Sample records for primary mouse bone

  1. Comparisons of mouse mesenchymal stem cells in primary adherent culture of compact bone fragments and whole bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yiting; Liu, Tianshu; Fang, Fang; Xiong, Chengliang; Shen, Shiliang

    2015-01-01

    The purification of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) by using the standard method of whole bone marrow adherence to plastic still remains ineffective. An increasing number of studies have indicated compact bone as an alternative source of BMSCs. We isolated BMSCs from cultured compact bone fragments and investigated the proliferative capacity, surface immunophenotypes, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations of the cells after the first trypsinization. The fragment culture was based on the fact that BMSCs were assembled in compact bones. Thus, the procedure included flushing bone marrow out of bone cavity and culturing the fragments without any collagenase digestion. The cell yield from cultured fragments was slightly less than that from cultured bone marrow using the same bone quantity. However, the trypsinized cells from cultured fragments exhibited significantly higher proliferation and were accompanied with more CD90 and CD44 expressions and less CD45 expression. The osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity of cells from cultured fragments were better than those of cells from bone marrow. The directly adherent culture of compact bone is suitable for mouse BMSC isolation, and more BMSCs with potentially improved proliferation capacity can be obtained in the primary culture. PMID:25821472

  2. Effect of zinc ion on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse primary bone marrow stromal cells and the adipocytic trans-differentiation of mouse primary osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jin-Chao; Chen, Yao; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Yang, Meng-Su

    2007-01-01

    A series of experimental methods including 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity measurement and Oil Red O stain and measurement were employed to assess the effect of zinc ion on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse primary bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) and the adipogenic trans-differentiation of mouse primary osteoblasts. The results showed that except for individual concentrations of zinc ion there was no effect on the proliferation of MSCs and osteoblasts. Zinc ion inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs at all the concentrations tested. It also inhibited adipogenic differentiation at all concentrations tested except 10(-9)mol/L. Both of the inhibition effects were attenuated with time increasing. Zinc ion depressed adipocytic trans-differentiation of osteoblasts at concentrations of 10(-11) and 10(-10)mol/L, but the effect could be reversed to promote or even be removed when concentration was increased. It suggests that the influence of zinc ion on osteogenic, adipogenic differentiation of MSCs and adipocytic trans-differentiation of osteoblasts depends on zinc ion concentrations and incubation time. The protective effects of zinc ion on bone may be mediated by modulating differentiation of MSCs away from the adipocytes and inhibiting adipocytic trans-differentiation of osteoblasts. This may in turn promote osteoblast formation and reduce secretion of cytokines which may inhibit osteoclast formation and activation. These findings may be valuable for better understanding the mechanism of the effect of zinc ion on bone. PMID:17499147

  3. Bone disease in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Francisco; Cusano, Natalie E; Silva, Barbara C; Cassibba, Sara; Almeida, Clarissa Beatriz; Machado, Vanessa Caroline Costa; Bilezikian, John P

    2014-07-01

    Bone disease in severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is described classically as osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC). Bone pain, skeletal deformities and pathological fractures are features of OFC. Bone mineral density is usually extremely low in OFC, but it is reversible after surgical cure. The signs and symptoms of severe bone disease include bone pain, pathologic fractures, proximal muscle weakness with hyperreflexia. Bone involvement is typically characterized as salt-and-pepper appearance in the skull, bone erosions and bone resorption of the phalanges, brown tumors and cysts. In the radiography, diffuse demineralization is observed, along with pathological fractures, particularly in the long bones of the extremities. In severe, symptomatic PHPT, marked elevation of the serum calcium and PTH concentrations are seen and renal involvement is manifested by nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. A new technology, recently approved for clinical use in the United States and Europe, is likely to become more widely available because it is an adaptation of the lumbar spine DXA image. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level textural analysis that provides an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture. Newer technologies, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), have provided further understanding of the microstructural skeletal features in PHPT. PMID:25166047

  4. Primary bone marrow oedema syndromes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    MRI scanning in patients with rheumatological conditions often shows bone marrow oedema, which can be secondary to inflammatory, degenerative, infective or malignant conditions but can also be primary. The latter condition is of uncertain aetiology and it is also uncertain whether it represents a stage in the progression to osteonecrosis in some patients. Patients with primary bone marrow oedema usually have lower limb pain, commonly the hip, knee, ankle or feet. The diagnosis is one of exclusion with the presence of typical MRI findings. Treatment is usually conservative and includes analgesics and staying off the affected limb. The natural history is that of gradual resolution of symptoms over a number of months. Evidence for medical treatment is limited, but open-label studies suggest bisphosphonates may help in the resolution of pain and improve radiological findings. Surgical decompression is usually used as a last resort. PMID:24080251

  5. Bone metastasis in a novel breast cancer mouse model containing human breast and human bone.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian-Song; Wang, Guo-Zhu; Ding, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-An; Zhou, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Yi-Fen; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Du, Qing; Ni, Xiao-Jian; Wang, Jue; Miao, Su-Yu; Wang, Shui

    2012-04-01

    In practice, investigations for bone metastasis of breast cancer rely heavily on models in vivo. Lacking of such ideal model makes it difficult to study the whole process or accurate mechanism of each step of this metastatic disease. Development of xenograft mouse models has made great contributions in this area. Currently, the best animal model of breast cancer metastasizing to bone is NOD/SCID-hu models containing human bone, which makes it possible to let the breast cancer cells and the bone target of osteotropic metastasis be both of human origin. We have developed a novel mouse model containing both human bone and breast, and proved it functional and reliable. In this study, a set of human breast cancer cell line including MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-231BO, MCF-7, ZR-75-1 and SUM1315 were characterized their osteotropism in this model. A specific cell line SUM1315 made species-specific bone metastasis, certifying the osteotropism-identification utility of the novel mouse model. Furthermore, gene expression and microRNA expression profiling analysis were done to the two SUM1315 derived sub lines isolated and purified from the orthotopic and metastatic xenograft. In addition, to demonstrate the disparity between the "spontaneous" and "forced" bone metastasis in mouse model, MDA-MB-231 cells were inoculated into both the human implants in this model simultaneously, and then primary cultured and profiling analyzed. Supported by overall results of profiling analyses, this study suggested the novel model was a useful tool for understanding, preventing and treating bone metastasis of breast cancer, meanwhile it had provided significant information for further investigations. PMID:21638054

  6. Use of genetically modified mouse models to assess pathways of benzene-induced bone marrow cytotoxicity and genotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie Recio; Alison Bauer; Brenda Faiola

    2005-01-01

    Benzene induces bone marrow cytotoxicity and chromosomal breaks as a primary mode of action for the induction of bone marrow toxicity. Our research group has used genetically modified mouse models to examine metabolic and genomic response pathways involved in benzene induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in bone marrow and in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We review our studies using NQO1?\\/? mice

  7. Iron-containing cytoplasmic inclusions in mouse bone marrow macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, C; Orlic, D

    1980-01-01

    Elongated, tapered inclusions, present in the cytoplasm of macrophages in mouse bone marrow, were studied by electron microscopy. The bone marrow of adult mice that were injected with the hemolytic agent phenylhydrazine, displayed a statistically significant increase in the number of inclusions compared with bone marrow from control animals. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that ferritin, a known product of red cell destruction, was resent in these inclusions. It is suggested that the inclusions are derived from the degradation of phagocytosed red cells. PMID:7405532

  8. Alveolar Bone Loss of Senescence-accelerated Mouse (SAM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sashima; M. Satoh; A. Suzuki

    1990-01-01

    SAM-R\\/1\\/Iw (senescence-accelerated mouse, resistant) and Pl2\\/Iw (senescence-accelerated mouse, prone) under a conventional environment and eating standard pellets were examined for alveolar bone loss and the presence of periodontitis around maxillary and mandibular molars as a function of age. Neither SAM strain manifested a chronic periodontitis similar to that in humans, and no obvious plaque and calculus were observed. However, in

  9. Cilia/Ift protein and motor-related bone diseases and mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xue; Yang, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are essential cellular organelles projecting from the cell surface to sense and transduce developmental signaling. They are tiny but have complicated structures containing microtubule (MT)-based internal structures (the axoneme) and mother centriole formed basal body. Intraflagellar transport (Ift) operated by Ift proteins and motors are indispensable for cilia formation and function. Mutations in Ift proteins or Ift motors cause various human diseases, some of which have severe bone defects. Over the last few decades, major advances have occurred in understanding the roles of these proteins and cilia in bone development and remodeling by examining cilia/Ift protein-related human diseases and establishing mouse transgenic models. In this review, we describe current advances in the understanding of the cilia/Ift structure and function. We further summarize cilia/Ift-related human diseases and current mouse models with an emphasis on bone-related phenotypes, cilia morphology, and signaling pathways. PMID:25553465

  10. Mouse Models in Bone Marrow Transplantation and Adoptive Cellular Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Arber, Caroline; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Reddy, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models of transplantation have been indispensable to the development of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Their role in the generation of basic science knowledge is invaluable and is subject to discussion below. However, this article focuses on the direct role and relevance of mouse models towards the clinical development and advances in BMT and adoptive T-cell therapy for human diseases. The authors aim to present a thoughtful perspective on the pros and cons of mouse models while noting that despite imperfections these models are obligatory for the development of science-based medicine. PMID:24216170

  11. Culturing primary mouse pancreatic ductal cells.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Maximilian; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    The most common subtype of pancreatic cancer is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDAC resembles ductal cells morphologically. To study pancreatic ductal cell (PDC) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN)/PDAC biology, it is essential to have reliable in vitro culture conditions. Here we describe a methodology to isolate, culture, and passage PDCs and duct-like cells from the mouse pancreas. It can be used to isolate cells from genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), providing a valuable tool to study disease models in vitro to complement in vivo findings. The culture conditions allow epithelial cells to outgrow fibroblast and other "contaminating" cell types within a few passages. However, the resulting cultures, although mostly epithelial, are not completely devoid of fibroblasts. Regardless, this protocol provides guidelines for a robust in vitro culture system to isolate, maintain, and expand primary pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. It can be applied to virtually all GEMMs of pancreatic disease and other diseases and cancers that arise from ductal structures. Because most carcinomas resemble ductal structures, this protocol has utility in the study of other cancers in addition to PDAC, such as breast and prostate cancers. PMID:26034301

  12. The bone diagnostic instrument III: Testing mouse femora

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Connor; Mathews, Phillip; Yurtsev, Eugene; Sahar, Nadder; Kohn, David; Hansma, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Here we describe modifications that allow the bone diagnostic instrument (BDI) [P. Hansma et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 064303 (2008); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 075105 (2006)], developed to test human bone, to test the femora of mice. These modifications include reducing the effective weight of the instrument on the bone, designing and fabricating new probe assemblies to minimize damage to the small bone, developing new testing protocols that involve smaller testing forces, and fabricating a jig for securing the smaller bones for testing. With these modifications, the BDI was used to test the hypothesis that short-term running has greater benefit on the mechanical properties of the femur for young growing mice compared to older, skeletally mature mice. We measured elastic modulus, hardness, and indentation distance increase (IDI), which had previously been shown to be the best discriminators in model systems known to exhibit differences in mechanical properties at the whole bone level. In the young exercised murine femora, the IDI was significantly lower than in young control femora. Since IDI has a relation to postyield properties, these results suggest that exercise during bone development increases post yield mechanical competence. We were also able to measure effects of aging on bone properties with the BDI. There was a significant increase in the IDI, and a significant decrease in the elastic modulus and hardness between the young and old groups. Thus, with the modifications described here, the BDI can take measurements on mouse bones and obtain statistically significant results. PMID:19566227

  13. The bone diagnostic instrument III: Testing mouse femora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Connor; Mathews, Phillip; Yurtsev, Eugene; Sahar, Nadder; Kohn, David; Hansma, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Here we describe modifications that allow the bone diagnostic instrument (BDI) [P. Hansma et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 064303 (2008); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 075105 (2006)], developed to test human bone, to test the femora of mice. These modifications include reducing the effective weight of the instrument on the bone, designing and fabricating new probe assemblies to minimize damage to the small bone, developing new testing protocols that involve smaller testing forces, and fabricating a jig for securing the smaller bones for testing. With these modifications, the BDI was used to test the hypothesis that short-term running has greater benefit on the mechanical properties of the femur for young growing mice compared to older, skeletally mature mice. We measured elastic modulus, hardness, and indentation distance increase (IDI), which had previously been shown to be the best discriminators in model systems known to exhibit differences in mechanical properties at the whole bone level. In the young exercised murine femora, the IDI was significantly lower than in young control femora. Since IDI has a relation to postyield properties, these results suggest that exercise during bone development increases post yield mechanical competence. We were also able to measure effects of aging on bone properties with the BDI. There was a significant increase in the IDI, and a significant decrease in the elastic modulus and hardness between the young and old groups. Thus, with the modifications described here, the BDI can take measurements on mouse bones and obtain statistically significant results.

  14. How tough is Brittle Bone? Investigating Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Mouse Bone††

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, A.; Zimmermann, E. A.; Paluszny, A.; Tang, S. Y.; Bale, H.; Busse, B.; Alliston, T.; Kazakia, G.

    2015-01-01

    The multiscale hierarchical structure of bone is naturally optimized to resist fractures. In osteogenesis imperfecta, or brittle bone disease, genetic mutations affect the quality and/or quantity of collagen, dramatically increasing bone fracture risk. Here we reveal how the collagen defect results in bone fragility in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta (oim), which has homotrimeric ?1(I) collagen. At the molecular level we attribute the loss in toughness to a decrease in the stabilizing enzymatic crosslinks and an increase in non-enzymatic crosslinks, which may break prematurely inhibiting plasticity. At the tissue level, high vascular canal density reduces the stable crack growth, and extensive woven bone limits the crack-deflection toughening during crack growth. This demonstrates how modifications at the bone molecular level have ramifications at larger length scales affecting the overall mechanical integrity of the bone; thus, treatment strategies have to address multiscale properties in order to regain bone toughness. In this regard, findings from the heterozygous oim bone, where defective as well as normal collagen are present, suggest that increasing the quantity of healthy collagen in these bones helps to recover toughness at the multiple length scales. PMID:24420672

  15. Mouse bone marrow-derived IL-3-dependent mast cells and autonomous sublines produce IL-6.

    PubMed

    Hültner, L; Szöts, H; Welle, M; Van Snick, J; Moeller, J; Dörmer, P

    1989-07-01

    This study deals with the question of whether mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells are able to produce interleukin-6 (IL-6) in vitro. For this purpose, a panel of primary mast cell clones from limiting-dilution microcultures, of permanent IL-3-dependent mast cell lines and autonomous malignant sublines, was screened. All of these lines were found to produce growth factor activity for IL-6-dependent mouse hybridoma cells (7TD1), which could be completely neutralized by the monoclonal anti-IL-6-antibody 6B4. Transcriptional activity of the IL-6 gene was demonstrated in both IL-3-dependent mast cells and autonomous sublines using a mouse IL-6-specific cDNA probe. PMID:2788129

  16. Mouse bone marrow-derived IL-3-dependent mast cells and autonomous sublines produce IL-6.

    PubMed Central

    Hültner, L; Szöts, H; Welle, M; Van Snick, J; Moeller, J; Dörmer, P

    1989-01-01

    This study deals with the question of whether mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells are able to produce interleukin-6 (IL-6) in vitro. For this purpose, a panel of primary mast cell clones from limiting-dilution microcultures, of permanent IL-3-dependent mast cell lines and autonomous malignant sublines, was screened. All of these lines were found to produce growth factor activity for IL-6-dependent mouse hybridoma cells (7TD1), which could be completely neutralized by the monoclonal anti-IL-6-antibody 6B4. Transcriptional activity of the IL-6 gene was demonstrated in both IL-3-dependent mast cells and autonomous sublines using a mouse IL-6-specific cDNA probe. Images Figure 5 PMID:2788129

  17. Identification of Clonogenic Common Lymphoid Progenitors in Mouse Bone Marrow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motonari Kondo; Irving L. Weissman; Koichi Akashi

    1997-01-01

    The existence of a common lymphoid progenitor that can only give rise to T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells remains controversial and constitutes an important gap in the hematopoietic lineage maps. Here, we report that the Lin?IL-7R+Thy-1?Sca-1loc-Kitlo population from adult mouse bone marrow possessed a rapid lymphoid-restricted (T, B, and NK) reconstitution capacity in vivo but completely

  18. A Computational Analysis of Bone Formation in the Cranial Vault in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chanyoung; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2015-01-01

    Bones of the cranial vault are formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts on a surface that surrounds the brain, eventually forming mineralized bone. Signaling pathways causative for cell differentiation include the actions of extracellular proteins driven by information from genes. We assume that the interaction of cells and extracellular molecules, which are associated with cell differentiation, can be modeled using Turing’s reaction–diffusion model, a mathematical model for pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In this study, we hypothesize that regions of high concentration of an activator develop into primary centers of ossification, the earliest sites of cranial vault bone. In addition to the Turing model, we use another diffusion equation to model a morphogen (potentially the same as the morphogen associated with formation of ossification centers) associated with bone growth. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data showing skull bone formation in mouse at different embryonic days in mice carrying disease causing mutations and their unaffected littermates. The results show that the relative locations of the five ossification centers that form in our model occur at the same position as those identified in experimental data. As bone grows from these ossification centers, sutures form between the bones. PMID:25853124

  19. Inhibitory effects of ? -interferon on bradykinin-induced bone resorption and prostaglandin formation in cultured mouse calvarial bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. H. Lerner; Ö. Ljunggren; M. Ransjö; K. Klaushofer; M. Peterlik

    1991-01-01

    The effects of mouse recombinant?-interferon (?-IFN) and indomethacin on bone resorption stimulated by bradykinin, Lys-bradykinin, Met-Lys-bradykinin, des-Arg9-bradykinin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) have been studied using cultures of neonatal calvarial bones and analyzing the release of45Ca from prelabelled bones as a paramenter of bone resorption. In addition, the effects of?-IFN and indomethacin on formation of PGE2 in bone cultures stimulated by

  20. New mouse primary retinal degeneration (rd-3)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, B.; Hawes, N.L.; Roderick, T.H. (Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States)); Heckenlively, J.R. (UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A new mouse retinal degeneration that appears to be an excellent candidate for modeling human retinitis pigmentosa is reported. In this degeneration, called rd-3, differentiation proceeds postnatally through 2 weeks, and photoreceptor degeneration starts by 3 weeks. The rod photoreceptor loss is essentially complete by 5 weeks, whereas remnant cone cells are seen through 7 weeks. This is the only mouse homozygous retinal degeneration reported to date in which photoreceptors are initially normal. Crosses with known mouse retinal degenerations rd, Rds, nr, and pcd are negative for retinal degeneration in offspring, and linkage analysis places rd-3 on mouse chromosome 1 at 10 [+-]2.5 cM distal to Akp-1. Homology mapping suggests that the homologous human locus should be on chromosome 1q. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Metabolic acidosis increases fibroblast growth factor 23 in neonatal mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy S; Culbertson, Christopher D; Kyker-Snowman, Kelly; Bushinsky, David A

    2012-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) significantly increases with declining renal function, leading to reduced renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and increased left ventricular hypertrophy. Elevated FGF23 is associated with increased mortality. FGF23 is synthesized in osteoblasts and osteocytes; however, the mechanisms by which it is regulated are not clear. Patients with chronic kidney disease have decreased renal acid excretion leading to metabolic acidosis, which has a direct effect on bone cell activity. We hypothesized that metabolic acidosis would directly increase bone cell FGF23 production. Using cultured neonatal mouse calvariae, we found that metabolic acidosis increased medium FGF23 protein levels as well as FGF23 RNA expression at 24 h and 48 h compared with incubation in neutral pH medium. To exclude that the increased FGF23 was secondary to metabolic acidosis-induced release of bone mineral phosphate, we cultured primary calvarial osteoblasts. In these cells, metabolic acidosis increased FGF23 RNA expression at 6 h compared with incubation in neutral pH medium. Thus metabolic acidosis directly increases FGF23 mRNA and protein in mouse bone. If these results are confirmed in humans with chronic kidney disease, therapeutic interventions to mitigate acidosis, such as bicarbonate administration, may also lower levels of FGF23, decrease left ventricular hypertrophy, and perhaps even decrease mortality. PMID:22647635

  2. Metabolic acidosis increases fibroblast growth factor 23 in neonatal mouse bone

    PubMed Central

    Culbertson, Christopher D.; Kyker-Snowman, Kelly; Bushinsky, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) significantly increases with declining renal function, leading to reduced renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and increased left ventricular hypertrophy. Elevated FGF23 is associated with increased mortality. FGF23 is synthesized in osteoblasts and osteocytes; however, the mechanisms by which it is regulated are not clear. Patients with chronic kidney disease have decreased renal acid excretion leading to metabolic acidosis, which has a direct effect on bone cell activity. We hypothesized that metabolic acidosis would directly increase bone cell FGF23 production. Using cultured neonatal mouse calvariae, we found that metabolic acidosis increased medium FGF23 protein levels as well as FGF23 RNA expression at 24 h and 48 h compared with incubation in neutral pH medium. To exclude that the increased FGF23 was secondary to metabolic acidosis-induced release of bone mineral phosphate, we cultured primary calvarial osteoblasts. In these cells, metabolic acidosis increased FGF23 RNA expression at 6 h compared with incubation in neutral pH medium. Thus metabolic acidosis directly increases FGF23 mRNA and protein in mouse bone. If these results are confirmed in humans with chronic kidney disease, therapeutic interventions to mitigate acidosis, such as bicarbonate administration, may also lower levels of FGF23, decrease left ventricular hypertrophy, and perhaps even decrease mortality. PMID:22647635

  3. Effects of ipriflavone on bone remodeling in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Mazzuoli, G; Romagnoli, E; Carnevale, V; Scarda, A; Scarnecchia, L; Pacitti, M T; Rosso, R; Minisola, S

    1992-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ipriflavone treatment on bone remodeling in primary hyperparathyroidism. Nine patients, 6 females and 3 males (mean +/- SD age 56 +/- 12.5 years) were treated with 1200 mg/day of ipriflavone by oral administration divided in 3 daily doses. All patients were treated for 21 days; in 5 patients treatment was prolonged to 42 days. In all patients the main serum and urinary parameters of bone remodeling were evaluated. The results suggest that ipriflavone affects bone remodeling by inhibiting bone resorption without affecting bone formation. Ipriflavone is, therefore, indicated in the treatment of metabolic bone diseases characterized by a high bone turnover. PMID:1422317

  4. Bone and bone-marrow blood flow in chronic granulocytic leukemia and primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, R; Lahtinen, T; Romppanen, T

    1982-03-01

    Blood flow in hematopoietic bone marrow and in nonhematopoietic bone has been measured with a Xe-133 washout method in 20 patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) and in seven with primary myelofibrosis. Age-matched healthy persons served as controls. Bone-marrow blood flow in CGL was dependent upon the phase of the disease. In the metamorphosis phase, bone-marrow blood flow was high compared with that in the well-controlled phase. Apart from the initial phase, the mean values for bone blood flow in CGL were increased compared with the values of the healthy controls. In myelofibrosis the bone blood flow was also increased. Bone-marrow blood flow in these diseases was dependent upon the cellularity of bone marrow as measured morphometrically. PMID:6950031

  5. Differentiation of lymphocytes in the mouse bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, J. W.; Osmond, D. G.; Nossal, G. J. V.

    1974-01-01

    The response of mouse spleen cells to the T cell-independent antigen dinitrophenylated polymer of flagellin (DNP—POL), has been studied using an adoptive transfer system, and compared with the response of bone marrow cells. Spleen cells showed a complex cell dose—response relationship, with a markedly discontinuous curve, for assays performed before day 9 after transfer and antigen challenge. This discontinuity could be explained by a delay in attainment of the peak response for lower cell inocula. The curve became linear on a log—log scale when spleens were harvested on days 9 and 10 post-transfer. Bone marrow cells gave a lower response than would be expected from their lymphocyte content. This response increased progressively with a delay before antigen challenge in the irradiated recipient or in tissue culture prior to cell transfer, suggesting a functional maturation in this cell population, whereas the performance of spleen cells fell off under similar circumstances. The findings were consistent with, but could not prove, the hypothesis that the immediate precursors of anti-DNP antibody-forming cells in bone marrow were high surface immunoglobulin density small lymphocytes that had arisen locally from precursors lacking detectable surface immunoglobulin, by a non-mitotic maturation. PMID:4279889

  6. The bone diagnostic instrument III: Testing mouse femora Connor Randall,1

    E-print Network

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    to minimize damage to the small bone, developing new testing protocols that involve smaller testing forces, and fabricating a jig for securing the smaller bones for testing. With these modifications, the BDI was usedThe bone diagnostic instrument III: Testing mouse femora Connor Randall,1 Phillip Mathews,1 Eugene

  7. Bone Remodeling and Hydroxyapatite Resorption in Coated Primary Hip Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Tonino, Alphons J.; Heyligers, Ide C.; Grimm, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings for THA promote bone ongrowth, but bone and coating are exposed to stress shielding-driven osteoclastic resorption. We asked: (1) if the resorption of hydroxyapatite coating and bone ongrowth correlated with demographics; (2) if the resorption related to the stem level; and (3) what happens to the implant-bone interface when all hydroxyapatite coating is resorbed? We recovered 13 femoral components from cadaveric specimens 3.3 to 11.2 years after uneventful primary THA. Three cross sections (proximal, medial, distal) of the hydroxyapatite-coated proximal implant sleeve were analyzed by measuring the percentage of residual hydroxyapatite and bone ongrowth on the implant perimeter. Hydroxyapatite resorption was independent of patient age but increased with time in vivo and mostly was gone after 8 years. Bone ongrowth was independent of time in vivo but decreased with aging patients. Only in the most proximal section did less residual hydroxyapatite correlate with less bone ongrowth. Hydroxyapatite resorption, which was more proximal than distal, showed no adverse effects on the implant-bone interface. PMID:18855086

  8. Imaging of primary bone tumors in veterinary medicine: which differences?

    PubMed

    Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that prognostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the aggressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all. PMID:22197093

  9. Improved Culture-Based Isolation of Differentiating Endothelial Progenitor Cells from Mouse Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruki Sekiguchi; Masaaki Ii; Kentaro Jujo; Ayumi Yokoyama; Nobuhisa Hagiwara; Takayuki Asahara

    2011-01-01

    Numerous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-related investigations have been performed in mouse experiments. However, defined characteristics of mouse cultured EPC have not been examined. We focused on fast versus slow adherent cell population in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) in culture and examined their characteristics. After 24 h-culture of BMMNCs, attached (AT) cells and floating (FL) cells were further cultured in

  10. MRI detection of early bone metastases in B16 mouse melanoma models

    PubMed Central

    Gauvain, Karen M.; Garbow, Joel R.; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Hirbe, Angela C.; Weilbaecher, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Bone metastasis causes significant morbidity in cancer patients, including bone pain, pathologic fractures, nerve compression syndrome, and hypercalcemia. Animal models are utilized to study the pathogenesis of skeletal metastases and to evaluate potential therapeutic agents. Previously published methods for imaging bone metastasis in rodent models have focused on identifying advanced stage metastasis using simple X-rays. Here we report MRI as a method for detecting early bone metastases in mouse models in vivo. B16 mouse melanoma cells were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of C57BL/6 mice and magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained of the left leg following the development of metastatic disease, when tumor associated bone destruction was histologically present but not visible by X-ray. T1 and T2 relaxation times of bone marrow were measured in healthy control mice and B16 melanoma tumor-bearing mice. Mean T2 values for normal marrow were 28 ms (SD 5) and for diseased bone marrow were 41 ms (SD 3). T2 relaxation time of diseased bone marrow is significantly longer than that of normal bone marrow (P < 0.0001) and can be used as a marker of early bone metastases. These studies demonstrate that MR imaging can detect bone marrow metastases in small animals prior to development of cortical bone loss identified by X-ray. PMID:16283483

  11. Bone Windows for Distinguishing Malignant from Benign Primary Bone Tumors on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Costelloe, Colleen M; Chuang, Hubert H; Chasen, Beth A; Pan, Tinsu; Fox, Patricia S; Bassett, Roland L; Madewell, John E

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The default window setting on PET/CT workstations is soft tissue. This study investigates whether bone windowing and hybrid FDG PET/CT can help differentiate between malignant and benign primary bone tumors. Materials and methods. A database review included 98 patients with malignant (n=64) or benign primary bone (n=34) tumors. The reference standard was biopsy for malignancies and biopsy or >1 year imaging follow-up of benign tumors. Three radiologists and/or nuclear medicine physicians blinded to diagnosis and other imaging viewed the lesions on CT with bone windows (CT-BW) without and then with PET (PET/CT-BW), and separate PET-only images for malignancy or benignity. Three weeks later the tumors were viewed on CT with soft tissue windows (CT-STW) without and then with PET (PET/CT-STW). Results. Mean sensitivity and specificity for identifying malignancies included: CT-BW: 96%, 90%; CT-STW: 90%, 90%; PET/CT-BW: 95%, 85%, PET/CT-STW: 95%, 86% and PET-only: 96%, 75%, respectively. CT-BW demonstrated higher specificity than PET-only and PET/CT-BW (p=0.0005 and p=0.0103, respectively) and trended toward higher sensitivity than CT-STW (p=0.0759). Malignant primary bone tumors were more avid than benign lesions overall (p<0.0001) but the avidity of benign aggressive lesions (giant cell tumors and Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis) trended higher than the malignancies (p=0.08). Conclusion. Bone windows provided high specificity for distinguishing between malignant and benign primary bone tumors and are recommended when viewing FDG PET/CT. PMID:23983816

  12. [Radiosensitivity of bone metastases from tumors in different primary sites].

    PubMed

    Khmelevsky, E V; Bychkova, N M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current clinical trial was to evaluate efficiency of palliative external beam radiotherapy for symptomatic bone metastases from different primary tumors. The randomized study included 427 patients, treated for 616 sites of bone lesions. Breast was the primary site in 67,5% of cases, prostate and lung--in 7,5% each, renal--in 5,5%, other tumors--in 12%. The most frequent treatment site was the spine--47,8%, followed by pelvis--30,8%, long bones--14,4%, sacrum--2,9% and other sites--4%. The main indication for irradiation was pain not alleviated by systematic drug therapy. Radiotherapy protocol included 3 hypofractionation regimes with total dose of 26 Gy, 19,5 Gy and 13 Gy by 3, 4 and 2 fractions of 6,5 Gy correspondingly and standard treatment schedule with total dose of 26 Gy. The average follow-up period was 56 months. General pain relief (complete and partial) was observed in 96,1% of sites and was independent of primary tumor, metastases localization and irradiation schedules. Complete response rate (CRR) was higher for bone metastases form breast and prostate cancer 64,2% and 58,7% correspondingly in comparison with lung and renal cancer--43,5% and 26,5% respectively (p<0,05). At small number of observations metastases from melanoma and sarcomas proved high radiosensitivity with CRR 75% and 66,7% correspondingly. CRR for spine and pelvis localization of metastases was similar--63,4% and 59,3%, slightly lower for long bones--48,3% and significantly lower for sacrum isolated metastases--27,8% (p<0,05). CRR was higher for standard treatment schedule and significantly increased for 2, 3 and 4 fractions of 6,5 Gy correspondingly (p<0,03). In the multifactorial analysis tumor primary site and pain intensity before radiotherapy were the only independent prognostic factors of CRR. Therefore histogenesis of primary tumor is a predictor of radiosensitivity of bone metastases, it significantly affects the complete pain response rate. It is expedient to use hypofractionation regimes of 3 fractions of 6,5 Gy (total dose 19,5 Gy) for palliative radiotherapy of bone metastases in case of breast, prostate cancer, sarcomas and melanoma and 4 fractions of 6,5 Gy (total dose 26 Gy) in case of lung and renal cancer. PMID:26016150

  13. Quantitative ultrasound assessment of bone in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Minisola, S; Rosso, R; Scarda, A; Pacitti, M T; Romagnoli, E; Mazzuoli, G

    1995-06-01

    Quantitative ultrasound measurements were done in a group of 26 patients (4 males and 22 females, aged 55.4 +/- 14.2 years) with primary hyperparathyroidism, and the results were compared with bone mineral density (BMD) carried out at various skeletal sites. Speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and stiffness were measured with the Achilles ultrasound bone densitometer (Lunar Corp., Madison, WI). Mean +/- SD values of SOS, BUA, and stiffness in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were 1522 +/- 38 m/seconds, 111 +/- 16 dB/MHz, and 80.4 +/- 19.8%, respectively. There were significant differences of mean T-score BUA values (-0.63 +/- 1.11) compared with corresponding T-score BMD values found at ultradistal (-1.85 +/- 1.73, P < 0.01), proximal radius (-2.40 +/- 2.13, P < 0.001), and total femoral (-1.60 +/- 1.32, P < 0.001) sites. Correlation coefficients between both SOS and BUA values with BMD measurements at specific skeletal sites varied, but stiffness correlated moderately (0.6-0.9) with BMD. Our data strongly indicate that in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, bone structure of some skeletal sites, as evaluated by BUA measurement, is compromised to a lesser extent than BMD. In this respect it is interesting to note the lack of significant differences (in terms of mean T-score values) in the comparison of two sites of mostly trabecular composition, that is, the lumbar level (-1.17 +/- 1.54) and the femoral Ward's triangle (-0.99 +/- 1.25). Our results seem to lend further support to the hypothesis that in primary hyperparathyroidism cancellous bone architecture might be preferentially maintained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7648479

  14. Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model.

    PubMed

    Britton, Robert A; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R

    2014-11-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes beneficial immunomodulatory factors, we examined if this candidate probiotic could reduce bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized (Ovx) mouse menopausal model. Strikingly, L. reuteri treatment significantly protected Ovx mice from bone loss. Osteoclast bone resorption markers and activators (Trap5 and RANKL) as well as osteoclastogenesis are significantly decreased in L. reuteri-treated mice. Consistent with this, L. reuteri suppressed Ovx-induced increases in bone marrow CD4+ T-lymphocytes (which promote osteoclastogenesis) and directly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We also identified that L. reuteri treatment modifies microbial communities in the Ovx mouse gut. Together, our studies demonstrate that L. reuteri treatment suppresses bone resorption and loss associated with estrogen deficiency. Thus, L. reuteri treatment may be a straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce post-menopausal bone loss. PMID:24677054

  15. Induction effects of sulfur dioxide inhalation on chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ziqiang; Zhang, Bo

    2002-05-01

    To investigate the induction of chromosome aberrations (CA) in mouse bone marrow cells by sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) inhalation, mice were treated by SO(2) exposure for 4 h/day for 7 days at various concentrations of SO(2), then mitotic indices and CA in mouse bone marrow cells were analyzed. The present results show that SO(2) might increase the frequencies of CA and aberrant cells in mouse bone marrow in a dose-dependent manner. The frequencies (%) of aberrant cells in mouse bone marrow induced by SO(2) at concentrations of 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 mg/m(3) were 1.81, 3.00, 3.58, 4.26, 4.86, respectively. At low concentrations SO(2) induced only chromatid-type CA, while at high concentrations SO(2) induced both chromatid-type and chromosome-type CA. SO(2) inhalation decreased the mitotic indices of bone marrow cells. The results imply that SO(2) inhalation may inhibit mitoses and increase CA frequencies of bone marrow cells and that it is a clastogenetic and genotoxic agent. Long exposure to SO(2) pollution at low concentrations in the environment may be a potential risk for induction of cytogenetic damage in vivo in humans. PMID:11971992

  16. Endochondral bone formation in embryonic mouse pre-metatarsals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    Long term exposure to a reduced gravitational environment has a deleterious effect on bone. The developmental events which occur prior to initial bone deposition will provide insight into the regulation of mature bone physiology. We have characterized a system in which the events preceding bone formation take place in an isolated in vitro organ culture environment. We show that cultured pre-metatarsal tissue parallels development of pre-metatarsal tissue in the embryo. Both undergo mesenchyme differentiation and morphogenesis to form a cartilage rod, which resembles the future bone, followed by terminal chondrocyte differentiation in a definite morphogenetic pattern. These sequential steps occur prior to osteoblast maturation and bone matrix deposition in the developing organism. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is a distinctive enzymatic marker for mineralizing tissues. We have measured this activity throughout pre-metatarsal development and show (a) where in the tissue it is predominantly found, and (b) that this is indeed the mineralizing isoform of the enzyme.

  17. Lineage specificity of primary cilia in the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Bangs, Fiona K; Schrode, Nadine; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Anderson, Kathryn V

    2015-02-01

    Primary cilia are required for vertebrate cells to respond to specific intercellular signals. Here we define when and where primary cilia appear in the mouse embryo using a transgenic line that expresses ARL13B-mCherry in cilia and Centrin 2-GFP in centrosomes. Primary cilia first appear on cells of the epiblast at E6.0 and are subsequently present on all derivatives of the epiblast. In contrast, extraembryonic cells of the visceral endoderm and trophectoderm lineages have centrosomes but no cilia. Stem cell lines derived from embryonic lineages recapitulate the in vivo pattern: epiblast stem cells are ciliated, whereas trophoblast stem cells and extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) stem cells lack cilia. Basal bodies in XEN cells are mature and can form cilia when the AURKA-HDAC6 cilium disassembly pathway is inhibited. The lineage-dependent distribution of cilia is stable throughout much of gestation, defining which cells in the placenta and yolk sac are able to respond to Hedgehog ligands. PMID:25599390

  18. Genetics of primary and timing effects in the mnd mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Messer, A.; Plummer, J.; MacMillen, M.C. [New York State, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-05

    The mnd mouse shows a spontaneous adult-onset hereditary neurological disease, with motor abnormality by 6 months of age, progressing to severe spastic paralysis and premature death. The disease is autosomal recessive, with heterozygote effects seen under stress. It maps to mouse chromosome (chr) 8. Histopathology with Nissl stains documents substantial abnormalities of upper and lower motor neurons, and there is retinal degeneration beginning in the first month, even without light exposure. Increasing levels of autofluorescent lipopigment are found in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues as the mnd mice age. Recently, NCL-like inclusions and accumulating subunit c have also been described. When mnd is outcrossed to the AKR/J genetic background, ca. 40% of the mnd/mnd F2 progeny show early onset (onset by 4.5-5 months and death by 7 months). This accelerated timing effect seems to be strain-specific, and unlinked to the mnd gene itself. Our current working hypothesis is that the timing effect is due to 2 or 3 unlinked dominant genes with incomplete penetrance at any single locus. In a combined RFLP/PCR fragment genetic analysis, the strongest deviation from the expected ratio of AKR vs B6 alleles occurs with markers on proximal half of chr 1. Additional loci on chrs 5 and 10 may also be involved. The mechanism of interaction of these modifying genes with the primary mnd gene may offer new therapeutic avenues. 22 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Cadmium stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in mouse bone marrow cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, Tatsuro; Takata, Masakazu; Miyata, Masaki; Nagai, Miyuki; Sugure, Akemi; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kuze, Shougo (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    Most of cadmium (Cd)-treated animals have been reported to show osteoporosis-like changes in bones. This suggests that Cd may promote bone loss by a direct action on bone. It was found that Cd stimulated prostaglandin E{sub 2}(PGE{sub 2}) production in the osteoblast-like cell, MC3T3-E1. Therefore, Cd stimulates bone resorption by increasing PGE{sub 2} production. Recently, several bone marrow cell culture systems have been developed for examining the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells in vitro. As osteoblasts produce PGE{sub 2} by Cd-induced cyclooxygenase and may play an important role in osteoclast formation, the present study was undertaken to clarify the possibility that Cd might stimulate osteoclast formation in a mouse bone marrow culture system.

  20. Polarization in Raman spectroscopy helps explain bone brittleness in genetic mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Alexander J.; Pence, Isaac J.; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Zein-Sabatto, Ahbid; Huszagh, Meredith C.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2014-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been extensively used to characterize bone composition. However, the link between bone biomechanics and RS measures is not well established. Here, we leveraged the sensitivity of RS polarization to organization, thereby assessing whether RS can explain differences in bone toughness in genetic mouse models for which traditional RS peak ratios are not informative. In the selected mutant mice-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) or matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) knock-outs-toughness is reduced but differences in bone strength do not exist between knock-out and corresponding wild-type controls. To incorporate differences in the RS of bone occurring at peak shoulders, a multivariate approach was used. Full spectrum principal components analysis of two paired, orthogonal bone orientations (relative to laser polarization) improved genotype classification and correlation to bone toughness when compared to traditional peak ratios. When applied to femurs from wild-type mice at 8 and 20 weeks of age, the principal components of orthogonal bone orientations improved age classification but not the explanation of the maturation-related increase in strength. Overall, increasing polarization information by collecting spectra from two bone orientations improves the ability of multivariate RS to explain variance in bone toughness, likely due to polarization sensitivity to organizational changes in both mineral and collagen.

  1. Bone loss in survival motor neuron (Smn(-/-) SMN2) genetic mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Shanmugarajan, Srinivasan; Tsuruga, Eichi; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Maria, Bernard L; Ries, William L; Reddy, Sakamuri V

    2009-09-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by degenerating lower motor neurons and an increased incidence of congenital bone fractures. Survival motor neuron (SMN) levels are significantly reduced due to deletions/mutations in the telomeric SMN1 gene in these patients. We utilized the Smn(-/-) SMN2 mouse model of SMA to determine the functional role for SMN in bone remodelling. microCT analysis of lumber vertebrae, tibia and femur bones from SMA mice revealed an osteoporotic bone phenotype. Histological analysis demonstrated a thin porous cortex of cortical bone and thin trabeculae at the proximal end of the growth plate in the vertebrae of SMA mice compared to wild-type mice. Histochemical staining of the vertebrae showed the presence of abundant activated osteoclasts on the sparse trabeculae and on the endosteal surface of the thin cortex in SMA mice. Histomorphometric analysis of vertebrae from SMA mice showed an increased number of osteoclasts. Serum TRAcP5b and urinary NTx levels were elevated, consistent with increased bone resorption in these mice. SMA mice showed a significant decrease in the levels of osteoblast differentiation markers, osteocalcin, osteopontin and osterix mRNA expression; however, there were no change in the levels of alkaline phosphatase expression compared to WT mice. SMA mouse bone marrow cultures revealed an increased rate of osteoclast formation (54%) and bone resorption capacity (46%) compared to WT mice. Pre-osteoclast cells from SMA mice showed constitutive up-regulation of RANK receptor signalling molecules critical for osteoclast differentiation. Our results implicate SMN function in bone remodelling and skeletal pathogenesis in SMA. Understanding basic mechanisms of SMN action in bone remodelling may uncover new therapeutic targets for preventing bone loss/fracture risk in SMA. PMID:19434631

  2. Pathological features of bone marrow transplantation-related toxicity in a mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Hoon Kim; Chang-Su Ha; Hyun-Sook Lee; Sun-Hwa Lim; Kyoung-Sik Moon; Moon-Koo Chung; Hwa-Young Son

    2009-01-01

    In this case report, we present a mock-transduced bone marrow (BM) transplantation in a mouse, which was found moribund and autopsied to evaluate pathogenesis. Macroscopically, red discoloration of systemic organs was observed. Hematological values revealed a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets, but an increase in reticulocytes. In BM cytology, hematopoietic cell lines were

  3. Sex differences in bone resorption in the mouse femur

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Abe; Y. Aoki

    1989-01-01

    In male and female dd-mice at 4, 7, and 14 weeks of age and in 7 and 14-week-old mice gonadectomized at 4 weeks of age, the number of osteoclasts and the number and size of bone resorption areas along the surface of bone trabeculae in the distal metaphysis of the femur were determined. Osteoclasts were counted at the light-microscopic level

  4. Measuring the dynamic mechanical response of hydrated mouse bone by nanoindentation

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Siddhartha; Swadener, J. Gregory; Kalidindi, Surya R.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Jepsen, Karl J.; Goldman, Haviva M.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel approach to characterizing hydrated bone’s viscoelastic behavior at the lamellar length scales using dynamic indentation techniques. We studied the submicron-level viscoelastic response of bone tissue from two different inbred mouse strains, A/J and B6, with known differences in whole bone and tissue-level mechanical properties. Our results show that bone having a higher collagen content or a lower mineral-to-matrix ratio demonstrates a trend towards a larger viscoelastic response. When normalized for anatomical location relative to biological growth patterns in the antero-medial (AM) cortex, bone tissue from B6 femora, known to have a lower mineral-to-matrix ratio, is shown to exhibit a significantly higher viscoelastic response compared to A/J tissue. Newer bone regions with a higher collagen content (closer to the endosteal edge of the AM cortex) showed a trend towards a larger viscoelastic response. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of this technique to be used to study local composition-property relationships in bone. Further, this technique of viscoelastic nanoindentation mapping of the bone surface at these submicron length scales is shown to be highly advantageous in studying sub-surface features, such as porosity, of wet hydrated biological specimens, which are difficult to identify using other methods. PMID:21094478

  5. A mouse model of craniofacial bone lesion of tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Wei, Xiaoxi; Hu, Min; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays critical roles in skeletal development. The impact and underlying mechanisms of its dysregulation in bone homeostasis is poorly defined. The best known and characterized mTOR signaling dysregulation in human disease is called Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). TSC is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome with a high frequency (>66%) of osseous manifestations such as sclerotic lesions in the craniofacial region. TSC is caused by mutations of TSC1 or TSC2, the heterodimer protein inhibitor of mTORC1 signaling. The underlying mechanism of bone lesions in TSC is unclear. We generated a TSC mouse model with TSC1 deletion in neural crest derived (NCD) cells, which recapitulated the sclerotic craniofacial bone lesion in TSC patients. We demonstrated that TSC1 null NCD osteoblasts overpopulated the NCD bones and the resultant increased bone formation is responsible for the sclerotic bone phenotype. Mechanistically, osteoblast number increase is due to the hyperproliferation of osteoprogenitor cells at an early postnatal stage. Noteworthy, administration of rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor at early postnatal stage can completely rescue the excess bone acquisition, but late treatment cannot. Altogether, our data suggested that enhanced mTORC1 signaling in NCD cells can enlarge the osteoprogenitor pool and lead to the excess bone acquisition, which is likely the underlying mechanism of sclerotic bone lesion observed in TSC patients. PMID:26052552

  6. Analgesic effects of lappaconitine in leukemia bone pain in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Cui; Ge, Chen-Tao; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Jia-Li; Yu, Yuan-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Bone pain is a common and severe symptom in cancer patients. The present study employed a mouse model of leukemia bone pain by injection K562 cells into tibia of mouse to evaluate the analgesic effects of lappacontine. Our results showed that the lappaconitine treatment at day 15, 17 and 19 could effectively reduce the spontaneous pain scoring values, restore reduced degree in the inclined-plate test induced by injection of K562 cells, as well as restore paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal thermal latency induced by injection of K562 cells to the normal levels. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of lappaconitine’s analgesic effects may be related to affect the expression levels of endogenous opioid system genes (POMC, PENK and MOR), as well as apoptosis-related genes (Xiap, Smac, Bim, NF-?B and p53). Our present results indicated that lappaconitine may become a new analgesic agent for leukemia bone pain management. PMID:26019998

  7. Electrophysiological properties of neonatal mouse cardiac myocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, H B; Marban, E

    1994-01-01

    1. The increasing utility of transgenic mice in molecular studies of the cardiovascular system has motivated us to characterize the ionic currents in neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes. 2. Cell capacitance measurements (30 +/- 1 pF, n = 73) confirmed visual impressions that neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes in primary culture are considerably smaller than freshly isolated adult ventricular myocytes. With the use of electron microscopy, mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum were found in close association with myofibrils, but transverse tubules were not observed. 3. Action potential durations, measured at 50 and 90% repolarization, were 23 +/- 1 and 42 +/- 2 ms respectively (n = 46). Application of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 5 mM) prolonged action potential duration at 50% repolarization by 26 +/- 5% (n = 3). The brevity of the action potential is explained by the rapid activation of a transient outward K+ current upon voltage-clamp depolarization to plateau potentials. 4. Potassium currents identified include an inward rectifier, a large 4-AP-sensitive transient outward, a slowly inactivating 4-AP-insensitive outward, a slowly activating delayed rectifier and a small rapidly activating E-4031 (10 microM)-sensitive delayed rectifier K+ current. 5. Sodium currents (-305 +/- 50 pA pF-1, n = 21) were recorded in 40 mM Na+ with Ni2+ (1 mM) to block Ca2+ currents and with K+ replaced by Cs+. The relative insensitivity of the Na+ current to block by tetrodotoxin (IC50 = 2.2 +/- 0.3 microM, n = 4) is distinctive of the cardiac Na+ channel isoform. 6. Nitrendipine-insensitive (10 microM) Ba2+ currents elicited during steps from -90 to -30 mV measured -25 +/- 5 pA pF-1 (n = 7, 30 mM Ba2+). Decay of these currents was complete during 180 ms depolarizations, even with Ba2+ as the charge carrier. These currents were not present when the holding potential was set at -50 mV. These data support the presence of a low threshold, T-type Ca2+ current. 7. The maximal nitrendipine-sensitive L-type Ca2+ current density was -10 +/- 2 pA pF-1 (n = 8) in 2 mM Ca2+ and -38 +/- 5 pA pF-1 (n = 9) in 30 mM Ba2+. Exposure to isoprenaline (1 microM) resulted in an 82% increase (n = 3) in the amplitude of the Ba2+ currents elicited at 0 mV. 8. Neonatal mouse cardiac myocytes in primary culture possess surprisingly large inward currents given the brevity of their action potentials.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 PMID:7799226

  8. Primary cilia act as mechanosensors during bone healing around an implant

    PubMed Central

    Leucht, P.; Monica, S.D.; Temiyasathit, S.; Lenton, K.; Manu, A.; Longaker, M.T.; Jacobs, C.R.; Spilker, R.L.; Guo, H.; Brunski, J.B.; Helms, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The primary cilium is an organelle that senses cues in a cell’s local environment. Some of these cues constitute molecular signals; here, we investigate the extent to which primary cilia can also sense mechanical stimuli. We used a conditional approach to delete Kif3a in pre-osteoblasts and then employed a motion device that generated a spatial distribution of strain around an intra-osseous implant positioned in the mouse tibia. We correlated interfacial strain fields with cell behaviors ranging from proliferation through all stages of osteogenic differentiation. We found that peri-implant cells in the Col1Cre;Kif3afl/fl mice were unable to proliferate in response to a mechanical stimulus, failed to deposit and then orient collagen fibers to the strain fields caused by implant displacement, and failed to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the lack of a functioning primary cilium blunts the normal response of a cell to a defined mechanical stimulus. The ability to manipulate the genetic background of peri-implant cells within the context of a whole, living tissue provides a rare opportunity to explore mechanotransduction from a multi-scale perspective. PMID:22784673

  9. Heparin-like polysaccharides reduce osteolytic bone destruction and tumor growth in a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Pollari, Sirkku; Käkönen, Rami S; Mohammad, Khalid S; Rissanen, Jukka P; Halleen, Jussi M; Wärri, Anni; Nissinen, Liisa; Pihlavisto, Marjo; Marjamäki, Anne; Perälä, Merja; Guise, Theresa A; Kallioniemi, Olli; Käkönen, Sanna-Maria

    2012-05-01

    TGF-? regulates several steps in cancer metastasis, including the establishment of bone metastatic lesions. TGF-? is released from bone during osteoclastic bone resorption and it stimulates breast cancer cells to produce osteolytic factors such as interleukin 11 (IL-11). We conducted a cell-based siRNA screen and identified heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 2 (HS6ST2) as a critical gene for TGF-?-induced IL-11 production in highly bone metastatic MDA-MB-231(SA) breast cancer cells. HS6ST2 attaches sulfate groups to glucosamine residues in heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. We subsequently showed how heparin and a high-molecular-weight Escherichia coli K5-derived heparin-like polysaccharide (K5-NSOS) inhibited TGF-?-induced IL-11 production in MDA-MB-231(SA) cells. In addition, K5-NSOS inhibited bone resorption activity of human osteoclasts in vitro. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of K5-NSOS and fragmin in a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis. MDA-MB-231(SA) cells were inoculated into the left cardiac ventricle of athymic nude mice which were treated with fragmin, K5-NSOS, or vehicle once a day for four weeks. Both heparin-like glycosaminoglycans inhibited weight reduction, decreased osteolytic lesion area, and reduced tumor burden in bone. In conclusion, our data imply novel mechanisms involved in TGF-? induction and support the critical role of heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans in cancer metastasis as well as indicate that K5-NSOS is a potential antimetastatic and antiresorptive agent for cancer therapy. This study illustrates the potential to translate in vitro siRNA screening results toward in vivo therapeutic concepts. PMID:22522458

  10. Acute restraint stress increases the frequency of vinblastine-induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Malvandi, Amir Mohammad; Haddad, Farhang; Moghimi, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Acute physiological stress induces remarkable effects on the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and also on cellular metabolism and cell division processes. Stress-induced instability of cellular mechanisms might play an important role in increasing cell division disorders. In this study, a relationship between stress and micronucleus (MN) induction in mouse (balb/c) bone marrow cells following vinblastine treatment, or stress or stress and vinblastine treatment in comparison to a non-stressed control group was investigated. In order to test the effects of treatments on MN induction, an in vivo MN assay was performed on bone marrow cells. The results revealed a significantly greater increase in MNs in bone marrow cells (polychromatic erythrocytes) from the stressed/vinblastine treated mice. The data indicate the ability of exposure to an emotional stressor to enhance the damaging actions on bone marrow cells of an aneugenic agent. PMID:20392198

  11. Peptidomic Analyses of Mouse Astrocytic Cell Lines and Rat Primary Cultured Astrocytes

    E-print Network

    Gillette, Martha U.

    on mouse brain tissue. Complex peptide profiles were observed after stimulation, suggesting that astrocytesPeptidomic Analyses of Mouse Astrocytic Cell Lines and Rat Primary Cultured Astrocytes Ping Yin Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Astrocytes play an active role in the modulation of synaptic transmission

  12. Effect of cyclophosphamide and electromagnetic fields on mouse bone marrow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cadossi; P. Zucchini; G. Emilia; G. Torelli

    1990-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that the exposure to low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF) of mice X-ray irradiated resulted in an increased damage to the bone marrow. The series of experiments here reported were designed to investigate the effect of PEMF exposure after intraperitoneum injection of 200mg\\/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY). Control mice were CY injected only; experimental mice were

  13. Effect of cyclophosphamide and electromagnetic fields on mouse bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Cadossi, R.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Torelli, G. (Univ. di Modena (Italy))

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that the exposure to low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF) of mice X-ray irradiated resulted in an increased damage to the bone marrow. The series of experiments here reported were designed to investigate the effect of PEMF exposure after intraperitoneum injection of 200mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY). Control mice were CY injected only; experimental mice were CY injected and then exposed to PEMF. Exposure to PEMF (24 hours/day) increased the rate of decline of white blood cells in peripheral blood. Spleen weight was statistically higher among control mice than among mice exposed to PEMF at day 6, 8 and 10 after CY injection. Spleen autoradiography proved to be higher among PEMF exposed mice than among controls at day 8 and 9 after CY injection. The grafting efficiency of the bone marrow obtained from control mice was higher than the grafting efficiency of the bone marrow recovered from mice exposed to PEMF. All these data indicate that the exposure to PEMF increases the cytotoxic effect of CY.

  14. In vitro effects of OK-432 on irradiated mouse bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nose, Masako; Kawase, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Gen; Akashi, Makoto; Akanuma, Atsuo (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Aoki, Yoshiro (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-15

    In vitro effects of OK-432 (polysaccharide extract of Streptococcus haemolyticus) on irradiated mouse bone marrow cells are examined. Bone marrow cells of BDF1 mouse (1 [times] 10[sup 6] cells/ml) were incubated with alpha medium, 2% fetal calf serum and OK-432 in a CO[sub 2] incubator at 37[degrees]C for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. After centrifugation, each supernatant was collected and used for conditioned medium in a CFU-GM assay: Changes in CFU-GM as a function of incubation time and OK-432 dose were examined; changes of CFU-GM according to various doses of OK-432 were examined in two mouse strains, BDF[sub 1] and BALB/c mouse; changes in the protective effect of OK-432 in terms of CFU-GM as a function of administration timing of OK-432 in relation to irradiation. As a radiation source, [sup 137]Cs at a dose rate of 500 cGy/min was used. The CFU-GM decreased with the incubation time when OK-432 was not administered, while it significantly increased with incubation time when OK-432 was added at 0.5 and 1.0 KE/ml at 48-72 h of incubation. The former showed marked increase at 48-72 h of incubation. CFU-GM of BDF[sub 1] mouse was always higher than that of BALB/c mouse for any dose of OK-432. CFU-GM per femur according to the timing of administration of OK-432 from 24 h before to 24 h after irradiation showed 10299 [+-] 2300 (24 h before), 10783 [+-] 2463 (3 h before), 10045 [+-] 1501 (immediately after), 8504 [+-] 1188 (3 h after), 4898 [+-] 1212 (6 h after), 1214 [+-] 736 (12 h after) and 181 [+-] 113 (24 h after irradiation), respectively. OK-432 stimulates cultures mouse bone marrow cells to produce GM-CSF in vitro by direct contact action. This direct stimulating action of OK-432 on GM-CSF production of bone marrow cells can be kept from 24 h before to at least 3 h after irradiation. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Magnetic assembly-mediated enhancement of differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells cultured on magnetic colloidal assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianfei; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Jiqing; Song, Lina; Chen, Zihao; Liu, Haoyu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2014-05-01

    Here we reported an interesting phenomenon that the field-induced assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles can promote the differentiation of primary mouse bone marrow cells into osteoblasts. The reason was thought to lie in the remnant magnetic interaction inside the assemblies which resulted from the magnetic field-directed assembly. Influence of the assemblies on the cells was realized by means of interface effect rather than the internalization effect. We fabricated a stripe-like assemblies array on the glass plate and cultured cells on this surface. We characterized the morphology of assemblies and measured the mechanic property as well as the magnetic property. The cellular differentiation was measured by staining and quantitative PCR. Finally, Fe uptake was excluded as the reason to cause the phenomenon.

  16. Magnetic assembly-mediated enhancement of differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells cultured on magnetic colloidal assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianfei; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Jiqing; Song, Lina; Chen, Zihao; Liu, Haoyu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Here we reported an interesting phenomenon that the field-induced assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles can promote the differentiation of primary mouse bone marrow cells into osteoblasts. The reason was thought to lie in the remnant magnetic interaction inside the assemblies which resulted from the magnetic field-directed assembly. Influence of the assemblies on the cells was realized by means of interface effect rather than the internalization effect. We fabricated a stripe-like assemblies array on the glass plate and cultured cells on this surface. We characterized the morphology of assemblies and measured the mechanic property as well as the magnetic property. The cellular differentiation was measured by staining and quantitative PCR. Finally, Fe uptake was excluded as the reason to cause the phenomenon. PMID:24874764

  17. Rosette formation with mouse erythrocytes. III. Studies in patients with primary immunodeficiency and lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Good, R A; Siegal, F P

    1976-01-01

    Rosette formation with mouse erythrocytes and other cell-surface markers were examined on lymphocytes from patients with a variety of primary immunodeficiency and lymphoproliferative disorders. Mouse erythrocyte rosette-forming cells and lymphocytes with surface immunoglobulins were regularly absent in patients with Bruton type agammaglobulinaemia, immunodeficiency and thymoma syndrome and severe combined immunodeficiency disease. However, they were present in normal or low numbers in patients with common variable immunodeficiency, selective IgA deficiency and ataxis telangiectasia. Lymphocytes from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia Sezary syndrome and mycosis fungoides made no or few rosettes with mouse erythrocytes. Increased numbers of mouse erythrocyte rosette-forming cells were present in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia. The significance of the mouse erythrocyte rosette as a B-cell marker in the analysis of primary immunodeficiency and lymphoproliferative disorders is discussed. PMID:1068759

  18. Radiation sensitivity and cycling status of mouse bone marrow prothymocytes and day 8 colony forming units spleen (cfus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W J Boersma

    1983-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow prothymocytes as determined in an in vivo thymus regeneration assay have an in vitro gamma radiation sensitivity which is different from that of spleen colony forming cells (CFUs). Determination of Do according to in vivo irradiation revealed similar but insignificant differences. Prothymocytes in normal bone marrow maintain a low but slightly different proliferative state as compared to

  19. COLLAGEN MUTATION CAUSES CHANGES OF THE MICRODAMAGE MORPHOLOGY IN BONE OF AN OI MOUSE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Dong, X. Neil; Zoghi, Mahyar; Ran, Qitao; Wang, Xiaodu

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have postulated that ultrastructural changes may alter the pattern and capacity of microdamage accumulation in bone. Using an osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) mouse model, this study was performed to investigate the correlation of collagen mutation with the microdamage morphology and the associated brittleness of bone. In this study, femurs from mild OI and wild type mice were fatigued under four-point bending to create microdamage in the specimens. Then, the microdamage morphology of these specimens was examined using the bulk-staining technique with basic fuchsin. Similar with the results of previous studies, it was observed that linear microcracks were formed more easily in compression, whereas diffuse damage was induced more readily in tension for both wild-type and mild-type mice. However, less diffuse damage was found in the tensile side of mild OI mouse femurs (collagen mutation) compared with those of wild type mice, showing that the microdamage morphology is correlated to the brittleness of bone. The results of this study provide direct evidence that supports the prediction made by the previous numerical simulation studies, suggesting that microdamage morphology in bone is significantly correlated with the integrity of the collagen phase. PMID:20736092

  20. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on erythropoiesis in mouse bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Chen, G Z; Jiang, D Z

    1993-04-01

    The effect of Cordyceps sinensis crystal (CS-Cr) on stimulating proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E and BFU-E) in LACA mouse marrow in vivo and in vitro by methyl cellulose gel culture system is reported. The numbers of CFU-E and BFU-E were increased after 5 consecutive daily treatment with 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of CS-Cr with a peak at 150 mg/kg. Higher doses (> 150 mg/kg) of CS-Cr resulted in a reduction of the peak of CFU-E and BFU-E and then, the numbers returned to the control level with increased doses. The cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) suicide test showed significant increases in the percentage of CFU-E and BFU-E in S-phase after CS-Cr treatment. Pretreatment of mice with CS-Cr could protect CFU-E and BFU-E against the cytotoxic agent--harringtonine. Addition of CS-Cr to culture system also promoted the generation of CFU-E and BFU-E at concentrations of 150-200 micrograms/ml in vitro. With a liquid culture technique, a stimulatory action of CS-Cr on fibroblast colony-forming units (CFU-F) proliferation was seen in vivo and in vitro. PMID:8325161

  1. Orthovanadate increased the frequency of aneuploid mouse sperm without micronucleus induction in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes at the same dose level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Attia; O. A. Badary; F. M. Hamada; M. Hrabé de Angelis; I.-D. Adler

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the ability of orthovanadate to induce aneuploidy in mouse sperm and micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells at the same dose levels. The BrdU-incorporation assay was performed to test if the chemical treatment altered the duration of the meiotic divisions. It was found that orthovanadate (25mg\\/kg bw) treatment did not cause

  2. Primary bone marrow B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma successfully treated with R-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Qian, Liren; Zhang, Zhi; Shen, Jianliang; Liu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Primary isolated bone marrow disease as a presenting feature of lymphoma is very rare. We describe the case of a Chinese with isolated bone marrow small B-cell lymphoma as a first manifestation. A 55-year old woman was admitted to our hospital with fever. Her peripheral blood smear and laboratory findings were suggestive of bicytopenia. Bone marrow specimen showed diffusely distributed small-sized lymphocytes. Combined with immunophenotypic and chromosomal analysis, a diagnosis of primary bone marrow B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was made. The patient was treated with R-CHOP (rituximab and cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, vindesine, and prednisone) regimen for six cycles. She had complete remission and is still alive without relapse. We concluded that primary bone marrow mature small B-cell lymphoma is a rare but distinctive subtype of lymphoma. The prognosis for this entity is poor but rituximab-based treatment is promising for improving its outcomes. PMID:24171336

  3. In situ intracellular calcium oscillations in osteocytes in intact mouse long bones under dynamic mechanical loading

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Da; Baik, Andrew D.; Lu, X. Lucas; Zhou, Bin; Lai, Xiaohan; Wang, Liyun; Luo, Erping; Guo, X. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Osteocytes have been hypothesized to be the major mechanosensors in bone. How in situ osteocytes respond to mechanical stimuli is still unclear because of technical difficulties. In vitro studies have shown that osteocytes exhibited unique calcium (Ca2+) oscillations to fluid shear. However, whether this mechanotransduction phenomenon holds for in situ osteocytes embedded within a mineralized bone matrix under dynamic loading remains unknown. Using a novel synchronized loading/imaging technique, we successfully visualized in real time and quantified Ca2+ responses in osteocytes and bone surface cells in situ under controlled dynamic loading on intact mouse tibia. The resultant fluid-induced shear stress on the osteocyte in the lacunocanalicular system (LCS) was also quantified. Osteocytes, but not surface cells, displayed repetitive Ca2+ spikes in response to dynamic loading, with spike frequency and magnitude dependent on load magnitude, tissue strain, and shear stress in the LCS. The Ca2+ oscillations were significantly reduced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) depletion and P2 purinergic receptor (P2R)/phospholipase C (PLC) inhibition. This study provides direct evidence that osteocytes respond to in situ mechanical loading by Ca2+ oscillations, which are dependent on the P2R/PLC/inositol trisphosphate/ER pathway. This study develops a novel approach in skeletal mechanobiology and also advances our fundamental knowledge of bone mechanotransduction.—Jing, D., Baik, A. D., Lu, X. L., Zhou, B., Lai, X., Wang, L., Luo, E., Guo, X. E. In situ intracellular calcium oscillations in osteocytes in intact mouse long bones under dynamic mechanical loading. PMID:24347610

  4. Prophylactic use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement in primary total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Randelli, Pietro; Evola, Francesco R; Cabitza, Paolo; Polli, Luca; Denti, Matteo; Vaienti, Luca

    2010-02-01

    Despite significant advances in intraoperative antimicrobial procedures, deep infection remains the most devastating complication following total joint arthroplasty. Clinical studies' results and safety profile of antibiotic-loaded bone cement are discussed in this review. Antibiotic bone cement prophylaxis is a safe and effective strategy in reducing the risk of deep infection following primary total joint arthroplasty. PMID:19795106

  5. Mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit leukemia/lymphoma cell proliferation in vitro and in a mouse model of allogeneic bone marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningxia; Gao, Lei; Qiu, Huiying; Huang, Chongmei; Cheng, Hui; Zhou, Hong; Lv, Shuqing; Chen, Li; Wang, Jianmin

    2015-07-01

    The allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contributes to the reconstitution of hematopoiesis by ameliorating acute graft?versus?host disease (aGVHD). However, the role of MSCs in graft?versus?leukemia remains to be determined. In the present study, we co?cultured C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow (BM)?derived MSCs with A20 murine B lymphoma, FBL3 murine erythroleukemia and P388 murine acute lymphocytic leukemia cells. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and the amount of cytokine secretion were then measured using a Cell Counting kit?8, Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. We also established a model of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using BALB/c mice. Following the administration of A20 cells and MSCs, we recorded the symptoms and the survival of the mice for 4 weeks, assessed the T cell subsets present in peripheral blood, and, after the mice were sacrifice, we determined the infiltration of MSCs into the organs by histological staining. Our results revealed that the MSCs inhibited the proliferation of the mouse lymphoma and leukemia cells in vitro, leading to cell cycle arrest and reducing the secretion of interleukin (IL)?10. In our model of allogeneic BMT, the intravenous injection of MSCs into the mice injected wth A20 cells decreased the incidence of lymphoma, improved survival, increased the fraction of CD3+CD8+ T cells, decreased the fraction of CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD4+CD25+ T cells in peripheral blood, and ameliorated the manifestation of aGVHD. The results from the present study indicate that MSCs may be safe and effective when used in allogeneic BMT for the treatment of hemotological malignancies. PMID:25901937

  6. Raman and mechanical properties correlate at whole bone- and tissue-levels in a genetic mouse model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohong Bi; Chetan A. Patil; Conor C. Lynch; George M. Pharr; Anita Mahadevan-Jansen; Jeffry S. Nyman

    2011-01-01

    The fracture resistance of bone arises from the composition, orientation, and distribution of the primary constituents at each hierarchical level of organization. Therefore, to establish the relevance of Raman spectroscopy (RS) in identifying differences between strong or tough bone and weak or brittle bone, we investigated whether Raman-derived properties could explain the variance in biomechanical properties at both the whole

  7. Cardiopulmonary dysfunction in the Osteogenesis imperfecta mouse model Aga2 and human patients are caused by bone-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Frank; Cohrs, Christian M; Flor, Armando; Lisse, Thomas S; Przemeck, Gerhard K H; Horsch, Marion; Schrewe, Anja; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Ivandic, Boris; Katus, Hugo A; Wurst, Wolfgang; Reisenberg, Catherine; Chaney, Hollis; Fuchs, Helmut; Hans, Wolfgang; Beckers, Johannes; Marini, Joan C; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin

    2012-08-15

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited connective tissue disorder with skeletal dysplasia of varying severity, predominantly caused by mutations in the collagen I genes (COL1A1/COL1A2). Extraskeletal findings such as cardiac and pulmonary complications are generally considered to be significant secondary features. Aga2, a murine model for human OI, was systemically analyzed in the German Mouse Clinic by means of in vivo and in vitro examinations of the cardiopulmonary system, to identify novel mechanisms accounting for perinatal lethality. Pulmonary and, especially, cardiac fibroblast of perinatal lethal Aga2/+ animals display a strong down-regulation of Col1a1 transcripts in vivo and in vitro, resulting in a loss of extracellular matrix integrity. In addition, dysregulated gene expression of Nppa, different types of collagen and Agt in heart and lung tissue support a bone-independent vicious cycle of heart dysfunction, including hypertrophy, loss of myocardial matrix integrity, pulmonary hypertension, pneumonia and hypoxia leading to death in Aga2. These murine findings are corroborated by a pediatric OI cohort study, displaying significant progressive decline in pulmonary function and restrictive pulmonary disease independent of scoliosis. Most participants show mild cardiac valvular regurgitation, independent of pulmonary and skeletal findings. Data obtained from human OI patients and the mouse model Aga2 provide novel evidence for primary effects of type I collagen mutations on the heart and lung. The findings will have potential benefits of anticipatory clinical exams and early intervention in OI patients. PMID:22589248

  8. Neonatal bone marrow transplantation prevents bone pathology in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I

    PubMed Central

    Pievani, Alice; Azario, Isabella; Antolini, Laura; Shimada, Tsutomu; Patel, Pravin; Remoli, Cristina; Rambaldi, Benedetta; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Riminucci, Mara; Biondi, Andrea; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity for genetic disorders by providing sustainable levels of the missing protein at birth, thus preventing tissue damage. We tested this concept in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS IH; Hurler syndrome), a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of ?-l-iduronidase. MPS IH is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, including severe progressive skeletal abnormalities. Although BMT increases the life span of patients with MPS IH, musculoskeletal manifestations are only minimally responsive if the timing of BMT delays, suggesting already irreversible bone damage. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that transplanting normal BM into newborn MPS I mice soon after birth can prevent skeletal dysplasia. We observed that neonatal BMT was effective at restoring ?-l-iduronidase activity and clearing elevated glycosaminoglycans in blood and multiple organs. At 37 weeks of age, we observed an almost complete normalization of all bone tissue parameters, using radiographic, microcomputed tomography, biochemical, and histological analyses. Overall, the magnitude of improvements correlated with the extent of hematopoietic engraftment. We conclude that BMT at a very early stage in life markedly reduces signs and symptoms of MPS I before they appear. PMID:25298037

  9. Analysis of ciliogenesis in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Vladar, Eszter K; Brody, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Cell biological and molecular characterization of structural and functional ciliary components and regulators of mammalian motile ciliogenesis is made possible by the development of a robust and biologically faithful mouse tracheal epithelial cell (MTEC) culture system and complementary research techniques. Here, we describe the air-liquid interface culture of mouse airway epithelial progenitor cells that undergo motile ciliogenesis de novo. Multiciliated cells differentiate rapidly, and distinct stages of the ciliogenesis pathway can be identified and characterized with centriolar and ciliary immunofluorescence markers. Immunolabeled structures correlate with morphological features previously identified by electron microscopy, facilitating light microscopy analysis. MTEC cultures can be successfully transduced by lentiviral RNAi or epitope-tagged cDNA constructs to perturb gene expression. Also, motile ciliogenesis can be manipulated by drug treatment. Distinct cell populations can be isolated by cell sorting to facilitate comparison among the multiciliated and other cell types in the in vitro differentiated epithelium. The MTEC system uniquely offers the study of ciliogenesis in cells from genetically modified mouse strains. PMID:23522475

  10. Computational analysis of primary implant stability in trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Juri A; Ferguson, Stephen J; van Lenthe, G Harry

    2015-03-18

    Secure fixation of fractured osteoporotic bone is a serious clinical challenge mainly because the reduced mechanical competence of low-density bone hampers proper implant fixation. Recent experimental findings have shown strong evidence for a rather complex bone-implant interface contact behavior, with frictional and non-linear mechanical properties. Furthermore, the bone microarchitecture is highly diverse even within the same anatomical site of a specific individual. Due to this intrinsic variability experimental studies that could analyze in detail the contributions of screw designs and thread geometry would require a very large amount of bone specimens; this hampers finding potential improvements for implant fixation. As a complementary approach, computational methods may overcome this limitation, since the same specimen can be tested repeatedly in numerous configurations and under various loading conditions. Recent advances in imaging techniques combined with parallel computing methods have enabled the creation of high-resolution finite-element models that are able to represent bone-implant systems in great detail. Yet, the predictive power of the mechanical competence of bone-implant systems is still limited, both on the apparent level and on the local microstructural level. The current strategy in high-resolution FE models to model the bone-implant interface, employing fully bonded cube-like elements, needs to be reconsidered, refined and validated, such that it mimics more closely the actual non-linear mechanical behavior as observed in vitro in order to exploit the full potential of numeric models as an effective, complementary research method to physical in vitro models. PMID:25579993

  11. Mechanical Unloading of Mouse Bone in Microgravity Significantly Alters Cell Cycle Gene Set Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, Elizabeth; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo; Kaplan, Warren; Burns, Brnedan

    2012-07-01

    Spaceflight factors, including microgravity and space radiation, have many detrimental short-term effects on human physiology, including muscle and bone degradation, and immune system dysfunction. The long-term progression of these physiological effects is still poorly understood, and a serious concern for long duration spaceflight missions. We hypothesized that some of the degenerative effects of spaceflight may be caused in part by an inability of stem cells to proliferate and differentiate normally resulting in an impairment of tissue regenerative processes. Furthermore, we hypothesized that long-term bone tissue degeneration in space may be mediated by activation of the p53 signaling network resulting in cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis in osteoprogenitors. In our analyses we found that spaceflight caused significant bone loss in the weight-bearing bones of mice with a 6.3% reduction in bone volume and 11.9% decrease in bone thickness associated with increased osteoclastic activity. Along with this rapid bone loss we also observed alterations in the cell cycle characterized by an increase in the Cdkn1a/p21 cell cycle arrest molecule independent of Trp53. Overexpression of Cdkn1a/p21 was localized to osteoblasts lining the periosteal surface of the femur and chondrocytes in the head of the femur, suggesting an inhibition of proliferation in two key regenerative cell types of the femur in response to spaceflight. Additionally we found overexpression of several matrix degradation molecules including MMP-1a, 3 and 10, of which MMP-10 was localized to osteocytes within the shaft of the femur. This, in conjunction with 40 nm resolution synchrotron nano-Computed Tomography (nano-CT) observations of an increase in osteocyte lacunae cross-sectional area, perimeter and a decrease in circularity indicates a potential role for osteocytic osteolysis in the observed bone degeneration in spaceflight. To further investigate the genetic response of bone to mechanical unloading in spaceflight, we conducted genome wide microarray analysis of total RNA isolated from the mouse pelvis. Specifically, 16 week old mice were subjected to 15 days spaceflight onboard NASA's STS-131 space shuttle mission. The pelvis of the mice was dissected, the bone marrow was flushed and the bones were briefly stored in RNAlater. The pelvii were then homogenized, and RNA was isolated using TRIzol. RNA concentration and quality was measured using a Nanodrop spectrometer, and 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis. Samples of cDNA were analyzed using an Affymetrix GeneChip\\S Gene 1.0 ST (Sense Target) Array System for Mouse and GenePattern Software. We normalized the ST gene arrays using Robust Multichip Average (RMA) normalization, which summarizes perfectly matched spots on the array through the median polish algorithm, rather than normalizing according to mismatched spots. We also used Limma for statistical analysis, using the BioConductor Limma Library by Gordon Smyth, and differential expression analysis to identify genes with significant changes in expression between the two experimental conditions. Finally we used GSEApreRanked for Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), with Kolmogorov-Smirnov style statistics to identify groups of genes that are regulated together using the t-statistics derived from Limma. Preliminary results show that 6,603 genes expressed in pelvic bone had statistically significant alterations in spaceflight compared to ground controls. These prominently included cell cycle arrest molecules p21, and p18, cell survival molecule Crbp1, and cell cycle molecules cyclin D1, and Cdk1. Additionally, GSEA results indicated alterations in molecular targets of cyclin D1 and Cdk4, senescence pathways resulting from abnormal laminin maturation, cell-cell contacts via E-cadherin, and several pathways relating to protein translation and metabolism. In total 111 gene sets out of 2,488, about 4%, showed statistically significant set alterations. These alterations indicate significant impairment of normal cellular function in the mechanically unloaded envi

  12. In situ intracellular calcium oscillations in osteocytes in intact mouse long bones under dynamic mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Jing, Da; Baik, Andrew D; Lu, X Lucas; Zhou, Bin; Lai, Xiaohan; Wang, Liyun; Luo, Erping; Guo, X Edward

    2014-04-01

    Osteocytes have been hypothesized to be the major mechanosensors in bone. How in situ osteocytes respond to mechanical stimuli is still unclear because of technical difficulties. In vitro studies have shown that osteocytes exhibited unique calcium (Ca(2+)) oscillations to fluid shear. However, whether this mechanotransduction phenomenon holds for in situ osteocytes embedded within a mineralized bone matrix under dynamic loading remains unknown. Using a novel synchronized loading/imaging technique, we successfully visualized in real time and quantified Ca(2+) responses in osteocytes and bone surface cells in situ under controlled dynamic loading on intact mouse tibia. The resultant fluid-induced shear stress on the osteocyte in the lacunocanalicular system (LCS) was also quantified. Osteocytes, but not surface cells, displayed repetitive Ca(2+) spikes in response to dynamic loading, with spike frequency and magnitude dependent on load magnitude, tissue strain, and shear stress in the LCS. The Ca(2+) oscillations were significantly reduced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) depletion and P2 purinergic receptor (P2R)/phospholipase C (PLC) inhibition. This study provides direct evidence that osteocytes respond to in situ mechanical loading by Ca(2+) oscillations, which are dependent on the P2R/PLC/inositol trisphosphate/ER pathway. This study develops a novel approach in skeletal mechanobiology and also advances our fundamental knowledge of bone mechanotransduction. PMID:24347610

  13. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  14. Anatomical origins of ocular dominance in mouse primary visual cortex

    E-print Network

    Coleman, Jason E.

    Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity is a classic paradigm for studying the effect of experience and deprivation on cortical development, and is manifested as shifts in the relative strength of binocular inputs to primary ...

  15. Piezoelectric surgery-primary bone grafting in craniofacial trauma revisited.

    PubMed

    Balasandaram, I; Bridle, C; Holmes, S

    2015-08-01

    Reconstruction of the frontal bar following complex craniofacial fractures involving the frontal sinus is a central strategic element, and inaccurate reduction can result in contour defects and non-union. Such defects can be reconstructed using autogenous bone from the inner table of a calvarial graft. Traditionally this is done with rotary instruments and osteotomes. In this article, we describe the use of piezoelectric surgery to harvest the graft. This technique allows for more precise and less destructive harvesting of autogenous bone with the additional benefit of reducing the risk of injury to the surgeon. PMID:25735536

  16. Isolation and characterization of the mouse liver/bone/kidney-type alkaline phosphatase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Terao, M; Studer, M; Gianní, M; Garattini, E

    1990-01-01

    The gene coding for the mouse alkaline phosphatase expressed in liver, bone, kidney and placenta (liver/bone/kidney-type alkaline phosphatase, L/B/K-ALP) was isolated and characterized. This gene consists of 12 exons and it is at least 49 kb long. The first two exons are separated by a long intron which is at least 32 kb in size, whereas the other exons span within the remaining 17 kb. Primer extension and S1-nuclease mapping analyses with placental mRNA demonstrate a single major transcription start site, which is preceded by a G + C-rich region containing a TATA-like sequence and three copies of the consensus binding site for the transcription factor Sp1. Transfection experiments using two different reporter genes show that the 5'-flanking region of the gene is active as a promoter in undifferentiated F9 teratocarcinoma cells, but not in 3T3 fibroblasts, consistent with the L/B/K-ALP mRNA level in the two cell lines. As expected from the sequence similarity at the cDNA level, the structural organization of the mouse gene is similar to that of the human and rat L/B/K-ALP genes, suggesting that they all derive from a single ancestral gene. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2363702

  17. Bone marrow metastasis in primary bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhenyu; Yang, Guozi; Qu, Limei; Yuan, Tingting; Du, Zhonghua; Dong, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Primary bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the lung is relatively rare. It rarely presents with the highly malignant biological characteristic of bone marrow metastasis. We describe a case of this disease with bone marrow metastasis. A 56-year-old man with the primary manifestation of bone pain and bloodstained sputum had two abnormal shadows on the left inferior lobar bronchus and peripheral tissue of the lower lobe of the left lung, respectively. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous puncture biopsy and bone imaging confirmed the diagnosis of high-grade bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma with bone metastasis. However, the patient soon presented with progressive hemoglobin and platelet decline and severe multi-organ hemorrhage. Subsequently, we performed bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, which revealed malignant cells and necrosis. The patient deteriorated rapidly from the disease, and died on the 16th day of admission. We hope that this case report will increase awareness of the possibility of primary high-grade bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma metastasizing to the bone marrow, which might be a poor prognostic factor. PMID:24886439

  18. Bone marrow metastasis in primary bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Primary bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the lung is relatively rare. It rarely presents with the highly malignant biological characteristic of bone marrow metastasis. We describe a case of this disease with bone marrow metastasis. A 56-year-old man with the primary manifestation of bone pain and bloodstained sputum had two abnormal shadows on the left inferior lobar bronchus and peripheral tissue of the lower lobe of the left lung, respectively. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous puncture biopsy and bone imaging confirmed the diagnosis of high-grade bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma with bone metastasis. However, the patient soon presented with progressive hemoglobin and platelet decline and severe multi-organ hemorrhage. Subsequently, we performed bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, which revealed malignant cells and necrosis. The patient deteriorated rapidly from the disease, and died on the 16th day of admission. We hope that this case report will increase awareness of the possibility of primary high-grade bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma metastasizing to the bone marrow, which might be a poor prognostic factor. PMID:24886439

  19. Fyn is not essential for Bcr-Abl-induced leukemogenesis in mouse bone marrow transplantation models.

    PubMed

    Doki, Noriko; Kitaura, Jiro; Uchida, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Daichi; Kagiyama, Yuki; Togami, Katsuhiro; Isobe, Masamichi; Ito, Shinichi; Maehara, Akie; Izawa, Kumi; Kato, Naoko; Oki, Toshihiko; Harada, Yuka; Nakahara, Fumio; Harada, Hironori; Kitamura, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The Bcr-Abl oncogene causes human Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) leukemias, including B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with chronic phase (CML-CP) to blast crisis (CML-BC). Previous studies have demonstrated that Src family kinases are required for the induction of B-ALL, but not for CML, which is induced by Bcr-Abl in mice. In contrast, it has been reported that Fyn is up-regulated in human CML-BC compared with CML-CP, implicating Fyn in the blast crisis transition. Here, we aimed to delineate the exact role of Fyn in the induction/progression of Ph(+) leukemias. We found that Fyn is expressed in mouse hematopoietic cells at varying stages of development, including c-kit(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-) cells. Notably, Fyn is highly expressed in some of human lymphomas, but not in human Ph(+) leukemias including CML-BC. In mouse bone marrow transplantation models, mice transplanted with wild-type or Fyn-deficient bone marrow cells transduced with Bcr-Abl showed no differences in the development of B-ALL or CML-like diseases. Similarly, Fyn deficiency failed to impact the development of myeloid CML-BC induced by Bcr-Abl and Hes1. Elevated expression of Fyn was not found in mouse samples of Bcr-Abl-mediated CML- and CML-BC-like diseases. Thus, Fyn is not required for the pathogenesis of Bcr-Abl-mediated leukemias. PMID:22189847

  20. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Tannerella forsythia Induce Synergistic Alveolar Bone Loss in a Mouse Periodontitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Settem, Rajendra P.; El-Hassan, Ahmed Taher; Honma, Kiyonobu; Stafford, Graham P.

    2012-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia is strongly associated with chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, leading to tooth loss. Fusobacterium nucleatum, an opportunistic pathogen, is thought to promote dental plaque formation by serving as a bridge bacterium between early- and late-colonizing species of the oral cavity. Previous studies have shown that F. nucleatum species synergize with T. forsythia during biofilm formation and pathogenesis. In the present study, we showed that coinfection of F. nucleatum and T. forsythia is more potent than infection with either species alone in inducing NF-?B activity and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in monocytic cells and primary murine macrophages. Moreover, in a murine model of periodontitis, mixed infection with the two species induces synergistic alveolar bone loss, characterized by bone loss which is greater than the additive alveolar bone losses induced by each species alone. Further, in comparison to the single-species infection, mixed infection caused significantly increased inflammatory cell infiltration in the gingivae and osteoclastic activity in the jaw bones. These data show that F. nucleatum subspecies and T. forsythia synergistically stimulate the host immune response and induce alveolar bone loss in a murine experimental periodontitis model. PMID:22547549

  1. Zoledronic Acid Decreased Osteolysis But Not Bone Metastasis in a Nude Mouse Model of Canine Prostate Cancer With Mixed Bone Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Thudi, Nanda K.; Martin, Chelsea K.; Nadella, Murali V.P.; Fernandez, Soledad A.; Werbeck, Jillian L.; Pinzone, Joseph J.; Rosol, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bone metastasis is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced prostate cancer and is manifested primarily as mixed osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions. However, the mechanisms responsible for bone metastases in prostate cancer are not clearly understood, in part due to the lack of relevant in vivo models that mimic the clinical presentation of the disease in humans. We previously established a nude mouse model with mixed bone metastases using intracardiac injection of canine prostate cancer cells (Ace-1). In this study, we hypothesized that tumor-induced osteolysis promoted the incidence of bone metastases and osteoblastic activity. METHODS We studied the effect of inhibition of osteolysis with zoledronic acid (ZA) on the prevention and progression of Ace-1 bone metastases in nude mice using prophylactic and delayed treatment protocols. Bioluminescent imaging, radiography, and histopathological evaluation were performed to monitor the effect of ZA on the incidence, progression and nature of bone metastases. RESULTS Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in tumor burden and the incidence of metastasis between control and treatment groups as detected by bioluminescent imaging and bone histomorphometry. However, radiographic and histopathological analysis showed a significant treatment-related decrease in osteolysis, but no effect on tumor-induced trabecular bone thickness in both treatment groups compared to controls. CONCLUSION Our results demonstrated that the incidence of prostate cancer bone metastases in vivo was not reduced by zoledronic acid even though zoledronic acid inhibited bone resorption and bone loss associated with the mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic bone metastases in the Ace-1 model. PMID:18461562

  2. In vivo regulation of matrix vesicle concentration and enzyme activity during primary bone formation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Z; Swain, L; Sela, J; Gross, U; Amir, D; Kohavi, D; Muller-Mai, C; Boyan, B

    1992-05-01

    In vivo regulation of matrix vesicles (MV) during primary bone formation was examined using tibial marrow ablation in rats as the experimental model. The effects of bone-bonding and nonbonding implants on the number of MV/micron 2 of matrix and the alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) and phospholipase A2 (PA2) activities of MV-enriched microsomes (MVEM) isolated from the healing bone were studied. MV concentration, ALPase, and PA2 were increased by bone-bonding implants by day 3 post-surgery; a similar effect was seen in the contralateral limb, but at a lower magnitude. Nonbonding implants had no effect at day 3 and decreased MV concentration and PA2 activity at later time points; the same behavior was observed in the contralateral limb. These results demonstrate that MVs are influenced in a differential manner by implant materials, both locally and systemically, and can be regulated during primary mineralization. PMID:1611298

  3. Transfer of innate resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania donovani infection in mouse radiation bone marrow chimaeras.

    PubMed

    Crocker, P R; Blackwell, J M; Bradley, D J

    1984-07-01

    Reciprocal radiation bone marrow chimaeras were made between H-2-compatible strains of mice innately resistant or susceptible to visceral leishmaniasis. In initial experiments, susceptibility but not resistance to Leishmania donovani could be transferred with donor bone marrow into irradiated recipients. In subsequent experiments it was possible to transfer both resistance and susceptibility. This was achieved either by selecting more radiosensitive mouse strains as susceptible recipients, or alternatively by increasing the irradiation dose for the susceptible recipients used in the initial experiments. Using the higher irradiation dose, successful transfer of resistance and susceptibility between congenic mice carrying the Lshr and Lshs alleles on the more radioresistant B10 genetic background provided firm evidence that the results obtained in this study were specifically related to expression of the Lsh gene. We conclude that Lsh gene-controlled resistance and susceptibility to L. donovani is determined by bone marrow-derived cells. The cell type(s) involved is likely to be of the macrophage lineage. PMID:6378765

  4. Transfer of innate resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania donovani infection in mouse radiation bone marrow chimaeras.

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, P R; Blackwell, J M; Bradley, D J

    1984-01-01

    Reciprocal radiation bone marrow chimaeras were made between H-2-compatible strains of mice innately resistant or susceptible to visceral leishmaniasis. In initial experiments, susceptibility but not resistance to Leishmania donovani could be transferred with donor bone marrow into irradiated recipients. In subsequent experiments it was possible to transfer both resistance and susceptibility. This was achieved either by selecting more radiosensitive mouse strains as susceptible recipients, or alternatively by increasing the irradiation dose for the susceptible recipients used in the initial experiments. Using the higher irradiation dose, successful transfer of resistance and susceptibility between congenic mice carrying the Lshr and Lshs alleles on the more radioresistant B10 genetic background provided firm evidence that the results obtained in this study were specifically related to expression of the Lsh gene. We conclude that Lsh gene-controlled resistance and susceptibility to L. donovani is determined by bone marrow-derived cells. The cell type(s) involved is likely to be of the macrophage lineage. PMID:6378765

  5. Inhibition of RANKL blocks skeletal tumor progression and improves survival in a mouse model of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Canon, Jude R; Roudier, Martine; Bryant, Rebecca; Morony, Sean; Stolina, Marina; Kostenuik, Paul J; Dougall, William C

    2008-01-01

    Bone metastases cause severe skeletal morbidity including fractures and hypercalcemia. Tumor cells in bone induce activation of osteoclasts, which mediate bone resorption and release of growth factors from bone matrix, resulting in a "vicious cycle" of bone breakdown and tumor proliferation. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) is an essential mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival, and is blocked by a soluble decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG). In human malignancies that metastasize to bone, dysregulation of the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway can increase the RANKL:OPG ratio, a condition which favors excessive osteolysis. In a mouse model of bone metastasis, RANKL protein levels in MDA-MB-231 (MDA-231) tumor-bearing bones were significantly higher than tumor-free bones. The resulting tumor-induced osteoclastogenesis and osteolysis was dose-dependently inhibited by recombinant OPG-Fc treatment, supporting the essential role for RANKL in this process. Using bioluminescence imaging in a mouse model of metastasis, we monitored the anti-tumor efficacy of RANKL inhibition on MDA-231 human breast cancer cells in a temporal manner. Treatment with OPG-Fc in vivo inhibited growth of MDA-231 tumor cells in bony sites when given both as a preventative (dosed day 0) and as a therapeutic agent for established bone metastases (dosed day 7). One mechanism by which RANKL inhibition reduced tumor burden appears to be indirect through inhibition of the "vicious cycle" and involved an increase in tumor cell apoptosis, as measured by active caspase-3. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that OPG-Fc treatment of mice with established bone metastases resulted in an overall improvement in survival. PMID:18064531

  6. Primary bone cancer in Leonbergers may be associated with a higher bodyweight during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Anfinsen, Kristin P; Grotmol, Tom; Bruland, Oyvind S; Jonasdottir, Thora J

    2015-04-01

    Weight-bearing stress may be a risk factor for both human and canine primary bone cancer. A cohort of Leonbergers (LB) was followed from birth to death and the cause of death recorded. We hypothesised that dogs dying due to primary bone cancer would be larger; measured by bodyweight (BW) and the circumference of the distal radius and ulna (CDRU) than those of the same breed that died of other causes. Information obtained from breeders, owners and veterinary surgeons were questionnaire-based. The dogs were examined by a veterinary surgeon at pre-specified "observational ages" (3, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 m). Data were recorded, including BW and CDRU. The study population consisted of 196 LB, 9 of which died due to primary bone cancer (6 males, 3 females). Individual growth curves, showing BW and CDRU during the first 2 years of life, were made for these 9 dogs and compared to gender-specific mean values for LB that died from other causes. These curves showed that LB succumbing to primary bone cancer generally had a higher BW during the growth period than the remaining dogs, and that this difference appeared to be largest in the male LB. Male LB that developed primary bone cancer later in life also had a larger CDRU during most part of this period, as compared to those that did not develop this disease. Logistic regression showed a statistically significant effect of BW on the odds ratio of developing primary bone cancer at 12 m and 18 m and of CDRU at 18 m, and a Poisson regression verified consistency of these results. At these ages, an increase in BW of 1 kg yielded a nearly 20% higher risk of developing primary bone cancer, while a 1 cm larger CDRU was associated with a nearly 70% increased risk. These findings support that weight-bearing stress during the period of high proliferative activity in the long bones associated with growth may increase the risk of canine primary bone cancer. PMID:25732913

  7. PULSED FOCUSED ULTRASOUND TREATMENT OF MUSCLE MITIGATES PARALYSIS-INDUCED BONE LOSS IN THE ADJACENT BONE: A STUDY IN A MOUSE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Poliachik, Sandra L.; Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Wang, Yak-Nam; Simon, Julianna C.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Bone loss can result from bed rest, space flight, spinal cord injury or age-related hormonal changes. Current bone loss mitigation techniques include pharmaceutical interventions, exercise, pulsed ultrasound targeted to bone and whole body vibration. In this study, we attempted to mitigate paralysis-induced bone loss by applying focused ultrasound to the midbelly of a paralyzed muscle. We employed a mouse model of disuse that uses onabotulinumtoxinA-induced paralysis, which causes rapid bone loss in 5 d. A focused 2 MHz transducer applied pulsed exposures with pulse repetition frequency mimicking that of motor neuron firing during walking (80 Hz), standing (20 Hz), or the standard pulsed ultrasound frequency used in fracture healing (1 kHz). Exposures were applied daily to calf muscle for 4 consecutive d. Trabecular bone changes were characterized using micro-computed tomography. Our results indicated that application of certain focused pulsed ultrasound parameters was able to mitigate some of the paralysis-induced bone loss. PMID:24857416

  8. Intrastriatal transplantation of mouse bone marrow-derived stem cells improves motor behavior in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Offen; Y. Barhum; Y.-S. Levy; A. Burshtein; H. Panet; T. Cherlow; E. Melamed

    Strategies of cell therapy for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are focused on replacing damaged neurons with cells\\u000a to restore or improve function that is impaired due to cell population damage. In our studies, we used mesenchymal stromal\\u000a cells (MSCs) from mouse bone marrow. Following our novel neuronal differentiation method, we found that the basic cellular\\u000a phenotype changed to

  9. Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor cells produces MCSF that stimulates monocyte proliferation in a novel mouse model of Ewing's sarcoma of bone.

    PubMed

    Margulies, B S; DeBoyace, S D; Damron, T A; Allen, M J

    2015-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma of bone is a primary childhood malignancy of bone that is treated with X-radiation therapy in combination with surgical excision and chemotherapy. To better study Ewing's sarcoma of bone we developed a novel model of primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone and then treated animals with X-radiation therapy. We identified that uncontrolled tumor resulted in lytic bone destruction while X-radiation therapy decreased lytic bone destruction and increased limb-length asymmetry, a common, crippling complication of X-radiation therapy. Osteoclasts were indentified adjacent to the tumor, however, we were unable to detect RANK-ligand in the Ewing's tumor cells in vitro, which lead us to investigate alternate mechanisms for osteoclast formation. Ewing's sarcoma tumor cells and archival Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor biopsy samples were shown to express MCSF, which could promote osteoclast formation. Increased monocyte numbers were detected in peripheral blood and spleen in animals with untreated Ewing's sarcoma tumor while monocyte number in animals treated with x-radiation had normal numbers of monocytes. Our data suggest that our Ewing's sarcoma of bone model will be useful in the study Ewing's sarcoma tumor progression in parallel with the effects of chemotherapy and X-radiation therapy. PMID:26051470

  10. A primary culture system of mouse thick ascending limb cells with preserved function and uromodulin processing.

    PubMed

    Glaudemans, Bob; Terryn, Sara; Gölz, Nadine; Brunati, Martina; Cattaneo, Angela; Bachi, Angela; Al-Qusairi, Lama; Ziegler, Urs; Staub, Olivier; Rampoldi, Luca; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    The epithelial cells lining the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the loop of Henle perform essential transport processes and secrete uromodulin, the most abundant protein in normal urine. The lack of differentiated cell culture systems has hampered studies of TAL functions. Here, we report a method to generate differentiated primary cultures of TAL cells, developed from microdissected tubules obtained in mouse kidneys. The TAL tubules cultured on permeable filters formed polarized confluent monolayers in ?12 days. The TAL cells remain differentiated and express functional markers such as uromodulin, NKCC2, and ROMK at the apical membrane. Electrophysiological measurements on primary TAL monolayers showed a lumen-positive transepithelial potential (+9.4?±?0.8 mV/cm(2)) and transepithelial resistance similar to that recorded in vivo. The transepithelial potential is abolished by apical bumetanide and in primary cultures obtained from ROMK knockout mice. The processing, maturation and apical secretion of uromodulin by primary TAL cells is identical to that observed in vivo. The primary TAL cells respond appropriately to hypoxia, hypertonicity, and stimulation by desmopressin, and they can be transfected. The establishment of this primary culture system will allow the investigation of TAL cells obtained from genetically modified mouse models, providing a critical tool for understanding the role of that segment in health and disease. PMID:23887378

  11. Raman spectroscopy detects deterioration in biomechanical properties of bone in a glucocorticoid-treated mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Jason R.; Takahata, Masahiko; Awad, Hani A.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2011-08-01

    Although glucocorticoids are frequently prescribed for the symptomatic management of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, extended glucocorticoid exposure is the leading cause of physician-induced osteoporosis and leaves patients at a high risk of fracture. To study the biochemical effects of glucocorticoid exposure and how they might affect biomechanical properties of the bone, Raman spectra were acquired from ex vivo tibiae of glucocorticoid- and placebo-treated wild-type mice and a transgenic mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis. Statistically significant spectral differences were observed due to both treatment regimen and mouse genotype. These differences are attributed to changes in the overall bone mineral composition, as well as the degree of phosphate mineralization in tibial cortical bone. In addition, partial least squares regression was used to generate a Raman-based prediction of each tibia's biomechanical strength as quantified by a torsion test. The Raman-based predictions were as accurate as those produced by microcomputed tomography derived parameters, and more accurate than the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. These results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a valuable tool for monitoring bone biochemistry in studies of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, including tests of drugs being developed to combat these diseases.

  12. Establishment and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell hybridomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Takeshi, E-mail: tkawafb@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Integrated Department of Sciences of Functional Foods, Graduate School of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)] [Integrated Department of Sciences of Functional Foods, Graduate School of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) are an important model for studying the function of mucosal-type mast cells. In the present study, BMMCs were successfully immortalized by cell fusion using a hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium-sensitive variant of P815 mouse mastocytoma (P815-6TgR) as a partner cell line. The established mouse mast cell hybridomas (MMCHs) expressed {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits of high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (Fc{epsilon}RI) and possessed cytoplasmic granules devoid of or partially filled with electron-dense material. Four independent MMCH clones continuously proliferated without supplemental exogenous IL-3 and showed a degranulation response on stimulation with IgE+antigen. Furthermore, histamine synthesis and release by degranulation were confirmed in MMCH-D5, a MMCH clone that showed the strongest degranulation response. MMCH-D5 exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and cyclooxygenase 2, and production of prostaglandin D{sub 2} and leukotriene C{sub 4} in response to IgE-induced stimulation. MMCH clones also expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, 2, 4, and 6 and showed elevated levels of TNF-{alpha} expression in response to stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. The MMCHs established using this method should be suitable for studies on Fc{epsilon}RI- and TLR-mediated effector functions of mast cells.

  13. Role of aquaporin 9 in cellular accumulation of arsenic and its cytotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro [Organization for Frontier Research in Preventive Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Ho-3 Kanagawa-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1181 (Japan); Sumi, Daigo; Toyama, Takashi [Department of Environmental Medicine, Doctoral Programs in Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Kaji, Toshiyuki [Organization for Frontier Research in Preventive Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Ho-3 Kanagawa-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1181 (Japan); Kumagai, Yoshito [Department of Environmental Medicine, Doctoral Programs in Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan)], E-mail: yk-em-tu@md.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2009-06-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) 9 is a member of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily of AQPs in the transfer of water and small solutes such as glycerol and arsenite. It is well recognized that arsenic toxicity is associated with intracellular accumulation of this metalloid. In the present study, we examined the contribution of AQP9 to the uptake of inorganic arsenite, thereby increasing arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes. Pretreatment with sorbitol as a competitive inhibitor of AQP9 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of AQP9 resulted in a significant decrease of arsenite uptake in the cell and its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, overexpression of AQP9 in HEK293 cells led to the enhancement of intracellular arsenic concentration, resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity after arsenite exposure. These results suggest that AQP9 is a channel to define arsenite sensitivity in primary mouse hepatocytes.

  14. Homeobox genes d11-d13 and a13 control mouse autopod cortical bone and joint formation.

    PubMed

    Villavicencio-Lorini, Pablo; Kuss, Pia; Friedrich, Julia; Haupt, Julia; Farooq, Muhammed; Türkmen, Seval; Duboule, Denis; Hecht, Jochen; Mundlos, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms that govern bone and joint formation are complex, involving an integrated network of signaling pathways and gene regulators. We investigated the role of Hox genes, which are known to specify individual segments of the skeleton, in the formation of autopod limb bones (i.e., the hands and feet) using the mouse mutant synpolydactyly homolog (spdh), which encodes a polyalanine expansion in Hoxd13. We found that no cortical bone was formed in the autopod in spdh/spdh mice; instead, these bones underwent trabecular ossification after birth. Spdh/spdh metacarpals acquired an ovoid shape and developed ectopic joints, indicating a loss of long bone characteristics and thus a transformation of metacarpals into carpal bones. The perichondrium of spdh/spdh mice showed abnormal morphology and decreased expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which was identified as a direct Hoxd13 transcriptional target. Hoxd11-/-Hoxd12-/-Hoxd13-/- triple-knockout mice and Hoxd13-/-Hoxa13+/- mice exhibited similar but less severe defects, suggesting that these Hox genes have similar and complementary functions and that the spdh allele acts as a dominant negative. This effect was shown to be due to sequestration of other polyalanine-containing transcription factors by the mutant Hoxd13 in the cytoplasm, leading to their degradation. These data indicate that Hox genes not only regulate patterning but also directly influence bone formation and the ossification pattern of bones, in part via Runx2. PMID:20458143

  15. A blinded study of bone marrow examinations in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, Vishwanath K.; Ross, Catherine; Popovic, Snezana; Sur, Mona Lisa; Bourgeois, Jacqueline; Lim, Wendy; George, James N.; Wang, Grace; Cook, Richard J.; Toltl, Lisa J.; Nazi, Ishac; Kelton, John G.; Arnold, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The role of bone marrow examinations in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is uncertain. The objectives of this study were to determine the inter-rater reliability of bone marrow examinations and to identify distinguishing morphological features of ITP bone marrows under controlled conditions. Methods Histological slides of bone marrow biopsy specimens and aspirates from 32 adult patients with severe primary ITP who had failed a median of two treatments, and 51 non-thrombocytopenic controls were retrieved from hospital archives. Slides were arranged in random order in a slide box and coded. Blinded to the diagnosis and platelet counts, three independent hematopathologists were asked to identify the ITP bone marrows and to evaluate megakaryocyte number, morphology, and distribution. Results Overall chance-corrected agreement on ITP classification among the three raters was poor [kappa (?) = 0.30; 95% confidence interval 0.22–0.38]. Raters were generally unable to correctly identify the ITP bone marrows from controls. Increased number of megakaryocytes, while an uncommon finding, was more frequent among ITP patients compared with controls (6/32, 18.8%; vs. 2/51, 3.9%; P = 0.05), and abnormal megakaryocyte morphology often led individual raters to reach a diagnosis of ITP. Overall sensitivity and specificity of bone marrow examinations were 24% and 90%, respectively. Conclusions This study confirms methodologically that bone marrow examinations are unreliable and frequently non-diagnostic in ITP. Thus, they are not useful for patients with typical disease. Rare subsets of patients with severe ITP demonstrated unique features such as increased number of megakaryocytes. PMID:23140198

  16. Bone conducted vibration selectively activates irregular primary otolithic vestibular neurons in the guinea pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian S. Curthoys; Juno Kim; Samara K. McPhedran; Aaron J. Camp

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine whether bone-conducted vibration (BCV) is equally effective in activating both semicircular canal and otolith afferents in the guinea pig or whether there is preferential activation of one of these classes of vestibular afferents. To answer this question a large number (346) of single primary vestibular neurons were recorded extracellularly in anesthetized

  17. Primary B-lymphoblastic lymphoma of gallbladder involving mandibular bone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jun; Lee, Tae Jin; Choi, Yoo Shin

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a 75-year-old man who presented for evaluation of painless hematuria persisting for more than 1 month. At the time of presentation, the patient did not report any systemic symptoms and had no fever, weight loss, or dysuria. Computed tomography showed several enhancing, sessile polyps in the gall bladder (1.5 cm or smaller). There was no associated stone or biliary dilation. Since no other abnormality was evident, we performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He was diagnosed as having B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) after surgical resection of the gall bladder (GB). As the left mandibular swelling was developed after the diagnosis of the B-LBL involving GB, facial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added to the imaging scan. Facial MRI revealed mass formation in the left mandible, left medial pterygoid, masticator, and buccinator muscles. The biopsy samples from the mandibular bone were also diagnosed as B-LBL. The definitive pathological diagnosis was B-LBL, stage IV. Systemic chemotherapy was done with subsequent response in size of the left mandible mass. PMID:24789124

  18. Rapid Structural Remodeling of Thalamocortical Synapses Parallels Experience-Dependent Functional Plasticity in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex

    E-print Network

    Coleman, Jason E.

    Monocular lid closure (MC) causes a profound shift in the ocular dominance (OD) of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). Anatomical studies in both cat and mouse V1 suggest that large-scale structural rearrangements of ...

  19. Changes in trabecular bone, hematopoiesis and bone marrow vessels in aplastic anemia, primary osteoporosis, and old age: A comparative histomorphometric study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Kettner; W. BijHM; M. Schmidmeier; R. Schlag; B. Frisch; B. Mallmann; W. Eisenmenger; Th. Gilg

    1987-01-01

    Retrospective histologic analyses of bone biopsies and of post mortem samples from normal persons of dif- ferent age groups, and of bone biopsies of age- and sex-matched groups of patients with primary osteo- porosis and aplastic anemia show characteristic age dependent as well as pathologic changes including at- rophy of osseous trabeculae and of hematopoiesis, and changes in the sinusoidal

  20. Oncostatin m, an inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages, supports intramembranous bone healing in a mouse model of tibia injury.

    PubMed

    Guihard, Pierre; Boutet, Marie-Astrid; Brounais-Le Royer, Bénédicte; Gamblin, Anne-Laure; Amiaud, Jérôme; Renaud, Audrey; Berreur, Martine; Rédini, Françoise; Heymann, Dominique; Layrolle, Pierre; Blanchard, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    Different macrophage depletion strategies have demonstrated a vital role of macrophages in bone healing, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, with the use of a mouse model of tibia injury, we found that the cytokine oncostatin M [OSM or murine (m)OSM] was overexpressed during the initial inflammatory phase and that depletion of macrophages repressed mOSM expression. In Osm(-/-) mice, by micro-computed tomography and histology we observed a significant reduction in the amount of new intramedullar woven bone formed at the injured site, reduced number of Osterix(+) osteoblastic cells, and reduced expression of the osteoblast markers runt-related transcription factor 2 and alkaline phosphatase. In contrast, osteoclasts were normal throughout the healing period. One day after bone injury, Stat3, the main transcription factor activated by mOSM, was found phosphorylated/activated in endosteal osteoblastic cells located at the hedge of the hematoma. Interestingly, we observed reduced activation of Stat3 in Osm(-/-) mice. In addition, mice deficient in the mOSM receptor (Osmr(-/-)) also had reduced bone formation and osteoblast number within the injury site. These results suggest that mOSM, a product of macrophages, sustains intramembranous bone formation by signaling through Osmr and Stat3, acting on the recruitment, proliferation, and/or osteoblast differentiation of endosteal mesenchymal progenitor cells. Because bone resorption is largely unaltered, OSM could represent a new anabolic treatment for unconsolidated bone fractures. PMID:25559270

  1. Isolation and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived Lin?/VEGF-R2? progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Barthelmes, Daniel; Irhimeh, Mohammad R; Gillies, Mark C; Zhu, Ling; Shen, Weiyong

    2013-11-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the peripheral blood (PB) have physiological roles in the maintenance of the existing vascular beds and rescue of vascular injury. In this study, we have evaluated the properties of Lin?/VEGF-R2? progenitor cells isolated from the mouse bone marrow (BM) and further studied their distribution and integration in an animal model of laser-induced retinal vascular injury. Lin?/VEGF-R2? cells were enriched from C57BL/6 mice BM using magnetic cell sorting with hematopoietic lineage (Lin) depletion followed by VEGF-R2 positive selection. Lin?/VEGF-R2? BM cells were characterized using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry and further tested for colony formation during culture and tube formation on Matrigel®. Lin?/VEGF-R2? BM cells possessed typical EPC properties such as forming cobble-stone shaped colonies after 3 to 4 weeks of culture, CD34? expression, take up of Dil-acLDL and binding to Ulex europaeus agglutinin. However, they did not form tube-like structures on Matrigel®. The progenitor cells retained their phenotype over extended period of culture. After intravitreal transplantation in eyes subjected to the laser-induced retinal vascular injury, some Lin?/VEGF-R2? cells were able to integrate into the damaged retinal vasculature but the level of cell integration seemed less efficient when compared with previous reports in which EPCs from the human PB were employed. Our results indicate that Lin?/VEGF-R2? cells isolated from the mouse BM share some similarities to EPCs from the human PB but most of them are at a very early stage of maturation and remain quiescent during culture and after intravitreal transplantation. PMID:23771478

  2. Genetic modification of mouse bone marrow by lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of HPRT shRNA confers chemoprotection against 6-thioguanine cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hacke, Katrin; Treger, Janet A.; Bogan, Brooke T.; Schiestl, Robert H.; Kasahara, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    We have recently developed a novel and highly efficient strategy that exclusively employs the purine analog 6-thioguanine (6TG) for both pre-transplant conditioning and post-transplant chemoselection of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-deficient bone marrow (BM). In a mouse BM transplant model, combined 6TG preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection consistently achieved >95% engraftment of HPRT-deficient donor BM and long-term reconstitution of histologically and immunophenotypically normal hematopoiesis in both primary and secondary recipients, without significant toxicity and in the absence of any other cytotoxic conditioning regimen. In order to translate this strategy for combined 6TG conditioning and chemoselection into a clinically feasible approach, it is necessary to develop methods for genetic modification of normal HSC to render them HPRT-deficient and thus 6TG-resistant. Here we investigated a strategy to reduce HPRT expression and thereby confer protection against 6TG myelotoxicity to primary murine bone marrow cells by RNA interference (RNAi). Accordingly, we constructed and validated a lentiviral gene transfer vector expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) that targets the murine HPRT gene. Our results showed that lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of HPRT-targeted shRNA could achieve effective and long-term reduction of HPRT expression. Furthermore, in both an established murine cell line as well as in primary murine bone marrow cells, lentiviral transduction with HPRT-targeted shRNA was associated with enhanced resistance to 6TG cytotoxicity in vitro. Hence this represents a translationally feasible method to genetically engineer HSC for implementation of 6TG-mediated preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection. PMID:23769104

  3. Neuroprotective effects of hesperetin in mouse primary neurones are independent of CREB activation.

    PubMed

    Rainey-Smith, Stephanie; Schroetke, Lars-Wilhelm; Bahia, Parmvir; Fahmi, Ahmed; Skilton, Rachel; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Rice-Evans, Catherine; Rattray, Marcus; Williams, Robert J

    2008-06-13

    Dietary flavonoids, including the citrus flavanone hesperetin, may have stimulatory effects on cytoprotective intracellular signalling pathways. In primary mouse cortical neurone cultures, but not SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells or human primary dermal fibroblasts (Promocells), hesperetin (100-300nM, 15min) caused significant increases in the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but did not increase CREB phosphorylation. Administration of hesperetin for 18h did not alter gene expression driven by the cyclic AMP response element (CRE), assessed using a luciferase reporter system, but 300nM hesperetin partially reversed staurosporine-induced cell death in primary neurones. Our data show that hesperetin is a neuroprotective compound at concentrations where antioxidant effects are unlikely to predominate. The effects of hesperetin are cell-type dependent and, unlike the flavanol (-)epicatechin, neuroprotection in vitro is not associated with enhanced CREB phosphorylation or CRE-mediated gene expression. PMID:18467030

  4. Mechanisms of Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity and Leukemogenicity: cDNA Microarray Analyses Using Mouse Bone Marrow Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-IL Yoon; Guang-Xun Li; Kunio Kitada; Yasushi Kawasaki; Katsuhide Igarashi; Yukio Kodama; Tomoaki Inoue; Kazuko Kobayashi; Jun Kanno; Dae-Yong Kim; Tohru Inoue; Yoko Hirabayashi

    2003-01-01

    Although the mechanisms underlying benzene-induced toxicity and leukemogenicity are not yet fully understood, they are likely to be complicated by various pathways, including those of metabolism, growth factor regulation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell cycle regulation, and programmed cell death. With this as a background, we performed cDNA microarray analyses on mouse bone marrow tissue during and after a 2-week

  5. Bone marrow endothelial progenitors augment atherosclerotic plaque regression in a mouse model of plasma lipid lowering

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Longbiao; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Iida, Ryuji; Wang, Qilong; Zou, Ming-Hui; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The major event initiating atherosclerosis is hypercholesterolemia-induced disruption of vascular endothelium integrity. In settings of endothelial damage, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized from bone marrow into circulation and home to sites of vascular injury where they aid endothelial regeneration. Given the beneficial effects of EPCs in vascular repair, we hypothesized that these cells play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis regression. We tested our hypothesis in the atherosclerosis-prone mouse model in which hypercholesterolemia, one of the main factors affecting EPC homeostasis, is reversible (Reversa mice). In these mice normalization of plasma lipids decreased atherosclerotic burden; however, plaque regression was incomplete. To explore whether endothelial progenitors contribute to atherosclerosis regression, bone marrow EPCs from a transgenic strain expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of endothelial cell-specific Tie2 promoter (Tie2-GFP+) were isolated. These cells were then adoptively transferred into atheroregressing Reversa recipients where they augmented plaque regression induced by reversal of hypercholesterolemia. Advanced plaque regression correlated with engraftment of Tie2-GFP+ EPCs into endothelium and resulted in an increase in atheroprotective nitric oxide and improved vascular relaxation. Similarly augmented plaque regression was also detected in regressing Reversa mice treated with the stem cell mobilizer AMD3100 which also mobilizes EPCs to peripheral blood. We conclude that correction of hypercholesterolemia in Reversa mice leads to partial plaque regression that can be augmented by AMD3100 treatment or by adoptive transfer of EPCs. This suggests that direct cell therapy or indirect progenitor cell mobilization therapy may be used in combination with statins to treat atherosclerosis. PMID:23081735

  6. Case Report Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the primary bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Chen, S L; Huang, Z X; Gao, W; An, N

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to improve understanding of the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of primary bone marrow (PBM) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), a rare illness. We report a 56-year-old man with pancytopenia and hyperbilirubinemia but without lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, or splenomegaly. Bone marrow aspiration, flow cytometry, biopsy, and immunohistochemistry confirmed DLBCL. Two cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone were administered. Blood cell numbers and hyperbilirubinemia improved. Although the patient did not completely recover, he survived for at least 3 years after chemotherapy and receiving blood transfusions. PBM DLBCL is a distinct, aggressive lymphoma characterized by lymphoma cells only in the bone marrow and effectively treated via chemotherapy. Prognoses for PBM DLBCL vary. PMID:26125825

  7. Primary pituitary lymphoma: idiopathic anasarca with relapse in bone marrow only.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Soley; Bassini, Wilfredo; Goodman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of primary large B cell-type pituitary lymphoma in a 47-year-old immunocompetent female who presented with headache and cranial nerve palsy. She was treated with the DeAngelis chemotherapy protocol and achieved a complete remission. At 1 and 6 months after completion of chemotherapy, she presented with anasarca and was diagnosed with relapse exclusively in the bone marrow twice. She received 8 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy and had complete resolution of anasarca. Consequently, we proceeded with salvage chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary pituitary lymphoma that relapsed exclusively in the bone marrow and presented with clinical findings of idiopathic anasarca. PMID:20068284

  8. Effects of major histocompatibility complex class II knockout on mouse bone mechanical properties during development.

    PubMed

    Simske, Steven J; Bateman, Ted A; Smith, Erin E; Ferguson, Virginia L; Chapes, Stephen K

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) knockout on the development of the mouse peripheral skeleton. These C2D mice had less skeletal development at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (B6) male mice. The C2D mice had decreased femur mechanical, geometric and compositional measurements compared to wild type mice at each of these ages. C2D femur stiffness (S), peak force in 3-pt bending (Pm), and mineral mass (Min-M) were 74%, 64% and 66%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values at 8 weeks of age. Similar differences were measured at 12 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 71%, 72% and 73%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values) and at 16 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 80%, 66% and 61%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values). MHC II knockout delays the development of adult bone properties and is accompanied by lower body mass compared to wild-type controls. PMID:12085652

  9. The role of transduced bone marrow cells overexpressing BMP-2 in healing critical-sized defects in a mouse femur.

    PubMed

    Pensak, M; Hong, S; Dukas, A; Tinsley, B; Drissi, H; Tang, A; Cote, M; Sugiyama, O; Lichtler, A; Rowe, D; Lieberman, J R

    2015-06-01

    The role that transduced mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs) engineered to overexpress human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) play in healing critical-sized skeletal defects is largely unknown. We evaluated the interaction between host osteoprogenitor cells and donor mBMSCs transduced with either a lentiviral (LV) vector-expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) with or without BMP-2 that were implanted into a critical-sized femoral defect. Radiographs taken at the time of killing were evaluated using a five-point scaled scoring system. Frozen histologic sections were analyzed to assess both the transduced cells' role in bone repair and the local osteoprogenitor response. There was complete radiographic bridging in 94% of group I (LV-RFPch-BMP-2-cmyc) and 100% of group III (recombinant human BMP-2) specimens. Radiographs demonstrated a lack of healing in group II (LV-RFPch). Mouse BMSCs transduced with an LV-RFPch-BMP-2 vector were able to induce host cells to differentiate down an osteoblastic lineage and heal a critical-sized defect. However, the donor cells appeared to be functioning as a delivery vehicle of BMP-2 rather than actually differentiating into osteoblasts capable of participating in bone repair as evidenced by a lack of colocalization of the transduced cells to the sites of skeletal repair where the host progenitor cells were found. PMID:25809463

  10. Minor histocompatibility antigens on transfused leukoreduced units of red blood cells induce bone marrow transplant rejection in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Desmarets, Maxime; Cadwell, Chantel M.; Peterson, Kenneth R.; Neades, Renee

    2009-01-01

    When successful, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)–matched bone marrow transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning is a cure for several nonmalignant hematologic disorders that require chronic transfusion, such as sickle cell disease and aplastic anemia. However, there are unusually high bone marrow transplant (BMT) rejection rates in these patients. Rejection correlates with the number of transfusions before bone marrow transplantation, and it has been hypothesized that preimmunization to antigens on transfused blood may prime BMT rejection. Using a novel mouse model of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and major histocompatibility complex–matched bone marrow transplantation, we report that transfusion of RBC products induced BMT rejection across minor histocompatibility antigen (mHA) barriers. It has been proposed that contaminating leukocytes are responsible for transfusion-induced BMT rejection; however, filter leukoreduction did not prevent rejection in the current studies. Moreover, we generated a novel transgenic mouse with RBC-specific expression of a model mHA and demonstrated that transfusion of RBCs induced a CD8+ T-cell response. Together, these data suggest that mHAs on RBCs themselves are capable of inducing BMT rejection. Cellular immunization to mHAs is neither monitored nor managed by current transfusion medicine practice; however, the current data suggest that mHAs on RBCs may represent an unappreciated and significant consequence of RBC transfusion. PMID:19525479

  11. Characteristics and response of mouse bone marrow derived novel low adherent mesenchymal stem cells acquired by quantification of extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ri-Cheng; Heo, Seong-Joo; Koak, Jai-Young; Lee, Joo-Hee; Park, Ji-Man

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of present study was to identify characteristic and response of mouse bone marrow (BM) derived low-adherent bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) obtained by quantification of extracellular matrix (ECM). MATERIALS AND METHODS Non-adherent cells acquired by ECM coated dishes were termed low-adherent BMMSCs and these cells were analyzed by in vitro and in vivo methods, including colony forming unit fibroblast (CFU-f), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), multi-potential differentiation, flow cytometry and transplantation into nude mouse to measure the bone formation ability of these low-adherent BMMSCs. Titanium (Ti) discs with machined and anodized surfaces were prepared. Adherent and low-adherent BMMSCs were cultured on the Ti discs for testing their proliferation. RESULTS The amount of CFU-f cells was significantly higher when non-adherent cells were cultured on ECM coated dishes, which was made by 7 days culturing of adherent BMMSCs. Low-adherent BMMSCs had proliferation and differentiation potential as adherent BMMSCs in vitro. The mean amount bone formation of adherent and low-adherent BMMSCs was also investigated in vivo. There was higher cell proliferation appearance in adherent and low-adherent BMMSCs seeded on anodized Ti discs than machined Ti discs by time. CONCLUSION Low-adherent BMMSCs acquired by ECM from non-adherent cell populations maintained potential characteristic similar to those of the adherent BMMSCs and therefore could be used effectively as adherent BMMSCs in clinic. PMID:25352957

  12. Imaging Primary Mouse Sarcomas After Radiation Therapy Using Cathepsin-Activatable Fluorescent Imaging Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, Kyle C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Mito, Jeffrey K.; Javid, Melodi P. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ferrer, Jorge M. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Kim, Yongbaek [Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. David [The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)] [The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Bawendi, Moungi G. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Brigman, Brian E. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kirsch, David G., E-mail: david.kirsch@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes can detect tumors in mice and in canine patients. We previously showed that these probes can detect microscopic residual sarcoma in the tumor bed of mice during gross total resection. Many patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and other tumors undergo radiation therapy (RT) before surgery. This study assesses the effect of RT on the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between normal and cancerous tissue. Methods and Materials: A genetically engineered mouse model of STS was used to generate primary hind limb sarcomas that were treated with hypofractionated RT. Mice were injected intravenously with cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes, and various tissues, including the tumor, were imaged using a hand-held imaging device. Resected tumor and normal muscle samples were harvested to assess cathepsin expression by Western blot. Uptake of activated probe was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Parallel in vitro studies using mouse sarcoma cells were performed. Results: RT of primary STS in mice and mouse sarcoma cell lines caused no change in probe activation or cathepsin protease expression. Increasing radiation dose resulted in an upward trend in probe activation. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence showed that a substantial proportion of probe-labeled cells were CD11b-positive tumor-associated immune cells. Conclusions: In this primary murine model of STS, RT did not affect the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between tumor and normal muscle. Cathepsin-activated probes labeled tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages. Our results suggest that it would be feasible to include patients who have received preoperative RT in clinical studies evaluating cathepsin-activated imaging probes.

  13. Benzene-induced micronuclei formation in mouse fetal liver blood, peripheral blood, and maternal bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Hansun (Univ. of California, Davis (United States) Ministry of Railways, Beijing (China)); Kado, N.Y. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States) California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (United States)); Kuzmicky, P.A.; Hsieh, D.P.H. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The transplacental cytogenetic effects of benzene were studied by using the micronucleus test of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) found in both fetal liver and fetal peripheral blood, and were compared with PCE from maternal bone marrow. Timed-pregnant mice received single intraperitoneal doses of benzene on the 14th day of gestation and were sacrificed 21 hours after injection. Benzene elicited a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) in fetal liver blood cells at doses of 219 to 874 mg/kg, and in fetal peripheral blood cells and maternal bone marrow cells at doses of 437 and 874 mg/kg. The data demonstrate that benzene is a moderate transplacental clastogenic agent, and that the mouse transplacental micronucleus test using fetal liver blood cells is a potentially more sensitive indicator of the genotoxicity of benzene than either fetal peripheral blood or maternal bone marrow cells.

  14. A Nude Mouse Model for Human Bone Formation in Unloaded Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Muraglia; I Martin; R Cancedda; R Quarto

    1998-01-01

    We describe an experimental model for human bone formation in unloaded conditions. Bone formation has been assessed by implanting in vivo human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) on porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics subcutaneously in nude mice. In this system, human bone formation and remodeling occurs and can be studied in unloaded conditions, i.e., with no influence of muscle tension. Using

  15. Evaluation and validation of multiple cell lines and primary mouse macrophages to predict phospholipidosis potential.

    PubMed

    LeCureux, Lloyd; Cheng, Charles S; Herbst, John; Reilly, Timothy P; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois; Otieno, Monicah

    2011-12-01

    Phospholipidosis (PLD) in preclinical species can lead to regulatory delays thereby creating incentives to screen for PLD during drug discovery. The objective of this work was to compare, optimize, and validate in vitro PLD assays in primary mouse macrophages and hepatocyte- (HepG2, HuH7) or macrophage-derived cells lines (I.13.35, RAW264.7) and to evaluate whether primary cells were better at predicting PLD. Assay precision, determined by a measure of signal to noise window (Z'), within assay variability, and day-to-day variability, using amiodarone, was generally acceptable for all cell types; however, precision limits for HepG2 and HuH7 were slightly below assay acceptance criteria. Up to 66 known PLD inducers and non-inducers were subsequently tested to validate the assays. The concordance for predicting PLD in primary macrophages, I-13.35, RAW264.7, HuH7, and HepG2 cells was 91%, 74%, 73%, 62%, and 62% respectively using a decision limit of EC50?125 ?M as a positive finding. Increasing the number of negative controls tested in RAW264.7 cells and changing the decision limit to ?4-fold increase in PLD, improved the specificity and overall concordance to 88%. RAW264.7 cells were selected as the primary screen for predicting PLD, and together with the primary macrophages, were integrated into an overall testing paradigm proposed for use in PLD risk identification. PMID:21767630

  16. Establishment of primary cultures for mouse ameloblasts as a model of their lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Suzawa, Tetsuo [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: suzawa@dent.showa-u.ac.jp; Itoh, Nao [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Showa University (Japan); Takahashi, Naoyuki [Institute for Oral Science, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri 399-0781 (Japan); Katagiri, Takenobu [Division of Pathophysiology, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical School, Hidaka 350-1241 (Japan); Morimura, Naoko [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuna [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Showa University (Japan); Yamamoto, Toshinori [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Showa University (Japan); Kamijo, Ryutaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)

    2006-07-07

    To understand how the properties of ameloblasts are spatiotemporally regulated during amelogenesis, two primary cultures of ameloblasts in different stages of differentiation were established from mouse enamel epithelium. Mouse primary ameloblasts (MPAs) prepared from immature enamel epithelium (MPA-I) could proliferate, whereas those from mature enamel epithelium (MPA-M) could not. MPA-M but not MPA-I caused apoptosis during culture. The mRNA expression of amelogenin, a marker of immature ameloblasts, was down-regulated, and that of enamel matrix serine proteiase-1, a marker of mature ameloblasts, was induced in MPA-I during culture. Using green fluorescence protein as a reporter, a visualized reporter system was established to analyze the promoter activity of the amelogenin gene. The region between -1102 bp and -261 bp was required for the reporter expression in MPA-I. These results suggest that MPAs are valuable in vitro models for investigation of ameloblast biology, and that the visualized system is useful for promoter analysis in MPAs.

  17. Progesterone Receptor-Induced Gene Expression in Primary Mouse Granulosa Cell Cultures1

    PubMed Central

    Sriraman, Venkataraman; Sinha, Mala; Richards, JoAnne S.

    2009-01-01

    The progesterone receptor (PGR) is induced by luteinizing hormone (LH) in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles, and the PGR-A isoform is essential for ovulation based on the phenotypes of Pgr isoform-specific knockout mice. Although several genes regulated by PGR-A in vivo have been identified, whether these genes are primary targets of PGR-A or if their expression also depends on other signaling molecules that are induced by the LH surge has not been resolved. Therefore, to identify genes that are either induced or repressed by PGR in the absence of LH-mediated signaling cascades, we infected primary cultures of mouse granulosa cells with either PGR-A or PGR-B adenoviral vectors without or with R-5020 as a PGR ligand. Total RNA was extracted from infected cells at 16 h and analyzed by Affymetrix Mouse 430 2.0 microarrays. PGR-A in the presence or absence of ligand significantly induced approximately 50 genes 2-fold or more (local pooled error test at P ? 0.01). Fewer and different genes were induced by PGR-B in the absence of ligand. Edn1, Apoa1, and Cited1 were primarily regulated by PGR-A as verified by additional RT-PCR analyses, suppression by the PGR antagonist RU486, and the lack of induction by protein kinase A, protein kinase C, or epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors pathways. PGR regulation of these genes was confirmed further by gene expression analyses in hormonally primed Pgr mutant mouse ovaries. Because Edn1, Apoa1, and Cited1 are known to regulate angiogenesis, PGR may affect the neovascularization of follicles that is initiated with ovulation. PMID:19726735

  18. Endogenous retrovirus induces leukemia in a xenograft mouse model for primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Triviai, Ioanna; Ziegler, Marion; Bergholz, Ulla; Oler, Andrew J.; Stübig, Thomas; Prassolov, Vladimir; Fehse, Boris; Kozak, Christine A.; Kröger, Nicolaus; Stocking, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The compound immunodeficiencies in nonobese diabetic (NOD) inbred mice homozygous for the Prkdcscid and Il2rgnull alleles (NSG mice) permit engraftment of a wide-range of primary human cells, enabling sophisticated modeling of human disease. In studies designed to define neoplastic stem cells of primary myelofibrosis (PMF), a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by profound disruption of the hematopoietic microenvironment, we observed a high frequency of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in NSG mice. AML was of mouse origin, confined to PMF-xenografted mice, and contained multiple clonal integrations of ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MuLV). Significantly, MuLV replication was not only observed in diseased mice, but also in nontreated NSG controls. Furthermore, in addition to the single ecotropic endogenous retrovirus (eERV) located on chromosome 11 (Emv30) in the NOD genome, multiple de novo germ-line eERV integrations were observed in mice from each of four independent NSG mouse colonies. Analysis confirmed that E-MuLV originated from the Emv30 provirus and that recombination events were not necessary for virus replication or AML induction. Pathogenicity is thus likely attributable to PMF-mediated paracrine stimulation of mouse myeloid cells, which serve as targets for retroviral infection and transformation, as evidenced by integration into the Evi1 locus, a hotspot for retroviral-induced myeloid leukemia. This study thus corroborates a role of paracrine stimulation in PMF disease progression, underlines the importance of target cell type and numbers in MuLV-induced disease, and mandates awareness of replicating MuLV in NOD immunodeficient mice, which can significantly influence experimental results and their interpretation. PMID:24912157

  19. Inhibition of amyloid-? production by anti-amyloid precursor protein antibodies in primary mouse cortical neurones

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Rhian S.; Hvoslef-Eide, Martha; Good, Mark A.; Kidd, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    Current therapies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) only treat the symptoms of the disease. We have previously developed a novel monoclonal antibody, 2B3, which binds to the ?-secretase cleavage site in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and reduces the production of amyloid-? (A?) in human cell lines. To determine whether the antibody was likely to be effective in mouse models of amyloid pathology in vivo, we investigated whether 2B3 could also bind to APP in mouse primary cortical neurones. Primary cortical neurones were produced from E15.5-17.5 C57Bl/6 wild-type and transgenic APP/V717I (London mutation) embryos. The percentage of the neuronal population was determined with immunocytochemistry. Cells were treated with 10?g/ml 2B3 or an irrelevant IgG for 48 hours and A?40 levels determined by ELISA. The population of cells was found to contain over 75% neurones and 2B3 bound effectively to these cells. No differences in A?40 were detected between wild-type and transgenic cells. Importantly, 2B3 significantly inhibited the production of A?40 by 75.15 ± 1.37% of the media control, while an irrelevant IgG only significantly reduced A?40 levels by 23.35±5.55% of the media control. The reduction in A?40 produced by 2B3 was significantly greater than that caused by the IgG. These data indicate that 2B3 binds to APP in mouse neurones and can inhibit A?40 similarly to our previous findings. The antibody is probably therefore acting by steric hindrance of ?-secretase and these data suggest that it will be effective in mice in vivo and could be an alternative potential therapy for AD. PMID:24145776

  20. Endogenous retrovirus induces leukemia in a xenograft mouse model for primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Triviai, Ioanna; Ziegler, Marion; Bergholz, Ulla; Oler, Andrew J; Stübig, Thomas; Prassolov, Vladimir; Fehse, Boris; Kozak, Christine A; Kröger, Nicolaus; Stocking, Carol

    2014-06-10

    The compound immunodeficiencies in nonobese diabetic (NOD) inbred mice homozygous for the Prkdc(scid) and Il2rg(null) alleles (NSG mice) permit engraftment of a wide-range of primary human cells, enabling sophisticated modeling of human disease. In studies designed to define neoplastic stem cells of primary myelofibrosis (PMF), a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by profound disruption of the hematopoietic microenvironment, we observed a high frequency of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in NSG mice. AML was of mouse origin, confined to PMF-xenografted mice, and contained multiple clonal integrations of ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MuLV). Significantly, MuLV replication was not only observed in diseased mice, but also in nontreated NSG controls. Furthermore, in addition to the single ecotropic endogenous retrovirus (eERV) located on chromosome 11 (Emv30) in the NOD genome, multiple de novo germ-line eERV integrations were observed in mice from each of four independent NSG mouse colonies. Analysis confirmed that E-MuLV originated from the Emv30 provirus and that recombination events were not necessary for virus replication or AML induction. Pathogenicity is thus likely attributable to PMF-mediated paracrine stimulation of mouse myeloid cells, which serve as targets for retroviral infection and transformation, as evidenced by integration into the Evi1 locus, a hotspot for retroviral-induced myeloid leukemia. This study thus corroborates a role of paracrine stimulation in PMF disease progression, underlines the importance of target cell type and numbers in MuLV-induced disease, and mandates awareness of replicating MuLV in NOD immunodeficient mice, which can significantly influence experimental results and their interpretation. PMID:24912157

  1. Constructing a multi-scan synchrotron X-ray microscope to study the function of osteocyte canaliculi in mouse bone

    SciTech Connect

    Nango, Nobuhito; Kubota, Shogo; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi; Takada, Yasunari; Matsuo, Koichi [Ratoc System Engineering Co., Ltd, Toho Edogawabashi Bldg. 4F, 1-24-8 Sekiguchi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0014 (Japan); Dept. of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Lab. of Cell and Tissue Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2012-07-31

    Formulating a multi-scan method applied to an X-ray microscope CT with synchrotron radiation, we attempted to analyze the 3D functional structure of osteocyte canaliculi inside the cortical bone of a mouse tibia. We employed a two-method combination to scan the same position of the specimen. To extract the internal bone canalicular structure, we first combined a Talbot interferometer with an X-ray microscope, and applied a differential phase imaging method to measure the absolute value of bone mineral around the canaliculi. Next, we used the X-ray microscope without the Talbot interferometer under a defocus condition, moving the specimen toward the zone plate by 6 mm. This defocus contrast method visualizes the canaliculi by emphasizing the edges of the bone. We performed CT scans by the two configurations and precisely aligned resultant 3D images so that the same position in the specimen is compared. We could extract the osteocyte canaliculi and evaluate the mineral density of their surroundings. The degree of mineralization varied for each osteocyte lacuna and canaliculus. The multi-scan microscopic X-ray CT is a powerful tool for analyzing bone mineralization.

  2. Primary malignant giant cell tumor of bone: "dedifferentiated" giant cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Meis, J M; Dorfman, H D; Nathanson, S D; Haggar, A M; Wu, K K

    1989-09-01

    Well documented examples of primary malignant giant cell tumor of bone (giant cell tumor and concurrent sarcoma arising de novo) are exceedingly rare in the literature. We report a case arising in the left ischium of a 44-yr-old man. He had no previous history of radiation therapy or multiple resections. Histologically, the tumor was a typical giant cell tumor of bone juxtaposed to a malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The juxtaposition of a high grade sarcoma (MFH) and a locally aggressive nonmalignant neoplasm such as giant cell tumor is analogous to several other tumors of bone and soft tissue in which a low grade malignant or locally aggressive tumor can be associated with MFH or fibrosarcoma de novo, namely chondrosarcoma, chordoma, liposarcoma, and well differentiated intraosseous and parosteal osteosarcoma. The presence of a high grade malignant component in each of the aforementioned neoplasms generally portends a more ominous prognosis, although this is not invariably true. Recognition of the phenomenon of "dedifferentiation" (or tumor progression) in some bone tumors and sarcomas is important to ensure appropriate treatment. Distinction from secondary malignant giant cell tumors which are usually radiation induced is also important, since the latter have a much worse prognosis than those with dedifferentiation occurring de novo. PMID:2554283

  3. The role of bone marrow-derived cells in bone fracture repair in a green fluorescent protein chimeric mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan) and Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: s3061@nms.ac.jp; Ogawa, Rei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Migita, Makoto [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Hanawa, Hideki [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Hiromoto [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Orimo, Hideo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-05-27

    We investigated the role of bone marrow cells in bone fracture repair using green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric model mice. First, the chimeric model mice were created: bone marrow cells from GFP-transgenic C57BL/6 mice were injected into the tail veins of recipient wild-type C57BL/6 mice that had been irradiated with a lethal dose of 10 Gy from a cesium source. Next, bone fracture models were created from these mice: closed transverse fractures of the left femur were produced using a specially designed device. One, three, and five weeks later, fracture lesions were extirpated for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. In the specimens collected 3 and 5 weeks after operation, we confirmed calluses showing intramembranous ossification peripheral to the fracture site. The calluses consisted of GFP- and osteocalcin-positive cells at the same site, although the femur consisted of only osteocalcin-positive cells. We suggest that bone marrow cells migrated outside of the bone marrow and differentiated into osteoblasts to make up the calluses.

  4. Bone marrow transplantation attenuates the myopathic phenotype of a muscular mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Salah-Mohellibi, Nouzha; Millet, Gaelle; André-Schmutz, Isabelle; Desforges, Bénédicte; Olaso, Robert; Roblot, Natacha; Courageot, Sabrina; Bensimon, Gilbert; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Melki, Judith

    2006-12-01

    Bone marrow (BM) transplantation was performed on a muscular mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy that had been created by mutating the survival of motor neuron gene (Smn) in myofibers only. This model is characterized by a severe myopathy and progressive loss of muscle fibers leading to paralysis. Transplantation of wild-type BM cells following irradiation at a low dose (6 Gy) improved motor capacity (+85%). This correlated with a normalization of myofiber number associated with a higher number of regenerating myofibers (1.6-fold increase) and an activation of CD34 and Pax7 satellite cells. However, BM cells had a very limited capacity to replace or fuse to mutant myofibers (2%). These data suggest that BM transplantation was able to attenuate the myopathic phenotype through an improvement of skeletal muscle regeneration of recipient mutant mice, a process likely mediated by a biological activity of BM-derived cells. This hypothesis was further supported by the capacity of muscle protein extracts from transplanted mutant mice to promote myoblast proliferation in vitro (1.6-fold increase). In addition, a tremendous upregulation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which activates quiescent satellite cells, was found in skeletal muscle of transplanted mutants compared with nontransplanted mutants. Eventually, thanks to the Cre-loxP system, we show that BM-derived muscle cells were strong candidates harboring this biological activity. Taken together, our data suggest that a biological activity is likely involved in muscle regeneration improvement mediated by BM transplantation. HGF may represent an attractive paracrine mechanism to support this activity. PMID:16888281

  5. Taurine, a major amino acid of oyster, enhances linear bone growth in a mouse model of protein malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Moon, Phil-Dong; Kim, Min-Ho; Lim, Hun-Sun; Oh, Hyun-A; Nam, Sun-Young; Han, Na-Ra; Kim, Myong-Jo; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2015-05-01

    Oysters (Oys) contain various beneficial components, such as, antioxidants and amino acids. However, the effects of Oys or taurine (Tau), a major amino acid in Oys on bone growth have not been determined. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Oys or Tau on linear bone growth in a mouse model of protein malnutrition. To make the protein malnutrition in a mouse, we used a low protein diet. Growth plate thickness was increased by Oys or Tau. Bone volume/tissue volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, connection density, and total porosity were also improved by Oys or Tau. Oys or Tau increased insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in serum, liver, and tibia-growth plate. Phosphorylations of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) were increased by Oys and by Tau. These findings show that Oys or Tau may increase growth plate thickness by elevating IGF-1 levels and by promoting the phosphorylations of JAK2-STAT5, and suggest that Oys or Tau are growth-promoting substances of potential use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2015 BioFactors, 41(3):190-197, 2015. PMID:25963419

  6. Orthovanadate increased the frequency of aneuploid mouse sperm without micronucleus induction in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes at the same dose level.

    PubMed

    Attia, S M; Badary, O A; Hamada, F M; de Angelis, M Hrabé; Adler, I-D

    2005-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the ability of orthovanadate to induce aneuploidy in mouse sperm and micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells at the same dose levels. The BrdU-incorporation assay was performed to test if the chemical treatment altered the duration of the meiotic divisions. It was found that orthovanadate (25mg/kg bw) treatment did not cause meiotic delay. To determine the frequencies of hyperhaploid and diploid sperm, male mice were treated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with 5, 15 or 25mg/kg bw orthovanadate and sperm were sampled from the Caudae epididymes 22 days later. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed with DNA-probes for chromosomes 8, X or Y. Significant increases in the frequencies of total hyperhaploid sperm (p<0.01) were found with 15 and 25mg/kg bw orthovanadate, indicating induced non-disjunction during male meiosis. The dose-response was described best by a linear equation. Orthovanadate did not significantly increase the frequencies of diploid sperm at any of the three doses tested, indicating that no complete meiotic arrest occurred. Orthovanadate was investigated also by the micronucleus test at i.p. doses of 1, 5, 15 or 25mg/kg bw, followed by bone marrow sampling 24h after treatment. None of the orthovanadate doses caused a significant increase in the rates of micronuclei (MN). Since the results show that orthovanadate induced non-disjunction during male meiosis without an accompanying induction of MN in bone marrow erythrocytes under the present experimental conditions and doses, it is concluded that male germ cells (meiosis) are more sensitive to the aneugenic effects of orthovanadate than somatic cells (mitosis). However, induction of micronuclei was reported in the literature with orthovanadate, vanadylsulfate and ammonium metavanadate, which contradicts the notion that vanadium compounds might be unique germ cell aneugens. PMID:15886051

  7. Tissue Preparation and Immunostaining of Mouse Sensory Nerve Fibers Innervating Skin and Limb Bones

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Andrew J.; Mohapatra, Durga P.

    2012-01-01

    Detection and primary processing of physical, chemical and thermal sensory stimuli by peripheral sensory nerve fibers is key to sensory perception in animals and humans. These peripheral sensory nerve fibers express a plethora of receptors and ion channel proteins which detect and initiate specific sensory stimuli. Methods are available to characterize the electrical properties of peripheral sensory nerve fibers innervating the skin, which can also be utilized to identify the functional expression of specific ion channel proteins in these fibers. However, similar electrophysiological methods are not available (and are also difficult to develop) for the detection of the functional expression of receptors and ion channel proteins in peripheral sensory nerve fibers innervating other visceral organs, including the most challenging tissues such as bone. Moreover, such electrophysiological methods cannot be utilized to determine the expression of non-excitable proteins in peripheral sensory nerve fibers. Therefore, immunostaining of peripheral/visceral tissue samples for sensory nerve fivers provides the best possible way to determine the expression of specific proteins of interest in these nerve fibers. So far, most of the protein expression studies in sensory neurons have utilized immunostaining procedures in sensory ganglia, where the information is limited to the expression of specific proteins in the cell body of specific types or subsets of sensory neurons. Here we report detailed methods/protocols for the preparation of peripheral/visceral tissue samples for immunostaining of peripheral sensory nerve fibers. We specifically detail methods for the preparation of skin or plantar punch biopsy and bone (femur) sections from mice for immunostaining of peripheral sensory nerve fibers. These methods are not only key to the qualitative determination of protein expression in peripheral sensory neurons, but also provide a quantitative assay method for determining changes in protein expression levels in specific types or subsets of sensory fibers, as well as for determining the morphological and/or anatomical changes in the number and density of sensory fibers during various pathological states. Further, these methods are not confined to the staining of only sensory nerve fibers, but can also be used for staining any types of nerve fibers in the skin, bones and other visceral tissue. PMID:22314687

  8. Bone marrow transplantation reverses new-onset immunoinflammatory diabetes in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cheng-Lan; Wang, Jing; Xie, Ting; Ouyang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation might be an effective method to cure type 1 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to investigate whether bone marrow transplantation could reverse hyperglycemia in diabetic mice and whether high-dose total body irradiation followed by high-dose bone marrow mononuclear cell infusion could improve the efficiency of bone marrow transplantation in treating diabetic mice. Diabetic mice after multiple low doses of streptozotocin injection were irradiated followed by infusion with approximately 1×107 bone marrow mononuclear cells intravenously. Before and after bone marrow transplantation, fasting blood glucose, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, pancreatic histology, and the examination of insulin and glucagon in islets were processed. All recipients returned to near euglycemic within 1 week after undergoing bone marrow transplantation. No mice became hyperglycemia again during investigation period. The change of serum insulin, glucose tolerance test, pancreatic histology and the expression of insulin and glucagon in recipient islets after bone marrow transplantation all revealed islets regeneration and significant amelioration when compared respectively with those of diabetic mice without bone marrow transplantation. Bone marrow transplantation contributed to reduce blood glucose, prevent further blood glucose hike in diabetic recipients, and promote islets regeneration. High-dose total body irradiation in combination with high-dose bone marrow monoclear cell infusion could improve the efficiency of bone marrow transplantation in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetes. PMID:25197419

  9. Positive Selection in Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Targets a Natural Mutation Associated with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency in Human

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Camille; Monestier, Olivier; Di Pasquale, Elisa; Pascal, Géraldine; Persani, Luca; Fabre, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) is a TGF?-like oocyte-derived growth factor involved in ovarian folliculogenesis as a critical regulator of many granulosa cell processes. Alterations of the BMP15 gene have been found associated with different ovarian phenotypic effects depending on the species, from sterility to increased prolificacy in sheep, slight subfertility in mouse or associated with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in women. To investigate the evolving role of BMP15, a phylogenetic analysis of this particular TGF? family member was performed. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of several TGF?/BMP family members expressed by the ovary showed that BMP15 has a very strong divergence and a rapid evolution compared to others. Moreover, among 24 mammalian species, we detected signals of positive selection in the hominidae clade corresponding to F146, L189 and Y235 residues in human BMP15. The biological importance of these residues was tested functionally after site directed-mutagenesis in a COV434 cells luciferase assay. By replacing the positively selected amino acid either by alanine or the most represented residue in other studied species, only L189A, Y235A and Y235C mutants showed a significant increase of BMP15 signaling when compared to wild type. Additionally, the Y235C mutant was more potent than wild type in inhibiting progesterone secretion of ovine granulosa cells in primary culture. Interestingly, the Y235C mutation was previously identified in association with POI in women. In conclusion, this study evidences that the BMP15 gene has evolved faster than other members of the TGFß family and was submitted to a positive selection pressure in the hominidae clade. Some residues under positive selection are of great importance for the normal function of the protein and thus for female fertility. Y235 represents a critical residue in the determination of BMP15 biological activity, thus indirectly confirming its role in the onset of POI in women. PMID:24147118

  10. Bone fracture toughness and strength correlate with collagen cross-link maturity in a dose-controlled lathyrism mouse model.

    PubMed

    McNerny, Erin M B; Gong, Bo; Morris, Michael D; Kohn, David H

    2015-03-01

    Collagen cross-linking is altered in many diseases of bone, and enzymatic collagen cross-links are important to bone quality, as evidenced by losses of strength after lysyl oxidase inhibition (lathyrism). We hypothesized that cross-links also contribute directly to bone fracture toughness. A mouse model of lathyrism using subcutaneous injection of up to 500?mg/kg ?-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) was developed and characterized (60 animals across 4 dosage groups). Three weeks of 150 or 350?mg/kg BAPN treatment in young, growing mice significantly reduced cortical bone fracture toughness, strength, and pyridinoline cross-link content. Ratios reflecting relative cross-link maturity were positive regressors of fracture toughness (HP/[DHLNL?+?HLNL] r(2) ?=?0.208, p?bone formation, allowing for the identification of regions of normally cross-linked (preexisting) and BAPN-treated (newly formed, cross-link-deficient) bone. Raman spectroscopy revealed spatial differences attributable to relative tissue age and effects of cross-link inhibition. Newly deposited tissues had lower mineral/matrix, carbonate/phosphate, and Amide I cross-link (matrix maturity) ratios compared with preexisting tissues. BAPN treatment did not affect mineral measures but significantly increased the cross-link (matrix maturity) ratio compared with newly formed control tissue. Our study reveals that spatially localized effects of short-term BAPN cross-link inhibition can alter the whole-bone collagen cross-link profile to a measureable degree, and this cross-link profile correlates with bone fracture toughness and strength. Thus, cross-link profile perturbations associated with bone disease may provide insight into bone mechanical quality and fracture risk. PMID:25213475

  11. Trabecular bone mineral density in primary hyperparathyroidism: relationship to clinical presentation and biomarkers of skeletal turnover.

    PubMed

    Minisola, S; Rosso, R; Romagnoli, E; Pacitti, M T; Scarnecchia, L; Carnevale, V; Mazzuoli, G

    1993-02-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the entity of trabecular bone involvement in 62 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in all patients at the ultradistal radius (UDR) of the non-dominant arm by a dual photon densitometer and also at the lumbar spine (L) in 40 of the patients by means of quantitative dual energy radiography. Mean Z score values of UDR-BMD (-2.4 +/- 0.4) and L-BMD (-3.5 +/- 0.2) in patients with the skeletal variety of the disease (n = 6) were significantly reduced in respect to values of both asymptomatic (n = 31) and kidney stone patients (n = 25). As far as the comparison between the two sites of trabecular bone mass measurement in each hyperparathyroid subgroup of patients was concerned, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in patients with skeletal manifestations of the disease. Either serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, or osteocalcin and the 24-h hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio were significantly inversely related to the entity of bone mass evaluated at these two sites. Z score changes following surgery in 14 patients showed a positive trend in 13 of them at L compared to 7 out of 14 at UDR (P < 0.036 by chi square analysis). There was a very good inverse correlation between basal Z score values and the changes following surgery at the L (r = -0.851; P < 0.001) but not at the UDR. Our results demonstrate firstly that, in PHPT skeletal sites with almost similar composition of trabecular bone are differently involved in patients with more severe skeletal damage and that different skeletal sites may be divergently affected by the cessation of parathyroid gland hyperfunction. PMID:8453327

  12. Levels and distribution of organochlorine pollutants in primary dental tissues and bone of lamb.

    PubMed

    Jan, Janja; Urši?, Matjaž; Vrecl, Milka

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the bioconcentration of selected organochlorine pollutants, tetra- and hexa-chlorobiphenyls with planar (PCB-80, PCB-169) and non-planar (PCB-54, PCB-155) structure, and persistent organochlorine pesticides with planar [hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] and non-planar [1,1-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE)] structure in primary dental tissues (pulp, dentine, and enamel) and mandibular bone of lactationally exposed lambs, and compared it with the organochlorines distribution pattern in permanent dental tissues and bone. Also, the role of pollutants physicochemical properties and tissue specific characteristics in the bioconcentration was assessed. Residual levels of individual pollutants were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Our results showed that transfer of organochlorines to primary hard dental tissues was higher than to permanent hard dental tissues. Metabolically more stable, planar, and toxic organochlorines (e.g. PCB-169 and HCB) predominated in primary hard dental tissues, where they may represent a potential risk for developmental dental defects. PMID:24100271

  13. MOUSE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in New York City, the MOUSE organization works to empower "underserved students to provide technology support and leadership in their schools, supporting their academic and career success." On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs, learn about supporting the MOUSE organization, and read up on their resources. In the "Resources" area, visitors can learn about their outreach activities in New York City, Chicago, and California. Visitors working in educational outreach will appreciate the information offered here, including materials on how different groups can receive assistance from the MOUSE organization. Also, visitors can look over the "News" updates to learn about their new programs, their educational seminars, and their outreach activities.

  14. Administration of soluble activin receptor 2B increases bone and muscle mass in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    DiGirolamo, Douglas J; Singhal, Vandana; Chang, Xiaoli; Lee, Se-Jin; Germain-Lee, Emily L

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of heritable connective tissue disorders generally defined by recurrent fractures, low bone mass, short stature and skeletal fragility. Beyond the skeletal complications of OI, many patients also report intolerance to physical activity, fatigue and muscle weakness. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that skeletal muscle is also negatively affected by OI, both directly and indirectly. Given the well-established interdependence of bone and skeletal muscle in both physiology and pathophysiology and the observations of skeletal muscle pathology in patients with OI, we investigated the therapeutic potential of simultaneous anabolic targeting of both bone and skeletal muscle using a soluble activin receptor 2B (ACVR2B) in a mouse model of type III OI (oim). Treatment of 12-week-old oim mice with ACVR2B for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in both bone and muscle that were similar to those observed in healthy, wild-type littermates. This proof of concept study provides encouraging evidence for a holistic approach to treating the deleterious consequences of OI in the musculoskeletal system.

  15. Pathological interactions between hematopoietic stem cells and their niche revealed by mouse models of primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, Lilian; Mancini, Annalisa; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2009-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) belongs to the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms and is a hematological disorder caused by abnormal function of the hematopoietic stem cells. The disease manifests itself with a plethora of alterations, including anemia, splenomegaly and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Its hallmarks are progressive marrow fibrosis and atypical megakaryocytic hyperplasia, two distinctive features used to clinically monitor disease progression. In an attempt to investigate the role of abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis in the pathogenesis of PMF, several transgenic mouse models have been generated. These models are based either on mutations that interfere with the extrinsic (thrombopoietin and its receptor, MPL) and intrinsic (the GATA1 transcription factor) control of normal megakaryocytopoiesis, or on known genetic lesions associated with the human disease. Here we provide an up-to-date review on the insights into the pathobiology of human PMF achieved by studying these animal models, with particular emphasis on results obtained with Gata1low mice. PMID:20352017

  16. Cytotoxic effects of propiconazole and its metabolites in mouse and human hepatoma cells and primary mouse hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Propiconazole is a triazole-containing fungicide that is used agriculturally on grasses, fruits, grains, seeds, hardwoods, and conifers. Propiconazole is a mouse liver hepatotoxicant and a hepatocarcinogen and has adverse reproductive and developmental toxicities in exp...

  17. Nanomechanics and Raman spectroscopy of fibrillin 2 knock-out mouse bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Kavukcuoglu; E. Arteaga-Solis; S. Lee-Arteaga; F. Ramirez; A. B. Mann

    2007-01-01

    Absence of fibrillin 2 (Fbn2), a non-collagenous bone protein, causes a connective tissue disorder called congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA)\\u000a and has been associated with decreased bone mineral density. Nanoindentation and Raman microspectroscopy have been used to\\u000a compare the mechanical and chemical properties of cortical bone from femora of Fbn2?\\/? deficient mice and their wild-type controls (Fbn2+\\/+). It was found that

  18. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of bone: poly-ostotic versus mono-ostotic subtypes.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah, Kc; Guruprasad, B; Purohit, Samit; Rao, Sandesh; Bishwas, Siddhartha; Lokanath, D

    2013-01-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of bone (PNHLB) accounts for less than 5% of all primary bone tumours and less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Due to its rarity, only a few retrospective studies have been published describing the prognosis and its treatment. We report our experience of 20 cases of PNHLB with their clinicopathologic correlation that were treated at our centre over a period of ten years. There were 16 cases of the mono-ostotic subtype and four cases of poly-ostotic subtype. All of these had a histological diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The age of presentation was fifth to sixth decade. The mono-ostotic subtype commonly presented with the involvement of femur or humerus, while the poly-ostotic subtype commonly had paraparesis due to vertebral involvement. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP)-based chemotherapy was given to all patients, but definitive radiotherapy was used only in the mono-ostotic subtype. At median follow-up of 38 months (range 5-96 months), event-free survival was 81% and 25% with mono-ostotic and poly-ostotic subtypes, respectively. Thus poly-ostotic PNHLB is a distinctive entity with a poor prognosis, and larger studies are needed for better management of this subtype. PMID:23840285

  19. On the relation between surface roughness of metallic substrates and adhesion of human primary bone cells.

    PubMed

    Anselme, K; Bigerelle, M

    2014-01-01

    Surface characteristics of materials, whether their topography, chemistry, or surface energy, play an essential part in osteoblast adhesion on biomaterials. Thus, the quality of cell adhesion will influence the cell's capacity to proliferate and differentiate in contact with a biomaterial. We have developed for more than ten years numerous studies on the influence of topography and chemistry of metallic substrates on the response of primary human bone cells. The originality of our approach is that contrary to most of other authors, we quantified the adhesion of primary human bone cells on metallic substrates with perfectly characterized surface topography after some hours but also over 21 days. Moreover, we have developed original statistical approaches for characterizing the relation between surface roughness and cell-adhesion parameters. In this article, we will illustrate different studies we did these last ten years concerning the development of a new adhesion parameter, the adhesion power; the correlation between short-term adhesion, long-term adhesion, and proliferation; the influence of roughness organization on cell adhesion and the development of the order parameter; our modeling approach of cell adhesion on surface topography; the relative influence of surface chemistry and topography on cell adhesion and contact angle; the relation between surface features dimensions and cell adhesion. Further, some considerations will be given on the methods for scanning surface topography for cell-adhesion studies. Finally, perspectives will be given to elucidate these intracellular mechanotransduction mechanisms induced by the deformation of cells on model sinusoidal peaks-or-valleys surfaces. PMID:23203601

  20. Disrupted Bone Remodeling Leads to Cochlear Overgrowth and Hearing Loss in a Mouse Model of Fibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jolie; Li, Alfred; Chang, Wenhan; Lustig, Lawrence R.; Alliston, Tamara; Hsiao, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Normal hearing requires exquisite cooperation between bony and sensorineural structures within the cochlea. For example, the inner ear secretes proteins such as osteoprotegrin (OPG) that can prevent cochlear bone remodeling. Accordingly, diseases that affect bone regulation can also result in hearing loss. Patients with fibrous dysplasia develop trabecular bone overgrowth resulting in hearing loss if the lesions affect the temporal bones. Unfortunately, the mechanisms responsible for this hearing loss, which could be sensorineural and/or conductive, remain unclear. In this study, we used a unique transgenic mouse model of increased Gs G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling induced by expression of an engineered receptor, Rs1, in osteoblastic cells. These ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ mice showed dramatic bone lesions that histologically and radiologically resembled fibrous dysplasia. We found that ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ mice showed progressive and severe conductive hearing loss. Ossicular chain impingement increased with the size and number of dysplastic lesions. While sensorineural structures were unaffected, ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae had abnormally high osteoclast activity, together with elevated tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (Rankl) mRNA expression. ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae also showed decreased expression of Sclerostin (Sost), an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway that normally increases bone formation. The osteocyte canalicular networks of ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae were disrupted and showed abnormal osteocyte morphology. The osteocytes in the ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae showed increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) and TRAP, both of which can support osteocyte-mediated peri-lacunar remodeling. Thus, while the ossicular chain impingement is sufficient to account for the progressive hearing loss in fibrous dysplasia, the deregulation of bone remodeling extends to the cochlea as well. Our findings suggest that factors regulating bone remodeling, including peri-lacunar remodeling by osteocytes, may be useful targets for treating the bony overgrowths and hearing changes of fibrous dysplasia and other bony pathologies. PMID:24788917

  1. Postnatal developmental changes in the responses of mouse primary vestibular neurons to externally applied galvanic currents.

    PubMed

    Desmadryl, G

    1991-12-17

    The ontogenesis of vestibular primary neuron sensitivity to depolarisation produced by galvanic current stimulations was studied in mouse inner ear explants maintained in vitro. Cathodal galvanic stimulations, which elicit an increase of the discharge frequencies, are assumed to act on the spike initiation site by depolarizing the neuron. The responses of neurons to galvanic currents at various developmental stages were recorded. The pattern of responses reflected the sensitivities of the neurons to depolarization. At birth, about 75% of the vestibular neurons responded weakly to high intensity galvanic currents thus indicating that they were able to generate action potentials. However, the very low gain of the response to the stimulation revealed the immaturity of the neurons at the spike generation site. Between the day of birth and the ninth postnatal day, an increase in the gain of the responses was observed, indicating the enhancement of the sensitivity of the vestibular neurons to the galvanic currents. This increase in sensitivity was more pronounced from the fourth postnatal day. The response of the neurons to galvanic stimulation increased gradually during postnatal development without reaching a plateau at postnatal day 9 indicating that a further physiological maturation occurs after this stage. These results are consistent with the morphological maturation of the vestibular primary afferents and with previous studies showing that the physiological maturation parallels myelination of the afferent fibers. PMID:1786638

  2. An RNAseq Protocol to Identify mRNA Expression Changes in Mouse Diaphyseal Bone: Applications in

    E-print Network

    in Mice with Bone Property Altering Lrp5 Mutations Ugur M Ayturk,1,2 Christina M Jacobsen,1,3 Danos C of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA 3 Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics, Boston) significantly decrease or increase bone mass, respectively. These human skeletal phenotypes have been

  3. Voluntary Physical Exercise Promotes Ocular Dominance Plasticity in Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Haack, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) declines during aging and is absent beyond postnatal day (P) 110 when mice are raised in standard cages (SCs; Lehmann and Löwel, 2008). In contrast, raising mice in an enriched environment (EE) preserved a juvenile-like OD plasticity into late adulthood (Greifzu et al., 2014). EE raising provides the mice with more social interactions, voluntary physical exercise, and cognitive stimulation compared with SC, raising the question whether all components are needed or whether one of them is already sufficient to prolong plasticity. To test whether voluntary physical exercise alone already prolongs the sensitive phase for OD plasticity, we raised mice from 7 d before birth to adulthood in slightly larger than normal SCs with or without a running wheel (RW). When the mice were older than P135, we visualized V1 activity before and after monocular deprivation (MD) using intrinsic signal optical imaging. Adult RW-raised mice continued to show an OD shift toward the open eye after 7 d of MD, while age-matched SC mice without a RW did not show OD plasticity. Notably, running just during the 7 d MD period restored OD plasticity in adult SC-raised mice. In addition, the OD shift of the RW mice was mediated by a decrease of deprived-eye responses in V1, a signature of “juvenile-like” plasticity. We conclude that voluntary physical exercise alone is sufficient to promote plasticity in adult mouse V1. PMID:25392514

  4. A novel in vivo mouse model for mechanically stimulated bone adaptation--a combined experimental and computational validation study.

    PubMed

    Webster, Duncan J; Morley, Philip L; van Lenthe, G Harry; Müller, Ralph

    2008-10-01

    To facilitate the investigation of bone formation, in vivo, in response to mechanical loading a caudal vertebra axial compression device (CVAD) has been developed to deliver precise mechanical loads to the fifth caudal vertebra (C5) of the C57BL/6 female mouse. A combined experimental and computational approach was used to quantify the micro-mechanical strain induced in trabecular and cortical components following static and dynamic loading using the CVAD. Cortical bone strains were recorded using micro-strain gages. Finite element (FE) models based on micro-computed tomography were constructed for all C5 vertebrae. Both theoretical and experimental cortical strains correlated extremely well (R2 > 0.96) for a Young's modulus of 14.8 GPa, thus validating the FE model. In this study, we have successfully applied mechanical loads to the C5 murine vertebrae, demonstrating the potential of this model to be used for in vivo loading studies aimed at stimulating both trabecular and cortical bone adaptation. PMID:18612871

  5. Overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase impairs osteoblastogenesis and alters mouse bone phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pirnes-Karhu, Sini; Määttä, Jorma; Finnilä, Mikko; Alhonen, Leena; Uimari, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Spermidine/spermine N (1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) is a catabolic regulator of polyamines, ubiquitous molecules essential for cell proliferation and differentiation. In pathological conditions, the increased polyamine catabolism has been shown to mediate its cellular functions not only by changed polyamine levels but also by the availability of metabolites shared with other metabolic pathways or by production of toxic compounds. Our previous results showed that mice overexpressing SSAT (SSAT mice) developed a myeloproliferative disease and the bone marrow microenvironment partly contributed to its development. In this study, the physiological role of SSAT and polyamines in bone remodeling was characterized. Skeletal development of the SSAT mice appeared outwardly similar to wild-type mice until maturity, after which the SSAT mice developed kyphosis. With aging, the SSAT overexpression elicited increased bone perimeter with strikingly thinned cortical bone, decreased trabecular thickness and increased trabecular number in mice. In vitro studies showed that the maturation of SSAT overexpressing osteoblasts was impaired and the expression of bone formation marker genes was dramatically decreased. The polyamine pattern in osteoblasts of SSAT mice was distorted in comparison with wild-type mice. However, treatment of osteoblasts with a SSAT-inducing functional polyamine analogue suggested that defective osteoblastogenesis resulted rather from other consequences of enhanced SSAT activity than lowered levels of the higher polyamines. In comparison to SSAT overexpressing mice, SSAT deficiency led to opposite changes in osteoblastogenesis and differences in bone phenotype in mice. In conclusion, the level of SSAT enzyme activity affected osteoblastogenesis and hence influenced bone remodeling and the bone phenotype in mice. Furthermore, our results suggest the contribution of the catabolic part of the polyamine cycle, other than polyamine depletion, in pathophysiological processes of bone remodeling. PMID:25231394

  6. Bone Marrow Transplantation Results in Human Donor Blood Cells Acquiring and Displaying Mouse Recipient Class I MHC and CD45 Antigens on Their Surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuko Yamanaka; Christine J. Wong; Marina Gertsenstein; Robert F. Casper; Andras Nagy; Ian M. Rogers; Joseph Najbauer

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundMouse models of human disease are invaluable for determining the differentiation ability and functional capacity of stem cells. The best example is bone marrow transplants for studies of hematopoietic stem cells. For organ studies, the interpretation of the data can be difficult as transdifferentiation, cell fusion or surface antigen transfer (trogocytosis) can be misinterpreted as differentiation. These events have not

  7. [Quantitative bone biopsy and primary hyperparathyroidism, its role in diagnosis. Apropos of 45 cases].

    PubMed

    Latorzeff, S; Durroux, R; Gayrard, M; Carles, P; Debrock, J

    1976-01-01

    Iliac bone biopsy, including a quantitative study, was carried out in 38 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (34 surgical patients, 4 with typical syndromes based on laboratory analysis). A second biopsy was carried out in 7 cases. By studying both the surface resorption of the strands of the spongy tissue and periosteocyte osteolysis (an indirect measure by assessment of the surface aera of the periosteocyte lacunae), it is possible to arrive at a histological diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism in 98 percent of cases: surface resorption is increased in 82 percent of cases; the periosteocyte lacunae are enlarged in 91 percent of cases; the two criteria together give a positive result in 44 cases out of 45 (98 percent). This morphometric study is particularly valuable in those cases in which the qualitative histological appearance is not very informative. PMID:981932

  8. Differential gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes exposed to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonists

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lei; Fang, Hong; Collins, Jim; Fan, Xiao-hui; Dial, Stacey; Wong, Alex; Mehta, Kshama; Blann, Ernice; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Dragan, Yvonne P

    2006-01-01

    Background Fibrates are a unique hypolipidemic drugs that lower plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels through their action as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) agonists. The activation of PPAR? leads to a cascade of events that result in the pharmacological (hypolipidemic) and adverse (carcinogenic) effects in rodent liver. Results To understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for the pleiotropic effects of PPAR? agonists, we treated mouse primary hepatocytes with three PPAR? agonists (bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643) at multiple concentrations (0, 10, 30, and 100 ?M) for 24 hours. When primary hepatocytes were exposed to these agents, transactivation of PPAR? was elevated as measured by luciferase assay. Global gene expression profiles in response to PPAR? agonists were obtained by microarray analysis. Among differentially expressed genes (DEGs), there were 4, 8, and 21 genes commonly regulated by bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643 treatments across 3 doses, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Treatments with 100 ?M of bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643 resulted in 151, 149, and 145 genes altered, respectively. Among them, 121 genes were commonly regulated by at least two drugs. Many genes are involved in fatty acid metabolism including oxidative reaction. Some of the gene changes were associated with production of reactive oxygen species, cell proliferation of peroxisomes, and hepatic disorders. In addition, 11 genes related to the development of liver cancer were observed. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment of PPAR? agonists results in the production of oxidative stress and increased peroxisome proliferation, thus providing a better understanding of mechanisms underlying PPAR? agonist-induced hepatic disorders and hepatocarcinomas. PMID:17118139

  9. Actin content and organization of microfilaments in primary cultures of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (in vitro ageing).

    PubMed

    Van Gansen, P; Pays, A; Malherbe, L

    1985-01-01

    Actin distribution in serially passaged embryonic mouse fibroblasts has been visualized by the anti-actin-PAP method; the organization of the microfilaments has been observed by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Four successive actin patterns have been identified: early (few well-organized bundles of microfilaments), middle-aged (many well-organized bundles and patches around the nucleus), late (numerous ill-organized filamentous structures and diffuse perinuclear-actin) and "senescent" (heavy packs of short microfilaments around the nucleus). All the observed actin-positive filaments were disrupted by cytochalasin B treatment. The cytoplasmic actin complex was cell-age and not cell-size-dependent; it behaved differently from the cytoplasmic microtubular complex to serially subcultivated fibroblasts. Measurements of the cell-protein content (Lowry's method) and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Laemmli's method) have been performed in the successive population doubling levels (PDL) of the primary cultures. Triton-insoluble actin increased in parallel with total protein and reached about 4% of the total proteins in all the PDLs. Triton-soluble actin also increase at the beginning of the middle-aged period (generally 6 PDL) and another in declining cultures (generally 10 PDL). Total actin amounted to about 8% of the total proteins in early fibroblasts, to about 16% at the beginning of the middle-aged period and to about 20% in the declining terminal cultures. Taking into account all the known characteristics of subcultivated primary cultures, we tentatively consider the evolution of the fibroblasts as an in vitro differentiation followed by true in vitro senescence in the declining cultures. Regarding the cytoplasmic actin-complex, senescence would be characterized by a sharp increase in soluble actin, an unbalanced ratio between soluble and insoluble actin and an impairment of the ability of the microfilaments to form well-organized bundles. PMID:2935219

  10. Prophylactic use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement in primary total knee arthroplasty: Justified or not?

    PubMed Central

    Srivastav, Amit K; Nadkarni, Biren; Srivastav, Shekhar; Mittal, Vivek; Agarwal, Shekhar

    2009-01-01

    Background: The routine use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ABLC) during primary or uninfected revision arthroplasty remains controversial. Many studies quote the total joint arthroplasty (TJA) infection rate to be less than 1%. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has a higher infection rate than total hip arthroplasty (THA). Based on both animal and human studies in the past, ABLC has been found effective in reducing the risk of infection in primary TJA. We are presenting retrospective analysis of results in terms of infection rate in 659 TKA performed by a single surgeon under similar conditions during 2004–2007 using CMW1 (Depuy, Leeds, UK) with premixed 1 g of gentamicin. Patients and Methods: We did primary TKA in 659 knees of 379 patients during 2004–2007 using CMW1 (Depuy, Leeds, UK) cement containing 1 g of gentamicin in 40 g of cement in a premixed form. Standard OT conditions were maintained using laminar air flow, isolation suits for the operating team, pulse lavage and disposable drapes in each patients. Midvastus approach was used in all the patients to expose the knee joint. A systemic antibiotic (third-generation cephalosporin and aminoglycoside) was used preoperatively and 48 h postoperatively. We observed the patients in terms of infection in the high-risk and low-risk group till the recent follow-up with a mean of 20.6 months (9–38 months). Results: We had deep infection in six knees in six patients and all of them required two-stage revision surgery later in the high-risk group. Infection occurred at a mean of 20.5 months after surgery earliest at 9 months and latest at 36 months after surgery. The infection rate in our study was 0.91% which is comparatively less than the reported incidence of 1–2% in reported studies. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of antibiotic loaded bone cement is one of the effective means in preventing infection in primary TJA. PMID:19838348

  11. Prostaglandin-independent stimulation of bone resorption in mouse calvariae and in isolated rat osteoclasts by thyroid hormones (T4, and T3).

    PubMed

    Conaway, H H; Ransjö, M; Lerner, U H

    1998-02-01

    The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), were found to enhance both neonatal mouse calvarial bone resorption and pit formation on bovine slices by isolated rat osteoclasts. Dosage-dependent release of 45Ca from mouse calvarial bones was observed after 120 hr of culture with 10(-6)-10(-8) MT4 and 10(-6)-10(-10) M T3. Maximum treatment/control ratios of 45Ca release were recorded for 10(-7) M T4 and 10(-8) MT3. Inhibition of 45Ca release stimulated by 10(-8) M T3 was observed in the presence of 30 nM salmon calcitonin at 48 hr and 120 hr of culture with no indication of "escape" by T3-treated bones. In contrast, stimulation of 45Ca release from mouse calvarial bones by 10(-7) MT4 and 10(-8) MT3 was not inhibited by 10(-6) M indomethacin. Formation of PGE2 and PGI2 (evaluated by measuring 6-keto-PGF1alpha) by mouse calvariae was also not increased by 10(-8) MT3 after 120 hr of culture. Furthermore, no increases in cAMP formation were observed in calvarial bone cultures after either 10 min or 24 hr of exposure to 10(-8) MT3. However, significant inhibition of 45Ca release stimulated by 10(-8) M T3 was found at 120 hr in the presence of 10(-3) M hydroxyurea. When isolated rat osteoclasts were cultured in the presence of 10(-7) MT3, a 1.4-fold stimulation of pit number was observed. Pit formation was not affected by addition of 10(-6) M indomethacin to either the control or T3-treated cultures. These data suggest that the stimulation of bone resorption in neonatal mouse calvariae and activation of isolated rat osteoclasts by the thyroid hormones is not related to either prostaglandin or cAMP formation. In mouse calvariae, the effect on bone resorption of the thyroid hormones is dependent on increased cellular replication, perhaps of osteoclast precursors, or other bone cells involved in the resorptive process. PMID:9452138

  12. Biocompatibility effects of biologically synthesized graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-09-01

    Due to unique properties and unlimited possible applications, graphene has attracted abundant interest in the areas of nanobiotechnology. Recently, much work has focused on the synthesis and properties of graphene. Here we show that a successful reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using spinach leaf extract (SLE) as a simultaneous reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared SLE-reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dynamic light scattering technique was used to determine the average size of GO and S-rGO. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images provide clear surface morphological evidence for the formation of graphene. The resulting S-rGO has a mostly single-layer structure, is stable, and has significant water solubility. In addition, the biocompatibility of graphene was investigated using cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast (PMEFs) cells. The results suggest that the biologically synthesized graphene has significant biocompatibility with PMEF cells, even at a higher concentration of 100 ?g/mL. This method uses a `green', natural reductant and is free of additional stabilizing reagents; therefore, it is an environmentally friendly, simple, and cost-effective method for the fabrication of soluble graphene. This study could open up a promising view for substitution of hydrazine by a safe, biocompatible, and powerful reduction for the efficient deoxygenation of GO, especially in large-scale production and potential biomedical applications.

  13. Alkbh2 protects against lethality and mutation in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Nay, Stephanie L.; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Bates, Steven E.; O’Connor, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Alkylating agents modify DNA and RNA forming adducts that disrupt replication and transcription, trigger cell cycle checkpoints and/or initiate apoptosis. If left unrepaired, some of the damage can be cytotoxic and/or mutagenic. In Escherichia coli, the alkylation repair protein B (AlkB) provides one form of resistance to alkylating agents by eliminating mainly 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine, thereby increasing survival and preventing mutation. To examine the biological role of the mammalian AlkB homologs Alkbh2 and Alkbh3, which both have similar enzymatic activities to that of AlkB, we evaluated the survival and mutagenesis of primary Big Blue mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that had targeted deletions in the Alkbh2 or Alkbh3 genes. Both Alkbh2- and Alkbh3-deficient MEFs were ~2-fold more sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induced cytotoxicity compared to the wild type control cells. Spontaneous mutant frequencies were similar for the wild type, Alkbh2?/? and Alkbh3?/? MEFs (average-1.3×10?5). However, despite the similar survival of the two mutant MEFs after MMS treatment, only the Alkbh2-deficient MEFs showed a statistically significant increase in mutant frequency compared to wild type MEFs after MMS treatment. Therefore, although both Alkbh2 and Alkbh3 can protect against MMS-induced cell death, only Alkbh2 shows statistically significant protection of MEF DNA against mutations following treatment with this exogenous methylating agent. PMID:22429847

  14. Transcriptomics analysis of primary mouse thymocytes exposed to bis(tri-n-butyltin)dioxide (TBTO).

    PubMed

    van Kol, Sandra W M; Hendriksen, Peter J M; van Loveren, Henk; Peijnenburg, Ad

    2012-06-14

    The biocide bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) causes thymus atrophy in rodents and is toxic to many cell types of which thymocytes are the most sensitive. To obtain insight in the mechanisms of action of TBTO, we exposed primary mouse thymocytes in vitro for 3, 6 and 11 h to 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 ?M TBTO. Subsequently, the cells were subjected to whole-genome gene expression profiling. Biological interpretation of the gene expression data revealed that TBTO affects a wide range of processes. Cell proliferation related genes were downregulated by all treatments except for 3 and 6 h 0.5 ?M TBTO which upregulated these genes. Treatment with TBTO resulted in upregulation of genes involved in endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress, NFkB and TNF? pathways, and genes involved in DNA damage, p53 signaling and apoptosis. Remarkably, TBTO also increased the expression of genes that are known to be upregulated during T cell activation or during negative selection of thymocytes. The effect of TBTO on expression of genes involved in ER stress and apoptosis was confirmed by qPCR. Induction of the T cell activation response was corroborated by demonstrating that TBTO exposure resulted in translocation of NFAT to the nucleus, which is an essential event for T cell activation. PMID:22434021

  15. Nonviral Direct Conversion of Primary Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts to Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Andrew F; Grigsby, Christopher L; Kulangara, Karina; Wang, Hong; Yasuda, Ryohei; Leong, Kam W

    2012-01-01

    Transdifferentiation, where differentiated cells are reprogrammed into another lineage without going through an intermediate proliferative stem cell-like stage, is the next frontier of regenerative medicine. Wernig et al. first described the direct conversion of fibroblasts into functional induced neuronal cells (iNs). Subsequent reports of transdifferentiation into clinically relevant neuronal subtypes have further endorsed the prospect of autologous cell therapy for neurodegenerative disorders. So far, all published neuronal transdifferentiation protocols rely on lentiviruses, which likely precludes their clinical translation. Instead, we delivered plasmids encoding neuronal transcription factors (Brn2, Ascl1, Myt1l) to primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a bioreducible linear poly(amido amine). The low toxicity and high transfection efficiency of this gene carrier allowed repeated dosing to sustain high transgene expression levels. Serial 0.5 µg cm?2 doses of reprogramming factors delivered at 48-hour intervals produced up to 7.6% Tuj1+ (neuron-specific class III ?-tubulin) cells, a subset of which expressed MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein 2), tau, and synaptophysin. A synapsin-red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter helped to identify more mature, electrophysiologically active cells, with 24/26 patch-clamped RFP+ cells firing action potentials. Some non-virally induced neuronal cells (NiNs) were observed firing multiple and spontaneous action potentials. This study demonstrates the feasibility of nonviral neuronal transdifferentiation, and may be amenable to other transdifferentiation processes. PMID:23344148

  16. Mechanical properties of calvarial bones in a mouse model for craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Moazen, Mehran; Peskett, Emma; Babbs, Christian; Pauws, Erwin; Fagan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian cranial vault largely consists of five flat bones that are joined together along their edges by soft fibrous tissues called sutures. Premature closure of the cranial sutures, craniosynostosis, can lead to serious clinical pathology unless there is surgical intervention. Research into the genetic basis of the disease has led to the development of various animal models that display this condition, e.g. mutant type Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice which display early fusion of the coronal suture (joining the parietal and frontal bones). However, whether the biomechanical properties of the mutant and wild type bones are affected has not been investigated before. Therefore, nanoindentation was used to compare the elastic modulus of cranial bone and sutures in wild type (WT) and Fgfr2C342Y/+mutant type (MT) mice during their postnatal development. Further, the variations in properties with indentation position and plane were assessed. No difference was observed in the elastic modulus of parietal bone between the WT and MT mice at postnatal (P) day 10 and 20. However, the modulus of frontal bone in the MT group was lower than the WT group at both P10 (1.39±0.30 vs. 5.32±0.68 GPa; p<0.05) and P20 (5.57±0.33 vs. 7.14±0.79 GPa; p<0.05). A wide range of values was measured along the coronal sutures for both the WT and MT samples, with no significant difference between the two groups. Findings of this study suggest that the inherent mechanical properties of the frontal bone in the mutant mice were different to the wild type mice from the same genetic background. These differences may reflect variations in the degree of biomechanical adaptation during skull growth, which could have implications for the surgical management of craniosynostosis patients. PMID:25966306

  17. Establishment of a mast cell line, NCL-2, without Kit mutation, derived from NC mouse bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Hiragun, Takaaki; Yanase, Yuhki; Okabe, Tsutomu; Hiragun, Makiko; Kawai, Mikio; Hide, Michihiro

    2014-01-01

    Immortal mast cell lines, such as RBL-2H3 and HMC-1 cells, are commonly utilized to investigate the function of mast cells. However, they are tumor cells carrying a gain-of-function mutation of Kit. We established an immortal mast cell line without Kit mutation, NCL-2, derived from NC mouse bone marrow. NCL-2 cells could be maintained without additional growth factors and thus could respond to exogenous growth signals. Moreover, NCL-2 cells expressed Fc?RI and KIT, and release histamine and LTB4 in response to antigen stimulation. This cell line could be a useful tool to analyze proliferation, differentiation, and function of normal mast cells. PMID:24918047

  18. A role for bone morphogenetic protein-4 in lymph node vascular remodeling and primary tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, Rae H; Karnezis, Tara; Shayan, Ramin; Matsumoto, Masataka; Nowell, Cameron J; Achen, Marc G; Stacker, Steven A

    2011-10-15

    Lymph node metastasis, an early and prognostically important event in the progression of many human cancers, is associated with expression of VEGF-D. Changes to lymph node vasculature that occur during malignant progression may create a metastatic niche capable of attracting and supporting tumor cells. In this study, we sought to characterize molecules expressed in lymph node endothelium that could represent therapeutic or prognostic targets. Differential mRNA expression profiling of endothelial cells from lymph nodes that drained metastatic or nonmetastatic primary tumors revealed genes associated with tumor progression, in particular bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4). Metastasis driven by VEGF-D was associated with reduced BMP-4 expression in high endothelial venules, where BMP-4 loss could remodel the typical high-walled phenotype to thin-walled vessels. VEGF-D expression was sufficient to suppress proliferation of the more typical BMP-4-expressing high endothelial venules in favor of remodeled vessels, and mechanistic studies indicated that VEGF receptor-2 contributed to high endothelial venule proliferation and remodeling. BMP-4 could regulate high endothelial venule phenotype and cellular function, thereby determining morphology and proliferation responses. Notably, therapeutic administration of BMP-4 suppressed primary tumor growth, acting both at the level of tumor cells and tumor stromal cells. Together, our results show that VEGF-D-driven metastasis induces vascular remodeling in lymph nodes. Furthermore, they implicate BMP-4 as a negative regulator of this process, suggesting its potential utility as a prognostic marker or antitumor agent. PMID:21868759

  19. Breed-specific incidence rates of canine primary bone tumors--a population based survey of dogs in Norway.

    PubMed

    Anfinsen, Kristin P; Grotmol, Tom; Bruland, Oyvind S; Jonasdottir, Thora J

    2011-07-01

    This is one of few published population-based studies describing breed specific rates of canine primary bone tumors. Incidence rates related to dog breeds could help clarify the impact of etiological factors such as birth weight, growth rate, and adult body weight/height on development of these tumors. The study population consisted of dogs within 4 large/giant breeds; Irish wolfhound (IW), Leonberger (LB), Newfoundland (NF), and Labrador retriever (LR), born between January 1st 1989 and December 31st 1998. Questionnaires distributed to owners of randomly selected dogs--fulfilling the criteria of breed, year of birth, and registration in the Norwegian Kennel Club--constituted the basis for this retrospective, population-based survey. Of the 3748 questionnaires received by owners, 1915 were completed, giving a response rate of 51%. Forty-three dogs had been diagnosed with primary bone tumors, based upon clinical examination and x-rays. The breeds IW and LB, with 126 and 72 cases per 10 000 dog years at risk (DYAR), respectively, had significantly higher incidence rates of primary bone tumors than NF and LR (P < 0.0001). Incidence rates for the latter were 11 and 2 cases per 10 000 DYAR, respectively. Pursuing a search for risk factors other than body size/weight is supported by the significantly different risks of developing primary bone tumors between similarly statured dogs, like NF and LB, observed in this study. Defining these breed-specific incidence rates enables subsequent case control studies, ultimately aiming to identify specific etiological factors for developing primary bone tumors. PMID:22210997

  20. Breed-specific incidence rates of canine primary bone tumors — A population based survey of dogs in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Anfinsen, Kristin P.; Grotmol, Tom; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Jonasdottir, Thora J.

    2011-01-01

    This is one of few published population-based studies describing breed specific rates of canine primary bone tumors. Incidence rates related to dog breeds could help clarify the impact of etiological factors such as birth weight, growth rate, and adult body weight/height on development of these tumors. The study population consisted of dogs within 4 large/giant breeds; Irish wolfhound (IW), Leonberger (LB), Newfoundland (NF), and Labrador retriever (LR), born between January 1st 1989 and December 31st 1998. Questionnaires distributed to owners of randomly selected dogs — fulfilling the criteria of breed, year of birth, and registration in the Norwegian Kennel Club — constituted the basis for this retrospective, population-based survey. Of the 3748 questionnaires received by owners, 1915 were completed, giving a response rate of 51%. Forty-three dogs had been diagnosed with primary bone tumors, based upon clinical examination and x-rays. The breeds IW and LB, with 126 and 72 cases per 10 000 dog years at risk (DYAR), respectively, had significantly higher incidence rates of primary bone tumors than NF and LR (P < 0.0001). Incidence rates for the latter were 11 and 2 cases per 10 000 DYAR, respectively. Pursuing a search for risk factors other than body size/weight is supported by the significantly different risks of developing primary bone tumors between similarly statured dogs, like NF and LB, observed in this study. Defining these breed-specific incidence rates enables subsequent case control studies, ultimately aiming to identify specific etiological factors for developing primary bone tumors. PMID:22210997

  1. A new model of busulphan-induced chronic bone marrow aplasia in the female BALB/c mouse

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Frances M; Michael Andrews, C; Diamanti, Paraskevi; Rizzo, Sian; Macharia, George; Gordon-Smith, Edward C; Williams, Thomas; Turton, John

    2003-01-01

    Aplastic anaemia (AA) is characterized by hypocellular marrow, pancytopenia, and risk of severe anaemia, haemorrhage and infection. AA is often idiopathic, but frequently occurs after exposure to drugs/chemicals. However, the pathogenesis of AA is not clearly understood, and there are no convenient animal models of drug-induced AA. We have evaluated regimens of busulphan (BU) administration in the mouse to produce a model of chronic bone marrow aplasia showing features of human AA. Mice were given 8 doses of BU at 0, 5.25 and 10.50 mg/kg over 23 days; marrow and blood samples were examined at 1, 19, 49, 91 and 112 days after dosing. At day 1 post dosing, in mice treated at 10.50 mg/kg, nucleated marrow cells, CFU-GM and Erythroid-CFU were reduced. Similarly, peripheral blood erythrocytes, leucocytes, platelets and reticulocytes were reduced. At day 19 and 49 post dosing, there was a trend for parameters to return towards normal. However, at day 91 and 112 post dosing, values remained significantly depressed, with a stabilized chronic bone marrow aplasia. At day 91 and 112 post dosing, marrow cell counts, CFU-GM and Erythroid-CFU were decreased; marrow nucleated cell apoptosis and c-kit+ cell apoptosis were increased; peripheral blood erythrocyte, leucocyte, and platelet counts were reduced. We conclude that this is a model of chronic bone marrow aplasia which has many interesting features of AA. The model is convenient to use and has potential in several areas, particularly for investigations on mechanisms of AA pathogenesis in man. PMID:12694485

  2. Consistent interactions between tumor cell IL-6 and macrophage TNF-? enhance the growth of human prostate cancer cells in the bone of nude mouse.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Wook; Kim, Jang Seong; Papadopoulos, John; Choi, Hyun Jin; He, Junqin; Maya, Marva; Langley, Robert R; Fan, Dominic; Fidler, Isaiah J; Kim, Sun-Jin

    2011-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) enhance the growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer in the bone, we evaluated the effects of decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by tumor cells and TAMs in a mouse model of bone metastasis. Human PC-3MM2 cells that produce IL-6 were transfected with lentivirus containing IL-6 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or nonspecific RNA and injected into the tibias of nude mice treated intraperitoneally every 5days for 5weeks with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), liposomes containing PBS, or liposomes containing clodronate (to decrease the number of macrophages). Transfection of PC-3MM2 cells with IL-6 shRNA significantly decreased cellular expression of IL-6 and the number of TAMs and osteoclasts in bone tumors, which correlated with significant decreases in tumor size, bone lysis, and incidence of lymph node metastasis. Treatment of mice with clodronate liposomes significantly decreased the number of TAMs and osteoclasts in the bone tumors, the expression of IL-6 in the PC3-MM2 cells, and the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? by TAMs. These findings correlated with a significant decrease in tumor size, bone lysis, and lymph node metastasis. Knocking down IL-6 in tumor cells and decreasing TAMs was associated with the lowest incidences of bone tumors and lymph node metastasis. These results suggest that TAMs enhance the growth of prostate cancer cells in the bone. PMID:21251905

  3. GPR18 Controls Reconstitution of Mouse Small Intestine Intraepithelial Lymphocytes following Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Amy M.; Callahan, Derrick J.; Richner, Justin M.; Choi, Jaebok; DiPersio, John F.; Diamond, Michael S.; Bhattacharya, Deepta

    2015-01-01

    Specific G protein coupled receptors (GPRs) regulate the proper positioning, function, and development of immune lineage subsets. Here, we demonstrate that GPR18 regulates the reconstitution of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) of the small intestine following bone marrow transplantation. Through analysis of transcriptional microarray data, we find that GPR18 is highly expressed in IELs, lymphoid progenitors, and mature follicular B cells. To establish the physiological role of this largely uncharacterized GPR, we generated Gpr18-/- mice. Despite high levels of GPR18 expression in specific hematopoietic progenitors, Gpr18-/- mice have no defects in lymphopoiesis or myelopoiesis. Moreover, antibody responses following immunization with hapten-protein conjugates or infection with West Nile virus are normal in Gpr18-/- mice. Steady-state numbers of IELs are also normal in Gpr18-/- mice. However, competitive bone marrow reconstitution experiments demonstrate that GPR18 is cell-intrinsically required for the optimal restoration of small intestine TCR??+ and TCR??+ CD8??+ IELs. In contrast, GPR18 is dispensable for the reconstitution of large intestine IELs. Moreover, Gpr18-/- bone marrow reconstitutes small intestine IELs similarly to controls in athymic recipients. Gpr18-/- chimeras show no changes in susceptibility to intestinal insults such as Citrobacter rodentium infections or graft versus host disease. These data reveal highly specific requirements for GPR18 in the development and reconstitution of thymus-derived intestinal IEL subsets in the steady-state and after bone marrow transplantation. PMID:26197390

  4. Nicotinic receptor activation on primary sensory afferents modulates autorhythmicity in the mouse renal pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, M J; Angkawaijawa, S; Hashitani, H; Lang, R J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The modulation of the spontaneous electrical and Ca2+ signals underlying pyeloureteric peristalsis upon nicotinic receptor activation located on primary sensory afferents (PSAs) was investigated in the mouse renal pelvis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Contractile activity was followed using video microscopy, electrical and Ca2+ signals in typical and atypical smooth muscle cells (TSMCs and ASMCs) within the renal pelvis were recorded separately using intracellular microelectrodes and Fluo-4 Ca2+ imaging. KEY RESULTS Nicotine and carbachol (CCh; 1–100 ?M) transiently reduced the frequency and increased the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions in a manner unaffected by muscarininc antagonists, 4-DAMP (1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide) and pirenzipine (10 nM) or L-NAME (L-N?-nitroarginine methyl ester; 200 ?M), inhibitor of NO synthesis, but blocked by the nicotinic antagonist, hexamethonium or capsaicin, depletor of PSA neuropeptides. These negative chronotropic and delayed positive inotropic effects of CCh on TSMC contractions, action potentials and Ca2+ transients were inhibited by glibenclamide (Glib; 1 ?M), blocker of ATP-dependent K (KATP) channels. Nicotinic receptor-evoked inhibition of the spontaneous Ca2+ transients in ASMCs was prevented by capsaicin but not Glib. In contrast, the negative inotropic and chronotropic effects of the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin were not prevented by Glib. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The negative chronotropic effect of nicotinic receptor activation results from the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from PSAs, which suppresses Ca2+ signalling in ASMCs. PSA-released CGRP also evokes a transient hyperpolarization in TSMCs upon the opening of KATP channels, which reduces contraction propagation but promotes the recruitment of TSMC Ca2+ channels that underlie the delayed positive inotropic effects of CCh. PMID:24004375

  5. Protection of primary neurons and mouse brain from Alzheimer’s pathology by molecular tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Aida; Ripoli, Cristian; Riccardi, Elisa; Maiti, Panchanan; Li Puma, Domenica D.; Liu, Tingyu; Hayes, Jane; Jones, Mychica R.; Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Yang, Fusheng; Gale, Greg D.; Tseng, Chi-hong; Tan, Miao; Xie, Cui-Wei; Straudinger, Jeffrey L.; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Frautschy, Sally A.; Grassi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a devastating cureless neurodegenerative disorder affecting >35 million people worldwide. The disease is caused by toxic oligomers and aggregates of amyloid ? protein and the microtubule-associated protein tau. Recently, the Lys-specific molecular tweezer CLR01 has been shown to inhibit aggregation and toxicity of multiple amyloidogenic proteins, including amyloid ? protein and tau, by disrupting key interactions involved in the assembly process. Following up on these encouraging findings, here, we asked whether CLR01 could protect primary neurons from Alzheimer’s disease-associated synaptotoxicity and reduce Alzheimer’s disease–like pathology in vivo. Using cell culture and brain slices, we found that CLR01 effectively inhibited synaptotoxicity induced by the 42-residue isoform of amyloid ? protein, including ?80% inhibition of changes in dendritic spines density and long-term potentiation and complete inhibition of changes in basal synaptic activity. Using a radiolabelled version of the compound, we found that CLR01 crossed the mouse blood–brain barrier at ?2% of blood levels. Treatment of 15-month-old triple-transgenic mice for 1 month with CLR01 resulted in a decrease in brain amyloid ? protein aggregates, hyperphosphorylated tau and microglia load as observed by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, no signs of toxicity were observed in the treated mice, and CLR01 treatment did not affect the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid ? protein precursor. Examining induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 metabolism system by CLR01 revealed minimal interaction. Together, these data suggest that CLR01 is safe for use at concentrations well above those showing efficacy in mice. The efficacy and toxicity results support a process-specific mechanism of action of molecular tweezers and suggest that these are promising compounds for developing disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. PMID:23183235

  6. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H. Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.

    2012-01-01

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3?-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in <1 min and initial rate and maximal uptake of HDL free cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null mice and hepatocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that L-FABP, particularly in the absence of SCP-2, plays a significant role in HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary hepatocytes. PMID:22241858

  7. Nasal Bone Shape Is under Complex Epistatic Genetic Control in Mouse Interspecific Recombinant Congenic Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaétan Burgio; Michel Baylac; Evelyne Heyer; Xavier Montagutelli

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundGenetic determinism of cranial morphology in the mouse is still largely unknown, despite the localization of putative QTLs and the identification of genes associated with Mendelian skull malformations. To approach the dissection of this multigenic control, we have used a set of interspecific recombinant congenic strains (IRCS) produced between C57BL\\/6 and mice of the distant species Mus spretus (SEG\\/Pas). Each

  8. Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) change their phenotype when cultured with fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Levi-Schaffer, F.; Austen, K.F.; Stevens, R.L.

    1986-03-05

    The heparin-containing mast cells (HP-MC) that reside in the connective tissues of the mouse, but not the chondroitin sulfate containing mast cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa, stain with safranin when exposed to alcian blue/safranin. Mouse BMMC (the presumptive in vitro counterpart of the in vivo differentiated mucosal mast cell) were cultured for 2-14 days with confluent skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in RPMI-1640 containing 10% fetal calf serum and 50% WEHI-3 conditioned medium. Although the BMMC adhered to the fibroblast monolayer, they continued to divide, probably due to the presence of interleukin-3 in the conditioned medium. The mast cells remained viable throughout the period of co-culture, since they failed to release LDG and because they increased their histamine content per cell approx.15-fold. After 8-9 days of co-culture, >50% of the BMMC changed histochemically becoming safranin positive. At this time, 30-50% of the (/sup 35/S)glycosaminoglycans on the proteoglycans synthesized by these co-cultured mass cells were heparin, whereas the initial BMMC synthesized proteoglycans containing only chondroitin sulfate E. That interleukin 3-dependent mouse BMMC can be induced to undergo a phenotypic change so as to express characteristics of a HP-MC suggests that the tissue microenvironment determines the differentiated characteristics of these cells.

  9. The effects of hydroxyapatite coating and bone allograft on fixation of loaded experimental primary and revision implants

    PubMed Central

    Søballe, Kjeld; Mouzin, Olivier R G; Kidder, Louis A; Overgaard, Søren; Bechtold, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    We used our established experimental model of revision joint replacement to examine the roles of hydroxyapatite coating and bone graft in improving the fixation of revision implants. The revision protocol uses the Søballe micromotion device in a preliminary 8-week period of implant instability for the presence of particulate polyethylene. During this procedure, a sclerotic endosteal bone rim forms, and a dense fibrous membrane is engendered, having macrophages with ingested polyethylene and high levels of inflammatory cytokines. At the time of revision after 8 weeks, the cavity is revised with either a titanium alloy (Ti) or a hydroxyapatite (HA) 6.0 mm plasma-sprayed implant, in the presence or absence of allograft packed into the initial 0.75 mm peri-implant gap. The contralateral limb is subjected to primary surgery with the same implant configuration, and serves as control. 8 implants were included in each of the 8 treatment groups (total 64 implants in 32 dogs). The observation period was 4 weeks after revision. Outcome measures are based on histomorphometry and mechanical pushout properties. The revision setting was always inferior to its primary counterpart. Bone graft improved the revision fixation in all treatment groups, as also did the HA coating. The sole exception was revision-grafted HA implants, which reached the same fixation as primary Ti and HA grafted implants. The revision, which was less active in general, seems to need the dual stimulation of bone graft and HA implant surface, to obtain the same level of fixation associated with primary implants. Our findings suggest that the combination of HA implant and bone graft may be of benefit in the clinical revision implant setting. PMID:12899541

  10. Comparative analysis of temporal and dose-dependent TCDD-elicited gene expression in human, mouse, and rat primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Forgacs, Agnes L; Dere, Edward; Angrish, Michelle M; Zacharewski, Timothy R

    2013-05-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-elicited time- and dose-dependent differential gene expression was compared in human, mouse, and rat primary hepatocytes. Comprehensive time course (10 nM TCDD or dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control for 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48h) studies identified 495, 2305, and 711 differentially expressed orthologous genes in human, mouse, and rat hepatocytes, respectively. However, only 16 orthologs were differentially expressed across all three species, with the majority of orthologs exhibiting species-specific expression (399 human, 2097 mouse, and 533 rat), consistent with species-specific expression reported in other in vitro and in vivo comparative studies. TCDD also elicited the dose-dependent induction of 397 human, 100 mouse, and 443 rat genes at 12h and 615 human, 426 mouse, and 314 rat genes at 24h. Comparable EC50 values were obtained for AhR battery genes including Cyp1a1 (0.1 nM human, 0.05 nM mouse, 0.08 nM rat at 24h) and Tiparp (0.97 nM human, 0.63 nM mouse, 0.14 nM rat at 12h). Overrepresented functions and pathways included amino acid metabolism in humans, immune response in mice, and energy homeostasis in rats. Differentially expressed genes functionally associated with lipid transport, processing, and metabolism were overrepresented in all three species but exhibited species-specific expression consistent with the induction of hepatic steatosis in mice but not in rats following a single oral gavage of TCDD. Furthermore, human primary hepatocytes showed lipid accumulation following 48h of treatment with TCDD, suggesting that AhR-mediated steatosis in mice more closely resembles human hepatic fat accumulation compared with that in rats. Collectively, these results suggest that species-specific gene expression profiles mediate the species-specific effects of TCDD despite the conservation of the AhR and its signaling mechanism. PMID:23418086

  11. ERR{alpha} regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalin, Ann-Marie; Pollock, Hanna [Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki (Finland)] [Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki (Finland); Aarnisalo, Piia, E-mail: piia.aarnisalo@helsinki.fi [Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki (Finland) [Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland)

    2010-05-28

    The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-{alpha} (ERR{alpha}) has been reported to have both a positive and a negative regulatory role in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. We have studied the role of ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from ERR{alpha} deficient mice and their differentiation capacities were compared to that of the wild-type cells. ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced cellular proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralization. In the complementary experiment, overexpression of ERR{alpha} in MC3T3-E1 cells increased the expression of osteoblastic markers and mineralization. Alterations in the expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) may at least partially explain the effects on mineralization as BSP expression was reduced in ERR{alpha} deficient MSCs and enhanced upon ERR{alpha} overexpression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter construct driven by the BSP promoter was efficiently transactivated by ERR{alpha}. Under adipogenic conditions, ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced adipocytic differentiation. Our data thus propose a positive role for ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. The variability in the results yielded in the different studies implies that ERR{alpha} may play different roles in bone under different physiological conditions.

  12. Asfotase-? improves bone growth, mineralization and strength in mouse models of neurofibromatosis type-1

    PubMed Central

    de la Croix Ndong, Jean; Makowski, Alexander James; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Vignaux, Guillaume; Ono, Koichiro; Perrien, Daniel S.; Joubert, Simon; Baglio, Serena R.; Granchi, Donatella; Stevenson, David A.; Rios, Jonathan J.; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Elefteriou, Florent

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization of the skeleton depends on the balance between levels of pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation, and phosphate generated from PPi breakdown by alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We report here that ablation of Nf1, encoding the RAS/GTPase–activating protein neurofibromin, in bone–forming cells leads to supraphysiologic PPi accumulation, caused by a chronic ERK–dependent increase in genes promoting PPi synthesis and extracellular transport, namely Enpp1 and Ank. It also prevents BMP2–induced osteoprogenitor differentiation and, consequently, expression of ALP and PPi breakdown, further contributing to PPi accumulation. The short stature, impaired bone mineralization and strength in mice lacking Nf1 in osteochondroprogenitors or osteoblasts could be corrected by enzyme therapy aimed at reducing PPi concentration. These results establish neurofibromin as an essential regulator of bone mineralization, suggest that altered PPi homeostasis contributes to the skeletal dysplasiae associated with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1), and that some of the NF1 skeletal conditions might be preventable pharmacologically. PMID:24997609

  13. Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha on bone formation and resorption in cultured neonatal mouse calvariae: Role of prostaglandin E2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Raisz, L.G.; Alander, C.B.; Fall, P.M.; Simmons, H.A. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Although most studies show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most potent and effective of the prostanoids in bone, recent data in cell culture suggest that PGF2 alpha may have unique effects, particularly on cell replication. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of PGF2 alpha and PGE2 in cultured neonatal mouse parietal bones by simultaneous measurement of bone resorption as release of previously incorporated 45Ca, bone formation as incorporation of (3H)proline into collagenase-digestible (CDP) and noncollagen protein, and DNA synthesis as incorporation of (3H)thymidine. PGF2 alpha was less effective than PGE2 as a stimulator of bone resorption, and its effects were partially inhibited by indomethacin and markedly inhibited by glucocorticoids. In contrast, the resorptive response to PGE2 was unaffected by indomethacin and only partially inhibited by cortisol. PGF2 alpha had little effect on bone formation, in contrast to the biphasic effect of PGE2, which inhibited labeling of CDP in the absence of cortisol and stimulated CDP labeling in the presence of cortisol. PGF2 alpha increased thymidine incorporation into DNA, but the effect was smaller than that of PGE2 and was inhibited by indomethacin. These observations suggested that PGF2 alpha might act in part by stimulating PGE2 production. By RIA, PGE2 concentrations were increased in the medium of bones treated with PGF2 alpha, and this increase was blocked by indomethacin. By HPLC, bones prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid showed an increase in labeled PGE2 release, and RIA showed an increase in PGE2 after PGF2 alpha treatment. These results indicate that PGF2 alpha is a relatively weak agonist in bone compared to PGE2 and that some of the effects of PGF2 alpha on bone resorption, formation, and cell replication may be mediated by an increase in endogenous PGE2 production.

  14. Differential effects of simvastatin on IL-13-induced cytokine gene expression in primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma causes significant morbidity worldwide in adults and children alike, and incurs large healthcare costs. The statin drugs, which treat hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases, have pleiotropic effects beyond lowering cholesterol, including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic properties which may benefit lung health. Using an allergic mouse model of asthma, we previously demonstrated a benefit of statins in reducing peribronchiolar eosinophilic inflammation, airway hyperreactivity, goblet cell hyperplasia, and lung IL-4 and IL-13 production. Objectives In this study, we evaluated whether simvastatin inhibits IL-13-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression of asthma-related cytokines in well-differentiated primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cell cultures. We hypothesized that simvastatin reduces the expression of IL-13-inducible genes in MTE cells. Methods We harvested tracheal epithelial cells from naïve BALB/c mice, grew them under air-liquid interface (ALI) cell culture conditions, then assessed IL-13-induced gene expression in MTE cells using a quantitative real-time PCR mouse gene array kit. Results We found that simvastatin had differential effects on IL-13-mediated gene expression (inhibited eotaxin-1; MCP-1,-2,-3; and osteopontin (SPP1), while it induced caspase-1 and CCL20 (MIP-3?)) in MTE cells. For other asthma-relevant genes such as TNF, IL-4, IL-10, CCL12 (MCP-5), CCL5 (RANTES), and CCR3, there were no significant IL-13-inducible or statin effects on gene expression. Conclusions Simvastatin modulates the gene expression of selected IL-13-inducible pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells. The airway epithelium may be a viable target tissue for the statin drugs. Further research is needed to assess the mechanisms of how statins modulate epithelial gene expression. PMID:22583375

  15. Mechanisms involved in prostaglandin-induced increase in bone resorption in neonatal mouse calvaria.

    PubMed

    Gardner, C R; Blanqué, R; Cottereaux, C

    2001-02-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) E1, E2 and F2alpha induce bone resorption in isolated neonatal parietal bone cultures, and an associated increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6) production. Indomethacin had little effect on the response to PGE2, or the relatively non-selective EP receptor agonists 11-deoxy PGE1 and misoprostol, but blocked the effects of PGF2alpha and the F receptor agonist fluprostenol, indicating an indirect action via release of other prostaglandins. It is more likely that there is positive autoregulation of prostaglandins production in this preparation mediated via stimulation of F receptors. The effects of selective EP receptor agonists sulprostone (EP1,3) and 17-phenyl trinor PGE2(EP1), indicated the involvement of EP2 and/or EP4 receptors, which signal via cAMP. The relatively weak increase in IL-6 production by misoprostol (with respect to resorption) suggests that these responses are controlled by different combination of EP2 and EP4 receptors. The PKA activator, forskolin, induced small increases in bone resorption at lower concentrations (50-500 ng/ml) but a reversal of this effect, and inhibition of resorption induced by other stimuli (PTH, PGE2), at higher concentrations (0.5-5 microg/ml). IL-6 production was markedly increased only at the higher concentrations. The inhibitory effect of forskolin may be a calcitonin-mimetic effect. PMA induced both resorption and IL-6 production which were both blocked by indomethacin, indicating a role for PKC in the control of prostaglandin production. PMID:11237479

  16. Systems analysis of primary Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis in salivary glands identifies shared pathways in human and a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease with complex etiopathogenesis. Despite extensive studies to understand the disease process utilizing human and mouse models, the intersection between these species remains elusive. To address this gap, we utilized a novel systems biology approach to identify disease-related gene modules and signaling pathways that overlap between humans and mice. Methods Parotid gland tissues were harvested from 24 pSS and 16 non-pSS sicca patients and 25 controls. For mouse studies, salivary glands were harvested from C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice at various times during development of pSS-like disease. RNA was analyzed with Affymetrix HG U133+2.0 arrays for human samples and with MOE430+2.0 arrays for mouse samples. The images were processed with Affymetrix software. Weighted-gene co-expression network analysis was used to identify disease-related and functional pathways. Results Nineteen co-expression modules were identified in human parotid tissue, of which four were significantly upregulated and three were downregulated in pSS patients compared with non-pSS sicca patients and controls. Notably, one of the human disease-related modules was highly preserved in the mouse model, and was enriched with genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Further comparison between these two species led to the identification of genes associated with leukocyte recruitment and germinal center formation. Conclusion Our systems biology analysis of genome-wide expression data from salivary gland tissue of pSS patients and from a pSS mouse model identified common dysregulated biological pathways and molecular targets underlying critical molecular alterations in pSS pathogenesis. PMID:23116360

  17. Characterization of cancellous and cortical bone strain in the in vivo mouse tibial loading model using microCT-based finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haisheng; Butz, Kent D; Duffy, Daniel; Niebur, Glen L; Nauman, Eric A; Main, Russell P

    2014-09-01

    The in vivo mouse tibial loading model has been increasingly used to understand the mechanisms governing the mechanobiological responses of cancellous and cortical bone tissues to physical stimuli. Accurate characterization of the strain environment throughout the tibia is fundamental in relating localized mechanobiological processes to specific strain stimuli in the skeleton. MicroCT-based finite element analysis, together with diaphyseal strain gauge measures, was conducted to quantify the strain field in the tibiae of 16-wk-old female C57Bl/6 mice during in vivo dynamic compressive loading. Despite a strong correlation between the experimentally-measured and computationally-modeled strains at the gauge site, no correlations existed between the strain at the gauge site and the peak strains in the proximal cancellous and midshaft cortical bone, indicating the limitations of using a single diaphyseal strain gauge to estimate strain in the entire tibia. The peak compressive and tensile principal strain magnitudes in the proximal cancellous bone were 10% and 34% lower than those in the midshaft cortical bone. Sensitivity analyses showed that modeling bone tissue as a heterogeneous material had a strong effect on cancellous strain characterization while cortical strain and whole-bone stiffness were primarily affected by the presence of the fibula and the proximal boundary conditions. These results show that microCT-based finite element analysis combined with strain gauge measures provides detailed resolution of the tissue-level strain in both the cancellous and cortical bones of the mouse tibia during in vivo compression loading, which is necessary for interpreting localized patterns of modeling/remodeling and, potentially, gene and protein expression in skeletal mechanobiology studies. PMID:24925445

  18. The Early Progenitors of Mouse Dendritic Cells and Plasmacytoid Predendritic Cells Are within the Bone Marrow Hemopoietic Precursors Expressing Flt3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela D'Amico; Li Wu

    2003-01-01

    Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) is a growth factor for hemopoietic progenitors and can promote the expan- sion of both conventional dendritic cells (DCs) and plasmacytoid predendritic cells (p-preDCs). The cells responding to Flt3L treatment and the precursors for the DCs and p-preDCs had not been fully characterized. We examined different mouse bone marrow (BM) hemopoietic precur- sor populations for the surface

  19. Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-4 on cardiac differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells in serum-free and low-serum media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masoumeh Fakhr Taha; Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi

    2008-01-01

    In spite of previous reports, the precise role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on cardiomyocyte differentiation, especially in the absence or presence of minimum amount of serum in culture medium is still unclear. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of BMP-4 on mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived cardiomyocyte differentiation in serum-free and low-serum media.

  20. Early stage transplantation of bone marrow cells markedly ameliorates copper metabolism and restores liver function in a mouse model of Wilson disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xi Chen; Shihui Xing; Yanqing Feng; Songlin Chen; Zhong Pei; Chuhuai Wang; Xiuling Liang

    2011-01-01

    Background  Recent studies have demonstrated that normal bone marrow (BM) cells transplantation can correct liver injury in a mouse model\\u000a of Wilson disease (WD). However, it still remains unknown when BM cells transplantation should be administered. The aim of\\u000a this study was to investigate the potential impact of normal BM cells transplantation at different stages of WD to correct\\u000a liver injury

  1. Isolation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells with normal ploidy from bone marrows by reducing oxidative stress in combination with extracellular matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guokuan Fan; Lai Wen; Minshu Li; Chao Li; Benping Luo; Fang Wang; Lingjun Zhou; Lin Liu

    2011-01-01

    Background  Isolation of mouse MSCs (mMSCs) with normal ploidy from bone marrow remains challenging. mMSCs isolated under 20% O2 are frequently contaminated by overgrown hematopoietic cells, and could also be especially vulnerable to oxidative damage,\\u000a resulting in chromosomal instability. Culture under low oxygen or extracellular matrix (ECM) improves proliferation of MSCs\\u000a in several species. We tested the hypothesis that culture under

  2. Development of micro-CT protocols for in vivo follow-up of mouse bone architecture without major radiation side effects.

    PubMed

    Laperre, K; Depypere, M; van Gastel, N; Torrekens, S; Moermans, K; Bogaerts, R; Maes, F; Carmeliet, G

    2011-10-01

    In vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) will offer unique information on the time-related changes in bone mass and structure of living mice, provided that radiation-induced side effects are prevented. Lowering the radiation dose, however, inevitably decreases the image quality. In this study we developed and validated a protocol for in vivo micro-CT imaging of mouse bone architecture that retains high quality images but avoids radiation-induced side effects on bone structure and hematological parameters. The left hindlimb of male C57Bl/6 mice was scanned in vivo at 3 consecutive time points, separated each time by a 2-week interval. Two protocols for in vivo micro-CT imaging were evaluated, with pixel sizes of 9 and 18 ?m and administered radiation doses of 434 mGy and 166 mGy per scan, respectively. These radiation doses were found not to influence trabecular or cortical bone architecture in pre-pubertal or adult mice. In addition, there was no evidence for hematological side effects as peripheral blood cell counts and the colony-forming capacity of hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow and spleen were not altered. Although the images obtained with these in vivo micro-CT protocols were more blurred than those obtained with high resolution (5 ?m) ex vivo CT imaging, longitudinal follow-up of trabecular bone architecture in an orchidectomy model proved to be feasible using the 9 ?m pixel size protocol in combination with a suitable bone segmentation technique (i.e. local thresholding). The image quality of the 18 ?m pixel size protocol was too degraded for accurate bone segmentation and the use of this protocol is therefore restricted to monitor marked changes in bone structure such as bone metastatic lesions or fracture healing. In conclusion, we developed two micro-CT protocols which are appropriate for detailed as well as global longitudinal studies of mouse bone architecture and lack noticeable radiation-induced side effects. PMID:21763477

  3. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of icaritin in mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Qing

    2015-01-26

    Icaritin (ICT), a bioactive metabolite of prenylflavonoids from genus Epimedium, has displayed potential benefits for the treatment of osteoporosis, prostate cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer and breast cancer. To investigate the quantity of ICT in bones in vivo, a simple and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed. After a rapid one-step liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate with recovery more than 87.2% at four levels (0.1, 0.2, 8 and 15 ng/mL), ICT and internal standard coumestrol were analyzed on a C18 column using a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water containing ammonium formate and formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Quantification was performed using selected reaction monitoring mode to monitor precursor-product ion transitions of m/z 367.1?297.1 for ICT and of 267.0?211.1 for coumestrol in the negative ionization mode. A calibration curve with good linearity (r>0.99) within the concentration range of 0.1-20 ng/mL for ICT was obtained with the lower limit of quantification of 0.1 ng/mL. Matrix effect did not interfere with ICT analysis and ICT was stable under three freeze-thaw cycles, short-term temperature, post-preparative and long-term temperature conditions. The method was successfully applied to a dynamic distribution of ICT in mouse bone after a single intraperitoneal administration to ICT to mice. PMID:25531867

  4. Functional and Transcriptomic Recovery of Infarcted Mouse Myocardium Treated with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lachtermacher, Stephan; Esporcatte, Bruno L. B.; da Silva de Azevedo Fortes, Fábio; Rocha, Nazareth Novaes; Montalvão, Fabrício; Costa, Patricia C.; Belem, Luciano; Rabischoffisky, Arnaldo; Neto, Hugo C. C. Faria; Vasconcellos, Rita; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Spray, David C.; Thomas, Neil M.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos

    2011-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNC) have been extensively used in cell therapy for cardiac diseases, little mechanistic information is available to support reports of their efficacy. To address this shortcoming, we compared structural and functional recovery and associated global gene expression profiles in post-ischaemic myocardium treated with BMNC transplantation. BMNC suspensions were injected into cardiac scar tissue 10 days after experimental myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, mice undergoing BMNC therapy were found to have normalized antibody repertoire and improved cardiac performance measured by ECG, treadmill exercise time and echocardiography. After functional testing, gene expression profiles in cardiac tissue were evaluated using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Expression of more than 18% of the 11981 quantified unigenes was significantly altered in the infarcted hearts. BMNC therapy restored expression of 2099 (96.2%) of the genes that were altered by infarction but led to altered expression of 286 other genes, considered to be a side effect of the treatment. Transcriptional therapeutic efficacy, a metric calculated using a formula that incorporates both recovery and side effect of treatment, was 73%. In conclusion, our results confirm a beneficial role for bone marrow-derived cell therapy and provide new information on molecular mechanisms operating after BMNC transplantation on post ischemic heart failure in mice. PMID:21671060

  5. Thymic repopulation following intrathymic injection of mouse bone marrow cells in MHC matched and mismatched recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Chervenak, R.

    1986-03-01

    T cell precursors (pre-T cells) have traditionally been detected by their ability to repopulate the thymus of heavily irradiated mice following intravenous injection. Recently, Goldschneider et. al. developed an assay system which involves the direct injection of pre-T cells into the thymus. The authors used this technique to evaluate the ability of bone marrow cells to repopulate thymuses in various donor-host strain combinations. Sub-lethally irradiated (600R) mice were injected intrathymically with 2 x 10/sup 6/ bone marrow cells which differed from the recipient with respect to their Thy 1 allotype. The percentage of thymus cells expressing either the donor or recipient type Thy 1 marker was determined 14 to 21 days after injection. These experiments showed that in MHC matched donor-host combinations (AKR/cum ..-->.. AKR/J and CBA/J ..-->.. AKR/J), cells derived from the donor inoculum accounted for 40% to 75% of the total thymus population. MHC mismatched donor-host combinations (C57BL/6J ..-->.. AKR/J and Balb/c ..-->.. AKR/J) resulted in significantly less donor-type repopulation of the thymus. In these cases, donor repopulation typically ranged from 0% to 4%. The ability of the pre-T cells detected by intrathymic injection to proliferate in the thymic environment, therefore, appears to be influenced by the MHC. This may reflect commitment of pre-T cells to MHC haplotype recognition prior to their migration to the thymus.

  6. Genetic toxicity evaluation of iodotrifluoromethane (Cf{sub 3}I). Volume 2. Results of in vivo mouse bone marrow erythrocyte micronucleus testing. Final report, March-December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    Under subcontract to ManTech Environmental Technology, Incorporated, Genesys Research, Incorporated, examined the potential of odotrifluoromethane (CF3I) to induce structural chromosomes aberrations in erythropoietic cells of the bone marrow. Genesys used the mouse micronucleus test which measures the clastogenic (chromosomes breaking) action of chemicals by the induction of micronuclei in bone marrow cells, as observed in erythrocytes from the peripheral blood of male and female mice obtained approximately 24 hours after steady-state dosing. Based on preliminary toxicity information obtained by ManTech, a mouse bone marrow micronucleus test of CF3I was conducted using 2.6, 5.0, and 7.5% CF3I administered to male and female Swiss Webster mice by inhalation for six hours on each of three consecutive days. Bone marrow cells were obtained from the mice sacrificed 24 hours after the third exposure. Erythrocytes from mice exposed to the test material, and to the negative and positive controls, were evaluated for toxicity and the presence of micronuclei. The positive control, 0.4 mg triethylenemelamine (TEM)/kg (administered intraperitonealy) significantly (pmous` bone marrow micronucleus test and clastogenic in vivo.

  7. FDG-PET/CT Imaging Predicts Histopathologic Treatment Responses after Neoadjuvant Therapy in Adult Primary Bone Sarcomas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Benz, Matthias R.; Czernin, Johannes; Tap, William D.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Allen-Auerbach, Martin S.; Dry, Sarah M.; Phelps, Michael E.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Eilber, Fritz C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether FDG-PET allows an accurate assessment of histopathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment in adult patients with primary bone sarcomas.Methods. Twelve consecutive patients with resectable, primary high grade bone sarcomas were enrolled prospectively. FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed prior to the initiation and after completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Imaging findings were correlated with histopathologic response.Results. Histopathologic responders showed significantly more pronounced decreases in tumor FDG-SUVmax from baseline to late follow up than non-responders (64±19% versus29±30%, resp.;P=.03). Using a 60% decrease in tumor FDG-uptake as a threshold for metabolic response correctly classified 3more »of 4 histopathologic responders and 7 of 8 histopathologic non-responders as metabolic responders and non-responders, respectively (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 88%).Conclusion. These results suggest that changes in FDG-SUVmax at the end of neoadjuvant treatment can identify histopathologic responders and non-responders in adult primary bone sarcoma patients.« less

  8. Isolation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells with normal ploidy from bone marrows by reducing oxidative stress in combination with extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Isolation of mouse MSCs (mMSCs) with normal ploidy from bone marrow remains challenging. mMSCs isolated under 20% O2 are frequently contaminated by overgrown hematopoietic cells, and could also be especially vulnerable to oxidative damage, resulting in chromosomal instability. Culture under low oxygen or extracellular matrix (ECM) improves proliferation of MSCs in several species. We tested the hypothesis that culture under low oxygen in combination with ECM prepared from mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF-ECM) could be used to purify proliferative mMSCs, and to reduce oxidative damage and maintain their chromosomal stability. Results Optimization of culture conditions under 20% O2 resulted in immortalization of mMSCs, showing extensive chromosome abnormalities, consistent with previous studies. In contrast, culture under low oxygen (2% O2) improved proliferation of mMSCs and reduced oxidative damage, such that mMSCs were purified simply by plating at low density under 2% O2. MEF-ECM reduced oxidative damage and enhanced proliferation of mMSCs. However, these isolated mMSCs still exhibited high frequency of chromosome abnormalities, suggesting that low oxygen or in combination with MEF-ECM was insufficient to fully protect mMSCs from oxidative damage. Notably, antioxidants (alpha -phenyl-t-butyl nitrone (PBN) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC)) further reduced DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities, and increased proliferation of mMSCs. mMSCs isolated by the combination method were successfully used to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by ectopic expression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. Conclusions We have developed a technique that allows to reduce the number of karyotypic abnormalities for isolation of primary mMSCs and for limited culture period by combination of low oxygen, MEF-ECM, antioxidants and low density plating strategy. The effectiveness of the new combination method is demonstrated by successful generation of iPS cells from the isolated mMSCs. However, a culture system for mMSCs still is needed to prevent all the anomalies, especially after a long-term culture period. PMID:21729331

  9. Differential Cell Surface Expression of the STRO-1 and Alkaline Phosphatase Antigens on Discrete Developmental Stages in Primary Cultures of Human Bone Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STAN GRONTHOS; ANDREW C. W. ZANNETTINO; STEPHEN E. GRAVES; SHUICHI OHTA; SHELLEY J. HAY; PAUL J. SIMMONS

    Human osteoblast-like cells can be readily cultured from explants of trabecular bone, reproducibly expressing the characteristics of cells belonging to the osteoblastic lineage. Dual-color fluorescence-activated cell sorting was employed to develop a model of bone cell development in primary cultures of normal human bone cells (NHBCs) based on the cell surface expression of the stromal precursor cell marker STRO-1 and

  10. Kinetics of rebounding of lymphoid and myeloid cells in mouse peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow after treatment with cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohamed L; Al-Khami, Amir A; El-Nagaar, Sabry A; Zidan, Abdel-Aziz A; Al-Sharkawi, Ismail M; Marcela Díaz-Montero, C; Cole, David J

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we showed that post cyclophosphamide (CTX) microenvironment benefits the function of transferred T cells. Analysis of the kinetics of cellular recovery after CTX treatment showed that a single 4 mg/mouse CTX treatment decreased the absolute number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood (PBL) at days 3-15, and in the spleen and bone marrow (BM) at days 3-6. The absolute numbers of CD11c(+)CD11b(-) and CD11c(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DCs), CD11b(+) and Ly6G(+) myeloid cells, T and B cells, CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory (T(reg)) cells, and NK1.1(+) cells also decreased. The cell numbers returned to control levels during the recovery phase. The absolute numbers of B cells remained low for 3 weeks. The numbers of DCs increased in PBL and spleen at day 9 but returned to control levels at day 15. These data indicate that CTX alters the cellular microenvironment in kinetics that might be precisely targeted to benefit the host. PMID:22560674

  11. Genotoxic evaluation of aspirin eugenol ester using the Ames test and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianyong; Kong, Xiaojun; Li, Xiwang; Yang, Yajun; Zhang, Jiyu

    2013-12-01

    Aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) is a promising drug candidate for treatment of inflammation, pain and fever and prevention of cardiovascular diseases with less side effects and it is important to characterize its genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxicity of AEE was assessed with two standard genotoxicity assays of the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. In the Ames test, Salmonella strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535 were treated with or without the metabolic activation with a S9 fraction from Acroclor-induced rat liver. The doses of AEE were 5 mg/plate, 2.5 mg/plate, 1.25 mg/plate, 0.625 mg/plate and 0.3125 mg/plate, respectively. In the above tested strains, mutagenicity with or without the S-9 mixture was not detected. In the mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus assay, fifty mice were divided into five groups evenly and the AEE dose at 5000 mg/kg, 2500 mg/kg and 1250 mg/kg and the cyclophosphamide dose at 40 mg/kg as a positive control, the 0.5% of CMC-Na as negative control were administered. The results showed that AEE did not induce any significant increase in micronucleated erythrocytes after 24 h (p<0.01). Our results suggested that AEE was non-genotoxic in vivo or in vitro. PMID:24140966

  12. CXCR4 expression on pathogenic T cells facilitates their bone marrow infiltration in a mouse model of aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Arieta Kuksin, Christina; Gonzalez-Perez, Gabriela; Minter, Lisa M

    2015-03-26

    Aplastic anemia (AA) is a disease characterized by T-cell-mediated destruction of bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Physiologically, T cells migrate to the BM in response to chemokines, such as SDF-1?, the ligand for CXCR4. However, how T cells traffic to the BM in AA is poorly understood. CXCR4 is aberrantly expressed in immune-mediated diseases and its regulation by nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in cancer models is well documented. In this study, we show that CXCR4 is highly expressed on BM-infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in a mouse model of AA. Inhibiting CXCR4 in AA mice, using CXCR4(-/-) splenocytes or AMD3100, significantly reduced BM infiltration of T cells. We also report that NF-?B occupancy at the CXCR4 promoter is enhanced in BM-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells of AA mice. Moreover, inhibiting NF-?B signaling in AA mice using Bay11 or dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, or transferring p50(-/-) splenocytes, decreased CXCR4 expression on CD8(+) T cells, significantly reduced BM infiltration of T cells, and strongly attenuated disease symptoms. Remarkably, therapeutic administration of Bay11 significantly extended survival of AA mice. Overall, we demonstrate that CXCR4 mediates migration of pathogenic T cells to the BM in AA mice, and inhibiting NF-?B signaling may represent a novel therapeutic approach to treating AA. PMID:25647836

  13. Primary Bone Marrow B-Cell Lymphoma: Report of Four Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES A. STRAUCHEN

    Bone marrow involvement is infrequent at presentation in cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We report four adult patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in whom bone marrow involvement with hematologic manifestations was the predominant clinical feature at presentation. Three patients pre- sented with a leukoerythroblastic blood picture and one with pancytopenia. In each case, the unusual hematologic manifestations, with

  14. Hormone Treatment Restores Bone Density for Young Women with Menopause-Like Condition (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2014 Hormone treatment restores bone density for young women with menopause-like condition NIH study reveals way to improve bone health for young ... mineral density in the treatment groups. When the study began, women with POI had significantly lower hip and spine ...

  15. Primary Lymphoma of Bone Presenting as Spindle Cell Neoplasm of the Vertebral Body: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Inklab, Mahakit; Steingart, Richard H.; Freeman, Jonathan K.

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell variant of lymphoma is a very rare but known disease entity that can mimic a sarcoma. Diagnosis can be even more challenging if the only site of the disease is in the bone. We report a case of primary lymphoma of bone with spindle cell morphology which was successfully treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. PMID:25984371

  16. Extracellular matrix mineralization in murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures: an ultrastructural, compositional and comparative analysis with mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Addison, W N; Nelea, V; Chicatun, F; Chien, Y-C; Tran-Khanh, N; Buschmann, M D; Nazhat, S N; Kaartinen, M T; Vali, H; Tecklenburg, M M; Franceschi, R T; McKee, M D

    2015-02-01

    Bone cell culture systems are essential tools for the study of the molecular mechanisms regulating extracellular matrix mineralization. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell cultures are the most commonly used in vitro model of bone matrix mineralization. Despite the widespread use of this cell line to study biomineralization, there is as yet no systematic characterization of the mineral phase produced in these cultures. Here we provide a comprehensive, multi-technique biophysical characterization of this cell culture mineral and extracellular matrix, and compare it to mouse bone and synthetic apatite mineral standards, to determine the suitability of MC3T3-E1 cultures for biomineralization studies. Elemental compositional analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed calcium and phosphorus, and trace amounts of sodium and magnesium, in both biological samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) on resin-embedded intact cultures demonstrated that similar to 1-month-old mouse bone, apatite crystals grew with preferential orientations along the (100), (101) and (111) mineral planes indicative of guided biogenic growth as opposed to dystrophic calcification. XRD of crystals isolated from the cultures revealed that the mineral phase was poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite with 10 to 20nm-sized nanocrystallites. Consistent with the XRD observations, electron diffraction patterns indicated that culture mineral had low crystallinity typical of biological apatites. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed apatitic carbonate and phosphate within the biological samples. With all techniques utilized, cell culture mineral and mouse bone mineral were remarkably similar. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy showed that the cultures had a dense fibrillar collagen matrix with small, 100nm-sized, collagen fibril-associated mineralization foci which coalesced to form larger mineral aggregates, and where mineralized sites showed the accumulation of the mineral-binding protein osteopontin. Light microscopy, confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions showed that some cells had dendritic processes and became embedded within the mineral in an osteocyte-like manner. In conclusion, we have documented characteristics of the mineral and matrix phases of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures, and have determined that the structural and compositional properties of the mineral are highly similar to that of mouse bone. PMID:25460184

  17. Markers of primary mineralization are correlated with bone-bonding ability of titanium or stainless steel in vivo.

    PubMed

    Braun, G; Kohavi, D; Amir, D; Luna, M; Caloss, R; Sela, J; Dean, D D; Boyan, B D; Schwartz, Z

    1995-03-01

    Critical events in the adaptation of osseous tissues to implant materials involve initial calcification of the newly synthesized bone. Previous studies indicated that bone-bonding but not nonbonding glass ceramics increase the matrix vesicle number, thereby compensating for delayed maturation of the extracellular organelles. The present study assessed whether this was also true for metal implants commonly used in orthopaedics and oral medicine. Bone-bonding titanium (Ti) or nonbonding stainless steel (SS) implants were placed in the right tibias of Sabra rats following ablation of the marrow. At 3, 6, 14, and 21 days postinjury, newly formed endosteal bone in the treated and contralateral limbs was removed and matrix vesicle-enriched membranes isolated. Alkaline phosphatase and phospholipase A2 specific activities and phosphatidylserine (PS) content were determined and compared with those of a nonsurgical control group. Results show that matrix vesicle alkaline phosphatase and phospholipase A2 activity and PS content was increased in the Ti-implanted limbs at 6 (peak), 14, and 21 days, although at levels less than observed in normal healing. Alkaline phosphatase activity remained elevated throughout the healing period. In contrast, these parameters were markedly inhibited in the SS-implanted limbs with respect to Ti or to normal healing. Both implants altered the systemic response associated with marrow ablation, but in an implant-specific manner. The results support the hypothesis that cells adjacent to bone-bonding materials can compensate for negative effects on primary mineralization during osteogenesis, whereas cells adjacent to nonbonding materials either do not compensate or are further depressed. The data support the use of the rat marrow ablation model as a tool for rapid, initial assessment of biomaterials in bone. PMID:7669863

  18. Quantification of Alterations in Cortical Bone Geometry Using Site Specificity Software in Mouse models of Aging and the Responses to Ovariectomy and Altered Loading

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Gabriel L.; Hannuna, Sion; Meakin, Lee B.; Delisser, Peter J.; Lanyon, Lance E.; Price, Joanna S.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the effect of (re)modeling stimuli on cortical bone in rodents normally rely on analysis of changes in bone mass and architecture at a narrow cross-sectional site. However, it is well established that the effects of axial loading produce site-specific changes throughout bones’ structure. Non-mechanical influences (e.g., hormones) can be additional to or oppose locally controlled adaptive responses and may have more generalized effects. Tools currently available to study site-specific cortical bone adaptation are limited. Here, we applied novel site specificity software to measure bone mass and architecture at each 1% site along the length of the mouse tibia from standard micro-computed tomography (?CT) images. Resulting measures are directly comparable to those obtained through ?CT analysis (R2?>?0.96). Site Specificity analysis was used to compare a number of parameters in tibiae from young adult (19-week-old) versus aged (19-month-old) mice; ovariectomized and entire mice; limbs subjected to short periods of axial loading or disuse induced by sciatic neurectomy. Age was associated with uniformly reduced cortical thickness and site-specific decreases in cortical area most apparent in the proximal tibia. Mechanical loading site-specifically increased cortical area and thickness in the proximal tibia. Disuse uniformly decreased cortical thickness and decreased cortical area in the proximal tibia. Ovariectomy uniformly reduced cortical area without altering cortical thickness. Differences in polar moment of inertia between experimental groups were only observed in the proximal tibia. Aging and ovariectomy also altered eccentricity in the distal tibia. In summary, site specificity analysis provides a valuable tool for measuring changes in cortical bone mass and architecture along the entire length of a bone. Changes in the (re)modeling response determined at a single site may not reflect the response at different locations within the same bone. PMID:25954246

  19. Photo-Induction and Automated Quantification of Reversible Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening in Primary Mouse Myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Smeitink, Jan A. M.; Willems, Peter H. G. M.; Koopman, Werner J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is involved in various cellular processes including apoptosis induction. Two distinct states of mPTP opening have been identified allowing the transfer of molecules with a molecular weight <1500 Da or <300 Da. The latter state is considered to be reversible and suggested to play a role in normal cell physiology. Here we present a strategy combining live-cell imaging and computer-assisted image processing allowing spatial visualization and quantitative analysis of reversible mPTP openings (“?? flickering”) in primary mouse myotubes. The latter were stained with the photosensitive cation TMRM, which partitions between the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix as a function of mitochondrial membrane potential (??). Controlled illumination of TMRM-stained primary mouse myotubes induced ?? flickering in particular parts of the cell (“flickering domains”). A novel quantitative automated analysis was developed and validated to detect and quantify the frequency, size, and location of individual ?? flickering events in myotubes. PMID:25423172

  20. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of nimesulide in the mouse bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Rina; Tripathi, Pankaj; Pancholi, Shyam S; Patel, Chhagan N

    2014-07-01

    Genotoxicity of nimesulide (NM) was evaluated by employing bone marrow (BM) chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus assays in Swiss albino mice. For BM CA assay, mice of either sex were treated orally with 1.5, 2.5 and 5 mg body weight solution of NM in 0.2 mL of 0.05% CMC (carboxy methyl cellulose) daily for 4, 13, 28 and 40 weeks. Treatment induced dose-dependent and significantly depressed mitotic activity and increase in CAs per cell in the BM cells after 13 weeks of treatment at all dose levels. In micronucleus assay, male mice were treated orally with the same dose levels and sampling durations as for CA assay. Treatment increased the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes frequency and showed a statistically significant reduction in polychromatic erythrocyte/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio, as compared to control groups. Cyclophosphamide (40 mg/kg) was used as clastogen (positive control) and yielded the expected positive results. Cytotoxicity was observed in the 8-week recovery period after 40 weeks of dosing, but it was not significant. On the basis of these findings, it may be concluded that in the long term, NM, or its biotransformed product, is genotoxic and cytotoxic for BM cells of mice in vivo. PMID:24164450

  1. Caffeine regulates osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of primary adipose-derived stem cells and a bone marrow stromal cell line.

    PubMed

    Su, Shu-Jem; Chang, Kee-Lung; Su, Shu-Hui; Yeh, Yao-Tsung; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine consumption reportedly influences bone mineral density and body weight. However, the effects of caffeine on bone metabolism are still controversial, and whether the dosage of caffeine influences osteogenic differentiation is yet to be clarified. In the present study, we cultured primary adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and a bone marrow stromal cell line (M2-10B4) in osteogenic differentiation media containing varying concentrations of caffeine. Caffeine had biphasic effects: 0.1 mM caffeine significantly enhanced mineralization and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Consistent with these observations, a caffeine concentration of 0.1 mM upregulated the osteogenic differentiation marker genes ALP and osteocalcin (OCN), and elevated osteoprotegerin (OPG), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) levels. However, a concentration of caffeine greater than 0.3 mM suppressed the differentiation of both the cell types. These findings indicate that caffeine has a beneficial effect on ADSCs and bone marrow stromal cells, enhancing differentiation to osteoblasts; this effect, which is mediated via RUNX2 activation at low doses is significantly suppressed at high doses. PMID:23301724

  2. Long-term culture of leukemic bone marrow primary cells in biomimetic osteoblast niche

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Hou; Ting Liu; Jing Tan; Wentong Meng; Li Deng; Hongtao Yu; Xingli Zou; Yuchun Wang

    2009-01-01

    We constructed a “biomimetic osteoblast niche” with bio-derived bone as a scaffold, on which we seeded marrow mesenchymal\\u000a stem cells (MSCs) from CML patients, and induced the MSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts. Bone marrow mononuclear cells\\u000a from CML patients were cultured in the biomimetic niche (3D culture system) or a 2D culture system with the induced MSCs\\/osteoblasts\\u000a as a feeder

  3. Diabetes impairs mobilization of mouse bone marrow-derived Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Barthelmes, D; Irhimeh, M R; Gillies, M C; Karimipour, M; Zhou, M; Zhu, L; Shen, W Y

    2013-10-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells circulating in the peripheral blood (PB) contribute to vascular repair. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of a 'cocktail' consisting of erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and tetrahydrobiopterin to mobilize hematopoietic lineage negative/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 positive (Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+)) cells from the bone marrow (BM) to PB in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were studied after 16weeks of hyperglycemia. Half the mice in each group (non-diabetic and diabetic) received daily intraperitoneal injections of the cocktail for 6 consecutive days while the other half received vehicle buffer. Mobilization of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells, which were expanded in MCP301 medium, was evaluated after isolating them from BM and PB and their phenotypic and morphological properties were studied. We found that 16weeks of diabetes affected neither the total number of BM mononucleated cells nor the number of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells in BM compared with non-diabetic controls. In non-diabetic mice, cocktail treatment resulted in a significant decrease in BM Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells, paralleled by a significant increase of these cells in PB. Such changes in the number of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells in BM and PB after the cocktail treatment were less marked in diabetic mice. In vitro studies of BM Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells from diabetic and non-diabetic mice did not reveal any differences in either phenotypes or colony forming potential. These findings indicate that diabetes impairs the mobilization of Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells from BM to PB. Impaired mobilization of BM Lin(-)/VEGF-R2(+) cells soon after the onset of diabetes may contribute to complications such as diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23714230

  4. VCP Associated Inclusion Body Myopathy and Paget Disease of Bone Knock-In Mouse Model Exhibits Tissue Pathology Typical of Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Masashi; Su, Hailing; Tanaja, Jasmin; Dec, Eric; Wallace, Douglas C.; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Caiozzo, Vincent; Warman, Matthew; Kimonis, Virginia E.

    2010-01-01

    Dominant mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP) gene cause inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). We have generated a knock-in mouse model with the common R155H mutation. Mice demonstrate progressive muscle weakness starting approximately at the age of 6 months. Histology of mutant muscle showed progressive vacuolization of myofibrils and centrally located nuclei, and immunostaining shows progressive cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 and ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies in quadriceps myofibrils and brain. Increased LC3-II staining of muscle sections representing increased number of autophagosomes suggested impaired autophagy. Increased apoptosis was demonstrated by elevated caspase-3 activity and increased TUNEL-positive nuclei. X-ray microtomography (uCT) images show radiolucency of distal femurs and proximal tibiae in knock-in mice and uCT morphometrics shows decreased trabecular pattern and increased cortical wall thickness. Bone histology and bone marrow derived macrophage cultures in these mice revealed increased osteoclastogenesis observed by TRAP staining suggestive of Paget bone disease. The VCPR155H/+ knock-in mice replicate the muscle, bone and brain pathology of inclusion body myopathy, thus representing a useful model for preclinical studies. PMID:20957154

  5. Does the degree of laminarity correlate with site-specific differences in collagen fibre orientation in primary bone? An evaluation in the turkey ulna diaphysis

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2004-01-01

    de Margerie hypothesized that preferred orientations of primary vascular canals in avian primary cortical bone mediate important mechanical adaptations. Specifically, bones that receive habitual compression, tension or bending stresses typically have cortices with a low laminarity index (LI) (i.e. relatively lower cross-sectional areas of circularly (C) orientated primary vascular canals, and relatively higher areas of canals with radial (R), oblique (O) or longitudinal (L) orientations. By contrast, bones subject to habitual torsion have a high LI (i.e. relatively higher C-orientated canal area) [LI, based on percentage vascular canal area, = C/(C + R + O + L)]. Regional variations in predominant collagen fibre orientation (CFO) may be the adaptive characteristic mediated by LI. Using turkey ulnae, we tested the hypothesis that site-specific variations in predominant CFO and LI are strongly correlated. Mid-diaphyseal cross-sections (100 ± 5 µm) from subadult and adult bones were evaluated for CFO and LI using circularly polarized light images of cortical octants. Results showing significant differences between mean LI of subadult (40.0% ± 10.7%) and adult (50.9% ± 10.4%) (P < 0.01) bones suggest that adult bones experience more prevalent/predominant torsion. Alternatively, this relationship may reflect differences in growth rates. High positive correlations between LI and predominant CFO (subadults: r = 0.735; adults: r = 0.866; P < 0.001) suggest that primary bone can exhibit potentially adaptive material variations that are independent of secondary osteon formation. PMID:15291795

  6. BMP-Non-Responsive Sca1+CD73+CD44+ Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Osteoprogenitor Cells Respond to Combination of VEGF and BMP-6 to Display Enhanced Osteoblastic Differentiation and Ectopic Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, Vedavathi; Li, Ching-Ju; Dighe, Abhijit S.; Balian, Gary; Cui, Quanjun

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials on fracture repair have challenged the effectiveness of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) but suggest that delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might be beneficial. It has also been reported that BMPs could not increase mineralization in several MSCs populations, which adds ambiguity to the use of BMPs. However, an exogenous supply of MSCs combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and BMPs is reported to synergistically enhance fracture repair in animal models. To elucidate the mechanism of this synergy, we investigated the osteoblastic differentiation of cloned mouse bone marrow derived MSCs (D1 cells) in vitro in response to human recombinant proteins of VEGF, BMPs (-2, -4, -6, -9) and the combination of VEGF with BMP-6 (most potent BMP). We further investigated ectopic bone formation induced by MSCs pre-conditioned with VEGF, BMP-6 or both. No significant increase in mineralization, phosphorylation of Smads 1/5/8 and expression of the ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes was observed upon addition of VEGF or BMPs alone to the cells in culture. The lack of CD105, Alk1 and Alk6 expression in D1 cells correlated with poor response to BMPs indicating that a greater care in the selection of MSCs is necessary. Interestingly, the combination of VEGF and BMP-6 significantly increased the expression of ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes and D1 cells pre-conditioned with VEGF and BMP-6 induced greater bone formation in vivo than the non-conditioned control cells or the cells pre-conditioned with either VEGF or BMP-6 alone. This enhanced bone formation by MSCs correlated with higher CADM1 expression and OPG/RANKL ratio in the implants. Thus, combined action of VEGF and BMP on MSCs enhances osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs and increases their bone forming ability, which cannot be achieved through use of BMPs alone. This strategy can be effectively used for bone repair. PMID:25048464

  7. BMP-non-responsive Sca1+ CD73+ CD44+ mouse bone marrow derived osteoprogenitor cells respond to combination of VEGF and BMP-6 to display enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Vedavathi; Li, Ching-Ju; Dighe, Abhijit S; Balian, Gary; Cui, Quanjun

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials on fracture repair have challenged the effectiveness of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) but suggest that delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might be beneficial. It has also been reported that BMPs could not increase mineralization in several MSCs populations, which adds ambiguity to the use of BMPs. However, an exogenous supply of MSCs combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and BMPs is reported to synergistically enhance fracture repair in animal models. To elucidate the mechanism of this synergy, we investigated the osteoblastic differentiation of cloned mouse bone marrow derived MSCs (D1 cells) in vitro in response to human recombinant proteins of VEGF, BMPs (-2, -4, -6, -9) and the combination of VEGF with BMP-6 (most potent BMP). We further investigated ectopic bone formation induced by MSCs pre-conditioned with VEGF, BMP-6 or both. No significant increase in mineralization, phosphorylation of Smads 1/5/8 and expression of the ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes was observed upon addition of VEGF or BMPs alone to the cells in culture. The lack of CD105, Alk1 and Alk6 expression in D1 cells correlated with poor response to BMPs indicating that a greater care in the selection of MSCs is necessary. Interestingly, the combination of VEGF and BMP-6 significantly increased the expression of ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes and D1 cells pre-conditioned with VEGF and BMP-6 induced greater bone formation in vivo than the non-conditioned control cells or the cells pre-conditioned with either VEGF or BMP-6 alone. This enhanced bone formation by MSCs correlated with higher CADM1 expression and OPG/RANKL ratio in the implants. Thus, combined action of VEGF and BMP on MSCs enhances osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs and increases their bone forming ability, which cannot be achieved through use of BMPs alone. This strategy can be effectively used for bone repair. PMID:25048464

  8. Irisflorentin modifies properties of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and reduces the allergic contact hypersensitivity responses.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ru-Huei; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Tsai, Rong-Tzong; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chan, Tzu-Min; Ho, Yu-Chen; Lin, Hsin-Lien; Chen, Yue-Mi; Hung, Huey-Shan; Chiu, Shao-Chih; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Wang, Yu-Chi; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2015-01-01

    Irisflorentin is an isoflavone component derived from the roots of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. In traditional Chinese medicine, this herb has pharmacological properties to treat inflammatory disorders. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial modulators for the development of optimal T-cell immunity and maintenance of tolerance. Aberrant activation of DCs can induce harmful immune responses, and so agents that effectively improve DC properties have great clinical value. We herein investigated the effects of irisflorentin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs in vitro and in the contact hypersensitivity response (CHSR) in vivo. Our results demonstrated that treatment with up to 40 ?M irisflorentin does not cause cellular toxicity. Irisflorentin significantly lessened the proinflammatory cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12p70) by LPS-stimulated DCs. Irisflorentin also inhibited the expression of LPS-induced major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD86) on LPS-stimulated DCs. In addition, irisflorentin diminished LPS-stimulated DC-elicited allogeneic T-cell proliferation. Furthermore, irisflorentin significantly interfered with LPS-induced activation of I?B kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65. Subsequently, treatment with irisflorentin obviously weakened 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity. These findings suggest new insights into the role of irisflorentin as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant through its capability to modulate the properties of DCs. PMID:25654487

  9. Primary bone marrow lymphoma is a rare neoplasm with poor outcome: case series from single tertiary care centre and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Priyanka; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Sharma, Prashant; Naseem, Shano; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Das, Reena; Varma, Neelam; Law, Arjun; Malhotra, Pankaj

    2014-11-19

    Primary bone marrow lymphoma is a rare disease and remains undiagnosed due to deceptive clinical presentation. Here, we report four cases of primary bone marrow B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which presented with cytopenias without any lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Bone marrow examination revealed large atypical B-cells with a reactive T-cell infiltrate with suppression of the normal hematopoietic elements. This lymphoma is known to have a poor prognosis. Inspite of treatment, two of our patients died during chemotherapy. Two patients relapsed, of which one showed an early relapse after two months and was put on an alternative regimen. The other patient relapsed twice at an interval of 4 and 5 years, respectively, following which he remained in remission for another 5 years and had recently shown a relapse for the third time. Review of literature revealed seven case series and 11 case reports of primary bone marrow lymphoma in the last five decades. PMID:25407700

  10. Semi-quantitative investigation of primary tumor and bone metastasis in lung cancer patients using the PET-CT approach

    PubMed Central

    Kandemir, Ozan; Karaku?, Kayhan; Katrancio?lu, Özgür; Sarikaya, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although advanced diagnostic and therapeutic development are achieved, lung cancer is the most leading cause of death. The stage of tumor is still the most important factor in determining the prognosis of cancer. Purpose: The overarching goal of this study is to understand the relationship between the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) and bone metastasis using the PET-CT approach in lung cancer prognosis and survival research. Materials and methods: The PET-CT analyses of previously diagnosed totally 86 lung cancer patients were retrospectively studied. Primer tumor standard uptake values for each patient were meticulously calculated and correlated with bone metastasis. Results: The demographics of the 86 patients is as follows; 79 man, 7 women with an age average of 59.44 ± 5.99, youngest being 46 and oldest 72. The number of small cell (SCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were 10 (11.6%) and 76 (88.4%), respectively. Additionally, bone metastasis was detected in 35 (40.7%) patients. The patients were divided in 4 categories based on the observed primer tumor sizes of 0-3 cm (23.3%), 3-5 cm (27.9%), 5-7 cm (32.6%), and larger than 7 cm (16.3%). Patients with bone metastasis (35 in total) were divided in 2 categories based on the number of metastasis of being less than 3 (45.7%) and more than 3 (54.5%). We also used SUVmax values to clarify the study. 31.4% of the total patients had the SUVmax value lower than 10 and 68.6% of them had higher. 68.6% of the bone metastasis patients had SUV values lower than 8 and 31.4% of them had higher than 8. Conclusion: The present study suggests a 27.2% positive relationship in primary tumor SUVmax value and tumor size. Although the average bone metastasis SUV with primary tumor SUV values higher than 10 is higher than the ones lower than 10, this difference did not generate a statistically significant data for cancer patients. PMID:25356118

  11. Important role of EP4, a subtype of prostaglandin (PG) E receptor, in osteoclast-like cell formation from mouse bone marrow cells induced by PGE2.

    PubMed

    Ono, K; Akatsu, T; Murakami, T; Nishikawa, M; Yamamoto, M; Kugai, N; Motoyoshi, K; Nagata, N

    1998-09-01

    Of various PGs, PGE1 and PGE2 are shown to be the most potent stimulators of osteoclastogenesis in vitro. PGE receptors have been classified into four subtypes, EP1-EP4. Little is known about PGE receptors functioning in bone cells. In this study, using mouse marrow culture, we investigated which PGE receptors are important in osteoclast-like cell (OCL) formation induced by PGE. 11-deoxy-PGE1 (EP2, EP3 and EP4 agonist) stimulated OCL formation potently. Butaprost (EP2 agonist) stimulated it slightly, while sulprostone (EP1 and EP3 agonist) and ONO-AP-324-01 (EP3 agonist) did not. AH23848B (EP4 antagonist) inhibited PGE2-induced OCL formation in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of EP4 mRNA in mouse bone marrow was confirmed by RT-PCR. The results indicate an important role of EP4 in PGE2-induced OCL formation in marrow cultures and suggest therapeutic potential of EP4 antagonists in some clinical conditions with accelerated bone resorption. PMID:9846175

  12. Transcriptional profile of fibroblasts obtained from the primary site, lymph node and bone marrow of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Del Valle, Paulo Roberto; Milani, Cintia; Brentani, Maria Mitzi; Katayama, Maria Lucia Hirata; de Lyra, Eduardo Carneiro; Carraro, Dirce Maria; Brentani, Helena; Puga, Renato; Lima, Leandro A.; Rozenchan, Patricia Bortman; Nunes, Bárbara dos Santos; Góes, João Carlos Guedes Sampaio; Azevedo Koike Folgueira, Maria Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) influence tumor development at primary as well as in metastatic sites, but there have been no direct comparisons of the transcriptional profiles of stromal cells from different tumor sites. In this study, we used customized cDNA microarrays to compare the gene expression profile of stromal cells from primary tumor (CAF, n = 4), lymph node metastasis (N+, n = 3) and bone marrow (BM, n = 4) obtained from breast cancer patients. Biological validation was done in another 16 samples by RT-qPCR. Differences between CAF vs N+, CAF vs BM and N+ vs BM were represented by 20, 235 and 245 genes, respectively (SAM test, FDR < 0.01). Functional analysis revealed that genes related to development and morphogenesis were overrepresented. In a biological validation set, NOTCH2 was confirmed to be more expressed in N+ (vs CAF) and ADCY2, HECTD1, HNMT, LOX, MACF1, SLC1A3 and USP16 more expressed in BM (vs CAF). Only small differences were observed in the transcriptional profiles of fibroblasts from the primary tumor and lymph node of breast cancer patients, whereas greater differences were observed between bone marrow stromal cells and the other two sites. These differences may reflect the activities of distinct differentiation programs. PMID:25249769

  13. Evaluation of the Effects of Green Tea Extracts on Bone Homeostasis in the Ts65Dn Down Syndrome Mouse Model

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Evaluation of the Effects of Green Tea Extracts on Bone Homeostasis in the Ts65Dn Down Syndrome-threonine kinase encoded on Hsa21, has been linked to deficiencies in DS bone homeostasis. Epigallocatechin-3 homeostasis and increase BMD and bone strength in individuals with DS. In this study, we hypothesized

  14. Activation of antioxidant response element in mouse primary cortical cultures with sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum parthenium.

    PubMed

    Fischedick, Justin T; Standiford, Miranda; Johnson, Delinda A; De Vos, Ric C H; Todorovi?, Sla?ana; Banjanac, Tijana; Verpoorte, Rob; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2012-11-01

    Tanacetum parthenium produces biologically active sesquiterpene lactones (SL). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate a series of genes termed the antioxidant response element (ARE). Activation of Nrf2/ARE may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we isolated 11 SL from T. parthenium with centrifugal partition chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. Compounds were screened in vitro for their ability to activate the ARE on primary mouse cortical cultures as well as for their toxicity towards the cultures. All SL containing the ?-methylene-?-lactone moiety were able to activate the ARE and cause cellular toxicity. The structure-activity relationship among the SL isolated indicates that the guaianolides were more active and when lacking the endoperoxide functionality less toxic then the germacranolides. PMID:22923197

  15. Malignant Transformation of Mouse Primary Keratinocytes by Harvey Sarcoma Virus and Its Modulation by Surrounding Normal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, Gian Paolo; Weinberg, Robert A.; Ariza, Aurelio

    1988-09-01

    The activated ras oncogene that is present in Harvey sarcoma virus is able to induce malignant transformation of pure cultures of mouse primary keratinocytes. Malignant transformation of these cells is demonstrated by their ability to form carcinomas when grafted back onto syngeneic animals. However, expression of the malignant phenotype by the ras-transformed keratinocytes is drastically inhibited by the presence of normal dermal fibroblasts. This inhibitory effect depends on the ratio of fibroblasts to keratinocytes. It can be observed with mitomycin C-treated growth-arrested dermal fibroblasts and not with other cells, such as normal keratinocytes or established fibroblasts. Thus, a cellular environment approximating normal tissue can suppress tumor formation triggered by a single oncogene.

  16. Prognostic relevance of urokinase plasminogen activator detection in micrometastatic cells in the bone marrow of patients with primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Solomayer, E F; Diel, I J; Wallwiener, D; Bode, S; Meyberg, G; Sillem, M; Gollan, C; Kramer, M D; Krainick, U; Bastert, G

    1997-01-01

    Patients with an elevated level of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in breast cancer tissue have an adverse prognosis. This study evaluated the prognostic relevance of uPA detection in disseminated tumour cells in bone marrow. Bone marrow was sampled intraoperatively from both iliac crests in 280 patients with primary breast cancer. Interphase cells were enhanced and stained immunocytologically with two antibodies: 2E11, which detects TAG 12--a tumour-associated glycoprotein typically expressed by almost all breast cancer cells--and the anti-uPA antibody HD-UK9. Thirty-five of the 2E11-positive women (n = 132, 47%) developed metastatic disease (median follow-up time 44 months). Of these, most were uPA positive (n = 23, 65%) and only 12 were uPA negative. Patients with uPA-positive cells in bone marrow (n = 98, 35%) had a significantly shorter metastasis-free interval (36 months) than women who were uPA negative (44.5 months). The worst prognosis was seen in patients positive for both markers (29.5 months), followed by those who were uPA negative and 2E11 positive (37 months). The detection of uPA on disseminated tumour cells characterizes a subgroup of patients with an even worse prognosis, who should undergo more aggressive adjuvant systemic therapy. For the first time, it was possible to evaluate an important qualitative parameter involved in the process of breast cancer metastases. PMID:9310251

  17. Cured of Primary Bone Cancer, But at What Cost: A Qualitative Study of Functional Impairment and Lost Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Fauske, Lena; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Grov, Ellen Karine; Bondevik, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Our study aims to explore how former cancer patients experience physical and psychosocial late effects 3–7 years after they underwent treatment for primary bone sarcoma in the hip/pelvic region. A qualitative, phenomenological, and hermeneutic design was applied. Methods. Sarcoma survivors (n = 10) previously treated at Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital were selected to participate. In-depth and semistructured interviews were conducted. The interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results. The participants reported that the late effects had three core spheres of impact: “their current daily life,” “their future opportunities,” and “their identity.” They expressed negative changes in activity, increased dependence on others, and exclusion from participation in different areas. Their daily life, work, sports activities, and social life were all affected. Several of their experiences are similar to those described by people with functional impairment or disability. Conclusion. Patients cured of bone cancer in the hip/pelvic region pay a significant price in terms of functional impairment, practical challenges, exclusion from important aspects of life, and loss of previous identity. It is important to appreciate this in order to help bone cancer survivors who struggle to reorient their life and build a secure new identity. PMID:25949211

  18. In Vitro Assessment of Nanosilver-Functionalized PMMA Bone Cement on Primary Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Pauksch, Linda; Hartmann, Sonja; Szalay, Gabor; Alt, Volker; Lips, Katrin S.

    2014-01-01

    Peri-prosthetic infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria have become a serious problem in surgery and orthopedics. The aim is to introduce biomaterials that avoid implant-related infections caused by multiresistant bacteria. The efficacy of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) against a broad spectrum of bacteria and against multiresistant pathogens has been repeatedly described. In the present study polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement functionalized with AgNP and/or gentamicin were tested regarding their biocompatibility with bone forming cells. Therefore, influences on viability, cell number and differentiation of primary human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSCs cultured in osteogenic differentiation media (MSC-OM) caused by the implant materials were studied. Furthermore, the growth behavior and the morphology of the cells on the testing material were observed. Finally, we examined the induction of cell stress, regarding antioxidative defense and endoplasmatic reticulum stress. We demonstrated similar cytocompatibility of PMMA loaded with AgNP compared to plain PMMA or PMMA loaded with gentamicin. There was no decrease in cell number, viability and osteogenic differentiation and no induction of cell stress for all three PMMA variants after 21 days. Addition of gentamicin to AgNP-loaded PMMA led to a slight decrease in osteogenic differentiation. Also an increase in cell stress was detectable for PMMA loaded with gentamicin and AgNP. In conclusion, supplementation of PMMA bone cement with gentamicin, AgNP, and both results in bone implants with an antibacterial potency and suitable cytocompatibility in MSCs and MSC-OM. PMID:25485700

  19. Rapidly growing Brtl/+ mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta improves bone mass and strength with sclerostin antibody treatment.

    PubMed

    Sinder, Benjamin P; Salemi, Joseph D; Ominsky, Michael S; Caird, Michelle S; Marini, Joan C; Kozloff, Kenneth M

    2015-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable collagen-related bone dysplasia, characterized by brittle bones with increased fracture risk that presents most severely in children. Anti-resorptive bisphosphonates are frequently used to treat pediatric OI and controlled clinical trials have shown that bisphosphonate therapy improves vertebral outcomes but has little benefit on long bone fracture rate. New treatments which increase bone mass throughout the pediatric OI skeleton would be beneficial. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is a potential candidate anabolic therapy for pediatric OI and functions by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation via the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. To explore the effect of Scl-Ab on the rapidly growing OI skeleton, we treated rapidly growing 3week old Brtl/+ mice, harboring a typical heterozygous OI-causing Gly?Cys substitution on col1a1, for 5weeks with Scl-Ab. Scl-Ab had anabolic effects in Brtl/+ and led to new cortical bone formation and increased cortical bone mass. This anabolic action resulted in improved mechanical strength to WT Veh levels without altering the underlying brittle nature of the material. While Scl-Ab was anabolic in trabecular bone of the distal femur in both genotypes, the effect was less strong in these rapidly growing Brtl/+ mice compared to WT. In conclusion, Scl-Ab was able to stimulate bone formation in a rapidly growing Brtl/+ murine model of OI, and represents a potential new therapy to improve bone mass and reduce fracture risk in pediatric OI. PMID:25445450

  20. Combination Immunotherapy of Primary Prostate Cancer in a Transgenic Mouse Model Using CTLA-4 Blockade1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur A. Hurwitz; Barbara A. Foster; Eugene D. Kwon; Tan Truong; Eugene M. Choi; Norman M. Greenberg; Maurice B. Burg; James P. Allison

    2000-01-01

    We have previously shown that antibodies to CTLA-4, an inhibitory receptor on T cells, can be effective at inducing regression of transplantable murine tumors. In this study, we demonstrate that an effective immune response against primary prostate tumors in transgenic (TRAMP) mice can be elicited using a strategy that combines CTLA-4 blockade and an irradiated tumor cell vaccine. Treatment of

  1. Correlation of serum uric acid with bone mineral density and fragility fracture in patients with primary osteoporosis: a single-center retrospective study of 253 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Peng, Yongde; Fang, Fang; Chen, Jinyu; Pan, Ling; You, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the correlation of serum uric acid with bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fracture in primary osteoporosis (PO) patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis of biochemical parameters including bone turnover markers and bone density was done in patients (n=253) received initial treatment for PO from January 2011 to May 2012 at the Shanghai First People’s Hospital. Results: Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis showed that serum uric acid positively correlated with the lumbar spine BMD (P<0.05); serum uric acid negatively correlated with urine calcium/creatinine ratio, but positively correlated with blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 [OH] D) (P<0.05); the serum uric acid in postmenopausal women with the history of fragility fracture was significantly lower than that in women without the this disease history. Conclusion: Serum uric acid may be a protective factor of bone metabolism in primary osteoporosis patients.

  2. In vitro differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into endometrial epithelial cells in mouse: a proteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Qing; Li, Bin; Wang, Yisheng; Zhang, Wenbi; Cheng, Mingjun; Wu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Congjian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated to differentiate into female endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) in vivo. Our previous studies demonstrated that BMSCs can differentiate in the direction of EECs when co-cultured with endometrial stromal cells in vitro. Here, we obtain and analyse differential proteins and their relevant pathways in the process of BMSCs differentiating into EECs by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis. Methods: A 0.4-?m pore size indirect co-culture system was established with female mice endometrial stromal cells (EStCs) restricted in the upper Transwell chamber and BMSCs in the lower well plate. After indirect co-culture for several days, the BMSCs were revealed to progressively differentiate towards EECs in vitro. Then, four groups were divided according to different co-culture days with single culture groups of BMSCs as controls. Proteins were detected using iTRAQ based on 2DLC-ESI-MS/MS and data were analysed by bioinformatics. Results: A total number of 311 proteins were detected, of which 210 proteins were identified with relative quantitation. Among them, 107 proteins were differentially expressed with a 1.2-fold change as the benchmark, with 61 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated proteins. Differential proteins CK19 and CK8 were epithelial markers and upregulated. Stromal marker vimentin were downregulated. Top canonical pathways was “remodeling of epithelial adhesions junctions” and “actin cytoskeleton signaling”. Top networks was “cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, tissue development and cellular movement” regulated by ERK/MAPK and ?-catenin. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first preliminary study of differential protein expression in the differentiation process of BMSCs into EECs in vitro. We further elucidated BMSCs differentiated in the direction of EECs. In addition, ERK/MAPK and ?-catenin played important roles by regulating core differential proteins in the “cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, tissue development and cellular movement” network. PMID:25120742

  3. Combined zoledronic acid and meloxicam reduced bone loss and tumour growth in an orthotopic mouse model of bone-invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Martin, C K; Dirksen, W P; Carlton, M M; Lanigan, L G; Pillai, S P; Werbeck, J L; Simmons, J K; Hildreth, B E; London, C A; Toribio, R E; Rosol, T J

    2013-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is common in cats and humans and invades oral bone. We hypothesized that the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, meloxicam, with the bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZOL), would inhibit tumour growth, osteolysis and invasion in feline OSCC xenografts in mice. Human and feline OSCC cell lines expressed COX-1 and COX-2 and the SCCF2 cells had increased COX-2 mRNA expression with bone conditioned medium. Luciferase-expressing feline SCCF2Luc cells were injected beneath the perimaxillary gingiva and mice were treated with 0.1?mg?kg(-1) ZOL twice weekly, 0.3?mg?kg(-1) meloxicam daily, combined ZOL and meloxicam, or vehicle. ZOL inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption at the tumour-bone interface. Meloxicam was more effective than ZOL at reducing xenograft growth but did not affect osteoclastic bone resorption. Although a synergistic effect of combined ZOL and meloxicam was not observed, combination therapy was well-tolerated and may be useful in the clinical management of bone-invasive feline OSCC. PMID:23651067

  4. Combined Zoledronic Acid and Meloxicam Reduced Bone Loss and Tumor Growth in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Bone-Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C.K.; Dirksen, W.P.; Carlton, M.M.; Lanigan, L.G.; Pillai, S.P.; Werbeck, J.L.; Simmons, J.K.; Hildreth, B.E.; London, C.A.; Toribio, R.E.; Rosol, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is common in cats and humans and invades oral bone. We hypothesized that the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, meloxicam, with the bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZOL), would inhibit tumor growth, osteolysis and invasion in feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) xenografts in mice. Human and feline OSCC cell lines expressed cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and 2 and the SCCF2 cells had increased COX-2 mRNA expression with bone conditioned medium. Luciferase-expressing feline SCCF2Luc cells were injected beneath the perimaxillary gingiva and mice were treated with 0.1 mg/kg ZOL twice weekly, 0.3 mg/kg meloxicam daily, combined ZOL and meloxicam, or vehicle. ZOL inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption at the tumor-bone interface. Meloxicam was more effective than ZOL at reducing xenograft growth but did not affect osteoclastic bone resorption. Although a synergistic effect of combined ZOL and meloxicam was not observed, combination therapy was well tolerated and may be useful in the clinical management of bone-invasive feline OSCC. PMID:23651067

  5. The Rac-FRET Mouse Reveals Tight Spatiotemporal Control of Rac Activity in Primary Cells and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Anna-Karin E.; Dai, Yanfeng; Nobis, Max; Baker, Martin J.; McGhee, Ewan J.; Walker, Simon; Schwarz, Juliane P.; Kadir, Shereen; Morton, Jennifer P.; Myant, Kevin B.; Huels, David J.; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Sansom, Owen J.; Anderson, Kurt I.; Timpson, Paul; Welch, Heidi C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The small G protein family Rac has numerous regulators that integrate extracellular signals into tight spatiotemporal maps of its activity to promote specific cell morphologies and responses. Here, we have generated a mouse strain, Rac-FRET, which ubiquitously expresses the Raichu-Rac biosensor. It enables FRET imaging and quantification of Rac activity in live tissues and primary cells without affecting cell properties and responses. We assessed Rac activity in chemotaxing Rac-FRET neutrophils and found enrichment in leading-edge protrusions and unexpected longitudinal shifts and oscillations during protruding and stalling phases of migration. We monitored Rac activity in normal or disease states of intestinal, liver, mammary, pancreatic, and skin tissue, in response to stimulation or inhibition and upon genetic manipulation of upstream regulators, revealing unexpected insights into Rac signaling during disease development. The Rac-FRET strain is a resource that promises to fundamentally advance our understanding of Rac-dependent responses in primary cells and native environments. PMID:24630994

  6. Creation of Primary Cell Lines from Lineage-Labeled Mouse Models of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rhim, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, it is necessary to isolate pure populations of cancer cells for downstream assays, such as transcriptional analysis, signaling studies, and the creation of noncontaminated primary cell lines. Genetic lineage labeling with fluorescent reporter alleles allows for the identification of epithelial-derived cells within tumors. This protocol describes a method to isolate lineage-labeled pancreatic epithelial cells for ex vivo analysis, but it can be adapted for any type of lineage-labeled tumor. PMID:25934932

  7. High-Efficiency Transfection of Primary Human and Mouse T Lymphocytes Using RNA Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yangbing; Zheng, Zhili; Cohen, Cyrille J.; Gattinoni, Luca; Palmer, Douglas C.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Morgan, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of nonviral gene transfer methods in primary lymphocytes has been hampered by low gene transfer efficiency and high transfection-related toxicity. In this report, high gene transfection efficiency with low transfection-related toxicity was achieved by electroporation using in vitro-transcribed mRNA. Using these methods, >90% transgene expression with >80% viable cells was observed in stimulated primary human and murine T lymphocytes transfected with GFP or mCD62L. Electroporation of unstimulated human PBMCs or murine splenocytes with GFP RNA yielded 95 and 56% GFP+ cells, respectively. Electroporation of mRNA for NY-ESO-1, MART-1, and p53 antigen-specific TCRs into human T lymphocytes redirected these lymphocytes to recognize melanoma cell lines in an MHC-restricted manner. The onset of gene expression was rapid (within 30 min) and durable (up to 7 days postelectroporation) using both GFP and TCR-mediated recognition of target cells. There was no adverse effect observed on the T lymphocytes subjected to RNA electroporation evaluated by cell growth rate, annexin-V staining of apoptotic cells, BrdU incorporation, tumor antigen-specific recognition or antigen-specific TCR affinity. The results of this study indicate that mRNA electroporation provides a powerful tool to introduce genes into both human and murine primary T lymphocytes. PMID:16140584

  8. Genotoxicity assessment of NIM-76 and its formulation (pessary) in an in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay and in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vinod; Meshram, Ghansham P

    2013-10-01

    The possible genotoxic potential of NIM-76, a volatile fraction obtained from neem oil, having promising contraceptive activity, as well as its formulation product, called pessary (7.5% NIM-76 in polyethylene glycol), were evaluated in the Ames assay and mouse bone marrow micronucleus (MN) assay. Genotoxicity of NIM-76 (0.1-1000 µg/plate) and pessary (0.1-10,000 µg/plate) were studied using the liquid preincubation protocol of the Ames assay both in the presence and absence of S9. Likewise, the ability of NIM-76 [1-1000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)] and its formulation product (18.75-300 mg/kg b.w.) to induce clastogenic effects were studied in the female mouse bone marrow MN test by using a two-dose intraperitoneal treatment protocol. There was no increase in the number of revertant colonies resulting from NIM-76 or pessary at any of their doses over the respective negative control plates, either in the presence or absence of S9. Similarly, in the MN assay, neither of them showed any clastogenic activity because there was no significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, over the negative control group of animals. The use of this compound in humans is therefore not likely to have mutagenic effects and may be considered as safe with regard to genotoxic potential. PMID:23527474

  9. Differential gene expression of bone anabolic factors and trabecular bone architectural changes in the proximal femoral shaft of primary hip osteoarthritis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Le-Hoa Truong; Julia S Kuliwaba; Helen Tsangari; Nicola L Fazzalari

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a generalised increase in bone mass in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Using molecular histomorphometry, this study examined the in vivo expression of mRNA encoding bone anabolic factors and collagen type I genes (COL1A1, COL1A2) in human OA and non-OA bone. Bone samples were obtained from the intertrochanteric (IT) region of the proximal femur, a skeletal site

  10. Role of cells sensitive to anti-mouse brain serum in the regulation of CFU-S proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Semina, O.V.; Semenets, T.N.; Kurilets, E.S.; Man'ko, V.M.; Poverennyi, A.M.

    1987-09-01

    The kinetics of CFU-S regeneration in the bone marrow and spleen of mice was determined after injection of rabbit anti-mouse brain serum (RAMBS)-treated bone marrow into primary recipients. The distribution of colonies by histological types after injection of bone-marrow suspension incubated with RAMBS was also analyzed. Recipient mice were irradiated with /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays before transcription.

  11. RNA Interference-Mediated Silencing of Atp6i Prevents Both Periapical Bone Erosion and Inflammation in the Mouse Model of Endodontic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junqing; Zhang, Lijie; Tucker, Byron; Zhu, Guochun; Sasaki, Hajime; Hao, Liang; Wang, Lin; Ci, Hongliang; Jiang, Hongbing; Stashenko, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the United States, affecting approximately 80% of children and the majority of adults. Dental caries may lead to endodontic disease, where the bacterial infection progresses to the root canal system of the tooth, leading to periapical inflammation, bone erosion, severe pain, and tooth loss. Periapical inflammation may also exacerbate inflammation in other parts of the body. Although conventional clinical therapies for this disease are successful in approximately 80% of cases, there is still an urgent need for increased efficacy of treatment. In this study, we applied a novel gene-therapeutic approach using recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Atp6i RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of Atp6i/TIRC7 gene expression to simultaneously target periapical bone resorption and periapical inflammation. We found that Atp6i inhibition impaired osteoclast function in vitro and in vivo and decreased the number of T cells in the periapical lesion. Notably, AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown gene therapy reduced bacterial infection-stimulated bone resorption by 80% in the mouse model of endodontic disease. Importantly, Atp6i+/? mice with haploinsufficiency of Atp6i exhibited protection similar to that in mice with bacterial infection-stimulated bone erosion and periapical inflammation, which confirms the potential therapeutic effect of AAV-small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-Atp6i/TIRC7. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown in periapical tissues can inhibit endodontic disease development, bone resorption, and inflammation, indicating for the first time that this potential gene therapy may significantly improve the health of those who suffer from endodontic disease. PMID:23166162

  12. Dual energy micro-CT imaging of radiation-induced vascular changes in primary mouse sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Moding, Everett J.; Clark, Darin P.; Qi, Yi; Li, Yifan; Ma, Yan; Ghaghada, Ketan; Johnson, G. Allan; Kirsch, David G.; Badea, Cristian T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of radiation therapy on primary tumor vasculature using dual energy (DE) micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Methods and Materials The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary sarcomas with mutant Kras and p53. Unirradiated tumors were compared to tumors irradiated with 20 Gy. A long-circulating PEGylated liposomal-iodinated contrast agent was administered one day after treatment, and mice were imaged immediately after injection (day 1) and three days later (day 4) using DE micro-CT. CT-derived tumor sizes were used to assess tumor growth. After DE decomposition, iodine maps were used to assess tumor fractional blood volume (FBV) at day 1 and tumor vascular permeability at day 4. For comparison, tumor vascularity and vascular permeability were also evaluated histologically using CD31 immunofluorescence and fluorescently-labeled dextrans. Results Radiation treatment significantly decreased tumor growth (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between CT-measurement of tumor FBV and extravasated iodine with microvascular density (MVD) (R2=0.53) and dextran accumulation (R2=0.63), respectively. Despite no change in MVD measured by histology, tumor FBV significantly increased after irradiation as measured by DE micro-CT (0.070 vs. 0.091, P<0.05). Both dextran and liposomal-iodine accumulation in tumors increased significantly after irradiation with dextran fractional area increasing 4.2-fold and liposomal-iodine concentration increasing 3.0-fold. Conclusions DE micro-CT is an effective tool for non-invasive assessment of vascular changes in primary tumors. Tumor blood volume and vascular permeability increased after a single therapeutic dose of radiation treatment. PMID:23122984

  13. Osteoprotegerin Inhibits Osteolysis and Decreases Skeletal Tumor Burden in Syngeneic and Nude Mouse Models of Experimental Bone Metastasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean Morony; Casey Capparelli; Ildiko Sarosi; David L. Lacey; Colin R. Dunstan; Paul J. Kostenuik

    Certain malignancies, including breast cancer, frequently metastasize to bone, where the tumor cells induce osteoclasts to locally destroy bone. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, is a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. We tested the ability of recombinant OPG to inhibit tumor- induced osteoclastogenesis, osteolysis, and skeletal tumor burden in two animal

  14. Proteinase Activated Receptor 1 Mediated Fibrosis in a Mouse Model of Liver Injury: A Role for Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kallis, Yiannis N.; Scotton, Christopher J.; MacKinnon, Alison C.; Goldin, Robert D.; Wright, Nicholas A.; Iredale, John P.; Chambers, Rachel C.; Forbes, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis results from the co-ordinated actions of myofibroblasts and macrophages, a proportion of which are of bone marrow origin. The functional effect of such bone marrow-derived cells on liver fibrosis is unclear. We examine whether changing bone marrow genotype can down-regulate the liver's fibrotic response to injury and investigate mechanisms involved. Proteinase activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is up-regulated in fibrotic liver disease in humans, and deficiency of PAR1 is associated with reduced liver fibrosis in rodent models. In this study, recipient mice received bone marrow transplantation from PAR1-deficient or wild-type donors prior to carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. Bone marrow transplantation alone from PAR1-deficient mice was able to confer significant reductions in hepatic collagen content and activated myofibroblast expansion on wild-type recipients. This effect was associated with a decrease in hepatic scar-associated macrophages and a reduction in macrophage recruitment from the bone marrow. In vitro, PAR1 signalling on bone marrow-derived macrophages directly induced their chemotaxis but did not stimulate proliferation. These data suggest that the bone marrow can modulate the fibrotic response of the liver to recurrent injury. PAR1 signalling can contribute to this response by mechanisms that include the regulation of macrophage recruitment. PMID:24475094

  15. Primary osteosarcoma of the clavicle and the perils of bone biopsy.

    PubMed

    Cundy, William J; Carter, Christopher; Dhatrak, Deepak; Clayer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of delayed diagnosis of osteosarcoma of the medial clavicle in a young man. He presented following a pathological fracture with a falsely reassuring core and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The initial biopsy was suggestive of an aneurysmal bone cyst and was therefore treated conservatively without further follow-up. The rapid increase in size over the next 8?months triggered a repeat presentation and subsequent repeat biopsy. The open biopsy confirmed high-grade osteosarcoma and the patient underwent claviculectomy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:25911358

  16. Circadian Rhythms of PER2::LUC in Individual Primary Mouse Hepatocytes and Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Molyneux, Penny C.; Yu, Jimmy K.; Li, Alexander S.; Leise, Tanya L.; Harrington, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocytes, the parenchymal cells of the liver, express core clock genes, such as Period2 and Cryptochrome2, which are involved in the transcriptional/translational feedback loop of the circadian clock. Whether or not the liver is capable of sustaining rhythms independent of a central pacemaker is controversial. Whether and how circadian information may be shared among cells in the liver in order to sustain oscillations is currently unknown. Results In this study we isolated primary hepatocytes from transgenic Per2Luc mice and used bioluminescence as a read-out of the state of the circadian clock. Hepatocytes cultured in a collagen gel sandwich configuration exhibited persistent circadian rhythms for several weeks. The amplitude of the rhythms damped, but medium changes consistently reset the phase and amplitude of the cultures. Cry2?/? Per2Luc cells oscillated robustly and expressed a longer period. Co-culturing with wildtype cells did not significantly shorten the period, indicating that coupling among hepatocytes is insufficient to synchronize cells with significantly differing periods. However, spatial patterns revealed by cellular imaging of wildtype cultures provided evidence of weak local coupling among the hepatocytes. Conclusions Our results with primary hepatocyte cultures demonstrate that cultured hepatocytes are weakly coupled. While this coupling is not sufficient to sustain global synchrony, it does increase local synchrony, which may stabilize the circadian rhythms of peripheral oscillators, such as the liver, against noise in the entraining signals. PMID:24498336

  17. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signals through SHP2 to regulate primary mouse myoblast proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ju; Reed, Sarah A. [University of Florida, Department of Animal Sciences, PO Box 110910, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)] [University of Florida, Department of Animal Sciences, PO Box 110910, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Johnson, Sally E., E-mail: sealy@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Animal Sciences, PO Box 110910, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Niche localized HGF plays an integral role in G{sub 0} exit and the return to mitotic activity of adult skeletal muscle satellite cells. HGF actions are regulated by MET initiated intracellular signaling events that include recruitment of SHP2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase. The importance of SHP2 in HGF-mediated signaling was examined in myoblasts and primary cultures of satellite cells. Myoblasts stably expressing SHP2 (23A2-SHP2) demonstrate increased proliferation rates by comparison to controls or myoblasts expressing a phosphatase-deficient SHP2 (23A2-SHP2DN). By comparison to 23A2 myoblasts, treatment of 23A2-SHP2 cells with HGF does not further increase proliferation rates and 23A2-SHP2DN myoblasts are unresponsive to HGF. Importantly, the effects of SHP2 are independent of downstream ERK1/2 activity as inclusion of PD98059 does not blunt the HGF-induced proliferative response. SHP2 function was further evaluated in primary satellite cell cultures. Ectopic expression of SHP2 in satellite cells tends to decrease proliferation rates and siSHP2 causes an increase the percentage of dividing myogenic cells. Interestingly, treatment of satellite cells with high concentrations of HGF (50 ng/ml) inhibits proliferation, which can be overcome by knockdown of SHP2. From these results, we conclude that HGF signals through SHP2 in myoblasts and satellite cells to directly alter proliferation rates.

  18. Prognostic relevance of urokinase plasminogen activator detection in micrometastatic cells in the bone marrow of patients with primary breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Solomayer, E. F.; Diel, I. J.; Wallwiener, D.; Bode, S.; Meyberg, G.; Sillem, M.; Gollan, C.; Kramer, M. D.; Krainick, U.; Bastert, G.

    1997-01-01

    Patients with an elevated level of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in breast cancer tissue have an adverse prognosis. This study evaluated the prognostic relevance of uPA detection in disseminated tumour cells in bone marrow. Bone marrow was sampled intraoperatively from both iliac crests in 280 patients with primary breast cancer. Interphase cells were enhanced and stained immunocytologically with two antibodies: 2E11, which detects TAG 12--a tumour-associated glycoprotein typically expressed by almost all breast cancer cells--and the anti-uPA antibody HD-UK9. Thirty-five of the 2E11-positive women (n = 132, 47%) developed metastatic disease (median follow-up time 44 months). Of these, most were uPA positive (n = 23, 65%) and only 12 were uPA negative. Patients with uPA-positive cells in bone marrow (n = 98, 35%) had a significantly shorter metastasis-free interval (36 months) than women who were uPA negative (44.5 months). The worst prognosis was seen in patients positive for both markers (29.5 months), followed by those who were uPA negative and 2E11 positive (37 months). The detection of uPA on disseminated tumour cells characterizes a subgroup of patients with an even worse prognosis, who should undergo more aggressive adjuvant systemic therapy. For the first time, it was possible to evaluate an important qualitative parameter involved in the process of breast cancer metastases. Images Figure 1 PMID:9310251

  19. Bone cell mechanosensation of fluid flow stimulation: a fluid-structure interaction model characterising the role integrin attachments and primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, T J; Mullen, C A; Verbruggen, S W; McNamara, L M

    2015-08-01

    Load-induced fluid flow acts as an important biophysical signal for bone cell mechanotransduction in vivo, where the mechanical environment is thought to be monitored by integrin and primary cilia mechanoreceptors on the cell body. However, precisely how integrin- and primary cilia-based mechanosensors interact with the surrounding fluid flow stimulus and ultimately contribute to the biochemical response of bone cells within either the in vitro or in vivo environment remains poorly understood. In this study, we developed fluid-structure interaction models to characterise the deformation of integrin- and primary cilia-based mechanosensors in bone cells under fluid flow stimulation. Under in vitro fluid flow stimulation, these models predicted that integrin attachments on the cell-substrate interface were highly stimulated [Formula: see text], while the presence of a primary cilium on the cell also resulted in significant strain amplifications, arising at the ciliary base. As such, these mechanosensors likely play a role in mediating bone mechanotransduction in vitro. Under in vivo fluid flow stimulation, integrin attachments along the canalicular wall were highly stimulated and likely play a role in mediating cellular responses in vivo. The role of the primary cilium as a flow sensor in vivo depended upon its configuration within the lacunar cavity. Specifically, our results showed that a short free-standing primary cilium could not effectively fulfil a flow sensing role in vivo. However, a primary cilium that discretely attaches the lacunar wall can be highly stimulated, due to hydrodynamic pressure in the lacunocanalicular system and, as such, could play a role in mediating bone mechanotransduction in vivo. PMID:25399300

  20. Alteration of proteoglycan sulfation affects bone growth and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gualeni, Benedetta; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Marty-Morieux, Caroline; De Leonardis, Fabio; Franchi, Marco; Monti, Luca; Forlino, Antonella; Houillier, Pascal; Rossi, Antonio; Geoffroy, Valerie

    2013-05-01

    Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is a chondrodysplasia caused by mutations in the SLC26A2 gene, leading to reduced intracellular sulfate pool in chondrocytes, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Hence, proteoglycans are undersulfated in the cartilage and bone of DTD patients. To characterize the bone phenotype of this skeletal dysplasia we used the Slc26a2 knock-in mouse (dtd mouse), that was previously validated as an animal model of DTD in humans. X-rays, bone densitometry, static and dynamic histomorphometry, and in vitro studies revealed a primary bone defect in the dtd mouse model. We showed in vivo that this primary bone defect in dtd mice is due to decreased bone accrual associated with a decreased trabecular and periosteal appositional rate at the cell level in one month-old mice. Although the osteoclast number evaluated by histomorphometry was not different in dtd compared to wild-type mice, urine analysis of deoxypyridinoline cross-links and serum levels of type I collagen C-terminal telopeptides showed a higher resorption rate in dtd mice compared to wild-type littermates. Electron microscopy studies showed that collagen fibrils in bone were thinner and less organized in dtd compared to wild-type mice. These data suggest that the low bone mass observed in mutant mice could possibly be linked to the different bone matrix compositions/organizations in dtd mice triggering changes in osteoblast and osteoclast activities. Overall, these results suggest that proteoglycan undersulfation not only affects the properties of hyaline cartilage, but can also lead to unbalanced bone modeling and remodeling activities, demonstrating the importance of proteoglycan sulfation in bone homeostasis. PMID:23369989

  1. Effects of Carbon Ions on Primary Cultures of Mouse Brain Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojima, K.; Ando, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Ando, S.

    Primary mixed cultures of astrocytes and microglia were obtained from neonatal mice, and were irradiated with high-LET carbon ions. Immunohistochemical staining showed astrocytes survived more prominently than microglia. Tagged with specific antibodies, astrocytes and microglia surviving after irradiation were counted by flow cytometry. Decreases in the number of microglia and astrocytes were detected at a dose as small as 2 Gy when Day 5 cultures were irradiated with 13 keV/?m carbon ions. When the cultures were irradiated on Day 10, the dose-dependent decrease of microglia was more prominent for 13 keV/?un carbon ions than 70 keV/?m carbon ions. Astrocytes showed a marginal decrease at Day 10 and Day 14. We concluded that microglia are more sensitive than astrocytes to carbon ions and X-rays, and that the radiosensitivity of microglia depends on both differentiation/proliferation status and radiation quality

  2. A Direct Projection from Mouse Primary Visual Cortex to Dorsomedial Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian striatum receives inputs from many cortical areas, but the existence of a direct axonal projection from the primary visual cortex (V1) is controversial. In this study we use anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques to demonstrate that V1 directly innervates a topographically defined longitudinal strip of dorsomedial striatum in mice. We find that this projection forms functional excitatory synapses with direct and indirect pathway striatal projection neurons (SPNs) and engages feed-forward inhibition onto these cells. Importantly, stimulation of V1 afferents is sufficient to evoke phasic firing in SPNs. These findings therefore identify a striatal region that is functionally innervated by V1 and suggest that early visual processing may play an important role in striatal-based behaviors. PMID:25141172

  3. Expression profiling of Dexamethasone-treated primary chondrocytes identifies targets of glucocorticoid signalling in endochondral bone development

    PubMed Central

    James, Claudine G; Ulici, Veronica; Tuckermann, Jan; Underhill, T Michael; Beier, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used anti-inflammatory drugs. While useful in clinical practice, patients taking GCs often suffer from skeletal side effects including growth retardation in children and adolescents, and decreased bone quality in adults. On a physiological level, GCs have been implicated in the regulation of chondrogenesis and osteoblast differentiation, as well as maintaining homeostasis in cartilage and bone. We identified the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as a potential regulator of chondrocyte hypertrophy in a microarray screen of primary limb bud mesenchyme micromass cultures. Some targets of GC regulation in chondrogenesis are known, but the global effects of pharmacological GC doses on chondrocyte gene expression have not been comprehensively evaluated. Results This study systematically identifies a spectrum of GC target genes in embryonic growth plate chondrocytes treated with a synthetic GR agonist, dexamethasone (DEX), at 6 and 24 hrs. Conventional analysis of this data set and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed. Transcripts associated with metabolism were enriched in the DEX condition along with extracellular matrix genes. In contrast, a subset of growth factors and cytokines were negatively correlated with DEX treatment. Comparing DEX-induced gene expression data to developmental changes in gene expression in micromass cultures revealed an additional layer of complexity in which DEX maintains the expression of certain chondrocyte marker genes while inhibiting factors that promote vascularization and ultimately ossification of the cartilaginous template. Conclusion Together, these results provide insight into the mechanisms and major molecular classes functioning downstream of DEX in primary chondrocytes. In addition, comparison of our data with microarray studies of DEX treatment in other cell types demonstrated that the majority of DEX effects are tissue-specific. This study provides novel insights into the effects of pharmacological GC on chondrocyte gene transcription and establishes the foundation for subsequent functional studies. PMID:17603917

  4. Skp2 promotes adipocyte differentiation via a p27{sup Kip1}-independent mechanism in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Mitsuru; Sakai, Tamon; Nakamura, Takehiro [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Kitajima, Shigetaka [Department of Biochemical Genetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Matsuki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Eijiro; Hiramatsu, Ryuji [Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., Takarazuka 665-0051 (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroshi [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Pharmacology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama 589-8511 (Japan)], E-mail: hsakaue@med.kindai.ac.jp; Kasuga, Masato [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan)

    2009-02-06

    Skp2, the substrate-binding subunit of an SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, is a key regulator of cell cycle progression that targets substrates for degradation by the 26S proteasome. We have now shown that ablation of Skp2 in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) results both in impairment of adipocyte differentiation and in the accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27{sup Kip1}, a principal target of the SCF{sup Skp2} complex. Genetic ablation of p27{sup Kip1} in MEFs promoted both lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression. However, depletion of p27{sup Kip1} by adenovirus-mediated RNA interference failed to correct the impairment of adipocyte differentiation in Skp2{sup -/-} MEFs. In contrast, troglitazone, a high-affinity ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), largely restored lipid accumulation and PPAR{gamma} gene expression in Skp2{sup -/-} MEFs. Our data suggest that Skp2 plays an essential role in adipogenesis in MEFs in a manner that is at least in part independent of regulation of p27{sup Kip1} expression.

  5. Triphenyltin acetate-induced cytotoxicity and CD4(+) and CD8(+) depletion in mouse thymocyte primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Dacasto, M; Cornaglia, E; Nebbia, C; Bollo, E

    2001-12-28

    Organotin compounds (OTs) find application worldwide as catalysts, stabilizers and biocides. Triphenyltin derivatives (TPs), including the fungicide triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), are OTs mostly used in our country. Some OTs were proved to be immunotoxic and in this paper the cytotoxicity, the possible selective activity upon definite lymphocyte subsets as well as the antiproliferative effect of TPTA was investigated in vitro by using primary cultures of mouse thymocytes. TPTA (5, 10 and 25 microM) was cytotoxic to these cells, as demonstrated by the significant (P<0.05) reduction of the cell viability percentage (trypan blue dye exclusion test), the neutral red uptake and the reduction of tetrazolium salts to formazan products (MTT assay). These overt effects were already noticed after 4 h of exposure to TPTA. The fungicide otherwise significantly reduced, after 24 h of incubation, the percentage of mature single positive thymocytes, particularly the CD4(+)/CD8(-) one. Finally, a significative dose-dependent inhibition of the T-cell mitogen-induced cell proliferation was observed in thymocytes exposed to 1 and 8 microM TPTA. These results are indicative of the TPTA immunotoxic properties, according to previous published reports concerning the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of some di- and triorganotin compounds. PMID:11718962

  6. Therapeutic Touch Has Significant Effects on Mouse Breast Cancer Metastasis and Immune Responses but Not Primary Tumor Size

    PubMed Central

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Secor, Eric R.; Flynn, John R.; Jellison, Evan R.; Kuhn, Liisa T.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT). Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS) of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model.

  7. Toxicity monitoring with primary cultured hepatocytes underestimates the acetaminophen-induced inflammatory responses of the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Shinjiro; Shimomura, Akiko; Inadera, Hidekuni

    2011-01-01

    In vitro gene expression profiling with isolated hepatocytes has been used to assess the hepatotoxicity of certain chemicals because of animal welfare issues. However, whether an in vitro system can completely replace the in vivo system has yet to be elucidated in detail. Using a focused microarray established in our laboratory, we examined gene expression profiles in the mouse liver and primary cultured hepatocytes after treatment with different doses of acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic that frequently causes liver injury. The acute hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen was confirmed by showing the induction of an oxidative stress marker, heme oxygenase-1, elevated levels of serum transaminase, and histopathological findings. In vivo microarray and network analysis showed that acetaminophen treatment provoked alterations in relation to the inflammatory response, and that tumor necrosis factor-? plays a central role in related pathway alterations. By contrast, pathway analyses in in vitro isolated hepatocytes did not find such prominent changes in the inflammation-related networks compared with the in vivo situation. Thus, although in vitro gene expression profiles are useful for evaluating the direct toxicity of chemicals, indirect toxicities including inflammatory responses mediated by cell-cell interactions or secondary toxicity due to pathophysiological changes in the whole body may be overlooked. Our results indicate that the in vitro hepatotoxicity prediction system using isolated hepatocytes does not fully reflect the in vivo cellular response. An in vitro system may be appropriate, therefore, for high throughput screening to detect the direct hepatotoxicity of a test compound. PMID:22083109

  8. Lycopene Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis by Preventing Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Primary Neonatal Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Rongchuan; Hu, Houxiang; Yiu, Kai Hang; Luo, Tao; Zhou, Zhou; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Ke; Yu, Zhengping

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R)-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes plays an important role in myocardial injury. Lycopene is a potent antioxidant carotenoid that has been shown to have protective properties on cardiovascular system. The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential for lycopene to protect the cardiomyocytes exposed to H/R. Moreover, the effect on mitochondrial function upon lycopene exposure was assessed. Methods and Findings Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal mouse and established an in vitro model of H/R which resembles ischemia/reperfusion in vivo. The pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with 5 µM lycopene significantly reduced the extent of apoptosis detected by TUNEL assays. To further study the mechanism underlying the benefits of lycopene, interactions between lycopene and the process of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis were examined. Lycopene pretreatment of cardiomyocytes suppressed the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and inhibiting the increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels caused by H/R. Moreover, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, a decline in cellular ATP levels, a reduction in the amount of cytochrome c translocated to the cytoplasm and caspase-3 activation were observed in lycopene-treated cultures. Conclusion The present results suggested that lycopene possesses great pharmacological potential in protecting against H/R-induced apoptosis. Importantly, the protective effects of lycopene may be attributed to its roles in improving mitochondrial function in H/R-treated cardiomyocytes. PMID:23226382

  9. Thrombopoietin receptor agonist therapy in primary immune thrombocytopenia is associated with bone marrow hypercellularity and mild reticulin fibrosis but not other stromal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Boiocchi, Leonardo; Orazi, Attilio; Ghanima, Waleed; Arabadjief, Melissa; Bussel, James B; Geyer, Julia Turbiner

    2012-01-01

    Primary immune thrombocytopenia is an acquired autoimmune disorder characterized by platelet count of <100 × 10(9)/l in the absence of other causes of thrombocytopenia. Primary immune thrombocytopenia is defined as 'chronic' when it has been present for more than 12 months without spontaneous remission or maintenance of complete response to therapy. Recently, thrombopoietin receptor agonists became available for treatment of chronic primary immune thrombocytopenia. Anecdotal reports have raised concerns about a possible association between therapy with thrombopoietin receptor agonists and an increase in bone marrow fibrosis. To investigate this association we studied eight patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia in detail comparing fibrosis and other morphological features in pre-therapy and on-therapy bone marrow biopsies, with the longest follow-up reported to date. A slight but significant increase to MF-1 in reticulin fibrosis was observed during therapy, but collagen was never present. On-therapy bone marrows were hypercellular due to panmyelosis with increased trilineage hematopoiesis. Megakaryocytes were increased in number, with acquisition of evident pleomorphism, nuclear hyperlobulation and tendency in some cases to form clusters. The overall picture of the on-therapy marrows was characterized by myeloproliferative neoplasm-like features, resembling essential thrombocythemia or occasionally early primary myelofibrosis. As thrombopoietin receptor agonists are becoming a mainstream treatment for primary immune thrombocytopenia, general pathologists and especially hematopathologists need to be aware of the characteristic morphological changes associated with use of these therapeutic agents, in order to avoid misdiagnosis of a myeloid neoplasm. PMID:21841770

  10. Adaptation and Infection of Mouse Bone Marrow (JLS-V9) Cells in Suspension Culture for Production of Rauscher Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Howard M.; Klein, Frederick; Bandyopadhyay, Alok K.; Robinson, Orson R.; Shibley, George P.

    1974-01-01

    JLS-V9 mouse bone marrow cells were readily adapted to suspension culture, chronically infected with Rauscher leukemia virus (RLV), and subsequently grown in 7.5- and 14-liter New Brunswick fermentors. The suspension-type cell system can be modified to produce virus with clearly defined properties, such as high ribonucleic acid-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase (RDDP) activity, high particle count, and high infectious particle count. Biological and biophysical properties of suspension-produced RLV were not affected by concentration and purification employing continuous-flow and rate-zonal centrifugation procedures. The RDDP assay was standardized and showed a linear incorporation of 3H-thymidine 5?-monophosphate (3H-TMP) up to 30 min. Further characterization indicated that a high percentage of 3H-TMP incorporation was due to RDDP. Images PMID:4129475

  11. Radiation and mechanical unloading effects on mouse vertebral bone: Ground-based models of the spaceflight environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwood, Joshua Stewart

    Astronauts on long-duration space missions experience increased ionizing radiation background levels and occasional acute doses of ionizing radiation from solar particle events, in addition to biological challenges introduced by weightlessness. Previous research indicates that cancer radiotherapy damages bone marrow cell populations and reduces mechanical strength of bone. However, the cumulative doses in radiotherapy are an order of magnitude or greater than dose predictions for long-duration space missions. Further detriments to the skeletal system are the disuse and mechanical unloading experienced during weightlessness, which causes osteopenia in weight-bearing cancellous bone (a sponge-like bony network of rods, plates and voids) and cortical bone (dense, compact bone). Studies of radiation exposure utilizing spaceflight-relevant types and doses, and in combination with mechanical unloading, have received little attention. Motivated by the future human exploration of the solar system, the effects of acute and increased background radiation on astronaut skeletal health are important areas of study in order to prevent osteopenic deterioration and, ultimately, skeletal fracture. This dissertation addresses how spaceflight-relevant radiation affects bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties in the cancellous-rich vertebrae and compares results to that of mechanical unloading. In addition, a period of re-ambulation is used to test whether animals recover skeletal tissue after irradiation. Whether radiation exposure displays synergism with mechanical unloading is further investigated. Finite element structural and statistical analyses are used to investigate how changes in architecture affect mechanical stress within the vertebra and to interpret the mechanical testing results. In this dissertation, ground-based models provide evidence that ionizing radiation, both highly energetic gamma-rays and charged iron ions, resulted in a persistent loss of cancellous bone in male mice. Mechanical unloading, by contrast, is shown to cause bone loss in the vertebrae via cancellous and cortical thinning that resulted in decreased whole-bone mechanical properties. The effects of mechanical unloading were altogether reversible in the vertebra after re-ambulation, though some residual alteration of trabecular morphology persisted. The combination of unloading and radiation exposure appeared to worsen the reductions of strength. Under either environmental condition, cancellous bone loss occurred near the vertebral endplates and at the centrum midplane. Finite element analysis suggested that tissue-level stresses increase in the centrum after either unloading or irradiation in agreement with the cellular-solid model of dense, plate-like trabeculae. Force-sharing between cancellous and cortical bone decreased after radiation, with stress concentrating on the cortex. In conclusion, acute exposure to spaceflight-relevant ionizing radiation altered trabecular microarchitecture and stress distribution, without a loss of whole-bone strength at the endpoints investigated, while unloading presented the greater immediate detriment to whole-bone mechanical properties. From a skeletal-health perspective, strategies to mitigate and counteract astronaut exposure to acute doses of radiation and mechanical unloading should be developed in preparation for long-term human spaceflight.

  12. Evaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of Bone Marrow-Derived Myeloid Suppressor Cell (MDSC) Adoptive Transfer in Mouse Models of Autoimmunity and Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet-Delbos, Laurence; Beriou, Gaelle; Merieau, Emmanuel; Hill, Marcelo; Delneste, Yves; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Louvet, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic use of immunoregulatory cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of uncontrolled immunity. During the last decade, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as novel key regulatory players in the context of tumor growth, inflammation, transplantation or autoimmunity. Recently, MDSC have been successfully generated in vitro from naive mouse bone marrow cells or healthy human PBMCs using minimal cytokine combinations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of adoptive transfer of such cells to control auto- and allo-immunity in the mouse. Culture of bone marrow cells with GM-CSF and IL-6 consistently yielded a majority of CD11b+Gr1hi/lo cells exhibiting strong inhibition of CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro. However, adoptive transfer of these cells failed to alter antigen-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in vivo. Furthermore, MDSC could not prevent the development of autoimmunity in a stringent model of type 1 diabetes. Rather, loading the cells prior to injection with a pancreatic neo-antigen peptide accelerated the development of the disease. Contrastingly, in a model of skin transplantation, repeated injection of MDSC or single injection of LPS-activated MDSC resulted in a significant prolongation of allograft survival. The beneficial effect of MDSC infusions on skin graft survival was paradoxically not explained by a decrease of donor-specific T cell response but associated with a systemic over-activation of T cells and antigen presenting cells, prominently in the spleen. Taken together, our results indicate that in vitro generated MDSC bear therapeutic potential but will require additional in vitro factors or adjunct immunosuppressive treatments to achieve safe and more robust immunomodulation upon adoptive transfer. PMID:24927018

  13. Bone Histology and Primary Growth Rates in Hatchling Titanosaurs from Madagascar: New Insights from Micro-Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, B. C.; Whitney, M.; Rogers, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    Sauropods are the largest known terrestrial vertebrates and exhibit a greater ontogenetic variation in body size than any other taxon. More than 120 species of sauropods are known from the Jurassic and Cretaceous, and a wealth of specimens documents their enormous adult body sizes. Juvenile sauropods, in contrast, are rare. Though titanosaur eggs containing embryos have been recovered, to date the smallest known post-hatching juveniles are only a little less than half of known adult size, and details of the earliest stages of sauropod ontogeny remain particularly poorly understood. Here we report on two partial skeletons of hatchling Rapetosaurus krausei, a titanosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Maevarano Formation of Madagascar, and provide important new data on primary early stage growth rates in sauropods. The two partial skeletons come from different localities in the Anembalemba Member of the Maevarano Formation. There is no duplication of elements for either specimen. Comparison of greatest length ratios for appendicular elements to those of a complete sub-adult Rapetosaurus confirms that there are only two individuals present, that there is no significant allometry in Rapetosaurus postcranial ontogeny, and that each individual is less than 15% adult size. The smaller specimen includes a sacral neural arch, three caudal centra, three caudal neural arches, left pubis, right femur (maximum length [ml] = 19.3 cm), tibia (ml = 12.7 cm), and metacarpal III, left and right fibulae, humeri, and metatarsal I, and a phalanx. The larger specimen includes a caudal centrum and neural arch, right metacarpal I, right tibia (ml = 17.9 cm), and left metacarpal IV. In order to non-destructively sample these exceptional Rapetosaurus juvenile elements, we employed micro-computed tomography to garner bone histology data. The micro-computed tomography was carried out using an X5000 high-resolution microfocus X-ray CT system located in the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota. The microfocus head has a minimum focal spot size of < 6 microns and the detector has a pixel pitch of 74.8 ?m. Machine parameters (e.g. voltage, current, tube to detector distance) vary based on sample size and desired magnification. For this study 70-100 kV (260-370 ?A) was sufficient to penetrate the samples and obtain good contrast. We were able to achieve an effective pixel pitch of 36-48 ?m for the larger samples and 14-28 ?m for sub-volumes. 2-D radiographs were collected and these data were reconstructed to produce a 3-D volume for visual analysis, and slices of the 3-D volume for quantitative analysis. Our results indicate that primary bone growth in Rapetosaurus is highly vascularized woven and fibrolamellar bone. However, even in these very small juvenile individuals, endosteal remodeling is common at the mid-diaphysis and extends in some areas into the mid-cortex. The presence of a single line of arrested growth is recorded in each individual. These results are surprising given the small size of the elements, and support the hypothesis that intensive remodeling observed in the bones of older juvenile Rapetosaurus may be dictated, at least in part, by resource limitations during periods of drought/ecological stress recorded in the Maevarano Formation of Madagascar.

  14. Primary cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease: a B-cell lymphoma of the bone marrow distinct from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Randen, Ulla; Trøen, Gunhild; Tierens, Anne; Steen, Chloé; Warsame, Abdirashid; Beiske, Klaus; Tjønnfjord, Geir E; Berentsen, Sigbjørn; Delabie, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Primary chronic cold agglutinin disease is a rare hemolytic disease mediated by monoclonal IGHV4-34-encoded cold agglutinins with a predominant specificity for the blood group antigen I. Bone marrow from 54 patients was studied to type the underlying lymphoproliferative disorder better. Bone marrow biopsies showed circumscribed intra-parenchymatous nodules with small monotonous monoclonal B cells in 40/54 patients (median infiltration: 10% of marrow cells) with a CD20(+), IgMs(+), IgDs(+), CD27(+), CD5(-/+), CD11c(-), CD23(-), CD38(-) immunophenotype. Neither plasmacytoid cytological features nor expression of plasma cell differentiation-associated transcription factors MUM1, XBP1 and BLIMP1 were noted in these B cells. However, a limited number of mature monoclonal IgM(+), IgD(-) plasma cells were present outside the lymphoid nodules and were diffusely scattered throughout the marrow. Of interest, the MYD88 L265P mutation, typical of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, was not detected (17/17 cases). Somatically mutated monoclonal IGHV4-34 gene rearrangement was demonstrated in eight patients with frozen samples (mean sequence homology 95.4%). However, mutations of BCL6 intron 1 were not demonstrated, except in one patient, suggesting that the lymphoma cells had not matured in the germinal center. In conclusion, cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease displays homogeneous histological and immunophenotypic features. The absence of plasmacytoid cells, the presence of plasma cells predominantly outside the nodular lymphoid infiltrates, IGHV4-34 restriction and absence of MYD88 L265P mutation strongly suggest that cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease is a distinct entity that is different from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. PMID:24143001

  15. Preclinical evaluation of Sunitinib as a single agent in the prophylactic setting in a mouse model of bone metastases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A substantial number of breast cancer patients are identified as being at high risk of developing metastatic disease. With increasing number of targeted therapeutics entering clinical trials, chronic administration of these agents may be a feasible approach for the prevention of metastases within this subgroup of patients. In this preclinical study we examined whether Sunitinib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor which has anti-angiogenic and anti-resorptive activity, is effective in the prevention of bone metastases. Method Sunitinib was administered daily with the first dose commencing prior to tumor cell inoculation. Intracardiac injection was performed with MDA-MB23 bone-seeking cells, which were stably transfected with DsRed2. In vivo plain radiography and fluorescent imaging (Berthold NightOwl) was used in the analysis of bone metastases. Histomorphometry was used for the quantification of TRAP+ cells from bone sections and immunohistochemistry was performed using an antibody reactive to CD34 for quantification of microvessel density. Results Preventive dosing administration of Sunitinib does not inhibit colonization of tumor cells to bone or reduce the size of osteolytic lesions. There was a decrease in the number of TRAP+ cells with Sunitinib treatment but this did not reach significance. Sunitinib inhibited tumor growth as determined by imaging of fluorescent tumor area. Immunohistochemical analyses of microvessel density revealed a concomitant decrease in the number of tumor blood vessels. Conclusions The findings suggest that Sunitinib can be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of bone metastases but as a single agent it is not effective in terms of prevention. Therefore a combination approach with other cytostatic drugs should be pursued. PMID:23347638

  16. "In-bone" utricle cultures -A simplified, atraumatic technique for in situ cultures of the adult mouse (Mus musculus) utricle.

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    . INTRODUCTION Hair cell death and protection are frequently studied with in vitro preparations. In neonatal mice cells and studying hair cell death and protection. Background: The current in vitro technique and atraumatic method for culturing mature mouse utricles and studying hair cell death and protection

  17. "Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the OPG/RANKL system genes in primary hyperparathyroidism and their relationship with bone mineral density"

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) affects mainly cortical bone. It is thought that parathyroid hormone (PTH) indirectly regulates the activity of osteoclasts by means of the osteoprotegerin/ligand of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?? (OPG/RANKL) system. Several studies have confirmed that OPG (osteoprotegerin) and RANKL (ligand of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-??) loci are determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) in the general population. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between fractures and BMD and the rs3102735 (163 A/G), rs3134070 (245 T/G) and rs2073618 (1181 G/C) SNPs of the OPG and the rs2277438 SNP of the RANKL, in patients with sporadic PHPT. Methods We enrolled 298 Caucasian patients with PHPT and 328 healthy volunteers in a cross-sectional study. We analyzed anthropometric data, history of fractures or renal lithiasis, biochemical determinants including markers for bone remodelling, BMD measurements in the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck and distal radius, and genotyping for the SNPs to be studied. Results Regarding the age of diagnosis, BMI, menopause status, frequency of fractures or renal lithiasis, we found no differences between genotypes in any of the SNPs studied in the PHPT group. Significant lower BMD in the distal radius with similar PTH levels was found in the minor allele homozygotes (GG) compared to heterozygotes and major allele homozygotes in both OPG rs3102735 (163 A/G) and OPG rs3134070 (245 T/G) SNPs in those with PHPT compared to control subjects. We found no differences between genotypes of the OPG rs2073618 (1181 G/C) SNP with regard to BMD in the PHPT subjects. In the evaluation of rs2277438 SNP of the RANKL in PHPT patients, we found a non significant trend towards lower BMD in the 1/3 distal radius and at total hip in the minor allele homocygotes (GG) genotype group versus heterocygotes and major allele homocygotes (AA). Conclusions Our study provides the first evaluation of the relationship between SNPs of the OPG/RANK system and sporadic PHPT. Subjects with PHPT and minor homocygote genotype (GG) for the OPG rs3102735 (163 A/G) and OPG rs3134070 (245 T/G) SNPs have lower BMD in the distal radius, and this association does not appear to be mediated by differences in PTH serum levels. PMID:22185226

  18. Thiol-sensitive mast cell lines derived from mouse bone marrow respond to a mast cell growth-enhancing activity different from both IL-3 and IL-4.

    PubMed

    Hültner, L; Moeller, J; Schmitt, E; Jäger, G; Reisbach, G; Ring, J; Dörmer, P

    1989-05-15

    A series of permanent IL-3-dependent cell lines have been established from normal BALB/c or C3H bone marrow using alpha-thioglycerol-supplemented culture medium and PWM-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium as a source of IL-3. The cell lines and derivatives cloned in agar resembled "mucosal type" mast cells with respect to phenotypic and functional properties. In this report we demonstrate that in vitro growth of these mast cell lines was not only dependent on IL-3 and synergistically enhanced by IL-4, but in addition regulated by alpha-thioglycerol which could be replaced by 2-ME or cysteamine. We show that these thiol-sensitive mast cell lines respond to a mast cell growth enhancing activity (MEA) present in spleen cell-conditioned medium and acting in concert with IL-3. Partially purified MEA was not able to stimulate the growth of IL-3-dependent 32Dcl.23 cells, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells or the mouse T cell line F4/4K.6 (L3T4+) adapted to grow in purified IL-4. Moreover, 11B11 hybridoma-derived anti-IL-4 mAb specifically neutralizing mouse Il-4 were unable to abolish the bioactivity of MEA. PWM, CSF-1, GM-CSF, IL-1, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IFN-gamma, TGF-alpha, TNF-alpha, NGF, or EPO did not substitute for MEA in our standard proliferation assay. PMID:2785556

  19. Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-4 on cardiac differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells in serum-free and low-serum media.

    PubMed

    Taha, Masoumeh Fakhr; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh

    2008-06-23

    In spite of previous reports, the precise role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on cardiomyocyte differentiation, especially in the absence or presence of minimum amount of serum in culture medium is still unclear. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of BMP-4 on mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived cardiomyocyte differentiation in serum-free and low-serum media. The mouse ESCs differentiation to cardiomyocytes was induced by embryoid bodies' (EBs') development through hanging drop, suspension and plating stages. Different models of differentiation were designed according to addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or knockout serum replacement (KoSR) to the medium of three stages. 10 ng/ml BMP-4 was added throughout the suspension period. Up to 30 days after plating, contraction and beating frequency were monitored and evaluated daily. The growth characteristics of cardiomyocytes were assessed by cardioactive drugs, immunocytochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the complete absence of serum, neither control nor BMP-4 treated groups resulted in cardiac differentiation. Addition of FBS to hanging drop stage resulted in the appearance of beating cardiac clusters in some BMP-4 treated EBs. In the best designed differentiation model in which only hanging drop and the first 24 h of plating stage was carried out at the presence of FBS, the BMP-4 treatment resulted in cardiac differentiation in EBs characterized by positive immunostaining for the applied antibodies, chronotropic response to the cardioactive drugs and cardiac-specific genes expression at different developmental stages. These cardiomyocytes showed immature myofibrils and numerous intercellular junctions. In conclusion, BMP-4 is unable to induce cardiomyocyte differentiation from mouse ESCs in serum-free models, and at least small amount of FBS in hanging drop stage is necessary. Furthermore, serum factors are not strictly necessary after the initial activation, but they do favor a better differentiation of cardiomyocytes. PMID:17714812

  20. Summary. Primary and secondary bone tumors clearly deteriorate quality of life and the activity of daily living

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    new therapeutic targets. Key words: RANK, RANKL, Bone metastasis, Migration Introduction Cancer is one of the major causes of death all over the world. Bone is a well-known target organ of cancer metastasis, opened new era of bone research. Although RANK is an essential receptor for osteoclast formation

  1. Arsenite Selectively Inhibits Mouse Bone Marrow Lymphoid Progenitor Cell Development In Vivo and In Vitro and Suppresses Humoral Immunity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ezeh, Peace C.; Lauer, Fredine T.; MacKenzie, Debra; McClain, Shea; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Burchiel, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    It is known that exposure to As+3 via drinking water causes a disruption of the immune system and significantly compromises the immune response to infection. The purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of As+3 on bone marrow progenitor cell colony formation and the humoral immune response to a T-dependent antigen response (TDAR) in vivo. In a 30 day drinking water study, mice were exposed to 19, 75, or 300 ppb As+3. There was a decrease in bone marrow cell recovery, but not spleen cell recovery at 300 ppb As+3. In the bone marrow, As+3 altered neither the expression of CD34+ and CD38+ cells, markers of early hematopoietic stem cells, nor CD45?/CD105+, markers of mesenchymal stem cells. Spleen cell surface marker CD45 expression on B cells (CD19+), T cells (CD3+), T helper cells (CD4+) and cytotoxic T cells (CD8+), natural killer (NK+), and macrophages (Mac 1+) were not altered by the 30 day in vivo As+3 exposure. Functional assays of CFU-B colony formation showed significant selective suppression (p<0.05) by 300 ppb As+3 exposure, whereas CFU-GM formation was not altered. The TDAR of the spleen cells was significantly suppressed at 75 and 300 ppb As+3. In vitro studies of the bone marrow revealed a selective suppression of CFU-B by 50 nM As+3 in the absence of apparent cytotoxicity. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA+3) demonstrated a dose-dependent and selective suppression of CFU-B beginning at 5 nM (p<0.05). MMA+3 suppressed CFU-GM formation at 500 nM, a concentration that proved to be nonspecifically cytotoxic. As+5 did not suppress CFU-B and/or CFU-GM in vitro at concentrations up to 500 nM. Collectively, these results demonstrate that As+3 and likely its metabolite (MMA+3) target lymphoid progenitor cells in mouse bone marrow and mature B and T cell activity in the spleen. PMID:24714590

  2. IgE-mediated release of leukotriene C4, chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan, beta-hexosaminidase, and histamine from cultured bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells differentiated in vitro and sensitized with monoclonal IgE respond to antigen-initiated activation with the release of histamine, beta-hexosaminidase, chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan, and leukotriene C4 (LTC4). The chondroitin sulfate E nature of the glycosaminoglycan side chain was established by demonstrating that the chondroitinase ABC disaccharide digestion products were composed of equal quantities of 4-sulfated and 4,6- disulfated N-acetyl-galactosamine. The single immunoreactive sulfidopeptide leukotriene, released and quantitated with a class- specific antibody, was identified as LTC4 by its retention time on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and by its specific spasmogenic activity on the guinea pig ileum. The release of the preformed mediators, as well as of LTC4, was related in a dose- response fashion to the concentration of monoclonal IgE used during the sensitization step and to the concentration of specific antigen used to initiate the activation-secretion response. The optimal concentrations of IgE for sensitization and of antigen for challenge were the same for the release of preformed mediators and of LTC4. In addition, the time courses of their release were superimposable, with a plateau at 5 min after antigen challenge. The release of three preformed mediators and of LTC4 after fixation of IgE, washing of the sensitized cells, and antigen challenge unequivocally indicates a bone marrow-derived mast cell origin for these products. Linear regression analyses of the net percent release of beta-hexosaminidase to histamine and of 35S- chondroitin sulfate E to beta-hexosaminidase yielded straight lines that intersected at the origin, which indicates that the three preformed mediators are localized in the secretory granules of the bone marrow-derived mast cells. The concomitant generation of 23 ng of LTC4/10(6) sensitized bone marrow-derived mast cells represents the first example of IgE-dependent release of substantial amounts of LTC4, a component of slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis, from a mast cell population of greater than 95% purity. The IgE-dependent generation of LTC4, rather than prostaglandin D2, by the chondroitin sulfate E proteoglycan-containing bone marrow-derived mast cells contrasts with the predominant generation of prostaglandin D2 by heparin proteoglycan- containing mast cells. These differences together support the existence of two phenotypically different mast cell subclasses. PMID:6184439

  3. KINETICS OF IN VIVO SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE INDUCTION IN MOUSE BONE MARROW CELLS BY ALKYLATING AGENTS: CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Administration of cyclophosphamide (5, 10, 20 and 25 mg/kg body weight) to male CD-1 mice 2 hours after subcutaneous implantation of a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pellet (55 mg) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in bone marrow cells. Tre...

  4. Raman spectroscopy detects deterioration in biomechanical properties of bone in a glucocorticoid-treated mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. Maher; Masahiko Takahata; Hani A. Awad; Andrew J. Berger

    2011-01-01

    Although glucocorticoids are frequently prescribed for the symptomatic management of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, extended glucocorticoid exposure is the leading cause of physician-induced osteoporosis and leaves patients at a high risk of fracture. To study the biochemical effects of glucocorticoid exposure and how they might affect biomechanical properties of the bone, Raman spectra were acquired from ex vivo

  5. Transplanted bone marrow-derived circulating PDGFR?+ cells restore type VII collagen in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa mouse skin graft.

    PubMed

    Iinuma, Shin; Aikawa, Eriko; Tamai, Katsuto; Fujita, Ryo; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Chino, Takenao; Kikuta, Junichi; McGrath, John A; Uitto, Jouni; Ishii, Masaru; Iizuka, Hajime; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2015-02-15

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is an intractable genetic blistering skin disease in which the epithelial structure easily separates from the underlying dermis because of genetic loss of functional type VII collagen (Col7) in the cutaneous basement membrane zone. Recent studies have demonstrated that allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) ameliorates the skin blistering phenotype of RDEB patients by restoring Col7. However, the exact therapeutic mechanism of BMT in RDEB remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the roles of transplanted bone marrow-derived circulating mesenchymal cells in RDEB (Col7-null) mice. In wild-type mice with prior GFP-BMT after lethal irradiation, lineage-negative/GFP-positive (Lin(-)/GFP(+)) cells, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?-positive (PDGFR?(+)) mesenchymal cells, specifically migrated to skin grafts from RDEB mice and expressed Col7. Vascular endothelial cells and follicular keratinocytes in the deep dermis of the skin grafts expressed SDF-1?, and the bone marrow-derived PDGFR?(+) cells expressed CXCR4 on their surface. Systemic administration of the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 markedly decreased the migration of bone marrow-derived PDGFR?(+) cells into the skin graft, resulting in persistent epidermal detachment with massive necrosis and inflammation in the skin graft of RDEB mice; without AMD3100 administration, Col7 was significantly supplemented to ameliorate the pathogenic blistering phenotype. Collectively, these data suggest that the SDF1?/CXCR4 signaling axis induces transplanted bone marrow-derived circulating PDGFR?(+) mesenchymal cells to migrate and supply functional Col7 to regenerate RDEB skin. PMID:25601922

  6. Bone marrow-derived microglia-based neurturin delivery protects against dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Biju, K C; Santacruz, Rene A; Chen, Cang; Zhou, Qing; Yao, Jiemin; Rohrabaugh, Sara L; Clark, Robert A; Roberts, James L; Phillips, Kimberley A; Imam, Syed Z; Li, Senlin

    2013-02-22

    Although neurotrophic factors have long been recognized as potent agents for protecting against neuronal degeneration, clinical success in treating Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders has been hindered by difficulties in delivery of trophic factors across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell-based gene therapy is emerging as a promising tool for overcoming drug delivery problems, as myeloid cells can cross the BBB and are recruited in large numbers to sites of neurodegeneration, where they become activated microglia that can secrete trophic factors. We tested the efficacy of bone marrow-derived microglial delivery of neurturin (NTN) in protecting dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxin-induced death in mice. Bone marrow cells were transduced ex vivo with lentivirus expressing the NTN gene driven by a synthetic macrophage-specific promoter. Infected bone marrow cells were then collected and transplanted into recipient animals. Eight weeks after transplantation, the mice were injected with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropuridine (MPTP) for seven days to induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Microglia-mediated NTN delivery dramatically ameliorated MPTP-induced degeneration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons of the substantia nigra and their terminals in the striatum. Microglia-mediated NTN delivery also induced significant recovery of synaptic marker staining in the striatum of MPTP-treated animals. Functionally, NTN treatment restored MPTP-induced decline in general activity, rearing behavior, and food intake. Thus, bone marrow-derived microglia can serve as cellular vehicles for sustained delivery of neurotrophic factors capable of mitigating dopaminergic injury. PMID:23295906

  7. Palmitoyl Acyltransferase, Zdhhc13, Facilitates Bone Mass Acquisition by Regulating Postnatal Epiphyseal Development and Endochondral Ossification: A Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Song, I-Wen; Li, Wei-Ru; Chen, Li-Ying; Shen, Li-Fen; Liu, Kai-Ming; Yen, Jeffrey J. Y.; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yu-Ju; Kraus, Virginia Byers; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Lee, M. T. Michael; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    ZDHHC13 is a member of DHHC-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) family of enzymes. It functions by post-translationally adding 16-carbon palmitate to proteins through a thioester linkage. We have previously shown that mice carrying a recessive Zdhhc13 nonsense mutation causing a Zdhcc13 deficiency develop alopecia, amyloidosis and osteoporosis. Our goal was to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of osteoporosis in the context of this mutation in mice. Body size, skeletal structure and trabecular bone were similar in Zdhhc13 WT and mutant mice at birth. Growth retardation and delayed secondary ossification center formation were first observed at day 10 and at 4 weeks of age, disorganization in growth plate structure and osteoporosis became evident in mutant mice. Serial microCT from 4-20 week-olds revealed that Zdhhc13 mutant mice had reduced bone mineral density. Through co-immunoprecipitation and acyl-biotin exchange, MT1-MMP was identified as a direct substrate of ZDHHC13. In cells, reduction of MT1-MMP palmitoylation affected its subcellular distribution and was associated with decreased VEGF and osteocalcin expression in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. In Zdhhc13 mutant mice epiphysis where MT1-MMP was under palmitoylated, VEGF in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocalcin at the cartilage-bone interface were reduced based on immunohistochemical analyses. Our results suggest that Zdhhc13 is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal development and bone mass acquisition. To our knowledge, these are the first data to suggest that ZDHHC13-mediated MT1-MMP palmitoylation is a key modulator of bone homeostasis. These data may provide novel insights into the role of palmitoylation in the pathogenesis of human osteoporosis. PMID:24637783

  8. Development of phenotypic screening assays for ?-globin induction using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Xie, Wensheng; Gore, Elizabeth R; Montoute, Monica N; Bee, Weilin Tiger; Zappacosta, Francesca; Zeng, Xin; Wu, Zining; Kallal, Lorena; Ames, Robert S; Pope, Andrew J; Benowitz, Andrew; Erickson-Miller, Connie L

    2013-12-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder of the ?-globin gene. SCA results in chronic ischemia with pain and tissue injury. The extent of SCA symptoms can be ameliorated by treatment with drugs, which result in increasing the levels of ?-globin in patient red blood cells. Hydroxyurea (HU) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for SCA, but it has dose-limiting toxicity, and patients exhibit highly variable treatment responses. To identify compounds that may lead to the development of better and safer medicines, we have established a method using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) to screen for compounds that induce ?-globin production. First, human marrow CD34(+) cells were cultured and expanded for 7 days and characterized for the expression of erythroid differentiation markers (CD71, CD36, and CD235a). Second, fresh or cryopreserved EPCs were treated with compounds for 3 days in 384-well plates followed by ?-globin quantification by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was validated using HU and decitabine. From the 7408 compounds screened, we identified at least one new compound with confirmed ?-globin-inducing activity. Hits are undergoing analysis in secondary assays. In this article, we describe the method of generating fit-for-purpose EPCs; the development, optimization, and validation of the ELISA and secondary assays for ?-globin detection; and screening results. PMID:24163393

  9. Relevance of the thyroid hormones-?v?3 pathway in primary myeloma bone marrow cells and to bortezomib action.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Keren; Ellis, Martin; Shinderman, Elena; Khoury, Shafik; Davis, Paul J; Hercbergs, Aleck; Ashur-Fabian, Osnat

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) induce proliferation in multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines via the ?v?3 integrin-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. We further show in primary MM bone marrow (BM) samples (n = 9) induction of cell viability by 1 nM T3 (13%, p < 0.002) and more potently by 100 nM T4 (21-45%, p < 0.0002) and a quick (1 h) and long-lasting (24 h) pERK activation, which was inhibited in the presence of ?3 but not ?1 blocking antibodies. Involvement of the integrin was further shown by two disintegrins, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and echistatin peptides, which occluded the effects of T3/T4 on viability, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (proliferation marker) and apoptotic gene expression. Lastly, T3/T4 significantly opposed bortezomib (25 nM) cytotoxicy, as confirmed by several methods. In summary, our results imply that endogenous thyroid hormones in myeloma are factors that may support cell growth, with relevance to bortezomib action. PMID:25058375

  10. Primitive Sca-1 Positive Bone Marrow HSC in Mouse Model of Aplastic Anemia: A Comparative Study through Flowcytometric Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sumanta; Basak, Pratima; Das, Prosun; Das, Madhurima; Pereira, Jacintha Archana; Dutta, Ranjan Kumar; Chaklader, Malay; Chaudhuri, Samaresh; Law, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    Self-renewing Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) are responsible for reconstitution of all blood cell lineages. Sca-1 is the “stem cell antigen” marker used to identify the primitive murine HSC population, the expression of which decreases upon differentiation to other mature cell types. Sca-1+ HSCs maintain the bone marrow stem cell pool throughout the life. Aplastic anemia is a disease considered to involve primary stem cell deficiency and is characterized by severe pancytopenia and a decline in healthy blood cell generation system. Studies conducted in our laboratory revealed that the primitive Sca-1+ BM-HSCs (bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell) are significantly affected in experimental Aplastic animals pretreated with chemotherapeutic drugs (Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide) and there is increased Caspase-3 activity with consecutive high Annexin-V positivity leading to premature apoptosis in the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell population in Aplastic condition. The Sca-1bright, that is, “more primitive” BM-HSC population was more affected than the “less primitive” BM-HSC Sca-1dim? population. The decreased cell population and the receptor expression were directly associated with an empty and deranged marrow microenvironment, which is evident from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The above experimental evidences hint toward the manipulation of receptor expression for the benefit of cytotherapy by primitive stem cell population in Aplastic anemia cases. PMID:21048851

  11. Cell context-specific expression of primary cilia in the human testis and ciliary coordination of Hedgehog signalling in mouse Leydig cells

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Marie Berg; Almstrup, Kristian; Lindbæk, Louise; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Svingen, Terje

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate numerous cellular signalling pathways during development and adulthood. Defects in ciliary assembly or function lead to a series of developmental disorders and diseases commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Still, little is known about the formation and function of primary cilia in the mammalian testis. Here, we characterized primary cilia in adult human testis and report a constitutive expression of cilia in peritubular myoid cells and a dynamic expression of cilia in differentiating Leydig cells. Primary cilia are generally absent from cells of mature seminiferous epithelium, but present in Sertoli cell-only tubules in Klinefelter syndrome testis. Peritubular cells in atrophic testis produce overly long cilia. Furthermore cultures of growth-arrested immature mouse Leydig cells express primary cilia that are enriched in components of Hedgehog signalling, including Smoothened, Patched-1, and GLI2, which are involved in regulating Leydig cell differentiation. Stimulation of Hedgehog signalling increases the localization of Smoothened to the cilium, which is followed by transactivation of the Hedgehog target genes, Gli1 and Ptch1. Our findings provide new information on the spatiotemporal formation of primary cilia in the testis and show that primary cilia in immature Leydig cells mediate Hedgehog signalling. PMID:25992706

  12. Inefficient Type I Interferon-Mediated Antiviral Protection of Primary Mouse Neurons Is Associated with the Lack of Apolipoprotein L9 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kreit, Marguerite; Paul, Sophie; Knoops, Laurent; De Cock, Aurélie; Sorgeloos, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We examined the antiviral response promoted by type I interferons (IFN) in primary mouse neurons. IFN treatment of neuron cultures strongly upregulated the transcription of IFN-stimulated genes but conferred a surprisingly low resistance to infection by neurotropic viruses such as Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Response of primary mouse neurons to IFN treatment was heterogeneous, as many neurons failed to express the typical IFN response marker Mx1 after IFN treatment. This heterogeneous response of primary neurons correlated with a low level of basal expression of IFN-stimulated genes, such as Stat1, that are involved in signal transduction of the IFN response. In addition, transcriptomic analysis identified 15 IFN-responsive genes whose expression was low in IFN-treated primary neurons compared to that of primary fibroblasts derived from the same mice (Dhx58, Gvin1, Sp100, Ifi203 isoforms 1 and 2, Irgm2, Lgals3bp, Ifi205, Apol9b, Ifi204, Ifi202b, Tor3a, Slfn2, Ifi35, Lgals9). Among these genes, the gene coding for apolipoprotein L9b (Apol9b) displayed antiviral activity against Theiler's virus when overexpressed in L929 cells or in primary neurons. Accordingly, knocking down Apol9b expression in L929 cells increased viral replication. Therefore, we identified a new antiviral protein induced by interferon, ApoL9b, whose lack of expression in primary neurons likely contributes to the high sensitivity of these cells to viral infection. IMPORTANCE The type I interferon (IFN) response is an innate immune defense mechanism that is critical to contain viral infection in the host until an adaptive immune response can be mounted. Neurons are a paradigm for postmitotic, highly differentiated cells. Our data show that primary mouse neurons that are exposed to type I interferon remain surprisingly susceptible to viral infection. On one hand, the low level of basal expression of some factors in neurons might prevent a rapid response of these cells. On the other hand, some genes that are typically activated by type I interferon in other cell types are expressed at much lower levels in neurons. Among these genes is the gene encoding apolipoprotein L9, a protein that proved to have antiviral activity against the neurotropic Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. Our data suggest important functional differences in the IFN response mounted by specific cell populations. PMID:24453359

  13. Isotopic analysis of calcium in blood plasma and bone from mouse samples by multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Takafumi; Tanoshima, Mina; Suga, Akinobu; Tanaka, Yu-ki; Nagata, Yuichi; Shinohara, Atsuko; Chiba, Momoko

    2008-01-01

    The biological processing of Ca produces significant stable isotope fractionation. The level of isotopic fractionation can provide key information about the variation in dietary consumption or Ca metabolism. To investigate this, we measured the 43Ca/42Ca and 44Ca/42Ca ratios for bone and blood plasma samples collected from mice of various ages using multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The 44Ca/42Ca ratio in bones was significantly (0.44-0.84 per thousand) lower than the corresponding ratios in the diet, suggesting that Ca was isotopically fractionated during Ca metabolism for bone formation. The resulting 44Ca/42Ca ratios for blood plasma showed almost identical, or slightly higher, values (0.03-0.2 per thousand) than found in a corresponding diet. This indicates that a significant amount of Ca in the blood plasma was from dietary sources. Unlike that discovered for Fe, there were no significant differences in the measured 44Ca/42Ca ratios between female and male specimens (for either bone or blood plasma samples). Similarity, the 44Ca/42Ca ratios suggests that there were no significant differences in Ca dietary consumption or Ca metabolism between female and male specimens. In contrast, the 44Ca/42Ca ratios of blood plasma from mother mice during the lactation period were significantly higher than those for all other adult specimens. This suggests that Ca supplied to infants through lactation was isotopically lighter, and the preferential supply of isotopically lighter Ca resulted in isotopically heavier Ca in blood plasma of mother mice during the lactation period. The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that the Ca isotopic ratio has a potential to become a new tool for evaluating changes in dietary consumption, or Ca metabolism of animals. PMID:18997383

  14. Discrimination of the Hoechst side population in mouse bone marrow with violet and near-ultraviolet laser diodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Telford; Ella G. Frolova

    2004-01-01

    Background: Discrimination of stem cells with flow cy- tometric analysis of Hoechst 33342 efflux by the ABCG2 transporter (termed the Hoechst side population ,o rSP technique) is a valuable methodology for identifying bone marrow progenitors enriched with stem cells. Unfortu- nately, it requires a ultraviolet (UV) laser source, usually necessitating an expensive and maintenance-intensive ar- gon- or krypton-ion gas laser

  15. Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells Attenuate Inflammation in Obliterative Airway Disease in Mouse Tracheal Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Olin D.; Leeman, Kristen; Kim, Carla F.; Gerard, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) remains the most significant cause of death in long-term survival of lung transplantation. Using an established murine heterotopic tracheal allograft model, the effects of different routes of administration of bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) on the development of OB were evaluated. Tracheas from BALB/c mice were implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of major histocompatibility complex- (MHC-) disparate C57BL/6 mice. At the time of transplant, bone marrow-derived MSCs were administered either systemically or locally or via a combination of the two routes. The allografts were explanted at various time points after transplantation and were evaluated for epithelial integrity, inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis, and luminal obliteration. We found that the most effective route of bone marrow-derived MSC administration is the combination of systemic and local delivery. Treatment of recipient mice with MSCs suppressed neutrophil, macrophage, and T-cell infiltration and reduced fibrosis. These beneficial effects were observed despite lack of significant MSC epithelial engraftment or new epithelial cell generation. Our study suggests that optimal combination of systemic and local delivery of MSCs may ameliorate the development of obliterative airway disease through modulation of immune response. PMID:25295064

  16. Mast cell growth-enhancing activity (MEA) stimulates interleukin 6 production in a mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell line and a malignant subline.

    PubMed

    Hültner, L; Moeller, J

    1990-09-01

    A novel mast cell growth-enhancing activity (MEA/P40/interleukin 9 [IL-9]) purified from the conditioned medium of a murine interleukin 2 (IL-2)-dependent Mlsa-specific T-cell line (MLS4.2) was tested for its capacity to induce interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in a mouse bone marrow-derived factor-dependent mast cell line (L138.8A). This interleukin 3 (IL-3)/interleukin 4 (IL-4)/MEA-responsive cell line was demonstrated recently to express IL-6 mRNA and to secrete IL-6 when cultured with IL-3/IL-4. Now we were able to show that conditioned medium from L138.8A mast cells stimulated with MEA alone contained growth factor activity for the IL-6-dependent mouse hybridoma cell line 7TD1 that was completely blocked by the monoclonal anti-IL-6 antibody 6B4. A dose-response study including IL-3, IL-4, and MEA tested either alone or in different combinations revealed that among these growth factors MEA was the most potent inducer of IL-6 in L138.8A cells. Moreover, IL-4 but not IL-3 had a strong synergistic effect on MEA-induced IL-6 production. The autonomous malignant mast cell subline L138Cauto also showed enhanced IL-6 production when stimulated with MEA. Our findings indicate that MEA (IL-9) not only provides a proliferation signal, but also leads to a marked functional activation of responsive mast cells. PMID:2117548

  17. 2Hydroxy1,4-naphthoquinone, the natural dye of Henna, is non-genotoxic in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test and does not produce oxidative DNA damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Marzin; David Kirkland

    2004-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ) has been found positive in a previous chromosome aberration test in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and in a mouse bone marrow micronucleus test at 72h after oral administration (vehicle: DMSO). However it was negative at 24 and 48h sampling times, and in subsequent micronucleus tests that used 0.5% aqueous methyl cellulose (MC) as vehicle. We performed a

  18. A potent and selective p38 inhibitor protects against bone damage in murine collagen-induced arthritis: a comparison with neutralization of mouse TNF?

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, K; Almansa, C; Smeets, R L; Loomans, E E M G; Dulos, J; Vink, P M F; Rooseboom, M; Kreutzer, H; Cavalcanti, F; Boots, A M; Nelissen, R L

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The p38 kinase regulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines including tumour-necrosis factor-? (TNF?) and is regarded as a potential therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Using the novel p38 inhibitor Org 48762-0, we investigated the therapeutic potential of p38 inhibition and compared this to anti-mouse (m)TNF? antibody treatment in murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Experimental approach: Pharmacological profiles of Org 48762-0 were characterized in kinase assays, cellular assays and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in mice. The effects of Org 48762-0 and of mTNF?-neutralization on established arthritis were examined in murine CIA. Key results: Org 48762-0 potently inhibited p38? kinase with a high degree of kinase selectivity. In cellular assays, Org 48762-0 reduced LPS-induced TNF? release. Oral administration of Org 48762-0 in mice showed drug-like pharmacokinetic properties and inhibited LPS-induced cytokine production. These pharmacological characteristics of Org 48762-0 prompted a comparison of therapeutic efficacy with mTNF?-neutralization in CIA. Org 48762-0 and anti-mTNF? antibody treatment equally inhibited development of arthritis when evaluated macroscopically. Radiological analyses revealed protection against bone damage for both treatments, although statistical difference was reached with Org 48762-0 treatment only. Further, micro-computed tomographical and histopathological analyses confirmed the protective effects of Org 48762-0 on joint damage. Conclusions and implications: Pharmacological targeting of p38 kinase provided good protection against joint tissue damage in CIA. In our experiments, neutralization of mTNF? produced less prominent suppression of bone damage. Our data suggest a therapeutic potential for selective and potent p38 inhibitors in RA. PMID:18297096

  19. COMPOUND HETEROZYGOUS LOSS OF Ext1 AND Ext2 IS SUFFICIENT FOR FORMATION OF MULTIPLE EXOSTOSES IN POSTNATAL MOUSE LONG BONES IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Beverly M.; Schuksz, Manuela; Koyama, Eiki; Mundy, Christina; Wells, Daniel E.; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple Hereditary Exostoses (MHE) syndrome is caused by haploinsufficiency in Golgi-associated heparan sulfate polymerases EXT1 or EXT2 and is characterized by formation of exostoses next to growing long bones and other skeletal elements. Recent mouse studies have indicated that formation of stereotypic exostoses requires a complete loss of Ext expression, suggesting that a similar local loss of EXT function may underlie exostosis formation in patients. To further test this possibility and gain greater insights into pathogenic mechanisms, we created heterozygous Ext1+/? and compound Ext1+/?/Ext2+/? mice. Like Ext2+/? mice described previously (Stickens et al. Development 132:5055), Ext1+/? mice displayed rib-associated exostosis-like outgrowths only. However, compound heterozygous mice had nearly twice as many outgrowths and, more importantly, displayed stereotypic growth plate-like exostoses along their long bones. Ext1+/?Ext2+/? exostoses contained very low levels of immuno-detectable heparan sulfate, and Ext1+/?Ext2+/? chondrocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro produced shortened heparan sulfate chains compared to controls and responded less vigorously to exogenous factors such as FGF-18. We also found that rib outgrowths formed in Ext1f/+Col2Cre and Ext1f/+Dermo1Cre mice, suggesting that ectopic skeletal tissue can be induced by conditional Ext ablation in local chondrogenic and/or perichondrial cells. The study indicates that formation of stereotypic exostoses requires a significant, but not complete, loss of Ext expression and that exostosis incidence and phenotype are intimately sensitive to, and inversely related to, Ext expression. The data also indicate that the nature and organization of ectopic tissue may be influenced by site-specific anatomical cues and mechanisms. PMID:21310272

  20. Deflazacort increases osteoclast formation in mouse bone marrow culture and the ratio of RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, H.; Kang, Y. S.; Hwang, C. S.; Moon, I. K.; Yim, C. H.; Choi, K. H.; Han, K. O.; Jang, H. C.; Yoon, H. K.; Han, I. K.

    2001-01-01

    Information on precise effects of deflazacort on bone cell function, especially osteoclasts, is quite limited. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to test effects of deflazacort on osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse bone marrow cultures and on the regulation of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligand (RANKL) mRNA expressions by RT-PCR in the ST2 marrow stromal cells. TRAP-positive mononuclear cells increased after the treatment of deflazacort at 10(-9) to 10(-7) M alone for 6 days in a dose-dependent manner. Number of TRAP-positive multi-nucleated cells (MNCs) increased significantly with combined treatment of deflazacort at 10(-7) M and 1,25-(OH)2D3 at 10(-9) M compared to that of cultures treated with 1,25-(OH)2D3 alone (p<0.05). Exposure to deflazacort at 10(-7) M in the presence of 1,25-(OH)2D3 at 10(-9) M in the last 3-day culture had greater stimulatory effect on osteoclast-like cell formation than that of the first 3-day culture did. Deflazacort at 10(-10) -10(-6) M downregulated OPG and upregulated RANKL in mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. These observations suggest that deflazacort stimulate osteoclast precursor in the absence of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and enhance differentiation of osteoclasts in the presence of 1,25-(OH)2D3. These effects are, in part, thought to be mediated by the regulation of the expression of OPG and RANKL mRNA in marrow stromal cells. PMID:11748360

  1. Mesenchymal stromal cells from primary osteosarcoma are non-malignant and strikingly similar to their bone marrow counterparts.

    PubMed

    Brune, Jan C; Tormin, Ariane; Johansson, Maria C; Rissler, Pehr; Brosjö, Otte; Löfvenberg, Richard; von Steyern, Fredrik Vult; Mertens, Fredrik; Rydholm, Anders; Scheding, Stefan

    2011-07-15

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells that can be isolated from a number of human tissues. In cancer, MSC have been implicated with tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, drug resistance and were even suggested as possible tumor-initiating cells in osteosarcoma (OS). However, MSC from OS and their possible tumor origin have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, primary OS mesenchymal progenitors and OS-derived MSC were studied. OS samples contained very high frequencies of mesenchymal progenitor cells as measured by the colony-forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F) assay (median: 1,117 colonies per 10(5) cells, range: 133-3,000, n = 6). This is considerably higher compared to other human tissues such as normal bone marrow (BM) (1.3 ± 0.2 colonies per 10(5) cells, n = 8). OS-derived MSC (OS-MSC) showed normal MSC morphology and expressed the typical MSC surface marker profile (CD105/CD73/CD90/CD44/HLA-classI/CD166 positive, CD45/CD34/CD14/CD19/HLA-DR/CD31 negative). Furthermore, all OS-MSC samples could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage, and all but one sample into adipocytes and chondrocytes. Genetic analysis of OS-MSC as well as OS-derived spheres showed no tumor-related chromosomal aberrations. OS-MSC expression of markers related to tumor-associated fibroblasts (fibroblast surface protein, alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin) was comparable to BM-MSC and OS-MSC growth was considerably affected by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Taken together, our results demonstrate that normal, non-malignant mesenchymal stroma cells are isolated from OS when MSC culture techniques are applied. OS-MSC represent a major constituent of the tumor microenvironment, and they share many properties with BM-derived MSC. PMID:20878957

  2. Toxic responses in primary rat hepatocytes exposed with occupational dust collected from work environment of bone-based industrial unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iqbal Ahmad; Huma Siddiqui; Mohd Javed Akhtar; Mohd Imran Khan; Govil Patil; Mohd Ashquin; Devendra Kumar Patel; Jamal Mohd Arif

    2011-01-01

    In this in vitro study we investigated the toxic responses in hepatocytes treated with occupational dust to which workers are exposed in bone-based industrial units. The present study investigated the toxicity mechanism of bone-based occupational dust, from a particular industrial unit, on isolated rat hepatocytes. The hepatocytes were isolated by collagenase perfusion method and cell viability was determined by trypan

  3. Adenoviral-mediated TGF-beta1 inhibition in a mouse model of myelofibrosis inhibit bone marrow fibrosis development.

    PubMed

    Gastinne, Thomas; Vigant, Frédéric; Lavenu-Bombled, Cecile; Wagner-Ballon, Orianne; Tulliez, Micheline; Chagraoui, Hédia; Villeval, Jean-Luc; Lacout, Catherine; Perricaudet, Michel; Vainchenker, William; Benihoud, Karim; Giraudier, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    Myelofibrosis is characterized by excessive deposits of extracellular matrix proteins, which occur as a marrow microenvironment reactive response to cytokines released from the clonal malignant myeloproliferation. The observation that mice exposed to high systemic levels of thrombopoietin (TPO) invariably developing myelofibrosis has allowed demonstration of the crucial role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 released by hematopoietic cells in the onset of myelofibrosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether TGF-beta1 inhibition could directly inhibit fibrosis development in a curative approach of this mice model. An adenovirus encoding for TGF-beta1 soluble receptor (TGF-beta-RII-Fc) was injected either shortly after transplantation (preventive) or 30 days post-transplantation (curative). Mice were transplanted with syngenic bone marrow cells transduced with a retrovirus encoding for murine TPO. All mice developed a myeloproliferative syndrome. TGF-beta-RII-Fc was detected in the blood of all treated mice, leading to a dramatic decrease in TGF-beta1 level. Histological analysis show that the two approaches (curative or preventive) were successful enough to inhibit bone marrow and spleen fibrosis development in this model. However, lethality of TPO overexpression was not decreased after treatment, indicating that in this mice model, myeloproliferation rather than fibrosis was probably responsible for the lethality induced by the disorder. PMID:17198875

  4. Acellular Bone Marrow Extracts Significantly Enhance Engraftment Levels of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Mouse Xeno-Transplantation Models

    PubMed Central

    Zibara, Kazem; Hamdan, Rima; Dib, Leila; Sindet-Pedersen, Steen; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed; Bazarbachi, Ali; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) derived from cord blood (CB), bone marrow (BM), or mobilized peripheral blood (PBSC) can differentiate into multiple lineages such as lymphoid, myeloid, erythroid cells and platelets. The local microenvironment is critical to the differentiation of HSCs and to the preservation of their phenotype in vivo. This microenvironment comprises a physical support supplied by the organ matrix as well as tissue specific cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. We investigated the effects of acellular bovine bone marrow extracts (BME) on HSC in vitro and in vivo. We observed a significant increase in the number of myeloid and erythroid colonies in CB mononuclear cells (MNC) or CB CD34+ cells cultured in methylcellulose media supplemented with BME. Similarly, in xeno-transplantation experiments, pretreatment with BME during ex-vivo culture of HSCs induced a significant increase in HSC engraftment in vivo. Indeed, we observed both an increase in the number of differentiated myeloid, lymphoid and erythroid cells and an acceleration of engraftment. These results were obtained using CB MNCs, BM MNCs or CD34+ cells, transplanted in immuno-compromised mice (NOD/SCID or NSG). These findings establish the basis for exploring the use of BME in the expansion of CB HSC prior to HSC Transplantation. This study stresses the importance of the mechanical structure and soluble mediators present in the surrounding niche for the proper activity and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:22768336

  5. Expression of genetically determined diabetes and insulitis in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse at the level of bone marrow-derived cells. Transfer of diabetes and insulitis to nondiabetic (NOD X B10) F1 mice with bone marrow cells from NOD mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, L.S.; Miller, B.J.; Chai, A.; Terada, M.; Mullen, Y.

    1988-06-01

    The development of autoimmune diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is controlled by at least three recessive loci, including one linked to the MHC. To determine whether any of these genetic loci exert their effects via the immune system, radiation bone marrow chimeras were constructed in which (NOD X B10)F1-irradiated recipients were reconstituted with NOD bone marrow cells. Unmanipulated (NOD X B10)F1 mice, or irradiated F1 mice reconstituted with F1 or B10 bone marrow, did not display insulitis or diabetes. In contrast, insulitis was observed in a majority of the NOD----F1 chimeras and diabetes developed in 21% of the mice. These data demonstrate that expression of the diabetic phenotype in the NOD mouse is dependent on NOD-derived hematopoietic stem cells. Diabetogenic genes in the NOD mouse do not appear to function at the level of the insulin-producing beta cells since NOD----F1 chimeras not only developed insulitis and diabetes but also rejected beta cells within pancreas transplants from newborn B10 mice. These data suggest that the beta cells of the NOD mouse do not express a unique antigenic determinant that is the target of the autoimmune response.

  6. Interactive Local Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Whole-Body MRI Mouse Data: A Pilot Study with Applications to Bone and Kidney Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Snoeks, Thomas J. A.; Poot, Dirk H. J.; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.; Botha, Charl P.; Niessen, Wiro J.; van der Weerd, Louise; Meijering, Erik; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.

    2014-01-01

    In small animal imaging studies, when the locations of the micro-structures of interest are unknown a priori, there is a simultaneous need for full-body coverage and high resolution. In MRI, additional requirements to image contrast and acquisition time will often make it impossible to acquire such images directly. Recently, a resolution enhancing post-processing technique called super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) has been demonstrated to improve visualization and localization of micro-structures in small animal MRI by combining multiple low-resolution acquisitions. However, when the field-of-view is large relative to the desired voxel size, solving the SRR problem becomes very expensive, in terms of both memory requirements and computation time. In this paper we introduce a novel local approach to SRR that aims to overcome the computational problems and allow researchers to efficiently explore both global and local characteristics in whole-body small animal MRI. The method integrates state-of-the-art image processing techniques from the areas of articulated atlas-based segmentation, planar reformation, and SRR. A proof-of-concept is provided with two case studies involving CT, BLI, and MRI data of bone and kidney tumors in a mouse model. We show that local SRR-MRI is a computationally efficient complementary imaging modality for the precise characterization of tumor metastases, and that the method provides a feasible high-resolution alternative to conventional MRI. PMID:25265510

  7. Gene therapy cures the anemia and lethal bone marrow failure in a mouse model of RPS19-deficient Diamond-Blackfan anemia

    PubMed Central

    Jaako, Pekka; Debnath, Shubhranshu; Olsson, Karin; Modlich, Ute; Rothe, Michael; Schambach, Axel; Flygare, Johan; Karlsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a congenital erythroid hypoplasia caused by functional haploinsufficiency of genes encoding ribosomal proteins. Mutations involving the ribosomal protein S19 gene are detected in 25% of patients. Enforced expression of ribosomal protein S19 improves the overall proliferative capacity, erythroid colony-forming potential and erythroid differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors from ribosomal protein S19-deficient patients in vitro and in vivo following xenotransplantation. However, studies using animal models are needed to assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the viral vectors. In the present study we have validated the therapeutic potential of gene therapy using mouse models of ribosomal protein S19-deficient Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Using lentiviral gene transfer we demonstrated that enforced expression of ribosomal protein S19 cures the anemia and lethal bone marrow failure in recipients transplanted with ribosomal protein S19-deficient cells. Furthermore, gene-corrected ribosomal protein S19-deficient cells showed an increased pan-hematopoietic contribution over time compared to untransduced cells without signs of vector-mediated toxicity. Our study provides a proof of principle for the development of clinical gene therapy to cure ribosomal protein 19-deficient Diamond-Blackfan anemia. PMID:25216681

  8. Hyperphosphatemia-induced nanocrystals upregulate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin genes in mouse smooth muscle cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Andrew P.; Lu, Jinxiu; Tintut, Yin; Demer, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular calcification, which contributes to cardiovascular disease in patients with uremic hyperphosphatemia, is associated with vascular cell expression of osteogenic genes, including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and osteopontin (OPN). High inorganic phosphate levels in vitro stimulate the osteogenic conversion of smooth muscle cells; however, the mechanism governing this is not clear. We found that high-phosphate medium increased the expression of BMP-2 and OPN in mouse smooth muscle cells in culture. However, this effect was lost in the presence of the mineralization inhibitor, pyrophosphate, suggesting a contribution of calcium phosphate crystals. Addition of 1–2 mmol/l phosphate alone to growth medium was sufficient to induce nanosized crystals after 1 day at 37 °C. Isolated crystals were about 160 nm in diameter and had a calcium to phosphate ratio of 1.35, consistent with the hydroxyapatite precursor octacalcium phosphate. Nanocrystal formation increased fourfold in the absence of serum, was blocked by fetuin-A, and was dependent on time and on the concentrations of phosphate and calcium. Purified synthetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and isolated high-phosphate-induced nanocrystals, but not nanocrystal-free high-phosphate medium, also induced BMP-2 and OPN. Thus, our results suggest that BMP-2 and OPN are induced by calcium phosphate nanocrystals, rather than soluble phosphate. This mechanism may contribute, in part, to hyperphosphatemia-related vascular cell differentiation and calcification. PMID:20944546

  9. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Improve the Mouse Liver after Acute Acetaminophen Intoxication by Preventing Progress of Injury

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Peggy; Brückner, Sandra; Winkler, Sandra; Dollinger, Matthias M.; Christ, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC) have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC) and transplanted into livers of immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2?/? mice treated with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP) to induce acute liver injury. APAP induced a time- and dose-dependent damage of perivenous areas of the liver lobule. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased to similar levels irrespective of hMSC-HC transplantation. Yet, hMSC-HC resided in the damaged perivenous areas of the liver lobules short-term preventing apoptosis and thus progress of organ destruction. Disturbance of metabolic protein expression was lower in the livers receiving hMSC-HC. Seven weeks after APAP treatment, hepatic injury had completely recovered in groups both with and without hMSC-HC. Clusters of transplanted cells appeared predominantly in the periportal portion of the liver lobule and secreted human albumin featuring a prominent quality of differentiated hepatocytes. Thus, hMSC-HC attenuated the inflammatory response and supported liver regeneration after acute injury induced by acetaminophen. They hence may serve as a novel source of hepatocyte-like cells suitable for cell therapy of acute liver diseases. PMID:24758938

  10. Hematopoietic effect of ginsenoside Rg3 in ICR mouse primary cultures and its application to a biological response modifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Joo; T. J. Won; M. S. Kim; D. I. Lee

    2004-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3, which is obtained as a by-product during the steaming of red ginseng, at 300 ?g\\/ml enhanced the proliferation of the total spleen and bone marrow (BM) cells in both the cyclophosphamide (CYC)-treated and non-CYC-treated groups.

  11. The effect of fresh bone marrow cells on reconstruction of mouse calvarial defect combined with calvarial osteoprogenitor cells and collagen/apatite scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaohua; Wang, Liping; Peng, Fei; Jiang, Xi; Xia, Zengmin; Huang, Jianping; Rowe, David; Wei, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Fresh bone marrow cells have already exhibited its advantages as osteogenic donor cells, but the combination between fresh bone marrow cells and other donor cells utilized for bone healing has not been fully explored. To highlight the impact of fresh bone marrow cells on scaffold-based bone regeneration, single or a combination of calvarial osteoprogenitor cells (OPC) and bone marrow cells (BMC) were used as donor cells combined with collagen/apatite scaffold for calravieal defect healing. The host and donor contributions to bone formation were assessed using histological and GFP imaging analysis. Although the amount of new bone formed by different cell sources did not show significant differences, the origin of the bone formation in the defects mainly depended on the types of donor cells employed: when only calvarial OPC were used as donor cells, a donor-derived bone healing instead of host-derived bone ingrowth was observed; when only fresh BMC were loaded, the host bone could grow into the defect along the lamellar structure of the scaffolds, but the amount of new bone formed was significantly lower than the defect loaded with calvarial OPC only. The combination of calvarial OPC and fresh BMC had similar amount of new bone formation as the group loaded with calvarial osteoprogenitors alone, but did not induce any host-derived bone formation. These results provide compelling evidence of the importance of fresh BMC to induce host-implant integration in bone tissue engineering. PMID:22473786

  12. Mobilization of endogenous bone marrow-derived stem cells in a thioacetamide-induced mouse model of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    El-Akabawy, Gehan; El-Mehi, Abeer

    2015-06-01

    The clinical significance of enhancing endogenous circulating haematopoietic stem cells is becoming increasingly recognized, and the augmentation of circulating stem cells using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has led to promising preclinical and clinical results for several liver fibrotic conditions. However, this approach is largely limited by cost and the infeasibility of maintaining long-term administration. Preclinical studies have reported that StemEnhance, a mild haematopoietic stem cell mobilizer, promotes cardiac muscle regeneration and remedies the manifestation of diabetes. However, the effectiveness of StemEnhance in ameliorating liver cirrhosis has not been studied. This study is the first to evaluate the beneficial effect of StemEnhance administration in a thioacetamide-induced mouse model of liver fibrosis. StemEnhance augmented the number of peripheral CD34-positive cells, reduced hepatic fibrosis, improved histopathological changes, and induced endogenous liver proliferation. In addition, VEGF expression was up-regulated, while TNF-? expression was down-regulated in thioacetamide-induced fibrotic livers after StemEnhance intake. These data suggest that StemEnhance may be useful as a potential therapeutic candidate for liver fibrosis by inducing reparative effects via mobilization of haematopoietic stem cells. PMID:25857836

  13. Osteoblast-specific expression of the fibrous dysplasia (FD)-causing mutation Gs?(R201C) produces a high bone mass phenotype but does not reproduce FD in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Remoli, Cristina; Michienzi, Stefano; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Consiglio, Alberto Di; Cersosimo, Stefania; Spica, Emanuela; Robey, Pamela G; Holmbeck, Kenn; Cumano, Ana; Boyde, Alan; Davis, Graham; Saggio, Isabella; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    We recently reported the generation and initial characterization of the first direct model of human fibrous dysplasia (FD; OMIM #174800), obtained through the constitutive systemic expression of one of the disease-causing mutations, Gs?(R201C) , in the mouse. To define the specific pathogenetic role(s) of individual cell types within the stromal/osteogenic system in FD, we generated mice expressing Gs?(R201C) selectively in mature osteoblasts using the 2.3kb Col1a1 promoter. We show here that this results in a striking high bone mass phenotype but not in a mimicry of human FD. The high bone mass phenotype involves specifically a deforming excess of cortical bone and prolonged and ectopic cortical bone remodeling. Expression of genes characteristic of late stages of bone cell differentiation/maturation is profoundly altered as a result of expression of Gs?(R201C) in osteoblasts, and expression of the Wnt inhibitor Sost is reduced. Although high bone mass is, in fact, a feature of some types/stages of FD lesions in humans, it is marrow fibrosis, localized loss of adipocytes and hematopoietic tissue, osteomalacia, and osteolytic changes that together represent the characteristic pathological profile of FD, as well as the sources of specific morbidity. None of these features are reproduced in mice with osteoblast-specific expression of Gs?(R201C) . We further show that hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells, as well as more mature cell compartments, and adipocyte development are normal in these mice. These data demonstrate that effects of Gs? mutations underpinning FD-defining tissue changes and morbidity do not reflect the effects of the mutations on osteoblasts proper. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25487351

  14. The measurement of urinary amino-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen to monitor bone resorption in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Minisola, S; Pacitti, M T; Rosso, R; Pellegrino, C; Ombricolo, E; Pisani, D; Romagnoli, E; Damiani, C; Aliberti, G; Scarda, A; Mazzuoli, S F

    1997-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to evaluate clinical usefulness of cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) of type I collagen determination, in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-six consecutive patients (6 males and 20 females, aged 56.3 +/- 15.0, SD, yrs) with primary hyperparathyroidism were studied in basal conditions and, ten of them, after surgical cure of the disease. Cross-linked collagen peptides were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and conventional markers of bone turnover according to standard procedures. Bone densitometry at the lumbar spine and proximal femur was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone mineral density, was also assessed at the junction of the distal and middle third of the radius and at the ultradistal radius of the non-dominant arm by a dual photon densitometer. Mean urinary NTx values (194.2 +/- 121.9 pmoles bone collagen equivalents/mumoles creatinine) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in respect to those found in normal subjects. The mean increase of Z score values of both serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity (1.4 +/- 1.8) and the fasting hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (1.45 +/- 2.0) was significantly lower (p < 0.02) in respect to that of NTx Z score values (3.3 +/- 3.3); the latter values were not significantly different than mean Z score values of serum osteocalcin (4.0 +/- 3.9), serum alkaline phosphatase activity (2.6 +/- 2.6) and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (3.2 +/- 3.3). We found a significant inverse correlation between NTx values and both lumbar spine (p < 0.01) and ultradistal radius bone mineral density (p < 0.05); a modest inverse correlation was also observed between serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity and lumbar spine bone mineral density (p < 0.04). Following successful adenoma removal, the percentage decrease of both NTx and hydroxyproline was similar in patients with increased bone turnover rate; major discrepancies were observed in patients with normal values of NTx, the telopeptide reduction being greater than that of hydroxyproline. Finally, in a hypercalcemic patient with metastatic parathyroid cancer, telopeptide excretion was shown to be more sensitive in respect to urinary hydroxyproline when evaluating the effects of antiresorptive therapy. Our results seem to indicate that amongst the markers with good sensitivity, NTx is the only one that is inversely related with bone mineral density at two different skeletal sites. This assay should therefore have a place in both the initial screening and medical follow-up of patients with this glandular disorder; in fact, in both situations an increased urinary excretion of this marker should warn about the possibility of hidden bone loss. PMID:9413811

  15. Correlation between primary stability and bone healing of surface treated titanium implants in the femoral epiphyses of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rozé, Julie; Hoornaert, Alain; Layrolle, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the stability and osseointegration of surface treated titanium implants in rabbit femurs. The implants were either grit-blasted and acid-etched (BE Group), calcium phosphate (CaP) coated by using the electrodeposition technique, or had bioactive molecules incorporated into the CaP coatings: either cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or dexamethasone (Dex). Twenty four cylindrical titanium implants (n = 6/group) were inserted bilaterally into the femoral epiphyses of New Zealand White, female, adult rabbits for 4 weeks. Implant stability was measured by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) the day of implantation and 4 weeks later, and correlated to histomorphometric parameters, bone implant contact (BIC) and bone growth around the implants (BS/TS 0.5 mm). The BIC values for the four groups were not significantly different. That said, histology indicated that the CaP coatings improved bone growth around the implants. The incorporation of bioactive molecules (cAMP and Dex) into the CaP coatings did not improve bone growth compared to the BE group. Implant stability quotients (ISQ) increased in each group after 4 weeks of healing but were not significantly different between the groups. A good correlation was observed between ISQ and BS/TS 0.5 mm indicating that RFA is a non-invasive method that can be used to assess the osseointegration of implants. In conclusion, the CaP coating enhanced bone formation around the implants, which was correlated to stability measured by resonance frequency analysis. Furthers studies need to be conducted in order to explore the benefits of incorporating bioactive molecules into the coatings for peri-implant bone healing. PMID:24818874

  16. Cooperation by Fibroblasts and Bone Marrow-Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Improve Pancreatic Rat-to-Mouse Islet Xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Meana, Alvaro; Otero, Jesus; Esteban, Manuel M.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental and clinical experiences highlight the need to review some aspects of islet transplantation, especially with regard to site of grafting and control of the immune response. The subcutaneous space could be a good alternative to liver but its sparse vasculature is its main limitation. Induction of graft tolerance by using cells with immunoregulatory properties is a promising approach to avoid graft rejection. Both Fibroblasts and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have shown pro-angiogenic and immunomodulatory properties. Transplantation of islets into the subcutaneous space using plasma as scaffold and supplemented with fibroblasts and/or Bone Marrow-MSCs could be a promising strategy to achieve a functional extra-hepatic islet graft, without using immunosuppressive drugs. Xenogenic rat islets, autologous fibroblasts and/or allogenic BM-MSCs, were mixed with plasma, and coagulation was induced to constitute a Plasma-based Scaffold containing Islets (PSI), which was transplanted subcutaneously both in immunodeficient and immunocompetent diabetic mice. In immunodeficient diabetic mice, PSI itself allowed hyperglycemia reversion temporarily, but the presence of pro-angiogenic cells (fibroblasts or BM-MSCs) within PSI was necessary to improve graft re-vascularization and, thus, consistently maintain normoglycemia. In immunocompetent diabetic mice, only PSI containing BM-MSCs, but not those containing fibroblasts, normalized glycemia lasting up to one week after transplantation. Interestingly, when PSI contained both fibroblasts and BM-MSCs, the normoglycemia period showed an increase of 4-times with a physiological-like response in functional tests. Histology of immunocompetent mice showed an attenuation of the immune response in those grafts with BM-MSCs, which was improved by co-transplantation with fibroblasts, since they increased BM-MSC survival. In summary, fibroblasts and BM-MSCs showed similar pro-angiogenic properties in this model of islet xenotransplantation, whereas only BM-MSCs exerted an immunomodulatory effect, which was improved by the presence of fibroblasts. These results suggest that cooperation of different cell types with islets will be required to achieve a long-term functional graft. PMID:24009755

  17. Effect of acute hypoxia on CXCR4 gene expression in C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kadivar, Mehdi; Alijani, Najva; Farahmandfar, Maryam; Rahmati, Saman; Ghahhari, Nastaran Mohammadi; Mahdian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the most important stimuli in stem cell biology is oxygen. Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) plays a crucial role in the migration and homing of stem cells. In this study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were exposed to 1% oxygen to investigate the effect of acute hypoxia on CXCR4 gene expression. Materials and Methods: MSCs were isolated from C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow and were identified and expanded in normoxic culture. Cells were incubated at 37°C under 1% hypoxic conditions for periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h. After hypoxia preconditioning, the cells were placed in normoxic condition for 8 h to achieve cellular hypoxia-reoxygenation. To assess the level of CXCR4 gene expression, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out for each group. Results: Data from statistical analysis illustrated that exposure of MSCs to acute hypoxic condition down-regulates CXCR4 expression with the maximum under-expression observed in 4 h (0.91 ± 0.107) and 8 h (50 ± 2.98) groups. Moreover, the relative gene expression of CXCR4 was decreased after hypoxia-reoxygenation by more than 80% in 4 h (0.136 ± 0.018) and 24 h (12.77 ± 0.707) groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that CXCR4 expression in MSCs decreases upon acute hypoxic stress. Furthermore, hypoxia-reoxygenated MSCs showed decreased expression of CXCR4, compared to cells subjected to acute hypoxia. This difference could have resulted from the cells being compatible with low oxygen metabolism. In summary, before the therapeutic application of MSCs, it should be regarded as a necessity to optimize the oxygen concentration in these cells, as it is a critical factor in modulating CXCR4 expression. PMID:25538908

  18. Inhibition of DPP4/CD26 and dmPGE2 treatment enhances engraftment of mouse bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Broxmeyer, Hal E.; Pelus, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing the engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is especially important when times to engraftment are prolonged due either to limiting numbers of HSC in the donor graft or to intrinsic slower engrafting time of the tissue sources of HSC. Both inhibition of Dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP) 4/CD26 and treatment of cells with 16,16 dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) have been shown to enhance hematopoietic stem cell engraftment in murine transplantation models and have been evaluated in clinical settings for their influence on engraftment of cord blood cells, a tissue source of HSC known to manifest an extended time to engraftment of donor cells compared to that of bone marrow (BM) and mobilized peripheral blood for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Herein, we present new experimental data, using a CD45+ head-to head congenic model of donor mouse BM cells for engraftment of lethally-irradiated mice, demonstrating that similar levels of enhanced engraftment are detected by pulsing donor BM cells with Diprotin A, a DPP4 inhibitor, or with dmPGE2 prior to infusion, or by pretreating recipient mice with sitagliptin, also a DPP4 inhibitor, by oral gavage. Moreover, the combined effects of pretreating the donor BM cells with dmPGE2 in context of pretreating the recipient mice with sitagliptin after administration of a lethal dose of radiation resulted in significantly enhanced competitively repopulating HCT compared to either treatment alone. This information is highly relevant to the goal of enhancing engraftment in human clinical HCT. PMID:24602918

  19. A novel Cre recombinase reporter mouse strain facilitates selective and efficient infection of primary immune cells with adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Heger, Klaus; Kober, Maike; Rieß, David; Drees, Christoph; de Vries, Ingrid; Bertossi, Arianna; Roers, Axel; Sixt, Michael; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Replication-deficient recombinant adenoviruses are potent vectors for the efficient transient expression of exogenous genes in resting immune cells. However, most leukocytes are refractory to efficient adenoviral transduction as they lack expression of the coxsackie/adenovirus receptor (CAR). To circumvent this obstacle, we generated the R26/CAG-CAR?1(StopF) (where R26 is ROSA26 and CAG is CMV early enhancer/chicken ? actin promoter) knock-in mouse line. This strain allows monitoring of in situ Cre recombinase activity through expression of CAR?1. Simultaneously, CAR?1 expression permits selective and highly efficient adenoviral transduction of immune cell populations, such as mast cells or T cells, directly ex vivo in bulk cultures without prior cell purification or activation. Furthermore, we show that CAR?1 expression dramatically improves adenoviral infection of in vitro differentiated conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs), basophils, mast cells, as well as Hoxb8-immortalized hematopoietic progenitor cells. This novel dual function mouse strain will hence be a valuable tool to rapidly dissect the function of specific genes in leukocyte physiology. PMID:25787118

  20. Maxi-anion channel as a candidate pathway for osmosensitive ATP release from mouse astrocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Tao; Toychiev, Abduqodir H; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Sabirov, Ravshan Z; Okada, Yasunobu

    2008-05-01

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the pathways contributing to ATP release from mouse astrocytes during hypoosmotic stress. We first examined the expression of mRNAs for proteins constituting possible ATP-releasing pathways that have been suggested over the past several years. In RT-PCR analysis using both control and osmotically swollen astrocytes, amplification of cDNA fragments of expected size was seen for connexins (Cx32, Cx37, Cx43), pannexin 1 (Px1), the P2X7 receptor, MRP1 and MDR1, but not CFTR. Inhibitors of exocytotic vesicular release, gap junction hemi-channels, CFTR, MRP1, MDR1, the P2X7 receptor, and volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channels had no significant effects on the massive ATP release from astrocytes. In contrast, the hypotonicity-induced ATP release from astrocytes was most effectively inhibited by gadolinium (50 muM), an inhibitor of the maxi-anion channel, which has recently been shown to serve as a pathway for ATP release from several other cell types. Thus, we propose that the maxi-anion channel constitutes a major pathway for swelling-induced ATP release from cultured mouse astrocytes as well. PMID:18414449

  1. Six1 and Six4 gene expression is necessary to activate the fast-type muscle gene program in the mouse primary myotome.

    PubMed

    Niro, Claire; Demignon, Josiane; Vincent, Stéphane; Liu, Yubing; Giordani, Julien; Sgarioto, Nicolas; Favier, Maryline; Guillet-Deniau, Isabelle; Blais, Alexandre; Maire, Pascal

    2010-02-15

    While the signaling pathways and transcription factors active in adult slow- and fast-type muscles begin to be characterized, genesis of muscle fiber-type diversity during mammalian development remains unexplained. We provide evidence showing that Six homeoproteins are required to activate the fast-type muscle program in the mouse primary myotome. Affymetrix transcriptomal analysis of Six1(-/-)Six4(-/-) E10.5 somites revealed the specific down-regulation of many genes of the fast-type muscle program. This data was confirmed by in situ hybridization performed on Six1(-/-)Six4(-/-) embryos. The first mouse myocytes express both fast-type and slow-type muscle genes. In these fibers, Six1 and Six4 expression is required to specifically activate fast-type muscle genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirm the binding of Six1 and Six4 on the regulatory regions of these muscle genes, and transfection experiments show the ability of these homeoproteins to activate specifically identified fast-type muscle genes. This in vivo wide transcriptomal analysis of the function of the master myogenic determinants, Six, identifies them as novel markers for the differential activation of a specific muscle program during mammalian somitic myogenesis. PMID:19962975

  2. Determination of effective rAAV-mediated gene transfer conditions to support chondrogenic differentiation processes in human primary bone marrow aspirates.

    PubMed

    Rey-Rico, A; Frisch, J; Venkatesan, J K; Schmitt, G; Madry, H; Cucchiarini, M

    2015-01-01

    The genetic modification of freshly aspirated bone marrow may provide convenient tools to enhance the regenerative capacities of cartilage defects compared with the complex manipulation of isolated progenitor cells. In the present study, we examined the ability and safety of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 2 vectors to deliver various reporter gene sequences in primary human bone marrow aspirates over time without altering the chondrogenic processes in the samples. The results demonstrate that successful rAAV-mediated gene transfer and expression of the lacZ and red fluorescent protein marker genes were achieved in transduced aspirates at very high efficiencies (90-94%) and over extended periods of time (up to 125 days) upon treatment with hirudin, an alternative anticoagulant that does not prevent the adsorption of the rAAV-2 particles at the surface of their targets compared with heparin. Application of rAAV was safe, displaying neither cytotoxic nor detrimental effects on the cellular and proliferative activities or on the chondrogenic processes in the aspirates especially using an optimal dose of 0.5?mg?ml(-1) hirudin, and application of the potent SOX9 transcription factor even enhanced these processes while counteracting hypertrophic differentiation. The current findings demonstrate the clinical value of this class of vector to durably and safely modify bone marrow aspirates as a means to further develop convenient therapeutic approaches to improve the healing of cartilage defects. PMID:25338919

  3. Treatment of primary tumours of bone and cartilage by extracorporeal irradiation with a low energy high power electron linac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Mondelaers; K. van Laere; D. Uyttendaele

    1993-01-01

    At the Gent University, a promising treatment in bone and cartilage tumours therapy is applied: resection of the affected specimen, extracorporeal photon irradiation to a dose of 300 Gy, produced with a 15 MeV medium duty factor electron linac, and reimplantation. This radiotherapeutical treatment technique is presented, with emphasis on the accelerator related aspects. The design and construction of the

  4. Prostate cancer metastatic to bone has higher expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) than primary prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Xu, Xiaojun; Li, Bo; Brown, Edward; Farris, Alton B.; Sun, Shi-Yong; Yang, Jenny J.

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the principal regulator of the secretion of parathyroid hormone and plays key roles in extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) homeostasis. It is also thought to participate in the development of cancer, especially bony metastases of breast and prostate cancer. However, the expression of CaSR has not been systematically analyzed in prostate cancer from patients with or without bony metastases. By comparing human prostate cancer tissue sections in microarrays, we found that the CaSR was expressed in both normal prostate and primary prostate cancer as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We used two methods to analyze the expression level of CaSR. One was the pathological score read by a pathologist, the other was the positivity% obtained from the Aperio positive pixel count algorithm. Both of the methods gave consistent results. Metastatic prostate cancer tissue obtained from bone had higher CaSR expression than primary prostate cancer (P <0.05). The expression of CaSR in primary prostate cancers of patients with metastases to tissues other than bone was not different from that in primary prostate cancer of patients with or without bony metastases (P >0.05). The expression of CaSR in cancer tissue was not associated with the stage or status of differentiation of the cancer. These results suggest that CaSR may have a role in promoting bony metastasis of prostate cancer, hence raising the possibility of reducing the risk of such metastases with CaSR-based therapeutics.

  5. Optimization of a Widefield Structured Illumination Microscope for Non-Destructive Assessment and Quantification of Nuclear Features in Tumor Margins of a Primary Mouse Model of Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Henry L.; Mueller, Jenna L.; Javid, Melodi P.; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Kirsch, David G.; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Brown, J. Quincy

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is associated with specific cellular morphological changes, such as increased nuclear size and crowding from rapidly proliferating cells. In situ tissue imaging using fluorescent stains may be useful for intraoperative detection of residual cancer in surgical tumor margins. We developed a widefield fluorescence structured illumination microscope (SIM) system with a single-shot FOV of 2.1×1.6 mm (3.4 mm2) and sub-cellular resolution (4.4 µm). The objectives of this work were to measure the relationship between illumination pattern frequency and optical sectioning strength and signal-to-noise ratio in turbid (i.e. thick) samples for selection of the optimum frequency, and to determine feasibility for detecting residual cancer on tumor resection margins, using a genetically engineered primary mouse model of sarcoma. The SIM system was tested in tissue mimicking solid phantoms with various scattering levels to determine impact of both turbidity and illumination frequency on two SIM metrics, optical section thickness and modulation depth. To demonstrate preclinical feasibility, ex vivo 50 µm frozen sections and fresh intact thick tissue samples excised from a primary mouse model of sarcoma were stained with acridine orange, which stains cell nuclei, skeletal muscle, and collagenous stroma. The cell nuclei were segmented using a high-pass filter algorithm, which allowed quantification of nuclear density. The results showed that the optimal illumination frequency was 31.7 µm?1 used in conjunction with a 4×0.1 NA objective (?=?0.165). This yielded an optical section thickness of 128 µm and an 8.9×contrast enhancement over uniform illumination. We successfully demonstrated the ability to resolve cell nuclei in situ achieved via SIM, which allowed segmentation of nuclei from heterogeneous tissues in the presence of considerable background fluorescence. Specifically, we demonstrate that optical sectioning of fresh intact thick tissues performed equivalently in regards to nuclear density quantification, to physical frozen sectioning and standard microscopy. PMID:23894357

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Multipotential Mesenchymal Cells from the Mouse Synovium

    PubMed Central

    Futami, Ippei; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Ichikawa-Tomikawa, Naoki; Sadatsuki, Ryo; Muneta, Takeshi; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Sekiya, Ichiro; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    The human synovium contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are multipotential non-hematopoietic progenitor cells that can differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal lineages and they may therefore be a candidate cell source for tissue repair. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this can occur are still largely unknown. Mouse primary cell culture enables us to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying various phenomena because it allows for relatively easy gene manipulation, which is indispensable for the molecular analysis. However, mouse synovial mesenchymal cells (SMCs) have not been established, although rabbit, cow, and rat SMCs are available, in addition to human MSCs. The aim of this study was to establish methods to harvest the synovium and to isolate and culture primary SMCs from mice. As the mouse SMCs were not able to be harvested and isolated using the same protocol for human, rat and rabbit SMCs, the protocol for humans was modified for SMCs from the Balb/c mouse knee joint. The mouse SMCs obtained showed superior proliferative potential, growth kinetics and colony formation compared to cells derived from muscle and bone marrow. They expressed PDGFRá and Sca-1 detected by flow cytometry, and showed an osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic potential similar or superior to the cells derived from muscle and bone marrow by demonstrating in vitro osteogenesis, adipogenesis and chondrogenesis. In conclusion, we established a primary mouse synovial cell culture method. The cells derived from the mouse synovium demonstrated both the ability to proliferate and multipotentiality similar or superior to the cells derived from muscle and bone marrow. PMID:23029067

  7. Abnormal metal levels in the primary visual pathway of the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    DeToma, Alaina S.; Dengler-Crish, Christine M.; Deb, Aniruddha; Braymer, Joseph J.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; van der Schyf, Cornelis J.; Lim, Mi Hee; Crish, Samuel D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine metal ion levels in central visual system structures of the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and calcium (Ca) in the retina and retinal projection of 5-month (pre-glaucomatous) and 10-month (glaucomatous) old DBA/2J mice and age-matched C57BL/6J controls. We used microbeam X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) spectrometry to determine the spatial distribution of Fe, Zn, and Cu in the superior colliculus (SC), which is the major retinal target in rodents and one of the earliest sites of pathology in the DBA/2J mouse. Our ICP-MS experiments showed that glaucomatous DBA/2J had lower retinal Fe concentrations than pre-glaucomatous DBA/2J and age-matched C57BL/6J mice. Pre-glaucomatous DBA/2J retina had greater Mg, Ca, and Zn concentrations than glaucomatous DBA/2J and greater Mg and Ca than age-matched controls. Retinal Mn levels were significantly deficient in glaucomatous DBA/2J mice compared to aged-matched C57BL/6J and pre-glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. Regardless of age, the SC of C57BL/6J mice contained greater Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentrations than the SC of DBA/2J mice. Greater Fe concentrations were measured by ?-XRF in both the superficial and deep SC of C57BL/6J mice than in DBA/2J mice. For the first time, we show direct measurement of metal concentrations in central visual system structures affected in glaucoma and present evidence for strain-related differences in metal content that may be specific to glaucomatous pathology. PMID:25190614

  8. Activities of Azithromycin and Amphotericin B against Naegleria fowleri In Vitro and in a Mouse Model of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon M. Goswick; George M. Brenner

    2007-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is responsible for producing a rapidly fatal central nervous system infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). To date, amphotericin B, an antifungal agent, is the only agent with established clinical efficacy in the treatment of PAM. However, amphotericin B is not always successful in treating PAM and is associated with severe adverse effects. We previously found azithromycin

  9. Overexpression of p53 protein in primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone: relationship to tumour stage, response and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Abudu, A; Mangham, D C; Reynolds, G M; Pynsent, P B; Tillman, R M; Carter, S R; Grimer, R J

    1999-01-01

    Biopsy tissues of 52 patients with Ewing's sarcoma of bone treated between 1983 and 1993 were examined immunohistochemically to determine the significance of p53 protein in diagnosis and prognosis of Ewing's sarcoma. Mean age at diagnosis was 17 years (range 6–36) and minimum follow-up was 30 months. The tumours were located in the extremities and central bones in 35 and 17 patients respectively. Metastases were present in seven patients at diagnosis. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy, surgery and/or radiotherapy in all the patients. Overexpression of p53 protein was demonstrated in seven patients (14%). There was no relationship between expression of p53 and site of tumours. Patients who overexpressed p53 protein appeared to have more advanced diseases at diagnosis and poorer response to chemotherapy than those without p53 overexpression. The 5-year relapse-free survival and overall survival in patients without metastases at the time of diagnosis were 66% and 71%, respectively, in p53 protein-negative patients compared with 20% relapse-free and overall survival in those with p53 protein overexpression (P = 0.01). The poorer prognosis in p53 protein-positive patients was independent of site, local treatment or necrosis of the tumours (P < 0.05). Over-expression of p53 protein is an independent poor prognostic factor in Ewing's sarcoma of bone. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098757

  10. B and T Lymphocytes Are the Primary Sources of RANKL in the Bone Resorptive Lesion of Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Toshihisa; Matsuyama, Takashi; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Makihira, Seicho; Seki, Makoto; Karimbux, Nadeem Y.; Goncalves, Reginaldo B.; Valverde, Paloma; Dibart, Serge; Li, Yi-Ping; Miranda, Leticia A.; Ernst, Cory W.O.; Izumi, Yuichi; Taubman, Martin A.

    2006-01-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis plays a pivotal role in inflammatory bone resorption. The aim of this study was to identify the cellular source of RANKL in the bone resorptive lesions of periodontal disease. The concentrations of soluble RANKL, but not its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin, measured in diseased tissue homogenates were significantly higher in diseased gingival tissues than in healthy tissues. Double-color confocal microscopic analyses demonstrated less than 20% of both B cells and T cells expressing RANKL in healthy gingival tissues. By contrast, in the abundant mononuclear cells composed of 45% T cells, 50% B cells, and 5% monocytes in diseased gingival tissues, more than 50 and 90% of T cells and B cells, respectively, expressed RANKL. RANKL production by nonlymphoid cells was not distinctly identified. Lymphocytes isolated from gingival tissues of patients induced differentiation of mature osteoclast cells in a RANKL-dependent manner in vitro. However, similarly isolated peripheral blood B and T cells did not induce osteoclast differentiation, unless they were activated in vitro to express RANKL; emphasizing the osteoclastogenic potential of activated RANKL-expressing lymphocytes in periodontal disease tissue. These results suggest that activated T and B cells can be the cellular source of RANKL for bone resorption in periodontal diseased gingival tissue. PMID:16936272

  11. The primary cilium as a biomarker in the hypoxic adaptation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells: a role for the secreted frizzled-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Proulx-Bonneau, Sébastien; Annabi, Borhane

    2011-01-01

    A pivotal role in guiding mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation has recently been attributed to the primary cilium. This solitary, non-motile microtubule-based organelle emerging from the cell surface acts as a sensorial membrane structure reflecting developmental and adaptive processes associated with pathologies including human cystic kidney disease, skeletal malformations, obesity and cancer. Given that the intrinsic hypoxic adaptation of MSC remains poorly understood within ischemic tissues or hypoxic tumours, we questioned whether the hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) might be a downstream effector regulating cilium maintenance. We show that murine bone marrow-derived MSC cultured under hypoxic conditions (1.2% O(2)) lose their primary cilia in a time-dependent manner. Gene silencing of HIF-1? prevented cilia loss in hypoxic cultures, and generation of MSC expressing a constitutively active HIF-1? (MSC-HIF) was found to decrease primary cilium formation. A Wnt pathway-related gene expression array was also performed on MSC-HIF and indicated that the secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRP)-1, -3 and -4 were down-regulated, while sFRP-2 was up-regulated. Overexpression of recombinant sFRP-2 or gene silencing of sFRP-1, -3 and -4 in MSC led to primary cilium disruption. These results indicate a molecular signalling mechanism for the hypoxic disruption of the primary cilium in MSC involving an HIF-1?/sFRP axis. This mechanism contributes to our understanding of the adaptive processes possibly involved in the oncogenic transformation and tumour-supporting potential of MSC. Our current observations also open up the possibility for the primary cilia to serve as a biomarker in MSC adaptation to low oxygen tension within (patho)physiological microenvironments. PMID:22084569

  12. Azanitrile Cathepsin K Inhibitors: Effects on Cell Toxicity, Osteoblast-Induced Mineralization and Osteoclast-Mediated Bone Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Machuca-Gayet, Irma; Domenget, Chantal; Buchet, Rene; Wu, Yuqing; Jurdic, Pierre; Mebarek, Saida

    2015-01-01

    Aim The cysteine protease cathepsin K (CatK), abundantly expressed in osteoclasts, is responsible for the degradation of bone matrix proteins, including collagen type 1. Thus, CatK is an attractive target for new anti-resorptive osteoporosis therapies, but the wider effects of CatK inhibitors on bone cells also need to be evaluated to assess their effects on bone. Therefore, we selected, among a series of synthetized isothiosemicarbazides, two molecules which are highly selective CatK inhibitors (CKIs) to test their effects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Research Design and Methods Cell viability upon treatment of CKIs were was assayed on human osteoblast-like Saos-2, mouse monocyte cell line RAW 264.7 and mature mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow. Osteoblast-induced mineralization in Saos-2 cells and in mouse primary osteoblasts from calvaria, with or without CKIs,; were was monitored by Alizarin Red staining and alkaline phosphatase activity, while osteoclast-induced bone resorption was performed on bovine slices. Results Treatments with two CKIs, CKI-8 and CKI-13 in human osteoblast-like Saos-2, murine RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with RANKL and mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow stimulated with RANKL and MCSF were found not to be toxic at doses of up to 100 nM. As probed by Alizarin Red staining, CKI-8 did not inhibit osteoblast-induced mineralization in mouse primary osteoblasts as well as in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. However, CKI-13 led to a reduction in mineralization of around 40% at 10–100 nM concentrations in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells while it did not in primary cells. After a 48-hour incubation, both CKI-8 and CKI-13 decreased bone resorption on bovine bone slices. CKI-13 was more efficient than the commercial inhibitor E-64 in inhibiting bone resorption induced by osteoclasts on bovine bone slices. Both CKI-8 and CKI-13 created smaller bone resorption pits on bovine bone slices, suggesting that the mobility of osteoclasts was slowed down by the addition of CKI-8 and CKI-13. Conclusion CKI-8 and CKI-13 screened here show promise as antiresorptive osteoporosis therapeutics but some off target effects on osteoblasts were found with CKI-13. PMID:26168340

  13. Limited Chemotherapy and Shrinking Field Radiotherapy for Osteolymphoma (Primary Bone Lymphoma): Results From the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 99.04 and Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group LY02 Prospective Trial;Bone; Lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, David, E-mail: david.christie@premion.com.au [Premion and Bond University, Gold Coast, Queensland (Australia); Dear, Keith [Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, New South Wales (Australia); Le, Thai [BHB, Premion, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Barton, Michael [Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes and Research (CCORE) and University of NSW, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Wirth, Andrew [Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Porter, David [Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Roos, Daniel [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Pratt, Gary [Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To establish benchmark outcomes for combined modality treatment to be used in future prospective studies of osteolymphoma (primary bone lymphoma). Methods and Materials: In 1999, the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) invited the Australasian Leukemia and Lymphoma Group (ALLG) to collaborate on a prospective study of limited chemotherapy and radiotherapy for osteolymphoma. The treatment was designed to maintain efficacy but limit the risk of subsequent pathological fractures. Patient assessment included both functional imaging and isotope bone scanning. Treatment included three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions using a shrinking field technique. Results: The trial closed because of slow accrual after 33 patients had been entered. Accrual was noted to slow down after Rituximab became readily available in Australia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, the five-year overall survival and local control rates are estimated at 90% and 72% respectively. Three patients had fractures at presentation that persisted after treatment, one with recurrent lymphoma. Conclusions: Relatively high rates of survival were achieved but the number of local failures suggests that the dose of radiotherapy should remain higher than it is for other types of lymphoma. Disability after treatment due to pathological fracture was not seen.

  14. T Cells Induce Pre-Metastatic Osteolytic Disease and Help Bone Metastases Establishment in a Mouse Model of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Ana Carolina; Leal, Ana Carolina; Gonçalves-Silva, Triciana; Mercadante, Ana Carolina T.; Kestelman, Fabiola; Chaves, Sacha Braun; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Monteiro, João P.; Bonomo, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Bone metastases, present in 70% of patients with metastatic breast cancer, lead to skeletal disease, fractures and intense pain, which are all believed to be mediated by tumor cells. Engraftment of tumor cells is supposed to be preceded by changes in the target tissue to create a permissive microenvironment, the pre-metastatic niche, for the establishment of the metastatic foci. In bone metastatic niche, metastatic cells stimulate bone consumption resulting in the release of growth factors that feed the tumor, establishing a vicious cycle between the bone remodeling system and the tumor itself. Yet, how the pre-metastatic niches arise in the bone tissue remains unclear. Here we show that tumor-specific T cells induce osteolytic bone disease before bone colonization. T cells pro-metastatic activity correlate with a pro-osteoclastogenic cytokine profile, including RANKL, a master regulator of osteoclastogenesis. In vivo inhibition of RANKL from tumor-specific T cells completely blocks bone loss and metastasis. Our results unveil an unexpected role for RANKL-derived from T cells in setting the pre-metastatic niche and promoting tumor spread. We believe this information can bring new possibilities for the development of prognostic and therapeutic tools based on modulation of T cell activity for prevention and treatment of bone metastasis. PMID:23935856

  15. Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are there different types of primary bone cancer? Yes. Cancer can begin in any type of bone tissue. Bones are made up ... follow-up treatment necessary? What does it involve? Yes. Bone cancer ... and should report any unusual symptoms right away. Follow-up varies for ...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1180 - Bone sonometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...sonometer. (a) Identification . A bone sonometer is a device that transmits ultrasound energy into the human body to measure acoustic properties of bone that indicate overall bone health and fracture risk. The primary components of the device are a...

  17. Plasma elevation of vascular endothelial growth factor leads to the reduction of mouse hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Nonaka, Aki; Hirata, Nobue; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kawabata, Kenji

    2014-09-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is reported to exhibit potent hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization activity. However, the detailed mechanisms of HSPC mobilization by VEGF have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the effect of VEGF on bone marrow (BM) cell and the BM environment by intravenous injection of VEGF-expressing adenovirus vector (Ad-VEGF) into mice. A colony assay using peripheral blood cells revealed that plasma elevation of VEGF leads to the mobilization of HSPCs into the circulation. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is known to mobilize HSPCs by decreasing CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) levels in the BM. However, we found almost no changes in the CXCL12 levels in the BM after Ad-VEGF injection, suggesting that VEGF can alter the BM microenvironment by different mechanisms from G-CSF. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis and colony forming unit-fibroblast assay showed a reduction in the number of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs), which have been reported to serve as niche cells to support HSPCs, in the BM of Ad-VEGF-injected mice. Adhesion of donor cells to the recipient BM after transplantation was also impaired in mice injected with Ad-VEGF, suggesting a decrease in the niche cell number. We also observed a dose-dependent chemoattractive effect of VEGF on primary BM stromal cells in vitro. These data suggest that VEGF alters the distribution of MPCs in the BM and can also mobilize MPCs to peripheral tissues. Taken together, our results imply that VEGF-elicited egress of HSPCs would be mediated, in part, by changing the number of MPCs in the BM. PMID:24344904

  18. Cloned mouse mast cells derived from immunized lymph node cells and from foetal liver cells exhibit characteristics of bone marrow-derived mast cells containing chondroitin sulphate E proteoglycan.

    PubMed Central

    Razin, E; Stevens, R L; Austen, K F; Caulfield, J P; Hein, A; Liu, F T; Clabby, M; Nabel, G; Cantor, H; Friedman, S

    1984-01-01

    Cloned mouse mast cells which were T cell growth-dependent were derived both from immunized lymph node and from foetal liver, and were found to be morphologically and biochemically similar to mast cells previously differentiated in vitro from mouse bone marrow (BMMC). These two T cell growth-dependent mouse mast cell clones were identical to the BMMC in their preferential synthesis of chondroitin sulphate E proteoglycan rather than heparin proteoglycan. The hydrodynamic size of the cell-associated proteoglycan from each of the three mast cell sources was 150,000-250,000 mol. wt.; and that of the covalently bound glycosaminoglycans was 13,000-25,000 mol. wt. Chondroitinase ABC digestion of the [35S]proteoglycans from both cloned mast cells, as well as the BMMC, yielded only two disaccharides which comigrated on ascending thin layer chromatography with delta Di-4S and delta Di-diSE standards, respectively. Quantification of the radioactivity in the enzyme digests revealed that one-sixth to one-half of the resulting disaccharides were disulphated, similar to that found in BMMC containing chondroitin sulphate E. When sensitized with monoclonal IgE, washed, and subsequently challenged with specific antigen, each of the two cloned mast cells generated more than 100 ng of leukotriene C4 (LTC4)/10(6) cells, but only 3-12 ng leukotriene B4 (LTB4)/10(6) cells, characteristics also observed for the BMMC. Based upon these observations, it is concluded that the cloned mast cells from lymph node and liver and the bone marrow-derived mast cell belong to a distinct subclass of mast cells. These mast cells have been designated E-mast cells (E-MC) in order to distinguish them from heparin-containing mast cells (H-MC). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:6745997

  19. Vision Loss Shifts the Balance of Feedforward and Intracortical Circuits in Opposite Directions in Mouse Primary Auditory and Visual Cortices.

    PubMed

    Petrus, Emily; Rodriguez, Gabriela; Patterson, Ryan; Connor, Blaine; Kanold, Patrick O; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2015-06-10

    Loss of a sensory modality leads to widespread changes in synaptic function across sensory cortices, which are thought to be the basis for cross-modal adaptation. Previous studies suggest that experience-dependent cross-modal regulation of the spared sensory cortices may be mediated by changes in cortical circuits. Here, we report that loss of vision, in the form of dark exposure (DE) for 1 week, produces laminar-specific changes in excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of adult mice to promote feedforward (FF) processing and also strengthens intracortical inputs to primary visual cortex (V1). Specifically, DE potentiated FF excitatory synapses from layer 4 (L4) to L2/3 in A1 and recurrent excitatory inputs in A1-L4 in parallel with a reduction in the strength of lateral intracortical excitatory inputs to A1-L2/3. This suggests a shift in processing in favor of FF information at the expense of intracortical processing. Vision loss also strengthened inhibitory synaptic function in L4 and L2/3 of A1, but via laminar specific mechanisms. In A1-L4, DE specifically potentiated the evoked synaptic transmission from parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons to principal neurons without changes in spontaneous miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). In contrast, DE specifically increased the frequency of mIPSCs in A1-L2/3. In V1, FF excitatory inputs were unaltered by DE, whereas lateral intracortical connections in L2/3 were strengthened, suggesting a shift toward intracortical processing. Our results suggest that loss of vision produces distinct circuit changes in the spared and deprived sensory cortices to shift between FF and intracortical processing to allow adaptation. PMID:26063913

  20. Mouse fibroblasts homozygous for c-Src oncogene disruption shows dramatic suppression of expression of the gene encoding osteopontin, and adhesive phosphoprotein implicated in bone differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chackalaparampil, I.; Mukherjee, B.B. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada); Peri, A. [NICHD NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Osteopetrosis, affecting mice and humans alike, arises from reduced or impaired bone resorption, causing abnormally dense bone formation. Normal bone differentiation requires continuous resorption and remodeling by osteoclasts which are derived from monocyte/macrophage lineage in the bone marrow. It has been reported that targeted homozygous disruption of c-src proto-oncogene in mice results in the development of osteopetrosis due to impaired bone-resorbing function of osteoclast cells. However, the molecular mechanism(s) which leads to osteoclast dysfunction in c-src deficient (src{sup -/-}) mice remains unclear. Here, we report that in embryonic fibroblasts derived from homozygous Src{sup -/-} mice, the expression of the gene coding for osteopontin (OP), a phosphorylated glycoprotein involved in bone differentiation, is drastically repressed. OP gene expression is not, however, affected in the heterozygous (Src{sup +/-}) mutant cells of identical origin, or in the c-src expression and OP production. Moreover, OP expression in c-src-deficient cells could be rescued upon treatment with 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-myristate-acetate or okadaic acid. These observations indicate that OP expression is regulated via an src-mediated protein kinase C signaling pathway. Since it is known that OP mediates osteoclast adherence to the bone matrix, a key event in bone differentiation, our data is most significant in that they strongly suggest that drastic inhibition of synthesis of OP prevents osteoclasts in Src{sup -/-} mice from anchoring to the bone matrix. Consequently, this disruption of osteoclast adherence impairs their ability to form bone-resorbing ruffled border, causing osteopetrosis.

  1. Micrometastatic Breast Cancer Cells in Bone Marrow at Primary Surgery: Prognostic Value in Comparison With Nodal Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingo J. Diel; Manfred Kaufmann; Serban D. Costa; Erich F. Solomayer; Sepp Kaul; Gunther Bastert

    Background: Approximately 30% of the patients with primary breast cancer who have no axillary lymph node in- volvement (i.e., lymph node negative) at the time of surgery will relapse within 10 years; 10% -20% of the patients with distant metastases will be lymph node negative at surgery. Axillary lymph node dissection, as a surgical procedure, is associated with frequent complications.

  2. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Antibiotic-Impregnated Bone Cement Use in Primary Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tao; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Wen; Qin, Hui; Zhang, Xianlong

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement (AIBC) has been widely used for the treatment of infected revision arthroplasty, but its routine use in primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) remains considerably controversial. With this meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials, we intended to assess the antimicrobial efficacy and safety of AIBC for its prophylactic use in primary TJA. Methods A literature search was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, CBMdisc and the Cochrane Library until June, 2013. The studies were divided into two sub-groups according to the type of the control group. Outcomes of interest included postoperative infection rates, radiographic outcomes and clinical joint score. Study quality was evaluated using the Jadad scale (five points). Results In total, eight studies were included, with a sample size of 6,381 arthroplasties. The overall pooled data demonstrated that, compared with the control (plain cement or systemic antibiotic), AIBC did not reveal an advantage in decreasing the rate of superficial infection (relative risk [RR] = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13–1.91; P=0.004), while there were significant differences in deep infection rate between the AIBC and control group (RR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17–0.97; P=0.04). For the analysis of gentamicin and cefuroxime subgroups, the gentamicin was superior to the cefuroxime in reducing deep infection rate (P=0.0005 versus P= 0.10). However, no significant differences were found in their radiographic outcomes and clinical joint score. Conclusion This meta-analysis had proven that the prophylactic use of AIBC could lower the deep infection rate in primary TJA, while AIBC did not show an improvement in reducing the superficial infection rate compared with the control. More sufficiently powered studies would be required to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of AIBC for primary TJA. PMID:24349353

  3. Neuroprotective effects of vitexin by inhibition of NMDA receptors in primary cultures of mouse cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Le; Yang, Zhi-ming; Zhang, Nan; Tian, Zhen; Liu, Shui-bing; Zhao, Ming-gao

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of glutamate can excessively activate the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and cause excitotoxicity. Vitexin (5, 7, 4-trihydroxyflavone-8-glucoside, Vit) is a c-glycosylated flavone which was found in the several herbs, exhibiting potent hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. However, little is known about the neuroprotective effects of Vit on glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In present study, primary cultured cortical neurons were treated with NMDA to induce the excitotoxicity. Pretreatment with Vit significantly prevented NMDA-induced neuronal cell loss and reduced the number of apoptotic neurons. Vit significantly inhibited the neuronal apoptosis induced by NMDA exposure by regulating balance of Bcl-2 and Bax expression and the cleavages of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and pro-caspase 3. Furthermore, pretreatment of Vit reversed the up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and the intracellular Ca(2+) overload induced by NMDA exposure. The neuroprotective effects of Vit are related to inhibiting the activities of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and reducing the calcium influx in cultured cortical neurons. PMID:24141792

  4. Certain Adenylated Non-Coding RNAs, Including 5? Leader Sequences of Primary MicroRNA Transcripts, Accumulate in Mouse Cells following Depletion of the RNA Helicase MTR4

    PubMed Central

    Dorweiler, Jane E.; Ni, Ting; Zhu, Jun; Munroe, Stephen H.; Anderson, James T.

    2014-01-01

    RNA surveillance plays an important role in posttranscriptional regulation. Seminal work in this field has largely focused on yeast as a model system, whereas exploration of RNA surveillance in mammals is only recently begun. The increased transcriptional complexity of mammalian systems provides a wider array of targets for RNA surveillance, and, while many questions remain unanswered, emerging data suggest the nuclear RNA surveillance machinery exhibits increased complexity as well. We have used a small interfering RNA in mouse N2A cells to target the homolog of a yeast protein that functions in RNA surveillance (Mtr4p). We used high-throughput sequencing of polyadenylated RNAs (PA-seq) to quantify the effects of the mMtr4 knockdown (KD) on RNA surveillance. We demonstrate that overall abundance of polyadenylated protein coding mRNAs is not affected, but several targets of RNA surveillance predicted from work in yeast accumulate as adenylated RNAs in the mMtr4KD. microRNAs are an added layer of transcriptional complexity not found in yeast. After Drosha cleavage separates the pre-miRNA from the microRNA's primary transcript, the byproducts of that transcript are generally thought to be degraded. We have identified the 5? leading segments of pri-miRNAs as novel targets of mMtr4 dependent RNA surveillance. PMID:24926684

  5. A Feedforward Inhibitory Circuit Mediates Lateral Refinement of Sensory Representation in Upper Layer 2/3 of Mouse Primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-yun; Ji, Xu-ying; Liang, Feixue; Li, Ya-tang; Xiao, Zhongju

    2014-01-01

    Sensory information undergoes ordered and coordinated processing across cortical layers. Whereas cortical layer (L) 4 faithfully acquires thalamic information, the superficial layers appear well staged for more refined processing of L4-relayed signals to generate corticocortical outputs. However, the specific role of superficial layer processing and how it is specified by local synaptic circuits remains not well understood. Here, in the mouse primary auditory cortex, we showed that upper L2/3 circuits play a crucial role in refining functional selectivity of excitatory neurons by sharpening auditory tonal receptive fields and enhancing contrast of frequency representation. This refinement is mediated by synaptic inhibition being more broadly recruited than excitation, with the inhibition predominantly originating from interneurons in the same cortical layer. By comparing the onsets of synaptic inputs as well as of spiking responses of different types of neuron, we found that the broadly tuned, fast responding inhibition observed in excitatory cells can be primarily attributed to feedforward inhibition originating from parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons, whereas somatostatin (SOM)-positive interneurons respond much later compared with the onset of inhibitory inputs to excitatory neurons. We propose that the feedforward circuit-mediated inhibition from PV neurons, which has an analogous function to lateral inhibition, enables upper L2/3 excitatory neurons to rapidly refine auditory representation. PMID:25297094

  6. Chondrosarcoma of the Temporal Bone and Otosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ramírez-Camacho; M. Pinilla; S. Ramón y Cajal; J. R. García Berrocal; J. Vicente

    1998-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma constitutes 6% of all primary bone tumors and 11% of malignant primary bone tumors. Nevertheless, in a review of the tumor registry of the University of Michigan covering a period of 50 years, there were only 3 cases involving the temporal bone. A case of a woman with a chondrosarcoma of the temporal bone that was partially resected by

  7. Evaluation of biomimetic scaffold of gelatin–hydroxyapatite crosslink as a novel scaffold for tissue engineering: Biocompatibility evaluation with human PDL fibroblasts, human mesenchymal stromal cells, and primary bone cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sorasun Rungsiyanont; Nirada Dhanesuan; Somporn Swasdison; Shohei Kasugai

    2012-01-01

    Biomimetic gelatin (gel)–hydroxyapatite (HA) composites have been prepared for studying hard tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the biocompatibility test of this form of material using these three cell types, which are periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblast cells, human mesenchymal stromal cells (HMSc) and primary cells from human hip bone (HBc) has never been evaluated. The objective of this article is to prepare

  8. Interleukin-1? Enhances FasL-Induced Caspase-3/-7 Activity without Increasing Apoptosis in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Maria; Feuer, Ronny; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael; Borner, Christoph; Humar, Matjaz; Merfort, Irmgard

    2014-01-01

    Sustained inflammation may increase the susceptibility of hepatocytes to apoptotic cell death and therefore exacerbate liver damage. Here we report that the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1? sensitizes primary murine hepatocytes to Fas ligand (FasL)-induced caspase-3/-7 activity. This process was dependent on JNK1/2 and the BH3-only proteins Bim and Bid. Mathematical modeling revealed that incubation of hepatocytes with IL-1? depleted the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein pool and thus shifted hepatocytes to mitochondrial type II apoptosis following Fas activation. As a consequence, IL-1? and FasL treatment enhanced cytochrome c release. Surprisingly, despite increased caspase-3/-7 activation, FasL-induced cell death was reduced by IL-1? pre-treatment. This protective effect was independent of JNK1/2, Bim or Bid. Furthermore, elevated caspase-3/-7 activity upon IL-1? and FasL treatment did not result in enhanced PARP cleavage. The protective effect of IL-1? was seen after 3 h of pre-incubation, indicating an anti-apoptotic transcriptional response. Indeed, NF-?B DNA binding was increased in response to IL-1? plus FasL and gene-expression profiling of NF-?B regulated genes revealed a transcriptional and translational upregulation of the caspase-8 inhibitor A20. A mathematical model was developed to explain the contradictious occurrence of both increased caspase-3/-7 activity and elevated cell viability by including a heterogeneous distribution of Bcl-2 proteins and variations in Fas signaling resulting in different subpopulations of hepatocytes. PMID:25551609

  9. Simple detection of chemical mutagens by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay in multiple mouse organs (liver, lung, spleen, kidney, and bone marrow) 1 This paper is dedicated to the memory of the late Prof. Kiyosi Tutikawa, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu F Sasaki; Emi Nishidate; Fusako Izumiyama; Naonori Matsusaka; Shuji Tsuda

    1997-01-01

    Recently, we designed a fast and simple method to obtain nuclei for the alkaline SCG assay and we tested it with mouse liver, lung, kidney, spleen, and bone marrow. Instead of isolating organ cells by trypsinization, we homogenized tissue and isolated the nuclei. Each organ was minced, and the mince was suspended in chilled homogenizing buffer containing NaCl and Na2EDTA,

  10. An Improved Mouse Sca1+ Cell-Based Bone Marrow Transplantation Model for Use in Gene and Cell-Based Therapeutic Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Hall; K.-H. William Lau; Shin-Tai Chen; Joshua C. Felt; Daila S. Gridley; Jiing-Kuan Yee; David J. Baylink

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to develop a murine bone marrow transplantation strategy that would yield consistently high levels of long-term engraftment without significant morbidity and mortality. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-enriched Sca-1+ cells were used for transplantation because of their propensity of homing to bone marrow. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing transgenic mice were used as donors. Murine Sca-1+ cells were enriched 13-fold

  11. Title: Patterning Bone Regeneration In Silico Modeling of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Driven bone formation

    E-print Network

    Wolper, Pierre

    to overdosing. Recently, in our laboratory, implantation of BMP-coated CaP carriers in a nude mouse model). Implantation of BMP-coated CaP carrier in a nude mouse model will be performed, and the location of bone tissue

  12. Interleukin-1-induced acute bone resorption facilitates the secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 into the circulation.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Kawai, Masanobu; Miyagawa, Kazuaki; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Tachikawa, Kanako; Kinoshita, Saori; Nishino, Jin; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a central regulator of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, is mainly produced by osteocytes in bone and exerts its effects on distant organs. Despite its endocrine function, the mechanism controlling serum FGF23 levels is not fully understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that osteoclastic bone resorption may play a role in regulating circulating levels of FGF23, using a mouse model where injections of interleukin (IL)-1? into the subcutaneous tissue over the calvaria induced rapid bone resorption. A significant amount of FGF23 was detected in the extracts from mouse bones, which supports the idea that FGF23 stays in bone for a while after its production. IL-1?-induced bone resorption was associated with elevated serum FGF23 levels, an effect abolished by pre-treatment with pamidronate. Fgf23 expression was not increased in either the calvariae or tibiae of IL-1?-injected mice, which suggests that IL-1? facilitated the entry of FGF23 protein into circulation by accelerating bone resorption rather than increasing its gene expression. The direct effect of IL-1? on bone was confirmed when it increased FGF23 levels in the conditioned media of mouse calvariae in organ culture. Repeated treatment of the cultured calvariae with IL-1? led to a refractory phase, where FGF23 was not mobilized by IL-1? anymore. Consistent with the in vivo results, treatment with IL-1? failed to increase Fgf23 mRNA in isolated primary osteocytes and osteoblasts. These results suggest that FGF23 produced by osteocytes remains in bone, and that rapid bone resorption facilitates its entry into the bloodstream. PMID:24996526

  13. Uneven deficits in vertebral bone density in postmenopausal patients with primary hyperparathyroidism as evaluated by posterior-anterior and lateral dual-energy absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Minisola, S; Rosso, R; Romagnoli, E; Pepe, J; De Geronimo, S; Dionisi, S; Paglia, F; Raejntroph, N; Aliberti, G; Mazzuoli, G F

    2002-08-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine whether the preservation of bone mass in patients with mild primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) could be detected when measuring spine density in the lateral projection. We compared the bone mineral density (BMD) of L2-L4 utilizing the posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral projections in postmenopausal patients with PHPT and in a group of 27 postmenopausal normal women. Thirty-three consecutive postmenopausal patients with PHPT were studied; 25 were asymptomatic whereas the remaining 8 suffered complications related to the disease. Based upon the criteria established by the Consensus Conference on the Management of Asymptomatic PHPT, only 10 of the 25 asymptomatic patients could be considered affected by mild disease; the remaining patients were classified as having moderate disease. Patients with mild disease had mean lateral total BMD values (0.682 +/- 0.113 g/cm(2)) significantly higher than normal women (0.588 +/- 0.076, p<0.02) and patients with moderate disease (0.599 +/- 0.077, p<0.05). There were significant differences among the three groups in both PA L2-L4 and L1-L4 levels: patients with mild disease had significantly higher mean BMD values than patients with moderate disease and normal women, when either three or four vertebrae were considered. Interestingly, at this latter site, patients with moderate disease had significantly ( p<0.05) lower values than normal women. Our results indicate that patients with mild PHPT have a preservation of vertebral mass when compared with the other hyperparathyroid patients and normal women, when taking into account both the mainly trabecular portion and the whole vertebra. The finding that when the PA projection was assessed, BMD values of patients with moderate disease were significantly lower than those of normal women, might be attributed to the detrimental effect of raised parathyroid hormone levels on the cortical component of the vertebral body. PMID:12181619

  14. Combined genome-wide expression profiling and targeted RNA interference in primary mouse macrophages reveals perturbation of transcriptional networks associated with interferon signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lacaze, Paul; Raza, Sobia; Sing, Garwin; Page, David; Forster, Thorsten; Storm, Petter; Craigon, Marie; Awad, Tarif; Ghazal, Peter; Freeman, Tom C

    2009-01-01

    Background Interferons (IFNs) are potent antiviral cytokines capable of reprogramming the macrophage phenotype through the induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Here we have used targeted RNA interference to suppress the expression of a number of key genes associated with IFN signalling in murine macrophages prior to stimulation with interferon-gamma. Genome-wide changes in transcript abundance caused by siRNA activity were measured using exon-level microarrays in the presence or absence of IFN?. Results Transfection of murine bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) with a non-targeting (control) siRNA and 11 sequence-specific siRNAs was performed using a cationic lipid transfection reagent (Lipofectamine2000) prior to stimulation with IFN?. Total RNA was harvested from cells and gene expression measured on Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Network-based analysis of these data revealed six siRNAs to cause a marked shift in the macrophage transcriptome in the presence or absence IFN?. These six siRNAs targeted the Ifnb1, Irf3, Irf5, Stat1, Stat2 and Nfkb2 transcripts. The perturbation of the transcriptome by the six siRNAs was highly similar in each case and affected the expression of over 600 downstream transcripts. Regulated transcripts were clustered based on co-expression into five major groups corresponding to transcriptional networks associated with the type I and II IFN response, cell cycle regulation, and NF-KB signalling. In addition we have observed a significant non-specific immune stimulation of cells transfected with siRNA using Lipofectamine2000, suggesting use of this reagent in BMDMs, even at low concentrations, is enough to induce a type I IFN response. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that the type I IFN response in murine BMDMs is dependent on Ifnb1, Irf3, Irf5, Stat1, Stat2 and Nfkb2, and that siRNAs targeted to these genes results in perturbation of key transcriptional networks associated with type I and type II IFN signalling and a suppression of macrophage M1 polarization. PMID:19664281

  15. MicroSPECT/CT imaging of primary human AML engrafted into the bone marrow and spleen of NOD/SCID mice using 111In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 radioimmunoconjugates recognizing the CD123+ / CD131- epitope expressed by leukemia stem cells.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Jeffrey V; Williams, Brent; Gao, Catherine; Keating, Armand; Minden, Mark; Reilly, Raymond M

    2014-11-01

    Engraftment of primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) specimens into the bone marrow (BM) of NOD/SCID mice has been used to study leukemia biology and new treatments for the disease. CSL360 is a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody that recognizes CD123 (IL-3 receptor ?-subchain) expressed in the absence of CD131 (?-subchain), an epitope that is displayed by leukemia stem cells (LSCs). We are studying CSL360 modified with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) for complexing 111In and 13-mer nuclear translocation sequence (NLS) peptides to enable nuclear importation in LSCs for Auger electron radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of AML. We demonstrate that microSPECT/CT imaging using 111In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 revealed engraftment of primary human AML specimens into the BM and spleen of NOD/SCID mice. Our results suggest that microSPECT/CT imaging is a powerful tool which enables non-invasive assessment of the engraftment of AML into NOD/SCID mice and in the current study specifically probes an epitope displayed by the LSC subpopulation. The targeting of 111In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 to sites of AML engraftment in the NOD/SCID mouse model is encouraging for future RIT studies. Ultimately, SPECT imaging could be applied in AML patients to assess the delivery of 111In-DTPA-NLS-CSL360 to sites of leukemia and be combined with Auger electron RIT using the same agent targeting the LSC population as a "theranostic" pair. PMID:25278187

  16. Identification of the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling in the trajectory of serotonergic differentiation in a rapid assay in mouse embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Atsushi; Toi, Akihiro; Kurita, Maki; Kimoto, Saki; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Shintani, Norihito; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ito, Akira; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Ago, Yukio; Waschek, James A; Onaka, Yusuke; Matsuda, Toshio; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism by which extracellular molecules control serotonergic cell fate remains elusive. Recently, we showed that noggin, which inactivates bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), induces serotonergic differentiation of mouse embryonic (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells with coordinated gene expression along the serotonergic lineage. Here, we created a rapid assay for serotonergic induction by generating knock-in ES cells expressing a naturally secreted Gaussia luciferase driven by the enhancer of Pet-1/Fev, a landmark of serotonergic differentiation. Using these cells, we performed candidate-based screening and identified BMP type I receptor kinase inhibitors LDN-193189 and DMH1 as activators of luciferase. LDN-193189 induced ES cells to express the genes encoding Pet-1, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, and the serotonin transporter, and increased serotonin release without altering dopamine release. In contrast, TGF-? receptor inhibitor SB-431542 selectively inhibited serotonergic differentiation, without changing overall neuronal differentiation. LDN-193189 inhibited expression of the BMP signaling target gene Id, and induced the TGF-? target gene Lefty, whereas the opposite effect was observed with SB-431542. This study thus provides a new tool to investigate serotonergic differentiation and suggests that inhibition of BMP type I receptors and concomitant activation of TGF-? receptor signaling are implicated in serotonergic differentiation. Candidate-based screening for serotonergic induction using a rapid assay in mouse embryonic stem cells revealed that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor kinase inhibitors selectively induce serotonergic differentiation, whereas the TGF-? receptor inhibitor SB-431542 inhibits the differentiation. These results suggest that inhibition of BMP type I receptors and concomitant activation of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) receptor signaling are involved in the early trajectory of serotonergic differentiation. PMID:25421849

  17. Loss of Serglycin Promotes Primary Tumor Growth and Vessel Functionality in the RIP1-Tag2 Mouse Model for Spontaneous Insulinoma Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Andrew; Basic, Vladimir; Andersson, Sandra; Abrink, Magnus; Ringvall, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The serglycin proteoglycan is mainly expressed by hematopoietic cells where the major function is to retain the content of storage granules and vesicles. In recent years, expression of serglycin has also been found in different forms of human malignancies and a high serglycin expression level has been correlated with a more migratory and invasive phenotype in the case of breast cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Serglycin has also been implicated in the development of the tumor vasculature in multiple myeloma and hepatocellular carcinoma where reduced expression of serglycin was correlated with a less extensive vasculature. To further investigate the contribution of serglycin to tumor development, we have used the immunocompetent RIP1-Tag2 mouse model of spontaneous insulinoma formation crossed into serglycin deficient mice. For the first time we show that serglycin-deficiency affects orthotopic primary tumor growth and tumor vascular functionality of late stage carcinomas. RIP1-Tag2 mice that lack serglycin develop larger tumors with a higher proliferative activity but unaltered apoptosis compared to normal RIP1-Tag2 mice. The absence of serglycin also enhances the tumor vessel functionality, which is better perfused than in tumors from serglycin wild type mice. The presence of the pro-angiogenic modulators vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were decreased in the serglycin deficient mice which suggests a less pro-angiogenic environment in the tumors of these animals. Taken together, we conclude that serglycin affects multiple aspects of spontaneous tumor formation, which strengthens the theory that serglycin acts as an important mediator in the formation and progression of tumors. PMID:25978773

  18. Loss of Serglycin Promotes Primary Tumor Growth and Vessel Functionality in the RIP1-Tag2 Mouse Model for Spontaneous Insulinoma Formation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Andrew; Basic, Vladimir; Andersson, Sandra; Abrink, Magnus; Ringvall, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The serglycin proteoglycan is mainly expressed by hematopoietic cells where the major function is to retain the content of storage granules and vesicles. In recent years, expression of serglycin has also been found in different forms of human malignancies and a high serglycin expression level has been correlated with a more migratory and invasive phenotype in the case of breast cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Serglycin has also been implicated in the development of the tumor vasculature in multiple myeloma and hepatocellular carcinoma where reduced expression of serglycin was correlated with a less extensive vasculature. To further investigate the contribution of serglycin to tumor development, we have used the immunocompetent RIP1-Tag2 mouse model of spontaneous insulinoma formation crossed into serglycin deficient mice. For the first time we show that serglycin-deficiency affects orthotopic primary tumor growth and tumor vascular functionality of late stage carcinomas. RIP1-Tag2 mice that lack serglycin develop larger tumors with a higher proliferative activity but unaltered apoptosis compared to normal RIP1-Tag2 mice. The absence of serglycin also enhances the tumor vessel functionality, which is better perfused than in tumors from serglycin wild type mice. The presence of the pro-angiogenic modulators vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were decreased in the serglycin deficient mice which suggests a less pro-angiogenic environment in the tumors of these animals. Taken together, we conclude that serglycin affects multiple aspects of spontaneous tumor formation, which strengthens the theory that serglycin acts as an important mediator in the formation and progression of tumors. PMID:25978773

  19. Biphasic stimulation of polyamine biosynthesis in primary mouse kidney cells by infection with polyoma virus:uncoupling from DNA and rRNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, D A; Heby, O; Marton, L J

    1976-01-01

    Infection of primary cultures of mouse kidney cells with polyoma virus causes a biphasic increase in the activities of L-ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; L-ornithine carboxy-lyase; EC 4.1.1.17) and S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (SAMD; S-adenoxyl-L-methionine carboxy-lyase; EC 4.1.50), as well as in the level of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. An early peak occurs during the period when early viral mRNA is synthesized and prior to the onset of virus-induced synthesis of host cell DNA. A late peak coincides in time with the maximum rate of virus-induced synthesis of cellular DNA. A similar biphasic stimulation of polyamine synthesis is induced even when DNA synthesis is prevented by 5-fluorodeoxyuridine. Actinomycin D (AMD) in a dose that inhibits rRNA synthesis causes no inhibition of ODC or SAMD. In a dose that inhibits mRNA synthesis as well, short-term AMD treatment causes "superinduction" of ODC but inhibition of SAMD. Prolonged treatment with the high dose of AMD inhibits ODC as well, indicating that late ODC activity may be dependent on mRNA synthesized during early infection. Cycloheximide effectively obliterates the ODC and SAMD activities during the entire infectious cycle. Uncoupling from DNA and rRNA synthesis suggests that polyamine synthesis is regulated independently of these events. The experiments with AMD and cycloheximide suggest that the formation of ODC is subject to post-transcriptional control, whereas that of SAMD is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level. PMID:186774

  20. Bone Mineral Measurements.

    PubMed

    Doroudinia, Abtin; Colletti, Patrick M

    2015-08-01

    The accurate measurement of bone mineral density using noninvasive methods can be of value in the detection and evaluation of primary and secondary causes of decreased bone mass. This includes primary osteoporosis and secondary disorders, such as hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, multiple myeloma, diffuse metastases, and glucocorticoid therapy or intrinsic excess.By far, the largest patient population is that encompassed by primary osteoporosis with increased susceptibility to fractures in the absence of other recognizable causes of bone loss.Primary osteoporosis is a common clinical disorder and a major public health problem because of the significant number of related bone fractures occurring annually. Because the risk of vertebral and femoral neck fractures rises dramatically as bone mineral density falls, fracture risk in individual patients may be estimated. Furthermore, in estrogen-deficient women, bone mineral density values may be used to make rational decisions about hormone replacement therapy, or other bone mineral therapies, and as follow-up in assessing the success of such treatment.In this article, we discuss different methods of bone densitometry and will focus on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with discussing the factors which should be considered for interpretation of DXA scan. PMID:26147459

  1. Blood and Bones: The Influence of the Mass Media on Australian Primary School Children's Understandings of Genes and DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2012-06-01

    Previous research showed that primary school children held several misconceptions about genetics of concern for their future lives. Included were beliefs that genes and DNA are separate substances, with genes causing family resemblance and DNA identifying suspects at crime scenes. Responses to this work `blamed' the mass media for these misunderstandings. This study aimed to determine whether that blame had any foundation by examining the media habits and conceptions about genes and DNA of Australian children. With little prior research considering the influence of entertainment mass media on children's academically relevant knowledge, this was an exploratory study with a mixed modes design. Data were collected by detailed media questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with 62 children aged 10-12 years, and subjected to content and thematic analysis. Specific mass media examples children reported using were examined for genetics content. Results indicate 5 h/day of media use, mostly television including crime shows, and that children perceived television to be their main source of information about genetics. Most children (89 %) knew DNA, 60 % knew genes, and more was known about uses of DNA outside the body such as crime solving or resolving family relationships than about its biological nature and function. Half believed DNA is only in blood and body parts used for forensics. These concepts paralleled the themes emerging from the media examples. The results indicate that the mass media is a pervasive teacher of children, and that fundamental concepts could be introduced earlier in schools to establish scientific concepts before misconceptions arise.

  2. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Contribute to Podocyte Regeneration and Amelioration of Renal Disease in a Mouse Model of Alport Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelia I. Prodromidi; Richard Poulsom; Rosemary Jeffery; Candice A. Roufosse; Patrick J. Pollard; Charles D. Pusey; H. Terence Cook

    2006-01-01

    In a model of autosomally recessive Alport syndrome, mice that lack the 3 chain of collagen IV (Col43\\/) develop progressive glomerular damage leading to renal failure. The proposed mechanism is that podocytes fail to synthesize normal glomerular basement membrane, so the collagen IV network is unstable and easily degraded. We used this model to study whether bone marrow (BM) transplantation

  3. Endocortical bone loss in osteoporosis: the role of bone surface availability

    E-print Network

    Buenzli, Pascal R; Clement, John G; Pivonka, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Age-related bone loss and postmenopausal osteoporosis are disorders of bone remodelling, in which less bone is reformed than resorbed. Yet, this dysregulation of bone remodelling does not occur equally in all bone regions. Loss of bone is more pronounced near the endocortex, leading to cortical wall thinning and medullary cavity expansion, a process sometimes referred to as "trabecularisation" or "cancellisation". Cortical wall thinning is of primary concern in osteoporosis due to the strong reduction in bone mechanical properties that it is associated with. In this paper, we examine the possibility that the nonuniformity of microscopic bone surface availability could explain the nonuniformity of bone loss in osteoporosis. We use a simple computational model of bone remodelling, in which microscopic bone surface availability influences bone turnover rate, to simulate the evolution of the bone volume fraction profile across the midshaft of a long bone. We find that bone loss is accelerated near the endocortica...

  4. Development and characterization of a mouse floxed Bmp2 osteoblast cell line that retains osteoblast genotype and phenotype.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-an; Feng, Junsheng; Wang, Lynn; Mu, Yan-dong; Baker, Andrew; Donly, Kevin J; Harris, Stephen E; MacDougall, Mary; Chen, Shuo

    2011-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) is essential for osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis. Generation of floxed Bmp2 osteoblast cell lines is a valuable tool for studying the effects of Bmp2 on osteoblast differentiation and its signaling pathways during skeletal metabolism. Due to relatively limited sources of primary osteoblasts, we have developed cell lines that serve as good surrogate models for the study of osteoblast cell differentiation and bone mineralization. In this study, we established and characterized immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2 osteoblast cell lines. Primary mouse floxed Bmp2 osteoblasts were transfected with pSV3-neo and clonally selected. These transfected cells were verified by PCR and immunohistochemistry. To determine the genotype and phenotype of the immortalized cells, cell morphology, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization were analyzed. Also, expression of osteoblast-related gene markers including Runx2, Osx, ATF4, Dlx3, bone sialoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, osteonectin, osteocalcin and osteopontin were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. These results showed that immortalized floxed Bmp2 osteoblasts had a higher proliferation rate but preserved their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we, for the first time, describe the development of immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2 osteoblast cell lines and present a useful model to study osteoblast biology mediated by BMP2 and its downstream signaling transduction pathways. PMID:21271257

  5. Intracerebral transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Li; Jieli Chen; Lei Wang; Li Zhang; Mei Lu; Michael Chopp

    2001-01-01

    Adult C57BL\\/6 mice were injected with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Intrastriatal transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) was performed 1 week after MPTP administration. MSCs were harvested from donor adult mice, and then cultured and prelabeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). MPTP-Parkinson's disease (PD) mice treated with intrastriatal injection of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and normal non-MPTP mice were used as controls. MPTP-PD mice

  6. Lineage?Sca1+c-Kit?CD25+ Cells Are IL-33–Responsive Type 2 Innate Cells in the Mouse Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Brickshawana, Adipong; Shapiro, Virginia Smith; Kita, Hirohito; Pease, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    IL-33 promotes type 2 immune responses, both protective and pathogenic. Recently, targets of IL-33, including several newly discovered type 2 innate cells, have been characterized in the periphery. In this study, we report that bone marrow cells from wild-type C57BL/6 mice responded with IL-5 and IL-13 production when cultured with IL-33. IL-33 cultures of bone marrow cells from Rag1 KO and KitW-sh/W-sh mice also responded similarly; hence, eliminating the possible contributions of T, B, and mast cells. Rather, intracellular staining revealed that the IL-5– and IL-13–positive cells display a marker profile consistent with the Lineage?Sca-1+c-Kit?CD25+ (LSK?CD25+) cells, a bone marrow cell population of previously unknown function. Freshly isolated LSK?CD25+ cells uniformly express ST2, the IL-33 receptor. In addition, culture of sorted LSK?CD25+ cells showed that they indeed produce IL-5 and IL-13 when cultured with IL-33 plus IL-2 and IL-33 plus IL-7. Furthermore, i.p. injections of IL-33 or IL-25 into mice induced LSK?CD25+ cells to expand, in both size and frequency, and to upregulate ST2 and ?4?7 integrin, a mucosal homing marker. Thus, we identify the enigmatic bone marrow LSK?CD25+ cells as IL-33 responsive, both in vitro and in vivo, with attributes similar to other type 2 innate cells described in peripheral tissues. PMID:22048767

  7. Expression of mouse HtrA1 serine protease in normal bone and cartilage and its upregulation in joint cartilage damaged by experimental arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiho Tsuchiya; Masato Yano; Jiraporn Tocharus; Hisae Kojima; Manabu Fukumoto; Masashi Kawaichi; Chio Oka

    2005-01-01

    Levels of HtrA1 protein in cartilage have been reported to elevate in joints of human osteoarthritis patients. To understand roles of HtrA1 in normal osteogenesis as well as in pathogenesis of arthritis, we examine HtrA1 expression pattern during bone and cartilage development and in articular cartilage affected by experimental arthritis. HtrA1 is not expressed in mesenchymal or cartilage condensations before

  8. Effects of Blocking Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Receptor Signaling in a Mouse Model of Experimental Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisanori Uehara; Sun Jin Kim; Takashi Karashima; David L. Shepherd; Dominic Fan; Rachel Tsan; Jerald J. Killion; Christopher Logothetis; Paul Mathew; Isaiah J. Fidler

    2003-01-01

    Background: Expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and activation (by autophosphorylation) of its re- ceptor (PDGF-R), a tyrosine kinase, are associated with the growth of metastatic prostate tumor cells in the bone paren- chyma. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 blocks the PDGF signaling pathway by inhibiting PDGF-R autophos- phorylation. We examined the effects of STI571, given alone or with paclitaxel

  9. Bone Density

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bones Your response to osteoporosis treatment Low bone mass that is not low enough to be osteoporosis is sometimes called osteopenia. Causes of low bone mass include family history, not developing good bone mass ...

  10. Fixation compliance in a mouse osteotomy model induces two different processes of bone healing but does not lead to delayed union.

    PubMed

    Gröngröft, Ina; Heil, Petra; Matthys, Romano; Lezuo, Patrick; Tami, Andrea; Perren, Stephan; Montavon, Pierre; Ito, Keita

    2009-09-18

    Delayed unions are a problematic complication of fracture healing whose pathophysiology is not well understood. Advanced molecular biology methods available with mice would be advantageous for investigation. In humans, decreased fixation rigidity and poor reduction are generally associated with delayed unions. In this study, these two factors were combined to observe their effect on bone healing in mice. Two plates with locking screws, one with 14 the bending stiffness of the other, were used to stabilize a 0.45mm gap osteotomy. muCT, radiographs, 4pt-bending tests and histological analysis demonstrated that the different plate types led to two different healing pathways. The less flexible bridging plate induced only intramembranous ossification whereas the more flexible bridging plate induced a mixture of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. However, the different plates led to a delay in healing of only 3-5 days in the period between 14 and 21 post-operative days. In mice, considerable fixation flexibility is necessary to induce secondary bone healing similar to that which occurs in humans, but this was not sufficient to induce a substantial delay in bone healing as would be expected in humans. PMID:19643416

  11. A novel transgenic mouse model of growth plate dysplasia reveals that decreased chondrocyte proliferation due to chronic ER stress is a key factor in reduced bone growth

    PubMed Central

    Gualeni, Benedetta; Rajpar, M. Helen; Kellogg, Aaron; Bell, Peter A.; Arvan, Peter; Boot-Handford, Raymond P.; Briggs, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Disease mechanisms leading to different forms of chondrodysplasia include extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations and intracellular stress resulting in abnormal changes to chondrocyte proliferation and survival. Delineating the relative contribution of these two disease mechanisms is a major challenge in understanding disease pathophysiology in genetic skeletal diseases and a prerequisite for developing effective therapies. To determine the influence of intracellular stress and changes in chondrocyte phenotype to the development of chondrodysplasia, we targeted the expression of the G2320R mutant form of thyroglobulin to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of resting and proliferating chondrocytes. Previous studies on this mutant protein have shown that it induces intracellular aggregates and causes cell stress and death in the thyroid gland. The expression and retention of this exogenous mutant protein in resting and proliferating chondrocytes resulted in a chronic cell stress response, growth plate dysplasia and reduced bone growth, without inducing any alterations to the architecture and organization of the cartilage ECM. More significantly, the decreased bone growth seemed to be the direct result of reduced chondrocyte proliferation in the proliferative zone of growth plates in transgenic mice, without transcriptional activation of a classical unfolded protein response (UPR) or apoptosis. Overall, these data show that mutant protein retention in the ER of resting and proliferative zone chondrocytes is sufficient to cause disrupted bone growth. The specific disease pathways triggered by mutant protein retention do not necessarily involve a prototypic UPR, but all pathways impact upon chondrocyte proliferation in the cartilage growth plate. PMID:24046357

  12. Flat-Panel Detector-Based Volume Computed Tomography: A Novel 3D Imaging Technique to Monitor Osteolytic Bone Lesions in a Mouse Tumor Metastasis Model1

    PubMed Central

    Missbach-Guentner, Jeannine; Dullin, Christian; Zientkowska, Marta; Domeyer-Missbach, Melanie; Kimmina, Sarah; Obenauer, Silvia; Kauer, Fritz; Stühmer, Walter; Grabbe, Eckhardt; Vogel, Wolfgang F; Alves, Frauke

    2007-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis is an important cause of mortality in patients with breast cancer. Hence, animal models, in combination with various imaging techniques, are in high demand for preclinical assessment of novel therapies. We evaluated the applicability of flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT) to noninvasive detection of osteolytic bone metastases that develop in severe immunodeficient mice after intracardial injection of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. A single fpVCT scan at 200-µm isotropic resolution was employed to detect osteolysis within the entire skeleton. Osteolytic lesions identified by fpVCT correlated with Faxitron X-ray analysis and were subsequently confirmed by histopathological examination. Isotropic three-dimensional image data sets obtained by fpVCT were the basis for the precise visualization of the extent of the lesion within the cortical bone and for the measurement of bone loss. Furthermore, fpVCT imaging allows continuous monitoring of growth kinetics for each metastatic site and visualization of lesions in more complex regions of the skeleton, such as the skull. Our findings suggest that fpVCT is a powerful tool that can be used to monitor the occurrence and progression of osteolytic lesions in vivo and can be further developed to monitor responses to antimetastatic therapies over the course of the disease. PMID:17898871

  13. APOE3, but Not APOE4, Bone Marrow Transplantation Mitigates Behavioral and Pathological Changes in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yue; Cudaback, Eiron; Jorstad, Nikolas L.; Hemingway, Jake F.; Hagan, Catherine E.; Melief, Erica J.; Li, Xianwu; Yoo, Tom; Khademi, Shawn B.; Montine, Kathleen S.; Montine, Thomas J.; Keene, C. Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease and confers a proinflammatory, neurotoxic phenotype to microglia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that bone marrow cell APOE genotype modulates pathological progression in experimental Alzheimer disease. We performed bone marrow transplants (BMT) from green fluorescent protein–expressing human APOE3/3 or APOE4/4 donor mice into lethally irradiated 5-month-old APPswe/PS1?E9 mice. Eight months later, APOE4/4 BMT–recipient APPswe/PS1?E9 mice had significantly impaired spatial working memory and increased detergent-soluble and plaque A? compared with APOE3/3 BMT–recipient APPswe/PS1?E9 mice. BMT-derived microglia engraftment was significantly reduced in APOE4/4 recipients, who also had correspondingly less cerebral apoE. Gene expression analysis in cerebral cortex of APOE3/3 BMT recipients showed reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (both neurotoxic cytokines) and elevated immunomodulatory IL-10 expression in APOE3/3 recipients compared with those that received APOE4/4 bone marrow. This was not due to detectable APOE-specific differences in expression of microglial major histocompatibility complex class II, C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) type 1, CCR2, CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1), or C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor (C5aR). Together, these findings suggest that BMT-derived APOE3-expressing cells are superior to those that express APOE4 in their ability to mitigate the behavioral and neuropathological changes in experimental Alzheimer disease. PMID:23831297

  14. Improving In Vivo High-Resolution CT Imaging of the Tumour Vasculature in Xenograft Mouse Models through Reduction of Motion and Bone-Streak Artefacts

    PubMed Central

    Kersemans, Veerle; Kannan, Pavitra; Beech, John S.; Bates, Russell; Irving, Benjamin; Gilchrist, Stuart; Allen, Philip D.; Thompson, James; Kinchesh, Paul; Casteleyn, Christophe; Schnabel, Julia; Partridge, Mike; Muschel, Ruth J.; Smart, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preclinical in vivo CT is commonly used to visualise vessels at a macroscopic scale. However, it is prone to many artefacts which can degrade the quality of CT images significantly. Although some artefacts can be partially corrected for during image processing, they are best avoided during acquisition. Here, a novel imaging cradle and tumour holder was designed to maximise CT resolution. This approach was used to improve preclinical in vivo imaging of the tumour vasculature. Procedures A custom built cradle containing a tumour holder was developed and fix-mounted to the CT system gantry to avoid artefacts arising from scanner vibrations and out-of-field sample positioning. The tumour holder separated the tumour from bones along the axis of rotation of the CT scanner to avoid bone-streaking. It also kept the tumour stationary and insensitive to respiratory motion. System performance was evaluated in terms of tumour immobilisation and reduction of motion and bone artefacts. Pre- and post-contrast CT followed by sequential DCE-MRI of the tumour vasculature in xenograft transplanted mice was performed to confirm vessel patency and demonstrate the multimodal capacity of the new cradle. Vessel characteristics such as diameter, and branching were quantified. Results Image artefacts originating from bones and out-of-field sample positioning were avoided whilst those resulting from motions were reduced significantly, thereby maximising the resolution that can be achieved with CT imaging in vivo. Tumour vessels ? 77 ?m could be resolved and blood flow to the tumour remained functional. The diameter of each tumour vessel was determined and plotted as histograms and vessel branching maps were created. Multimodal imaging using this cradle assembly was preserved and demonstrated. Conclusions The presented imaging workflow minimised image artefacts arising from scanner induced vibrations, respiratory motion and radiopaque structures and enabled in vivo CT imaging and quantitative analysis of the tumour vasculature at higher resolution than was possible before. Moreover, it can be applied in a multimodal setting, therefore combining anatomical and dynamic information. PMID:26046526

  15. [Functional glutamate signaling in bone].

    PubMed

    Hinoi, Eiichi

    2010-09-01

    L-glutamate (Glu) has been thought to be an excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Relatively little attention has been paid to the functional expression of Glu signaling machineries in peripheral tissues. In this review, therefore, we summarized the possible signaling by Glu as an extracellular signal mediator in mechanisms underlying maintenance of cellular homeostasis in bone tissues. Constitutive expression of mRNAs for particular Glu receptors (GluR), Glu transporters (GluT) was found in osteoblasts. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist MK-801 significantly prevented differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts through modulation of expression of Runx2. DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid significantly increased the release of endogenous Glu from osteoblasts through its receptor expressed by osteoblasts. In addition, [3H]Glu uptake was also seen in a temperature- and sodium-dependent manner with pharmacological profiles similar to those for brain GluTs in osteoblasts. Although no mRNA expression was found for all GluRs examined in primary cultured mouse osteoclasts, constitutive expression of mRNAs was seen with GluT, such as excitatory amino acid transporters and cystine/Glu antiporter. Glu markedly inhibited osteoclastogenesis in a manner sensitive to the antiporter inhibitor. The systemic administration of Glu significantly prevented the decreased bone mineral density in addition to increased osteoclastic indices in ovariectomized mice in vivo. Taken together, Glu could play a pivotal role in mechanisms underlying the maintenance of cellular homeostasis as an extracellular signal mediator in bone. PMID:20823674

  16. 2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, the natural dye of Henna, is non-genotoxic in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test and does not produce oxidative DNA damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Marzin, Daniel; Kirkland, David

    2004-05-01

    2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ) has been found positive in a previous chromosome aberration test in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and in a mouse bone marrow micronucleus test at 72h after oral administration (vehicle: DMSO). However it was negative at 24 and 48h sampling times, and in subsequent micronucleus tests that used 0.5% aqueous methyl cellulose (MC) as vehicle. We performed a bone marrow micronucleus test in male and female NMRI BRL/BR mice at oral doses of 75, 150 and 300mg/kg in two vehicles (DMSO and 0.5% aqueous MC), evaluated micronuclei at 24, 48 and 72h, plasma levels of HNQ at 0.5, 1 and 4h, and haematology parameters at 72h after administration. The mechanism of in vitro clastogenic activity of HNQ was investigated by evaluation of the potential of HNQ to produce oxidative DNA damage after treatment of CHO with 10mM HNQ, followed by quantification of DNA fragments using the comet assay. In the micronucleus test, HNQ at 300mg/kg produced mortality and clinical signs at similar incidence and severity for both vehicles. Levels of HNQ in the plasma of treated mice were dose-related, of similar magnitude for both vehicles, but higher in females than in males. Maximum concentrations were found at 0.5 or 1h. At 300mg/kg, HNQ slightly affected RBC parameters suggesting haematotoxicity. No increase in the frequency of micronuclei was observed for any dose, vehicle or time point, whereas the positive control substance (CPA) produced a clear positive response. No evidence of HNQ-induced oxidative DNA damage was found at clastogenic concentrations in vitro, whereas the positive control substance (H(2)O(2)) produced a clear increase. In conclusion, HNQ was negative for induction of bone marrow micronuclei in mice up to 72h after administration in two different vehicles, and its in vitro clastogenicity was not due to oxidative damage. These results confirm that HNQ poses no or negligible genotoxic risk. PMID:15099823

  17. Immortalization and characterization of mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Li-An [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States) [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi-an (China); Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States) [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China); Ortiz-Gonzalez, Iris [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Yang, Wuchen; Cui, Yong [Department of Periodontics, Dental School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Department of Periodontics, Dental School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); MacDougall, Mary [Department of Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)] [Department of Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States); Donly, Kevin J. [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Harris, Stephen [Department of Periodontics, Dental School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Department of Periodontics, Dental School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Chen, Shuo, E-mail: chens0@uthscsa.edu [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-08-14

    Generation of a floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line is a valuable tool for studying the modulatory effects of Bmp2 and Bmp4 on osteoblast differentiation as well as relevant molecular events. In this study, primary floxed Bmp2/4 mouse osteoblasts were cultured and transfected with simian virus 40 large T-antigen. Transfection was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To examine the characteristics of the transfected cells, morphology, proliferation and mineralization were analyzed, expression of cell-specific genes including Runx2, ATF4, Dlx3, Osx, dentin matrix protein 1, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and collagen type I was detected. These results show that transfected floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts bypassed senescence with a higher proliferation rate, but retain the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we for the first time demonstrate the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line.

  18. An Fc Gamma Receptor-Mediated Upregulation of the Production of Interleukin 10 by Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Bone-Marrow-Derived Mouse Dendritic Cells Stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a highly purified immunoglobulin fraction prepared from pooled plasma of several thousand donors, increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production, while decreased proinflammatory cytokine IL-12p70 production in bone-marrow-derived mouse dendritic cells (BMDCs) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The changes of cytokine production were confirmed with the transcription levels of these cytokines. To study the mechanisms of this bidirectional effect, we investigated changes of intracellular molecules in the LPS-induced signaling pathway and observed that IVIG upregulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation while downregulated p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Using chemical inhibitors specific to protein kinases involved in activation of Fc gamma receptors (Fc?Rs), which mediate IgG signals, we found that hyperphosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Syk phosphorylation occurred after stimulation of BMDC with LPS and IVIG, and the increasing effect on IL-10 production was abolished by these inhibitors. Furthermore, an antibody specific to Fc?RI, one of Fc?Rs involved in immune activation, inhibited IVIG-induced increases in IL-10 production, but not IL-12p70 decreases, whereas the anti-IL-10 antibody restored the decrease in IL-12p70 induced by IVIG. These findings suggest that IVIG induced the upregulation of IL-10 production through Fc?RI activation, and IL-10 was indispensable to the suppressing effect of IVIG on the production of IL-12p70 in LPS-stimulated BMDC. PMID:23853721

  19. Diabetes impairs the interactions between long-term hematopoietic stem cells and osteopontin-positive cells in the endosteal niche of mouse bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Hironori; Ataka, Koji; Iba, Kousuke; Nagaishi, Kanna; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained, and their division/proliferation and quiescence are regulated in the microenvironments, niches, in the bone marrow. Although diabetes is known to induce abnormalities in HSC mobilization and proliferation through chemokine and chemokine receptors, little is known about the interaction between long-term HSCs (LT-HSCs) and osteopontin-positive (OPN) cells in endosteal niche. To examine this interaction, LT-HSCs and OPN cells were isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic and nondiabetic mice. In diabetic mice, we observed a reduction in the number of LT-HSCs and OPN cells and impaired expression of Tie2, ?-catenin, and N-cadherin on LT-HSCs and ?1-integrin, ?-catenin, angiopoietin-1, and CXCL12 on OPN cells. In an in vitro coculture system, LT-HSCs isolated from nondiabetic mice exposed to diabetic OPN cells showed abnormal mRNA expression levels of Tie2 and N-cadherin. Conversely, in LT-HSCs derived from diabetic mice exposed to nondiabetic OPN cells, the decreased mRNA expressions of Tie2, ?-catenin, and N-cadherin were restored to normal levels. The effects of diabetic or nondiabetic OPN cells on LT-HSCs shown in this coculture system were confirmed by the coinjection of LT-HSCs and OPN cells into bone marrow of irradiated nondiabetic mice. Our results provide new insight into the treatment of diabetes-induced LT-HSC abnormalities and suggest that the replacement of OPN cells may represent a novel treatment strategy. PMID:23885062

  20. Lipocalin 2: a new mechanoresponding gene regulating bone homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rucci, Nadia; Capulli, Mattia; Piperni, Sara Gemini; Cappariello, Alfredo; Lau, Patrick; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Heer, Martina; Teti, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical loading represents a crucial factor in the regulation of skeletal homeostasis. Its reduction causes loss of bone mass, eventually leading to osteoporosis. In a previous global transcriptome analysis performed in mouse calvarial osteoblasts subjected to simulated microgravity, the most upregulated gene compared to unit gravity condition was Lcn2, encoding the adipokine Lipocalin 2 (LCN2), whose function in bone metabolism is poorly known. To investigate the mechanoresponding properties of LCN2, we evaluated LCN2 levels in sera of healthy volunteers subjected to bed rest, and found a significant time-dependent increase of this adipokine compared to time 0. We then evaluated the in vivo LCN2 regulation in mice subjected to experimentally-induced mechanical unloading by (1) tail suspension, (2) muscle paralysis by botulin toxin A (Botox), or (3) genetically-induced muscular dystrophy (MDX mice), and observed that Lcn2 expression was upregulated in the long bones of all of them, whereas physical exercise counteracted this increase. Mechanistically, in primary osteoblasts transfected with LCN2-expression-vector (OBs-Lcn2) we observed that Runx2 and its downstream genes, Osterix and Alp, were transcriptionally downregulated, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was less prominent versus empty-vector transduced osteoblasts (OBs-empty). OBs-Lcn2 also exhibited an increase of the Rankl/Opg ratio and IL-6 mRNA, suggesting that LCN2 could link poor differentiation of osteoblasts to enhanced osteoclast stimulation. In fact, incubation of purified mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells with conditioned media from OBs-Lcn2 cultures, or their coculture with OBs-Lcn2, improved osteoclastogenesis compared to OBs-empty, whereas treatment with recombinant LCN2 had no effect. In conclusion, our data indicate that LCN2 is a novel osteoblast mechanoresponding gene and that its regulation could be central to the pathological response of the bone tissue to low mechanical forces. PMID:25112732

  1. Boning up on Wolff's Law: Mechanical regulation of the cells that make and maintain bone

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Craig A.

    a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Accepted 21 August 2009 Keywords: Osteocyte Osteoprogenitor players in bone mechanobiology: osteocytes, the putative primary mechanosensors in intact bone by the cells in bone: osteocytes, the putative mechanosensors; osteoblasts that deposit bone matrix

  2. Bone scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is done to see if you have a bone infection, images may be taken shortly after the radioactive ... feet or legs, or spine fractures) Diagnose a bone infection (osteomyelitis) Diagnose or determine the cause of bone ...

  3. Protective effects of solvent fractions of Mentha spicata (L.) leaves evaluated on 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide induced chromosome damage and apoptosis in mouse bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2009-10-01

    Spearmint leaves (Mentha spicata L.) contain high levels of antioxidants that are known to protect against both exogenous and endogenous DNA damage. In this study, the protective effects of the hexane fraction (HF), chloroform fraction (CF) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) in an ethanol extract from M. spicata were evaluated against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) induced chromosome damage and apoptosis in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. Two (EAF; 80 and 160 mg/ kg body weight - bw) or three (HF and CF; 80, 160 and 320 mg/ kg bw) doses of solvent fractions or vehicle control (25% DMSO in water) were administered orally for five consecutive days. Upon the sixth day, 4-NQO was injected intraperitoneally. The animals were killed the following day. Other control groups were comprised of animals treated with either the vehicle control or the various doses of solvent fractions, but with no 4-NQO treatment. 4-NQO induced micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in all the test groups. However, pre-treatment of animals with the solvent fractions significantly reduced the 4-NQO-induced MnPCEs as well as the percentage of apoptotic cells. The reduction of both MnPCE and apoptosis was more evident following the pre-treatment of animals with 160 mg/kg bw EAF. PMID:21637463

  4. Effect of Metformin on Viability, Morphology, and Ultrastructure of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Balb/3T3 Embryonic Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Czyrek, Aleksandra; Basinska, Katarzyna; Trynda, Justyna; Skaradzi?ska, Aneta; Siudzi?ska, Anna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Metformin, a popular drug used to treat diabetes, has recently gained attention as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treating cancer. In our research metformin was added to in vitro cultures of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and Balb/3T3 fibroblast at concentration of 1?mM, 5?mM, and 10?mM. Obtained results indicated that metformin negatively affected proliferation activity of investigated cells. The drug triggered the formation of autophagosomes and apoptotic bodies in all tested cultures. Additionally, we focused on determination of expression of genes involved in insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway. The most striking finding was that the mRNA level of IGF2 was constant in both BMSCs and Balb/3T3. Further, the analysis of IGF2 concentration in cell supernatants showed that it decreased in BMSC cultures after 5 and 10?mM metformin treatments. In case of Balb/3T3 the concentration of IGF2 in culture supernatants decreased after 1 and 5?mM and increased after 10?mM of metformin. Our results suggest that metformin influences the cytophysiology of somatic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner causing inhibition of proliferation and abnormalities of their morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:26064951

  5. GM-CSF Mouse Bone Marrow Cultures Comprise a Heterogeneous Population of CD11c(+)MHCII(+) Macrophages and Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Helft, Julie; Böttcher, Jan; Chakravarty, Probir; Zelenay, Santiago; Huotari, Jatta; Schraml, Barbara U; Goubau, Delphine; Reis E Sousa, Caetano

    2015-06-16

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in the immune system. Much of their biology has been elucidated via culture systems in which hematopoietic precursors differentiate into DCs under the aegis of cytokines. A widely used protocol involves the culture of murine bone marrow (BM) cells with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to generate BM-derived DCs (BMDCs). BMDCs express CD11c and MHC class II (MHCII) molecules and share with DCs isolated from tissues the ability to present exogenous antigens to T cells and to respond to microbial stimuli by undergoing maturation. We demonstrate that CD11c(+)MHCII(+) BMDCs are in fact a heterogeneous group of cells that comprises conventional DCs and monocyte-derived macrophages. DCs and macrophages in GM-CSF cultures both undergo maturation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide but respond differentially to the stimulus and remain separable entities. These results have important implications for the interpretation of a vast array of data obtained with DC culture systems. PMID:26084029

  6. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (?=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  7. Achievement of 10-year survival: a case of pubic bone recurrence as the primary failure site of chemo-refractory ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Daisuke; Todo, Yukiharu; Okamoto, Kazuhira; Minobe, Shinichiro; Kato, Hidenori

    2013-08-01

    Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary tends to have a poor response to conventional platinum-based chemotherapy. Bone recurrence from ovarian cancer is rare and prognosis of patients with such a condition is poor. We report a patient with chemo-refractory ovarian clear cell carcinoma who developed pubic bone recurrence and subsequent para-aortic node recurrence. The patient achieved long-term survival after salvage surgery twice in spite of these inauspicious conditions. Surgical treatment should be taken into consideration for skeletal recurrence from ovarian clear cell carcinoma. PMID:23800316

  8. The effects of eccentric training on muscle-bone function

    E-print Network

    Hubal, Monica Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if eccentric exercise training can attenuate or prevent bone loss associated with estrogen-deficiency in the mouse model. A secondary purpose was to determine if any bone changes were due to changes in bone...

  9. Nongenotoxic effects and a reduction of the DXR-induced genotoxic effects of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower) seeds revealed by micronucleus assays in mouse bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This research evaluated the genotoxicity of oil and tincture of H. annuus L. seeds using the micronucleus assay in bone marrow of mice. The interaction between these preparations and the genotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DXR) was also analysed (antigenotoxicity test). Methods Experimental groups were evaluated at 24-48 h post treatment with N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (positive control – NEU), DXR (chemotherapeutic), NaCl (negative control), a sunflower tincture (THALS) and two sources of sunflower oils (POHALS and FOHALS). Antigenotoxic assays were carried out using the sunflower tincture and oils separately and in combination with NUE or DXR. Results For THALS, analysis of the MNPCEs showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250–2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. A significant reduction in MNPCE was observed when THALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) was administered in combination with DXR (5 mg.Kg-1). For POHALS or FOHALS, analysis of the MNPCEs also showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250–2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. However, the combination DXR?+?POHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) or DXR?+?FOHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) not contributed to the MNPCEs reduction. Conclusions This research suggests absence of genotoxicity of THALS, dose-, time- and sex-independent, and its combination with DXR can reduce the genotoxic effects of DXR. POHALS and FOHALS also showed absence of genotoxicity, but their association with DXR showed no antigenotoxic effects. PMID:24694203

  10. The effect of Lycii Radicis Cortex extract on bone formation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunkuk; Jin, Hyun-Seok; Cho, Doo-Yeoun; Kim, Jeonghyun; Kim, Mun-Chang; Choi, Chun Whan; Jin, Yilan; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Jin-Hyok; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Huh, Dam; Jeong, Seon-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease caused by decreased bone mass; it enhances the risk of bone fracture. This study aimed to discover novel herbal extract(s) for the treatment of osteoporosis. We screened 64 ethanol extracts of edible plants native to Korea for their ability to increase the cellular proliferation and differentiation of two osteoblastic cell lines: C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1. We selected a Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC), Lycium Chinese root bark as the primary candidate. Treatment with LRC extract showed enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and increased expression of bone metabolic markers Alpl, Runx2, and Bglap genes in both osteoblastic cell lines. There was no effect on the osteoclastic differentiation of primary-cultured monocytes from the mouse bone marrows. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of LRC extract in vivo in ovariectomizd (OVX) mice for 8 weeks and 16 weeks, respectively. Bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly higher in LRC extract-administered group than in the non-LRC-administered OVX control group. The results indicated that LRC extract prevented the OVX-induced BMD loss in mice via promoting the differentiation of osteoblast linage cells. These results suggest that LRC extract may be a good natural herbal medicine candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25432011

  11. Constitutive activation of smoothened leads to impaired developments of postnatal bone in mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eui-Sic; Lim, Shin-Saeng; Hwang, Jae-Won; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2012-10-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling regulates patterning, proliferation, and stem cell self-renewal in many organs. Smoothened (Smo) plays a key role in transducing Shh signaling into the nucleus by activating a glioma family of transcription factors; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the role of sustained Smo activation in postnatal development are still unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of Shh signaling on bone development using a conditional knock-in mouse model that expresses a constitutively activated form of Smo (SmoM2) upon osteocalcin (OCN)-Cre-mediated recombination (SmoM2; OCN-Cre mice). We also evaluated the expression pattern of bone formation-related factors in primary calvarial cultures of mutant and control mice. The SmoM2; OCN-Cre mutant showed growth retardation and reduction of bone mineral density compared to control mice. Constitutively activated SmoM2 also repressed mRNA expression of Runx2, osterix, type I collagen, and osteocalcin. Further, sustained SmoM2 induction suppressed mineralization in calvarial primary osteoblasts cultures, whereas such induction did not affect cell proliferation in the mutant cultures as compared with SmoM2 only control cultures. These results suggest that sustained Smo activation inhibits postnatal development of bone by suppressing gene expression of bone formation regulatory factors in mice. PMID:22983747

  12. Hyperparathyroidism and Bone Health.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Francisco; Cassibba, Sara

    2015-07-01

    Bone pain, proximal muscle weakness, skeletal deformities, and pathological fractures are features of osteitis fibrosa cystica which occur in severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). In this condition, bone mineral density is usually extremely low, but may be reversible after parathyroidectomy. On X-ray, bone abnormalities are described as having a salt-and-pepper appearance in the skull, with bone erosions and resorption of the phalanges, brown tumors and cysts, as well as diffuse demineralization, along with pathological fractures, particularly in the long bones of the extremities. A marked elevation of the serum calcium and PTH concentrations is seen, and renal involvement is manifested by nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. In asymptomatic PHPT, the absence of clinically significant bone involvement has led to much more data on bone mineral density becoming available by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and also on new technologies such as trabecular bone score (TBS), which is a gray-level textural analysis of DXA images that provides an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture. In addition, high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HRpQCT), which has a low radiation exposure, provides further understanding of the microstructural skeletal features at both trabecular and cortical sites. PMID:26105042

  13. Retention of the stemness of mouse adipose-derived stem cells by their expansion on human bone marrow stromal cell-derived extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yao; He, Jing; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) usually lose their stemness during in vitro expansion as they are deprived of their niche environment. Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction is known to play important roles in preserving the stemness of the cells in their stem cell niche environment. Previously, coating with bone marrow MSC (BMSC)-derived ECM was found able to maintain the differentiation potential of in vitro cultured MSCs. This study aimed to determine if this ECM coating could also maintain the stemness of cultured murine adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) using a regular culture flask as a control. Cells were expanded in ECM-coated and ECM-noncoated flasks for two and four passages and then harvested for various analyses. The results showed that ASCs exhibited fibroblast-like spindle morphology in ECM-coated flasks, whereas ASCs gradually spread and enlarged in the ECM-noncoated flasks. After three and five passages, both groups of cells exhibited similar cytokinetics in the MSC culture medium (MesenPRO RS™ Medium). However, when cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (DMEM) plus 10% fetal bovine serum, coating group cells exhibited more potent proliferation than control group cells with a significant difference in both passages 3 and 5 (p<0.01). When seeded at low density (500 cells/10-cm dish), coating group cells formed significantly more and larger sized cell colonies than control group cells with significant difference in cell colony numbers between two groups (p<0.05). In addition, coated colony cells were much smaller and more compactly arranged compared to control colony cells. Furthermore, ASCs expanded in coated flasks exhibited greater potentials for adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiations than the cells expanded in regular flasks. Quantitatively, the Oil Red O staining area, Alizarin staining area, and Toluidine Blue staining area were all significantly larger than the respective staining areas of control cells (p<0.05). Real-time polymerase chain reaction also revealed significantly higher gene expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP), Rux2, osteocalcin, Sox9, collagen II, and aggrecan in ECM-coated group cells than in control group cells (p<0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that human BMSC decellular ECM coating helps to preserve the stemness of cultured murine ASCs. PMID:25836590

  14. Exposure to low-dose (56)Fe-ion radiation induces long-term epigenetic alterations in mouse bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Shao, Lijian; Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Allen, Antiño R; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Zhou, Daohong; Koturbash, Igor

    2014-07-01

    There is an increasing need to better understand the long-term health effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation due to exposure during space missions, as well as its increasing use in clinical treatments. Previous studies have indicated that exposure to (56)Fe heavy ions increases the incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in mice but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Epigenetic alterations play a role in radiation-induced genomic instability and the initiation and progression of AML. In this study, we assessed the effects of low-dose (56)Fe-ion irradiation on epigenetic alterations in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) and hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells (HPSCs). Exposure to (56)Fe ions (600 MeV, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Gy) resulted in significant epigenetic alterations involving methylation of DNA, the DNA methylation machinery and expression of repetitive elements. Four weeks after irradiation, these changes were primarily confined to HPSCs and were exhibited as dose-dependent hypermethylation of LINE1 and SINE B1 repetitive elements [4.2-fold increase in LINE1 (P < 0.001) and 7.6-fold increase in SINE B1 (P < 0.01) after exposure to 0.4 Gy; n = 5]. Epigenetic alterations were persistent and detectable for at least 22 weeks after exposure, when significant loss of global DNA hypomethylation (1.9-fold, P < 0.05), decreased expression of Dnmt1 (1.9-fold, P < 0.01), and increased expression of LINE1 and SINE B1 repetitive elements (2.8-fold, P < 0.001 for LINE1 and 1.9-fold, P < 0.05 for SINE B1; n = 5) were observed after exposure to 0.4 Gy. In contrast, exposure to (56)Fe ions did not result in accumulation of increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage, exhibited as DNA strand breaks. Furthermore, no significant alterations in cellular senescence and apoptosis were detected in HPSCs after exposure to (56)Fe-ion radiation. These findings suggest that epigenetic reprogramming is possibly involved in the development of radiation-induced genomic instability and thus, may have a causative role in the development of AML. PMID:24960414

  15. Rubber Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-09

    Over 1 or 2 days, learners use vinegar to remove the calcium from a chicken bone. They then explore how the bones have changed. An accompanying video with Mr. O further explores the relationship between cartilage and bone and explains how bones grow.

  16. FAD104, a Regulatory Factor of Adipogenesis, Acts as a Novel Regulator of Calvarial Bone Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Keishi; Nishizuka, Makoto; Katoh, Daiki; Kato, Ayumi; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis is a complex process that is orchestrated by several growth factors, extracellular cues, signaling molecules, and transcriptional factors. Understanding the mechanisms of bone formation is pivotal for clarifying the pathogenesis of bone diseases. Previously, we reported that fad104 (factor for adipocyte differentiation 104), a novel positive regulator of adipocyte differentiation, negatively regulated the differentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into osteocytes. However, the physiological role of fad104 in bone formation has not been elucidated. Here, we clarified the role of fad104 in bone formation in vivo and in vitro. fad104 disruption caused craniosynostosis-like premature ossification of the calvarial bone. Furthermore, analyses using primary calvarial cells revealed that fad104 negatively regulated differentiation and BMP/Smad signaling pathway. FAD104 interacted with Smad1/5/8. The N-terminal region of FAD104, which contains a proline-rich motif, was capable of binding to Smad1/5/8. We demonstrated that down-regulation of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation by FAD104 is dependent on the N-terminal region of FAD104 and that fad104 functions as a novel negative regulator of BMP/Smad signaling and is required for proper development for calvarial bone. These findings will aid a comprehensive description of the mechanism that controls normal and premature calvarial ossification. PMID:24052261

  17. A Humanized Mouse Model of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Veronica E.; Valbuena, Gustavo; Goez, Yenny; Judy, Barbara M.; Huante, Matthew B.; Sutjita, Putri; Johnston, R. Katie; Estes, D. Mark; Hunter, Robert L.; Actor, Jeffrey K.; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Endsley, Janice J.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is the second leading infectious cause of death worldwide and the primary cause of death in people living with HIV/AIDS. There are several excellent animal models employed to study tuberculosis (TB), but many have limitations for reproducing human pathology and none are amenable to the direct study of HIV/M.tb co-infection. The humanized mouse has been increasingly employed to explore HIV infection and other pathogens where animal models are limiting. Our goal was to develop a small animal model of M.tb infection using the bone marrow, liver, thymus (BLT) humanized mouse. NOD-SCID/?cnull mice were engrafted with human fetal liver and thymus tissue, and supplemented with CD34+ fetal liver cells. Excellent reconstitution, as measured by expression of the human CD45 pan leukocyte marker by peripheral blood populations, was observed at 12 weeks after engraftment. Human T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8), as well as natural killer cells and monocyte/macrophages were all observed within the human leukocyte (CD45+) population. Importantly, human T cells were functionally competent as determined by proliferative capacity and effector molecule (e.g. IFN-?, granulysin, perforin) expression in response to positive stimuli. Animals infected intranasally with M.tb had progressive bacterial infection in the lung and dissemination to spleen and liver from 2–8 weeks post infection. Sites of infection in the lung were characterized by the formation of organized granulomatous lesions, caseous necrosis, bronchial obstruction, and crystallization of cholesterol deposits. Human T cells were distributed throughout the lung, liver, and spleen at sites of inflammation and bacterial growth and were organized to the periphery of granulomas. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential to use the humanized mouse as a model of experimental TB. PMID:23691024

  18. An MMP13Selective Inhibitor Delays Primary Tumor Growth and the Onset of Tumor-Associated Osteolytic Lesions in Experimental Models of Breast Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manisha Shah; Dexing Huang; Tony Blick; Andrea Connor; Lawrence A. Reiter; Joel R. Hardink; Conor C. Lynch; Mark Waltham; Erik W. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13)-selective inhibitor, 5-(4-{4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-oxazol-2-yl]phenoxy}phenoxy)-5-(2-methoxyethyl) pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (Cmpd-1), on the primary tumor growth and breast cancer-associated bone remodeling using xenograft and syngeneic mouse models. We used human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells inoculated into the mammary fat pad and left ventricle of BALB\\/c Nu\\/Nu mice, respectively, and spontaneously metastasizing 4T1.2-Luc mouse mammary cells inoculated into

  19. Selenium inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression by modulating MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways in mouse mammary epithelial cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Runxiang; Wang, Tiancheng; Jiang, Haichao; Guo, Mengyao; Zhou, Ershun; Sun, Yong; Yang, Zhengtao; Xu, Shiwen; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-04-01

    Mastitis is characterized by an inflammation of the mammary gland of dairy animals and humans; this condition is one of the major causes of economic losses in dairy industries. Selenium (Se), a biological trace element, modulates the functions of many regulatory proteins in signal transduction and provides advantages for animals with inflammatory diseases, including mastitis. The current study aimed to assess the protective effects and the active mechanism of Na(2)SeO(3) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMECs). Our results showed that LPS-induced expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-? significantly decreased after Se was supplemented to Se-deficient MMECs. Na(2)SeO(3) also suppressed LPS-induced nuclear factor-?B activation, inhibitory kappa B degradation, and ERK, JNK, and P38 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that Se functions as an anti-inflammatory agent in mastitis. PMID:24202549

  20. Synchronous Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Malignant Clonal Plasma Cells in Bone Marrow As Primary Presentation: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shalini; Gajendra, Smeeta; Sood, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) with other morphologically and phenotypically distinct lymphoid neoplasm although unusual, has been reported in literature. The most common lymphoid neoplasms associated with DLBCL are Hodgkin’s lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. However, they have been reported predominantly in the sites other than the bone marrow. Rarely, DLBCL associated with paraproteinemia of IgM type, result of monoclonal plasma cell proliferation, has also been reported in literature. There is either an associated increase in the free light chain levels or disruption in the normal kappa: lambda ratio. However, co-existence of DLBCL with malignant non secretory clonal plasma cells, diagnosed primarily in the bone marrow has not been reported in the literature. PMID:26023560

  1. Differential expression of CCN-family members in primary human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Schutze; Ulrich Noth; Jutta Schneidereit; Christian Hendrich; Franz Jakob

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The human cysteine rich protein 61 (CYR61, CCN1) as well as the other members of the CCN family of genes play important roles in cellular processes such as proliferation, adhesion, migration and survival. These cellular events are of special importance within the complex cellular interactions ongoing in bone remodeling. Previously, we analyzed the role of CYR61\\/CCN1 as an extracellular

  2. Surface modification of nano-silica on the ligament advanced reinforcement system for accelerated bone formation: primary human osteoblasts testing in vitro and animal testing in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiwen; Jiang, Jia; Sun, Jiashu; Li, Yuzhuo; Huang, Deyong; Long, Yun-Ze; Zheng, Wenfu; Chen, Shiyi; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-04-01

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) has been considered as a promising graft for ligament reconstruction. To improve its biocompatibility and effectiveness on new bone formation, we modified the surface of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligament with nanoscale silica using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and silica polymerization. The modified ligament is tested by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human osteoblast testing in vitro exhibits an ~21% higher value in cell viability for silica-modified grafts compared with original grafts. Animal testing in vivo shows that there is new formed bone in the case of a nanoscale silica-coated ligament. These results demonstrate that our approach for nanoscale silica surface modification on LARS could be potentially applied for ligament reconstruction.The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) has been considered as a promising graft for ligament reconstruction. To improve its biocompatibility and effectiveness on new bone formation, we modified the surface of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligament with nanoscale silica using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and silica polymerization. The modified ligament is tested by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human osteoblast testing in vitro exhibits an ~21% higher value in cell viability for silica-modified grafts compared with original grafts. Animal testing in vivo shows that there is new formed bone in the case of a nanoscale silica-coated ligament. These results demonstrate that our approach for nanoscale silica surface modification on LARS could be potentially applied for ligament reconstruction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01439e

  3. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    PubMed

    Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness. PMID:23874932

  4. Novel Techniques for High-Resolution Functional Imaging of Trabecular Bone

    E-print Network

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    associated with osteoporosis (1, 2). Osteoporosis results in bone loss and deterioration in trabecular a primary endpoint in osteoporosis diagnosis and monitoring. Where strong correlations between bone density

  5. Stk11 (Lkb1) deletion in the osteoblast lineage leads to high bone turnover, increased trabecular bone density and cortical porosity.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lick Pui; Lotinun, Sutada; Bouxsein, Mary L; Baron, Roland; McMahon, Andrew P

    2014-12-01

    The mTOR pathway couples energy homeostasis to growth, division and survival of the cell. Stk11/Lkb1 is a critical serine-threonine protein kinase in the inhibition of mTOR pathway action. In the mammalian skeleton, Stk11 regulates the transition between immature and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we have focused on the action of Stk11in the osteoblast lineage through osteoblast specific-removal of Stk11 activity. In the mouse model system, specification and primary organization of the neonatal boney skeleton is independent of Stk11. However, histological, molecular and micro-CT analysis revealed a marked perturbation of normal bone development evident in the immediate post-natal period. Cortical bone was unusually porous displaying a high rate of turnover with new trabeculae forming in the endosteal space. Trabecular bone also showed enhanced turnover and marked increase in the density of trabeculae and number of osteoclasts. Though mutants showed an expansion of bone volume and trabecular number, their bone matrix comprised large amounts of osteoid and irregularly deposited woven bone highlighted by diffuse fluorochrome labeling. Additionally, we observed an increase in fibroblast-like cells associated with trabecular bone in Stk11 mutants. Stk11 down-regulates mTORC1 activity through control of upstream modulators of the AMP kinase family: an increase in the levels of the phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6, a target of mTORC1-mediated kinase activity, on osteoblast removal of Stk11 suggests deregulated mTORC1 activity contributes to the osteoblast phenotype. These data demonstrate Stk11 activity within osteoblasts is critical for the development of normally structured bone regulating directly the number and coordinated actions of osteoblasts, and indirectly osteoclast number. PMID:25240456

  6. SILICON AND BONE HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    JUGDAOHSINGH, R.

    2009-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health. PMID:17435952

  7. Bone Crusher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

    Students use a tension-compression machine (or an alternative bone-breaking setup) to see how different bones fracture differently and with different amounts of force, depending on their body locations. Teams determine bone mass and volume, calculate bone density, and predict fracture force. Then they each test a small animal bone (chicken, turkey, cat) to failure, examining the break to analyze the fracture type. Groups conduct research about biomedical challenges, materials and repair methods, and design repair treatment plans specific to their bones and fracture types, presenting their design recommendations to the class.

  8. Bone Marrow Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  9. P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitor, FR167653, Inhibits Parathyroid Hormone Related Protein-Induced Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Masataka; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Myoui, Akira

    2011-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) acts downstream in the signaling pathway that includes receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK), a powerful inducer of osteoclast formation and activation. We investigated the role of p38 MAPK in parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and PTHrP-induced bone resorption in vivo. The ability of FR167653 to inhibit osteoclast formation was evaluated by counting the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive multinucleated cells (TRAP-positive MNCs) in in vitro osteoclastgenesis assays. Its mechanisms were evaluated by detecting the expression level of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) in bone marrow macrophages(BMMs) stimulated with sRANKL and M-CSF, and by detecting the expression level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL in bone marrow stromal cells stimulated with PTHrP in the presence of FR167653. The function of FR167653 on bone resorption was assessed by measuring the bone resorption area radiographically and by counting osteoclast number per unit bone tissue area in calvaria in a mouse model of bone resorption by injecting PTHrP subcutaneously onto calvaria. Whole blood ionized calcium levels were also recorded. FR167653 inhibited PTHrP-induced osteoclast formation and PTHrP-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 expression in bone marrow macrophages, but not the expression levels of RANKL and OPG in primary bone marrow stromal cells treated by PTHrP. Furthermore, bone resorption area and osteoclast number in vivo were significantly decreased by the treatment of FR167653. Systemic hypercalcemia was also partially inhibited. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by FR167653 blocks PTHrP-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and PTHrP-induced bone resorption in vivo, suggesting that the p38 MAPK signaling pathway plays a fundamental role in PTHrP-induced osteoclastic bone resorption. PMID:21886782

  10. Primary cilium--is it an osteocyte's strain-sensing flowmeter?

    PubMed

    Whitfield, James F

    2003-05-15

    With few exceptions, the non-cycling cells in a vast range of animals including humans have a non-motile primary cilium that extends from the mother centriole of the pair of centrioles in their centrosomes located between their Golgi apparatuses and nuclei. It has very recently been shown that the primary cilium of a dog or a mouse embryonic kidney cell is a fluid flowmeter studded with heterodimeric complexes of mechanoreceptors linked to Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels that when the cilium is bent can send Ca(2+) signals into the cell and beyond to neighboring cells through gap junctions. More than 30 years ago, osteocytes were reported also to have primary cilia, but this was promptly ignored or forgotten. Osteocytes are the bones' strain sensors, which measure skeletal activity from the effects of currents of extracellular fluid caused by their bones being bent and squeezed during various activities such as walking and running. Since bending a kidney cell's primary cilium can send a Ca(2+) wave surging through itself and its neighbors, the bending of an osteocyte's primary cilium by sloshing extracellular fluid is likely to do the same thing and thus be involved in measuring and responding to bone strain. PMID:12704786

  11. p47phox-Nox2-dependent ROS Signaling Inhibits Early Bone Development in Mice but Protects against Skeletal Aging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Ran; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Blackburn, Michael L; Mercer, Kelly E; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J

    2015-06-01

    Bone remodeling is age-dependently regulated and changes dramatically during the course of development. Progressive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suspected to be the leading cause of many inflammatory and degenerative diseases, as well as an important factor underlying many effects of aging. In contrast, how reduced ROS signaling regulates inflammation and remodeling in bone remains unknown. Here, we utilized a p47(phox) knock-out mouse model, in which an essential cytosolic co-activator of Nox2 is lost, to characterize bone metabolism at 6 weeks and 2 years of age. Compared with their age-matched wild type controls, loss of Nox2 function in p47(phox) (-/-) mice resulted in age-related switch of bone mass and strength. Differences in bone mass were associated with increased bone formation in 6-week-old p47(phox) (-/-) mice but decreased in 2-year-old p47(phox) (-/-) mice. Despite decreases in ROS generation in bone marrow cells and p47(phox)-Nox2 signaling in osteoblastic cells, 2-year-old p47(phox) (-/-) mice showed increased senescence-associated secretory phenotype in bone compared with their wild type controls. These in vivo findings were mechanistically recapitulated in ex vivo cell culture of primary fetal calvarial cells from p47(phox) (-/-) mice. These cells showed accelerated cell senescence pathway accompanied by increased inflammation. These data indicate that the observed age-related switch of bone mass in p47(phox)-deficient mice occurs through an increased inflammatory milieu in bone and that p47(phox)-Nox2-dependent physiological ROS signaling suppresses inflammation in aging. PMID:25922068

  12. Bone Markers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alkaline Phosphatase; Osteocalcin; P1NP; Procollagen Type 1 N-Terminal Propeptide Formal name: Biochemical Markers of Bone Remodeling ... tests for evaluating bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker ...

  13. Bone Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ... risk if you are having hemodialysis. Symptoms of bone infections include Pain in the infected area Chills and ...

  14. Co-culture of primary CLL cells with bone marrow mesenchymal cells, CD40 ligand and CpG ODN promotes proliferation of chemoresistant CLL cells phenotypically comparable to those proliferating in vivo.

    PubMed

    Purroy, Noelia; Abrisqueta, Pau; Carabia, Júlia; Carpio, Cecilia; Palacio, Carles; Bosch, Francesc; Crespo, Marta

    2015-04-10

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells residing in the bone marrow (BM) and in secondary lymphoid tissues receive survival and proliferative signals from the microenvironment, resulting in persistence of residual disease after treatment. In this study, we characterized primary CLL cells cultured with BM stromal cells, CD40 ligand and CpG ODN to partially mimic the microenvironment in the proliferative centers. This co-culture system induced proliferation and chemoresistance in primary CLL cells. Importantly, co-cultured primary CLL cells shared many phenotypical features with circulating proliferative CLL cells, such as upregulation of ZAP-70 and CD38 and higher CD49d and CD62L expression. This indicates aggressiveness and capability to interact with surrounding cells, respectively. In addition, levels of CXCR4 were decreased due to CXCR4 internalization after CXCL12 stimulation by BM stromal cells. We suggest that this co-culture system can be used to test drugs and their combinations that target the proliferative and drug resistant CLL cells. PMID:25544766

  15. Bone Basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    This is an activity (on page 2 of the PDF) about the two main components of bone - collagen and minerals (like calcium) - and how they each contribute to its flexibility and strength. Learners will submerge 3 chicken bones in water, bleach, and vinegar, wait 24 hours, then observe and test each bone. This resource includes information about how nanoscientists are trying to produce artificial analogs to these components and relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Bone Regrowth.

  16. Interleukin 4 suppresses c-kit ligand-induced expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 and their roles in separate pathways of eicosanoid synthesis in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, M; Penrose, J F; Urade, Y; Austen, K F; Arm, J P

    1995-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) developed with interleukin 3 (IL-3) can be stimulated by c-kit ligand (KL) and accessory cytokines over a period of hours for direct delayed prostaglandin (PG) generation or over a period of days to prime for augmented IgE-dependent PG and leukotriene (LT) production, as previously reported. We now report that IL-4 is counterregulatory for each of these distinct KL-dependent responses. BMMCs cultured for 4 days with KL + IL-3 or with KL + IL-10 produced 5- to 7-fold more PGD2 and approximately 2-fold more LTC4 in response to IgE-dependent activation than BMMCs maintained in IL-3 alone. IL-4 inhibited the priming for increased IgE-dependent PGD2 and LTC4 production to the level obtained by activation of BMMCs maintained in IL-3 alone with an IC50 of approximately 0.2 ng/ml. IL-4 inhibited the KL-induced increase in expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) but had no effect on the incremental expression of PG endoperoxide synthase 1 (PGHS-1) and hematopoietic PGD2 synthase or on the continued baseline expression of 5-lipoxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase activating protein, and LTC4 synthase. BMMCs stimulated by KL + IL-10 for 10 h exhibited a delayed phase of PGD2 generation, which was dependent on de novo induction of PGHS-2. IL-4 inhibited the induction of PGHS-2 expression and the accompanying cytokine-initiated delayed PGD2 generation with an IC50 of approximately 6 ng/ml. IL-4 had no effect on the expression of PGHS-2 and the production of PGD2 elicited by addition of IL-1 beta to the combination of KL + IL-10. IL-4 had no effect on the immediate phase of eicosanoid synthesis elicited by KL alone or by IgE and antigen in BMMCs maintained in IL-3. Thus, the counterregulatory action of IL-4 on eicosanoid generation is highly selective for the induced incremental expression of cPLA2 and the de novo expression of PGHS-2, thereby attenuating time-dependent cytokine-regulated responses to stimulation via Fc epsilon receptor I and stimulation via c-kit, respectively. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7541141

  17. Mouse Party

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2007-08-09

    In this interactive activity from The University of Utah, examine the molecular mechanisms that affect the brains of mice on drugs. Learn how different drugs create different responses in the brain and alter the natural state of a mouse.

  18. Primary cilia mediate sonic hedgehog signaling to regulate neuronal-like differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells for resveratrol induction in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Gui; Shen, Chang-Bo; Wu, Wen-Bin; Ren, Jun-Wei; Xu, Lan; Liu, Shu; Yang, Qin

    2014-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into neuronal-like cell types under specific conditions. The classical antioxidant inducers such as ?-mercaptoethanol (BME), butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are limited in clinical because of toxicity. Resveratrol, a safer, natural antioxidant, can stimulate osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. However, its effect of inducing MSCs to differentiate into neuronal-like cells is less well studied, and its differentiated mechanisms are not well understood. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, mediated by the primary cilia, is crucial for embryonic development and tissue differentiation, but relatively little is known about the role of Shh signaling and primary cilia in neuronal-like differentiation of MSCs. Here we show that primary cilia, harboring patched 1 (Ptc1), are present in growth-arrested MSCs and that smoothened (Smo) and Gli1 are present in cytoplasm of MSCs, which are important components of the Shh signaling pathway. After resveratrol induction, MSCs acquire neuronal-like cell morphologies and phenotypes, Smo translocates to the primary cilia, Gli1 enters the nucleus, and expressions of Smo and Gli1 proteins increase, which can be inhibited by cyclopamine, a Smo antagonist. Meanwhile, Smo agonist (SAG) attains similar effects compared with the resveratrol group. These data indicate that resveratrol can induce MSCs to differentiate into neuronal-like cells and activate Shh signaling pathway in the primary cilia. Moreover, the primary cilia and Shh signaling are essential for resveratrol inducing neuronal-like differentiation of MSCs. Our finding is important for understanding the neuronal-like differentiation mechanism of MSCs for resveratrol and promoting its clinical therapeutic utility. PMID:24464877

  19. Calcium ions promote primary renal epithelial cell differentiation into cells with bone-associated phenotypes via transforming growth factor-?1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in idiopathic hypercalciuria patients.

    PubMed

    He, Deng; Wang, Shaogang; Jia, Zhaohui; Cui, Lei; Lu, Yuchao; Hu, Henglong; Qin, Baolong

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to identify the characteristics and cross?talk between transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF??1) and calcium ions in nephrolithiasis patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) in order to elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying changes in cell phenotype induced by bone?associated factors and their influence on renal nephrolithiasis formation. Blood samples from a total of 29 nephrolithiasis patients with IH, 29 renal stone patients without IH and 29 healthy age?matched normal controls were subjected to quantification of peripheral serum TGF??1, osteopontin (OPN) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) using ELISA. This was followed by detection of BMP2, OPN and 1,25?dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor (VDR) mRNA and protein levels in primary renal epithelial cells (PRECs) of IH and HK?2 human proximal tubular cell lines (control) using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR) and western blot analyses. The mRNA expression levels of BMP2, OPN and VDR in PRECs and HK?2 were evaluated following stimulation with various concentrations of TGF??1 (0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 ng/ml), Ca2+ (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mM) or TGF??1 and Ca2+ combined using RT?qPCR, respectively. TGF??1, BMP2 and OPN expression levels in patients with IH were all significantly higher than those in the control group. The mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP2 and VDR were significantly higher in PRECs than those in HK?2 cells. Following incubation with TGF??1 and/or Ca2+, the mRNA expression levels of BMP2, OPN and VDR in PRECs increased in a dose?dependent manner; however, no significant differences were observed in HK?2 cells with increasing TGF??1 dosage. Co?incubation with TGF??1 and Ca2+ in PRECs and HK?2 cell lines resulted in similar effects and the expression of BMP2, OPN and VDR mRNA increased in a time?dependent manner. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that TGF??1 regulated the expression of BMP2, OPN and VDR in PRECs, but not in HK?2 cells. Co?incubation with TGF??1 and Ca2+ significantly increased the expression levels of bone?associated factors in PRECs and HK?2 cells, which suggested that this process may be partially responsible for the pathogenesis of calcium stone development, and also associated with bone formation and the TGF??1?induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. PMID:25394514

  20. Role of calcium in the regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2, runt-related transcription factor 2 and Osterix in primary renal tubular epithelial cells by the vitamin D receptor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhaohui; Wang, Shaogang; He, Deng; Cui, Lei; Lu, Yuchao; Hu, Henglong; Qin, Baolong; Zhao, Zhenyu

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3/vitamin D receptor (VDR) and calcium on the expression levels of osteogenic factors in primary renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) using genetic hypercalciuric rats. The basal levels of osteogenic factors were detected in Sprague Dawley and genetic hypercalciuric rats. The gene and protein levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), runt?related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osterix were detected in the RTECs transduced with Lenti?VDR?sh and were incubated with calcium. Using the o?cresolphthalein complexone method, the calcium levels of the primary RTECs cultured with Lenti?VDR?sh and with 1,25(OH)2D3 were assessed. The basal levels of BMP2, Runx2 and Osterix in the cells were significantly higher in the genetic hypercalciuric rats compared with the control rats. VDR knockdown in the RTECs reduced the expression levels of BMP2, Runx2 and Osterix. The calcium depositions in the primary RTECs were also decreased following exposure to Lenti?VDR?sh, but increased following treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3. The expression levels of BMP2, Runx2 and Osterix were markedly increased in the cells incubated with calcium compared with the cells treated with normal saline and the untreated cells. These findings indicated that osteogenic factors, including BMP2, Runx2 and Osterix may be important in renal stone formation in idiopathic hypercalciuria. VDR may mediate the increased expression levels of BMP2, Runx2 and Osterix by positively regulating calcium levels in primary RTECs. PMID:25823394

  1. Morphogenesis of the compartmentalizing bone around the molar primordia in the mouse mandible during dental developmental stages between lamina, bell-stage, and root formation (E13-P20).

    PubMed

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert; Zimmermann, Camilla A; Mey, Robert; Matalova, Eva

    2015-07-01

    Despite increasing knowledge of the basic molecular aspects of bone formation and its regulation, the mechanisms of bone morphogenesis leading to a topologically specific shape remain unknown. The formation of the alveolar bone, which houses the dental primordia and later, the dental roots, may serve as a model to understand the formation of bone form in general. Thirty-eight heads of mice (C57 Bl/6J) ranging from stages E13-P20 were used to prepare histological serial sections. For each stage, virtual 3D-reconstructions were made in order to study the morphogenesis of the mandibular molar primordia concomitantly with their surrounding bone. Special focus was given to recording the remodeling pattern. It has been shown that, in early stages (E13, E14), bone formation is characterized by apposition only. In stage E15, the bony crypt around the dental primordia is remodeled mostly by resorption of bone. In stage E18, the bone remodeling pattern shows resorption all along the bony gutter, which houses the molar primordia. The medial and lateral margins are characterized by apposition. At birth (stage P0), a bony septum has begun to form between the primordium m1 and of m2, arising from both sides and characterized by pure apposition of bone. In stage P4, the crypts of m1 and m2, and also that of m3, show bone resorption inside, while the medial and lateral bony margins show apposition of bone throughout. Generally, during development, the bone gradually encapsulates the dental primordia, in such a way that the bone reaches over the dental primordia and leaves only a continuous longish opening of about 200?m width. The opening at the occlusal surface of m1, at the time of eruption, starting at stage P14, appears to have increased in size again. The distance between bone and dental primordium undergoes change during development. In erupted molars, it is around 100?m, during early developmental stages, it may be as less as 20?m. These data show the inevitability of bone remodeling. PMID:25723515

  2. PuraMatrix facilitates bone regeneration in bone defects of calvaria in mice.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Haruo; Kobayashi, Naoya; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Chen, Yong; Yoshida, Aki; Rivas-Carrillo, Jorge David; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Tanaka, Kimiaki; Miki, Atsushi; Takei, Jiro; Ueda, Tadayoshi; Tanaka, Masato; Endo, Hirosuke; Tanaka, Noriaki; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2006-01-01

    Artificial bones have often used for bone regeneration due to their strength, but they cannot provide an adequate environment for cell penetration and settlement. We therefore attempted to explore various materials that may allow the cells to penetrate and engraft in bone defects. PuraMatrix is a self-assembling peptide scaffold that produces a nanoscale environment allowing both cellular penetration and engraftment. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of PuraMatrix on bone regeneration in a mouse bone defect model of the calvaria. Matrigel was used as a control. The expression of bone-related genes (alkaline phosphatase, Runx2, and Osterix) in the PuraMatrix-injected bone defects was stronger than that in the Matrigel-injected defects. Soft X-ray radiographs revealed that bony bridges were clearly observed in the defects treated with PuraMatrix, but not in the Matrigel-treated defects. Notably, PuraMatrix treatment induced mature bone tissue while showing cortical bone medullary cavities. The area of newly formed bones at the site of the bone defects was 1.38-fold larger for PuraMatrix than Matrigel. The strength of the regenerated bone was 1.72-fold higher for PuraMatrix (146.0 g) than for Matrigel (84.7 g). The present study demonstrated that PuraMatrix injection favorably induced functional bone regeneration. PMID:17299995

  3. Sodium valproate increases the brain isoform of glycogen phosphorylase: looking for a compensation mechanism in McArdle disease using a mouse primary skeletal-muscle culture in vitro

    PubMed Central

    de Luna, Noemí; Brull, Astrid; Guiu, Josep Maria; Lucia, Alejandro; Martin, Miguel Angel; Arenas, Joaquin; Martí, Ramon; Andreu, Antoni L.; Pinós, Tomàs

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT McArdle disease, also termed ‘glycogen storage disease type V’, is a disorder of skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism caused by inherited deficiency of the muscle-specific isoform of glycogen phosphorylase (GP-MM). It is an autosomic recessive disorder that is caused by mutations in the PYGM gene and typically presents with exercise intolerance, i.e. episodes of early exertional fatigue frequently accompanied by rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria. Muscle biopsies from affected individuals contain subsarcolemmal deposits of glycogen. Besides GP-MM, two other GP isoforms have been described: the liver (GP-LL) and brain (GP-BB) isoforms, which are encoded by the PYGL and PYGB genes, respectively; GP-BB is the main GP isoform found in human and rat foetal tissues, including the muscle, although its postnatal expression is dramatically reduced in the vast majority of differentiated tissues with the exception of brain and heart, where it remains as the major isoform. We developed a cell culture model from knock-in McArdle mice that mimics the glycogen accumulation and GP-MM deficiency observed in skeletal muscle from individuals with McArdle disease. We treated mouse primary skeletal muscle cultures in vitro with sodium valproate (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor. After VPA treatment, myotubes expressed GP-BB and a dose-dependent decrease in glycogen accumulation was also observed. Thus, this in vitro model could be useful for high-throughput screening of new drugs to treat this disease. The immortalization of these primary skeletal muscle cultures could provide a never-ending source of cells for this experimental model. Furthermore, VPA could be considered as a gene-expression modulator, allowing compensatory expression of GP-BB and decreased glycogen accumulation in skeletal muscle of individuals with McArdle disease. PMID:25762569

  4. Pertussis toxin-sensitive heterotrimeric G(?i/o) proteins mediate WNT/?-catenin and WNT/ERK1/2 signaling in mouse primary microglia stimulated with purified WNT-3A.

    PubMed

    Halleskog, Carina; Schulte, Gunnar

    2013-04-01

    WNT-3A is a secreted lipoglycoprotein that engages Class Frizzled receptors and LDL receptor related protein 5/6 (LRP5/6) for cellular communication. Generally, WNT-3A mediates WNT/?-catenin signaling to regulate TCF/LEF-dependent gene expression. We have previously shown that ?-catenin levels are elevated in proinflammatory microglia of Alzheimer's disease patients and that WNT-3A can evoke a strong proinflammatory response in primary microglia. In order to investigate the underlying mechanisms, we focus here on the pharmacological dissection of WNT-3A-induced signaling to ?-catenin and to the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) in mouse primary microglia. Both pathways are induced by WNT-3A with slightly different kinetics, suggesting that they might be pharmacologically separable. Inhibition of heterotrimeric G?i/o proteins by pertussis toxin blocks WNT-3A-induced LRP6 phosphorylation, disheveled shift, ?-catenin stabilization and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. On the other hand LRP6 blockade by Dickkopf 1 treatment abrogated the WNT/?-catenin pathway without affecting WNT/ERK1/2 signaling. In the opposite way, inhibition of ?? subunits, phospholipase C (PLC), intracellular calcium and MEK1/2, the upstream kinase of ERK1/2, blocked ERK1/2 phosphorylation but not ?-catenin stabilization. In summary, the data suggest a central role of G?i/o for both ?-catenin-dependent and -independent pathways. WNT-3A-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation is mediated by ?? subunits, PLC, intracellular calcium and MEK1/2. Furthermore, we show that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), a generic proinflammatory marker of microglia, is induced by WNT-3A through ERK1/2-dependent pathways arguing that ?-catenin-independent signaling downstream of WNT-3A is of physiological importance for the proinflammatory regulation of microglia. PMID:23266471

  5. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets.

    PubMed

    Ganley, Robert P; Iwagaki, Noboru; Del Rio, Patricia; Baseer, Najma; Dickie, Allen C; Boyle, Kieran A; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Abraira, Victoria E; Zimmerman, Amanda; Riddell, John S; Todd, Andrew J

    2015-05-13

    The superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord contains numerous inhibitory interneurons, which regulate the transmission of information perceived as touch, pain, or itch. Despite the importance of these cells, our understanding of their roles in the neuronal circuitry is limited by the difficulty in identifying functional populations. One group that has been identified and characterized consists of cells in the mouse that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the prion protein (PrP) promoter. Previous reports suggested that PrP-GFP cells belonged to a single morphological class (central cells), received inputs exclusively from unmyelinated primary afferents, and had axons that remained in lamina II. However, we recently reported that the PrP-GFP cells expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and/or galanin, and it has been shown that nNOS-expressing cells are more diverse in their morphology and synaptic connections. We therefore used a combined electrophysiological, pharmacological, and anatomical approach to reexamine the PrP-GFP cells. We provide evidence that they are morphologically diverse (corresponding to "unclassified" cells) and receive synaptic input from a variety of primary afferents, with convergence onto individual cells. We also show that their axons project into adjacent laminae and that they target putative projection neurons in lamina I. This indicates that the neuronal circuitry involving PrP-GFP cells is more complex than previously recognized, and suggests that they are likely to have several distinct roles in regulating the flow of somatosensory information through the dorsal horn. PMID:25972186

  6. NMR assessment on bone simulated under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Q.; Qin, Y.

    Introduction Microgravity-induced bone loss has been suggested to be similar to disuse-osteoporosis on Earth which constitutes a challenging public health problem No current non-destructive method can provide the microstructural changes in bone particularly on cortical bone Recently the authors have applied low field nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spin-spin relaxation technique and computational analysis method to determine the porosity pore size distribution and microdamage of cortical bone 1-3 The studies by the authors have shown that this technology can be used to characterize microstructural changes as well as bone water distribution bound and mobile water changes of weightless treated simulating a microgravity condition turkey and mouse cortical bone We further determinate that the NMR spin-spin relaxation time T 2 spectrum derived parameters can be used as descriptions of bone quality e g matrix water distribution and porosity size distributions and alone or in combination with current techniques bone mineral density measurements more accurately predict bone mechanical properties Methods underline Bone sample preparation Two kinds of animal samples were collected and prepared for designed experiments from SUNY Cortical bones of the mid-diaphyses of the ulnae of 1-year-old male turkeys were dissected from freshly slaughtered animals Eight samples were categorized from normal or control and four samples were 4-week disuse treated by functionally isolated osteotomies disuse A total of 12

  7. Local recurrence, rate and sites of metastases, and time to relapse as a function of treatment regimen, size of primary and surgical history in 62 patients presenting with non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma of the pelvic bones

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.; Nesbit, M.; Askin, F.; Burgert, O.; Cangir, A.; Foulkes, M.; Gehan, E.; Gilula, L.; Kissane, J.; Makley, J.

    1985-01-01

    This report reviews the experience of 62 patients who presented between 1972 and 1978 with non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma of the pelvis and were entered on IESS I. Seventeen patients (27%) developed a local recurrence, 38 patients (61%) demonstrated metastases and 21 (34%) neither. In the dose range 4000 rad to 6000 rad no dose response could be detected for local control of tumor. Forty-six patients (74%) had a biopsy or exploratory surgery only, 5 patients (8%) had an incomplete resection and 11 patients (18%) has a complete resection of their tumor. In the 46 patients having a biopsy only, 13 developed a local recurrence (28%) as compared to 2 of 11 patients undergoing a complete resection (18%). The most common sites for metastases were lung in 19 patients (31%) and bone in 23 patients (37%). No significant difference was noted in the frequency of overall metastases or metastases to any site between those patients receiving one of the three treatment regimens used in IESS I: VAC and Adriamycin (regime I), VAC alone (regimen II) and VAC plus bilateral pulmonary irradiation (regimen III). At a median follow-up of 135 weeks no significant difference in median survival could be detected in patients with pelvic primaries between regimens I, II and III. The possible reasons for the poor prognosis of pelvic primary patients are discussed together with treatment policies that might improve the survival of this group of patients.

  8. PtdIns3P and Rac direct the assembly of the NADPH oxidase on a novel, pre-phagosomal compartment during FcR-mediated phagocytosis in primary mouse neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Karen E; Chessa, Tamara A M; Davidson, Keith; Henderson, Robert B; Walker, Simon; Tolmachova, Tanya; Grys, Katarzyna; Rausch, Oliver; Seabra, Miguel C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Stephens, Len R; Hawkins, Phillip T

    2010-12-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase is an important mechanism by which neutrophils kill pathogens. The oxidase is composed of a membrane-bound cytochrome and 4 soluble proteins (p67(phox), p40(phox), p47(phox), and GTP-Rac). These components form an active complex at the correct time and subcellular location through a series of incompletely understood mutual interactions, regulated, in part, by GTP/GDP exchange on Rac, protein phosphorylation, and binding to lipid messengers. We have used a variety of assays to follow the spatiotemporal assembly of the oxidase in genetically engineered primary mouse neutrophils, during phagocytosis of both serum- and immunoglobulin G-opsonized targets. The oxidase assembles directly on serum-Staphylococcus aureus-containing phagosomes within seconds of phagosome formation; this process is only partially dependent (? 30%) on PtdIns3P binding to p40(phox), but totally dependent on Rac1/2 binding to p67(phox). In contrast, in response to immunoglobulin G-targets, the oxidase first assembles on a tubulovesicular compartment that develops at sites of granule fusion to the base of the emerging phagosome; oxidase assembly and activation is highly dependent on both PtdIns3P-p40(phox) and Rac2-p67(phox) interactions and delivery to the phagosome is regulated by Rab27a. These results define a novel pathway for oxidase assembly downstream of FcR-activation. PMID:20813901

  9. PtdIns3P and Rac direct the assembly of the NADPH oxidase on a novel, pre-phagosomal compartment during FcR-mediated phagocytosis in primary mouse neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Karen E.; Chessa, Tamara A. M.; Davidson, Keith; Henderson, Robert B.; Walker, Simon; Tolmachova, Tanya; Grys, Katarzyna; Rausch, Oliver; Seabra, Miguel C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Stephens, Len R.

    2010-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase is an important mechanism by which neutrophils kill pathogens. The oxidase is composed of a membrane-bound cytochrome and 4 soluble proteins (p67phox, p40phox, p47phox, and GTP-Rac). These components form an active complex at the correct time and subcellular location through a series of incompletely understood mutual interactions, regulated, in part, by GTP/GDP exchange on Rac, protein phosphorylation, and binding to lipid messengers. We have used a variety of assays to follow the spatiotemporal assembly of the oxidase in genetically engineered primary mouse neutrophils, during phagocytosis of both serum- and immunoglobulin G-opsonized targets. The oxidase assembles directly on serum-Staphylococcus aureus–containing phagosomes within seconds of phagosome formation; this process is only partially dependent (? 30%) on PtdIns3P binding to p40phox, but totally dependent on Rac1/2 binding to p67phox. In contrast, in response to immunoglobulin G-targets, the oxidase first assembles on a tubulovesicular compartment that develops at sites of granule fusion to the base of the emerging phagosome; oxidase assembly and activation is highly dependent on both PtdIns3P-p40phox and Rac2-p67phox interactions and delivery to the phagosome is regulated by Rab27a. These results define a novel pathway for oxidase assembly downstream of FcR-activation. PMID:20813901

  10. Osteocyte types in the developing mouse calvarium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean E. Aaron

    1973-01-01

    Tissue maps, and cell characteristics and properties were recorded in a study under the optical microscope of the development of the mouse calvarium from pre-natal to 26 days. Osteocyte populations in left and right halves of the calvarium were similar, but decreased with time for a given volume. Small isolated areas of bone matrix stained for phosphate (or carbonate) in

  11. Bone Canonical WNT/B-Catenin Signaling in Models of Reduced Microgravity

    E-print Network

    Macias, Brandon 1979-

    2012-10-25

    , and immunohistochemistry served as primary outcome measures. The primary findings are: 1) Low-dose high-LET radiation negativity impacts maintenance of bone mass by lowering bone formation and increasing bone resorption. This impaired bone formation response is in part...

  12. Expression of the regeneration-associated protein SPRR1A in primary sensory neurons and spinal cord of the adult mouse following peripheral and central injury

    PubMed Central

    Starkey, Michelle L.; Davies, Meirion; Yip, Ping K.; Carter, Lucy M.; Wong, Danny J. N.; McMahon, Stephen B.; Bradbury, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Small proline-rich repeat protein 1A (SPRR1A) is expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following peripheral nerve injury but it is not known whether SPRR1A is differentially expressed following injury to peripheral versus central DRG projections and a detailed characterisation of expression in sensory neuron sub-populations and spinal cord has not been performed. Here we use immunocytochemical techniques to characterise SPRR1A expression following sciatic nerve, dorsal root and dorsal column injury in adult mice. SPRR1A was not detected in naïve spinal cord, DRG or peripheral nerves and there was minimal expression following injury to the centrally projecting branches of DRG neurons. However, following peripheral (sciatic) nerve injury, intense SPRR1A immunoreactivity was observed in the dorsal horn and motoneurons of the spinal cord, in L4/5 DRG neurons and in the injured nerve. A time-course study comparing expression following sciatic nerve crush and transection revealed maximum SPRR1A levels at day 7 in both models. However, while SPRR1A was down-regulated to baseline by 30 days post-lesion following crush injury, it remained elevated 30 days after transection. Cell-size and double-labelling studies revealed that SPRR1A was expressed by DRG cells of all sizes and co-localized with classical markers of DRG subpopulations and their primary afferent terminals. High co-expression of SPRR1A with activating transcription factor-3 and growth-associated protein-43 was observed, indicating that it is expressed by injured and regenerating neurons. This study supports the hypothesis that SPRR1A is a regeneration-associated gene and that SPRR1A provides a valuable marker to assess the regenerative potential of injured neurons. PMID:19107756

  13. Endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss by attenuating bone marrow adipogenesis in FAT1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tian-yu; Zhang, Zhong-min; Zheng, Xiao-chen; Wang, Liang; Huang, Min-jun; Qin, Si; Chen, Jian; Lai, Ping-lin; Yang, Cheng-liang; Liu, Jia; Dai, Yi-fan; Jin, Da-di; Bai, Xiao-chun

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on bone marrow adipogenesis under osteoporosis conditions. Methods A mouse osteoporosis model overexpressing the FAT1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans and converting n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs endogenously was used. Results The mice presented significantly lower bone marrow adiposity (adipocyte volume/tissue volume, mean adipocyte number) but increased the bone parameters (bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone volume/total volume) in the distal femoral metaphysis. Conclusion Endogenous n-3 PUFAs protect bone marrow adipogenesis, which provides a novel drug target. PMID:23843691

  14. Activation of the mouse primary visual cortex by medial prefrontal subregion stimulation is not mediated by cholinergic basalo-cortical projections

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoang Nam; Huppé-Gourgues, Frédéric; Vaucher, Elvire

    2015-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) exerts top-down control of primary visual cortex (V1) activity. As there is no direct neuronal projection from mPFC to V1, this functional connection may use an indirect route, i.e., via basalo-cortical cholinergic projections. The cholinergic projections to V1 originate from neurons in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB), which receive neuronal projections from the ventral part of the mPFC, composed of prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic cortices (IL). Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether electrical stimulation of mice mPFC subregions activate (1) V1 neurons; and (2) HDB cholinergic neurons, suggesting that the HDB serves as a relay point in the mPFC-V1 interaction. Neuronal activation was quantified using c-Fos immunocytochemistry or thallium autometallography for each V1 layer using automated particle analysis tools and optical density measurement. Stimulation of IL and PrL induced significantly higher c-Fos expression or thallium labeling in layers II/III and V of V1 in the stimulated hemisphere only. A HDB cholinergic neuron-specific lesion by saporin administration reduced IL-induced c-Fos expression in layers II/III of V1 but not in layer V. However, there was no c-Fos expression or thallium labeling in the HDB neurons, suggesting that this area was not activated by IL stimulation. Stimulation of another mPFC subarea, the anterior cingulate cortex (AC), which is involved in attention and receives input from V1, activated neither V1 nor HDB. The present results indicate that IL and PrL, but not AC, stimulation activates V1 with the minor involvement of the HDB cholinergic projections. These results suggest a functional link between the ventral mPFC and V1, but this function is only marginally supported by HDB cholinergic neurons and may involve other brain regions. PMID:25709570

  15. Chromosome anomalies in bone marrow as primary cause of aplastic or hypoplastic conditions and peripheral cytopenia: disorders due to secondary impairment of RUNX1 and MPL genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosome changes in the bone marrow (BM) of patients with persistent cytopenia are often considered diagnostic for a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Comprehensive cytogenetic evaluations may give evidence of the real pathogenetic role of these changes in cases with cytopenia without morphological signs of MDS. Results Chromosome anomalies were found in the BM of three patients, without any morphological evidence of MDS: 1) an acquired complex rearrangement of chromosome 21 in a boy with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA); the rearrangement caused the loss of exons 2–8 of the RUNX1 gene with subsequent hypoexpression. 2) a constitutional complex rearrangement of chromosome 21 in a girl with congenital thrombocytopenia; the rearrangement led to RUNX1 disruption and hypoexpression. 3) an acquired paracentric inversion of chromosome 1, in which two regions at the breakpoints were shown to be lost, in a boy with aplastic anaemia; the MPL gene, localized in chromosome 1 short arms was not mutated neither disrupted, but its expression was severely reduced: we postulate that the aplastic anaemia was due to position effects acting both in cis and in trans, and causing Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia (CAMT). Conclusions A clonal anomaly in BM does not imply per se a diagnosis of MDS: a subgroup of BM hypoplastic disorders is directly due to chromosome structural anomalies with effects on specific genes, as was the case of RUNX1 and MPL in the patients here reported with diagnosis of SAA, thrombocytopenia, and CAMT. The anomaly may be either acquired or constitutional, and it may act by deletion/disruption of the gene, or by position effects. Full cytogenetic investigations, including a-CGH, should always be part of the diagnostic evaluation of patients with BM aplasia/hypoplasia and peripheral cytopenias. PMID:23025896

  16. Fish oil prevents breast cancer cell metastasis to bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandi Charan Mandal; Triparna Ghosh-Choudhury; Toshi Yoneda; Goutam Ghosh Choudhury; Nandini Ghosh-Choudhury

    2010-01-01

    The data derived from epidemiological and animal models confirm a beneficial effect of fish oil (rich in ??3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) in the amelioration of tumor growth and progression, including breast cancer. The breast cancer patients often develop bone metastasis evidenced by osteolytic lesions, leading to severe pain and bone fracture. Using a mouse model of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer

  17. Bear Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-03-08

    An estimated ten million Americans have osteoporosis, an age-related disease in which the bones gradually become brittle and weak. Now, scientists are looking to animals for clues on how to combat this condition. This resource describes the study of sustaining bone strength of hibernating bears.

  18. Talking Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  19. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone resorption, and protects against alveolar bone loss in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Grundler, Florian M.W.; Miyaura, Chisato; Inada, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various cell functions. Here, we examined the function of EGCG in inflammatory bone resorption. In calvarial organ cultures, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption was clearly suppressed by EGCG. In osteoblasts, EGCG suppressed the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNAs, as well as prostaglandin E2 production, and also suppressed RANKL expression, which is essential for osteoclast differentiation. LPS-induced bone resorption of mandibular alveolar bones was attenuated by EGCG in vitro, and the loss of mouse alveolar bone mass was inhibited by the catechin in vivo.

  20. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:25857702

  1. [Primary prevention of osteopenia].

    PubMed

    Falkenbach, A

    1992-11-01

    In industrialized countries the clinical and socioeconomic importance of osteoporosis has been well recognized in recent years. Various treatments have been introduced for secondary prevention in established osteoporosis. There is, however, a deficit in the primary prevention of osteopenia. In every age group physical exercise stimulates mineralization of the bone. With regular training adolescents can achieve a higher peak bone mass. In old age the physiologic decrease of bone mass can be retarded by physical exercise. A diet rich in calcium has positive effects on mineralization of the bone. Estrogens have proved efficacious in the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Abstinence from nicotine and alcohol contributes to the prevention of osteopenia. PMID:1439691

  2. Animal Models of Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Rosol, Thomas J.; Tannehill-Gregg, Sarah H.; LeRoy, Bruce E.; Mandl, Stefanie; Contag, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Animal models are important tools to investigate the pathogenesis and develop treatment strategies for bone metastases in humans. However, there are few spontaneous models of bone metastasis despite the fact that rodents (rats and mice) and other animals (dogs and cats) often spontaneously develop cancer. Therefore, most experimental models of bone metastasis in rodents require injection or implantation of neoplastic cells into orthotopic locations, bones, or the left ventricle of the heart. METHODS The current study reviews the natural incidence and clinical manifestation of bone metastases of mammary and prostate carcinoma in animals, as well as the experimental models developed in mice using animal and human-derived neoplasms. RESULTS Rats, mice, dogs, and cats often develop spontaneous mammary carcinoma, but bone metastases are rare. Intact and neutered dogs develop prostate carcinoma that is usually androgen independent and may be associated with regional bone invasion or distant bone metastasis. Normal dog prostate tissue induces new bone formation in vivo and can serve as a model of osteoblastic metastasis without concurrent bone destruction. Experimental models of osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic bone metastases include syngeneic rodent neoplasms or human xenografts implanted at orthotopic sites (e.g., breast or prostate glands) in immunodeficient mice, injection of cancer cells into the left ventricle of the heart, or direct injection into bones. New transgenic mouse models of cancer have a low incidence of spontaneous bone metastasis, but cell lines derived from these tumors can be selected in vivo for increased incidence of bone metastasis. It is essential to validate and correctly interpret the lesions in models of bone metastasis to accurately correlate the data from animal models to human disease. Animal models have provided support for the “seed and soil” hypothesis of bone metastasis. However, the roles of vascular patterns in the metaphyses of long bones and rapid bone turnover in young animals in the pathogenesis of metastasis in experimental models are uncertain. Improvements in the imaging of experimental animals in vivo using fluorescent markers or light emitted from luciferase have led to increased sensitivity of detection and more accurate quantification of bone metastases. For example, imaging of human prostate carcinoma PC-3M cells transfected with luciferase, following injection into the left ventricle, has demonstrated that there is rapid localization of tumor cells to bones and other organs, such as the kidneys and lungs. CONCLUSIONS Animal models of metastasis have supported drug development and have been useful for identification of metastasis suppressor and promoter genes as novel targets for the development of novel therapies. Further refinement of these models will involve spatiotemporal analysis of the metastatic process by imaging and use of image data to stage disease and guide tissue sampling for gene expression profiling via gene array technology. In the future, integrated analyses of these models will be needed to understand the complexities of this important disease process. PMID:15043188

  3. Mammalian cortical bone in tension is non-Haversian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayya, Ashwij; Banerjee, Anuradha; Rajesh, R.

    2013-08-01

    Cortical bone, found in the central part of long bones like femur, is known to adapt to local mechanical stresses. This adaptation has been linked exclusively with Haversian remodelling involving bone resorption and formation of secondary osteons. Compared to primary/plexiform bone, the Haversian bone has lower stiffness, fatigue strength and fracture toughness, raising the question why nature prefers an adaptation that is detrimental to bone's primary function of bearing mechanical stresses. Here, we show that in the goat femur, Haversian remodelling occurs only at locations of high compressive stresses. At locations corresponding to high tensile stresses, we observe a microstructure that is non-Haversian. Compared with primary/plexiform bone, this microstructure's mineralisation is significantly higher with a distinctly different spatial pattern. Thus, the Haversian structure is an adaptation only to high compressive stresses rendering its inferior tensile properties irrelevant as the regions with high tensile stresses have a non-Haversian, apparently primary microstructure.

  4. The CD4 receptor plays essential but distinct roles in HIV-1 infection and induction of apoptosis in primary bone marrow GPIIb/IIIa+ megakaryocytes and the HEL cell line.

    PubMed

    Zauli, G; Catani, L; Gibellini, D; Re, M C; Milani, D; Borgatti, P; Bassini, A; La Placa, M; Capitani, S

    1995-10-01

    We investigated whether cells belonging to the megakaryocytic lineage could be infected in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Primary GPIIb/IIIa+ bone marrow (BM) cells and HEL continuous cell line were first phenotypically characterized for the presence of megakaryocytic markers and CD4 antigen, then challenged in vitro with the laboratory strain IIIB of HIV-1. Both GPIIb/IIIa+ BM and HEL cells expressed significant levels of CD4 receptor (> 50%) and were efficiently infected with HIV-1, as judged by the presence of proviral DNA after polymerase chain reaction analysis and by quantitative evaluation of gag p24 antigen in the culture supernatants. Of note, infection with HIV-1 in both primary BM megakaryocytes and HEL cells was specifically blocked by soluble recombinant CD4. To ascertain whether the CD4 receptor was essential for infection of megakaryocytic cells, HEL were subcloned into CD4+ and CD4- cells. Although unfractionated and CD4+ HEL cells were productively infected with HIV-1, CD4- HEL cells could not be infected. Infection of HEL cells did not induce gross cytotoxic effects or a significant increase of apoptosis. On the other hand, treatment of unfractionated or CD4+ HEL cells with cross-linked recombinant env gp120 or Leu3a anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody markedly (P < 0.01) increased the degree of apoptosis with respect to HEL cells infected with HIV-1 or treated with cross-linked gag p24 or anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibody. Taken together, these data indicate that the CD4 receptor represents the main route of infection in cells belonging to the megakaryocytic lineage. Moreover, an inappropriate engagement of CD4 by either free env gp120 or anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody could be more relevant than a direct infection with HIV-1 in the induction of the frequent BM megakaryocyte abnormalities found in HIV-1 seropositive thrombocytopenic patients. PMID:8547064

  5. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates the regenerative effects of bone grafts for calvarial bone repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Gilbert, James R; Shaw, Melissa A; Shakir, Sameer; Losee, Joseph E; Billiar, Timothy R; Cooper, Gregory M

    2015-04-01

    Craniofacial trauma is difficult to repair and presents a significant burden to the healthcare system. The inflammatory response following bone trauma is critical to initiate healing, serving to recruit inflammatory and progenitor cells and to promote angiogenesis. A role for inflammation in graft-induced bone regeneration has been suggested, but is still not well understood. The current study assessed the impact of Toll-like receptor (TLR4) signaling on calvarial repair in the presence of morselized bone components. Calvarial defects in wild-type and global TLR4(-/-) knockout mouse strains were treated with fractionated bone components in the presence or absence of a TLR4 neutralizing peptide. Defect healing was subsequently evaluated over 28 days by microcomputed tomography and histology. The matrix-enriched fraction of morselized bone stimulated calvarial bone repair comparably with intact bone graft, although the capacity for grafts to induce calvarial bone repair was significantly diminished by inhibition or genetic ablation of TLR4. Overall, our findings suggest that the matrix component of bone graft stimulates calvarial bone repair in a TLR4-dependent manner. These results support the need to better understand the role of inflammation in the design and implementation of strategies to improve bone healing. PMID:25603990

  6. The regulation and regulatory role of collagenase in bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Walling, H. W.; Bloch, S. R.; Omura, T. H.; Chan, P. T.; Pearman, A. T.; Chou, W. Y.

    1996-01-01

    Interstitial collagenase plays an important role in both the normal and pathological remodeling of collagenous extracellular matrices, including skeletal tissues. The enzyme is a member of the family of matrix metalloproteinases. Only one rodent interstitial collagenase has been found but there are two human enzymes, human collagenase-1 and -3, the latter being the homologue of the rat enzyme. In developing rat and mouse bone, collagenase is expressed by hypertrophic chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, a situation that is replicated in a fracture callus. Cultured osteoblasts derived from neonatal rat calvariae show greater amounts of collagenase transcripts late in differentiation. These levels can be regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH), retinoic acid, and insulin-like growth factors, as well as the degree of matrix mineralization. Much of the work on collagenase in bone has been derived from studies on the rat osteosarcoma cell line, UMR 106-01. All bone-resorbing agents stimulate these cells to produce collagenase mRNA and protein, with PTH being the most potent stimulator. Determination of secreted levels of collagenase has been difficult because UMR cells, normal rat osteoblasts, and rat fibroblasts possess a scavenger receptor that removes the enzyme from the extracellular space, internalizes and degrades it, thus imposing another level of control. PTH can also regulate the abundance of the receptor as well as the expression and synthesis of the enzyme. Regulation of the collagenase gene by PTH appears to involve the cAMP pathway as well as a primary response gene, possibly Fos, which then contributes to induction of the collagenase gene. The rat collagenase gene contains an activator protein-1 sequence that is necessary for basal expression, but other promoter regions may also participate in PTH regulation. Thus, there are many levels of regulation of collagenase in bone perhaps constraining what would otherwise be a rampant enzyme.

  7. Phylogeography of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) provides a predictive framework for

    E-print Network

    Phylogeography of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) provides a predictive framework Strong interest in the ecology and population dynamics of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus and Monongahela viruses (hantaviruses) may reflect that of their primary rodent host, the deer mouse (Peromyscus

  8. Virtual temporal bone dissection: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Bryan; Don Stredney; Gregory J. Wiet; Dennis Sessanna

    2001-01-01

    The Temporal Bone Dissection Simulator is an ongoing research project for the construction of a synthetic environment suitable for virtual dissection of human temporal bone and related anatomy. Funded by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), the primary goal of this project is to provide a safe, robust, and cost-effective virtual environment for learning the anatomy

  9. Nutrition and bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail Goldberg

    2004-01-01

    Throughout life the skeleton is continually renewed. Old, worn out bone is broken down and new bone tissue is formed. During infancy, childhood and adolescence, bone formation is higher than breakdown. At about 30–35 years old adults achieve their peak bone mass. The rate of bone breakdown is equal to the rate of bone formation and bone mass is maintained.

  10. Tributyltin Engages Multiple Nuclear Receptor Pathways and Suppresses Osteogenesis in Bone Marrow Multipotent Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Baker, Amelia H; Watt, James; Huang, Cassie K; Gerstenfeld, Louis C; Schlezinger, Jennifer J

    2015-06-15

    Organotins are members of the environmental obesogen class of contaminants because they activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), the essential regulator of adipogenesis. Exposure to thiazolidinediones (PPAR? ligands used to treat type 2 diabetes) is associated with increased fractures. Diminished bone quality likely results from PPAR?'s role in promoting adipogenesis while suppressing osteogenesis of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC). We hypothesized that tributyltin (TBT) would be a potent modifier of BM-MSC differentiation and a negative regulator of bone formation. Organotins interact with both PPAR? and retinoid X receptors (RXR), suggesting that they activate multiple nuclear receptor pathways. To investigate the role of RXR in the actions of TBT, the effects of PPAR? (rosiglitazone) and RXR (bexarotene, LG100268) agonists were compared to the effects of TBT in BMS2 cells and primary mouse BM-MSC cultures. In BMS2 cells, TBT induced the expression of Fabp4, Abca1, and Tgm2 in an RXR-dependent manner. All agonists suppressed osteogenesis in primary mouse BM-MSC cultures, based on decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and expression of osteoblast-related genes. While rosiglitazone and TBT strongly activated adipogenesis, based on lipid accumulation and expression of adipocyte-related genes, the RXR agonists did not. Extending these analyses to other RXR heterodimers showed that TBT and the RXR agonists activated the liver X receptor pathway, whereas rosiglitazone did not. Application of either a PPAR? antagonist (T0070907) or an RXR antagonist (HX531) significantly reduced rosiglitazone-induced suppression of bone nodule formation. Only the RXR antagonist significantly reduced LG100268- and TBT-induced bone suppression. The RXR antagonist also inhibited LG100268- and TBT-induced expression of Abca1, an LXR target gene, in primary BM-MSC cultures. These results provide novel evidence that TBT activates multiple nuclear receptor pathways in BM-MSCs, activation of RXR is sufficient to suppress osteogenesis, and TBT suppresses osteogenesis largely through its direct interaction with RXR. PMID:25932594

  11. The mouse genome database (MGD): new features facilitating a model system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janan T. Eppig; Judith A. Blake; Carol J. Bult; James A. Kadin; Joel E. Richardson

    2007-01-01

    The mouse genome database (MGD, http:\\/\\/www. informatics.jax.org\\/), the international community database for mouse, provides access to extensive integrated data on the genetics, genomics and biology of the laboratory mouse. The mouse is an excellent and unique animal surrogate for studying normal development and disease processes in humans. Thus, MGD's primary goals are to facilitate the use of mouse models for

  12. Extracorporeal irradiation for malignant bone tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Hong; Graham Stevens; Paul Stalley; Susan Pendlebury; Verity Ahern; Anna Ralston; Edgar Estoesta; Ian Barrett

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Extracorporeal irradiation (ECI) has been used selectively in the management of primary malignant bone tumors since 1996. We report our techniques for ECI and the short-term oncologic and orthopedic outcomes.Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients with primary malignant bone tumors were treated with ECI from 1996 to 2000. The median age was 14 years. The histologic diagnoses were Ewing’s sarcoma

  13. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... coccidiomycosis, histoplasmosis , and mycobacteria infection Osteitis fibrosa Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Rickets ... Bone fracture Bone infection (osteomyelitis) Damage to surrounding ... Infection near the biopsy area Some people with bone disorders ...

  14. Fetal bone cells for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Montjovent, Marc-Olivier; Burri, Nathalie; Mark, Silke; Federici, Ermanno; Scaletta, Corinne; Zambelli, Pierre-Yves; Hohlfeld, Patrick; Leyvraz, Pierre-François; Applegate, Lee L; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2004-12-01

    We envision the use of human fetal bone cells for engineered regeneration of adult skeletal tissue. A description of their cellular function is then necessary. To our knowledge, there is no description of human primary fetal bone cells treated with differentiation factors. The characterization of fetal bone cells is particularly important as the pattern of secreted proteins from osteoblasts has been shown to change during aging. In the first part of this work, human primary fetal bone cells were compared to adult bone cells and mesenchymal stem cells for their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro. Cell proliferation, gene expression of bone markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization were analyzed during a time-course study. In the second part of this paper, bone fetal cells behavior exposed to osteogenic factors is further detailed. The doubling time of fetal bone cells was comparable to mesenchymal stem cells but significantly shorter than for adult bone cells. Gene expression of cbfa-1, ALP, alpha1 chain of type I collagen, and osteocalcin were upregulated in fetal bone cells after 12 days of treatment, with higher inductions than for adult and mesenchymal stem cells. The increase of ALP enzymatic activity was stronger for fetal than for adult bone cells reaching a maximum at day 10, but lower than for mesenchymal stem cells. Importantly, the mineralization process of bone fetal cells started earlier than adult bone and mesenchymal stem cells. Proliferation of fetal and adult bone cells was increased by dexamethasone, whereas 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 did not show any proliferative effect. Mineralization studies clearly demonstrated the presence of calcium deposits in the extracellular matrix of fetal bone cells. Nodule formation and calcification were strongly increased by the differentiation treatment, especially by dexamethasone. This study shows for the first time that human primary fetal bone cells could be of great interest for bone research, due to their fast growth rate and their ability to differentiate into mature osteoblasts. They represent an interesting and promising potential for therapeutic use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:15589213

  15. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C. (Shriners Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-11-25

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with (35S) sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I.

  16. [Primary hyperparathyroidism].

    PubMed

    Carnevale, V; Romagnoli, E; Pipino, M; Scillitani, A; D'Erasmo, E; Minisola, S; Mazzuoli, G

    2005-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is characterized by excessive PTH secretion in respect to calcium homeostasis needs, due to parathyroid adenoma (80% of cases), hyperplasia (15-20%), or carcinoma (1-2%). In familial forms of PHPT, several mutations have an established role: menin gene for MEN type 1, RET for MEN type 2a, calcium-sensing receptor gene for familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, parafibromin gene for PHPT-jaw tumour and carcinoma. Etiology of sporadic adenomas (80% of PHPT cases) is less defined, being most commonly found a mutation of menin gene or activation of PRAD1 oncogene. In recent years, the classical features of the disease became less common. Typically, bone involvement is now represented by a reduced bone mass at skeletal sites more rich in cortical tissue. Prominently trabecular skeletal sites are relatively spared, because of the anabolic effects of a slight PTH excess on trabecular tissue. PHPT patients may have increased fracture risk, though it is not clear why bone damage is more severe in a subgroup of patients. Clinical features of hypercalcemia may be fatigue, anorexia, thirst, and polyuria. Vague neurological and psychiatric symptoms, such as weakness, anxiety, depression, paresthesias, and muscular cramps may ameliorate after parathyroidectomy. Recent reports indicate increased cardiovascular mortality in PHPT patients. Diagnosis is based on the detection of hypercalcemia, together with inappropriately high serum PTH levels. Preoperative localization of the diseased glands is mandatory in persistent or recurrent PHPT, as like as when minimally invasive surgery is planned. High resolution ultrasonography and SPECT double-phase 99m Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy are the most commonly employed techniques. Intraoperatory PTH assay may confirm successful surgery when serum concentrations decrease more than 50%. Surgical therapy is indicated in patients with renal or skeletal complications, such as in those with previous parathyrotoxic crisis. Many surgeons in recent years adopted minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Medical treatment is an option for patients unwilling or unfitted for surgery because of severe concomitant diseases. Employed therapy includes estrogens, SERMs, bisphosphonates and calcimimetics. PMID:16382970

  17. Limb bone morphology, bone strength, and cursoriality in lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Young, Jesse W; Danczak, Robert; Russo, Gabrielle A; Fellmann, Connie D

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this study is to broadly evaluate the relationship between cursoriality (i.e. anatomical and physiological specialization for running) and limb bone morphology in lagomorphs. Relative to most previous studies of cursoriality, our focus on a size-restricted, taxonomically narrow group of mammals permits us to evaluate the degree to which 'cursorial specialization' affects locomotor anatomy independently of broader allometric and phylogenetic trends that might obscure such a relationship. We collected linear morphometrics and ?CT data on 737 limb bones covering three lagomorph species that differ in degree of cursoriality: pikas (Ochotona princeps, non-cursorial), jackrabbits (Lepus californicus, highly cursorial), and rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani, level of cursoriality intermediate between pikas and jackrabbits). We evaluated two hypotheses: cursoriality should be associated with (i) lower limb joint mechanical advantage (i.e. high 'displacement advantage', permitting more cursorial species to cycle their limbs more quickly) and (ii) longer, more gracile limb bones, particularly at the distal segments (as a means of decreasing rotational inertia). As predicted, highly cursorial jackrabbits are typically marked by the lowest mechanical advantage and the longest distal segments, non-cursorial pikas display the highest mechanical advantage and the shortest distal segments, and rabbits generally display intermediate values for these variables. Variation in long bone robusticity followed a proximodistal gradient. Whereas proximal limb bone robusticity declined with cursoriality, distal limb bone robusticity generally remained constant across the three species. The association between long, structurally gracile limb bones and decreased maximal bending strength suggests that the more cursorial lagomorphs compromise proximal limb bone integrity to improve locomotor economy. In contrast, the integrity of distal limb bones is maintained with increasing cursoriality, suggesting that the safety factor takes priority over locomotor economy in those regions of the postcranial skeleton that experience higher loading during locomotion. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis that cursoriality is associated with a common suite of morphological adaptations across a range of body sizes and radiations. PMID:25046350

  18. Heavy metal content in the femora of yellow-necked mouse ( Apodemus flavicollis ) and wood mouse ( Apodemus sylvaticus ) from different types of polluted environment in Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Martiniaková; Radoslav Omelka; Robert Stawarz; Grzegorz Formicki

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal content in the femora of yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) caught in different polluted biotopes of a low hill level in Slovakia (Nováky and Kolín?any) was investigated in the present\\u000a study. Length, weight and histological structure of mouse bones have also been analysed. According to our results, higher\\u000a concentrations of Cd, Ni, Fe, Cu

  19. Bone Stress

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-12-07

    In this optics activity, learners examine how polarized light can reveal stress patterns in clear plastic. Learners place a fork between two pieces of polarizing material and induce stress by squeezing the tines together. Learners will observe the colored stress pattern in the image of the plastic that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector. Learners rotate one of the polarizing filters to explore which orientations give the most dramatic color effects. This activity can be related to bones, as bones develop stress patterns from the loads imposed upon them every day.

  20. Spectral imaging of mouse calvaria undergoing craniosynstosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Nicole J.; Wang, Wei; Ignelzi, Michael A., Jr.; Morris, Michael D.

    2003-07-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the skull bones at the sutures, is the second most common human birth defect that affects the face and skull. The top most flat bones that comprise the skull, or calvaria, are most often affected. We previously showed that treatment of mouse calvaria with FGF2-soaked beads leads to craniosynostosis. In this study we treated mouse calvaria with FGF2-soaked beads and then used Raman imaging to demonstrate the spatial distribution of apatitic mineral and matrix in the sutures. There was no difference between FGF2 treated and control calvaria in the type of mineral produced (a lightly carbonated apatite), however we did observe increased mineral deposition in FGF2 treated calvaria. Raman imaging has great promise to detect the earliest mineral and matrix changes that occur in craniosynostosis.

  1. Isolation, culture, and differentiation potential of mouse marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Bonnet, Dominique

    2008-10-01

    This unit describes how to isolate and expand mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from mouse bone marrow. For reasons that are not clear, it has been difficult to isolate these cells (also known as mesenchymal stem cells). Furthermore, different mouse strains seem to have specific requirements for successful extraction and culture of these cells. A general and easy protocol is presented here for isolating stromal cells from different inbred and transgenic mice commonly used in the stem cell biology field. PMID:18972375

  2. Cell-specific activation and detoxification of benzene metabolites in mouse and human bone marrow: identification of target cells and a potential role for modulation of apoptosis in benzene toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, D; Siegel, D; Schattenberg, D G; Sun, X M; Moran, J L

    1996-01-01

    The role of cell-specific metabolism in benzene toxicity was examined in both murine and human bone marrow. Hemopoietic progenitor cells and stromal cells are important control points for regulation of hemopoiesis. We show that the selective toxicity of hydroquinone at the level of the macrophage in murine bone marrow stroma may be explained by a high peroxidase/nicotanimide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced [NAD(P)H]:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) ratio. Peroxidases metabolize hydroquinone to the reactive 1,4-benzoquinone, whereas NQO1 reduces the quinones formed, resulting in detoxification. Peroxidase and NQO1 activity in human stromal cultures vary as a function of time in culture, with peroxidase activity decreasing and NQO1 activity increasing with time. Peroxidase activity and, more specifically, myeloperoxidase, which had previously been considered to be expressed at the promyelocyte level, was detected in murine lineage-negative and human CD34+ progenitor cells. This provides a metabolic mechanism whereby phenolic metabolites of benzene can be bioactivated in progenitor cells, which are considered initial target cells for the development of leukemias. Consequences of a high peroxidase/NQO1 ratio in HL-60 cells were shown to include hydroquinone-induced apoptosis. Hydroquinone can also inhibit proteases known to play a role in induction of apoptosis, suggesting that it may be able to inhibit apoptosis induced by other stimuli. Modulation of apoptosis may lead to aberrant hemopoiesis and neoplastic progression. This enzyme-directed approach has identified target cells of the phenolic metabolites of benzene in bone marrow and provided a metabolic basis for benzene-induced toxicity at the level of the progenitor cell in both murine and human bone marrow. PMID:9118890

  3. Human Apolipoprotein E Isoforms differentially affect Bone Mass and Turnover in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dieckmann, Marco; Beil, F. Timo; Mueller, Brigitte; Bartelt, Alexander; Marshall, Robert P.; Koehne, Till; Amling, Michael; Ruether, Wolfgang; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Herz, Joachim; Niemeier, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The primary role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) is to mediate the cellular uptake of lipoproteins. However, a new role for apoE as a regulator of bone metabolism in mice has recently been established. In contrast to mice, the human APOE gene is characterized by three common isoforms APOE ?2, ?3 and ?4 that result in different metabolic properties of the apoE isoforms, but it remains controversial whether the APOE polymorphism influences bone traits in humans. To clarify this, we investigated bone phenotypes of apoE knock-in mice, which express one human isoform each (apoE2 k.i., apoE3 k.i., apoE4 k.i.) in place of the mouse apoE. Analysis of 12 week-old female knock-in mice revealed increased levels of biochemical bone formation and resorption markers in apoE2 k.i. animals as compared to apoE3 k.i. and apoE4 k.i., with a reduced OPG/RANKL ratio in apoE2 k.i., indicating increased turnover with prevailing resorption in apoE2 k.i.. Accordingly, histomorphometric and ?CT analyses demonstrated significantly lower trabecular bone mass in apoE2 than in apoE3 and apoE4 k.i. animals, which was reflected by a significant reduction of lumbar vertebrae maximum force resistance. Unlike trabecular bone, femoral cortical thickness, and stability was not differentially affected by the apoE isoforms. To extend these observations to the human situation, plasma from middle-aged healthy men homozygous for ?2/?2, ?3/?3, and ?4/?4 (n=21, n=80, n=55 respectively) was analyzed with regard to bone turnover markers. In analogy to apoE2 k.i. mice, a lower OPG/RANKL ratio was observed in the serum of ?2/?2 carriers as compared to ?3/?3 and ?4/?4 individuals (p=0.02 for ?2/?2 vs ?4/?4). In conclusion, the current data strongly underline the general importance of apoE as a regulator of bone metabolism and identifies the APOE ?2 allele as a potential genetic risk factor for low trabecular bone mass and vertebral fractures in humans. PMID:22991192

  4. EEEEK--A Mouse!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2014-05-22

    In this activity, learners explore the concept of how engineering solved the problem of human/computer interface. Learners disassemble a mouse and explore the movement on the X/Y axis that determines mouse positioning. Learners explore design enhancements to the mouse over time, and as a team of "engineers" add further enhancements to current mouse design.

  5. Osteomalacia in Hyp Mice Is Associated with Abnormal Phex Expression and with Altered Bone Matrix Protein Expression and Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DENGSHUN MIAO; XIUYING BAI; DIBYENDU PANDA; MARC D. MCKEE; ANDREW C. KARAPLIS; DAVID GOLTZMAN

    2001-01-01

    To explore how the loss of Phex function contributes to the patho- genesis of osteomalacia, we examined the abnormalities of mineral- ization, Phex, and bone matrix protein expression occurring in Hyp mice in vivo and in ex vivo bone marrow cell cultures. The results in vivo show that mineralization was decreased significantly in Hyp mouse bone. Phex protein was identifiable

  6. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Functional Bone Tissue Engineering: Lessons from Bone Mechanobiology

    PubMed Central

    Bodle, Josephine C.; Hanson, Ariel D.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to highlight the current and significant work in the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in functional bone tissue engineering framed through the bone mechanobiology perspective. Over a century of work on the principles of bone mechanosensitivity is now being applied to our understanding of bone development. We are just beginning to harness that potential using stem cells in bone tissue engineering. ASC are the primary focus of this review due to their abundance and relative ease of accessibility for autologous procedures. This article outlines the current knowledge base in bone mechanobiology to investigate how the knowledge from this area has been applied to the various stem cell-based approaches to engineering bone tissue constructs. Specific emphasis is placed on the use of human ASC for this application. PMID:21338267

  7. Chronic kidney disease and bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Junichiro James; Matsuo, Koji; Iwasaki, Yoshiko; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease-related mineral and bone disease (CKD-MBD) is a syndrome defined as a systemic mineral metabolic disorder associated with CKD, and the term renal osteodystrophy indicates a pathomorphological concept of bone lesions associated with CKD-MBD. Cortical bone thinning, abnormalities in bone turnover and primary/secondary mineralization, elevated levels of circulating sclerostin, increased apoptosis in osteoblasts and osteocytes, disturbance of the coupling phenomenon, iatrogenic factors, accumulated micro-crackles, crystal/collagen disorientation, and chemical modification of collagen crosslinks are all possible candidates found in CKD that could promote osteopenia and/or bone fragility. Some of above factors are the consequences of abnormal systemic mineral metabolism but for others it seem unlikely. We have used the term uremic osteoporosis to describe the uremia-induced bone fragility which is not derived from abnormal systemic mineral metabolism. Interestingly, the disease aspect of uremic osteoporosis appears to be similar to that of senile osteoporosis. PMID:25653092

  8. Posterolateral bone grafting for nonunion of the tibia.

    PubMed

    Simon, J P; Stuyck, J; Hoogmartens, M; Fabry, G

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two tibial diaphyseal nonunions in 60 patients were treated with a posterolateral bone graft over an 18-year period (1969-1987). The majority were complicated by severe soft tissue damage or segmental bone loss. Thirty-four had a deep infection. Primary healing was achieved in 92%. Three types of bone grafts have been used: from 1969 to 1978 either a whole iliac bone graft (10 tibiae) or a nonvascularized fibular graft (11 tibiae) was used. Since 1978 small iliac cancellous bone chips (41 remaining tibiae) were applied to the posterior surfaces of tibia and interosseous membrane. In three tibiae with major bone defects, cancellous allografts were added to the autogenous bone. The use of cortico-cancellous bone chips resulted in a shorter healing time, compared to a nonvascularized fibular graft or a massive corticocancellous bone block. PMID:1441968

  9. Dem Bones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alease Bruce

    2001-09-01

    In this case, students enter the world of a forensic anthropologist who must determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Students, in turn, simulate some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, exa

  10. Single fraction radiotherapy versus multiple fraction radiotherapy for bone metastases in prostate cancer patients: comparative effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Frederick; Morton, Gerard C

    2014-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is an effective treatment for symptomatic bone metastases from a variety of primary malignancies. Previous meta-analyses and systematic reviews have reported on the efficacy of EBRT on bone metastases from multiple primaries. This review is focused on the comparative effectiveness of single fraction radiotherapy versus multiple fraction radiotherapy for bone metastases in prostate cancer patients. PMID:25473313

  11. Mouse Models as a Translational Platform for the Development of New Therapeutic Agents in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Tassone, P; Neri, P; Burger, R; Di Martino, MT; Leone, E; Amodio, N; Caraglia, M; Tagliaferri, P

    2012-01-01

    Mouse models of multiple myeloma (MM) are basic tools for translational research and play a fundamental role in the development of new therapeutics against plasma cell malignancies. All available models, including transplantable murine tumors in syngenic mice, xenografts of established human cell lines in immunocompromised mice and transgenic models that mirror specific steps of MM pathogenesis, have demonstrated some weaknesses in predicting clinical results, particularly for new drugs targeting the human bone marrow microenvironment (huBMM). The recent interest to models recapitulating the in vivo growth of primary MM cells in a human (SCID-hu) or humanized (SCID-synth-hu) host recipient has provided powerful platforms for the investigation of new compounds targeting MM and/or its huBMM. Here, we review and discuss strengths and weaknesses of the key in vivo models that are currently utilized in the MM preclinical investigation. PMID:22671927

  12. Cutting Edge: Developmental Regulation of IFN-? Production by Mouse Neutrophil Precursor Cells.

    PubMed

    Sturge, Carolyn R; Burger, Elise; Raetz, Megan; Hooper, Lora V; Yarovinsky, Felix

    2015-07-01

    Neutrophils are an emerging cellular source of IFN-?, a key cytokine that mediates host defense to intracellular pathogens. Production of IFN-? by neutrophils, in contrast to lymphoid cells, is TLR- and IL-12-independent and the events associated with IFN-? production by neutrophils are not understood. In this study, we show that mouse neutrophils express IFN-? during their lineage development in the bone marrow niche at the promyelocyte stage independently of microbes. IFN-? accumulates in primary neutrophilic granules and is released upon induction of degranulation. The developmental mechanism of IFN-? production in neutrophils arms the innate immune cells prior to infection and assures the potential for rapid release of IFN-? upon neutrophil activation, the first step during responses to many microbial infections. PMID:26026057

  13. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): mouse biology and model systems.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E; Blake, Judith A

    2008-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database, (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org/), integrates genetic, genomic and phenotypic information about the laboratory mouse, a primary animal model for studying human biology and disease. MGD data content includes comprehensive characterization of genes and their functions, standardized descriptions of mouse phenotypes, extensive integration of DNA and protein sequence data, normalized representation of genome and genome variant information including comparative data on mammalian genes. Data within MGD are obtained from diverse sources including manual curation of the biomedical literature, direct contributions from individual investigator's laboratories and major informatics resource centers such as Ensembl, UniProt and NCBI. MGD collaborates with the bioinformatics community on the development of data and semantic standards such as the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology. MGD provides a data-mining platform that enables the development of translational research hypotheses based on comparative genotype, phenotype and functional analyses. Both web-based querying and computational access to data are provided. Recent improvements in MGD described here include the association of gene trap data with mouse genes and a new batch query capability for customized data access and retrieval. PMID:18158299

  14. Effect of zoledronic acid and amputation on bone invasion and lung metastasis of canine osteosarcoma in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Tobie D.; Somanathan Pillai, Smitha Pankajavally; Hildreth, Blake Eason; Lanigan, Lisa G.; Martin, Chelsea K.; Werbeck, Jillian L.

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is an aggressive, highly metastatic and lytic primary bone neoplasm commonly affecting the appendicular skeleton of dogs and children. Current treatment options include amputation of the afflicted limb, limb-sparing procedures, or palliative radiation with or without adjunct chemotherapy. Therapies that inhibit bone resorption, such as the bisphosphonates, may be an effective palliative therapy by limiting the local progression of OSA in those patients that are not viable candidates for amputation. We have developed a mouse model of canine skeletal OSA following intratibial inoculation of OSCA40 cells that spontaneously metastasized to the lungs. We demonstrated that therapy with a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (Zol), reduced OSA-induced bone lysis; however, Zol monotherapy or in combination with amputation was not effective at inhibiting pulmonary metastasis. While not reaching statistical significance, amputation of the tumor-bearing limb reduced the average incidence of lung metastases; however, this effect was nullified when Zol was added to the treatment protocol. In untreated mice, the magnitude of proximal tibial lysis was significantly correlated with the incidence of metastasis. The data support amputation alone for the management of appendicular OSA rather than combining amputation with Zol. However, in patients that are not viable candidates for amputation, Zol may be a useful palliative therapy for OSA by reducing the magnitude of lysis and therefore bone pain, despite the risk of increased pulmonary metastasis. PMID:21374084

  15. Effect of zoledronic acid and amputation on bone invasion and lung metastasis of canine osteosarcoma in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Tobie D; Pillai, Smitha Pankajavally Somanathan; Hildreth, Blake Eason; Lanigan, Lisa G; Martin, Chelsea K; Werbeck, Jillian L; Rosol, Thomas J

    2011-04-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is an aggressive, highly metastatic and lytic primary bone neoplasm commonly affecting the appendicular skeleton of dogs and children. Current treatment options include amputation of the afflicted limb, limb-sparing procedures, or palliative radiation with or without adjunct chemotherapy. Therapies that inhibit bone resorption, such as the bisphosphonates, may be an effective palliative therapy by limiting the local progression of OSA in those patients that are not viable candidates for amputation. We have developed a mouse model of canine skeletal OSA following intratibial inoculation of OSCA40 cells that spontaneously metastasized to the lungs. We demonstrated that therapy with a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (Zol), reduced OSA-induced bone lysis; however, Zol monotherapy or in combination with amputation was not effective at inhibiting pulmonary metastasis. While not reaching statistical significance, amputation of the tumor-bearing limb reduced the average incidence of lung metastases; however, this effect was nullified when Zol was added to the treatment protocol. In untreated mice, the magnitude of proximal tibial lysis was significantly correlated with the incidence of metastasis. The data support amputation alone for the management of appendicular OSA rather than combining amputation with Zol. However, in patients that are not viable candidates for amputation, Zol may be a useful palliative therapy for OSA by reducing the magnitude of lysis and therefore bone pain, despite the risk of increased pulmonary metastasis. PMID:21374084

  16. Multicentric epithelioid angiosarcoma of bone.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengming; Tao, Huimin; Ye, Zhaoming; Yang, Disheng

    2012-08-01

    Bone epithelioid angiosarcoma is rare and generally shows positive immunostaining for epithelial markers. Multicentric bone epithelioid angiosarcoma is easily misdiagnosed as carcinoma, including metastatic carcinoma, multiple myeloma, and multiple lymphoma of bone. This article describes a case of multicentric bone epithelioid angiosarcoma. The patient was first misdiagnosed as having metastatic carcinoma. Examination showed osteolytic lesions in the bilateral heels and the lower left humerus. The diagnosis was confirmed postoperatively and corrected after immunohistochemical analysis of the biopsy. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the tumor mass was strongly positive for CD31, factor VIII, vimentin, and neuron-specific enolase. The patient refused chemotherapy and died of lung metastasis 4 months postoperatively.Most bone epithelioid angiosarcomas are immunopositive for epithelial markers (ie, keratin, cytokeratin, high-molecular-weight keratin, and epithelial membrane antigen), vascular endothelial markers (ie, CD31, CD34, and von Willebrand factor), and factor VIII-associated antigen. Bone epithelioid angiosarcoma shows a relatively high degree of malignancy. Patients often die of distant metastasis, including those found in the lung and lymph node tissue. A wide excision of epithelioid angiosarcoma should be performed during the operation of the primary tumor. A better understanding of the clinicopathologic features of this disease may help to clarify the confusion, provide better treatment, and improve the clinical prognosis. PMID:22868625

  17. Primary hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mazzuoli, G F; D'Erasmo, E; Pisani, D

    1998-06-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is considered a cause of secondary osteoporosis as a consequence of its known catabolic effect promoting osteoclast activity and bone resorption. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that parathyroid hormone (PTH) may also have an anabolic effect on the mammalian skeleton. These two paradoxical effects of parathyroid hormone are discussed in the light of recent results of basic research, and of bone densitometric and histomorphometric data collected in patients affected by PHPT. Review of the literature leads to the conclusion that in PHPT skeletal damage involves prevalently cortical bone, while the mineral content of trabecular bone is preserved or even increased. On the basis of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, osteoporosis prevalence in the early postmenopausal period seems to be significantly higher in women affected by PHPT than in the general population. As age progresses, osteoporosis prevalence seems to decrease in PHPT, while it increases exponentially with age in the general population. Similarly in PHPT, vertebral and appendicular fractures occur prevalently in the earlier decades of life with a higher frequency than in normal subjects, while with advancing age the fracture incidence becomes equal to that of the general population. When bone density is measured in lateral projection at lumbar level, BMD values in patients with mild asymptomatic PHPT are significantly higher than in controls. We conclude that PTH hypersecretion may represent a risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures in the young and in the early postmenopausal period, while it may have a protective effect on trabecular bone in elderly postmenopausal women. PMID:9801732

  18. Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Schniedermann; Moritz Rennecke; Kerstin Buttler; Georg Richter; Anna-Maria Städtler; Susanne Norgall; Muhammad Badar; Bernhard Barleon; Tobias May; Jörg Wilting; Herbert A Weich

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. RESULTS: In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung

  19. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuru, Satoru [Division of Gene Therapy Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tamai, Katsuto [Division of Gene Therapy Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: tamai@gts.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yamazaki, Takehiko [Division of Gene Therapy Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kaneda, Yasufumi [Division of Gene Therapy Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2007-03-09

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood.