and a half of ethnographic research in three New York City small high schools, this study examines the role of the school in managing school choice and asks what social processes are associated with principals' disparate approaches. Although district policy did not allow principals to select students based on their performance,…
The volume examines these issues and places ocean disposal within the context of other waste-management options. Theory is blended with practice drawing upon scientists and public and private sector interests. Experience and planning in Philadelphia, Chicago, and New York illustrate the technical, economic and institutional aspects that communities face in disposing of their wastes. Throughout, there is a common theme--ocean
We evaluated an outcome management program for increasing choice opportunities provided by 2 job coaches for 5 supported workers with severe multiple disabilities in a community job. The program involved specifying and monitoring behavioral outcomes among workers and staff, training staff, and supportive and corrective feedback. Increased choice provision occurred for both job coaches across a 1-year period. Results indicate how outcome management can help translate advances in choice research into routine practice.
Reid, Dennis H; Green, Carolyn W; Parsons, Marsha B
"Children as Researchers in Primary Schools" is an innovative and unique resource for practitioners supporting children to become "real world" researchers in the primary classroom. It will supply you with the skills and ideas you need to implement a "children as researchers" framework in your school that can be adapted for different ages and…
Purpose – This study aims to examine how the perceptions of hospitality and tourism management (HTM) undergraduates about their parental influences predict their career choice intention with regard to the hospitality and tourism (H&T) industry in China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A self-administered questionnaire containing 22 parental influence attributes was given to both junior and senior students studying HTM programmes. Primary research
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the most common cause of hypercalcemia in the outpatient population. It is diagnosed in most individuals in the Western world at an asymptomatic stage without signs or symptoms of parathyroid hormone (PTH) calcium excess. Nonspecific symptoms include weakness, malaise, fatigue, and possible mood disturbances, which may be present at the time of diagnosis. The diagnosis of PHPT is confirmed in the presence of hypercalcemia and a normal or elevated PTH level in the absence of conditions that mimic PHPT. Indications for surgery have recently been revised based on international consensus, and surgery is advised in the presence of significant hypercalcemia, impaired renal function, and osteoporosis and in individuals younger than 50yr. The classical complications of PHPT are skeletal fragility, nephrolithiasis, and nephrocalcinosis. Surgery is always appropriate in an individual with confirmed PHPT after excluding conditions that can mimic PHPT and in the absence of contraindications. Individuals with asymptomatic PHPT not meeting the guidelines for surgery or those with contraindications for surgery may be followed and considered for medical management. For those at an increased risk of fragility fracture, antiresorptive therapy may be considered with close monitoring of biochemical data and bone densitometry. Targeted therapy with a calcimimetic agent may be of value in lowering serum calcium and PTH. There are currently no fracture data for the medical options available, and prospective randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the effects of medical therapy on fracture risk reduction in those with asymptomatic PHPT. PMID:23374743
Purpose – This research aims to explore the role of values, family, and non-family influences on career choice in management among a sample of US MBA students. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires from 109 students in a mid-sized university located on the west coast of the USA. The respondents were in the first semester of their MBA
|The study described here demonstrated that students with different learning styles are initially inclined toward careers in different specialities or types of medicine and are influenced by different factors in medical school in making their career decisions. Implications for medical education are included, particularly regarding primary care…
Despite the crucial importance of choice in a democracy, choice has not recently been an overriding concept in public education. If parents, especially poor parents, could choose among educational options for their children, schools would be more accountable and responsive to the public and more learning would take place. (GC)
Across Europe, wound care management is organized differently, and in some countries such as the UK or Denmark, wound healing centres have been implemented. In France, a large number of health professionals are not sufficiently educated in wound care management during their vocational training. The rapid evolution of dressings has changed wound management practices and has given rise to new professional recommendations. This national survey was carried out in France in 2009, including 465 health professionals, to determine the criteria they use to choose a dressing and their habits of care with acute or chronic wounds. Around 73% of respondents were nurses and, on average, participants took care of 43 wounds per month. It was also found that 89% of the health professionals who took part prefer the sequential treatment of the wound based on its appearance. Regardless of whether the wound is acute or chronic, the priorities for wound care and the choice of dressing are the management of the exudate and the prevention or treatment of infection. These results put into evidence the adequacy of the recommendations by these practitioners and the good correlation between the choice of dressing and the local therapeutic goal. To reach the same level of expertise, the professional training for health professionals who are less frequently involved in wound care is necessary. PMID:22067931
... 2009-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168 Section 440...Definitions Â§ 440.168 Primary care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case management...
... 2010-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168 Section 440...Definitions Â§ 440.168 Primary care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case management...
There is growing realization that persons with bipolar disorder may exclusively be seen in primary (general medical) care settings, notably because of limited access to mental health care and stigma in seeking mental health treatment. At least two clinical practice guidelines for bipolar disorder recommend collaborative chronic care models (CCMs) to help integrate mental health care to better manage this illness. CCMs, which include provider guideline support, self-management support, care management, and measurement-based care, are well-established in primary care settings, and may help primary care practitioners manage bipolar disorder. However, further research is required to adapt CCMs to support complexities in diagnosing persons with bipolar disorder, and integrate decision-making processes regarding medication safety and tolerability in primary care. Additional implementation studies are also needed to adapt CCMs for persons with bipolar disorder in primary care, especially those seen in smaller practices with limited infrastructure and access to mental health care. PMID:23001382
Kilbourne, Amy M; Goodrich, David E; O'Donnell, Allison N; Miller, Christopher J
Service provision and access to pain services vary considerably in the UK, with only a small percentage of people with chronic pain accessing specialist services. Government policy supports giving patients more choice and control over their care. Empowerment involves ensuring patients have the knowledge, skills, attitudes and self-awareness to improve the quality of their lives. As most healthcare professionals provide care to people with chronic pain at some point, it is their responsibility to prepare patients to make informed decisions about their treatment. Empowering patients to self-manage their chronic pain can lead to improved person-centred outcomes. PMID:21560709
We set out to determine whether expanding Medicaid managed care in Texas is the solution to the challenges faced by the state of meeting the healthcare needs of a rapidly growing Medicaid population while addressing its own fiscal limitations. We reviewed the Texas Medicaid program, the potential effects of federal healthcare reform, and the state political climate through the perspectives (advantages and disadvantages) of the primary stakeholders: patients, practitioners, hospitals, and insurers. Research was performed through online, federal and state regulatory, and legislative review. In addition, we reviewed government and peer-reviewed reports and articles pertaining to issues related to Medicaid populations, healthcare practitioners, and hospitals that serve them. Each primary stakeholder had potential advantages and disadvantages associated with the expansion of Medicaid managed care. We conclude that expanding Medicaid managed care, if done in a manner responsive to the needs of recipients, can meet enrollees' healthcare needs while controlling the state's costs. PMID:23038487
Reddy, Swapna; Finley, Marisa; Posey, Dan; Rohack, James J
The purpose of this study was to explore and determine relevant college choice factors among undergraduate Sport Management students, along with collecting specific demographic information from the respondents. Since little was known about college choice factors for undergraduate Sport Management students, this study will be exploratory in nature, and will employ a non-experimental design. College choice has been a topic
Blast waves are produced following the detonation of munitions, the firing of large caliber guns, or from any type of explosion. These blast waves can be powerful enough to injure the individuals exposed to them. This type of injury is called primary blast injury (PBI) and the organs most vulnerable to PBI are the gas-filled organs, namely the ear, the
Objective To assess current concussion management practices of primary care providers. Methods An 11 item questionnaire was mailed to primary care providers in the state of Maine, with serial mailings to non?respondents. Results Over 50% of the questionnaires were completed, with nearly 70% of primary care providers indicating that they routinely use published guidelines as a tool in managing patients with concussion. Nearly two thirds of providers were aware that neuropsychological tests could be used, but only 16% had access to such tests within a week of injury. Conclusions Primary care providers are using published concussion management guidelines with high frequency, but many are unable to access neuropsychological testing when it is required.
Purpose – The paper aims to investigate the relationship between meal choices of primary school children and their knowledge of balanced diet and healthy eating. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using a questionnaire and food photo album (FPA), children combined the different food items in the FPA to form a “healthy Sunday lunch” (balanced meal containing all the six classes of food), a
A survey of 246 primary care and 90 academic physicians found that for the former, length of training, direct patient contact, and threats of malpractice suits were significant influences in career choice. For the latter, long-term research participation, intellectual stimulation, specialty content, and mentor or role model were more significant…
The study investigated the effect of a 3 - week school based nutrition education programme on nutrition knowledge and healthy food choices of 197 primary six pupils (197 sixth grades) randomly divided into a control (n = 102) or an experimental group (n = 95). The control group received no nutrition education while the experimental group received 40 minutes of
The prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) varies between 1 and 4/1.000 in the general population. HPT is nowadays most often asymptomatic. The classical bone disease has been replaced by osteopenia or osteoporosis with a preferential bone loss in cortical sites. The incidence of nephrolithiasis has been considerably lowered, but renal lithiasis is still the most frequent complication of HPT. The diagnosis is most often made by chance or during the workup of an abnormal bone mass. Hypercalcemia and an elevated PTH concentration, or at least a PTH level in the upper part of the normal range, generally point to a diagnosis of HPT. Additional tests include an evaluation of renal function, vitamin D measurement, determination of 24-hour urinary calcium and bone densitometry. Besides symptomatic HPT, classical recommendations for surgery include age less than 50, serum Ca at least 1 mg/dl above the upper limit of normal, creatinine clearance < 60 ml/min and osteoporosis. Surgical referral will, however, take into account patient age and comorbidities, as well as patient preferences. In the hands of an experienced surgeon, the success rate of parathyroidectomy is 95-98% and the rate of permanent complications is 1-3%. Parathyroid scintigraphy is the best preoperative localization technique of the adenoma. When surgery is contraindicated or refused by the patient, bisphosphonates or cinacalcet can be indicated in cases of osteoporosis or clinically significant hypercalcemia, respectively. PMID:23091930
CONTEXT: It is not known whether factors associated with primary care career choice affect trainees differently at different times\\u000a or stages of medical education.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To examine how role models, encouragement, and personal characteristics affect career choice at different stages (medical\\u000a school vs residency) and periods (1994 vs 1997) of training.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: A split-panel design with 2 cross-sectional telephone surveys
Maureen T. Connelly; Amy M. Sullivan; Antoinette S. Peters; Nancy Clark-Chiarelli; Natasha Zotov; Nina Martin; Steven R. Simon; Judith D. Singer; Susan D. Block
The saturation rendering intent in ICC color management system has never been practiced successfully. One of the reasons is that it is expected to have primary matching for this rendering intent, but the current ICC workflow makes this impossible. In this paper, three approaches to achieve primary matching for printing applications will be presented. We start with building a printer ICC profile that converts selected first and/or secondary primaries of the default monitor RGB color space to the corresponding printer primaries. If a source monitor RGB color space is different from the default RGB color space, a simple approach is to apply the default RGB color space for the saturation rendering intent for primary preservation. This is because the primary matching is more important than color accuracy for the saturation intent, and different source monitor RGB color spaces are not very different. For more accurate color transformation and still to preserve the primary matching, the source monitor RGB color space is adjusted so that the selected primaries are fully adapted to those of the default RGB color space and the adaptation is decreased gradually as the hue of a source color moves off the selected primaries. In a smart CMM environment, the primary matching can be achieved by hue rotation and gamut adaptation during the real-time linking.
NICE recommends immediate referral for patients with dyspepsia and significant acute GI bleeding and urgent specialist referral for investigation if any of the following alarm symptoms are present: progressive difficulty swallowing; chronic GI bleeding; unintentional weight loss; persistent vomiting; abdominal mass; iron deficiency anaemia; suspicious findings on barium meal. Patients aged > 55 with unexplained and persistent dyspepsia, despite H. pylori testing and acid suppression therapy, should also be considered for endoscopy, as should those with previous gastric ulcer or surgery, continuing need for NSAIDs or raised risk of gastric cancer. Patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia should be managed by empirical treatment with a PPI or testing for and treating H. pylori if present. Testing by urea breath test, stool antigen test, or locally validated lab-based serology is suggested. H. pylori eradication is usually given as triple therapy, for seven days, involving a PPI, clarithromycin and either amoxicillin or metronidazole. It is important to take a thorough history and to enquire about any medication the patient is taking. Drugs that are common culprits for dyspepsia include: NSAIDs; calcium antagonists; bisphosphonates; steroids; theophyllines; nitrates. NSAIDs can also cause GI bleeding. Absence of dyspepsia in patients taking NSAIDs does not indicate a reduced risk of bleeding. Peptic ulcers fall into three categories: H. pylori associated ulcers; drug-induced ulcers (particularly NSAIDs); and ulcers in H. pylori-negative patients not taking causative medication. H. pylori is associated with both gastric and duodenal ulcer disease but it is in the duodenum where the closest relationship exists. In any 6-12 month period, 20-40% of healthy people, more commonly men, will experience symptoms of heartburn. Oesophageal reflux can progress to more serious disease such as erosive oesophagitis, stricture or Barrett's oesophagus. PMID:19938559
Federal policy has embraced risa management as an appropriate paradigm for wildfire management. Economic theory suggests that over repeated wildfire events, potential economic costs and risas of ecological damage are optimally balanced when management decisions are free from biases, risa aversion, and risa seeking. Of primary concern in this article is how managers respond to wildfire risa, including the potential effect of wildfires (on ecological values, structures, and safety) and the likelihood of different fire outcomes. We use responses to a choice experiment questionnaire of U.S. federal wildfire managers to measure attitudes toward several components of wildfire risa and to test whether observed risa attitudes are consistent with the efficient allocation of wildfire suppression resources. Our results indicate that fire managers' decisions are consistent with nonexpected utility theories of decisions under risa. Managers may overallocate firefighting resources when the likelihood or potential magnitude of damage from fires is low, and sensitivity to changes in the probability of fire outcomes depends on whether probabilities are close to one or zero and the magnitude of the potential harm. PMID:23078036
Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Hand, Michael S; Calkin, David E; Venn, Tyron J; Thompson, Matthew P
Primary care providers (PCPs) provide the majority of weight management care in clinical settings; however, they often lack the time or resources to apply strategies recommended in treatment guidelines. This review surveyed randomized clinical trials and prospective weight management studies from 1990 to present to identify evidence-based behavioural strategies for weight management applicable to the PCP treatment environment. Data supported, time-limited weight management strategies included self-monitoring, portion control, sleep hygiene, restaurant eating and television viewing. The current review suggests that a number of behavioural strategies are available to enhance the effectiveness of PCPs weight management interventions. Increasing PCP awareness of these evidence-based strategies may increase their attention to overweight and obesity concerns in clinical encounters and encourage more collaborative efforts with patients towards weight management goals. PMID:21348915
Rutledge, T; Groesz, L M; Linke, S E; Woods, G; Herbst, K L
One third of deliveries in the United States are by cesarean, a rate that far exceeds that recommended by professional organizations and experts. A dominant reason for the high overall cesarean rate is the rising primary cesarean rate. The high primary cesarean rate results from multiple factors, both clinical and nonclinical. This review outlines proposed interventions to lower the primary cesarean rate. We focus on those implementable at a facility level and would likely yield immediate results, including aligning provider incentives for vaginal birth, limiting elective induction of labor, and improving labor management of dystocia and abnormal fetal heart rate tracings. PMID:23090464
We analyze an airline yield management problem on a single flight leg in which the buyers' choice of fare classes is modeled explicitly. The choice model we use is very general and includes a wide range of discrete choice models of practical interest. The optimization problem is to find, at each point in time, the optimal subset of fare classes
Primary PTCA is at least as effective as intravenous thrombolysis for the management of acute myocardial infarction. When the capability for primary PTCA exists, it is also a very cost-effective treatment, allowing earlier hospital discharge, reduced readmissions and reduced risks of recurrent ischemia and infarction. Finally, many patients with acute myocardial infarction either have contraindications to thrombolysis or fail to
Our aim was to characterize medical management of children with primary hypertension (HTN) by pediatric subspecialists. We performed a medical-record review of children < or = 18 years with primary HTN seen at pediatric cardiology or pediatric nephrology clinics at an academic center. Main outcomes were whether treatment decision was in agreement with national guidelines, whether an antihypertensive medication was prescribed, and medication choice. One hundred and eighty children had > or = 1 visit to a pediatric cardiology or nephrology clinic. The majority (83%) of children were pharmacologically managed according to national guidelines. However, only 1/3 children with stage 2 HTN received appropriate antihypertensive therapy from either subspecialty. Only 26 children were prescribed an antihypertensive drug. Children evaluated by pediatric nephrologists were fourfold more likely to receive an antihypertensive than children seen by pediatric cardiologists (29% vs. 7%; p < 0.001). However, all antihypertensive prescriptions were prescribed according to guidelines by both subspecialties. Medical management of children with primary HTN by pediatric cardiologists and pediatric nephrologists is largely consistent with guidelines. However, initiation of appropriate antihypertensive drugs for children with highest severity of HTN is equally poor for both subspecialties. Future studies should explore the factors underlying physicians' reluctance to initiate recommended chronic pharmacologic therapy in children and its associated outcomes. PMID:18781337
Yoon, Esther Y; Davis, Matthew M; Rocchini, Albert; Kershaw, David; Freed, Gary L
This paper examines firms' design of performance measurement systems to support the effective implementation of business strategy, and tests whether different strategic choices are associated with the use of different performance measures. Performance measurement choices analyzed are the extensiveness, purposes and types of performance measures used. In addition, the use of alternative controls, action controls and problem solving teams, is
Henri C. Dekker; Tom L. C. M. Groot; Martijn Schoute
This study examined visitors’ preferences for forest management at five adjacent municipal recreation sites in Finland, using a spatially explicit choice experiment. The study design accounted for changes in scenery and biodiversity indices in the forest environment resulting from forest management practices. Respondents were asked to choose their preferred management option from alternative management regimes for the sites. The options
Background Food choice in Greece follows a westernized model. We tried to identify the characteristics of clusters regarding food choice and behaviour in a large sample of Greek primary school students, in order to acknowledge some mediating parameters that need to be addressed when planning interventions to promote healthy nutrition. Methods Cross-sectional study in 2439 fifth and sixth grade students
|This paper applies Cuban's (1992) concept of "managing dilemmas" to the current market-based reforms in English and Welsh education at both the macro (policy) and, particularly, at the micro (individual and school) levels. The Parental and School Choice Interaction (PASCI) Study is currently investigating the interaction between parental choice…
This paper links a worker's propensity to change jobs to her schooling choices. A model of the choice of graduate management program type based on job search theory predicts that more mobile workers are more likely to enroll in a full-time Master of Business Administration program. The study also adds to the literature on employer-sponsored general training; the model predicts
Earlier studies from other countries identified factors which influence the final year management graduates’ choice for their first employer. But there is lack of systematic study done with respect to the Indian management graduates aspiring for their first job. This article systematically studied how different educational and social variables influence the expectations of management graduates seeking their first job. Based
A central element in developing credit management policy involves design choices on the extent to which credit activities are best managed internally or through specialist market intermediaries. This paper draws on the findings of a survey on the credit management practices and policies of large UK companies to: (1) Examine the type of firm most likely to enter into specialist
The purpose of this study was to create a theory of women's career choice and development in the context of the construction industry. Focused on female constructors, or those engaged in the management of construction projects or companies, this study investigated the relevant factors, processes, and experiences of women who choose to enter the construction industry through construction management degree programs. The goal was to communicate as a theoretically and practically grounded theory of career choice and development an understanding of who female constructors are and those factors which led them to the construction industry and those influencing their career development. As a grounded theory research design, qualitative research methods were employed as the primary means of collecting and analyzing data. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to garner a sample of 24 women who had graduated within a ten year period and were actively employed as constructors. Participants' views and experiences, captured through small focus group interviews, were analyzed with quantitative data of demographics, education, construction experience, self-efficacy, personality, and career satisfaction and commitment gathered from a written questionnaire, to create a profile of female constructors used in this theory. The profiles completed from these data are complex, providing for an extensive understanding of their career choice and development process. The strongest common characteristic in the career development of these women was a mentor. This influence in cannot be overlooked, especially in light of the rather constant sense of isolation many of these women expressed as a significant minority in every facet of their careers. Recommendations for academia and industry are in many ways related to these findings. Recommendations for recruitment center on educating youth and those able to influence the career choice making process of youth about the career paths available within the construction industry. Suggestions for retention centered on: (a) the need for mentoring programs and support networks, and (b) modification of industry demands to allow for a better work-family balance. In all, this study provides insights and recommendations for those focused on attracting, hiring, and retaining the employees necessary to meet ever-increasing staffing demands.
Summary Background Primary epiploic appendagitis (PEA) is a rare cause of abdominal acute or subacute complaints. Diagnosis of PEA is made with ultrasonography (US) or when computed tomography (CT) reveals a characteristic lesion. Case Report We report on two patients with PEA. In one patient PEA was first seen with US and confirmed with contrast enhanced CT, and in the second patient CT without contrast enhancement demonstrated PEA. In both patients an outpatient recovery with conservative non-surgical treatment is described. Conclusions Medical personnel should be aware of this rare disease, which mimics many other intra-abdominal acute and subacute conditions. A correct diagnosis of PEA with imaging procedures enables conservative and successful outpatient management avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention and additional costs.
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare, chronic cholestatic liver disease of uncertain etiology characterized by the destruction of the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic ducts through inflammation and fibrosis. This ultimately leads to biliary complications including cirrhosis, cholangiocarcinoma, and eventually death. Given the uncertainty surrounding the pathogenesis of the disease, a number of different medical therapies have been studied in the treatment of PSC. However, there currently are no effective medical therapies known to halt the progression of disease. The only definitive therapy for PSC is liver transplantation. This review will primarily focus on the medical approaches that have been studied for the treatment of PSC as well as on the management of symptoms commonly associated with the disease.
Secretarial and management students were compared on characteristics that have differentiated between traditional and nontraditional career women. Fifty-five female secretarial students and 55 female management (bachelor of commerce) students completed the following measures: (a) the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire (WOFO); (b) the Attitudes toward Women Scale (AWS); (c) the Powerful Others, Personal Control, and Chance Scales (I-E Scale); (d)
This paper reports the results of a pilot valuation study, which was undertaken to investigate whether the public located around the Severn Estuary derive positive economic values from its sustainable management. One hundred members of the public took part in a choice experiment, the results of which indicate that overall the public derives positive and significant values from sustainable management
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology in which the immune system is overstimulated. Management of the patient with sarcoidosis entails continuity of patient care far beyond disease, even into remission. Care is comprehensive, including all involved organ systems, coordination of specialty consultations and services, and includes diagnostic tests. Therapeutic decisions are the responsibility of the primary care practitioner. Prognosis of sarcoidosis is not uniformly good. Patients can die. Subacute sarcoidosis patients usually do not require pharmacologic therapy. Chronic sarcoidosis may require long-term treatment for years to indefinitely. Corticosteroids are still the drugs of choice and other therapy is now available. Health organizations and private nonprofit support groups are available for patient education and assistance. Close support must still come from the family unit. Sarcoidosis may occur in family members in different cohorts at all ages in life and in any racial or ethnic group. The second in a two-part series on management of the patient with sarcoidosis, this article describes coordination of care and considers community, prevention, and family aspects of the disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3
Young, R. C.; Rachal, R. E.; Nelson-Knuckles, B.; Arthur, C. N.; Nevels, H. V.
The second part of this 2-part article reviews clinical features, histology, management, and treatment of neutrophilic primary cicatricial alopecias (folliculitis decalvans and dissecting folliculitis) and mixed primary cicatricial alopecias (acne keloidalis, acne necrotica, and erosive pustular dermatosis). PMID:18326998
Wu, Wen-Yu; Otberg, Nina; McElwee, Kevin John; Shapiro, Jerry
A brand choice model for TV advertising management using single-source data is proposed. The model replaces household-specific\\u000a advertising exposure, which is often used as a covariate in a brand choice model, with gross rating points (GRP), a managerial\\u000a control variable for advertising. In particular, given daily GRP, a probabilistic model of advertising exposure for heterogeneous\\u000a customers is integrated into a
The goal of this study was to explore the demographics and career influences (in terms of experiences and relationships) of students currently enrolled in accredited Construction Management (CM) programs in one Midwestern state. It was limited to one state due to the regional differences in construction shown by a 1996 Business Roundtable (BRT) study (The Business Roundtable, 2000). Numerous factors
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Although advances are being made in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke,\\u000a its prevention is equally as important. Identification and management of risk factors are essential. Medical therapy is also\\u000a helpful in the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. There are currently four plateletantiaggregating agents used to prevent\\u000a ischemic stroke: aspirin, aspirin
Change in the commons remains poorly understood. This essay analyzes a comparative case study of community forestry in Mexico. In a primary case study, corruption in a community-owned logging business legitimates timber smuggling, and this situation contrasts with several forestry communities having internally-legitimate social institutions able to control such problems. A discussion assesses the institutional choice model for understanding change
To review the impact of case management programs on health care resource use; their impact on patient satisfaction, quality\\u000a of life, and functional status (patient-centered outcomes); and their cost-effectiveness, we reviewed the English language\\u000a literature utilizing the following MEDLINE and Health-STAR headings: case management, patient care planning, patient-centered\\u000a care, disease management, care management, and managed care programs. Bibliographies of relevant
Government policy promoting consumerism in healthcare can be seen as offering up certain preferred identities to which its citizens are encouraged to aspire. Whilst many commentators reject the notion that health services users should be conceived of as consumers, this paper outlines the relevance of the concept to our understanding of the ways in which individuals manage their health and service use. The paper examines the identity work undertaken by individuals in relation to decisions about healthcare preferences and assesses the extent to which this is compatible with the identities promoted in Government policy. We suggest that in circumstances where individuals feel both a sense of personal entitlement and a desire to be supportive of the needs of other members of the community, 'doing' ethical consumer can be fraught with discomfort and anxiety. These anxieties are exacerbated in a context where citizenship is increasingly being defined in terms of consumer identities, and making good (health) choices might be seen as distinguishing the civilised from the marginalised. PMID:17470220
The present study examined the effectiveness of the Kid's Choice Program (KCP) for increasing children's weight management behaviors, and decreasing body mass index percentile (BMI%) for overweight and average-weight children. It also evaluated KCP characteristics relevant to long-term application in schools. Participants included 382 children assigned to two groups: a KCP group that received token rewards for three “Good Health
Helen M. Hendy; Keith E. Williams; Thomas S. Camise
|Purpose: The paper addresses the influence of culture and gender on the choice of a management career among men and women MBA students in Israel, the USA, the UK, Turkey, Cyprus, Hungary and India. The culture by gender comparison enabled an examination of five theories: two that focused on culture (Hofstede's and an application of Schneider's…
Developments in information technologies have been impacting upon educational organizations. Principals have been using management information systems to improve the efficiency of administrative services. The aim of this research is to explore principals' perceptions about management information systems and how school management information…
Identifying primary aldosteronism within the hypertensive population is an important clinical challenge, as most patients with a unilateral source of excess aldosterone secretion are amenable to surgical cure. At least 20% of patients with primary aldosteronism have normal serum potassium levels. Therefore, screening tests should not be based on recognition of hypokalemia alone. Rather, the diagnosis should depend on identifying
Many advances have occurred in recent years in the diagnosis, localization, and treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. Several different operative choices for primary hyperparathyroidism also have been proposed--a unilateral approach versus the standard bilateral parathyroid exploration. The unilateral approach is based on the concept that if an enlarged parathyroid gland and a normal gland are found on the first side of the neck that is explored, then this is an adenoma and the second side should not be explored. Only if both glands on the initial side are recognized to be abnormal is the second side explored. The theoretical advantages of this unilateral approach are a decrease in operative morbidity rates--hypoparathyroidism and nerve injuries--and a decrease in operative time. Furthermore, proponents argue that if persistent hyperparathyroidism occurs, the second side can be easily explored because it was previously untouched. In the hands of several expert parathyroid surgeons, excellent results have been achieved. However, the unilateral approach has a number of disadvantages. It places considerable pressure on the surgeon and pathologist, for they have only one parathyroid gland other than the large one to examine. There is a significant potential risk of missing double adenomas or asymmetric hyperplasia because the second, ipsilateral parathyroid gland may appear normal or near normal in these conditions. This could lead to an increased incidence of persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, a significant reduction of operative time may be questioned, especially when the time for performing special fat stains, which often are performed with unilateral explorations, is added. Finally, even if the intent is to perform a unilateral exploration, a bilateral exploration will be necessary about half of the time. The authors strongly recommend a bilateral parathyroid exploration for all patients undergoing an initial parathyroid operation. In cases of adenoma, bilateral visualization of normal parathyroid glands and careful biopsy of only one of them will minimize hypoparathyroidism. This operative approach will lead to better results, especially for the less experienced parathyroid surgeon. Images FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7. FIG. 8. FIG. 9. FIG. 10.
In this era of the Patient Centered Medical Home model of care, chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) are managed in partnership with specialty care practices. For the patient and family living with MS, assuring that patients get proper care when and where they need it requires that nurse practitioners understand their role in assessing and managing complex chronic diseases. PMID:23454903
Burns are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada annually. Nearly all burn injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on burn depth, extent, and location. Special types of burns, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of burns. Images Figure 2 Figure 3
Summary. \\u000a We describe a patient with primary idiopathic hyperphosphatasemia, a rare hereditary disease caused by a primary enzymatic\\u000a disorder. The clinical, radiological, histological and biochemical features of the disease and their response to treatment\\u000a with Calcitonin are described. We recommend Calcitonin for this rare disease in specialist units. It leads to improvement\\u000a in many markers and better function.
A. J. Roth; K. Abendroth; J. Seidel; H. Neubert; R. Venbrocks
Information, rebates, and technical assistance associated with utility demand-side management (DSM) programs can alter consumer behavior. Such programs may unintentionally affect consumer fuel choices. This study addresses fuel choice effects of a unique Pacific Northwest DSM program: (1) it is directed at new manufactured homes only, (2) it is an acquisition program -- utilities make $2,500 payments directly to manufacturers for each electrically heated, energy-efficient home built, (3) it has rapidly penetrated nearly 100% of the potential market, and (4) over 90% of the affected homes in the participating region have traditionally used electricity for space heating. Heating equipment data for all manufactured homes built in the region since 1987 were sampled and regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the DSM program and fuel shares. The quantitative data were supplemented with interview data to better understand the relationship between the program and fuel choice. The results should be useful for program design and evaluation.
Lee, A.D.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Sandahl, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Vinnard, A.B. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)
Dunblane Primary School, Scotland, and Columbine High School, USA. Two headline tragedies that have led to trauma for their pupils and staff. Trauma that could be devastating because of the psychological impact and the practical requirements a crisis brings. Children's social and personal development can be negatively affected, their academic performance can suffer and schools as communities may never recover.
|Dunblane Primary School, Scotland, and Columbine High School, USA. Two headline tragedies that have led to trauma for their pupils and staff. Trauma that could be devastating because of the psychological impact and the practical requirements a crisis brings. Children's social and personal development can be negatively affected, their academic…
320 patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn syndrome) were operated on. All patients had primary adrenal aldosteromas. Authors conclude that only about 10% of such patients require a long-term preoperative preparation with spironolactons, antihypertensive and potassium. The choice of general anesthetics and muscle relaxants does not influence the course of anesthesia, time of artificial lung ventilation and extubation. Authors emphasize that traditional and laparoscopic aldosteromectomy should not be opposed. A mini-invasive approach through the partly resected XI rib was used in 320 patients with neither postoperative major complications, nor lethality. PMID:19365382
Chernyshev, V N; Skladchikova, T Iu; Chernysheva, N I
Asthma, a chronic inflammatory lung disease, is one of the most common and costly diseases in the United States, affecting people of all ages and all ethnic groups. While there is no cure for asthma, optimal disease control and quality of life are possible with proper management and treatment. PMID:23076234
Discusses the significance of distributed leadership and management effectiveness; provides background for primary-school senior management teams research; reports headmasters' criteria for judging the effectiveness of senior management teams; reports findings from case studies of four senior management teams; discusses an inductively derived…
Patients with primary bone malignancies must be treated by specialized multidisciplinary teams composed of pathologists, surgeons, orthopedists, oncologists, radiologists and radiotherapists, all with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. If a malignancy is suspected, the biopsy must also be performed in such a center. Biopsy is part of the treatment and must be done by a senior surgeon, before starting specific treatment. Indeed, inappropriate biopsy can compromise the patient's functional prognosis and sometimes the vital outcome. The biopsy can be done percutaneously under radiological control with a True-cut needle or a trocart to obtain cores of pathological tissue. The pathologist must be well-versed in bone disorders. Open surgical biopsy is preferable for primary bone tumors, especially when a cartilaginous tumor is suspected. A short incision is used, situated on the same approach as that which will be used for surgical resection of the tumor, so that the biopsy scar is excised along with the tumor, in a single block. Surgical treatment of primary bone malignancies requires extensive resection, i.e. excision of the affected bone segment and any invaded soft tissues, as a single block, without breaching the tumor, and preserving a peripheral margin of healthy tissue. In most cases, reconstruction is necessary to preserve the function of the resected region. It is based on standard orthopedic techniques, namely osteosynthesis, bone grafts (autografts and allografts), prostheses of variable size, or a combination of prostheses and allografts (composite reconstruction). Amputation is only indicated if conservative resection is impossible. It has been shown that conservative resection, now possible in about 80% of cases, does not reduce the survival chances of patients with osteosarcoma. The indications for amputation include massive tumors invading vessels and nerves, resection of which would leave the limb non functional, as sell as tumor infection (often secondary to biopsy), inappropriate biopsy (infection of vessels or periarticular muscles, etc.), and local relapse. Amputation must respect the same oncologic principles as conservative resection. PMID:19718984
In today's complex healthcare organizations, conflicts between physicians and nurses occur daily. Consequently, organizational conflict has grown into a major subfield of organizational behavior. Researchers have claimed that conflict has a beneficial effect on work group function and identified collaboration as one of the intervening variables that may explain the relationship between magnet hospitals and positive patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare conflict mode choices of physicians and head nurses in acute care hospitals and examine the relationship of conflict mode choices with their background characteristics. In a cross-sectional correlational study, 75 physicians and 54 head nurses in 5 hospitals were surveyed, using the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument. No difference was found between physicians and nurses in choice of the most frequently used mode in conflict management. The compromising mode was found to be the significantly most commonly chosen mode (P = .00) by both. Collaborating was chosen significantly more frequently among head nurses (P = .001) and least frequently among physicians (P = .00). Most of the respondents' characteristics were not found to be correlated with mode choices. The findings indicate a need to enhance partnerships in the clinical environment to ensure quality patient care and staff satisfaction. PMID:17607137
This paper considers how NHS Direct is affecting demand for primary care in particular out-of-hours services from GPs. This is reviewed through a 3-year study of NHS Direct and HARMONI, the integrated telephone health helpline based in West London. It describes the policy background and development of the services on the site, and some of the outcomes of the HARMONI commissioned research to answer the question 'Has NHS Direct increased the workload for HARMONI doctors?'. The research adopted both a qualitative and quantitative approach using cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the data collected. The analysis of the data reveals the issues as both complex and dynamic in nature. The research shows that while there has been no significant change to the total volume of activity, changes within patient groups notably the elderly and children, and in individual GP practices may be significant. In addition, the changes in organizational arrangements may influence significant changes in referral patterns such as GP out-of-hours visits. This was confirmed in the interview data indicating a link between the change in nurses' role from gatekeeper to patient advocate, which happened when they ceased to be employees of the part-time co-op and began to work instead for the 24 hours, 7 days a week NHS Direct service. The conclusions drawn are that behavioural and organizational changes are at least as significant as the evidence-based computerized decision support software in changing the demand for primary care. Further evidence cited is that a different demand pattern of calls was experienced by those local GPs not integrated into out-of-hours provision at NHS Direct West London at the time of the study. PMID:15061291
Background Screening invitations have traditionally been brief, providing information only about population benefits. Presenting information about the limited individual benefits and potential harms of screening to inform choice may reduce attendance, particularly in the more socially deprived. At the same time, amongst those who attend, it might increase motivation to change behavior to reduce risks. This trial assesses the impact on attendance and motivation to change behavior of an invitation that facilitates informed choices about participating in diabetes screening in general practice. Three hypotheses are tested: 1. Attendance at screening for diabetes is lower following an informed choice compared with a standard invitation. 2. There is an interaction between the type of invitation and social deprivation: attendance following an informed choice compared with a standard invitation is lower in those who are more rather than less socially deprived. 3. Amongst those who attend for screening, intentions to change behavior to reduce risks of complications in those subsequently diagnosed with diabetes are stronger following an informed choice invitation compared with a standard invitation. Method/Design 1500 people aged 40–69 years without known diabetes but at high risk are identified from four general practice registers in the east of England. 1200 participants are randomized by households to receive one of two invitations to attend for diabetes screening at their general practices. The intervention invitation is designed to facilitate informed choices, and comprises detailed information and a decision aid. A comparison invitation is based on those currently in use. Screening involves a finger-prick blood glucose test. The primary outcome is attendance for diabetes screening. The secondary outcome is intention to change health related behaviors in those attenders diagnosed with diabetes. A sample size of 1200 ensures 90% power to detect a 10% difference in attendance between arms, and in an estimated 780 attenders, 80% power to detect a 0.2 sd difference in intention between arms. Discussion The DICISION trial is a rigorous pragmatic denominator based clinical trial of an informed choice invitation to diabetes screening, which addresses some key limitations of previous trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN73125647
Mann, Eleanor; Prevost, A Toby; Griffin, Simon; Kellar, Ian; Sutton, Stephen; Parker, Michael; Sanderson, Simon; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Marteau, Theresa M
The risk of therapy-induced fertility disorders is increasingly determining the choice of primary treatment, but also the form of follow-up care in young tumour patients. By using modified surgical procedures, differentiated radiotherapy and the preferential use of cytostatic agents with less influence on fertility, disturbances of fertility and sexual activity in tumour patients can often be avoided or at least reduced. In the after-care of tumour patients, measures for detecting and treating fertility disorders are becoming ever more important. The physicians delivering aftercare need to concern themselves with the organic and psychosocial problems arising from such disorders. PMID:6096235
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of managed care growth on the incomes of primary care and specialist physicians. DATA SOURCES: Data on physician income and managed care penetration from the American Medical Association, Socioeconomic Monitoring System (SMS) Surveys for 1985 and 1993. We use secondary data from the Area Resource File and U.S. Census publications to construct geographical socioeconomic control variables, and we examine data from the National Residency Matching Program. STUDY DESIGN: Two-stage least squares regressions are estimated to determine the effect of local managed care penetration on specialty-specific physician incomes, while controlling for factors associated with local variation in supply and demand and accounting for the potential endogeneity of managed care penetration. DATA COLLECTION: The SMS survey is an annual telephone survey conducted by the American Medical Association of approximately one percent of nonfederal, post-residency U.S. physicians. Response rates average 60-70 percent, and analysis is weighted to account for nonresponse bias. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The incomes of primary care physicians rose most rapidly in states with higher managed care growth, while the income growth of hospital-based specialists was negatively associated with managed care growth. Incomes of medical subspecialists were not significantly affected by managed care growth over this period. These findings are consistent with trends in postgraduate training choices of new physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence is consistent with a relative increase in the demand for primary care physicians and a decline in the demand for some specialists under managed care. Market adjustments have important implications for health policy and physician workforce planning.
Primary care physicians can play an important role in managing alcoholic patients. Identifying and treating alcoholism early, before it has interfered with patients' relationships and work, may increase the likelihood of prolonged recovery. Simple office interventions can help motivate patients to abstain and seek treatment. People who abuse alcohol and are unwilling to abstain can benefit from a recommendation to reduce their intake of alcohol. For alcohol-dependent patients who decide to stop drinking, primary care physicians often can manage withdrawal on an outpatient basis. Selecting an appropriate treatment program for each alcoholic patient is important, and referral to a specialist to assist in matching patients to treatments is often necessary. Primary care physicians also can help prevent relapse. Although disulfiram is of limited value, primary care physicians can support recovery by identifying coexistent psychosocial problems, helping patients to restructure their lives, and ensuring continuity of care.
Severe acute ulcerative colitis unresponsive to medical management is characterized by multiple associated risk factors including anemia, hypoproteinemia, and high steroid requirements when urgent surgery is required. Current surgical options include use of primary ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA)vs.historic trends favoring colectomy with ileostomy. PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of primary IPAA in patients with severe colitis, we reviewed our own
Bruce A. Harms; Gregory A. Myers; David J. Rosenfeld; James R. Starling
The association between facility-level organizational features and management of mental health services was assessed based on a survey of directors from 219 VA primary care facilities. Overall, 26.4% of VA primary care facilities referred patients with depression, while 72.6% and 46.1% referred patients with serious mental illness and substance use disorders, respectively Staffing mix (i.e., physician extenders such as nurse
Amy M. Kilbourne; Harold Alan Pincus; Kathleen Schutte; JoAnn E. Kirchner; Gretchen L. Haas; Elizabeth M. Yano
Fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread pain disorder commonly associated with comorbid symptoms, including fatigue and nonrestorative sleep. As in the management of other chronic medical disorders, the approach for fibromyalgia management follows core principles of comprehensive assessment, education, goal setting, multimodal treatment including pharmacological (eg, pregabalin, duloxetine, milnacipran) and nonpharmacological therapies (eg, physical activity, behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, education), and regular education and monitoring of treatment response and progress. Based on these core management principles, this review presents a framework for primary care providers through which they can develop a patient-centered treatment program for patients with fibromyalgia. This proactive and systematic treatment approach encourages ongoing education and patient self-management and is designed for use in the primary care setting.
Arnold, Lesley M.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Dunegan, L. Jean; Turk, Dennis C.
Background: Around 2 million people are living with or beyond cancer in the UK. However, experiences and needs following primary treatment are relatively neglected. Following treatment, survivors may feel particularly vulnerable and face threats to their identity. We present a conceptual framework to inform areas of self-management support to facilitate recovery of health and well-being following primary cancer treatment. Methods: To explain the framework, we draw on data from two studies: UK-wide consultation about cancer patients' research priorities and survivors' self-management in the year following primary cancer treatment. Results: Self-confidence may be low following treatment. Recovery includes rebuilding lost confidence. Support to manage the impact of cancer on everyday life was a priority. Self-management support included health professionals, peers, employers, family, friends and online resources. However, support was not always available and confidence to access support could be low. Conclusion: Cancer survivors may struggle to self-manage following primary treatment where confidence is low or support is lacking. Low confidence may be a significant barrier to accessing support. Supporting recovery of self-confidence is an important aspect of recovery alongside physical and psychosocial problems in the context of changing health care and cancer follow-up.
The United Kingdom recently reformed its health service to promote consumer choice of a provider. The authors investigate the evaluative strategies patients use for their present primary care provider as a precursor to determining future choice criteria. However, this information has only limited value since health care providers still cannot market their services. The policy changes have introduced structural reforms but are not addressing some of the practical constraints to choice in this market. PMID:10138733
Headache is a common presentation in primary care. The classification of headache was overhauled by the International Headache Society (IHS) in 1988, and the past decade has seen rapid growth in the understanding of headache disorders. The IHS places particular importance on precise headache diagnosis. This paper discusses the relevance of such an approach to primary care. A review of the literature revealed a dearth of evidence regarding headache management in primary care settings. The evidence from other settings is considered and gaps in the literature highlighted.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is mandated to promote improvements in automotive occupant protection by specifying vehicle crash-worthiness regulations in terms of forces and accelerations measured during test crashes. A primary focus of these Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) has been in the area of energy-management during the \\
Lorraine C. Yu-Hallada; Edward T. Kuczynski; Mark Weierstall
This paper examines whether differential incentives exist in the adoption of environmental management practices (EMPs) with varying features that often make up the design of environmental management systems implemented by firms. Estimation of multivariate probit models reveals that greater consumer, regulatory and investor pressures are positively related to the adoption of EMPs that directly enhance a firm's green image. In
An estimated 64% of the adult population in the United States is either overweight or obese. Because obesity affects such a large percentage of the population and carries with it numerous health risks, it is essential that physicians treat obesity and encourage healthy-weight maintenance within the primary care setting. Effective weight management will require providing the appropriate physical environment for
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of total quality management (TQM) practices in primary schools based on teachers' perceptions, and how their perceptions are related to different variables. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a survey based descriptive scanning model was used. This study was carried out in…
This paper examines how schools in one area of the East Midlands have developed interschool collaboration not to undermine central?government policy but to make possible the successful implementation of the local management of schools. The study is based on structured interviews carried out with secondary headteachers and headteachers of some of the primary schools which feed pupils into these secondary
The ability to differentiate classroom behaviour management (CBM) strategies is an important skill for novice teachers in increasingly diverse classrooms. Worldwide, little is known about the curriculum content offered to pre-service teachers in the area of CBM. This article reports the findings from the first nationwide survey of Australian primary pre-service teacher educators coordinating units and programmes with CBM content.
National rural policy places the local primary school as a key resource within the rural community, yet as a consequence of countywide financial constraints, some small schools are undergoing reorganization, involving amalgamation, federation and school closure. This article considers the complexities involved in the workings of the English rural…
The association between facility-level organizational features and management of mental health services was assessed based on a survey of directors from 219 VA primary care facilities. Overall, 26.4% of VA primary care facilities referred patients with depression, while 72.6% and 46.1% referred patients with serious mental illness and substance use disorders, respectively Staffing mix (i.e., physician extenders such as nurse practitioners) was associated with a lesser likelihood of mental health referral. Managed care (preauthorization requirement) was associated with a greater likelihood of referral for depression. VA primary care programs, while tending to refer for more serious mental illnesses, may also be using mental health specialists and physician extenders to provide mental health care within general medical settings. PMID:16477518
Kilbourne, Amy M; Pincus, Harold Alan; Schutte, Kathleen; Kirchner, Joann E; Haas, Gretchen L; Yano, Elizabeth M
Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL), previously called primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL), is a rare and fatal ocular malignancy. PVRL is a subset of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), mostly a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The diagnosis of PVRL is often challenging as it often masquerades as chronic uveitis. PVRL requires invasive procedures for tissue diagnosis. Cytology/pathology, molecular pathology (immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor gene rearrangement), immunohistochemistry, biophysical technology (flow cytometry), and cytokine analysis (interleukine-10) are often required. The therapies that have been successful in systemic lymphomas have not been reliably effective in PVRL and PCNSL. Current management of PVRL involves aggressive chemotherapy (methotrexate and rituximab) and radiation therapy. PVRL normally responds well to initial treatment; however, relapse rate and CNS involvement are high, resulting in poor prognosis and limited survival. A professional team of medical experts in ophthalmology, oncology (particularly neuro-oncology), and pathology is essential for optimizing patient management.
Little is known about the organizational contexts associated with different primary care (PC) approaches to managing PC patients with drinking problems. Relying upon the Chronic Care Model and a theoretically based taxonomy of health care systems, we identified organizational factors distinguishing PC practices using PC-based approaches (managed by PC providers, mental health specialists, or jointly with specialty services) versus referral-based management in the Veterans Affairs health care system. Data were obtained from a national survey of 218 PC practices characterizing usual management approaches as well as practices' leadership, delivery system design, information system, and decision support characteristics and from a national survey of substance use disorder specialty programs. PC- and referral-based practices did not differ on the sufficiency of their structural resources, physician staffing, or on the availability of specialty services. However, PC-based practices were found to take more responsibility for managing patients' chronic conditions and had more staff for decision support activities. PMID:19004595
Schutte, Kathleen; Yano, Elizabeth M; Kilbourne, Amy M; Wickrama, Bhagya; Kirchner, JoAnn E; Humphreys, Keith
To determine the efficacy of tamoxifen as primary treatment for elderly breast cancer patients with locoregional disease, the medical records of 85 patients of 75 years and older were reviewed. The median follow-up was 28 months (range 3–97 mo). Complete remission occurred in twelve (14.1%) patients. All of these patients remained in remission until death or closing date of the
L. Bergman; J. A. Dongen; B. Ooijen; F. E. Leeuwen
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and multiple myeloma (MM) are frequently observed in the adult population and can each independently lead to hypercalcemia. Despite the frequency of hypercalcemia secondary to PHPT and MM, these two conditions only rarely concurrently present in patients. We describe the management of PHPT in the setting of poorly differentiated MM in a patient presenting with hypercalcemia and pancytopenia. The patient was deemed at increased risk for surgical removal of the parathyroid gland and refused surgical intervention, so we chronically managed her PHPT and hypercalcemia with Cinacalcet and bisphosphonates. All of the similar cases in the literature are reviewed in this report along with medical management of PHPT. We believe that we describe the first medically managed PHPT in the setting of MM. PMID:20228595
Fanari, Zaher; Kadikoy, Huseyin; Haque, Waqar; Pacha, Omar; Abdellatif, Abdul
Background Hypertension is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A range of antihypertensive drugs exists, and their prices vary widely mainly due to patent rights. The objective of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of different generic antihypertensive drugs as first, second and third choice for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Methods We used the Norwegian Cardiovascular Disease model (NorCaD) to simulate the cardiovascular life of patients from hypertension without symptoms until they were all dead or 100 years old. The risk of CVD events and costs were based on recent Norwegian sources. Results In single-drug treatment, all antihypertensives are cost-effective compared to no drug treatment. In the base-case analysis, the first, second and third choice of antihypertensive were calcium channel blocker, thiazide and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. However the sensitivity and scenario analyses indicated considerable uncertainty in that angiotensin receptor blockers as well as, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers and thiazides could be the most cost-effective antihypertensive drugs. Conclusions Generic antihypertensives are cost-effective in a wide range of risk groups. There is considerable uncertainty, however, regarding which drug is the most cost-effective.
Background Bisphosphonates can reduce fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis, but many at-risk patients do not start or adhere to these medications. The aims of this study are to: (1) preliminarily evaluate the effect of an individualized 10-year osteoporotic fracture risk calculator and decision aid (OSTEOPOROSIS CHOICE) for postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporotic fractures; and (2) assess the feasibility and validity (i.e., absence of contamination) of patient-level randomization (vs. cluster randomization) in pilot trials of decision aid efficacy. Methods/Design This is a protocol for a parallel, 2-arm, randomized trial to compare an intervention group receiving OSTEOPOROSIS CHOICE to a control group receiving usual primary care. Postmenopausal women with bone mineral density T-scores of <-1.0, not receiving bisphosphonate therapy, and receiving care at participating primary care practices in and around Rochester, Minnesota, USA will be eligible to participate in the trial. We will measure the effect of OSTEOPOROSIS CHOICE on five outcomes: (a) patient knowledge regarding osteoporosis risk factors and treatment; (b) quality of the decision-making process for both the patient and clinician; (c) patient and clinician acceptability and satisfaction with the decision aid; (d) rate of bisphosphonate use and adherence, and (e) trial processes (e.g., ability to recruit participants, collect patient outcomes). To capture these outcomes, we will use patient and clinician surveys following each visit and video recordings of the clinical encounters. These video recordings will also allow us to determine the extent to which clinicians previously exposed to the decision aid were able to recreate elements of the decision aid with control patients (i.e., contamination). Pharmacy prescription profiles and follow-up phone interviews will assess medication start and adherence at 6 months. Discussion This pilot trial will provide evidence of feasibility, validity of patient randomization, and preliminary efficacy of a novel approach -- decision aids -- to improving medication adherence for postmenopausal women at risk of osteoporotic fractures. The results will inform the design of a larger trial that could provide more precise estimates of the efficacy of the decision aid. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT00578981
Surgery plays an important part in the overall management of primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors. While\\u000a the general surgical objectives in patients with these neoplasms are similar to those with other types of CNS tumors, to obtain\\u000a an accurate histopathologic diagnosis and to contribute towards improving patient survival the unique features of germ cell\\u000a tumors have necessitated
Nurses are increasingly the first point of contact for patients in primary care settings such as general practice surgeries, community clinics and walk-in centres. Such roles are likely to continue to expand. This article discusses diagnosis and management options for the most common fungal infections and describes clinical situations that might require further investigation or referral. Accurate diagnosis is essential for successful therapy and, in all cases, can provide an opportunity for discussion, reassurance and advice. PMID:19634606
The optimal management of insomnia in the primary care setting should be viewed as a public health problem that will require specific attention. Important recent strides in the understanding of insomnia, its consequences, and its treatment do not always provide a basis for management strategies in a setting with distinct practical limitations. A somewhat different research focus will be needed if the scientific advances are to be translated into practical improvements in therapy. In primary care today, multiple agendas compete for the physician's time. Therefore, it is necessary to view diagnosis and management in terms of both what is efficient and what is optimally effective. Much can be learned from experience with medical risk factors of broad prevalence, such as hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Large outcome trials demonstrating the benefits of drug therapy were required before pharmacologic management became standard care in the primary care setting. For insomnia, specific issues that must be addressed include the components of diagnosis that will guide therapy and affect prognosis. How can the 10% of adults with insomnia in the primary care practice be subdivided to identify those most in need of therapy? Stated another way, what are the features of insomnia that predict risk? Is duration important? Severity? Frequency? Which treatments are most effective? Which are most efficient in terms of the time required of patient and practitioner? Do treatments for insomnia produce patient satisfaction? Do they prevent adverse outcomes, such as depression and automobile accidents? Studies are now addressing many of these questions. In selecting research priorities, however, the practical application of this information in the clinical setting is important if the ultimate goal is to reduce the number of patients suffering from insomnia and its consequences. PMID:10755803
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease of older patients and median age at diagnosis is 72 years. This older group is under-represented in clinical trials, (median age 58-62 years). Here we review background data on incidence, survival, definitions of older age, fitness criteria, frailty and co-morbidities. Issues influencing the choice of therapy in older patients are also addressed and different therapeutic options are highlighted based on recent available data. Fit older patients with less co-morbidities benefit most from the very effective chemoimmunotherapy (FC-R) given for younger patients today, but whether other novel drug combinations or new agents are more suitable for less fit patients is still unsettled. Based on careful evaluation of published data from larger clinical trials and major referral centers we present our concept of therapy as a guide to optimal management for subgroups of older patients with CLL. PMID:21955980
We prospectively assessed the safety and cost saving of a small-bore drain based procedure, for outpatient management of first episodes of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP).Patients were managed by observation alone or insertion of an 8.5 F "pig-tail" drain connected to a one-way valve, according to size and clinical tolerance of the pneumothorax. All patients were re-assessed after 4 hours, on the first work day after discharge and on day 7. Patients still exhibiting air leak on day 4 underwent thoracoscopy. The primary end-point was complete lung reexpansion at day 7.Sixty consecutive patients entered the study. Forty eight (80%) met the definition of large pneumothorax. The success rate was 83%. The 1-year recurrence rate was 17%. Thirty-six patients (60%) were discharged after 4 hours and 50% had full outpatient management. No severe complication was observed. The mean length of hospitalization was 2.3±3.1 days. This policy resulted in about a 40% reduction in hospital stay related costs.The present study supports the use of a single system combined with a well-defined management algorithm including safe discharge criteria, as an alternative to manual aspiration or chest tube drainage. This approach participates to health care cost-savings. PMID:23766331
Background: In Canada, primary care physicians manage most musculoskeletal problems. However, their training in this area is limited, and some aspects of management may be suboptimal. This study was conducted to examine primary care physicians' management of 3 common musculoskeletal problems, ascer- tain the determinants of management and compare management with that rec- ommended by a current practice panel. Methods:
Richard H. Glazier; Dawn M. Dalby; Elizabeth M. Badley; Gillian A. Hawker; Mary J. Bell; Rachelle Buchbinder; Sydney C. Lineker
The aim of this study was to observe how chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is diagnosed and treated in primary care settings and to identify best practices. Researchers interviewed or visited physicians and staff at 25 primary care practices across the United States, focusing on small practices. All interviewers used a standard interview tool to capture anecdotal and quantitative data. It was discovered that primary care physicians underuse spirometry as a diagnostic tool, even when available in the office or clinic. Formal smoking-cessation programs are uncommon, as are outcomes measurements through clinical monitoring. Physicians reported not having enough time to improve performance, mainly owing to an average 15-minute patient visit allotment. Practice inefficiencies are responsible for many clinical shortcomings in COPD management. Although improving clinical understanding is important, it is equally important that overburdened and rushed primary care practices optimize workflow. This can be accomplished through better use of support staff and improved scheduling of spirometry testing in order to implement clinical guidelines without interfering with other essential practice tasks. PMID:17678940
Globalization has led to increased attention to cultural diversity in workforces and its influences on organizational practice. This study examines group-oriented values and their impact on choice of conflict management styles as well as on conflict resolution outcomes in Turkey. Using a sample of 315 managerial personnel from various public and private organizations, this study shows that norms of subordination
Zhenzhong Ma; Dapeng Liang; Ahmet Erkus; Akif Tabak
This paper explores theoretically and empirically potentially important yet often-neglected linkage between task coordination within the organization and the structure of organization and bundling of HRMPs (Human Resource Management Practices). In so doing, we also provide fresh insights on the interplay between the firm’s technological and output market characteristics and its choice of HRMP system. We begin with constructing a
This paper begins by constructing a team-theoretical model of organizational adaptation and coordination with three distinct task coordination modes: vertical control, horizontal coordination, and hybrid coordination. The model is then used to provide fresh insights on complementarities involving team work organization, communication channels, training and hiring, and other human resource management practices, and illustrate how such choice of practices is
In this study, focus group discussions were used to design a choice modelling (CM) questionnaire to estimate community wide values for the environmental and social benefits provided by natural resource management changes in the Namoi, Lachlan and Hawkesbury-Nepean catchments. This report describes the logistics of the focus groups and outlines the main conclusions drawn from the discussions. The research team
Purpose – Strategic alliances have a variety of governance structures that can be broadly classified as joint ventures, minority equity alliances, and contractual alliances. This paper seeks to empirically examine the roles of four key determinants of governance structure choice, namely, joint R&D and joint marketing objectives, alliance management experience, and international partners. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Several hypotheses are developed regarding
This study evaluated the implementation of the Choice and Partnership Approach (CAPA), a clinical system designed to improve the management of demand and capacity within child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). The study aimed to investigate how CAPA had been implemented within CAMHS in England, to explore the experiences of staff working within teams who had implemented the system,
The management of patients who have made suicide attempts is a responsibility that frequently falls to the primary care physician. For this reason, it is important that the physician have a clear strategy for dealing with the suicidal patient in the office, hospital, and emergency room. In the acute situation, the first priority is to stabilize the patient and ensure his or her medical safety. Once this is accomplished, history and circumstances of the attempt can be assessed, along with likelihood of recurrence of the attempt. This article reviews guidelines for evaluating suicide risk. The importance of the patient-physician relationship is noted, particularly in regard to prevention of future suicide attempts. With a focused, thorough approach to the suicidal patient, which incorporates both medical and psychiatric considerations, the primary care physician can ameliorate the patient's acute situation and facilitate the coordination of care with appropriate psychiatric resources.
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory cholangiopathy that results in fibrotic strictures and dilations of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. PSC is uncommon, occurs predominantly in males and has a strong association with inflammatory bowel disease. While the pathogenesis of PSC has not been fully elucidated, emerging evidence supports roles for the innate and adaptive immune systems, and genome-wide analyses have identified several genetic associations. Using the best available evidence, the present review summarizes the current understanding of the diagnosis, pathogenesis and management of PSC. Despite its rarity, there is an urgent need for collaborative research efforts to advance therapeutic options for PSC beyond liver transplantation.
|This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…
This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…
Red eye is the cardinal sign of ocular inflammation. The condition is usually benign and can be managed by primary care physicians. Conjunctivitis is the most common cause of red eye. Other common causes include blepharitis, corneal abrasion, foreign body, subconjunctival hemorrhage, keratitis, iritis, glaucoma, chemical burn, and scleritis. Signs and symptoms of red eye include eye discharge, redness, pain, photophobia, itching, and visual changes. Generally, viral and bacterial conjunctivitis are self-limiting conditions, and serious complications are rare. Because there is no specific diagnostic test to differentiate viral from bacterial conjunctivitis, most cases are treated using broad-spectrum antibiotics. Allergies or irritants also may cause conjunctivitis. The cause of red eye can be diagnosed through a detailed patient history and careful eye examination, and treatment is based on the underlying etiology. Recognizing the need for emergent referral to an ophthalmologist is key in the primary care management of red eye. Referral is necessary when severe pain is not relieved with topical anesthetics; topical steroids are needed; or the patient has vision loss, copious purulent discharge, corneal involvement, traumatic eye injury, recent ocular surgery, distorted pupil, herpes infection, or recurrent infections. PMID:20082509
Cronau, Holly; Kankanala, Ramana Reddy; Mauger, Thomas
This narrative review examines randomized controlled trials of the management of obesity in primary care practice, in light of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ decision to support intensive behavioral weight loss counseling provided by physicians and related health professionals. Mean weight losses of 0.1–2.3 kg were observed with brief (10- to 15-min) behavioral counseling delivered by primary care providers (PCPs) at monthly to quarterly visits. Losses increased to 1.7–7.5 kg when brief PCP counseling was combined with weight loss medication. Collaborative treatment, in which medical assistants delivered brief monthly behavioral counseling in conjunction with PCPs, produced losses of 1.6–4.6 kg in periods up to two years. Remotely delivered, intensive (>monthly contact) behavioral counseling, as offered by telephone, yielded losses of 0.4–5.1 kg over the same period. Further study is needed of the frequency and duration of visits required to produce clinically meaningful weight loss (>5%) in primary care patients. In addition, trials are needed that examine the cost-effectiveness of PCP-delivered counseling, compared with that potentially provided by registered dietitians or well-studied commercial programs.
Carvajal, Raymond; Wadden, Thomas A; Tsai, Adam G; Peck, Katherine; Moran, Caroline H
Primary central nervous cell lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon neoplasm of the brain, leptomeninges, and rarely the spinal cord. Initially thought to be characteristically associated with congenital, iatrogenic, or acquired immunosuppression, PCNSL is now recognized with increasing frequency in immunocompetent individuals. The role of surgery is limited to establishing diagnosis, as PCNSL is often multifocal with a propensity to involve the subarachnoid space. A whole-brain radiation volume has empirically been used to adequately address the multifocal tumor frequently encountered at the time of PCNSL diagnosis. Despite high rates of response after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), rapid recurrence is common and long-term survival is the exception. Chemotherapy alone or in combination with WBRT has more recently become the treatment of choice. Most effective regimens contain high-dose methotrexate and or other agents that are capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. High response rates and improved survival with the use of chemotherapy has led to treatment strategies that defer or eliminate WBRT in hopes of lessening the risk of neurotoxicity attributed to WBRT. Unfortunately, elimination of WBRT is also associated with a higher rate of relapse. Combined chemotherapy and WBRT regimens are now being explored that use lower total doses of radiation and altered fractionation schedules with the aim of maintaining high rates of tumor control while minimizing neurotoxicity. Pretreatment, multifactor prognostic indices have recently been described that may allow selection of treatment regimens that strike an appropriate balance of risk and benefit for the individual PCNSL patient.
Schultz, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Bovi, Joseph, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)
The European Respiratory Society Task Force on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in children recently published recommendations for diagnosis and management. This paper compares these recommendations with current clinical practice in Europe. Questionnaires were returned by 194 paediatric respiratory centres caring for PCD patients in 26 countries. In most countries, PCD care was not centralised, with a median (interquartile range) of 4 (2-9) patients treated per centre. Overall, 90% of centres had access to nasal or bronchial mucosal biopsy. Samples were analysed by electron microscopy (77%) and ciliary function tests (57%). Nasal nitric oxide was used for screening in 46% of centres and saccharine tests in 36%. Treatment approaches varied widely, both within and between countries. European region, size of centre and the country's general government expenditure on health partly defined availability of advanced diagnostic tests and choice of treatments. In conclusion, we found substantial heterogeneity in management of PCD within and between countries, and poor concordance with current recommendations. This demonstrates how essential it is to standardise management and decrease inequality between countries. Our results also demonstrate the urgent need for research: to simplify PCD diagnosis, to understand the natural history and to test the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:22282549
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) remain the commonest reason for acute consultations in primary care in resource-rich countries. Their spectrum and severity has changed from the time that antibiotics were discovered, largely from improvements in the socioeconomic determinants of health as well as vaccination. The benefits from antibiotic treatment for common RTIs have been shown to be largely overstated. Nevertheless, serious infections do occur. Currently, no clinical features or diagnostic test, alone or in combination, adequately determine diagnosis, aetiology, prognosis, or response to treatment. This narrative review focuses on emerging evidence aimed at helping clinicians reduce and manage uncertainty in treating RTIs. Consultation rate and prescribing rate trends are described, evidence of increasing rates of complications are discussed, and studies and the association with antibiotic prescribing are examined. Methods of improving diagnosis and identifying those patients who are at increased risk of complications from RTIs, using clinical scoring systems, biomarkers, and point of care tests are also discussed. The evidence for alternative management options for RTIs are summarised and the methods for changing public and clinicians' beliefs about antibiotics, including ways in which we can improve clinician–patient communication skills for management of RTIs, are described.
Background and Objectives Training programs designed to improve information management have been implemented but not adequately tested. Three critical components for information management were tested in a randomized control study: (1) knowledge of valid, synthesized summary information, (2) skills to use Web-based resources that provide access to these summaries, and (3) use of Web-based resources in clinical practice. Methods Twenty-four primary care practices were provided with computers and high-speed Internet access and then matched, with half randomly assigned to receive training and half to receive training at a later date. Training was designed to address knowledge, skills, and use of Web-based information. Outcomes were assessed by comparing baseline and follow-up questionnaires that focused on five conceptual domains related to Web-based resource use for patient care decisions and patient education. Results Compared to the delayed training group, the initial training group increased their knowledge and skill of Web-based resources and use for patient care decisions. Some measures of communication with patients about using Web-based resources and of incorporating use of Web-based resources into daily practice increased from baseline to follow-up for all participants. Conclusions Our findings suggest that training and providing computers and Internet connections have measurable effects on information management behaviors.
Schifferdecker, Karen E.; Reed, Virginia A.; Homa, Karen
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a relatively common disorder which is often diagnosed incidentally and characterized in the majority of those affected by mild stable biochemical abnormalities and lack of symptoms. Nephrolithiasis and bone loss leading to an increased risk of fracture are generally accepted complications of PHPT. Some epidemiological studies report associations between PHPT and a wide range of common diseases, but these relationships may be confounded by the increased body weight observed in PHPT. Because there is a dearth of controlled clinical trial evidence in PHPT, optimal management is controversial. For individuals with mild stable PHPT, low fracture risk and no renal stones, observation without intervention is reasonable. Surgical treatment is clearly indicated for patients at risk of severe hypercalcaemia or with nephrolithiasis. For individuals with increased risk of fracture, antiresorptive therapies improve bone mineral density to a similar degree to surgical treatment. Calcimimetic agents may have a role in managing patients with symptomatic PHPT who cannot undergo, or fail, surgical treatment. There is a need for additional randomized clinical trials to inform management of PHPT. PMID:22803518
Primary gastric lymphoma is a relatively uncommon disease and controversy still exists over its management. In order to assess prognostic factors of lymphomas, we carried out a retrospective study of 28 surgically treated gastric lymphoma patients. The overall survival rate for all the patients in the study was 33% at 10 years. On univariate analysis, lymph node metastasis and depth of tumor infiltration proved to be a significant prognostic factor while size and location of tumor, sex, and method of resection was not. From our results we believe that gastric lymphoma can be regarded as a localized disease in the early stages and a curative resection can be attained when aggressive surgery is possible. PMID:9864410
Peritoneal pregnancy is an implantation in the peritoneal cavity exclusive of tubal, ovarian, or intra-ligamentary implantations. This is a rare obstetric complication with high maternal mortality and even higher perinatal mortality, and secondary type was most common. Risk factors for peritoneal pregnancy are previous history of extrauterine pregnancy or tubal surgery pelvic post-inflammatory status or presence of an intra-uterine device. As it is a life-threatening condition, expectant management carries a risk of sudden life-threatening intra-abdominal bleeding and a generally poor fetal prognosis. So, when it is recognized, immediate termination of pregnancy is usually recommended. Early diagnosis of peritoneal pregnancy is difficult, but is important by their life threatening progress course to patients. Recently, we experienced primary peritoneal pregnancy which meets both the original and modified criteria. In this paper, we reported the case of early diagnosed and successfully treated peritoneal pregnancy despite of their diagnosis was incidentally.
Koo, Hwa Seon; Bae, Ju Youn; Kang, Inn Soo; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kim, Hye Ok; Cha, Sun Hwa; Choi, Min Hye; Kim, Ji Young
Background: There is continued debate as to the optimal strategy for diagnosis and management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Aim: To compare the strategies used for the diagnosis and management of PHPT by physicians in five European countries. Design: Questionnaire-based survey. Methods: Physicians in France, Germany, the UK, Italy and Spain were invited to participate in the survey which was conducted using a web-based interface and were included in the evaluation if they had treated a minimum of four patients suffering from PHPT in the past year. Results: A total of 421 physicians completed the survey. The majority of respondents were endocrinologists (68%) but other specialities included rheumatologists (10.9%), internists (11.8%) and urologists (9.2%). Diagnostic methods were similar across different countries and specialities but there were significant differences in the proportion of physicians who recommended parathyroidectomy in asymptomatic patients with indications for surgery according to the 2002 National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus conference statement (?2?=?26.1, P?0.001). The proportion of patients referred for surgery ranged from 32% in Italy to 66% in Spain with intermediate values in Germany (64%), France (55%) and the UK (53%). Conversely, pharmacological therapy was used most frequently for these patients in Italy (32%) and least frequently in Spain (14%). Conclusion: Significant differences exist in the management of patients with asymptomatic PHPT in countries across Europe who have accepted indications for surgery according to the NIH consensus statement. Further research will be required to explore the reasons for this and to determine if these differences affect the clinical outcome of PHPT.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder that is characterized by an urge to move the legs (or arms), usually accompanied by uncomfortable and bothersome sensations in the affected limbs. The prevalence of RLS ranges from 7.2% to 11.5% in the general population, and its symptoms are frequent or severe enough to require medical treatment by approximately 3% of the population. However, RLS remains largely undiagnosed, perhaps due to a lack of understanding of RLS as a medically significant disorder. Restless legs syndrome can have serious clinical consequences and a significant impact on patients' quality of life, and therefore correct diagnosis and appropriate management are important. The symptoms of RLS can be managed effectively by treatment. In this review article, we provide a description of RLS and the 4 diagnostic criteria, including a discussion of differentiating symptoms and other medical conditions that mimic RLS. We review the evidence regarding the clinical impact of RLS on sleep disturbance, patients' overall health and quality of life, and the disorder's association with cardiovascular risk. The current focus of RLS therapy is to provide symptom relief; we discuss the available pharmacologic treatment options for RLS, with a focus on the clinical evidence surrounding non-ergot-derived dopamine receptor agonists, which are the current agents of choice for moderate-to-severe RLS. Finally, we consider when it may be most appropriate for the primary care physician to refer a patient with RLS to a specialist. PMID:23748511
Objectives To correlate primary oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake with pathological factors and examine its significance regarding choice of therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We retrospectively examined the factors affecting visible and non-visible FDG uptake in 37 primary lesions in 32 oesophageal\\u000a SCC patients who underwent PET\\/CT before oesophagectomy or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). We divided the lesions\\u000a into pathological depth invasion
In this paper we employ the choice experiment method to estimate residents’ willingness to pay (WTP) for improvements in the solid waste management (SWM) services provided in Chandernagore and South Dum Dum municipalities of Greater Kolkata in West Bengal, India. 101 randomly selected residents took part in a choice experiment survey. Data are analysed with conditional logit, random parameter logit
Sukanya Das; Ekin Birol; ARabindra N. Bhattacharya
Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) may cause adverse skeletal effects that include high bone remodeling, reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and increased fracture risk. Parathyroid surgery, the definitive treatment for PHPT, has been shown to increase BMD and appears to reduce fracture risk. Current guidelines recommend parathyroid surgery for patients with symptomatic PHPT or asymptomatic PHPT with serum calcium >1mg/dL above the upper limit of normal, calculated creatinine clearance <60 mL/min, osteoporosis, previous fracture, or age <50 yr. The type of operation performed (parathyroid exploration or minimally invasive procedure) and localizing studies to identify the abnormal parathyroid glands preoperatively should be individualized according to the skills of the surgeon and the resources of the institution. In patients who choose not to be treated surgically or who have contraindications for surgery, medical therapy should include a daily calcium intake of at least 1200 mg and maintenance of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of at least 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). Bisphosphonates and estrogens have been shown to provide skeletal benefits that appear to be similar to parathyroid surgery. Cinacalcet reduces serum calcium in PHPT patients with intractable hypercalcemia but has not been shown to improve BMD. It is not known whether any medical intervention reduces fracture risk in patients with PHPT. There are insufficient data on the natural history and treatment of normocalcemic PHPT to make recommendations for management of this disorder. PMID:21029971
Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in up to 50% of men by age 50, and the incidence increases with age. This common clinical problem is diagnosed by history, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and physical examination by digital rectal examination (DRE). Initial management for BPH includes lifestyle modification, and smooth muscle relaxant alpha blocker therapy. Alpha blockers usually take effect quickly within 3-5 days, and have minimal side effects. Current commonly used alpha blockers include the selective alpha blockers tamsulosin (Flomax), alfusosin (Xatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo). For patients with larger prostates, the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor class (finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart)) work effectively to shrink prostate stroma resulting in improved voiding. The 5-ARI class of drugs, in addition to reducing prostate size, also reduce the need for future BPH-related surgery, and reduce the risk of future urinary retention. Drugs from the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor class may now be considered for treating BPH. Once daily 5 mg tadalafil has been shown to improve BPH-related symptoms and is currently approved to treat patients with BPH. Referral to a urologist can be considered for patients with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA), especially while on 5-ARI, failure of urinary symptom control despite maximal medical therapy, suspicion of prostate cancer, hematuria, recurrent urinary infections, urinary retention, or renal failure. Currently the primary care physician is armed with multiple treatment options to effectively treat men with symptomatic BPH. PMID:23089343
This article examines the moderating effect of institutional distance on the relation between personal experiences of chief executive officers (CEOs) and entry mode choice. Hypotheses are tested with data on 156 foreign direct investments made by west-European multinational enterprises in 10 central and eastern European economies in the 1992–2002 period of transition. Two demographic features are examined: CEOs’ age and
In this paper, the meaning and significance of ethical choices in the arena of health under conditions of globalization are explored. The paper first discusses globalization, its theorized sources and consequences, exposing connections between globalization and local developments in diverse milieux. It is pointed out that the ways in which global and local developments interact are related to specific socio-historical
In this article, managers’ perceptions of risk on entering a newly formed primary health care partnership are explored, as are the mechanisms of trust and control used to manage them. The article reports a qualitative component of a 2-year National Health and Medical Research Council funded study of trust within the structures of a Primary Care Partnership (PCP) in Victoria,
We reviewed the literature on the detection and management of mental health disorders within the context of pediatric primary care. Pediatricians have displayed a low sensitivity and high specificity in research investigating the detection of mental health impairment in children. Active management efforts characterize approaches to identified cases with more recently trained primary care pediatricians displaying a wider range of
The integrated natural disaster risk management (INDRM) has become an important strategy and model in contemporary disaster management. It is a comprehensive and integrated approach that embraces the management of all types of natural disasters and all phases of the disaster management cycle, focuses on disaster hazard and vulnerability, i.e. the underlying conditions of disasters, and emphasizes a multi-level, multi-dimensional,
Post-Keynesian economics is one of the many heterodox schools of thought in economics, such as the Marxist, Institutionalist\\u000a and neo-Ricardian schools. Its members mainly deal with macroeconomic issues, but post-Keynesian economics also has a theory\\u000a of the firm and a theory of consumer choice. As with most other heterodox variants of economics, post-Keynesian economics\\u000a is based on four presuppositions: its
|Describes an installation of Comprehensive Instructional Management System (CIMS), a management information system for the instruction of mathematics in a New York school system. Suggests that CIMS has yielded dramatic gains in mathematics performance. (PK)|
Hydroelectric issues have a long history in the Pacific Northwest, and more recently have come to focus on developing environmentally less-obtrusive means of hydroelectric generation. Small-scale hydroelectric represents perhaps the most important of these means of developing new sources of renewable resources to lessen the nation's dependence on foreign sources of energy. Each potential small-scale hydroelectric project, however, manifests a unique history which provides a highly useful opportunity to study the process of collective social choice in the area of new energy uses of water resources. Utilizing the basic concepts of public choice theory, a highly developed and increasingly widely accepted approach in the social sciences, the politicalization of small-scale hydroelectric proposals is analyzed. Through the use of secondary analysis of archival public opinion data collected from residents of the State of Idaho, and through the development of the two case studies - one on the Palouse River in Eastern Washington and the other at Elk Creek Falls in Northern Idaho, the policy relevant behavior and influence of major actors is assessed. Results provide a useful test of the utility of public-choice theory for the study of cases of natural-resources development when public involvement is high.
Background In modern life science research it is very important to have an efficient management of high throughput primary lab data. To realise such an efficient management, four main aspects have to be handled: (I) long term storage, (II) security, (III) upload and (IV) retrieval. Findings In this paper we define central requirements for a primary lab data management and discuss aspects of best practices to realise these requirements. As a proof of concept, we introduce a pipeline that has been implemented in order to manageprimary lab data at the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK). It comprises: (I) a data storage implementation including a Hierarchical Storage Management system, a relational Oracle Database Management System and a BFiler package to store primary lab data and their meta information, (II) the Virtual Private Database (VPD) implementation for the realisation of data security and the LIMS Light application to (III) upload and (IV) retrieve stored primary lab data. Conclusions With the LIMS Light system we have developed a primary data management system which provides an efficient storage system with a Hierarchical Storage Management System and an Oracle relational database. With our VPD Access Control Method we can guarantee the security of the stored primary data. Furthermore the system provides high performance upload and download and efficient retrieval of data.
Empirical evidence shows that care management is an effective tool for improving depression treatment in primary care patients. However, several conceptual and practical issues have not been sufficiently addressed. This article explores questions concerning the scope of care management services within the chronic illness care model; optimal ways to identify depressed patients in the primary care setting; responsibilities and desirable qualifications of depression care managers; the location and manner in which care managers interact with patients; costs of services provided by care managers; and the level of supervision by mental health specialists that is necessary to ensure quality care. PMID:16215660
Belnap, Bea Herbeck; Kuebler, Julie; Upshur, Carole; Kerber, Kevin; Mockrin, Deborah Ruth; Kilbourne, Amy M; Rollman, Bruce L
Health professionals are often absent in rural areas of tropical developing countries. Current wound management in this environment is costly and largely ineffective. Achieving effective wound management in this setting will require educating the lay health providers who manage wounds in villages. Two extensive literature searches were conducted using CINAHL and Medline with no date, geographic, or language restrictions. The question, "What is the evidence base for topical wound treatments and dressings that are affordable and available in developing countries?" was addressed by critically evaluating all 18 identified clinical studies and reviews. The results suggest that a moist wound environment can be maintained using improvised dressings such as banana leaves, saline-soaked furniture foam, and food wrap, and that these choices are superior to many commercial dressings. Some varieties of honey, papaya pulp, EUSOL, and lubricating jelly are effective, affordable substances for treating and debriding wounds. Papaya pulp can be unsafe if not very closely monitored. No studies addressing the second question, "What are the topical wound management interventions currently being used in rural areas of tropical developing countries?" were found. However, 13 articles that could guide the design of research studies in this field were identified and are reviewed here. This literature describes a wide variety of wound prevention and management methods, some known to be deleterious for healing. These two literature reviews reveal the large gaps in the evidence base on available and affordable wound treatment options for rural patients in developing countries. Future research should address these gaps. PMID:24106254
BACKGROUND: Melanomas within the alimentary tract are usually metastatic in origin. On the other hand, primary melanomas of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively uncommon. There are several published reports of melanomas occurring in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and anorectum. The occurrence of primary melanoma of the colon has, however, only been rarely reported. The optimum modus operandi for the
Umair Khalid; Taimur Saleem; Ayesha Mallick Imam; Muhammad Rizwan Khan
Aortoesophageal fistula, secondary to thoracic aortic aneurysm, is an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal bleeding that is uniformly fatal without surgical intervention. These may be primary fistulas, in cases of thoracic aortic aneurysm without previous repair, or secondary fistulas occurring after surgical repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Surgical treatment has been successful in a small number of cases of primary aortoesophageal
Michael J Reardon; Robert J Brewer; Scott A LeMaire; John C Baldwin; Hazim J Safi
Most primary care physicians do not treat obesity, citing lack of time, resources, insurance reimbursement, and knowledge of effective interventions as significant barriers. To address this need, a 10-minute intervention delivered by the primary care physician was coupled with individual dietary counseling sessions delivered by a registered dietitian via telephone with an automated calling system (House-Calls, Mobile, AL). Patients were
Susan Bowerman; Mindy Bellman; Pamela Saltsman; Denise Garvey; Kevin Pimstone; Samuel Skootsky; He-Jing Wang; Robert Elashoff; David Heber
Information systems (IS) departments face many challenges in today's rapidly changing environment. One approach to understanding the challenges faced by IS departments is to survey IS managers to elicit what they consider are key issues. Key issues in IS management surveys have been conducted for many years in many nations and regions. However, most of these surveys lack a theoretical
Petter Gottschalk; Bo Hjort Christensen; Richard T. Watson
Critics have suggested communitarizing the European Union's common foreign and security policy in order to increase its effectiveness. Drawing on rationalist theories of regimes and institutional choice, this paper argues that the delegation of competencies to the EU's supranational institutions is unlikely to make European crisis management more effective. Crisis management policy is best understood as a fast co-ordination game
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, resulting in cirrhosis and need for liver transplantation and reduced life expectancy. The majority of cases occur in young and middle-aged men, often in association with inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis includes immune-mediated components and elements of undefined nature. No effective medical therapy has been identified. The multiple complications of primary sclerosing cholangitis include metabolic bone disease, dominant strictures, bacterial cholangitis, and malignancy, particularly cholangiocarcinoma, which is the most lethal complication of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Liver transplantation is currently the only life-extending therapeutic alternative for patients with end-stage disease, although recurrence in the allografted liver has been described. A PSC-like variant attracting attention is cholangitis marked by raised levels of the immunoglobulin G4 subclass, prominence of plasma cells within the lesions, and steroid responsiveness.
Summary Neck lymph node metastases from occult primary constitute about 5%-10% of all patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site. Metastases in the upper and middle neck (levels I-II-III-V) are generally attributed to head and neck cancers, whereas the lower neck (level IV) involvement is often associated with primaries below the clavicles. Diagnostic procedures include a careful clinical evaluation and a fiberoptic endoscopic examination of the head and neck mucosa, biopsies from all suspicious sites or blindly from the sites of possible origin of the primary, computerized tomography scan, and magnetic resonance. The most frequent histological finding is Squamous Cell Carcinoma, particularly when the upper neck is involved. In these cases, a systematic tonsillectomy in the absence of suspicious lesions is discussed since up to 25% of primary tumours can be detected in this site. Thoracic, and abdominal primaries (especially from lung, oesophagus, stomach, ovary or pancreas) should be sought in the case of adenocarcinoma and involvement of the lower neck. Positron emission tomography with fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose allows detection of primary tumour in about 25% of cases, but this procedure is still considered investigational. Therapeutic approaches include surgery (neck dissection), with or without post-operative radiotherapy, radiotherapy alone and radiotherapy followed by surgery as reported by several guide-lines. In early stages (N1), neck dissection and radiotherapy seem to have similar efficacy, whereas more advanced cases (N2, N3) require combined approaches. The extent of radiotherapy (irradiation of bilateral neck and mucosa versus ipsilateral neck radiotherapy) remains debatable. A potential benefit from extensive radiotherapy should be weighed against its acute and late morbidity and difficulties in re-irradiation in the case of subsequent primary emergence. The role of other methods, such as chemotherapy and hyperthermia, remains to be determined.
\\u000a Musculoskeletal pain is common in pedi-atric populations, reported in up to half of children from community samples, and is\\u000a a frequent presenting complaint in pediatric primary care. Evaluating pedi-atric musculoskeletal pain is complicated by the\\u000a extensive differential diagnosis. Some of the diagnoses require immediate treatment decisions at the primary care level to\\u000a prevent future problems and disability. In this chapter
PURPOSE This qualitative study examined the barriers to adopting depression care management among 42 primary care clinicians in 30 practices. METHODS The RESPECT-Depression trial worked collaboratively with 5 large health care organizations (and 60 primary care practices) to implement and disseminate an evidence-based intervention. This study used semistructured interviews with 42 primary care clinicians from 30 practice sites, 18 care managers, and 7 mental health professionals to explore experience and perceptions with depression care management for patients. Subject selection in 4 waves of interviews was driven by themes emerging from ongoing data analysis. RESULTS Primary care clinicians reported broad appreciation of the benefits of depression care management for their patients. Lack of reimbursement and the competing demands of primary care were often cited as barriers. These clinicians at many levels of initial enthusiasm for care management increased their enthusiasm after experiencing care management through the project. Psychiatric oversight of the care manager with suggestions for the clinicians was widely seen as important and appropriate by clinicians, care managers, and psychiatrists. Clinicians and care managers emphasized the importance of establishing effective communication among themselves, as well as maintaining a consistent and continuous relationship with the patients. The clinicians were selective in which patients they referred for care management, and there was wide variation in opinion about which patients were optimal candidates. Care managers were able to operate both from within a practice and more centrally when specific attention was given to negotiating communication strategies with a clinician. CONCLUSIONS Care management for depression is an attractive option for most primary care clinicians. Lack of reimbursement remains the single greatest obstacle to more widespread adoption.
Nutting, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kaia; Riley, Kim; White, Suzanne; Dickinson, W. Perry; Korsen, Neil; Dietrich, Allen
Six hundred eighty-two consecutive twin deliveries were reviewed. Included in the study were 136 sets of vertex-nonvertex twins with birth weights greater than 1500 gm. A primary attempt at delivery of the second twin by external version was performed on 41 twins, 55 twins underwent attempted breech extraction, and 40 patients had a primary cesarean section solely because of physician preference. There were no differences in the incidence of neonatal morbidity or mortality among the modes of delivery. External version was associated with a higher failure rate than primary breech extraction (p less than 0.01). External version was associated with complications (fetal distress, cord prolapse, and compound presentation) that were not seen in the other two groups. Primary breech extraction of the second nonvertex twin weighing greater than 1500 gm appears to be a reasonable alternative to either cesarean section or external version. PMID:2750792
Gocke, S E; Nageotte, M P; Garite, T; Towers, C V; Dorcester, W
|This article investigates how two young newcomers navigate an institutional policy of "English only" in a Finnish primary school and how this policy impacts opportunities for voice. From a discourse analytic and sociolinguistic perspective, the analysis takes an ethnographic path to a focal event of language conflict in the classroom. The…
This article investigates how two young newcomers navigate an institutional policy of "English only" in a Finnish primary school and how this policy impacts opportunities for voice. From a discourse analytic and sociolinguistic perspective, the analysis takes an ethnographic path to a focal event of language conflict in the classroom. The analysis…
Objective: This review aims to impart information regarding recognition of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and associated excessive sleepiness (ES) in the primary care setting in order to provide optimal care to patients with this common but serious condition. This review will also discuss the prevalence and treatment of depression in patients with OSA. Data Sources: A MEDLINE search of articles published between 1990 and 2008 was conducted using the search terms obstructive sleep apnea AND excessive sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea AND depression, and obstructive sleep apnea AND primary care. Searches were limited to articles in English concerned with adult patients. Study Selection: In total, 239 articles were identified. Articles concerning other sleep disorders and forms of apnea were excluded. The reference lists of identified articles were searched manually to find additional articles of interest. Data Synthesis: Primary care physicians can aid in the diagnosis of OSA and associated ES by being vigilant for lifestyle and physical risk factors associated with this condition. In addition, primary care physicians should maintain a high level of clinical suspicion when presented with illnesses that are commonly comorbid with OSA, such as psychiatric disorders and depression, in particular. Conversely, assessment of patients with OSA for common comorbidities may also improve a patient's prognosis and quality of life. Conclusions: Primary care physicians play a vital role in recognizing OSA and ES. These clinicians are crucial in supporting their patients during treatment by ensuring that they have clear, concise information regarding available therapies and the correct application and maintenance of prescribed devices.
Compares the methods of educational management in primary schools in England and China using the results from case studies on three primary schools in China's Shaanxi province. Focuses on the purposes of education in the primary schools, styles of management, who exercises control, and the financial management employed in the schools. (CMK)
PurposePrimary omental infarct is a rare condition in children. The preoperative diagnosis can be accurately accomplished using ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT). This study aimed to elucidate the efficacy of conservative vs operative management.
ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to explore the structure, content in communication and self-management education in patients’ first consultations at nurse-led chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clinics in primary healthcare.
|Students with diabetes deserve a school nurse who can effectively manage the disease. Tensions between the school and families sometimes emerge when a child with diabetes goes to school. To resolve these tensions in Colorado, stakeholders collaborated to implement a statewide program to meet the needs of students with diabetes. Colorado school…
Students with diabetes deserve a school nurse who can effectively manage the disease. Tensions between the school and families sometimes emerge when a child with diabetes goes to school. To resolve these tensions in Colorado, stakeholders collaborated to implement a statewide program to meet the needs of students with diabetes. Colorado school…
This guide is a product of a study conducted as part of a broader effort by the Department of Education to identify the causes of rising college costs and find and disseminate ways to contain these costs. In institutions of higher education most costs are manageable and can be contained without jeopardizing key services. This can be achieved by…
The construction industry is the second most segmented labor market, narrowly behind manufacturing and mining. Construction management degree programs at colleges and universities throughout the country hold similar demographics. This study investigated this phenomenon by integrating the perceptions and experiences of 24 female alumni who are currently employed as constructors with an extensive analysis of theory and research in the
In pool type FBRs primary sodium pumps (PSP), operating in parallel, circulate the sodium through the core to remove the nuclear\\u000a heat. The pumps suck the sodium from cold pool and supply it to a spherical header at the bottom; subsequently the sodium\\u000a flows through pipes from the spherical header into the grid plate, before entering the core subassemblies. Under
|Introduction: Primary care physicians (PCPs) treat a high proportion of chronic pain patients but often lack training about how to assess and address issues associated with prescribing opioids when they are an appropriate component of therapy. The result may be that they may avoid treating these patients, which can lead to an undertreatment of…
Two children with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) underwent vitrectomy and lensectomy via the pars plana to remove the fibrovascular stalk. Postoperatively the eyes were quiet, only a slight vitreous haze obscured the fundus view in the immediate postoperative period, and the stumps of the stalks retracted. Early surgical treatment of PHPV may prevent later serious complications.
Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) may cause adverse skeletal effects that include high bone remodeling, reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and increased fracture risk. Parathyroid surgery, the definitive treatment for PHPT, has been shown to increase BMD and appears to reduce fracture risk. Current guidelines recommend parathyroid surgery for patients with symptomatic PHPT or asymptomatic PHPT with serum calcium >1mg\\/dL above
As more and more cases of primary hyperparathyroidism are being detected by screening for serum calcium concentration, the majority of patients are older individuals who are asymptomatic or have symptoms which are difficult to ascribe to hyperparathyroidism. Long-term follow-up has providedevi- dence that most asymptomatic patients who do not undergo parathyroidectomy will not develop symp- tomatic complications. Some asymptomatic patients,
S Boonen; D Vanderschueren; W Pelemans; R Bouillon
We present our experience of treating 42 young men with facial gunshot injuries, 9 of whom had associated palatal injuries. We attempted definitive treatment at the primary operation, but five patients with palatal injuries presented with oronasal fistula postoperatively and required secondary intervention. Three patients underwent surgical closure using palatal transposition flap, in all of whom it was successful. PMID:17196310
Urban Native Americans represent a small, diverse minority with unique health needs. The purposes of this descriptive retrospective study were to describe (a) the characteristics and primary health problems of urban Native Americans who receive primary health care at an urban nurse managed center (NMC) and (b) the nursing interventions provided at an urban NMC to urban Native Americans. A
Donna Felber Neff; Elizabeth S. Kinion; Christen Cardina
AIMTo evaluate the efficacy of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for the management of conjunctival malignant melanoma and primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia.METHODSFour consecutive patients with histologically proved invasive, primary conjunctival malignant melanoma were treated with wide surgical excision and AMT. Amniotic membrane grafts were harvested and processed under sterile conditions according to a standard protocol. The grafts were sutured
Dion Paridaens; Houdijn Beekhuis; Willem van den Bosch; Lies Remeyer; Gerrit Melles
Objectives: To evaluate primary care physicians’ knowledge of guidelines for the management of COPD.Method: Survey to 455 primary care physicians in private practice in the state of Geneva, Switzerland, and to 243 physicians practicing in Geneva University Hospital.Results: Although 75% of respondents identified that the prevalence of COPD was increasing and 33% recognized it as a major public health issue,
Olivier T. Rutschmann; Jean-Paul Janssens; Bernard Vermeulen; François P. Sarasin
AIM: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary health care providers regarding the identification and management of domestic violence in a hospital based primary health care setting. METHOD: A survey of all clinicians and nursing staff of the outpatient, casualty and antenatal clinics in University Malaya Medical Centre using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Hundred and eight out of
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceptions of a sample of Hong Kong principals and teachers of the extent to which quality management (QM) has been effectively implemented in primary schools. The features of QM improvement implemented in Hong Kong primary schools include: values and duties, systems and teams(ST) resources…
The aim of this survey was to investigate guideline-compliant COPD management among pneumologists and primary care physicians (PCPs). A multiple-choice questionnaire was sent out to 1836 PCPs and 863 pneumologists in Germany. The questions focused on the key aspects of current national and international COPD guidelines. Four hundred eighty-six PCPs and 359 pneumologists participated in the study. It was found that pneumologists held the GOLD guideline in high regard (60.4%), while PCPs tended to follow the German National COPD guideline (66.5%). Differences were also found with regard to diagnosis and classification of COPD on the basis of spirometric and clinical criteria. The current GOLD classification of moderate and severe COPD was used by 36.2% and 23.4% of the pneumologists, respectively, and by 32.1% and 20.2% of the PCPs. Although PCPs and pneumologists endorsed educational measures to help patients quit smoking, implementation was still inadequate. The two most important therapeutic goals were to improve quality of life and prevent exacerbations. Except for the criteria for the use of steroids and the implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation measures, treatment of COPD based on severity class was largely in compliance with guidelines. However, appreciably more PCPs than pneumologists incorrectly assessed the evidence-based clinical benefits of various therapeutic measures. The study shows that, despite the popularity of COPD guidelines, deficits exist among pneumologists and PCPs with respect to diagnosis and treatment of COPD and practical implementation of educational measures. These deficiencies in guideline conformity might be best addressed through targeted continuing-education measures. PMID:17240616
Glaab, Thomas; Banik, Norbert; Rutschmann, Olivier T; Wencker, Marion
Objective To determine whether managed care controls were associated with reduced access to specialists and worse outcomes among primary care patients with pain. Data Sources/Study Setting Patient, physician, and office manager questionnaires collected in the Seattle area in 1996–1997, plus data abstracted from patient records and health plans. Study Design A prospective cohort study of 2,275 adult patients with common pain problems recruited in the offices of 261 primary care physicians in Seattle. Data Collection Patients completed a waiting room questionnaire and follow-up surveys at the end of the first and sixth months to measure access to specialists and outcomes. Intensity of managed care controls measured by plan managed care index and benefit/cost-sharing indexes, office managed care index, physician compensation, financial incentives, and use of clinical guidelines. Principal Findings A financial withhold for referral was associated with a lower likelihood of referral to a physician specialist, a greater likelihood of seeing a specialist without referral, and a lower patient rating of care from the primary physician. Otherwise, patients in more managed offices and with greater out-of-network plan benefits had greater access to specialists. Patients with more versus less managed care had similar health outcomes, but patients in more managed offices had lower ratings of care provided by their primary physicians. Conclusions Increased managed care controls were generally not associated with reduced access to specialists and worse health outcomes for primary care patients with pain, but patients in more managed offices had lower ratings of care provided by their primary physicians.
Grembowski, David E; Martin, Diane; Diehr, Paula; Patrick, Donald L; Williams, Barbara; Novak, Louise; Deyo, Richard; Katon, Wayne; Dickstein, Deborah; Engelberg, Ruth; Goldberg, Harold
While disease management has been described as an important strategy for the care of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) in the managed care setting, little is known about the impact of this approach on overall health-related quality of life. In this study the Short Form 36 (SF-36) was administered to all patients entering CHF disease management at the time of program entry and at 1 year following entry. Scores on the eight subscales and the two composite scales were calculated and compared before and after. Patients were enrolled from a mixed-model health maintenance organization (HMO) with 34,740 Medicare + Choice enrollees residing in 38 counties in central and northeastern Pennsylvania. Two hundred sixty-eight continuously enrolled patients in an HMO-sponsored CHF disease state management program with completed baseline and follow-up SF-36 surveys were sampled. All patients entered into disease management received primary care based, nurse-directed education about CHF self-management including instruction on etiology of CHF, the importance of medication compliance, home care services if indicated, monitoring weight gain, increased understanding of the warning signs of worsening CHF, and coaching on strategies to contact a physician in a timely manner when CHF worsens. Nurses also facilitated for CHF guidelines among primary care physicians, including the need to obtain a baseline assessment of cardiac function, prescribe angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta blockers when appropriate, and initiated appropriate specialist referral. Compared with enrollees who did not complete a pair of SF-36 surveys, the 268 respondents were younger and had a significantly higher rate of cardiac imaging as well as use of ACE inhibitors and beta blocker medications. Analysis of the SF-36 data revealed that three of the eight (Role Physical, General Health Perceptions, and Role Emotional) subscales increased in a statistically significant manner, as did the Mental Health Composite Score. No statistically significant declines in SF-36 scores were observed. Despite limitations to our study, we found disease management for patients with CHF can be associated with significant improvements in quality of life as measured by the SF-36. Compared with nonrespondents, respondents had a higher prevalence of cardiac imaging, ACE inhibitor use, and beta blocker medication use. Our findings are also limited by a lack of a control group with the possibility that the improvements we observed were unrelated to the disease management intervention. However, our findings and success with the use of this tool indicate the SF-36 can be an important part of the ongoing assessment of patients in a disease management program for CHF. PMID:14577905
Sidorov, Jaan; Shull, Robert D; Girolami, Sabrina; Mensch, Debra
As environmental and conservation efforts increasingly turn towards agricultural landscapes, it is important to understand\\u000a how land management decisions are made by agricultural producers. While previous studies have explored producer decision-making,\\u000a many fail to recognize the importance of external structural influences. This paper uses a case study to explore how consolidated\\u000a markets and increasing corporate power in the food system
Solar radiation management could be used to offset some or all anthropogenic radiative forcing, with the goal of reducing some of the associated climatic change. However, the degree of compensation will vary, with residual climate changes larger in some regions than others. Similarly, the insolation reduction that best compensates climate changes in one region may not be the same as for another, leading to concerns about equity. Here we show that optimizing the latitudinal and seasonal distribution of solar reduction can improve the fidelity with which solar radiation management offsets anthropogenic climate change. Using the HadCM3L general circulation model, we explore several trade-offs. First, residual temperature and precipitation changes in the worst-off region can be reduced by 30% relative to uniform solar reduction, with only a modest impact on global root-mean-square changes; this has implications for moderating regional inequalities. Second, the same root-mean-square residual climate changes can be obtained with up to 30% less insolation reduction, implying that it may be possible to reduce solar radiation management side-effects and risks (for example, ozone depletion if stratospheric sulphate aerosols are used). Finally, allowing spatial and temporal variability increases the range of trade-offs to be considered, raising the question of how to weight different objectives.
MacMartin, Douglas G.; Keith, David W.; Kravitz, Ben; Caldeira, Ken
Background and Objectives: It is unknown whether an electronic medical record (EMR) improves the management of test results in primary care offices. Methods: As part of a larger assessment using observations, interviews, and chart audits at eight family medicine offices in SW Ohio, we documented five results management steps (right place in chart, signature, interpretation, patient notification, and abnormal result
Nancy C. Elder; Timothy R. McEwen; John Flach; Jennie Gallimore; Harini Pallerla
Reports on interviews with six headteachers of Roman Catholic primary schools on the composition and responsibilities of their senior management teams. Findings explore the reasons for the schools' success and, in particular, the centrality of the Catholic faith and the practice of the senior management teams. (Contains 23 references.) (MLF)
Previous research has indicated that passive distribution of educational material by itself has little impact on physician behavior. In this paper, a collaborative care management program for the treatment and management of dementia in primary care (The PREVENT Study) is described. The essential components of the integrated program are: 1) a comprehensive screening and diagnosis protocol; 2) a multidisciplinary team
Mary Guerriero Austrom; Cora Hartwell; Patricia S. Moore; Malaz Boustani; Hugh C. Hendrie; Christopher M. Callahan
|Clinicians managing older patients with chronic pain play an important role. This paper explores the attitudes of primary care clinicians (PCPs) toward chronic nonmalignant pain management and their experiences using a clinical decision support system. Our investigation followed a qualitative approach based on grounded theory. Twenty-one PCPs…
Ruiz, Jorge G.; Qadri, S. Sobiya; Nader, Samir; Wang, Jia; Lawler, Timothy; Hagenlocker, Brian; Roos, Bernard A.
The management capabilities and performance of primary health care (PHC) can be improved by strengthening the information system. This study focuses on the Palestinian Health Management Information System (HMIS), used in PHC and reports on the achievements and shortcomings. A retrospective review and content analysis of the HMIS documentation was carried out and a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT)
Tayser Abu Mourad; Mohammed A. Afifi; Suzanne Shashaa; Dimitris Kounalakis; Christos Lionis; Anastas Philalithis
|Classroom behaviour management is an essential skill required by all teacher graduates to facilitate instruction in curriculum content. This article describes the classroom behaviour management (CBM) content on offer in Australian undergraduate primary education programs. To date, no nationwide studies exist that report the CBM instruction on…
|The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers manage their classroom in co-taught lessons. The data were collected by observing and interviewing a pair of primary school teachers. The most important influence of collaboration on classroom management seemed to be the emotional support of another adult, and the opportunity to use different…
Objective:To study knowledge of and adherence to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) guidelines among\\u000a primary care physicians.\\u000a \\u000a Design:Cross-sectional telephone survey.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting:New York State primary care practitioners; survey conducted November 1988-January 1989.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants:Physicians in general practice, family practice, internal medicine without subspecialty, and cardiology who reported ?10 bours\\/week\\u000a of clinical practice (n=329; response rate = 63%).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Interventions:None.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements
|The ability to differentiate classroom behaviour management (CBM) strategies is an important skill for novice teachers in increasingly diverse classrooms. Worldwide, little is known about the curriculum content offered to pre-service teachers in the area of CBM. This article reports the findings from the first nationwide survey of Australian…
Acute otitis media (AOM) is diagnosed on the basis of acute onset of pain and fever; a red, bulging tympanic membrane; and middle ear effusion. AOM is managed with analgesia (paracetamol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Antibiotic therapy is minimally effective for most patients; it is most effective for children < 2 years with bilateral otitis media and for children with
Hasantha Gunasekera; Tony E O’Connor; Shyan Vijayasekaran; Chris B. Del Mar
Nurses working within managed care systems often face moral conflicts. Ethical nursing practice seems to require justice with integrity, that is, treating persons in like circumstances similarly (formal justice); helping to shape public policy regarding the provision of health care benefits and burdens (distributive justice): discussing with patients the benefits that are and are not provided by particular insurance policies
Premature loss of primary teeth can result in a loss of arch length and have a negative effect on occlusion and alignment, often increasing the need for orthodontic treatment. Use of space maintainers can reduce the severity of problems such as crowding, ectopic eruption, tooth impaction and poor molar relationship. This article presents a review of the consequences of premature tooth loss and discusses the appliances commonly used for space maintenance. PMID:24073500
Urinary incontinence is a major health challenge for primary care physicians. Unfortunately, the majority of incontinent patients remain untreated. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to screen for and manage urinary incontinence. A knowledge of basic micturition physiology is important for the physician to accurately identify the cause of incontinence and arrive at the correct treatment course. To this end, this article reviews the physiology of the lower urinary tract, describes the clinical types of urinary incontinence, and outlines a stepwise approach for the primary care physician to the basic evaluation and management of patients with this condition.
Background Despite the consequences of overweight and obesity, effective weight management is not occurring in primary care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective To identify beliefs about obesity that act as barriers to weight management in primary care by surveying both patients and\\u000a providers and comparing their responses.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design Anonymous, cross-sectional, self-administered survey of patients and providers of a Veteran’s Administration Primary Care\\u000a Clinic, distributed at the clinic
Alicia R. Ruelaz; Pamela Diefenbach; Barbara Simon; Andy Lanto; David Arterburn; Paul G. Shekelle
Home management of childhood illness is a norm throughout most of the world. Decisions about treatment are influenced by cultural perceptions of the illness, and diarrheal illnesses are no exception. A group of 473 mothers and their pre-school age children in rural communities outside Ibadan metropolis in Nigeria were followed over a two-month period. Data were collected on actual diarrhea illness episodes: mothers' names for these illnesses were recorded, and reported treatment actions were noted. Six major ethno-medical diarrheal illnesses were identified and were grouped broadly into watery diarrheas and dysentery-like diarrheas. Although few (40%) women used home-made sugar-salt solution (SSS) in case management, those who labeled their child's illness as a watery diarrhea were more likely to use SSS. Modern and herbal medicines were commonly and equally applied to both groups of diarrheal illnesses. While very few mothers reported decreased fluid intake by their children, many said the child had reduced appetite, especially if the child had a watery diarrhea. The findings indicate that twelve years after the national Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) Program was launched, few mothers practice the recommended actions of giving SSS, increasing food intake and avoiding drugs. Lack of attention to studies that describe the cultural basis for mothers' decisions could be part of the reason why the ORT has not been more successful. PMID:20841070
Okunribido, O O; Brieger, W R; Omotade, O O; Adeyemo, A A
Bulimia is an eating disorder characterized by episodic, uncontrollable overeating and frequently by purging after binges. It appears to afflict approximately 5 percent of female college students in the United States. Most sufferers are high-achieving but passive and unassertive young women from similarly high-achieving but disorganized families. Confusion over social roles for women is common in bulimic patients. Bulimia shows a strong association with affective disorders; depression is common in both bulimic patients and their close family members. Bulimic patients seem to have a pronounced affective vulnerability to rejection, loss, and failure. Bulimia presents a special diagnostic challenge to the primary care physician because of the paucity of clues provided by a typical review of systems and a physical examination, even a very thorough one. Making the diagnosis requires persistent and thorough history-gathering and is best accomplished through special attention to the psychosocial history (particularly history of depression and substance abuse, family dynamics, and recent stressors) as well as pointed questioning regarding eating behavior. Because of the severe, potentially lethal complications that may attend bulimia (including fluid and electrolyte imbalance, cardiac conduction abnormalities, gastric rupture, pneumonia), diagnosis and appropriate referral by the primary care physician may have a critical impact on the patient's life and health. PMID:3543200
Due to initiatives such as the clean development mechanism (CDM), reducing greenhouse gas emissions for a developing country can offer an important route to attracting investment in a variety of qualifying project areas, including waste management. To date CDM projects have been largely confined to schemes that control emission from landfill, but projects that avoid landfilling are beginning to be submitted. In considering the waste options which might be suitable for developing countries certain ones, such as energy from waste, have been discounted for a range of reasons related primarily to the lack of technical and other support services required for these more sophisticated process trains. The paper focuses on six options: the base case of open dumping; three options for landfill (passive venting, gas capture with flaring, and gas capture with energy production), composting and anaerobic digestion with electricity production and composting of the digestate. A range of assumptions were necessary for making the comparisons based on the effective carbon emissions, and these assumptions will change from project to project. The highest impact in terms of carbon emissions was from using a sanitary landfill without either gas flaring or electricity production; this was worse than the baseline case using open dumpsites. Landfills with either flaring or energy production from the collected gas both produced similar positive carbon emissions, but these were substantially lower than both open dumping and sanitary landfill without flaring or energy production. Composting or anaerobic digestion with energy production and composting of the digestate were the two best options with composting being neutral in terms of carbon emissions and anaerobic digestion being carbon negative. These generic conclusions were tested for sensitivity by modifying the input waste composition and were found to be robust, suggesting that subject to local study to confirm assumptions made, the opportunity for developing CDM projects to attract investment to improved waste management infrastructure is significant. Kyoto credits in excess of 1 tCO2e/t of waste could be realised. PMID:18053701
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a biochemical syndrome caused by the inappropriate or unregulated overproduction of parathyroid hormone, Leading to hypercalcae-mia. It was previously considered a relatively rare disorder, with clinical manifestations dominated by renal and/or bone disease. However, in modern times the diagnosis is most frequently recognized coincidentally on biochemical testing in patients evaluated for unrelated complaints. Parathyroidectomy is the only curative treatment for PHPT, with improved outcomes in symptomatic patients following this procedure. However, surgical intervention in patients with no clear clinical features remains controversial. The National Institutes for Health (NIH) have developed consensus guidelines giving specific indications for when surgery is recommended in patients with asymptomatic PHPT. This article examines the impact of treatment on asymptomatic PHPT, focusing on bone disease, neurocognitive function, quality of Life, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Medical treatment options, including bisphospho-nates and cinacalcet, are also discussed. PMID:23148164
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a biochemical syndrome caused by the inappropriate or unregulated overproduction of parathyroid hormone, Leading to hypercalcae-mia. It was previously considered a relatively rare disorder, with clinical manifestations dominated by renal and/or bone disease. However, in modern times the diagnosis is most frequently recognized coincidentally on biochemical testing in patients evaluated for unrelated complaints. Parathyroidectomy is the only curative treatment for PHPT, with improved outcomes in symptomatic patients following this procedure. However, surgical intervention in patients with no clear clinical features remains controversial. The National Institutes for Health (NIH) have developed consensus guidelines giving specific indications for when surgery is recommended in patients with asymptomatic PHPT. This article examines the impact of treatment on asymptomatic PHPT, focusing on bone disease, neurocognitive function, quality of Life, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Medical treatment options, including bisphospho-nates and cinacalcet, are also discussed.
We carried out a study to evaluate the effectiveness of imipenem\\/cilastatin sodium (IPM\\/CS) in the expectant management of patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). The study group (100 women) who presented with PPROM from 24 to 31 weeks of gestation, between 1997 and 1999, were managed expectantly, and received IPM\\/CS (plus betamethasone) as the antibiotics of first choice.
Focusing on the work values of Chinese hospitality and tourism management (HTM) undergraduate students, this article aims to identify any segment existing among HTM students in China based on work values, as well as to investigate any relationship between work values and career choice intention across the derived student segments. Work values were measured by a self?administered questionnaire based on
Modelling airport choice of passengers has been a subject of interest for air transport scientists and airport managers already for a while. Wilken, Berster and Gelhausen have reported of a market segment specific model approach to airport choice in Germany in a paper entitled \\
Discusses a postal survey of British primary headteachers showing that most principals have senior management teams (SMTs). Makes comparisons with secondary-school SMTs; summarizes heads' accounts of their teams' origin, structure and role; and presents tentative models of team decision making. Describes heads' criteria for judging team…
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), which is characterized by progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, is not a rare disease since both prevalence and incidence are increasing during the last years mainly due to the improvement of case finding strategies. The prognosis of the disease has improved due to both the recognition of earlier and indolent cases, and to the wide use of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). New indicators of prognosis are available that will be useful especially for the growing number of patients with less severe disease. Most patients are asymptomatic at presentation. Pruritus may represent the most distressing symptom and, when UDCA is ineffective, cholestyramine represents the mainstay of treatment. Complications of long-standing cholestasis may be clinically relevant only in very advanced stages. Available data on the effects of UDCA on clinically relevant end points clearly indicate that the drug is able to slow but not to halt the progression of the disease while, in advanced stages, the only therapeutic option remains liver transplantation.
Climate change will pose increasingly significant challenges to managers of parks and other forms of protected areas around the world. Over the past two decades, numerous scientific publications have identified potential adaptations, but their suitability from legal, policy, financial, internal capacity, and other management perspectives has not been evaluated for any protected area agency or organization. In this study, a panel of protected area experts applied a Policy Delphi methodology to identify and evaluate climate change adaptation options across the primarymanagement areas of a protected area agency in Canada. The panel identified and evaluated one hundred and sixty five (165) adaptation options for their perceived desirability and feasibility. While the results revealed a high level of agreement with respect to the desirability of adaptation options and a moderate level of capacity pertaining to policy formulation and management direction, a perception of low capacity for implementation in most other program areas was identified. A separate panel of senior park agency decision-makers used a multiple criterion decision-facilitation matrix to further evaluate the institutional feasibility of the 56 most desirable adaptation options identified by the initial expert panel and to prioritize them for consideration in a climate change action plan. Critically, only two of the 56 adaptation options evaluated by senior decision-makers were deemed definitely implementable, due largely to fiscal and internal capacity limitations. These challenges are common to protected area agencies in developed countries and pervade those in developing countries, revealing that limited adaptive capacity represents a substantive barrier to biodiversity conservation and other protected area management objectives in an era of rapid climate change. PMID:21850505
A descriptive study using questionnaires was conducted in 2004 to assess the effectiveness of instructional leadership displayed by primary school management teams following the implementation of the Primary School Management Project in Botswana. Leadership skills, Coordination of instructional activities, management of curriculum and quality of…
This audit aimed to assess the identification and treatment of coronary risk factors, lifestyle advice given and use of drug therapy, among patients with angina in Sandwell. It was designed to help general practices evaluate their angina management, and highlight areas where practice could be improved. Criteria were based on Sandwell's published angina audit and local clinical guidelines. Each participating practice was asked to identify all patients with angina, from which a 10% sample was randomly selected. The notes of each selected patient were examined for evidence showing whether agreed standards of care had been achieved. Fifteen practices took part, and contributed data on a total of 358 patients. Of patients without contraindications, 66.5% were taking aspirin, 62.1% were prescribed short-acting nitrates and 58.4% were prescribed beta-blockers. Non-white patients were significantly less likely to receive short-acting nitrates (p < 0.001) and women were significantly less likely to receive beta-blockers (p < 0.01). A total of 83.5% of patients had received smoking cessation advice, 75.1% had weight advice, 75.1% were advised about alcohol use and 64.5% about exercise. Overall, 77.4% had a blood pressure check within the previous twelve months, 40.5% had their cholesterol measured and 33.5% had their blood glucose measured. Non-white patients were significantly less likely to receive smoking cessation, weight, exercise and alcohol advice and were less likely to have their blood pressure checked (all p < 0.0001). Patients aged 65 and over were significantly less likely to receive a cholesterol check (p < 0.0001). None of the auditable standards were actually met. This study shows that there is considerable scope to improve the management of angina patients, with particular regard to aspirin. We recommend that practices develop systems to ensure that the appropriate treatment, advice and checks are given to all patients with angina, paying particular attention to those from ethnic minority backgrounds. PMID:12134762
Stewart, A; Rao, J; Osho-Williams, G; Fairfield, M; Ahmad, R
Insomnia is a leading cause of sleep disturbance in primary care practice affecting >30% of people in the United States and can result in psychological and physiological consequences. We aim for a focused discussion of some of the underpinnings of insomnia and practical tips for management (eg, algorithms). A PubMed search was conducted using English language papers between 1997–2007, with the terms “sleep,” “insomnia”; “primary care” and “clinics”; “comorbid conditions”; “treatment” and “management.” Sleep, psychiatric and medical disorders significantly affect sleep, causing patient suffering, potentially worsening of other disorders and increasing the use of primary care services. We provide an outline for practical assessment and treatment of insomnia in primary care, including the strengths and weaknesses of medications.
Hilty, Donald; Young, Julie S; Bourgeois, James A; Klein, Sally; Hardin, Kimberly A
Self-harm is best defined as 'any act of self-poisoning or self-injury carried out by an individual irrespective of motivation'. With a 10.5% lifetime risk, self-reported self-harm is common in the community. Self-harm can occur at any age but is most common in young people. Prior self-harm is the key risk factor both for repeated self-harm and also for subsequent suicide. The presence of depressive symptoms predicts repeated self-harm, as does any history of psychiatric illness. Assessment of self-harm (actual or planned) should include: details of preplanning; final acts; the event itself; what happened afterwards; as well as broader psychosocial risk factors. Patients should be asked to reflect on the episode to consider whether they regret it, or whether they are likely to repeat it. Patients should be screened for depression, anxiety, psychosis and history of self-harm. Physical illness and substance misuse increase risk. Referral to secondary care community mental health teams should be considered for patients who present in primary care with a history of self-harm and a risk of repetition. Patients with continuing thoughts or serious intent of self-harm, where supportive or protective factors cannot be identified, may need urgent referral to secondary care. Prediction of further episodes of self-harm is difficult. Some clinicians may find the use of standardised rating scales, such as the SAD PERSONS scale, a useful way to identify patients who warrant referral and further assessment. The GP should provide long-term continuity of care, and maintain a holistic awareness of a patient's life events enabling discussion of the patient's emotional problems at an early stage with the aim of intervening before a crisis. PMID:22774378
Allan, Charlotte L; Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P
Abstract Aim: Toassess the primary care management,of chronic obstructive pulmonary,disease (COPD) in relation to COPD guidelines. Method: A postal questionnaire was sent out to all Primary Health Care Centres (PHCCs) in western Sweden (n=232). The response,rate was 75%. Results: A majority of the PHCCs had a nurse and physician responsible for COPD care. They used spirometry equipment regularly, but only
Jörgen Thorn; Maria Norrhall; Ronny Larsson; Dan Curiac; Gösta Axelsson; Carina Ammon; Jörgen Månsson; Jonas Brisman; Anna-Lena Söderström; Cecilia Björkelund
PURPOSE: To describe a preliminary investigation of a model of naltrexone therapy and counselling for use by primary care providers and evaluate its impact on drinking behaviors in a cohort of alcohol-dependent subjects.PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects enrolled in this study were 29 alcohol-dependent individuals. They were managed within a primary care treatment model located at a university-affiliated substance research
Patrick G O’Connor; Conor K Farren; Bruce J Rounsaville; Stephanie S O’Malley
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of physician training on management of depression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Primary care physicians were randomly assigned to a depression management intervention that included an educational program.\\u000a A before-and-after design evaluated physician practices for patients not enrolled in the intervention trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: One hundred nine primary care physicians in 2 health maintenance organizations located in the Midwest and
Elizabeth H. B. Lin; Gregory E. Simon; David J. Katzelnick; Steven D. Pearson
In addition to environmental and economic benefits, systematic application of sustainable waste management in elementary education buildings also makes a positive contribution to the education of future generations. This study examines elementary schools in Istanbul, which are part of the Eco-Schools International Programme. This programme was established in 1994 with European Union support and it aims to introduce environmental management systems into primary schools within the scope of ISO 14001/EMAS. A questionnaire study was administered on the theme of litter management and sustainable waste management within elementary schools located in the Asian and European parts of Istanbul city, and the findings of a field survey were examined. Questionnaire findings were gathered under five themes: litter management, composting of organic waste, re-use of school materials, reducing consumption-selection of recycled products, waste management and sorting of recyclable materials. PMID:21159739
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether providing information on arthritis self-management through general practitioners (GPs) increases the quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis and whether additional case management provided by practice nurses shows better results. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, controlled, 3-arm trial that included 1,021 patients from 75 primary care practices in Germany. GPs were randomized to intervention group
Thomas Rosemann; Stefanie Joos; Gunter Laux; Jochen Gensichen; Joachim Szecsenyi
OBJECTIVE To determine whether managed care is associated with reduced access to mental health specialists and worse outcomes among primary care patients with depressive symptoms. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Offices of 261 primary physicians in private practice in Seattle. PATIENTS Patients (N = 17,187) were screened in waiting rooms, enrolling 1,336 adults with depressive symptoms. Patients (n = 942) completed follow-up surveys at 1, 3, and 6 months. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS For each patient, the intensity of managed care was measured by the managedness of the patient's health plan, plan benefit indexes, presence or absence of a mental health carve-out, intensity of managed care in the patient's primary care office, physician financial incentives, and whether the physician read or used depression guidelines. Access measures were referral and actually seeing a mental health specialist. Outcomes were the Symptom Checklist for Depression, restricted activity days, and patient rating of care from primary physician. Approximately 23% of patients were referred to mental health specialists, and 38% saw a mental health specialist with or without referral. Managed care generally was not associated with a reduced likelihood of referral or seeing a mental health specialist. Patients in more-managed plans were less likely to be referred to a psychiatrist. Among low-income patients, a physician financial withhold for referral was associated with fewer mental health referrals. A physician productivity bonus was associated with greater access to mental health specialists. Depressive symptom and restricted activity day outcomes in more-managed health plans and offices were similar to or better than less-managed settings. Patients in more-managed offices had lower ratings of care from their primary physicians. CONCLUSIONS The intensity of managed care was generally not associated with access to mental health specialists. The small number of managed care strategies associated with reduced access were offset by other strategies associated with increased access. Consequently, no adverse health outcomes were detected, but lower patient ratings of care provided by their primary physicians were found.
Grembowski, David E; Martin, Diane; Patrick, Donald L; Diehr, Paula; Katon, Wayne; Williams, Barbara; Engelberg, Ruth; Novak, Louise; Dickstein, Deborah; Deyo, Richard; Goldberg, Harold I
BACKGROUND: Because sexually transmitted chlamydial infections are common among young women, it is critical that providers screen and\\u000a manage these infections appropriately.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To assess the Chlamydia care practices of California primary care physicians and nurse practitioners.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional, self-report mail survey.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: A stratified random sample of primary care physicians and a convenience sample of primary care nurse practitioners
Sarah L. Guerry; Heidi M. Bauer; Laura Packel; Michael Samuel; Joan Chow; Miriam Rhew; Gail Bolan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between managed care, physician job satisfaction, and the quality of primary care, and to determine\\u000a whether physician job satisfaction is associated with health outcomes among primary care patients with pain and depressive\\u000a symptoms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Offices of 261 primary physicians in private practice in Seattle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PATIENTS: We screened 17,187 patients in waiting
David Grembowski; David Paschane; Paula Diehr; Wayne Katon; Diane Martin; Donald L. Patrick
This study, which was funded by the office of research and development (ORD) in the University of Botswana, surveyed 65 primary schools in South Central region in Botswana, which aimed at establishing the perceptions of senior management teams dominant leadership style. The study was done in three phases; the first phase started in June 2008 to…
Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the stomach is a rare disorder for which clinical management has not yet been settled completely. Faced with the many uncertainties associated with the selection of a treatment for a patient with this disorder, it is dicult to determine the treatment that is optimal for the patient, as well as the prognosis to be expected. The
|Dysmenorrhea is a problem that girls and women face and often manage themselves with or without support from health professionals. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescents with dysmenorrhea (N = 150) in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The aims of the study were to determine their knowledge of menstruation and primary dysmenorrhea,…
Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Babatunde, Oluwayemisi A.
As the obesity epidemic escalates, increasing numbers of patients present with serious comorbidities related to excess body weight. Obesity should be recognized and treated as a primary medical condition that is progressive, chronic, and relapsing. Effective treatment of obesity has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk factors and comorbid conditions. Physician involvement is necessary for medical assessment, management, counseling, and
James M. Rippe; Kyle J. McInnis; Kathleen J. Melanson
Aims: To investigate the burden of allergic rhinitis (AR) amongst primary care practitioners (PCPs), the impact of AR on PCPs' professional lives, and the effect on their management of AR patients of PCPs' personal experience of AR. Methods: An online questionnaire was completed by 1201 PCPs (50% AR sufferers) from eight countries. Results: 21% of PCPs reported very well controlled
Paul Van Cauwenberge; Helen Van Hoecke; Peter Kardos; David Price; Susan Waserman
The multi-tasking of classroom or learning support assistants (LSAs) is a well-established phenomenon in English primary schools. As their roles have become better defined and specifically funded an element of role specialism has become essential. However, the management and direction of LSAs does not always appear to be clearly or effectively…
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumor but it is rising in incidence in both AIDS and non AIDS populations. It is a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that usually presents itself as a brain tumor, but leptomeninges, eyes and also spinal cord are frequently affected. The management of PCNSL patients has evolved in the last years. The role of
|The study examines the organizational strategies of Japanese principals in school management. One hundred principals of primary schools in Hiroshima Prefecture were surveyed in 2007. The samples comprised of the differences between the two groups aged 51-55 and 56-60 in terms of how competency level should be exerted in school. The study was…
Background: Gender differences in access to high quality care for chronic illnesses have been suggested yet little work in this potentially vital area of health care inequality has been undertaken in Africa. We explored the influence of patient gender on the care of people with diabetes within a multi-method, national study of diabetes management in primary care in Tunisia. Methods:
Abstract Problem addressed A well documented gap remains between evidence and practice for clinical practice guidelines in cardiovascular disease (CVD) care. Objective of program As part of the Champlain CVD Prevention Strategy, practitioners in the Champlain District of Ontario launched a large quality-improvement initiative that focused on increasing the uptake in primary care practice settings of clinical guidelines for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and CVD risk factors. Program description The Champlain Primary Care CVD Prevention and Management Guideline is a desktop resource for primary care clinicians working in the Champlain District. The guideline was developed by more than 45 local experts to summarize the latest evidence-based strategies for CVD prevention and management, as well as to increase awareness of local community-based programs and services. Conclusion Evidence suggests that tailored strategies are important when implementing specific practice guidelines. This article describes the process of creating an integrated clinical guideline for improvement in the delivery of cardiovascular care.
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Despite evolving understanding of pathogenesis and natural history, controversy exists regarding management of childhood vesicoureteric reflux. Surgical correction of the reflux itself may reduce risk of upper tract complications in some but may not in itself constitute appropriate management of lower tract morbidity in many. This review examines the evidence for early management and long term outcomes in primary vesicoureteric reflux. Primary vesico-ureteric reflux is a common condition in childhood associated with bladder dysfunction and an increased risk of urinary tract infection. Recent evidence indicates a lower tract functional abnormality in its pathogenesis. Whilst spontaneous resolution will occur in many, some patients will go on to develop complications in adulthood including reflux nephropathy, hypertension, urinary tract infection, bladder dysfunction and complications of pregnancy. An evolving understanding of the natural history has seen radical changes in management. Evidence for management of the child with primary vesico-ureteric reflux is reviewed with a focus on the implications on long-term outcomes in adulthood. PMID:22085118
Background Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) with disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) can reduce relapse frequency and delay disability progression. Although adherence to DMDs is difficult to measure accurately, evidence suggests that poor adherence is common and can compromise treatment success. There are likely to be multiple factors underlying poor adherence. To better understand these factors, the global MS Choices Survey investigated patient and physician perspectives regarding key aspects of MS diagnosis, treatment adherence and persistence, and disease management. Methods The survey was conducted in seven countries and involved patients with MS (age 18–60 years; MS diagnosis for ?1 year; current treatment with a DMD) and physicians (neurologist for 3–30 years; treating ?15 patients with MS per average month; >60% of time spent in clinical practice). Separate questionnaires were used for physicians and patients, each containing approximately 30 questions. Results Questionnaires were completed by 331 patients and 280 physicians. Several differences were observed between the responses of patients and physicians, particularly for questions relating to treatment adherence. Overall, the proportion of patients reporting taking a treatment break (31%) was almost twice that estimated by physicians (on average 17%). The reasons cited for poor adherence also differed between patients and physicians. For example, more physicians cited side effects as the main reason for poor patient adherence (82%), than responding patients (42%). Conclusions Physicians may underestimate the scale of poor adherence to DMDs, which could impact on their assessment of treatment efficacy and result in inappropriate treatment escalation. In addition, disparities were identified between patient and physician responses regarding the underlying reasons for poor adherence. Improvements in the dialog between patients and neurologists may increase adherence to DMDs.
We review research from the 1990s that examines the determinants and consequences of accounting choice, structuring our analysis around the three types of market imperfections that influence managers’ choices: agency costs, information asymmetries, and externalities affecting non-contracting parties. We conclude that research in the 1990s made limited progress in expanding our understanding of accounting choice because of limitations in research
The aim of this study was to investigate asthma management self-efficacy in parents of primary school-age children with asthma and to explore possible associations between parent asthma management self-efficacy, parent and child characteristics, asthma task difficulty and asthma management responsibility. A cross-sectional descriptive survey of 113 parents was conducted to assess the level of parent asthma management self-efficacy, asthma task difficulty and confidence, asthma responsibility and socio-demographic characteristics. The findings indicate that parents had higher self-efficacy for attack prevention than attack management. Parents had higher self-efficacy for asthma management tasks that are simple, skills based and performed frequently such as medication administration and less confidence and greater difficulty with tasks associated with judgement and decision-making. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified English language, child asthma responsibility and parent education as predictors of higher asthma management self-efficacy, while an older child was associated with lower parent asthma management self-efficacy. The implications of these results for planning and targeting health education and self-management interventions for parents and children are discussed. PMID:23424000
Although there are sizable literatures on the connections between choice probabilities and preference relations, and between preference relations and choice functions, little has been done--apart from their common ties to preference relations--to connect ...
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain knowledge gaps in the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic low back pain (LBP) in the primary care setting to prepare a scoping survey for identifying knowledge gaps in LBP management among Alberta’s primary care practitioners, and to identify potential barriers to implementing a multidisciplinary LBP guideline. METHODS: English language studies, published from 1996 to 2008, comparing the clinical practice patterns of primary care practitioners with guideline recommendations were identified by systematically searching literature databases, the websites of various health technology assessment agencies and libraries, and the Internet. Data were synthesized qualitatively. RESULTS: The literature search identified 14 relevant studies. Knowledge gaps were reported among various primary care practitioner groups in the assessment of red flags, use of diagnostic imaging, provision of advice regarding sick leave and continuing activity, administration of some medications (muscle relaxants, oral steroids and opioids) and recommendation of particular treatments (acupuncture, physiotherapy, spinal manipulation, traction, ultrasound, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and spinal mobilization). CONCLUSIONS: A know-do gap clearly exists among primary care practitioners with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of LBP. The information on know-do gaps will be used to construct a survey tool for unearthing the local knowledge gaps extant among Alberta’s primary care practitioners, and to develop a dissemination strategy for a locally produced multidisciplinary LBP guideline, with the aim of ensuring that the know-do gaps inherent within each primary practice discipline are specifically targeted.
Purpose:?Making choices about everyday activities is a normal event for many adults. However, when an adult moves into an assisted living (AL) community, making choices becomes complicated by perceived needs and community practices. This study examines the relationship between choice and need in the context of practices, using medication administration practices as the case in point. Design and Methods:?A 5-year ethnographic study collected information from 6 AL settings in Maryland. Ethnographic interviews (n = 323) and field notes comprise the data described in this article. Results:?AL organizations used practice rationales based on state regulations, professional responsibility, safety concerns, and social model values to describe and explain their setting-specific practices. The result was varying levels of congruence between the setting's practices and individual resident's needs and choices. That is, in some cases, the resident's needs were lost to the organization's practices, and in other cases, organizations adapted to resident need and choices. These findings suggest that individuals and organizations adapt to each other, resulting in practices that are not bound by state requirement or other practice rationales. Implications:?AL residences vary due to both internal and external forces, not just the public policies that define them. State regulations need to be responsive to both the needs and the choices of individual residents and to the people who work in an AL.
Carder, Paula C.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Schumacher, John G.
|Lack of sufficient accessible community-based health care services for individuals with developmental disabilities has led to disparities in health outcomes and an overreliance on expensive models of care delivered in hospitals and other safety net or state-subsidized providers. A functioning community-based primary health care model, with an…
Background A substantial part of cardiovascular disease prevention is delivered in primary care. Special attention should be paid to the assessment of cardiovascular risk factors. According to the Dutch guideline for cardiovascular risk management, the heavy workload of cardiovascular risk management for GPs could be shared with advanced practice nurses. Aim To investigate the clinical effectiveness of practice nurses acting as substitutes for GPs in cardiovascular risk management after 1 year of follow-up. Design of study Prospective pragmatic randomised trial. Setting Primary care in the south of the Netherlands. Six centres (25 GPs, six nurses) participated. Method A total of 1626 potentially eligible patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease were randomised to a practice nurse group (n = 808) or a GP group (n = 818) in 2006. In total, 701 patients were included in the trial. The Dutch guideline for cardiovascular risk management was used as the protocol, with standardised techniques for risk assessment. Changes in the following risk factors after 1 year were measured: lipids, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. In addition, patients in the GP group received a brief questionnaire. Results A larger decrease in the mean level of risk factors was observed in the practice nurse group compared with the GP group. After controlling for confounders, only the larger decrease in total cholesterol in the practice nurse group was statistically significant (P = 0.01, two-sided). Conclusion Advanced practice nurses are achieving results, equal to or better than GPs for the management of risk factors. The findings of this study support the involvement of practice nurses in cardiovascular risk management in Dutch primary care.
Voogdt-Pruis, Helene R; Beusmans, George HMI; Gorgels, Anton PM; Kester, Arnold DM; Van Ree, Jan W
Background Chronic disease management requires input from multiple health professionals, both specialist and primary care providers. This study sought to assess the impact of co-ordinated multidisciplinary care in primary care, represented by the delivery of formal care planning by primary care teams or shared across primary-secondary teams, on outcomes in stroke, relative to usual care. Methods A Systematic review of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL (all 1990–2006), Cochrane Library (Issue 1 2006), and grey literature from web based searching of web sites listed in the CCOHA Health Technology Assessment List Analysis used narrative analysis of findings of randomised and non-randomised trials, and observational and qualitative studies of patients with completed stroke in the primary care setting where care planning was undertaken by 1) a multi-disciplinary primary care team or 2) through shared care by primary and secondary providers. Results One thousand and forty-five citations were retrieved. Eighteen papers were included for analysis. Most care planning took part in the context of multidisciplinary team care based in hospitals with outreach to community patients. Mortality rates are not impacted by multidisciplinary care planning. Functional outcomes of the studies were inconsistent. It is uncertain whether the active engagement of GPs and other primary care professionals in the multidisciplinary care planning contributed to the outcomes in the studies showing a positive effect. There may be process benefits from multidisciplinary care planning that includes primary care professionals and GPs. Few studies actually described the tasks and roles GPs fulfilled and whether this matched what was presumed to be provided. Conclusion While multidisciplinary care planning may not unequivocally improve the care of patients with completed stroke, there may be process benefits such as improved task allocation between providers. Further study on the impact of active GP involvement in multidisciplinary care planning is warranted.
Mitchell, Geoffrey K; Brown, Robyn M; Erikssen, Lars; Tieman, Jennifer J
The initial management of posterior urethral injuries is controversial. Options of management include immediate surgical realignment, early realignment using minimally invasive techniques or simple suprapubic catheter (SPC) placement followed by delayed urethroplasty. The latter method has been preferred by most urologists but the last couple of decades have seen increasing reports of early urethral realignment which have provided better if not similar results as SPC placement. In this article a detailed analysis of studies involving primary realignment has been presented to reinforce the argument in favor of this approach.
Suicide is a public health problem and a leading cause of death. The number of people thinking seriously about suicide, making plans, and attempting suicide is surprisingly high. In total, primary care clinicians write more prescriptions for antidepressants than mental health clinicians and see patients more often in the month before their death by suicide. Treatment of depression by primary care physicians is improving, but opportunities remain in addressing suicide-related treatment variables. Collaborative care models for treating depression have the potential both to improve depression outcomes and decrease suicide risk. Alcohol use disorders and anxiety symptoms are important comorbid conditions to identify and treat. Management of suicide risk includes understanding the difference between risk factors and warning signs, developing a suicide risk assessment, and practically managing suicidal crises.
McDowell, Anna K.; Lineberry, Timothy W.; Bostwick, J. Michael
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequently occurring primary tumour of the liver in adults and the third most common\\u000a cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The incidence of HCC is increasing both in Europe and in the United States due\\u000a to the increasing prevalence of hepatitis C. Of recognised importance, when making decisions regarding the most appropriate\\u000a management
This article analyses the impact of processes of globalization on both policy and practice in relation to primary school leadership and management in England and Finland. Data are drawn from case study research carried out from 1994–1996 in six schools in Finland and six schools in England and a follow?up study on teacher professionalism (2001–2002) that involved 37 of the
Rosemary Webb; Graham Vulliamy; Anneli Sarja; Seppo Hämäläinen
The term double tooth is often used to describe fusion and gemination. The development of isolated large or joined teeth is not rare, but the literature is confusing when the appropriate terminology is presented. The objective of this paper is to present a case of a primary double tooth in a 5-year-old girl with a history of trauma. The tooth was endodontically treated and esthetic management was carried out using a silicone putty guide. PMID:23600163
Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is a rare malignant neoplasm, often with periocular involvement, believed to originate from eccrine sweat glands. It is slow growing and locally destructive, at times forming tumour satellites. We present a case with six local recurrences treated with surgical resections over a period of 30 years. We have not been able to find longer follow-up in the literature, and believe this case may offer insight into the management of these uniquely indolent malignancies. PMID:23417934
Burris, Christopher Keith; Rajan, K D Anand; Iliff, Nicholas T
Background: The European Practice Assessment program provides feedback and outreach visits to primary care practices to facilitate quality improvement in five domains (infrastructure, people, information, finance, and quality and safety). We examined the effectiveness of this program in improving management in primary care practices in Germany, with a focus on the domain of quality and safety. Methods: In a before–after study, 102 primary care practices completed a practice assessment using the European Practice Assessment instrument at baseline and three years later (intervention group). A comparative group of 102 practices was included that completed their first assessment using this instrument at the time of the intervention group’s second assessment. Mean scores were based on the proportion of indicators for which a positive response was achieved by all of the practices, on a scale of 0 to 100. Results: We found significant improvements in all domains between the first and second assessments in the intervention group. In the domain of quality and safety, improvements in scores (mean scores were based on the proportion of indicators for which a positive response was achieved by all of the practices, on a scale of 0 to 100) were observed in the following dimensions: complaint management (from a mean score of 51.2 at first assessment to 80.7 at second assessment); analysis of critical incidents (from 79.1 to 89.6); and quality development, quality policy (from 40.7 to 55.6). Overall scores at the time of the second assessment were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the comparative group. Interpretation: Primary care practices that completed the European Practice Assessment instrument twice over a three-year period showed improvements in practice management. Our findings show the value of the quality-improvement cycle in the context of practice assessment and the use of established organizational standards for practice management with the Europeaen Practice Assessment.
Musculoskeletal disorders represent a large and growing clinical challenge to primary care clinicians. Unfortunately, there\\u000a appears to be a gap in current training and continuing education to meet this challenge. We used script concordance within\\u000a a continuing medical education program entitled “Joint Adventures” to assist family physicians to acquire the knowledge, skills,\\u000a and tools they need to improve their management
Objective: To determine whether a tailored weight management program, addressing the needs of obese, low-income African-American women, would produce greater weight loss than standard medical care.Research Methods and Procedures: A randomized, controlled trial was conducted between 1999 and 2003 with 144 overweight or obese women (predominantly African-American) enrolled at two primary care clinics. Four physicians at each clinic were randomly
Pamela Davis Martin; Paula C. Rhode; Gareth R. Dutton; Stephen M. Redmann; Donna H. Ryan; Phillip J. Brantley
Health care settings and providers are not immune to violent or disruptive behavior by clients or by strangers off the street. Verbal abuse and threats of violence can escalate to physical attacks directed against health care practitioners. This article discusses the management of violent or dangerous patients in the primary care setting. Characteristics of potentially violent patients are reviewed, along with assessment clues useful in predicting violent behavior. Specific interventions to counteract or diffuse a potentially violent situation are proposed. PMID:7659317
Background Community-based support will become increasingly important for people with dementia, but currently services are fragmented and the quality of care is variable. Case management is a popular approach to care co-ordination, but evidence to date on its effectiveness in dementia has been equivocal. Case management interventions need to be designed to overcome obstacles to care co-ordination and maximise benefit. A successful case management methodology was adapted from the United States (US) version for use in English primary care, with a view to a definitive trial. Medical Research Council guidance on the development of complex interventions was implemented in the adaptation process, to capture the skill sets, person characteristics and learning needs of primary care based case managers. Methods Co-design of the case manager role in a single NHS provider organisation, with external peer review by professionals and carers, in an iterative technology development process. Results The generic skills and personal attributes were described for practice nurses taking up the case manager role in their workplaces, and for social workers seconded to general practice teams, together with a method of assessing their learning needs. A manual of information material for people with dementia and their family carers was also created using the US intervention as its source. Conclusions Co-design produces rich products that have face validity and map onto the complexities of dementia and of health and care services. The feasibility of the case manager role, as described and defined by this process, needs evaluation in ‘real life’ settings.
Objective To ascertain the beliefs, current practices, and decision making of general practitioners in the diagnosis and management of suspected heart failure in primary care, with a view to identifying barriers to good care. Design A qualitative approach using focus groups with 30 general practitioners from four primary care groups. The sampling strategy was stratified and purposive. The contents of interviews were transcribed and analysed according to the principles of “pragmatic variant” grounded theory. Setting North east England. Results Three categories of difficulties contribute to variations in medical practice and to the reasons why general practitioners experience difficulties in diagnosing and managing heart failure. The first is uncertainty about clinical practice, including lack of confidence in establishing an accurate diagnosis and worries about using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ? blockers, and spironolactone in patients who are often elderly and frail, with comorbidity and polypharmacy. The second is a lack of awareness of relevant research evidence in what was perceived to be a complex and rapidly changing therapeutic field. Doubts about the applicability of research findings in primary care, and fear of information overload also emerged. The third category consists of influences of individual preference and local organisational factors. Medical training, negative clinical experiences, and outside agencies influenced the behaviour of general practitioners and professional culture. Local factors included the availability of diagnostic services, resources (such as accessible cardiologists), and interactions between professionals in primary or secondary care, and they seemed to shape the practice and decision making processes in primary care. Conclusions The national service framework for coronary heart disease stresses that the substandard care of patients with heart failure is unacceptable. This study identified barriers to be overcome across primary and secondary care in implementation strategies that are specific to the locality and multifaceted. Single strategies—for example, the provision of guidelines—are unlikely to have an impact on clinical outcomes, and new, conjoint models of care need to be explored. What is already known on this topicHeart failure is a common condition with a high morbidity and mortality and is largely managed in primary careAlthough modern management with accurate diagnosis and treatment improves prognosis considerably, unacceptable variations exist in the clinical application of current guidelines for heart failureWhat this study addsGeneral practitioners expressed a lack of confidence in establishing an accurate diagnosis of left ventricular systolic dysfunction, even if open access echocardiography was availableUncertainty about diagnosis led to poor uptake of evidence based treatment strategies for heart failure patients, and, despite awareness, reluctance to initiate modern treatmentLocal organisational factors around NHS provision of diagnostic services, resources, and interaction between primary and secondary care influence how general practitioners manage heart failureImplementation strategies for heart failure management across primary and secondary care are needed that are specific to their locality and multifaceted
Fuat, Ahmet; Hungin, A Pali S; Murphy, Jeremy James
Background Obesity is an increasing epidemic in both the US and veteran populations, yet it remains largely understudied in the Veteran's Health Administration (VHA) setting. The purpose of our study was to identify barriers to the effective management of obesity in VHA primary care settings. Methods Three focus groups of clinicians from a Veteran's Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) and an affiliated Community Based Outpatient Center (CBOC) were conducted to identify potential barriers to obesity management. The focus groups and previously published studies then informed the creation of a 47-item survey that was then disseminated and completed by 55 primary care clinicians. Results The focus groups identified provider, system, and patient barriers to obesity care. Lack of obesity training during medical school and residency was associated with lower rates of discussing diet and exercise with obese patients (p < 0.05). Clinicians who watched their own diets vigorously were more likely to calculate BMI for obese patients than other clinicians (42% vs. 13%, p < 0.05). Many barriers identified in previous studies (e.g., attitudes toward obese patients, lack of insurance payments for obesity care) were not prevalent barriers in the current study. Conclusion Many VHA clinicians do not routinely provide weight management services for obese patients. The most prevalent barriers to obesity care were poor education during medical school and residency and the lack of information provided by the VHA to both clinicians and patients about available weight management services.
Forman-Hoffman, Valerie; Little, Amanda; Wahls, Terry
Objectives To evaluate the long term effect of ongoing intervention to improve treatment of depression in primary care. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Twelve primary care practices across the United States. Participants 211 adults beginning a new treatment episode for major depression; 94% of patients assigned to ongoing intervention participated. Intervention Practices assigned to ongoing intervention encouraged participating patients to engage in active treatment, using practice nurses to provide care management over 24 months. Main outcome measures Patients' report of remission and functioning. Results Ongoing intervention significantly improved both symptoms and functioning at 24 months, increasing remission by 33 percentage points (95% confidence interval 7% to 46%), improving emotional functioning by 24 points (11 to 38) and physical functioning by 17 points (6 to 28). By 24 months, 74% of patients in enhanced care reported remission, with emotional functioning exceeding 90% of population norms and physical functioning approaching 75% of population norms. Conclusions Ongoing intervention increased remission rates and improved indicators of emotional and physical functioning. Studies are needed to compare the cost effectiveness of ongoing depression management with other chronic disease treatment routinely undertaken by primary care. What is already known on this topicMost trials of depression treatment incorporate principles of chronic disease management into the interventions tested in recognition of the chronicity of the conditionResearch shows that brief implementation of these interventions has little or no impact on depressive symptoms and functioning a year after the intervention endsWhat this study addsOngoing efforts to improve depression management yield ongoing benefits for patients starting a new treatment episode for depressionThese results encourage health services to make a small but continuing investment in their depressed populations to reduce the substantial disability they bear, matching the duration of the intervention to the chronicity of the condition
Background Guidelines on COPD diagnosis and management encourage primary care physicians to detect the disease at an early stage and to treat patients according to their condition and needs. Problems in guideline implementation include difficulties in diagnosis, using spirometry and the disputed role of reversibility testing. These lead to inaccurate diagnostic registers and inadequacy of administered treatments. This study represents an audit of COPD diagnosis and management in primary care practices in Devon. Methods Six hundred and thirty two patients on COPD registers in primary care practices were seen by a visiting Respiratory Specialist Nurse. Diagnoses were made according to the NICE guidelines. Reversibility testing was carried out either routinely or based on clinical indication in two sub-samples. Dyspnoea was assessed. Data were entered into a novel IT-based software which computed guideline-based treatment recommendations. Current and recommended treatments were compared. Results Five hundred and eighty patients had spirometry. Diagnoses of COPD were confirmed in 422 patients (73%). Thirty nine patients were identified as asthma only, 94 had normal spirometry, 23 were restrictive and 2 had a cardiac disorder. Reversibility testing changed diagnosis of 11% of patients with airflow obstruction, and severity grading in 18%. Three quarters of patients with COPD had been offered practical help with smoking cessation. Short and long-acting anticholinergics and long acting beta-2 agonists had been under-prescribed; in 15–18% of patients they were indicated but not received. Inhaled steroids had been over-prescribed (recommended in 17%; taken by 60%), whereas only 4% of patients with a chronic productive cough were receiving mucolytics. Pulmonary rehabilitation was not available in some areas and was under-used in other areas. Conclusion Diagnostic registers of COPD in primary care contain mistakes leading to inaccurate prevalence estimates and inappropriate treatment decisions. Use of pre-bronchodilator readings for diagnosis overestimates the prevalence and severity in a significant minority, thus post bronchodilator readings should be used. Management of stable COPD does often not correspond to guidelines. The IT system used in this study has the potential to improve diagnosis and management of COPD in primary care.
Jones, Rupert CM; Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Mather, Martin JC; Marks, Dawn; Shackell, Bryanie S
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of clinical depression on pain self-management practices. We employed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Stepped Care for Affective disorders and Musculoskeletal Pain (SCAMP) study. Participants included 250 patients with pain and comorbid depression and 250 patients with pain only and were enrolled from urban university and VA primary care clinics. Musculoskeletal pain was defined as low back, hip or knee pain present >or=3 months and with at least a moderate, Brief Pain Inventory severity score >or=5. Depression was defined as a PHQ-9 score >or=10. We used multiple logistic and Poisson regression to assess the relationship between individual and combined effects of depression and pain severity on two core pain self-management skills: exercise duration and cognitive strategies. Depressed patients exercised less per week than did nondepressed patients but showed a trend towards more frequent use of cognitive strategies. On multivariable analysis, depression severity substantially decreased the use of exercise as a pain self-management strategy. In contrast, depression and pain severity interacted to increase the use of cognitive strategies. Depression and pain severity have differential effects on self-management practices. Understanding the differences between preferential strategies of pain patients with and without depression may be useful in tailoring pain self-management programs. PMID:18553130
Damush, Teresa M; Wu, Jingwei; Bair, Matthew J; Sutherland, Jason M; Kroenke, Kurt
A sharp increase in the number of diagnosed concussions has been observed for the traditional adultathlete, as well as the young recreational athlete. An enhancing awareness and growing concern has been noted for the potentially larger number of concussions that go undiagnosed and the unknown capability for long-term complications associated with this injury. This increase in concussion awareness has appropriately led to an enhanced utilization of the health-care system for concussion evaluation and management. As is always the case in the practice of medicine, it is important for healthcare providers, from all points of entry in the healthcare system, to provide consistent management for the best outcomes for any disease process. Millions of sport-related concussions occur each year in the United States, placing a large demand on the healthcare system. Utilization of appropriate and congruent treatment plans during the medical discourse when transferring care of patients between providers is paramount. In the co-management model of care, subspecialists lend expertise to assist primary-care providers (PCPs) in gaining the core competencies necessary to provide appropriate levels of care for certain conditions. Increased use of co-management could make the health-care system more efficient and collaborative, leading to: increased access for patients, lower overall costs, and improved quality of care and health outcomes. Co-management allows patients and families to have access to the expert knowledge of subspecialist while receiving more of their care from their PCP, increasing their comfort and making treatment more convenient. The intent of this paper is to distribute an algorithm created by a multidisciplinary group of medical providers to provide a rational approach, congruent with the standard of care, for the primary-care provider to institute an individualized stepwise progression. PMID:23061213
OBJECTIVE--To establish whether stress management had a larger effect than a control treatment on resting blood pressure, ambulatory blood pressure, and left ventricular mass. DESIGN--A 12 week baseline period of habituation to measurement of blood pressure was followed by randomisation to either stress management or mild exercise for six months and follow up six months later. SETTING--General practice, district general hospital, and medical school. PATIENTS--Of the 184 patients aged under 60 with mild primary hypertension who entered the baseline habituation period, 88 were excluded because they failed to meet the entry criteria or they withdrew from the study. The remaining 46 men and 50 women underwent treatment. INTERVENTIONS--10 clinical sessions and daily practice at home of either stress management based on relaxation or non-aerobic stretching exercises. Mildly stressful 15 minute interviews before and after treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Diastolic and systolic blood pressure in the clinic and during 12 hours of ambulatory recording, and left ventricular mass measured by echocardiography. RESULTS--The patients' blood pressure fell during habituation (systolic pressure from 152 mmHg to 140 mmHg, diastolic pressure from 98 to 93 mm Hg), but neither resting nor ambulatory blood pressure was changed by the treatments. Left ventricular mass was also unchanged. Blood pressure rose during the stressful interview, but this rise was reduced by stress management (systolic pressure rose by 7.4 mmHg before treatment and by 3.7 mmHg after treatment). CONCLUSION--Stress management of a type advocated for treating mild primary hypertension is ineffective in lowering blood pressure in patients who are well habituated to measuring blood pressure.
Johnston, D W; Gold, A; Kentish, J; Smith, D; Vallance, P; Shah, D; Leach, G; Robinson, B
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as hypertension, asthma, diabetes and epilepsy are placing an increasing burden on clinical services in developing countries and innovative strategies are therefore needed to optimize existing services. This article describes the design and implementation of a nurse-led NCD service based on clinical protocols in a resource-poor area of South Africa. Diagnostic and treatment protocols were designed and introduced at all primary care clinics in the district, using only essential drugs and appropriate technology; the convenience of management for the patient was highlighted. The protocols enabled the nurses to control the clinical condition of 68% of patients with hypertension, 82% of those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and 84% of those with asthma. The management of NCDs of 79% of patients who came from areas served by village or mobile clinics was transferred from the district hospital to such clinics. Patient-reported adherence to treatment increased from 79% to 87% (P = 0.03) over the 2 years that the service was operating. The use of simple protocols and treatment strategies that were responsive to the local situation enabled the majority of patients to receive convenient and appropriate management of their NCD at their local primary care facility.
More than 20 North American academic centers account for the majority of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) procedures for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), with smaller numbers performed at additional sites. Given the importance of a timely diagnosis of these rare diseases and the diversity of practice sites, there is a need for guidance as to best practices in management of patients with PIDs before, during, and in follow-up for definitive treatment. In this conference report of immune deficiency experts and HCT physicians who care for patients with PIDs, we present expert guidance for (1) PID diagnoses that are indications for HCT, including severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), combined immunodeficiency disease, and other non-SCID diseases; (2) the critical importance of a high degree of suspicion of the primary care physician and timeliness of diagnosis for PIDs; (3) the need for rapid referral to an immune deficiency expert, center with experience in HCT, or both for patients with PIDs; (4) medical management of a child with suspicion of SCID/combined immunodeficiency disease while confirming the diagnosis, including infectious disease management and workup; (5) the posttransplantation follow-up visit schedule; (6) antimicrobial prophylaxis after transplantation, including gamma globulin administration; and (7) important indications for return to the transplantation center after discharge. Finally, we discuss the role of high-quality databases in treatment of PIDs and HCTas an element of the infrastructure that will be needed for productive multicenter clinical trials in these rare diseases.
Griffith, Linda M.; Cowan, Morton J.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Buckley, Rebecca H.; Candotti, Fabio; Conley, Mary Ellen; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Kohn, Donald B.; Ochs, Hans D.; O'Reilly, Richard J.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Roifman, Chaim M.; Small, Trudy N.; Shearer, William T.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge level of a group of Saudi primary school teachers in the management of dental trauma. A three-part questionnaire on demographic data and knowledge was distributed to the teachers in Riyadh city. Twenty-four selected schools were visited and 277 teachers participated in the study of which 5 of them had formal education in dental injuries. Concerning knowledge, 124 teachers (44.8%) believed dental trauma emergency should be dealt with immediately. This study showed that majority of teachers were not aware of the most favorable storage media for avulsed permanent teeth. It was concluded that the majority of Saudi primary school teachers in Riyadh city do not know how to handle a child who sustains dental injury. PMID:20662887
A potential weakness of one formulation of delay-reduction theory is its failure to include a term for rate of conditioned reinforcement, that is, the rate at which the terminal-link stimuli occur in concurrent-chains schedules. The present studies assessed whether or not rate of conditioned reinforcement has an independent effect upon choice. Pigeons responded on either modified concurrent-chains schedules or on comparable concurrent-tandem schedules. The initial link was shortened on only one of two concurrent-chains schedules and on only one of two corresponding concurrent-tandem schedules. This manipulation increased rate of conditioned reinforcement sharply in the chain but not in the tandem schedule. According to a formulation of delay-reduction theory, when the outcomes chosen (the terminal links) are equal, as in Experiment 1, choice should depend only on rate of primary reinforcement; thus, choice should be equivalent for the tandem and chain schedules despite a large difference in rate of conditioned reinforcement. When the outcomes chosen are unequal, however, as in Experiment 2, choice should depend upon both rate of primary reinforcement and relative signaled delay reduction; thus, larger preferences should occur in the chain than in the tandem schedules. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that increasing the rate of conditioned reinforcement on concurrent-chains schedules may have no independent effect on choice.
Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities. PMID:19042526
Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F
BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians (PCPs) are often expected to screen for melanomas and refer patients with suspicious pigmented lesions\\u000a to dermatologists.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there is a difference between dermatologists and PCPs in accurately diagnosing melanoma and appropriately\\u000a managing (based on decisions to refer\\/biopsy) suspicious pigmented lesions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS: A survey based on a random sample of 30 photographs
Suephy C. Chen; Michelle L. Pennie; Paul Kolm; Erin M. Warshaw; Eric L. Weisberg; Katherine M. Brown; Michael E. Ming; William S. Weintraub
|A 1983 committee report is presented of the World Health Organization Expert Committee on the Education and Training of Nurse Teachers and Managers with Special Regard to Primary Health Care. After discussing the changing context of health care and trends in primary health care, changes required in education and training in health systems based…
Introduction and objectives: The Optimcare study objective was to assess the impact on effectiveness and costs of a practice guideline implemented through a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for the management of patients with hypercholesterolemia in the primary healthcare setting. Study design and perspective: The study design was a prospective, naturalistic, single-center (Vila Olimpica Primary Health Care Center, Barcelona, Spain),
Alex Bassa; Miguel del Val; Albert Cobos; Salvador Bergonon; Carlos Crespo; Max Brosa; Silvia Munio; Cristina Espinosa
This article focuses on the constraints on parental choice of school caused by geographical location, which arise due to the reliance on geographical proximity as the key oversubscription criterion for allocating school places. We investigate the assumption that most families really can choose between a range of different schools, and ask what types of school are genuinely accessible to different
Simon Burgess; Ellen Greaves; Anna Vignoles; Deborah Wilson
Climate change will pose increasingly significant challenges to managers of parks and other forms of protected areas around the world. Over the past two decades, numerous scientific publications have identified potential adaptations, but their suitability from legal, policy, financial, internal capacity, and other management perspectives has not been evaluated for any protected area agency or organization. In this study, a
OBJECTIVE: To analyze primary care staffing in HMOs and to review the literature on primary care organization and performance in managed care organizations, with an emphasis on the delivery of primary care to the elderly and chronically ill. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Analysis of primary care staffing: InterStudy HMO census data on primary care (n = 1,956) and specialist (n = 1,777) physician staffing levels from 1991 through 1995. Primary care organization and performance for the chronically ill and elderly were analyzed using a review of published research. STUDY DESIGN: For the staffing-level models, the number of primary care and specialist physicians per 100,000 enrollees was regressed on HMO characteristics (HMO type [group, staff, network, mixed], HMO enrollment, federal qualification, profit status, national affiliation) and community characteristics (per capita income, population density, service area size, HMO competition). For the review of organization and performance, literature published was summarized in a tabular format. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of physician staffing shows that group and staff HMOs have fewer primary care and specialist physicians per 100,000 enrollees than do network and mixed HMOs, which have fewer than IPAs. Larger HMOs use fewer physicians per 100,000 enrollees than smaller HMOs. Federally qualified HMOs have fewer primary care and specialist physicians per 100,000 enrollees. For-profit, nationally affiliated, and Blue Cross HMOs have more primary care and specialist physicians than do local HMOs. HMOs in areas with high per capita income have more PCPs per 100,000 and a greater proportion of PCPs in the panel. HMO penetration decreases the use of specialists, but the number of HMOs increases the use of primary care and specialist physicians in highly competitive markets. Under very competitive conditions, HMOs appear to compete by increasing access to both PCPs and specialists, with a greater emphasis on access to specialists. The review of research on HMO performance suggests that access to PCPs is better in MCOs. But access to specialists and hospitals is lower and more difficult in MCOs than FFS. Data do not suggest that processes of care, given access, are different in MCOs and FFS. MCO enrollees are more satisfied with financial aspects of a health plan and less satisfied with other aspects of health plan organization. There are potential problems with outcomes, with some studies finding greater declines among the chronically ill in MCOs than FFS. We found a variety of innovative care programs for the elderly, based on two fundamentally different approaches: organization around primary care or organizing around specialty care. Differences between the performance of the two approaches cannot be evaluated because of the small amount of research done. It is difficult to say how well particular programs perform and if they can be replicated. The innovative programs described in the literature tend to be benchmark programs developed by HMOs with a strong positive reputation.
|Classroom management has become, in recent years, more frustrating and difficult for teachers as the social problems of the outside world find their way into schools. This study surveyed primary teachers from two Bronx schools to identify types of classroom management currently being used. Findings indicated that, consistent with a more…
Objective To investigate the effectiveness of supplementing information and advice on analgesia and exercise from a general practitioner with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as a non-drug form of analgesia to reduce pain intensity in patients with tennis elbow. Design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial in primary care. Setting and 38 general practices in the West Midlands, UK. Participants 241 adults consulting with a first or new (no consultation in previous six months) clinical diagnosis of tennis elbow. Interventions Participants were randomly allocated to either primary care management alone, consisting of a consultation with a general practitioner followed by information and advice on exercises, or primary care management plus TENS to be used once a day for 45 minutes over six weeks (or until symptom resolution) for pain relief. Outcome measures The primary outcome was self reported intensity of elbow pain (0-10 rating scale) at six weeks. Primary and secondary outcomes were measured at baseline and at six weeks, six months, and 12 months by postal questionnaire. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results 121 participants were randomised to primary care management plus TENS and 120 to primary care management only (first episode, n=197 (82%); duration <1-3 months, n=138 (57%)). Adherence to exercise and TENS recommendations reported at six weeks was low; only 42 participants in the primary care management plus TENS group met a priori defined adherence criteria. Both intervention groups showed large improvements in pain and secondary outcomes, especially during the first six weeks of follow-up. However, no clinically or statistically significant differences were seen between groups at any follow-up timepoint. At the primary endpoint (six weeks), the between group difference in improvement of pain was ?0.33 (95% confidence interval ?0.96 to 0.31; P=0.31) in favour of the primary care management only group, with adjustment for age, sex, and baseline pain score. Conclusions This trial does not provide evidence for additional benefit of TENS as an adjunct to primary care management of tennis elbow. Poor adherence to interventions is evidence of the challenges of implementing self management treatment strategies in primary care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN87141084.
Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common clinical entities encountered in regular practice by the gynecologists. Dysmenorrhea means painful menstruation. Fifty percent of the women suffer from dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is correlated with Udavartini yonivyapad in Ayurveda. No successful advances have been made in the line of management till today by western medicine. Therefore, a complete, comprehensive and holistic approach toward its understanding and treatment is the need of the age. In this series, Uttar Vasti, a unique panchakarma procedure, is studied for its role in yonivyapads. A research study was conductedto evaluate the efficacy of Uttar Vasti with Trivrit and Lasuna oil in Primary dysmenorrhea. Thirty-six diagnosed cases of Udavartini Yonivyapad, viz., primary (spasmodic) dysmenorrhea, were selected and randomly allocated into two groups. The effect of Uttar Vasti was compared with the commonly used non steroidal anti inflammatory drug (control group). Uttar Vasti with Operculina turpethum (Trivrit) and Allium sativum (Lasuna) oil has shown encouraging results in Udavartini yonivyapad. Statistically significant relief was seen in the intensity of pain and the successive cycles were less painful in the treated group as compared to control group. The mode of action can be attributed to anti-inflammatory (vatahara), vasodilatory (ushna virya) antispasmodic and laxative (anulomana) properties of the trial drugs. The present study shows Uttar Vasti as a safe and easy technique to treat dysmenorrhea like conditions without any side effects.
Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common clinical entities encountered in regular practice by the gynecologists. Dysmenorrhea means painful menstruation. Fifty percent of the women suffer from dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is correlated with Udavartini yonivyapad in Ayurveda. No successful advances have been made in the line of management till today by western medicine. Therefore, a complete, comprehensive and holistic approach toward its understanding and treatment is the need of the age. In this series, Uttar Vasti, a unique panchakarma procedure, is studied for its role in yonivyapads. A research study was conductedto evaluate the efficacy of Uttar Vasti with Trivrit and Lasuna oil in Primary dysmenorrhea. Thirty-six diagnosed cases of Udavartini Yonivyapad, viz., primary (spasmodic) dysmenorrhea, were selected and randomly allocated into two groups. The effect of Uttar Vasti was compared with the commonly used non steroidal anti inflammatory drug (control group). Uttar Vasti with Operculina turpethum (Trivrit) and Allium sativum (Lasuna) oil has shown encouraging results in Udavartini yonivyapad. Statistically significant relief was seen in the intensity of pain and the successive cycles were less painful in the treated group as compared to control group. The mode of action can be attributed to anti-inflammatory (vatahara), vasodilatory (ushna virya) antispasmodic and laxative (anulomana) properties of the trial drugs. The present study shows Uttar Vasti as a safe and easy technique to treat dysmenorrhea like conditions without any side effects. PMID:22131715
From 1982 to 1987, 114 patients underwent operation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center for soft-tissue sarcoma of the retroperitoneum. A retrospective analysis of these patients defines the biologic behavior, surgical management of primary and recurrent disease, predictive factors for outcome, and impact of multimodality therapy. Complete resection was possible in 65% of primary retroperitoneal sarcomas and strongly predicts outcome (p less than 0.001). The rate of complete resection was not altered by histologic type, size, or grade of tumor. These patients had a median survival of 60 months compared to 24 months for those undergoing partial resection and 12 months for those with unresectable tumors. Forty-nine per cent of completely resected patients have had local recurrence. This is the site of first recurrence in 75% of patients. These patients undergo reoperation when feasible. Complete resection of recurrent disease was performed in 39 of 88 (44%) operations, with a 41-month median survival time after reoperation. Tumor grade was a significant predictor of outcome (p less than 0.001). High-grade tumors (n = 65) were associated with a 20-month median survival time compared to 80 months for low-grade tumors (n = 49). Gender, histologic type, size, previous biopsy, and partial resection versus unresectable tumors did not predict outcome by univariate analysis. Adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy could not be shown to have significant impact on survival. Concerted attempt at complete resection of both primary and recurrent retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcoma is indicated.
Respiratory infections are still among the most common new diagnoses in primary care. The most frequent reason for encounter is acute cough. General practitioners have to make antibiotic prescribing decisions in a context of diagnostic uncertainty, patient preferences and antimicrobial resistance. There is a causal link between antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic prescribing in primary care. GRACE observational studies (www.grace-lrti.org), show that variation in clinical presentation does not explain the considerable variation in antibiotic prescribing in Europe for adults presenting in primary care with acute cough and that recovery is similar between those treated with any antibiotic, a particular antibiotic class, or no antibiotic. A GRACE randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the effect of antibiotics for acute cough has recruited more patients than all RCTs combined in the current Cochrane Review and will have the power to identify subgroups of patients who will (not) benefit from amoxicillin. Another multi-country GRACE RCT assessing the effect on antibiotic prescribing of largely web-based versions of successful interventions including a C-reactive protein point-of-care test, a communication skill training and an interactive patient booklet is awaited. Given potential long-term cost-effectiveness, the GRACE suite of observational and interventional studies are enhancing the evidence base for reducing diagnostic uncertainty and managing patient expectations in a patient-centred way to achieve greater evidence-based antibiotic prescribing that is likely to help containing antimicrobial resistance. PMID:22548288
Primary care practitioners (PCPs) have been encouraged to screen all adults for obesity and to offer behavioral weight loss counseling to affected individuals. However, there is limited research and guidance on how to provide such intervention in primary care settings. This led the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in 2005 to issue a request for applications to investigate the management of obesity in routine clinical care. Three institutions were funded under a cooperative agreement to undertake the Practice-based Opportunities for Weight Reduction (POWER) trials. The present article reviews selected randomized controlled trials, published prior to the initiation of POWER, and then provides a detailed overview of the rationale, methods, and results of the POWER trial conducted at the University of Pennsylvania (POWER-UP). POWER-UP’s findings are briefly compared with those from the two other POWER Trials, conducted at Johns Hopkins University and Harvard University/Washington University. The methods of delivering behavioral weight loss counseling differed markedly across the three trials, as captured by an algorithm presented in the article. Delivery methods ranged from having medical assistants and PCPs from the practices provide counseling to using a commercially-available call center, coordinated with an interactive web-site. Evaluation of the efficacy of primary care-based weight loss interventions must be considered in light of costs, as discussed in relation to the recent treatment model proposed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
Wadden, Thomas A.; Volger, Sheri; Tsai, Adam G.; Sarwer, David B.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Diewald, Lisa; Carvajal, Raymond; Moran, Caroline H.; Vetter, Marion
OBJECTIVES: To examine national practice, and variations in practice, concerning total hip replacement; in particular the choice of prosthesis and the involvement of consultants in NHS operations. DESIGN: Pre-operative survey of patients undergoing total hip replacement. SETTING: Five English regions serving combined population of 16.8 million people. SUBJECTS: 13,343 total hip replacement operations in one year commencing September 1996, either in NHS or private sector. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prosthesis used for surgery, status of surgeons involved in operation, use of laminar flow operating theatre. RESULTS: Prostheses without well documented 5-year survival were used in 5504 (58%) of 9417 operations for which information was available. The consultant was the operator in 4810 (64%) of 7499 NHS operations. In 1352 trainee-led operations, the consultant was present for only 637 (47%); this figure was 54% for trainees in years 1-4 of their training. Substantial variation between NHS consultant firms occurred both for use of prostheses with well documented survival data, and supervision of trainees by the consultant. CONCLUSIONS: This large study is the first attempt to describe national practice for primary total hip replacement. Substantial variation among consultant firms was observed for all indices of practice reported.
Morris, R. W.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Hajat, S.; Reeves, B. C.; Murray, D. W.; Hannen, D.; Rigge, M.; Williams, O.; Gregg, P. J.
Recognition, management, and prevention of medical complications and comorbidities after liver transplant is the key to improved long-term outcomes. Beyond allograft-related complications, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, renal dysfunction, and malignancies are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Primary care physicians have an important role in improving outcomes of liver transplant recipients and are increasingly relied on for managing these complex patients. This review serves to assist the primary care physician in the long-term management issues of liver transplant recipients.
Background Neurogenic claudication (NC) is the clinical syndrome commonly associated with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Non-surgical management is recommended as initial treatment, but little is known about current practice in relation to the assessment and management of these patients in the non-surgical setting. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey of physiotherapists in a large UK primary care musculoskeletal service which provides a city-wide multidisciplinary assessment and treatment facility for patients with spinal and other musculoskeletal problems. Data on therapists' recognition and management of patients with NC and LSS were collected. Results Fifty out of 54 therapists completed questionnaires, and all but one of these identified a clearly recognised posture-related clinical syndrome of NC. Almost all respondents (48: 96%) reported the routine use of physiotherapy treatments. In particular, advice and education (49: 98%) along with an exercise programme (47: 94%) incorporating flexion-based exercises (41: 82%) and trunk muscle stabilising exercises (35: 70%) were favoured. Conclusion Musculoskeletal physiotherapy clinicians in this survey recognised a clear clinical syndrome of NC, based on the findings of posture-dependent symptoms. Most therapists reported the routine use of flexion-based exercise, reflecting recommendations in the literature which are based on theoretical benefits, but for which trial evidence is lacking. There is a need for research evidence to guide the choice of physiotherapy treatments.
Comer, Christine M; Redmond, Anthony C; Bird, Howard A; Conaghan, Philip G
Climate change will pose increasingly significant challenges to managers of parks and other forms of protected areas around\\u000a the world. Over the past two decades, numerous scientific publications have identified potential adaptations, but their suitability\\u000a from legal, policy, financial, internal capacity, and other management perspectives has not been evaluated for any protected\\u000a area agency or organization. In this study, a
Background Two key elements to improve the quality of care for people with long-term conditions in primary care are improved clinical information systems to support delivery of evidence-based care, and enhanced self-management support. Although both elements are viewed as necessary, their interaction is not well understood. Aim To explore the use of computer-based ‘disease management’ templates and their relevance to self-management dialogue within clinical encounters. Design and setting Qualitative study of general practices located in three primary care trusts in the north of England. Method A qualitative mixed methods study was conducted that included comparative analysis of (1) observations of general practice consultations (n = 86); and (2) interviews with health professionals in general practice (n = 17). Results The analysis suggested that use of the computer templates reinforced a checklist approach to consultations, which included professionals working through several self-management topics framed as discrete behaviours. As a consequence, conversation tended to become focused on the maintenance of the professional-patient relationship at the expense of expansion in self-management dialogue. The computer templates also shaped how patient-initiated self-management dialogue was managed when it arose, with a shift towards discussion around medical agendas. Conclusion In order to enhance the management of long-term conditions in primary care, the design and implementation of clinical information systems to improve evidence-based care need to take into account their potential impact on supporting self-management.
Blakeman, Tom; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Reeves, David; Rogers, Anne; Bower, Peter
The challenge of sustainable forest management is to integrate diverse and sometimes conflicting management objectives. In order to achieve this goal, we need a better understanding of the aspects influencing the preferences of diverse groups and how these groups make trade-offs between different attributes of SFM. We compare the SFM preferences of interest groups in regions with different forest use histories based on the reasoning that the condition of the forest reflects the forest use history of the area. The condition of the forest also shapes an individual's forest values and attitudes. These held values and attitudes are thought to influence SFM preferences. We tested whether the SFM preferences vary amongst the different interest groups within and across regions. We collected data from 252 persons using a choice experiment approach, where participants chose multiple times among different options described by a combination of attributes that are assigned different levels. The novelty of our approach was the use of choice experiments in the assessment of regional preference differences. Given the complexity of inter-regional comparison and the small sample size, this was an exploratory study based on a purposive rather than random sample. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the aggregation of preferences of all individuals within a region does not reveal all information necessary for forest management planning since opposing viewpoints could cancel each other out and lead to an interpretation that does not reflect possibly polarised views. Although based on a small sample size, the preferences of interest groups within a region are generally statistically significantly different from each other; however preferences of interest groups across regions are also significantly different. This illustrates the potential importance of assessing heterogeneity by region and by group. PMID:20526714
Berninger, Kati; Adamowicz, Wiktor; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Messier, Christian
Methods: In 26 health facilities in selected sites, we observed management of all STD patients presenting in the adult general or STD clinic. We assessed the referral system by analysing patient registers. Results: 408 STD patients (65% in STD and 35% in general clinics) were observed. 70% were women. Women were examined less (26% against 75%, p<0.0001), had laboratory tests ordered more (74% against 45%, p=0.0002), were more often diagnosed syndromically (57% against 38%, p=0.008), and received less advice on condom use (19% against 87%, p<0.001) and contact treatment (47% against 81%, p=0.04). Examination, laboratory requests, diagnosis, and treatment were not significantly different in the STD and general clinic. Health education was better in the STD clinic (condom advice 47% against 8%, p <0.001). Only 41% of referred patients presented to the STD clinic. Conclusions: The better performance of STD clinics in health education was offset by high referral losses. A proposed integration of STD treatment into general outpatient clinics and better implementation of syndromic management and health education should improve STD case management at primary level in Mozambique.
OTHER ARTICLE PUBLISHED IN THIS MINI-REVIEW SERIES ON IMMUNODEFICIENCY Molecular defects in common variable immunodeficiency. Clin Exp Immunol 2007; 149: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2007.03461.x The primary purpose of this systematic review was to produce an evidence-based review of the literature as a means of informing current clinical practice in the recognition, diagnosis and management of patients with suspected primary antibody deficiency. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, DARE (CRD website) and CINAHL by combining the search strategies with The Cochrane Collaboration's validated RCT filter. In addition, other types of studies were identified in a separate search of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Patients at any age with recurrent infections, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, should be investigated for possible antibody deficiency. Replacement therapy with immunoglobulin in primary antibody deficiencies increases life expectancy and reduces infection frequency and severity. Higher doses of immunoglobulin are associated with reduced infection frequency. Late diagnosis and delayed institution of immunoglobulin replacement therapy results in increased morbidity and mortality. A wide variety of organ-specific complications can occur in primary antibody deficiency syndromes, including respiratory, gastroenterological, hepatic, haematological, neurological, rheumatological and cutaneous. There is an increased risk of malignancy. Some of these complications appear to be related to diagnostic delay and inadequate therapy. High-quality controlled trial data on the therapy of these complications is generally lacking. The present study has identified a number of key areas for further research, but RCT data, while desirable, is not always obtained easily for rare conditions. Few data from registries or large case-series have been published in the past 5 years and a greater focus on international collaboration and pooling of data is needed.
Wood, P; Stanworth, S; Burton, J; Jones, A; Peckham, D G; Green, T; Hyde, C; Chapel, H
Describes how the author allows the children to make choices about their art and writing, enabling them to make connections between their own lives and work. Suggests that educators need to provide doorways to the things that give students ideas: books, music, objects, pictures, smells, sounds, and textures. (SG)
Because operating room (OR) management decisions with optimal choices are made with ubiquitous biases, decisions are improved with decision-support systems. We reviewed experimental social-psychology studies to explore what an OR leader can do when working with stakeholders lacking interest in learning the OR management science but expressing opinions about decisions, nonetheless. We considered shared information to include the rules-of-thumb (heuristics) that make intuitive sense and often seem "close enough" (e.g., staffing is planned based on the average workload). We considered unshared information to include the relevant mathematics (e.g., staffing calculations). Multiple studies have shown that group discussions focus more on shared than unshared information. Quality decisions are more likely when all group participants share knowledge (e.g., have taken a course in OR management science). Several biases in OR management are caused by humans' limited abilities to estimate tails of probability distributions in their heads. Groups are more susceptible to analogous biases than are educated individuals. Since optimal solutions are not demonstrable without groups sharing common language, only with education of most group members can a knowledgeable individual influence the group. The appropriate model of decision-making is autocratic, with information obtained from stakeholders. Although such decisions are good quality, the leaders often are disliked and the decisions considered unjust. In conclusion, leaders will find the most success if they do not bring OR management operational decisions to groups, but instead act autocratically while obtaining necessary information in 1:1 conversations. The only known route for the leader making such decisions to be considered likable and for the decisions to be considered fair is through colleagues and subordinates learning the management science. PMID:24108254
Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Braun, Michael T; Van Swol, Lyn
Supporting family choice in the decision-making process is recommended practice in the field of early childhood and early\\u000a childhood special education. These decisions may relate to the medical, educational, social, recreational, therapeutic\\/rehabilitative,\\u000a and community aspects of the child's disability. Although this practice conveys the message that families are the primary\\u000a decision-makers for their children, families are not always adequately supported
Mary M. Murray; Kimberly A. Christensen; Gardner T. Umbarger; Karin C. Rade; Kathryn Aldridge; Judith A. Niemeyer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Omeprazole has shown remarkable efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); similarly, laparoscopic techniques have allowed less morbidity in patients undergoing fundoplication procedures. Concerns about the long-term cost and safety of both strategies have prompted a debate of their role in long-term management of patients with severe erosive esophagitis. METHODS: A
Southern pine beetle (SPB) prevention cost-share programs provide a financial incentive to private forest landowners in exchange for undertaking forest management practices that improve stand health. Healthy pine trees in low density stands offer the best defense against the SPB, helping to ensure that timber resources and other benefits of forests are protected against infestations. This study evaluates the preferences
Frederick J. Rossi; Douglas R. Carter; Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; John T. Nowak
Conjoint analysis has played an important role in helping make a number of operations management decisions including product and service design, supplier selection, and service operations capacity. Many recent advances in this area have raised questions about the most appropriate form of conjoint analysis for this research. We review recent developments in the literature and provide new evidence on how
Ekaterina V. Karniouchina; William L. Moore; Bo Van Der Rhee; Rohit Verma
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with bronchiectasis, chronic rhinosinusitis, infertility and situs inversus. Estimates of prevalence vary widely, but is probably between 1:10,000- 1:40,000 in most populations. A number of observational studies indicate that access to services to diagnose and manage patients with PCD vary both between and within countries. Diagnosis is often delayed and frequently missed completely. The prognosis of patients with PCD is variable, but evidence suggests that it is improved by early diagnosis and specialist care. This article briefly reviews the literature concerning PCD and the evidence that specialist care will improve healthcare outcomes. The article specifically refers to a new national service in the UK. PMID:23764568
Lucas, Jane S; Chetcuti, Philip; Copeland, Fiona; Hogg, Claire; Kenny, Tom; Moya, Eduardo; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Walker, Woolf T
Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the stomach is a rare disorder for which clinical management has not yet been settled completely. Faced with the many uncertainties associated with the selection of a treatment for a patient with this disorder, it is difficult to determine the treatment that is optimal for the patient, as well as the prognosis to be expected. The development of a decision-theoretic model of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the stomach is described. The model aims to assist the clinician in exploring various clinical questions, among others questions concerning prognosis and optimal treatment. Central to the model is a probabilistic network that offers an explicit representation of the uncertainties underlying the decision-making process. The model has been incorporated in a decision-support system. Preliminary evaluation results indicate that the performance of the model in its present form matches the performance of experienced clinicians. PMID:9787619
Purpose Early intervention for prostate cancer is associated with excellent long-term survival, but many affected men, especially those with low-risk disease characteristics, might not suffer adverse impact to quantity or quality of life were treatment deferred. We sought to characterize temporal trends in clinical presentation and primary disease management among patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Methods Data were abstracted from CaPSURE, a disease registry of 8685 men with various stages of prostate cancer. 2078 men were included who were diagnosed between 1989 and 2001 and had a serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) ? 10 ng/ml, Gleason sum ? 6, and clinical T-stage ? 2a. Trends in risk distribution, tumor characteristics, and primary treatment were evaluated. Results The proportion of patients with low-risk tumor characteristics rose from 29.8% in 1989–1992 to 45.3% in 1999–2001 (p<.0001). There have been sharp increases in the use of brachytherapy and androgen deprivation monotherapy, from 3.1 and 3.1%, to 12.0 and 21.7%, respectively. Utilization rates for prostatectomy, external-beam EBRT, and observation have fallen accordingly, from 63.8, 16.1, and 13.8% to 51.6, 6.8, and 7.9% (p<.0001 for all except prostatectomy, p=.0019). Age and socioeconomic status were significantly associated with treatment selection, but overall the treatment trends were echoed on subgroup analysis of patients 75 years old or greater. Conclusions Low-risk features characterize a growing proportion of prostate cancer patients, and there have been significant shifts in the management of low-risk disease. Over-treatment may be a growing problem, especially among older patients.
Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Lubeck, Deborah P.; Meng, Maxwell V.; Mehta, Shilpa S.; Carroll, Peter R.
Objective To assess the efficacy of brief fatigue self-management (FSM) for medically unexplained chronic fatigue (UCF) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in primary care. Methods A randomized controlled design was used wherein 111 patients with UCF or CFS were randomly assigned to two sessions of FSM, two sessions of symptom monitoring support (attention control; AC), or a usual care control condition (UC). Participants were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 12 months after treatment. The primary outcome, the Fatigue Severity Scale, measured fatigue impact on functioning. Analysis was by intention to treat (multiple imputation) and also by per protocol. Results A group × time interaction across the 15-month trial showed significantly greater reductions in fatigue impact in the FSM group in comparison with the AC group (p < .023) and the UC group (p < .013). Medium effect sizes for reduced fatigue impact in the FSM group were found in comparison with the AC group (d = 0.46) and the UC group (d = 0.40). The per-protocol analysis revealed large effect sizes for the same comparisons. Clinically significant decreases in fatigue impact were found for 53% of participants in the FSM condition, 14% in the AC condition, and 17% in the UC condition. Dropout rates at the 12-month follow-up were high (42%-53%), perhaps attributable to the burden of monthly telephone calls to assess health care use. Conclusion A brief self-management intervention for patients with UCF or CFS seemed to be clinically effective for reducing the impact of fatigue on functioning. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00997451. PMID:23922399
Background: Progress in the diagnosis, localization of abnormal parathyroids, and intraoperative management of primary hyperparathyroidism has been observed over the past 34 years. The goal of this study is to report the outcome of patients undergoing 2 different operative approaches in a single institution, showing the evolution of surgical management of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (SPHPT). Methods: Parathyroidectomy was performed in 890 (827 initial, 63 reoperative) patients with SPHPT using 2 different approaches: traditional bilateral neck exploration (BNE, n = 396) or limited parathyroidectomy guided by parathormone dynamics (LPX, n = 494). Seven hundred eighteen patients (335 BNE, 383 LPX) followed ? 6 months or identified as operative failures were studied. Operative failure is defined as hypercalcemia and high intact (1–84) parathyroid hormone molecule (iPTH) within 6 months after operation. Successful parathyroidectomy is normocalcemia for 6 months; hypercalcemia and elevated iPTH after this time is recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Results: There were 20 (6%) of 335 operative failures in the BNE group and 11 (3%) of 383 failures in the LPX group (P = 0.04). The incidence of multiglandular disease (MGD) determined by gland size (10%) versus hormone hypersecretion (3%) was statistically different (P < 0.001). Since most of the recurrences occurred later than 30 months, the incidence of recurrent hyperparathyroidism in patients followed for longer than 2.5 years was 4% (11/287) in the BNE group (average, 11.5 years) and 3% (5/183) in the LPX group (average, 4.2 years). Conclusion: LPX, with its reported advantages of minimal dissection, shorter operative time, and use in ambulatory settings, compares favorably with the traditional BNE. Parathyroidectomy guided by parathormone dynamics has an improved success rate and should be considered as a standard operative approach in SPHPT.
Irvin, George L.; Carneiro, Denise M.; Solorzano, Carmen C.
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of rare disorders. This study was devised in order to compare management of these diseases in the northern hemisphere, given the variability of practice among clinicians in North America. The members of two international societies for clinical immunologists were asked about their management protocols in relation to their PID practice. An anonymous internet questionnaire, used previously for a survey of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), was offered to all full members of the European Society for Immunodeficiency (ESID). The replies were analysed in three groups, according to the proportion of PID patients in the practice of each respondent; this resulted in two groups from North America and one from Europe. The 123 responses from ESID members (23·7%) were, in the majority, very similar to those of AAAAI respondents, with > 10% of their practice devoted to primary immunodeficiency. There were major differences between the responses of these two groups and those of the general AAAAI respondents whose clinical practice was composed of < 10% of PID patients. These differences included the routine use of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) for particular types of PIDs, initial levels of IVIg doses, dosing intervals, routine use of prophylactic antibiotics, perceptions of the usefulness of subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy (SCIg) and of the risk to patients' health of policies adopted by health-care funders. Differences in practice were identified and are discussed in terms of methods of health-care provision, which suggest future studies for ensuring continuation of appropriate levels of immunoglobulin replacement therapies.
Hernandez-Trujillo, H S; Chapel, H; Lo Re III, V; Notarangelo, L D; Gathmann, B; Grimbacher, B; Boyle, J M; Hernandez-Trujillo, V P; Scalchunes, C; Boyle, M L; Orange, J S
Objective: To assess the utility of an electronic clinical decision support tool for management of depression in primary care. Method: This prospective study was conducted in a national network of ambulatory practices over a 1-year period (October 2007–October 2008). A clinical decision support tool was embedded into the electronic health record of 19 primary care practices with 119 providers. The main components included (1) the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), with 9 questions paralleling the 9 DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of major depressive disorder; (2) a suicide assessment form; and (3) brief patient and provider education. Use of each component was tracked in the electronic health record. Providers completed baseline and postintervention surveys regarding their depression management practices and their perceptions of the clinical decision support tool. Results: According to electronic health record tracking, the PHQ-9 form was used in 45.6% of the 16,052 adult patients with depression and in 73.7% of the 1,422 patients with new depression. The suicide assessment form was used in 62.0% of patients with possible suicidality. Education modules were rarely used. From before to after the study, providers reported increased use of standardized tools for depression diagnosis (47% to 80%, P?.001) and monitoring (27% to 85%, P?.001). The majority of providers reported often using the PHQ-9 and suicide forms and felt them to be very helpful in patient care, with 85% planning to continue their use after the study. Conclusions: The electronic health record–based clinical decision support tool was extensively used and perceived as very helpful for assessment of patients’ symptoms but not for provider education. These findings can help guide national efforts incorporating clinical decision support for quality improvement.
Chen, Ying Xia; Grimes, Angela; Diamond, James J.; Lieberman, Michael I.; Klinkman, Michael S.
The Canary Islands great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major canariensis is an endemic bird restricted to the Pinus canariensis forests of Tenerife and Gran Canaria. Classification tree models were applied to explore the relationship of the occurrence of this picid and habitat variables between two contrasting periods (breeding vs. non-breeding seasons) and for the entire annual cycle. During the reproductive period the availability of mature trees (DBH > 60 cm), and snags (dead trees), for nesting and roosting, characterize the breeding territory. Outside the breeding season the choice of locations was driven by a tree cover larger than 28.5% and the presence of trees taller than 8.5 m on average, a pattern explained by the availability of pine seeds in the cones of well-developed canopies, and less so by predation risk. Overall, during the annual cycle, well-developed canopy sites influenced the presence of this picidae (tree cover > 38%) and on more open sites (<38%) the presence of mature trees (DBH> 60 cm) became the second most important predictor of occurrence. We suggest that food abundance and availability could be the ultimate factor explaining the intra-annual variation observed, with the availability of snags being an important factor during nesting. In the range of this endemic, we recommend selective cuts in pine plantations, to allow the trees to set seed and improve their crops, minimizing the elimination of snags, and killing some large pine trees if the priority is to expand the distributional range of the woodpecker.
Garcia-del-Rey, Eduardo; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Muñoz, Pascual Gil
The management of partial transection of the anterior urethra following penetrating penile injuries is controversial. Optional therapeutic techniques range from a primary sutured reapproximation to urinary diversion alone. We recently managed 17 low velocity gunshot wounds to the external genitalia in which the missile traversed the penile corpus cavernosum, and was associated with less than 40% transection of the corpus spongiosum and anterior urethra. Nine patients were managed with suprapubic diversion, skin débridement and corporeal closure along with placement of a urethral catheter. Eight patients were managed by suprapubic diversion, débridement, closure of the corporeal bodies and a primary sutured reapproximation of the anterior urethra. Urethral strictures developed in 7 patients (78%) managed by a suprapubic tube and urethral stenting during an average followup of 20 months (range 18 to 24). In contrast, 1 patient (12%) managed by a sutured urethral approximation had a urethral stricture during an average followup of 20 months (range 18 to 30, p < 0.01). Our data support a significantly better prognosis for partial transection of the anterior urethra secondary to low velocity gunshot wounds if managed by aggressive wound débridement, corporeal repair, placement of a suprapubic catheter and primary repair of the urethra. PMID:8510278
Operating a typical school today is no easy task for facilities managers and business officials. You're expected to deliver increased services with constrained operating budgets. Many schools stay open for longer hours to accommodate community use of the facilities. Dilapidated buildings and systems gobble up energy, yet in many districts, maintenance needs are overshadowed by the need for expansion or new construction to serve growing student populations and changing educational needs.
This study describes a culturally relevant intervention using a collaborative depression care model to integrate mental health and primary care services for depressed low income Chinese-Americans at a community health center. A total of 6,065 patients were screened for depression. Of the 341 who screened positive, 57 participated and were randomly assigned to receive either enhanced physician care with care management (32) or enhanced physician care only (25). All enrolled participants were assessed at baseline and 4 monthly follow-up visits for depression, physical and mental health functioning, and perceived stigma toward receiving depression care, to determine the impact, if any, of their mental health treatment. Both groups reported significant reduction of depressive symptoms and improved mental health functioning from baseline to follow-up assessments although there was no significant difference between the two groups. Although the study found no advantage to adding the care management component in the treatment of depression, screening and assertive treatment of immigrant Chinese Americans who tend to underutilize mental health services is important and consistent with the increased adoption of team based care models in patient centered medical homes. High refusal rates for enrollment in the study have implications for future study designs for this group. PMID:22015960
Background Effective implementation of change in healthcare organisations involves multiple professional and organisational groups and is often impeded by professional and organisational boundaries that present relatively impermeable barriers to sharing knowledge and spreading work practices. Informed by the theory of communities of practice (CoPs), this study explored the effects of intra-organisational and inter-organisational boundaries on the implementation of service improvement within and across primary healthcare settings and on the development of multiprofessional and multi-organisational CoPs during this process. Methods The study was conducted within the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester—a collaborative partnership between the University of Manchester and local National Health Service organisations aiming to undertake applied health research and enhance its implementation in clinical practice. It deployed a qualitative embedded case study design, encompassing semistructured interviews, direct observation and documentary analysis, conducted in 2010–2011. The sample included practice doctors, nurses, managers and members of the CLAHRC implementation team. Findings The study showed that in spite of epistemic and status differences, professional boundaries between general practitioners, practice nurses and practice managers co-located in the same practice over a relatively long period of time could be successfully bridged, leading to the formation of multiprofessional CoPs. While knowledge circulated relatively easily within these CoPs, barriers to knowledge sharing emerged at the boundary separating them from other groups existing in the same primary care setting. The strongest boundaries, however, lay between individual general practices, with inter-organisational knowledge sharing and collaboration between them remaining unequally developed across different areas due to historical factors, competition and strong organisational identification. Manipulated emergence of multi-organisational CoPs in the context of primary care may thus be problematic. Conclusions In cases when manipulated emergence of new CoPs is problematic, boundary issues could be addressed by adopting a developmental perspective on CoPs, which provides an alternative to the analytical and instrumental perspectives previously described in the CoP literature. This perspective implies a pragmatic, situational approach to mapping existing CoPs and their characteristics and potentially modifying them in the process of service improvement through the combination of internal and external facilitation.
We developed and evaluated a comprehensive pharmacist-led, primary care-based diabetes disease management program for patients with Type 2 diabetes and poor glucose control at our academic general internal medicine practice. The primary goal of this program was to improve glucose control, as measured by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Clinic-based pharmacists offered support to patients with diabetes through direct teaching about diabetes,
Russell Rothman; Robb Malone; Betsy Bryant; Cheryl Horlen; Michael Pignone
A study was undertaken to ascertain the appropriateness of lipid screening and management per the Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel National Cholesterol Education Program (ATP III) guideline in a sample of North Carolina primary care practices. Demographics, cholesterol values, and comorbid conditions were abstracted from the medical records from 60 community practices participating in a randomized practice-based trial (Guideline Adherence for Heart Health). Eligible patients were aged 21 to 84 years, seen during the baseline period of June 1, 2001, through May 31, 2003, and who were not taking lipid-lowering therapy. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to assess whether age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, ATP III risk category, or pretreatment low-density lipoprotein (LDL) influenced treatment. Among 5031 eligible patients, 1711 (34.5%) received screening lipid profiles. Screening rates were higher with older age, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. No large differences were seen by sex. Among patients screened (mean age, 51.6 years; 57.9% female), 76.6% were appropriately managed within 4 months. In adjusted analyses, older age was associated with less appropriate treatment (odds ratio [OR] per 5 years, 0.91; P=.01), and patients with LDL cholesterol managed appropriately compared with patients with LDL >or=190 mg/dL and those at high risk. Among 375 patients eligible for drug treatment, those with LDL levels between 131 and 159 mg/dL were much less likely to be treated (OR, 0.15; P<.001) compared with those with LDL >190 mg/dL, whereas risk category did not influence treatment. The challenge facing implementation of ATP III guidelines is much greater for intermediate- and high-risk patients than for low-risk patients. PMID:19476583
Barham, Ann Hiott; Goff, David C; Chen, Haiying; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi; Rosenberger, Erica; Bonds, Denise E; Bertoni, Alain G
Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD), patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio), we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk) and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey). Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.
Aim: Treatment of maxillofacial firearm injuries is still controversial with regard to timing of management. We postulate that not all maxillofacial firearm injuries need be delayed and that many may be treated early. To this end, a 19-year retrospective study was undertaken seeking to evaluate patients treated for firearm injuries to the facial skeleton at our center. The criteria which dictated when to operate are presented as are the results, benefits, and outcomes of the patients treated acutely. Patients and Methods: From 1991 to 2010, 51 patients with maxillofacial firearm injuries were treated; 30/51 patients received early primary repair and simultaneous open reduction for facial fractures. These underwent primary debridement and arch bar placement followed by open reduction of fractures (with or without osteosynthesis) and primary wound closure. Patient age ranged from 8 to 50 years, with a mean age of 24.4±7.8 years. Primary early intervention was done when there was no gross infection, no bone comminution or extensive soft tissue avulsion (precluding wound coverage), and when general health, concomitant injuries requiring more urgent attention or those requiring major grafts did not preclude this. Primary intervention included extensive oral and extraoral irrigation (dilute hydrogen peroxide + povidone iodide), debridement of the facial wound, removal of floating fragments (teeth particles, debris, and shell fragments) precluding viable bone within the wound, access to the bone, finding the scattered bone segments and putting them back into place to restore bone continuity. Projectiles beyond the wound were not searched for. Tooth roots within the alveolus were not extracted at this stage. In addition to arch bars, titanium miniplates or wire osteosynthesis was done when necessary. All wounds were closed primarily (using local advancement flaps when necessary) and all patients were placed on antibiotics (cephalosporin + aminoglycoside or ciprofloxacin) upon admission. Results: Of 51 patients, 30 were treated acutely and 21 warranted delayed intervention. In the acute-treated group, 6/30 patients had minor complications such as scarring and wound discharge. Early intervention for firearm wounds to the face was effective for facial firearm injuries in selected cases. This resulted in restoration of occlusion and continuity of the jaw, fixation of luxated teeth, early return of function, prevention of segment displacement and tissue contracture, less scarring, and decreased the need for major bone graft reconstruction later on. Those treated secondarily were only debrided and had arch bars placed. Definitive treatment of hard and soft tissue management was rendered in another subsequent operation. Bone reduction was more difficult because of scarring, and displacement of remaining segments. No significant differences were noted in terms of infection or other major complications. Conclusions: Firearm wounds were associated with a high incidence of maxillofacial injuries requiring surgical intervention. Many may be treated definitively and acutely with procedures designed to repair both bone and soft tissue injuries simultaneously aiming to restore bony continuity, esthetics and function using the tissues at hand (especially in the mandible). Early treatment is advocated because the course of healing is not disrupted with another subsequent operation (in the same wound) and because it may decrease hospital stay without increasing patient morbidity in selected patients. Patients with residual defects can be treated later as out-patients.
Cellular differentiation relies on both physical and chemical environmental cues. The bipotential mouse embryonic liver (BMEL) cells are early progenitors of liver epithelial cells with an apparently infinite proliferative potential. These cells, which remain undifferentiated in a monolayer culture, differentiate upon release from geometrical constraints imposed by growth on a stiff plastic plate. In a complex three dimensional environment of a Matrigel extracellular matrix, BMEL cells form two types of polarized organoids of distinct morphologies: cyst-like structures suggesting cholangiocyte-type organization or complex organoids, reminiscent of liver parenchyma and associated with acquisition of hepatocyte-specific phenotypic markers. The choice of the in vitro differentiation lineage is governed by Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling. Our results suggest that morphological cues initiate the differentiation of early hepatic precursors and confirm the inhibitory role of TGF-beta on hepatocytic lineage differentiation. PMID:20458741
|In recent years India has seen an explosion in low-fee private (LFP) schooling aimed at the poorer strata of society. This marketisation of primary education is a reaction to the well-documented failings of the government system. This paper looks at LFP schooling in one rural district of Uttar Pradesh, and compares government to low cost private…
The goal of the Hypertension Management Initiative (HMI) is to improve the management and control of hypertension by both primary care providers and patients. The HMI was in effect in 11 primary care sites across the province of Ontario, Canada. This was a qualitative study. Focus groups and a lobby survey were completed with a total of 199 of the 3934 patients enrolled in the study. Interviews with 41 participating health care providers from all sites were performed. A qualitative description approach was used to give a rich description of each informant's experiences. Patients expressed motivation and engagement in their own health care and became more knowledgeable about hypertension and how to manage it with their health care providers. Most reported satisfaction with the discipline of regular appointments and ongoing monitoring and counseling of the program including identifying and working on goals for their modifiable risk factors. Their health care providers felt the HMI program had a positive impact on the treatment and management of hypertension and also that it improved the functioning of the interprofessional team. The HMI helped to improve patient self-empowerment and self-management and also improved physicians' and nurses' confidence in diagnosing accurately and in hypertension management. Physician buy-in is key to maintaining clinical hypertension management. Interprofessional collaboration was improved for physicians and nurses but less so for pharmacists. Greater confidence among the nurses to manage hypertension more independently reduced demands on physician time. PMID:23523109
|Examines two potential factors affecting managerial variability in media sensitivity: communication apprehension and self-monitoring. Finds that both measures affect the media choicesmanagers make. Calls into question, however, the initial models of media choice decisions of managers. (SR)|
BACKGROUND: Acne is the most common skin disorder in young people, affecting up to 80% of teenagers. AIMS: To ascertain the incidence, prevalence, demographic distribution and severity of acne in primary care and to document the management of these patients for a two-year period after presentation. DESIGN OF STUDY: Retrospective cohort study using data from the medical records of 798 patients who had been treated for acne during a one-year identification period. SETTING: Fourteen general practices in a mixed urban area in north-east England. METHOD: Patients aged 13 to 25 years who had acne were identified from computerised practice medical records using diagnostic codes and medication records. The medical records of these patients were then hand-searched for data for two years after presentation. RESULTS: Data were collected for 798 patients from 14 practices. The prevalence of acne in 13- to 25-year-olds was 3.1%, and the incidence was 1.6%. The ratio of male to female patients with acne was 1:1.02. Median age at presentation was 15 years for male subjects and 16 years for female subjects. Recording of site and severity was rare (18.3%). In total, 55% of patients had two or more different prescriptions for acne, 21% of patients had six or more consultations during the two-year follow-up period, and 8.5% were referred to a dermatologist. CONCLUSION: Given previous estimates of community prevalence, it is clear that the majority of young people with acne do not present to primary care. These findings have implications for the provision of effective and appropriate health care for young people with acne.
Background: Chronic heart failure is a common clinical condition with high morbidity and mortality. Despite the evidence that appropriate treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can improve morbidity, primary care studies show that patients with heart failure are incorrectly diagnosed and inadequately treated. Aim: To explore general practitioners' accounts of their management of patients with heart failure and identify the perceived
Kamlesh Khunti; Hilary Hearnshaw; Richard Baker; Gill Grimshaw
Objective To determine the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve outcomes in patients with multimorbidity in primary care and community settings. Design Systematic review. Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, CAB Health, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, the database of abstracts of reviews of effectiveness, and the Cochrane EPOC (effective practice and organisation of care) register (searches updated in April 2011). Eligibility criteria Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series analyses reporting on interventions to improve outcomes for people with multimorbidity in primary care and community settings. Multimorbidity was defined as two or more chronic conditions in the same individual. Outcomes included any validated measure of physical or mental health and psychosocial status, including quality of life outcomes, wellbeing, and measures of disability or functional status. Also included were measures of patient and provider behaviour, including drug adherence, utilisation of health services, acceptability of services, and costs. Data selection Two reviewers independently assessed studies for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed study quality. As meta-analysis of results was not possible owing to heterogeneity in participants and interventions, a narrative synthesis of the results from the included studies was carried out. Results 10 studies examining a range of complex interventions totalling 3407 patients with multimorbidity were identified. All were randomised controlled trials with a low risk of bias. Two studies described interventions for patients with specific comorbidities. The remaining eight studies focused on multimorbidity, generally in older patients. Consideration of the impact of socioeconomic deprivation was minimal. All studies involved complex interventions with multiple components. In six of the 10 studies the predominant component was a change to the organisation of care delivery, usually through case management or enhanced multidisciplinary team work. In the remaining four studies, intervention components were predominantly patient oriented. Overall the results were mixed, with a trend towards improved prescribing and drug adherence. The results indicated that it is difficult to improve outcomes in this population but that interventions focusing on particular risk factors in comorbid conditions or functional difficulties in multimorbidity may be more effective. No economic analyses were included, although the improvements in prescribing and risk factor management in some studies could provide potentially important cost savings. Conclusions Evidence on the care of patients with multimorbidity is limited, despite the prevalence of multimorbidity and its impact on patients and healthcare systems. Interventions to date have had mixed effects, although are likely to be more effective if targeted at risk factors or specific functional difficulties. A need exists to clearly identify patients with multimorbidity and to develop cost effective and specifically targeted interventions that can improve health outcomes.
A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories--basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers--accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal trans boundary HW movements despite international regulations. PMID:20015592
Background We sought to determine the current practice patterns of general surgeons in Atlantic Canada in the management of primary rectal cancer in relation to surgeon-specific variables. Methods We sent mail-out surveys to all practising general surgeons (n =183) in Atlantic Canada to determine screening preferences, preoperative assessment, the use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy, surgical therapy for rectal cancer and surgeon demographics. We analyzed the responses using ?2 tests. Results The response rate was 98 (54%) after 2 mail-outs; there were 82 (49%) eligible responses. Surgeons in practice for 21 years or more were more likely than those with fewer than 21 years of practice to order preoperative ultrasonography of the liver and were less likely to order preoperative computed tomography. Endorectal ultrasonography was ordered routinely by 23% of surgeons, whereas 71% of surgeons would order it if time and resources were available. Surgeons who were not certified by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada were significantly more likely than those who were certified to use neoadjuvant therapy in all patients with rectal cancer (43% v. 12%; p = 0.031). Surgeons who performed more than 10 rectal cancer surgeries per year were significantly more likely than those who performed 10 or fewer surgeries per year to use neoadjuvant treatment for T3 tumours (94% v. 61%; p = 0.007). Surgeons with medical or radiation oncology services in their communities were significantly more likely than those without such services to recommend neoadjuvant treatment in T3 rectal tumours and rectal tumours with pathologic lymph nodes. Conclusion We found significant variation in the management of rectal cancer depending on surgeon-specific variables. The implications of these differences on the outcomes of patients with rectal cancer are unknown.
Chuah, Teong Kuan; Lee, Tracy; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Pollett, William
The coexistence of thyroid diseases with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) can present a challenge in the clinical diagnosis and management for these patients. This study aims to determine the frequency of coexisting thyroid gland lesions in a consecutive series patients with PHPT, and to analyze the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Twenty-two cases of a total of 52 PHPT patients who had synchronous thyroid and parathyroid pathology were surgically managed in this study. Thirteen patients had ipsilateral thyroid nodules, and 9 patients had thyroid nodules in contralateral or bilateral side. Seven patients underwent direct parathyroidectomy and hemithyroidectomy via a mini-incision (about 3 cm), while other 15 procedures were converted to Kocher incision. Seventeen nodular goiter (32.7%), 2 thyroiditis (3.8%), 2 thyroid adenoma (3.8%) and 1 thyroid carcinoma (1.9%) coexisting with parathyroid adenoma were pathologically diagnosed. The sensitivity of preoperative ultrasonography (US) and methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy for parathyroid lesions was 63.6% and 85.7%; and the overall positive predictive values for MIBI and US were 100% and 95.5% respectively. A high incidence of thyroid diseases that coexisted with PHPT in literatures was briefly reviewed. Our study illustrated the need for clinical awareness of concomitant PHPT and thyroid disease. A combination of US, computed tomography (CT) and MIBI scintigraphy would be recommended for preoperative localization of enlarged parathyroid adenoma and for evaluation of thyroid lesions. Synchronous treatment of associated thyroid abnormalities is desirable, and open minimally invasive surgical approach with additional resection of isolated ipsilateral thyroid nodules is possible in some of these patients.
Zheng, Yi-xiong; Xu, Shao-ming; Wang, Ping; Chen, Li
The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and assess an automated asthma medication management information system (MMIS) that provides patient-specific evaluative guidance based on 1997 NAEPP clinical consensus guidelines. MMIS was developed and implemented in primary care settings within a pediatric asthma disease management program. MMIS infrastructure featured a centralized database with Internet access. MMIS collects detailed patient asthma medication data, evaluates pharmacotherapy relative to practitioner-reported disease severity, symptom control and model of guideline-recommended severity-appropriate medications and produces a patient-specific "curbside consult" feedback report. A system algorithm translates actual detailed medication data into actual severity-specific medication-class combinations. A table-driven computer program compares actual medication-class combinations to a guideline-based medication-class combinations model. Methodology determines whether the patient was prescribed a "severity-appropriate" amount or an amount "more" or "less" medication than indicated for patient's reported severity. Feedback messages comment on comparison. Missing data, unrecognized amounts of controller medication or unrecognized medication combinations create error cases. Post hoc review analyzed error cases to determine prevalence of non-guideline medicating practices among these practitioners. Proportion of valid and error cases across two clinical visits before and after post hoc clinical review were measured, as well as proportion of severity-appropriate, out-of-severity and non-guideline medications. MMIS produced a valid feedback report for 83% of patient visits. Missing data accounted for 60% of error cases. Practitioners used severity-appropriate medications for 60% of cases. When non-severity-appropriate medications were used they tended to be "too much" rather than "too little" (22%, 5%), suggesting appropriate use of guideline-recommended "step down" therapy by these practitioners. PMID:15669584
Twiggs, Joan E; Fifield, J; Jackson, E; Cushman, R; Apter, A
Introduction: A study was conducted at primary healthcare level in the Melaka Tengah district of Malaysia to determine whether hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were managed according to guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 517 patients with diabetes mellitus from August to October 2003 was performed. Results: All the subjects had type 2 diabetes mellitus. 350 (67.7
This paper draws lessons from a review of primary health care services in Windhoek, the capital of Namibia, undertaken by a regional health management team. The review was carried out because of perceived increases in workload and inadequate staffing levels, arising from the rapid expansion of the city associated with inward migration. A survey of the utilization of government clinics
The study investigates the operations of an informal initiative; the “barro’ boys” in the primary sub-system of urban solid waste management. The study is focused on 2 of the 20 local government councils in Lagos State, Nigeria. All the barro’ boys identified in Mushin and Kosofe local government areas were purposively sampled through structured interview. Information on the residents’ perception
Opt-out syphilis testing routinely conducted during HIV management checks increased testing rates for gay men with HIV in a primary care setting. Although successfully increasing testing rates, this strategy failed to meet quarterly testing guidelines, which could point to the need for additional strategies and guideline revaluation. PMID:23486501
The quality of the treatment of finger fractures by Accident and Emergency Department staff has been prospectively assessed during a six-month period. 678 finger fractures were seen in the A. & E. Department. The primary treatment of 624 of these was performed by the A. & E. staff, but in 169 of these (27%), the treatment was inappropriate. Most management
ABSTRACT Efforts to redesign primary care require multiple supports. Two potential members of the primary care team—practice facilitator and care manager—can play important but distinct roles in redesigning and improving care delivery. Facilitators, also known as quality improvement coaches, assist practices with coordinating their quality improvement activities and help build capacity for those activities—reflecting a systems-level approach to improving quality, safety, and implementation of evidence-based practices. Care managers provide direct patient care by coordinating care and helping patients navigate the system, improving access for patients, and communicating across the care team. These complementary roles aim to help primary care practices deliver coordinated, accessible, comprehensive, and patient-centered care.
Taylor, Erin Fries; Machta, Rachel M.; Meyers, David S.; Genevro, Janice; Peikes, Deborah N.
Treatment of hypertension, to reverse and delay proteinuria progression and kidney failure, is the primary focus of medical\\u000a management in patients with diabetic nephropathy. The initial choice for hypertension treatment in those with early nephropathy\\u000a involves agents that block the renin-angiotensin system. However, it is not clear what the best choices for further drug therapy\\u000a management are, because there are
Aim: Patellar dislocations are a common injury of the knee joint. During patella dislocations injuries of soft-tissue structures can occur that can destabilise the patella and lead to recurrent dislocations. There are also congenital pathologies that predispose to patella dislocations. In the current literature, diagnostics and treatment of patellar dislocations are frequently discussed. Therefore the aim of our survey was to analyse and summarise actual diagnostic and therapeutic strategies regarding primary and recurrent patella dislocations. Methods: An online questionnaire form was sent to 735 orthopaedic and/or trauma departments in Germany. The departments were invited to participate in an anonymous survey concerning diagnostics and treatment of primary and recurrent patellar dislocations. The questionnaire consisted of multiple choice questions and was divided into three sections. The first section included questions concerning the department structure. The second part contained questions regarding diagnostics and treatment of primary patella dislocations. The third part involved diagnostic and treatment strategies for recurrent patella dislocations. A systematic review of outcome after treatment of patellar dislocation was performed and discussed with the results of the survey. Results: 245 hospitals (33.3 %) returned the questionnaire. Among the participants were 23 % orthopaedic surgery departments, 32 % trauma surgery departments and 45 % combined departments. 12 % were university hospitals and 53 % academic teaching hospitals. Clinical examination was performed by nearly all participants after primary and recurrent patella dislocations. MRI was used as diagnostic tool in 81 % after primary patella dislocation and in 85 % after recurrent patella dislocation. Conventional X-rays were performed in 58 % (primary) and 51 % (recurrent patella dislocations). Computed tomography scans for measurement of the tuberositas tibiae-trochlea groove distance were used in 35 % after recurrent dislocations and in 20 % after primary patella dislocations. 69 % of the participating departments performed non-operative therapies after primary patella dislocations, especially when no associated injuries and no congenital pathologies were observed. Reconstruction of the medial retinaculum was the most frequent surgical therapy (52 %) followed by the reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (36 %) after primary patella dislocation. Following recurrent patella dislocations reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (58.5 %) was the most performed surgery and a tuberositas transfer was done in 58 % of participating departments after recurrent patella dislocation. Conclusion: The results of our survey showed diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the participating departments which are in accordance with recommendations in recent publications. The clinical importance of the MPFL reconstruction was observed for primary and recurrent patella dislocation. In addition, conservative treatment is still the most common treatment after primary dislocation of the patella. PMID:23963985
Hohlweck, J; Quack, V; Arbab, D; Spreckelsen, C; Tingart, M; Lüring, C; Rath, B
The United States has more than 1.5 million immigrants from countries in Africa and the Middle East where female genital cutting (FGC) is known to occur. Often, FGC occurs in infancy and childhood in the countries where it is practiced, but patients of any age can present with complications. Lack of understanding of this common problem can potentially alienate and lower quality of care for this patient population. We provide an introduction to the practice of FGC and practice guidelines for the primary care physician. We reviewed original research, population-based studies, and legal research from PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL plus, PsycINFO, and Legal Trac. The terms searched included female genital cutting, female genital circumcision, and female genital mutilation alone and with the term complications or health consequences; no limit on date published. Legal databases were searched using the above terms, as well as international law and immigration law. Editorials and review articles were excluded. This review discusses the different types of FGC, important cultural considerations for physicians caring for patients with FGC, the common early and late medical complications and their management, and psychosocial issues associated with FGC. Current laws pertaining to FGC are briefly reviewed, as well as implications for patients seeking asylum status in the United States because of FGC. Finally, the article presents evidence-based, culturally sensitive approaches to discussions of FGC with girls and women for whom this is an issue. PMID:23726401
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an uncommon non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) that grows mainly in serous body cavities. The most common presentation of PEL is that of a young immunocompromised male with shortness of breath, as the pleural cavity is most commonly affected. Diagnosis is primarily based on fluid cytology in which PEL cells display variable morphology and a null lymphocyte immunophenotype; however, evidence of HHV-8 infection within the neoplastic cell is essential. Patients have commonly been treated with systemic multidrug chemotherapy and antiretroviral therapy if they were HIV positive or were immunocompromised for other reasons. In the immunocompetent patient, there have been no agreed-upon pathways for management of this condition. Progression of disease is common and median survival is approximately 6 months. Novel intrapleural treatments with antiviral agents such as intracavity cidofovir have shown to be effective in controlling local disease, and ongoing clinical trials may provide some promise in the treatment for this condition. PMID:23424065
Ammari, Zaid A; Mollberg, Nathan M; Abdelhady, Khaled; Mansueto, Mario D; Massad, Malek G
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A primary care version of the International classification of diseases (10th revision) chapter five for mental and behavioural disorders (ICD-10 PHC chapter five) has been developed. This provisional version focuses on 24 conditions which are frequently seen in primary care and which can be managed effectively by general practitioners. The classification is accompanied by a flipcard for each of the conditions. The cards have diagnostic guidelines on one side and management guidelines on the other. The latter provide information which should be given to the patient, advice on the content of counselling, the available treatment methods, and indications for specialist referral. This classification system is also supported by diagnostic decision making aids, medication cards, and patient leaflets to facilitate the recognition and management of patients with mental disorders in primary care settings. The draft version of ICD-10 PHC chapter five will be finalized after field trials which will test the applicability and usefulness of the system in different primary care settings in various countries.
Ustun, T B; Goldberg, D; Cooper, J; Simon, G E; Sartorius, N
The UK National Health Service (NHS) is undergoing cataclysmic change following the election of the first Labour Government in 18 years. This is primarily embodied in the implementation of the White Paper The New NHS Modern-Dependable, which has resulted in the creation of primary care groups (PCGs) and primary care trusts (PCTs). The task facing both PCGs and PCTs is a radically new and complex one, requiring a new set of leadership skills to the traditional command and control style management. Leadership theories have evolved over the past 70 years. However, it was not until the 1980s that a major change in the paradigm of thinking around what is the nature of leadership occurred. The interaction between the leader and his/her followers is explored in what has become known as transformational leadership theories, developed by Bass and Avolio. Recent studies have, however, questioned the applicability of leadership models derived in the USA, to other cultures. This paper explores the leadership behaviours required for the management boards of PCGs and PCTs. A qualitative research method "Grounded Theory" approach was chosen for this study of leadership. The Repertory Grid technique was used to collect data. There are a number of implications arising from the findings of this study for both leadership models in general, and more specifically, for the development of leadership skills in both PCGs and PCTs. PMID:11407187
This study included 235 patients with missile injuries of the facial skeleton, who were treated in the Maxillofacial Unit of the Hospital of Specialized Surgery in Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq, during a period of 4 years of war, since Iraq became the international battlefield for terrorism. There were 195 men and 40 women, with ages ranging from 1 to 70 years (mean, 39.5 years); all patients had severe facial injuries and posttraumatic missile deformities, including 27 patients with orbital injuries. This study also evaluates the management of the immediate, intermediate, and secondary phases.Deformities of the facial skeleton as a complication of missile injuries were classified into the following cases: 95 patients (40.43%) had bone loss, 72 patients (30.64%) had soft-tissue loss, 33 patients (14.05%) had orbital injuries, and 35 patients (14.90%) had other deformities of scar contracture, fistula, and sinus formation.The bony defects of the mandible were reconstructed by both bone chips carried by osteomesh tray harvested from the iliac crest in 24 patients and by block of corticocancellous bone graft from the iliac crest in 38 patients for reconstruction of the mandible, 4 cases for maxillary reconstruction, and 4 cases of orbital floor defect. K-wire was used in 23 cases for holding missing segments of the mandible. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the face was done in 72 cases, local flaps were used in 30 cases, regional flaps including lateral cervical flap in 10 cases, and cervicofacial flaps in 11 cases. The orbit was reconstructed by bone graft, lyophilized dura, and silastic implant. Low-velocity bullet injury to the frontal part of the head was treated by coronal flap, as an access in 6 cases required craniotomy and dura was reconstructed by galea or temporalis muscle. Scar contracture was treated by scar revision, and sinus tract was excised at the same time of scar revision. Primary phase required an urgent airway management, controlling an active bleeding by surgical intervention; most entrance and exit wounds as well as retained missile were located in the cheek, chin, and mandibular body. Few cases were reported of mortality due to complication related to head injuries. PMID:20613559
Purpose To review the management regimes of acute primary angle closure (APAC) in two hospitals in Singapore, and to identify the incidence of and risk factors for progression to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of 40 patients from National University Hospital (NUH) and 52 patients from Singapore National Eye Centre (SNEC) who were diagnosed with APAC. Patients were treated with similar protocols of intensive medical therapy until laser peripheral iridotomy could be performed. In the event of failed medical treatment, patients at NUH only underwent laser iridoplasty. The 1-year outcomes were reviewed. Results The demographic features of patients and presenting intraocular pressures (IOP) were similar in both centers. More patients from NUH presented within 3 days of symptom onset, compared to those from SNEC (90.0% versus 71.2%, respectively) (P = 0.037). The mean ± standard deviation time to break the attack was 18.2 ± 32.9 hours at SNEC and 9.80 ± 10.6 hours at NUH (P = 0.11). The mean follow up duration was 18.8 ± 14.0 months. Nineteen patients (36.5%) from SNEC and six patients (22.5%) from NUH developed raised IOP (P = 0.032) within 1-year of the attack. Of these, glaucomatous optic neuropathy developed in thirteen patients (68.4%) from SNEC and all six patients (100%) from NUH. At final review, the mean IOP of the APAC eye was 14.8 ± 4.3 mmHg from SNEC and 13.4 ± 3.0 mmHg from NUH. There was no significant difference in final visual acuity or IOP between both groups. Conclusion Treatment strategies in both centers were effective in aborting an APAC attack. The development of raised IOP appears to be associated with a longer period of attack suggesting that greater urgency in aborting APAC attacks may entail better long term outcomes.
Ho, Henrietta; Chew, Paul T; Sng, Chelvin; Huang, Huiqi; Aung, Tin; Perera, Shamira A
Presented is the diagnostic and therapeutic management of the primary obstructed megaureter (POM). 42 patients presented with 53 ureteral units (UU) of POM (5 females, 37 males, 36 neonates and 6 children aged 3 to 8 years). Of the 53 megaureters 10 UU (19%) were on the right and 27 UU(51 %)were on the left. 8 patients (19%)with 16 UU (30%)showed a bilateral abnormality. In 41% of the patients, hydronephrosis had been discovered by prenatal ultrasound. All patients were evaluated postnatally by ultrasound (US), voiding cysturethrogram (VCUG), intravenous pyelogram (IVP) and diuresis renogram (MAG-3) (DR). Due to the percentage of urinary drainage,the renogram results were classified into different categories:no obstruction, functional obstruction, equivocal and obstruction. A partial renal function was also calculated. Follow-up of the patients ranges between 5 to 48 months (mean: 22.1). All patients underwent serial US and serial DR were obtained in 36 patients. Initially, 9 (17%) UU showed a functional obstruction, 34 (64.2%) an equivocal and 10 (18.8%) an obstructive urinary drainage pattern. 2 kidneys showed a significant decreased partial function of 20, respectively 26%. Surgery was performed in an initial im-paired renal function with an obstructive pattern or in cases with normal function and at least equivocal urinary drainage pattern with no improvement or deterioration of the urinary drainage and/or function in the follow-up. Considering these criteria, 5(9.6%) patients needed surgery. No loss of kidney function has been observed in follow-up. DR is the most valuable diagnostic tool. Criteria interpreting the results are demonstrated in this article. PMID:11967757
Stehr, M; Metzger, R; Schuster, T; Porn, U; Dietz, H-G
Diabetes management continues to fall short of evidence-based goals of care. Population management represents a new approach to diabetes care for large numbers of patients with diabetes cared for within a single clinical system. This method is information intensive and generally requires an advanced informatics infrastructure. While Information Processing is a critical first step in population management, to have a
Richard W. Grant; William T. Lester; James B. Meigs; Henry C. Chueh
While many innovative information and communication technologies have been offered as solutions to primary care management challenges, few have been shown to be effective and or sustainable over time. Information technology approaches have been narrow in focus, relying on designs that enhance usability, interoperability and adaptability by delimiting the traits, attributes, and characteristics of individual communication processes. It is increasingly understood in primary health care settings that relational communication continuity between the patient and the health care team is essential for optimizing co-determined treatments, interventions, and self-management strategies. Successful utilization of a patient-centered web-based portal must account for essential proximity of the relational aspect of care between the patient and the immediate health care team. PMID:23388306
Many primary care physicians are not providing care that is consistent with recommendations to prevent, to identify, and to manage childhood obesity. This report presents modifications made to the electronic medical record system of a large pediatric health care system, using a quality improvement approach, to support these recommendations and office system changes. Although it is possible to make practice changes secondary to electronic medical record system enhancements, challenges to development and implementation exist. PMID:19088224
Background As a major public health issue in China and worldwide, late-life depression is associated with physical limitations, greater\\u000a functional impairment, increased utilization and cost of health care, and suicide. Like other chronic diseases in elders such\\u000a as hypertension and diabetes, depression is a chronic disease that the new National Health Policy of China indicates should\\u000a be managed in primary care
Shulin Chen; Yeates Conwell; Baihua Xu; Helen Chiu; Xin Tu; Yan Ma
In 2014, the Affordable Care Act will create an estimated 16 million newly insured people. Coupled with an estimated shortage of over 60,000 primary care physicians, the country's public health care system will be at a challenging crossroads, as there will be more patients waiting to see fewer doctors. Nurse practitioners (NPs) can help to ease this crisis. NPs are health care professionals with the capability to provide important and critical access to primary care, particularly for vulnerable populations. However, despite convincing data about the quality of care provided by NPs, many managed care organizations (MCOs) across the country do not credential NPs as primary care providers, limiting the ability of NPs to be reimbursed by private insurers. To assess current credentialing practices of health plans across the United States, a brief telephone survey was administered to 258 of the largest health maintenance organizations (HMOs) in the United States, operated by 98 different MCOs. Results indicated that 74% of these HMOs currently credential NPs as primary care providers. Although this represents progress over prior assessments, findings suggest that just over one fourth of major HMOs still do not recognize NPs as primary care providers. Given the documented shortage of primary care physicians in low-income communities in the United States, these credentialing policies continue to diminish the ability of NPs to deliver primary care to vulnerable populations. Furthermore, these policies could negatively impact access to care for thousands of newly insured Americans who will be seeking a primary care provider in 2014. PMID:23540569
Hansen-Turton, Tine; Ware, Jamie; Bond, Lisa; Doria, Natalie; Cunningham, Patrick
Objective To describe the design, implementation, baseline data, and feasibility of establishing a disease management program for smoking cessation in rural primary care. Method The study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating a disease management program for smoking cessation. The intervention combined pharmacotherapy, telephone counseling, and physician feedback, and repeated intervention over two years. The program began in 2004 and was implemented in 50 primary care clinics across the State of Kansas. Results Of eligible patients, 73% were interested in study participation. 750 enrolled participants were predominantly Caucasian, female, employed, and averaged 47.2 years of age (SD=13.1). In addition to smoking, 427 (57%) had at least one additional major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease or stroke). Participants smoked on average 23.7 (SD=10.4) cigarettes per day, were contemplating (61%) or preparing to quit (30%), were highly motivated and confident of their ability to quit smoking, and reported seeing their physicians multiple times in the past twelve months (Median=3.50; Mean=5.48; SD=6.58). Conclusion Initial findings demonstrate the willingness of patients to enroll in a two-year disease management program to address nicotine dependence, even among patients not ready to make a quit attempt. These findings support the feasibility of identifying and enrolling rural smokers within the primary care setting.
Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Cupertino, Ana-Paula; Mussulman, Laura M.; Nazir, Niaman; Greiner, K. Allen; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.
Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP) is an autosomal recessive disorder of carnitine transportation. The clinical manifestations of CDSP can vary widely with respect to age of onset, organ involvement, and severity of symptoms, but are typically characterized by episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, elevated transaminases, and hyperammonemia in infants; skeletal myopathy, elevated creatine kinase (CK), and cardiomyopathy in childhood; or cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, or fatigability in adulthood. The diagnosis can be suspected on newborn screening, but is established by demonstration of low plasma free carnitine concentration (<5 ?M, normal 25-50 ?M), reduced fibroblast carnitine transport (<10% of controls), and molecular testing of the SLC22A5 gene. The incidence of CDSP varies depending on ethnicity; however the frequency in the United States is estimated to be approximately 1 in 50,000 individuals based on newborn screening data. CDSP is caused by recessive mutations in the SLC22A5 gene. This gene encodes organic cation transporter type 2 (OCTN2) which transport carnitine across cell membranes. Over 100 mutations have been reported in this gene with the c.136C?>?T (p.P46S) mutation being the most frequent mutation identified. CDSP should be differentiated from secondary causes of carnitine deficiency such as various organic acidemias and fatty acid oxidation defects. CDSP is an autosomal recessive condition; therefore the recurrence risk in each pregnancy is 25%. Carrier screening for at-risk individuals and family members should be obtained by performing targeted mutation analysis of the SLC22A5 gene since plasma carnitine analysis is not a sufficient methodology for determining carrier status. Antenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk of CDSP is possible by molecular genetic testing of extracted DNA from chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis if both mutations in SLC22A5 gene are known. Once the diagnosis of CDSP is established in an individual, an echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, CK concentration, liver transaminanses measurement, and pre-prandial blood sugar levels, should be performed for baseline assessment. Primary treatment involves supplementation of oral levocarnitine (L-carnitine) at a dose of 50–400 mg/kg/day divided into three doses. No formal surveillance guidelines for individuals with CDSP have been established to date, however the following screening recommendations are suggested: annual echocardiogram and electrocardiogram, frequent plasma carnitine levels, and CK and liver transaminases measurement can be considered during acute illness. Adult women with CDSP who are planning to or are pregnant should meet with a metabolic or genetic specialist ideally before conception to discuss management of carnitine levels during pregnancy since carnitine levels are typically lower during pregnancy. The prognosis for individuals with CDSP depends on the age, presentation, and severity of symptoms at the time of diagnosis; however the long-term prognosis is favorable as long as individuals remain on carnitine supplementation.
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN:A prospective evaluation of the effectiveness of otolaryngology evaluation, treatment, and referral guidelines developed collaboratively by otolaryngologists and primary care physicians on referrals and access to otolaryngology. Comparisons of appropriate to unnecessary referrals, the percentage of patients referred with disorders addressed to those without disorders addressed in the guidelines, access to otolaryngology, and questionnaire evaluations of primary care
MICHAEL S. BENNINGER; FRANCES KING; RICHARD D. NICHOLS
Current guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of obesity recommend referring individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) to a mental health professional. However, it is unclear how familiar primary care providers are with BED. The purpose of this study was to assess providers' familiarity with BED diagnosis and treatment. Providers in two primary care clinics completed a questionnaire, which assessed
Lillian Huang Cummins; Erin C. Dunn; Leora Rabin; Joan Russo; Katherine Anne Comtois; Barbara S. McCann
|Following substantial changes throughout the Australian education system, primary schools are no longer in the protected position of having a regulated flow of clients, a predetermined curriculum, and marginal levels of staff development. This book reviews the impact of this change on Australian primary schools, the people who are involved with…
Following substantial changes throughout the Australian education system, primary schools are no longer in the protected position of having a regulated flow of clients, a predetermined curriculum, and marginal levels of staff development. This book reviews the impact of this change on Australian primary schools, the people who are involved with…
Background: Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke frequently first contact their primary care physician rather than seeking care at a hospital emer- gency department. The purpose of the present study was to identify a group of patients seen by primary care phy- sicians in an office setting for a first-ever TIA or stroke and characterize their evaluation and
Larry B. Goldstein; John Bian; Gregory P. Samsa; Arthur J. Bonito; Linda J. Lux; David B. Matchar
|Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…
Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.
|Investigated the relationship between free choice writing in primary classrooms and gender construction. Suggests that girls are rewarded for producing gendered content, form, and structure in their writing, and are not offered opportunities to learn to write in different forms for different audiences. Thus, free choice does not appear to lead to…
Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N?=?1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic ‘social utility values’ were the most influential, followed by the desire for a secure job. Intrinsic
Ahmet K?l?nç; Helen M. G. Watt; Paul W. Richardson
Background With the rise in the prevalence of dementia disorders and the growing critical impact of dementia on health-care resources, the provision of dementia care has increasingly come under scrutiny, with primary care physicians (PCP) being at the centre of such attention. Purpose To critically examine barriers and enablers to timely diagnosis and optimal management of community living persons with dementia (PWD) in primary care. Methods An interpretive scoping review was used to synthesize and analyze an extensive body of heterogeneous Western literature published over the past decade. Results The current primary care systems in many Western countries, including Canada, face many challenges in providing responsive, comprehensive, safe, and cost-effective dementia care. This paper has identified a multitude of highly inter-related obstacles to optimal primary dementia care, including challenges related to: a) the complex biomedical, psychosocial, and ethical nature of the condition; b) the gaps in knowledge, skills, attitudes, and resources of PWD/caregivers and their primary care providers; and c) the broader systemic and structural barriers negatively affecting the context of dementia care. Conclusions Further progress will require a coordinated campaign and significantly increased levels of commitment and effort, which should be ideally orchestrated by national dementia strategies focusing on the barriers and enablers identified in this paper.
Aminzadeh, Faranak; Molnar, Frank J.; Dalziel, William B.; Ayotte, Debbie
Background Primary care providers (PCPs) in safety net settings face barriers to optimizing care for patients with diabetes. We conducted this study to assess PCPs' perspectives on the effectiveness of two language-concordant diabetes self-management support programs. Methods One year postintervention, we surveyed PCPs whose patients with diabetes participated in a three-arm multiclinic randomized controlled trial comparing usual care (UC), weekly automated telephone self-management (ATSM) support with nurse care management, and monthly group medical visits (GMVs). We compared PCP perspectives on patient activation to create and achieve goals, quality of care, and barriers to care using regression models accounting for within-PCP clustering. Results Of 113 eligible PCPs caring for 330 enrolled patients, 87 PCPs (77%) responded to surveys about 245 (74%) enrolled patients. Intervention patients were more likely to be perceived by PCPs as activated to create and achieve goals for chronic care when compared with UC patients (standardized effect size, ATSM vs UC, +0.41, p = 0.01; GMV vs UC, +0.31, p = 0.05). Primary care providers rated quality of care as higher for patients exposed to ATSM compared to UC (odds ratio 3.6, p < 0.01). Compared with GMV patients, ATSM patients were more likely to be perceived by PCPs as overcoming barriers related to limited English proficiency (82% ATSM vs 44% GMV, p = 0.01) and managing medications (80% ATSM vs 53% GMV, p = 0.01). Conclusions Primary care providers perceived that patients receiving ATSM support had overcome barriers, participated more actively, and received higher quality diabetes care. These views of clinician stakeholders lend additional evidence for the potential to upscale ATSM more broadly to support PCPs in their care of diverse, multilinguistic populations.
PURPOSE Alcohol dependence, frequently seen in medical settings, is a major problem that affects the health and well-being of many individuals and their families. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between treatment outcomes and patient and clinician factors specifically associated with a medically oriented intervention given for the treatment of alcohol dependence. The intervention was developed for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism–sponsored COMBINE Study, a randomized controlled trial combining 2 medications, naltrexone and acamprosate, with Medical Management, with or without specialty alcohol treatment. METHODS We examined the effect of patient adherence to treatment (number of Medical Management visits, total minutes in treatment, alliance or therapeutic relationship with the clinician, patient satisfaction with treatment, and clinician adherence to the Medical Management protocol) on abstinence from alcohol, amount of heavy drinking, and clinical improvement during treatment. RESULTS More Medical Management visits attended and less total time spent in Medical Management treatment was associated with more days of abstinence from alcohol, reductions in heavy alcohol drinking, and a higher likelihood of clinical improvement. The patients’ positive perceptions of their alliance with their clinician and their satisfaction with treatment was significantly associated with more days of abstinence from alcohol during treatment. Two clinician factors clinician confidence in the Medical Management treatment and flexibility in delivering Medical Management were also associated with better patient outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Medically trained clinicians with minimal specialty training in alcohol dependence treatments were able to deliver a brief and effective medication management intervention that was designed to be consistent with primary care practice.
Ernst, Denise B.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Weiss, Roger D.; Donovan, Dennis M.; Longabaugh, Richard
This article is the third article in the Human Resources for Health journal's feature on the theme of leadership and management in public health. The series of six articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The third article presents a successful application in Mozambique of a leadership
OBJECTIVE: To compare the mortality rate of patients with type 2 diabetes who were enrolled in the German diabetes disease management program (DMP) with the mortality rate of those who were not enrolled. STUDY DESIGN: This observational study was part of the ELSID study (Evaluation of a Large Scale Implementation of disease management programs) in Germany. METHODS: Participants had type
Antje Miksch; Gunter Laux; Dominik Ose; Stefanie Joos; Stephen Campbell; Burgi Riens; Joachim Szecsenyi
This article reviews the clinical management of common respiratory illnesses that primary care providers encounter in an out-patient setting. The latest recommendations from the American Thoracic Society, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are summarized. The article discusses the causative organisms and antibiotics of choice for community-acquired pneumonia, and how to
The specifications of programmable automata and choice criteria are studied. Commercial products since 1981 are classified following a specification system which is detailed. The choice procedure is described including a diagnosis, a primarychoice follow...
Uzbekistan has a well-developed primary care system, with universal access to care, but faces challenges in improving the quality of clinical care provided. This study aimed to identify barriers to quality improvement by focusing on one common condition, Chronic Heart Failure (CHF), for which there are evidence-based international guidelines for management. To identify the challenges to improving the quality of care for CHF in line with such guidelines we took a qualitative approach, interviewing 15 physicians and 30 patients in detail about their experiences of CHF management. Despite recent improvements to the training of primary care physicians, their access to up-to-date information was limited, and they were disproportionately reliant on information from pharmaceutical companies. The main barriers to implementing international standards of care were: reluctance of physicians (and patients) to abandon ineffective interventions; enduring, system-wide incentives for clinically unnecessary hospitalization; and the lack of structural support for evidence-based health services improvement. Patients were in general positive about adherence to medications, but faced some problems in affording drugs and hospital care. Future interventions to strengthen primary care should be implemented with evaluations of their impact on the processes and outcomes of care for chronic conditions. PMID:22987825
Background The role of time management in safe and efficient medicine is important but poorly incorporated into the taxonomies of error in primary care. This paper addresses the lack of time management, presenting a framework integrating five time scales termed ‘Tempos’ requiring parallel processing by GPs: the disease's tempo (unexpected rapid evolutions, slow reaction to treatment); the office's tempo (day-to-day agenda and interruptions); the patient's tempo (time to express symptoms, compliance, emotion); the system's tempo (time for appointments, exams, and feedback); and the time to access to knowledge. The art of medicine is to control all of these tempos in parallel and simultaneously. Method Two qualified physicians reviewed a sample of 1046 malpractice claims from one liability insurer to determine whether a medical injury had occurred and, if so, whether it was due to one or more tempo-related problems. 623 of these reports were analysed in greater detail to identify the prevalence and characteristics of claims and related time management errors. Results The percentages of contributing factors were as follows: disease tempo, 37.9%; office tempo, 13.2%; patient tempo, 13.8%; out-of-office coordination tempo, 22.6%; and GP's access to knowledge tempo, 33.2%. Conclusion Although not conceptualised in most error taxonomies, the disease and patient tempos are cornerstones in risk management in primary care. Traditional taxonomies describe events from an analytical perspective of care at the system level and offer opportunities to improve organisation, process, and evidence-based medicine. The suggested classification describes events in terms of (unsafe) dynamic control of parallel constraints from the carer's perspective, namely the GP, and offers improvement on how to self manage and coordinate different contradictory tempos and day-to-day activities. Further work is needed to test the validity and usefulness of this approach.
Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is a rare clinical entity. The clinical and imaging findings in breast lymphoma can mimic those of breast carcinoma. As a result, the diagnosis of PBL relies on histological evaluation and confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. The treatment of choice of this rare disease is controversial. This case report highlights the diagnosis and management of a 48-year-old woman residing in Iran with PBL. PMID:23749857
Binesh, Fariba; Vahedian, Hassanali; Akhavan, Ali; Hakiminia, Marjan
Background Although the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Oman is high and rising, information on how people were self-managing their disease has been lacking. The objective of this study was therefore to assess diabetes self-management and education (DSME) among people living with type 2 diabetes in Oman. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted in public primary health care centres in Muscat. Diabetes self-management and education was assessed by asking how patients recognized and responded to hypo- and hyperglycaemia, and if they had developed strategies to maintain stable blood glucose levels. Patients' demographic information, self-treatment behaviours, awareness of potential long-term complications, and attitudes concerning diabetes management were also recorded. Associations between these factors and diabetes self-management and education were analysed. Results In total, 309 patients were surveyed. A quarter (26%, n?=?83) were unaware how to recognize hypoglycaemia or respond to it (26%, n?=?81). Around half (49%, n?=?151), could not recognize hyperglycaemia and more than half could not respond to it (60%, n?=?184). Twelve percent (n?=?37) of the patients did not have any strategies to stabilize their blood glucose levels. Patients with formal education generally had more diabetes self-management and education than those without (p<0.001), as had patients with longer durations of diabetes (p<0.01). Self-monitoring of blood glucose was practiced by 38% (n?=?117) of the patients, and insulin was used by 22% (n?=?67), of which about one third independently adjusted dosages. Patients were most often aware of complications concerning loss of vision, renal failure and cardiac problems. Many patients desired further health education. Conclusions Many patients displayed dangerous diabetes self-management and education knowledge gaps. The findings suggest a need for improving knowledge transfer to people living with diabetes in the Omani clinical setting.
Al-Maniri, Abdullah A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Wahlstrom, Rolf
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence in the United States, and has been given particular attention in the veteran population. Recent accounts have estimated TBI incidence rates as high as 20 % among US veterans who served in Afghanistan or Iraq, and many of these veterans experience a host of co-morbid concerns, including psychiatric complaints (such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder), sleep disturbance, and substance abuse which may warrant referral to behavioral health specialists working in primary care settings. This paper reviews many common behavioral health concerns co-morbid with TBI, and suggests areas in which behavioral health specialists may assess, intervene, and help to facilitate holistic patient care beyond the acute phase of injury. The primary focus is on sequelae common to mild and moderate TBI which may more readily present in primary care clinics. PMID:23184276
Experimental choice analysis continues to attract academic and applied attention. We review what is known about the design, conduct, analysis, and use of data from choice experiments, and indicate gaps in current knowledge that should be addressed in future research. Design strategies consistent with probabilistic models of choice process and the parallels between choice experiments and real markets are considered.
Richard T. Carson; Jordan J. Louviere; Donald A. Anderson; Phipps Arabie; David S. Bunch; David A. Hensher; Richard M. Johnson; Warren F. Kuhfeld; Dan Steinberg; Joffre Swait; Harry Timmermans; James B. Wiley
As a peritoneal surface malignancy, primary peritoneal papillary serous carcinoma (PPPSC) almost always occurs in women. Our search of the literature found only two previous case reports of men with PPPSC, both with very short survival. We report the case of a 63-year-old man with PPPSC, treated effectively with cytoreductive surgery and docetaxel-based hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy following six cycles of docetaxel-based laparoscopic neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and cisplatin-based systemic chemotherapy. Furthermore, we detected intraoperative intraperitoneal spreading of the tumor after the oral administration of 5-amino levulinic acid (5-ALA). The patient remains in good health without ascites 18 months after his diagnosis. Thus, primary peritoneal papillary serous carcinoma should be managed by intraperitoneal chemotherapy combined with peritonectomy procedures. Moreover, the intraoperative detection of the intraperitoneal spreading of the tumor after administering oral 5-ALA shows that this is an exciting and promising diagnostic technique, which needs to be confirmed by further studies. PMID:23435809
A 40-year-old man presented to our department with left lower abdominal pain. Laboratory test showed slight leukocytosis and moderately elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a typical fat density lesion adjacent to the sigmoid colon. The diagnosis of primary epiploic appendagitis of the sigmoid colon was established, and the patient was managed conservatively. Primary epiploic appendagitis is a self-limiting illness, and diagnosed by characteristic radiographic findings. Inaccurate diagnosis can lead to unnecessary treatments including surgical intervention. When we encounter a case of acute abdomen, we should consider the possibility of this disease to make accurate diagnosis and give proper treatment. PMID:22688104
The incidence of all skin cancers is increasing. If The health of the nation targets are to be addressed, incidence figures need to be more accurate. Solar damage is the major causal factor in all skin cancers. Certain individual risk factors also play an important part, especially in the development of malignant melanoma. Prevention and early detection are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality from skin cancer. This paper considers the role of primary care skin screening clinics and cutaneous surgery facilities in the early detection and management of skin cancer. It also illustrates the value of a team approach in primary care in the prevention and early detection of skin cancer and in the more accurate recording of incidence rates. PMID:7702891
The incidence of all skin cancers is increasing. If The health of the nation targets are to be addressed, incidence figures need to be more accurate. Solar damage is the major causal factor in all skin cancers. Certain individual risk factors also play an important part, especially in the development of malignant melanoma. Prevention and early detection are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality from skin cancer. This paper considers the role of primary care skin screening clinics and cutaneous surgery facilities in the early detection and management of skin cancer. It also illustrates the value of a team approach in primary care in the prevention and early detection of skin cancer and in the more accurate recording of incidence rates.
Summary: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gammaherpesvirus that infects a large fraction of the human population. Primary infection is often asymptomatic but results in lifelong infection, which is kept in check by the host immune system. In some cases, primary infection can result in infectious mononucleosis. Furthermore, when host-virus balance is not achieved, the virus can drive potentially lethal lymphoproliferation and lymphomagenesis. In this review, we describe the biology of EBV and the host immune response. We review the diagnosis of EBV infection and discuss the characteristics and pathogenesis of infectious mononucleosis. These topics are approached in the context of developing therapeutic and preventative strategies.
Odumade, Oludare A.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Balfour, Henry H.
PURPOSE: Adjustment disorder with anxiety (AjD-A) is a common cause of severe anxiety symptoms, but little is known about its prevalence in old age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of AjD-A in outpatients over the age of 60 who consecutively consulted 34 general practitioners and 22 psychiatrists during a 2-week period. The diagnosis of AjD-A was obtained using the optional module for diagnostic of adjustment disorder of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The study procedure also explored comorbid psychiatric conditions and documented recent past stressful life events, as well as social disability and current pharmacological and non-pharmacological management. RESULTS: Overall, 3651 consecutive subjects were screened (2937 in primary care and 714 in mental health care). The prevalence rate of AjD-A was 3.7% (n=136). Up to 39% (n=53) of AjD-A subjects had a comorbid psychiatric condition, mostly of the anxious type. The most frequently stressful life event reported to be associated with the onset of AjD-A was personal illness or health problem (29%). More than 50% of the AjD-A patients were markedly to extremely disabled by their symptoms. Compared to patients who consulted psychiatrists, patients who were seen by primary care physicians were older, had obtained lower scores at the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, benefited less frequently from non-pharmacological management and received benzodiazepines more frequently. CONCLUSIONS: AjD-A appears to be a significantly disabling cause of anxiety symptoms in community dwelling elderly persons, in particular those presenting personal health related problems. Improvement of early diagnosis and non-pharmacological management of AjD-A would contribute to limit risks of benzodiazepine overuse, particularly in primary care settings. PMID:23769681
Arbus, C; Hergueta, T; Duburcq, A; Saleh, A; Le Guern, M-E; Robert, P; Camus, V
Objective. Chronic hepatitis C infection afflicts millions of people worldwide. Although antiviral treatments are increasingly effective, many hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients avoid treatment, do not complete or respond to treatment, or have contraindications. Self-management interventions are one option for promoting behavioral changes leading to liver wellness and improved quality of life. Our objective was to evaluate whether the effects of the HCV self-management program were sustained at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Methods. Veteran Affairs patients with hepatitis C (N = 134; mean age = 54.6 years, 95% male, 41% ethnic minority, 48% homeless in last 5 years) were randomized to either a 6-week self-management workshop or an information-only intervention. The weekly 2-hour self-management sessions were based on a cognitive-behavioral program with hepatitis C-specific modules. Outcomes including hepatitis C knowledge, depression, energy, and health-related quality of life were measured at baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months later. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results. Compared with the information-only group, participants attending the self-management workshop improved more on HCV knowledge (p < .005), SF-36 energy/vitality (p = .016), and the Quality of Well-Being Scale (p = .036). Similar trends were found for SF-36 physical functioning and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale. Conclusion. Better outcomes were sustained among self-management participants at the 12-month assessment despite the intervention only lasting 6 weeks. HCV health care providers should consider adding self-management interventions for patients with chronic HCV. PMID:23445604
Groessl, Erik J; Ho, Samuel B; Asch, Steven M; Stepnowsky, Carl J; Laurent, Diana; Gifford, Allen L
Prompted by FAO/WHO's and the European Commission's recognition that documents on Good Farming Practices (GFPs) and Good Veterinary Practices (GVPs) in apicultural production are hardly available, part 1 of this contribution provides an update of current apicultural production and associated best practices to ensure animal and public health. Major bee health and disease prevention issues and risk management options at the primary production level are summarised with particular reference to the role of the veterinary practitioner/consultant and the official veterinarian in a control function in the safe production of honey. PMID:22029819
Abstract Background. Oestrogen receptor (ER) status is important for the choice of systemic treatment of breast cancer patients. However, most data from randomised trials on the effect of adjuvant endocrine therapy according to ER status are based on the cytosol methods. Comparisons with immunohistochemical methods have given similar results. The aim of the present study was to examine whether different ER antibodies and heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) methods influence the prevalence of ER-positivity in primary breast cancer. Material and methods. This study is based on patients included in a clinical trial designed to compare the effect of two years of adjuvant tamoxifen versus no adjuvant systemic treatment in premenopausal women. From 1986 to 1991, 564 patients from two study centres in Sweden were enrolled and randomised. Patients were randomised independently of ER status. In the present study, ER status was assessed on tissue microarrays with the three different ER antibody/HIER combinations: 1D5 in citrate pH 6 (n = 390), SP1 in Tris pH 9 (n = 390) and PharmDx in citrate pH 6 (n = 361). Results. At cut-offs of 1% and 10%, respectively, the prevalence of ER-positivity was higher with SP1 (75% and 72%) compared with 1D5 (68% and 66%) and PharmDx (66% and 62%). At these cut-offs, patients in the discordant groups (SP1-positive and 1D5-negative) seem to have a prognosis intermediate between those of the double-positive and double-negative groups. Comparison with the ER status determined by the cytosol-based methods in the discordant group also showed an intermediate pattern. The repeatability was good for all antibodies and cut-offs, with overall agreement ? 93%. Conclusion. The present study shows that the choice of antibody and HIER method influences the prevalence of ER-positivity. We suggest that this be taken into consideration when choosing a cut-off for clinical decision making. PMID:23343224
Background Antithrombotic treatment is a continuous therapy that is often performed in general practice and requires careful safety management. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a best-practice model that applies major elements of case management and patient education, can improve antithrombotic management in primary healthcare in terms of reducing major thromboembolic and bleeding events. Methods This 24-month cluster-randomized trial will be performed with 690 adult patients from 46 practices. The trial intervention will be a complex intervention involving general practitioners, healthcare assistants, and patients with an indication for oral anticoagulation. To assess adherence to medication and symptoms in patients, as well as to detect complications early, healthcare assistants will be trained in case management and will use the Coagulation-Monitoring List (Co-MoL) to regularly monitor patients. Patients will receive information (leaflets and a video), treatment monitoring via the Co-MoL and be motivated to perform self-management. Patients in the control group will continue to receive treatment as usual from their general practitioners. The primary endpoint is the combined endpoint of all thromboembolic events requiring hospitalization and all major bleeding complications. Secondary endpoints are mortality, hospitalization, strokes, major bleeding and thromboembolic complications, severe treatment interactions, the number of adverse events, quality of anticoagulation, health-related quality of life, and costs. Further secondary objectives will be investigated to explain the mechanism by which the intervention is effective: patients’ assessment of chronic illness care, self-reported adherence to medication, general practitioners’ and healthcare assistants’ knowledge, and patients’ knowledge and satisfaction with shared decision making. Practice recruitment is expected to take place between July and December 2012. Recruitment of eligible patients will start in July 2012. Assessment will occur at three time points: baseline and follow-up after 12 months and after 24 months. Discussion The efficacy and effectiveness of individual elements of the intervention, such as antithrombotic interventions, self-management concepts in orally anticoagulated patients, and the methodological tool of case management, have already been extensively demonstrated. This project foresees the combination of several proven instruments, as a result of which we expect to profit from a reduction in the major complications associated with antithrombotic treatment. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN41847489
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a chronic progressive disease characterised by damage to the optic nervehead (optic disc) which leads to visual field loss and may eventually result in blindness if left untreated. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is elevated in the majority of patients. Early intervention, based on reduction of IOP, can prevent or delay visual impairment and topical ocular hypotensive
PURPOSE: To compare pneumatic retinopexy and scleral buckling for repair of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with respect to visual outcome, single-procedure reattachment rate, and development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.METHODS: A consecutive series of eyes initially treated with pneumatic retinopexy (n = 56) between March 1986 and February 1996 were compared with a selected group of eyes treated with scleral buckling (n
Dennis P. Han; Naazli C. Mohsin; Clare E. Guse; Arthur Hartz; Cynthia N. Tarkanian
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists have been shown to positively impact the outcomes of care for treatment of many different kinds of disease states. In particular, pharma- cist-run lipid clinics have enjoyed varying degrees of success, depending on the outcome assessed. At our hospital, when a patient is transferred to the pharmacist- coordinated lipid clinic, the primary care pharmacist is responsible for ordering
L. TRAYWICK TILL; JOHN C. VORIS; JULIAN BOURNE HORST
|Imagine a partnership of university and community which addresses the needs of the community to keep its citizens healthy as long as possible. Through a planning exercise to address the community's needs in primary health care and health promotion, the university has developed key strategic directions to help support the needs of the community it…
Strategies are required to reduce the personal, societal and healthcare burden caused by cerebrovascular disease. Urgent medical intervention after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) can prevent recurrent stroke, and modern healthcare has to respond rapidly to the patient with TIA. The primary care practitioner contributes to stroke prevention by rapidly and accurately diagnosing TIA and arranging urgent specialist assessment. Diagnosis of
Objective: This study aimed to share our experience with tumors of undescended testis (UDT) and to assess the impact of primary cisplatin-based chemotherapy on such tumors. Materials and Methods: This study included the cases of tumor in UDT from February 2005 to December 2011. Evaluation of the cases was done with proper clinical examination and laboratory investigations along with tumor markers (alfa-feto protein, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, lactate dehydrogenase) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen. Fine needle aspiration cytologywas done in all cases. Primary chemotherapy with three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin regimen at three weekly intervals started in all cases. Response to treatment was seen after four weeks of the third cycle. Results: Fourteen cases (12.5%) of germ cell tumor in UDT out of 112 cases of germ cell tumor of the testis were included. The age ranged from 16-60 years. Histological diagnosis was pure seminoma in all cases. After three cycles of BEP regime, complete response was seen in 11 cases and partial response in three cases where the residual tumor was excised along with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection RPLND. Of the 14 cases, 13 were in regular follow-up and one was lost to follow-up. All on follow-up were doing well without recurrence till now. Conclusion: Surgical removal of the primary tumor in UDT with or without bulky metastasis is complicated. Primary chemotherapy with cisplatin-based regimen is a good option in such cases.
Sarma, Debanga; Barua, S. K.; Rajeev, T. P.; Baruah, S. J.
The current prospective cohort study assessed the diagnostic yield of chest radiography (CXR) in primary-care patients suspected of pneumonia. In total, 192 patients with a clinical suspicion of pneumonia aged o18 yrs were referred by their general practitioner (GP) for CXR to one of the three participating hospitals in the Netherlands. All GPs were asked to complete a standardised form
A. M. Speets; A. W. Hoes; Y. van der Graaf; S. Kalmijn; A. P. E. Sachs; W. P. Th. M. Mali
|In recent years, art education has been recognized as a suitable tool for enhancing emotional intelligence and nurturing a child's creative development. However, it seems that the education of art has lost the race against other primary school subjects, with only a minimal number of lessons being taught. The establishment of the afternoon art…
Long-term health care planning is presently not based on the needs of the population at the local level in Finland but rather, it is based on retroactive economic values and already realised budget in hospital and primary health care. The existing health care structure and its health care practices continue to guide the supply of services. While we have the
P. T. Ovaskainen; P. T. Rautava; A. Ojanlatva; J. K. Päkkilä; R. M. Päivärinta
Background: Recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) advise all adults to accumulate at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most, if not all, days of the week, but many U.S. adults engage in no leisure-time physical activity. Since primary care providers can play an important
Judith M. E Walsh; Daniel M Swangard; Thomas Davis; Stephen J McPhee
|This manual provides guidance in the maintenance requirements of primary education schools in Ireland, covering: roofing; floors and walls; doors and windows; external and internal finishes; heating, plumbing, and drainage; electrical installations; paved and grassed surfaces; and furniture and loose equipment. The basic considerations are…
Department of Education and Science, Dublin (Ireland).
Purpose To analyze minimum 2-year clinical and radiological follow-up results of primary total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKRA) with metal block augmentation for tibial bony defect. Materials and Methods We analyzed 67 cases (52 patients) of primary TKRA with metal block augmentation for tibial bony defects from March 1999 and March 2008. Clinical results were evaluated using the Knee Society clinical rating system and the Western Ontario and McMaster University (WOMAC) score. Radiologic results were evaluated using the Knee Society roentgenographic evaluation system. Results The mean knee score and function score improved from 42.0 and 45.6 preoperatively to 94.5 and 85.4 postoperatively. At last follow-up, the mean WOMAC score was 16.8. The incidence of radiolucent lines was 10% (7 cases) during the follow-up period, but there was no case of progression. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups divided according to the block size (below 5 mm and over 8 mm) and between the stem and no-stem groups for all parameters. Conclusions Primary TKRA with a metal block produced satisfactory results for the minimum 2-year follow-up and can be considered as a simple and effective method for the treatment of tibial bony defect in primary TKRA.
Background Compared to existing literature on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little published adult data are available, particularly outside of the United States. Using General Practitioner (GP) questionnaires from the United Kingdom, this study aimed to examine a number of issues related to ADHD in adults, across three cohorts of patients, adults who received ADHD drug treatment in childhood/adolescence but stopped prior to adulthood; adults who received ADHD drug treatment in childhood/adolescence and continued treatment into adulthood and adults who started ADHD drug treatment in adulthood. Methods Patients with a diagnosis of ADHD and prescribed methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine were identified using data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN). Dates when these drugs started and stopped were used to classify patients into the three cohorts. From each cohort, 50 patients were randomly selected and questionnaires were sent via THIN to their GPs. GPs returned completed questionnaires to THIN who forwarded anonymised copies to the researchers. Datasets were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Overall response rate was 89% (133/150). GPs stated that in 19 cases, the patient did not meet the criteria of that group; the number of valid questionnaires returned was 114 (76%). The following broad trends were observed: 1) GPs were not aware of the reason for treatment cessation in 43% of cases, 2) patient choice was the most common reason for discontinuation (56%), 3) 7% of patients who stopped pharmacological treatment subsequently reported experiencing ADHD symptoms, 4) 58% of patients who started pharmacological treatment for ADHD in adulthood received pharmacological treatment for other mental health conditions prior to the ADHD being diagnosed. Conclusion This study presents some key findings relating to ADHD; GPs were often not aware of the reason for patients stopping ADHD treatment in childhood or adolescence. Patient choice was identified as the most common reason for treatment cessation. For patients who started pharmacological treatment in adulthood, many patients received pharmacological treatment for comorbidities before a diagnosis of ADHD was made.
The community-based internist and geriatric primary care physicians (PCPs) or medical doctors (MDs) have long been the most prevalent providers of primary care to populations who have chronic illness and\\/or are elderly in the United States. This article addresses the strategies for disease management (DM) that physicians in nonmature health care markets are utilizing to address unmet needs and suggestions
Background Low-back pain is responsible for significant disability and costs in industrialized countries. Only a minority of subjects suffering from low-back pain will develop persistent disability. However, this minority is responsible for the majority of costs and has the poorest health outcomes. The objective of the Clinic on Low-back pain in Interdisciplinary Practice (CLIP) project was to develop a primary care interdisciplinary practice model for the clinical management of low-back pain and the prevention of persistent disability. Methods Using previously published guidelines, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, a clinical management model for low-back pain was developed by the project team. A structured process facilitating discussions on this model among researchers, stakeholders and clinicians was created. The model was revised following these exchanges, without deviating from the evidence. Results A model consisting of nine elements on clinical management of low-back pain and prevention of persistent disability was developed. The model's two core elements for the prevention of persistent disability are the following: 1) the evaluation of the prognosis at the fourth week of disability, and of key modifiable barriers to return to usual activities if the prognosis is unfavourable; 2) the evaluation of the patient's perceived disability every four weeks, with the evaluation and management of barriers to return to usual activities if perceived disability has not sufficiently improved. Conclusion A primary care interdisciplinary model aimed at improving quality and continuity of care for patients with low-back pain was developed. The effectiveness, efficiency and applicability of the CLIP model in preventing persistent disability in patients suffering from low-back pain should be assessed.
BACKGROUND: Neurogenic claudication (NC) is the clinical syndrome commonly associated with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Non-surgical management is recommended as initial treatment, but little is known about current practice in relation to the assessment and management of these patients in the non-surgical setting. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire survey of physiotherapists in a large UK primary care musculoskeletal service which
Christine M Comer; Anthony C Redmond; Howard A Bird; Philip G Conaghan
Glenoid morphology has an important impact on outcomes and complication rates after shoulder arthroplasty for primary glenohumeral arthritis. The B2 glenoid, or a biconcave glenoid with posterior humeral head subluxation, in particular has been associated with a poorer outcome with shoulder arthroplasty compared with other glenoid types. A variety of techniques may be used to address the bone deficiency and instability seen with this glenoid type. Studies suggest that total shoulder arthroplasty may have a reasonable result in the short term but be associated with a high complication rate in the mid term because of recurrence of instability and early glenoid loosening when neoglenoid retroversion is greater than 27° or posterior humeral head subluxation is greater than 80%. Particularly in older patients with a substantial B2 deformity, primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty may be a more predictable means of addressing bone deficiency and restoring stability. PMID:24007651
|Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…
Hurley, Roberta Smith; Gallagher-Allred, Charlette R.
|School leadership is significant for student learning, but increased workload and complexity are believed to be in part responsible for the difficulties internationally in managing succession, with experienced leaders leaving the profession prematurely and potential future leaders reluctant to take on the role. This article draws on a national…
Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a useful water resource management option for water storage and reuse. Its increased use is recognized in adaptation to the ever increasing problem of water availability, both in timing and flow. Challenges in the ASR process may arise from...
|Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…
PROLOGUE: The gap between theory and practice in health care can be daunting. Researchers armed with massive amounts of outcomes data face the problem of translating their findings into workable interventions in the practice setting. This paper reports on an attempt to bridge the gap, taking advantage of the administrative capabilities of managed care organizations. The authors designed, implemented, and
Lisa V. Rubenstein; Maga Jackson-Triche; J. Unutzer; Jeanne Miranda; Katy Minnium; Marjorie L. Pearson; Kenneth B. Wells
Evaluates a stress management program, "Balancing Out," that seeks to target the needs of the local community. Quantitative results indicate that the sample had significantly higher stress levels then the norm at the beginning of the program and below population norms at program completion. Qualitative responses indicated that respondents had…
The success of the reproductive process in trees depends on abiotic and biotic factors that determine the final outcome of natural regeneration. Silviculture alters biotic and abiotic factors and results in secondary forest structures. To effectively manage these forests, it is necessary to understand the bottlenecks in reproductive stages using a whole-cycle approach study. The aim of this study was
Rosina Soler Esteban; Guillermo Martínez Pastur; María Vanessa Lencinas; Pablo Luis Peri
It is the general practitioner's (GP's) responsibility to diagnose and manage the care of eating disorder patients but recent surveys suggest that there may be problems. In this qualitative study we have explored the perceptions of 20 GPs. In general they felt that eating disorders had little quantitative impact on their services due to low prevalence, but a high impact
A qualitative analysis of the implementation of a case management program is presented. This collaborative research design uses semistructured interviews and observational field methods. Nested within a changing health care environment and a corporation that is restructuring, three physician practices form the intervention sites. During the course of the project there is high turnover among project staff and physicians. This
|Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…
|Nutrition is well-recognized as a necessary component of educational programs for physicians. This is to be valued in that of all factors affecting health in the United States, none is more important than nutrition. This can be argued from various perspectives, including health promotion, disease prevention, and therapeutic management. In all…
THERE HAS BEEN SIGNIFICANT PROGRESS in the area of mood disorders over the last 2 decades, encompassing advances in our knowledge of epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. This article presents a clinically oriented update and review on the diagnosis and management of major depressive disorder.
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Spain continues to present challenges, and problems are exacerbated when there is a lack of coordinated follow-up between levels of care. This paper sets out the protocol for assessing the impact of an integrated management model for the care of patients with COPD. The new model
Ignasi Bolíbar; Vicente Plaza; Mariantònia Llauger; Ester Amado; Pedro A Antón; Ana Espinosa; Leandra Domínguez; Mar Fraga; Montserrat Freixas; Joasep A de la Fuente; Iskra Liguerre; Casimira Medrano; Meritxell Peiro; Mariantònia Pou; Joaquin Sanchis; Ingrid Solanes; Carles Valero; Pepi Valverde
There are few articles in the literature concerning anterior instrumentation in the surgical management of spinal tuberculosis in the exudative stage. So we report here 23 cases of active thoracolumbar spinal tuberculosis treated by one-stage anterior interbody autografting and instrumentation to verify the importance of early reconstruction of spinal stability and to evaluate the results of one-stage interbody autografting and
School leadership is significant for student learning, but increased workload and complexity are believed to be in part responsible for the difficulties internationally in managing succession, with experienced leaders leaving the profession prematurely and potential future leaders reluctant to take on the role. This article draws on a national government-funded programme of inter-school collaborations in England. Focusing on data from
\\u000a This chapter describes the diagnosis, clinical features, and principles of management of primary hyperparathyroidism. The\\u000a chapter focuses primarily on current management recommendations for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, particularly\\u000a for those with “asymptomatic” or mild disease. We also discuss the risks and benefits of parathyroidectomy for hyperparathyroidism\\u000a and the various preoperative and intraoperative localization techniques currently in use to enable minimally
|The chapters in this book originated as papers for a conference, School Choice and Educational Change, held in March 2000 at Michigan State University. An introductory chapter provides a comparative analysis of the lessons learned from international experience with school-choice policies, based on a review of case studies in several countries.…
The chapters in this book originated as papers for a conference, School Choice and Educational Change, held in March 2000 at Michigan State University. An introductory chapter provides a comparative analysis of the lessons learned from international experience with school-choice policies, based on a review of case studies in several countries. The…
This nationwide study was conducted to assess the extent of adherence of primary-care physicians to the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended guidelines on the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), antimicrobials, and prescribing of other drugs used in treating symptoms of acute diarrhoea in Bahrain. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was carried out in primary-care health centres. During a six-week survey period (15 August-30 September 2003), 328 (25.2%) completed questionnaires were returned from 17 of 20 health centres. In a sample of 300 patients, oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution was prescribed to 89.3% (n=268) patients; 12.3% received ORS alone, whereas 77% received ORS in combination with symptomatic drugs. Antimicrobials were prescribed to 2% of the patients. In 11.4% of the cases, rehydration fluids and other drugs were given parenterally The mean number of drugs was 2.2+0.87 per prescription. In approximately one-third of the patients, three or more drugs were used. Primary-care physicians almost always adhered to the WHO guidelines with respect to ORT and antimicrobials. However, in several instances, ORT was prescribed along with polypharmacy, including irrational use of drugs for symptomatic relief. Effective health policies are needed to reduce the unnecessary burden on the healthcare system. PMID:17985822
Ismaeel, Abdulrahman Y; Al Khaja, Khalid A J; Damanhori, Awatif H H; Sequeira, Reginald P; Botta, Giuseppe A
Wound care following lower limb arthroplasty has not been subject to in-depth clinical research, primarily because such wounds usually heal without complication. However, when prosthetic implants are used, serious wound problems can be disastrous (Whitehouse et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23:183-9; Lindwell OM. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1986;211:91-103). We report the results of a prospective, randomised, controlled trial comparing a hydrofibre (Aquacel) and central pad (Mepore) dressing in the management of acute wounds following primary total hip or knee arthroplasty left to heal by primary intention. Dressing performance was measured in 61 patients receiving total hip or knee replacements. There was a significant reduction in the requirement for dressing changes before five postoperative days in the hydrofibre group (43% compared with 77% in the central pad group), and there were fewer blisters amongst patients in the hydrofibre group (13% compared with 26% in the central pad group). We conclude that there is a potential role for hydrofibre dressing in the management of arthroplasty wounds. PMID:17007343
Abuzakuk, Tarek M; Coward, Pamela; Shenava, Y; Kumar, V Senthil; Skinner, John A
A model of restaurant choice is derived from a survey of consumers which supports restaurateurs' competitive strategies. Whereas consumers say that food type and food quality are the primary variables of restaurant choice, once a choice set appropriate to the occasion and segment has been evoked, a restaurant's style and atmosphere become the deciding factors. The three demographic segments which
Background There is a lack of evidence for the effective management of dental caries in children’s primary teeth. The trial entitled ‘Filling Children’s Teeth: Indicated Or Not?’ (FiCTION) was designed to examine the clinical and cost effectiveness, in primary dental care, of three different approaches to the management of caries in primary teeth. However, before the FiCTION main trial commenced, a pilot trial was designed. Service provider (dentists and other members of the team including dental nurses and practice managers) and participant (child participants and their parents) involvement was incorporated into the pilot trial. The aim of this study is to describe service providers’ and users’ perspectives on the pilot trial to identify improvements to the conduct and design of the FiCTION main trial. Methods Qualitative interviews (individual and group) were held with dentists, dental team members, children and parents involved in the FiCTION pilot trial. Individual interviews were held with four dentists and a group interview was held with 17 dental team members. Face-to-face interviews were held with four parents and children (four- to eight-years old) representing the three arms of the trial and five telephone interviews were conducted with parents. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was used. Results Overall, service providers, children and parents found the pilot trial to be well conducted and an interesting experience. Service providers highlighted the challenges of adhering to research protocols, especially managing the documentation and undertaking new clinical techniques. They indicated that the time and financial commitments were greater than they had anticipated. Particular difficulties were found recruiting suitable patients within the timeframe. For parents recruitment was apparently more related to trusting their dentist than the content of information packs. While some of the older children understood what a study was, others did not understand or were not aware they were enrolled. Conclusions The findings provided valuable recommendations to improve the method of recruitment of dental practices and patients, the timing and content of the training, the type of support dentists would value and ways to further engage children and parents in the FiCTION main trial. Trial registration ISRCTN77044005
Objective. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical benefit of point-of-care Troponin T testing (POCT-TnT) in the management of patients with chest pain. Design. Observational, prospective, cross-sectional study with followup. Setting. Three primary health care (PHC) centres using POCT-TnT and four PHC centres not using POCT-TnT in the southeast of Sweden. Patients. All patients ?35 years old, contacting one of the primary health care centres for chest pain, dyspnoea on exertion, unexplained weakness, and/or fatigue with no other probable cause than cardiac, were included. Symptoms should have commenced or worsened during the last seven days. Main Outcome Measures. Emergency referrals, patients with acute myocardial infarctions (AMI), or unstable angina (UA) within 30 days of study enrolment. Results. 25% of the patients from PHC centres with POCT-TnT and 43% from PHC centres without POCT-TnT were emergently referred by the GP (P = 0.011 ). Seven patients (5.5%) from PHC centres with POCT-TnT and six (8.8%) from PHC centres without POCT-TnT were diagnosed as AMI or UA (P = 0.369). Two patients with AMI or UA from PHC centres with POCT-TnT were judged as missed cases in primary health care. Conclusion. The use of POCT-TnT may reduce emergency referrals but probably at the cost of an increased risk to miss patients with AMI or UA.
To summarize the best available evidence in the last decade for managing ankle sprains in the community, data were collected using MEDLINE database from January 2000 to December 2009. Terms utilized: 'ankle injury primary care' (102 articles were found), 'ankle sprain primary care' (34 articles), 'ankle guidelines primary care' (25 articles), 'ankle pathways primary care' (2 articles), 'ankle sprain community' (18 articles), 'ankle sprain general practice' (22 articles), 'Cochrane review ankle' (58 articles). Of these, only 33 satisfied the inclusion criteria. The search terms identified many of the same studies. Two independent reviewers reviewed the articles. The study results and generated conclusions were extracted, discussed and finally agreed on. Ankle sprains occur commonly but their management is not always readily agreed. The Ottawa Ankle Rules are ubiquitous in the clinical pathway and can be reliably applied by emergency care physicians, primary care physicians and triage nurses. For mild-to-moderate ankle sprains, functional treatment options (which can consist of elastic bandaging, soft casting, taping or orthoses with associated coordination training) were found to be statistically better than immobilization for multiple outcome measures. For severe ankle sprains, a short period of immobilization in a below-knee cast or pneumatic brace results in a quicker recovery than tubular compression bandage alone. Lace-up supports are a more effective functional treatment than elastic bandaging and result in less persistent swelling in the short term when compared with semi-rigid ankle supports, elastic bandaging and tape. Semi-rigid orthoses and pneumatic braces provide beneficial ankle support and may prevent subsequent sprains during high-risk sporting activity. Supervised rehabilitation training in combination with conventional treatment for acute lateral ankle sprains can be beneficial, although some of the studies reviewed gave conflicting outcomes. Therapeutic hyaluronic acid injections in the ankle are a relatively novel non-surgical treatment but may have a role in expediting return to sport after ankle sprain. There is a role for surgical intervention in severe acute and chronic ankle injuries, but the evidence is limited. PMID:20710025
The UK NICE guideline on the Diagnosis and Assessment of Food Allergy in Children and Young People was published in 2011, highlighting the important role of primary care physicians, dietitians, nurses and other community based health care professionals in the diagnosis and assessment of IgE and non-IgE-mediated food allergies in children. The guideline suggests that those with suspected IgE-mediated disease and those suspected to suffer from severe non-IgE-mediated disease are referred on to secondary or tertiary level care. What is evident from this guideline is that the responsibility for the diagnostic food challenge, ongoing management and determining of tolerance to cow's milk in children with less severe non-IgE-mediated food allergies is ultimately that of the primary care/community based health care staff, but this discussion fell outside of the current NICE guideline. Some clinical members of the guideline development group (CV, JW, ATF, TB) therefore felt that there was a particular need to extend this into a more practical guideline for cow's milk allergy. This subset of the guideline development group with the additional expertise of a paediatric gastroenterologist (NS) therefore aimed to produce a UK Primary Care Guideline for the initial clinical recognition of all forms of cow's milk allergy and the ongoing management of those with non-severe non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in the form of algorithms. These algorithms will be discussed in this review paper, drawing on guidance primarily from the UK NICE guideline, but also from the DRACMA guidelines, ESPGHAN guidelines, Australian guidelines and the US NIAID guidelines. PMID:23835522
Venter, Carina; Brown, Trevor; Shah, Neil; Walsh, Joanne; Fox, Adam T
In 1990, as part of a national presidential initiative on water quality, researchers from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources (IANR) received a multi-year grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research Service, to study management of irrigated com and soybeans to minimize groundwater contamination. D.G. Watts, R.F. Spalding and J.S. Schepers, of
Patients with metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer have a generally favorable long-term outcome although multi-organ\\u000a involvement is a known marker of poor prognosis. Brain metastases are rare, occurring in less than 1% of patients with thyroid\\u000a cancer. Few patients have been managed with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). A retrospective database of 5,067 patients treated\\u000a for brain metastases between 1985 and 2007 was
Daniel M. Bernad; Paul W. Sperduto; Luis Souhami; Ashley W. Jensen; David Roberge
Background Benzodiazepine (BZD), the long-term treatment of which is harmful for cognitive function, is widely prescribed by General Practitioners in Spain. Based on studies performed in other countries we designed a nurse-led BZD withdrawal program adapted to Spanish Primary Care working conditions. Results A pseudo-experimental (before-after) study took place in two Primary Care Centres in Barcelona. From a sample of 1150 patients, 79 were identified. They were over 44 years old and had been daily users of BZD for a period exceeding six months. Out of the target group 51 patients agreed to participate. BZD dosage was reduced every 2-4 weeks by 25% of the initial dose with the optional support of Hydroxyzine or Valerian. The rating measurements were: reduction of BZD prescription, demographic variables, the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) to measure quality of life, the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Scale, and the Goldberg Depression and Anxiety Scale. By the end of the six-month intervention, 80.4% of the patients had discontinued BZD and 64% maintained abstinence at one year. An improvement in all parameters of the Goldberg scale (p <0.05) and in the mental component of SF-12 at 3.3 points (p = 0.024), as well as in most components of the MOS scale, was observed in the group that had discontinued BZD. No significant differences in these scales before and after the intervention were observed in the group that had not discontinued. Conclusions At one year approximately 2/3 of the patients had ceased taking BZD. They showed an overall improvement in depression and anxiety scales, and in the mental component of the quality of life scale. There was no apparent reduction in the sleep quality indicators in most of the analysed components. Nurses in a Primary Care setting can successfully implement a BZD withdrawal program.
Objective: The purpose of this review is to aid primary care providers in distinguishing dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease and from Parkinson's disease with dementia. Differentiating these entities has important treatment implications. Data Sources: A PubMed search was undertaken using the keywords Lewy body dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Lewy body disease. There were no date restrictions. Only articles in the English language were reviewed. References of selected articles were reviewed for additional sources. Data Selection and Extraction: Initially, 2,967 articles were retrieved. All 3 authors participated in data selection and extraction. Articles were further selected for content specific to epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic studies, treatment, and prognosis. For articles with repetitive information, the most current article was used. This resulted in a total of 62 articles included in the review. Data Synthesis: Dementia with Lewy bodies is the second leading cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. The core symptoms of DLB, including cognitive fluctuations, visual hallucinations, and parkinsonism, may not always be present as a triad, and clinicians may be unaware of associated symptoms. Thus, this diagnosis is frequently missed by primary care providers. Often, DLB is misdiagnosed as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or a primary psychiatric illness. Treatments for DLB include cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists. Antipsychotics should be avoided or used with caution. Conclusions: Dementia with Lewy bodies is an often missed diagnosis. Symptoms are often attributed to other disorders. A high clinical suspicion is helpful in accurate diagnosis, and presence of any of the core symptoms should initiate clinical suspicion of DLB. Distinguishing DLB from other disorders has important treatment implications.
Although attempts were made ot reattach retinas using proliferative vitreoretinopathy by various techniques before the 1970s, it was the development and subsequent refinement of closed-eye, mechanized pars plana vitrectomy that initiated the rapid rise in the surgical success rate. This article presents a personal history of the milestone accomplishments that facilitated the strong possibility of success that patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy can now anticipate. Currently, various gasses, chemical compounds, and pharmaceutical agents serve adjunctively to advance surgical techniques with the expectation that they may be the primary curative procedure in the future. As in the past, what is unconventional today may be common tomorrow. PMID:20697011
Persistent primary hyperparathyroidism due to mediastinal parathyroid adenoma was effectively treated by either angiographic ablation or median sternotomy in this study of 49 patients managed at the National Institutes of Health since 1977. Each patient presented here with symptomatic persistent primary hyperparathyroidism after failed initial surgical procedures done at other institutions. Each patient underwent extensive parathyroid localization procedures, including selective angiography, and most had a parathyroid adenoma localized to the mediastinum. Angiographic ablation, the deliberate injection of large doses of contrast material into the artery that selectively perfuses the adenoma, was initially successful in 22 of 30 procedures (73%) in 27 patients. Long-term control of persistent primary hyperparathyroidism was achieved in 17 of 27 patients (63%) by angiographic ablation. Each unsuccessful ablation could be easily salvaged by surgical resection. Surgical resection of the parathyroid adenoma by median sternotomy achieved immediate success in 24 of 24 procedures (p2 less than 0.02 versus ablation), and long-term cure in 23 of 23 evaluable patients (p2 less than 0.001 versus ablation). However, ablation did have benefits for the patients in whom it was successfully performed. It was associated with a significantly shorter hospital stay (median, 6 days versus 9 days for sternotomy, p2 less than 0.003), much less pain, and easier recuperation. Complications of each procedure were transient and similar in both groups. Operative resection is the most effective single means to eradicate mediastinal parathyroid adenoma; however, angiographic ablation can provide similar long-term control of hyperparathyroidism in 63% of patients with less pain and shorter convalescence than that seen in patients after median sternotomy. Our results suggest that angiographic ablation should be attempted as the initial procedure for patients with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism caused by an angiographically identified mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Operation can be reserved for those who fail ablation. Images FIG. 1.
Doherty, G M; Doppman, J L; Miller, D L; Gee, M S; Marx, S J; Spiegel, A M; Aurbach, G D; Pass, H I; Brennan, M F; Norton, J A
Quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement has become increasingly valuable as a test for rapid diagnosis of infections in hospital medicine. CRP has not obtained the same importance in primary health care. This has, at least partly, been due to methodological difficulties, with no simple or rapid tests with quantitative results available. A new immunometric semi-quantitative assay, NycoCard CRP, has recently been developed. CRP was analysed at the local health centres by the new assay in 288 consultations where patients came because of infections. Parallel CRP values were obtained by an established reference method. The two procedures had an acceptable correlation (r = 0.85). The primary care doctors also registered the clinical information they obtained from each CRP result. CRP was helpful in indicating the presence, or absence of bacterial infection in more than half the consultations due to new infections. CRP was thought to yield more clinical information than the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in almost every case. PMID:2041926
Hjortdahl, P; Landaas, S; Urdal, P; Steinbakk, M; Fuglerud, P; Nygaard, B
Purpose. To assess the safety and effectiveness of arterial embolization in lung cancer patients with hemoptysis. Methods. Nineteen primary lung cancer patients with hemoptysis underwent bronchial artery and systemic artery embolization from April 2002 to March 2005. There were 17 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 59 years. Histologic analysis revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 10 patients and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in 9 patients. The amount of hemoptysis was bleeding of 25-50 ml within 24 hr in 8 patients, recurrent blood-tinged sputum in 6, and bleeding of 100 ml or more per 24 hr in 5. Embolization was done with a superselective technique using a microcatheter and polyvinyl alcohol particles to occlude the affected vessels. Results. Arterial embolization was technically successful in all patients and clinically successful in 15 patients (79%). The average number of arteries embolized was 1.2. Bronchial arteriography revealed staining (all patients), dilatation of the artery or hypervascularity (10 patients), and bronchopulmonary shunt (6 patients). The recurrence rate was 33% (5/15) and 11 patients were alive with a mean follow-up time of 148 days (30-349 days). Conclusion. Arterial embolotherapy for hemoptysis in patients with primary lung cancer is an effective, safe therapeutic modality despite the fact the vascular changes are subtle on angiography.
Park, Hong Suk, E-mail: email@example.com; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyae Young; Zo, Jae-Ill; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Lee, Jin Soo [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center Korea (Korea, Republic of)
Family physicians are responsible for diagnosing and treating the majority of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and co-morbid depression. As a result of the impact of co-morbid depression on patient self-care and treatment outcomes, screening for depression in the context of a structured approach to case management and patient follow up is recommended in people with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the need for improved recognition and treatment of depression in diabetes; and makes expert recommendations with regard to integrating screening tools and therapies into a busy family or general medical practice setting. PMID:23280258
Hermanns, Norbert; Caputo, Salvatore; Dzida, Grzegorz; Khunti, Kamlesh; Meneghini, Luigi F; Snoek, Frank
Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the outcomes and benefits from radiation therapy (RT) as a component of multimodal treatment for oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma, assessing local control and survival rates and evaluating prognostic factors. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 56 adult patients with supratentorial oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma treated at our institution from January 1990 to December 2003 with fractionated stereotactic RT (FSRT). Results: Fractionated stereotactic RT was well tolerated in all patients, without side effects. Median survival and progression-free survival calculated from the initiation of radiotherapy were 48 months (range, 2-133 months) and 38 months (range, 2-132 months), respectively. Progression-free survival rates after radiation were 89% at 1 year and 52% at 5 years. Of 26 recurrences, 92% developed in field. With regard to histology, overall survival rates in the World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II group were 89% and 74% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. In patients with WHO Grade III tumors, overall survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 69% and 46%, respectively. No prognosticators could be identified for median survival and progression-free survival after radiotherapy. Median overall survival calculated from primary diagnosis was 77.5 months (range, 3-214 months). The Cox regression multivariate analysis for age and neurologic symptoms showed a significance of p = 0.003 for age and p = 0.037 for the presence of neurologic symptoms on overall survival since primary diagnosis. Conclusions: Commonly, conventional conformal RT is applied in the treatment of brain tumors. In FSRT, the tumor volume can be irradiated with high doses, sparing volume of normal brain tissue. Our data are in accordance with survival times found in the literature. Ninety-two percent of all recurrences occurred within the defined target volume, confirming that reduction of the RT portals by the use of FSRT does not lead to an increased rate of recurrences at the field border or out of field. Fractionated stereotactic RT can therefore be implemented as an effective and safe modality in the therapy of primary oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma.
Combs, Stephanie E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: S.Combs@dkfz.de; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela [Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Thilmann, Christoph [Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Edler, Lutz [Central Unit Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)
This book represents a considerable revision and expansion of Public Choice II (1989). Six new chapters have been added, and several chapters from the previous edition have been extensively revised. The discussion of empirical work in public choice has been greatly expanded. As in the previous editions, all of the major topics of public choice are covered. These include: why
This case report describes an 83 year-old immobilised patient with multiple diseases and on polypharmacy. Nursing care is developed at home. The patient is included in patient care programs for the anticoagulated and polymedicated patient. Nursing assessments were made using the Marjory Gordon functional health patterns, by which we identified, among others, problems related to non-compliance with the pharmacological treatment. The Nurse's Diagnosis was: Ineffective Management of own health. With the support of NANDA, NOC and NIC taxonomy we determined the nursing objectives and interventions. The expected results of the Care Plan were achieved. Polypharmacy in the elderly can lead to treatment problems, increasing hospital admissions, morbidity and mortality and health expenditure Nursing care at home is a continuous development process and is increasing due to aging of the population, the prevalence of chronic diseases, as well as the increased life expectancy. It is estimated that in 2030, 24% of the Spanish population will be over 64 years. The physical, sensory, cognitive and chronic disabilities of aging make this type of care necessary. It is a major element in the comprehensive care of these patients, by checking the correct use of medication, symptom control, helping them to be autonomous in managing their disease and establishing a fluid relationship between the patients and their family. PMID:22284363
Nearly one quarter of patients with lung cancer present with locally advanced disease where concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the current standard of care for patients with good performance status. Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy consistently showed an improvement in survival compared with sequential chemoradiotherapy, at the expense of an increase in the toxicity profile. Over the past decades, several encouraging biomarkers such as transforming growth factor-beta and radioprotective agents such as amifostine were studied but without reaching approval for patient care. We reviewed the prevalence and risk factors for different adverse effects associated with the combined chemoradiotherapy modality, especially dermatitis, mucositis, esophagitis, and pneumonitis. These adverse effects can further be divided into acute, subacute, and chronic. Dermatitis is usually rare and responds well to topical steroids and usual skin care. Acute esophagitis occurs in 30% of patients and is treated with proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, local anesthetic, and dietary changes. Radiation pneumonitis is a subacute complication seen in 15% of patients and is usually managed with steroids. Chronic adverse effects such as radiation fibrosis and esophageal stricture occur approximately 6 months after completion of radiation therapy and are usually permanent. In this review, complications of chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced lung cancer are delineated, and approaches to their management are described. Given that treatment interruption is associated with a worse outcome, patients are aggressively treated with a curative intent. Therefore, planning for treatment adverse effects improves patient tolerance, compliance, and outcome. PMID:23708070
Yazbeck, Victor Y; Villaruz, Liza; Haley, Marsha; Socinski, Mark A
BACKGROUND Electronic information systems have been proposed as one means to reduce medical errors of commission (doing the wrong thing) and omission (not providing indicated care). OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of computer-based cardiac care suggestions. DESIGN A randomized, controlled trial targeting primary care physicians and pharmacists. SUBJECTS A total of 706 outpatients with heart failure and/or ischemic heart disease. INTERVENTIONS Evidence-based cardiac care suggestions, approved by a panel of local cardiologists and general internists, were displayed to physicians and pharmacists as they cared for enrolled patients. MEASUREMENTS Adherence with the care suggestions, generic and condition-specific quality of life, acute exacerbations of their cardiac disease, medication compliance, health care costs, satisfaction with care, and physicians' attitudes toward guidelines. RESULTS Subjects were followed for 1 year during which they made 3,419 primary care visits and were eligible for 2,609 separate cardiac care suggestions. The intervention had no effect on physicians' adherence to the care suggestions (23% for intervention patients vs 22% for controls). There were no intervention-control differences in quality of life, medication compliance, health care utilization, costs, or satisfaction with care. Physicians viewed guidelines as providing helpful information but constraining their practice and not helpful in making decisions for individual patients. CONCLUSIONS Care suggestions generated by a sophisticated electronic medical record system failed to improve adherence to accepted practice guidelines or outcomes for patients with heart disease. Future studies must weigh the benefits and costs of different (and perhaps more Draconian) methods of affecting clinician behavior.
Tierney, William M; Overhage, J Marc; Murray, Michael D; Harris, Lisa E; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Eckert, George J; Smith, Faye E; Nienaber, Nancy; McDonald, Clement J; Wolinsky, Fredric D
Background Patients with serious mental illness (SMI) have high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In contrast to widespread perception, their access to effective chronic disease management is as high as for the general population. However, previous studies have not included analysis by ethnicity. Aim To identify differences in CVD and diabetes management, by ethnicity, among people with SMI. Design and setting Three inner east London primary care trusts with an ethnically diverse and socially deprived population. Data were obtained from 147 of 151 general practices. Method Coded demographic and clinical data were obtained from GP electronic health records using EMIS Web. The sample used was the GP registered population on diabetes or CVD registers (52 620); of these, 1223 also had SMI. Results The population prevalence of CVD and diabetes is 7.2%; this rises to 18% among those with SMI. People with SMI and CVD or diabetes were found to be as likely to achieve clinical targets as those without SMI. Blood pressure control was significantly better in people with SMI; however, they were more likely to smoke and have a body mass index above 30 kg/m2. Ethnic differences in care were identified, with south Asian individuals achieving better cholesterol control and black African or Caribbean groups achieving poorer blood pressure control. Conclusion Risk factor management for those with SMI shows better control of blood pressure and glycosylated haemoglobin than the general population. However, smoking and obesity rates remain high and should be the target of public health programmes. Ethnic differences in management mirror those in the general population. Ethnic monitoring for vulnerable groups provides evidence to support schemes to reduce health inequalities.
Mathur, Rohini; Hull, Sally A; Boomla, Kambiz; Robson, John
This paper seeks to determine whether franchising is a good choice of organizational structure for a non-profit organization attempting to expand rapidly. It examines the management implications of that choice: specifically, is franchising the best choice of an organizational structure for FINCA International, given its current stage of organizational development? The research for this paper involved conducting a thorough search
Techniques for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breast have been evolving over the past decade. The opportunities for integration of MR imaging into clinical breast cancer management and clinical research are increasing. In this paper, we will review the principles behind the creation of standard and MR images and use this as a platform to evaluate clinical studies and indications for the use and study of MR. In particular, we will focus on those areas where MR has the capability of changing care and/or improving our understanding of the biology of breast cancer. In addition, we will address areas where MR is not yet capable of adding value or where MR may lead to unnecessary procedures. PMID:12121836
Gemination and fusion are morphological dental anomalies, characterized by the formation of a clinically wide tooth. Gemination occurs when one tooth bud tries to divide, while fusion occurs if two buds unite. The terms double teeth, double formation, conjoined teeth, geminifusion, vicinifusion and dental twinning are often used to describe fusion and gemination. Double teeth are associated with clinical problems such as poor esthetics, spacing problems and caries susceptibility. Management of such cases requires a comprehensive knowledge of the clinical entity as well as the problems associated with it. This report presents a case of primary double tooth in a 6-year-old boy involving maxillary left central incisor. The anomalous tooth was carious and pulpally involved. This was treated conservatively by endodontic treatment and esthetic rehabilitation was done with direct composite restoration using a silicone buildup guide. The treated tooth was followed up until exfoliation.
Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar; Ragavendra, T. Raju; Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Vanka, Amit; Duddu, Mahesh Kumar; Patil, Anand Kumar G.
The International Reading Association has crafted these Choices Reading Lists for librarians, teachers, students, and anyone else with a passion for reading. There are three sets: ChildrenÃ¢ÂÂs Choices, Young Adults' Choices, and Teachers' Choices. Each list is fully annotated with additional information such as fact sheets, information on the texts selected, and some information about the criteria used to select the texts. The Young Adults' Choices brings together works selected by young people each year; recent selections include "Awaken," "Between," and "What Happened to Goodbye." The site is rounded out by a collection of downloadable bookmarks that can be used between the pages of these fine selections.
This article aims to help primary care physicians negotiate gaps in current guidelines for postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). The objectives of this article are to: 1) briefly review the available guidelines and identify their strengths and weaknesses; 2) review the gaps in the guidelines; 3) review new d