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Sample records for primary mouse bone

  1. How Tough Is Brittle Bone? Investigating Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Mouse Bone

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Robert

    How Tough Is Brittle Bone? Investigating Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Mouse Bone Alessandra Carriero the collagen defect results in bone fragility in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta (oim), which has Research. KEY WORDS: BRITTLE BONE; BONE FRACTURE; FRACTURE MECHANICS; MOUSE BONE; CRACK INITIATION; CRACK

  2. Bone impairment in primary hyperoxaluria: a review.

    PubMed

    Bacchetta, Justine; Boivin, Georges; Cochat, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney and bone is a hallmark of primary hyperoxaluria (PH). Since the bone compartment can store massive amounts of oxalate, patients present with recurrent low-trauma fractures, bone deformations, severe bone pains, and specific oxalate osteopathy on X-ray. Bone biopsy from the iliac crest displays specific features such as oxalate crystals surrounded by a granulomatous reaction corresponding to an invasion of bone surface by macrophages. The objective of this manuscript is therefore to provide an overview of bone impairment in PH, by reviewing the current literature on bone and dental symptoms as well as imaging techniques used for assessing bone disease. PMID:25631241

  3. Tracking mouse bone marrow monocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Pauline; Rodero, Mathieu Paul; Combadičre, Christophe; Boissonnas, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Real time multiphoton imaging provides a great opportunity to study cell trafficking and cell-to-cell interactions in their physiological 3-dimensionnal environment. Biological activities of immune cells mainly rely on their motility capacities. Blood monocytes have short half-life in the bloodstream; they originate in the bone marrow and are constitutively released from it. In inflammatory condition, this process is enhanced, leading to blood monocytosis and subsequent infiltration of the peripheral inflammatory tissues. Identifying the biomechanical events controlling monocyte trafficking from the bone marrow towards the vascular network is an important step to understand monocyte physiopathological relevance. We performed in vivo time-lapse imaging by two-photon microscopy of the skull bone marrow of the Csf1r-Gal4VP16/UAS-ECFP (MacBlue) mouse. The MacBlue mouse expresses the fluorescent reporters enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) under the control of a myeloid specific promoter, in combination with vascular network labelling. We describe how this approach enables the tracking of individual medullar monocytes in real time to further quantify the migratory behaviour within the bone marrow parenchyma and the vasculature, as well as cell-to-cell interactions. This approach provides novel insights into the biology of the bone marrow monocyte subsets and allows to further address how these cells can be influenced in specific pathological conditions. PMID:25867540

  4. Europium-doped Gd2O3 nanotubes cause the necrosis of primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells through lysosome and mitochondrion damage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Chen, Shizhu; Duan, Jianlei; Jia, Guang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2015-05-01

    With the wide applications of europium-doped Gd2O3 nanoparticles (Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NPs) in biomedical fields, it will inevitably increase the chance of human exposure. It was reported that Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NPs could accumulate in bone. However, there have been few reports about the potential effect of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) NPs on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). In this study, the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes on BMSCs and the associated mechanisms were further studied. The results indicated that they could be uptaken into BMSCs by an energy-dependent and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis process, and primarily localized in lysosome. Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes effectively inhibited the viability of BMSCs in concentration and time-dependent manners. A significant increase in the percentage of late apoptotic/necrotic cells, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and the number of PI-stained cells was found after BMSCs were treated by 10, 20, and 40?g/mL of Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes for 12h. No obvious DNA ladders were detected, but a dispersed band was observed. The above results revealed that Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes could trigger cell death by necrosis instead of apoptosis. Two mechanisms were involved in Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanotube-induced BMSCs necrosis: lysosomal rupture and release of cathepsins B; and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury to the mitochondria and DNA. The study provides novel evidence to elucidate the toxicity mechanisms and may be beneficial to more rational applications of these nanomaterials in the future. PMID:25725393

  5. Is miniscrew primary stability influenced by bone density?

    PubMed

    Marquezan, Mariana; Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes de; Araújo, Mônica Tirre de Souza; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Primary stability is absence of mobility in the bone bed after mini-implant placement and depends on bone quality among other factors. Bone quality is a subjective term frequently considered as bone density. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate bone density in two bovine pelvic regions and verify the primary stability of miniscrews inserted into them. Forty bone blocks were extracted from bovine pelvic bones, 20 from iliac and 20 from pubic bone, all of them containing cortical bone about 1 mm thick. Half of the sections extracted from each bone were designated for histological evaluation of bone density (trabecular bone area - TBA) and the other half for bone mineral density (BMD) evaluation by means of central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Then, twenty self-drilling miniscrews (INP®, Săo Paulo, Brazil) 1.4 mm in diameter and 6 mm long were inserted into the bone blocks used for BMD evaluation. Peak implant insertion torque (IT) and pull-out strength (PS) were used for primary stability evaluation. It was found that iliac and pubic bones present different bone densities, iliac bone being less dense considering BMD and TBA values (P > 0.05). However, the miniscrew primary stability was not different when varying the bone type (P < 0.05). IT and PS were not influenced by these differences in bone density when cortical thickness was about 1 mm thick. PMID:22031056

  6. Cilia/Ift protein and motor-related bone diseases and mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xue; Yang, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are essential cellular organelles projecting from the cell surface to sense and transduce developmental signaling. They are tiny but have complicated structures containing microtubule (MT)-based internal structures (the axoneme) and mother centriole formed basal body. Intraflagellar transport (Ift) operated by Ift proteins and motors are indispensable for cilia formation and function. Mutations in Ift proteins or Ift motors cause various human diseases, some of which have severe bone defects. Over the last few decades, major advances have occurred in understanding the roles of these proteins and cilia in bone development and remodeling by examining cilia/Ift protein-related human diseases and establishing mouse transgenic models. In this review, we describe current advances in the understanding of the cilia/Ift structure and function. We further summarize cilia/Ift-related human diseases and current mouse models with an emphasis on bone-related phenotypes, cilia morphology, and signaling pathways. PMID:25553465

  7. Glycosphingolipid patterns in primary mouse kidney cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Lyerla, T.A.; Gross, S.K.; McCluer, R.H.

    1986-12-01

    Primary kidney cultures from C57BL/6J mice, 6 weeks of age or older, were produced using D-valine medium to select for epithelial cell growth. After allowing the cells to attach and proliferate for 1 week following plating, medium was changed once per week. Cells formed nearly confluent monolayers during the second week of culture. The cultured cells contained all of the glycosphingolipids seen in the adult kidney, analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography as their perbenzoyl derivatives. Glucosylceramide, however, was highly predominant in the cultured cells, whereas dihexosyl- and trihexosylceramides predominate in the intact kidney. Sex differences in glycolipid contents found in the intact kidney were also apparent in these cultured cells: The concentration of neutral glycolipids, in general, was higher in male cells than in those derived from females, and the male-specific glycolipid nonhydroxy fatty acid digalactosylceramide was high in male cells but very low in female cells. Neutral glycosphingolipids were labeled in 2-week-old cultures using (/sup 3/H)palmitate. The (/sup 3/H)palmitate was incorporated into all of the glycolipids within 2 hr of labeling. Hence, adult mouse kidney cells in D-valine medium retain their differentiated characteristics for a sufficient period of time to allow investigation of glycolipid syntheses in monolayer cultures of epithelial cells derived from this organ.

  8. How tough is Brittle Bone? Investigating Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Mouse Bone††

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, A.; Zimmermann, E. A.; Paluszny, A.; Tang, S. Y.; Bale, H.; Busse, B.; Alliston, T.; Kazakia, G.

    2015-01-01

    The multiscale hierarchical structure of bone is naturally optimized to resist fractures. In osteogenesis imperfecta, or brittle bone disease, genetic mutations affect the quality and/or quantity of collagen, dramatically increasing bone fracture risk. Here we reveal how the collagen defect results in bone fragility in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta (oim), which has homotrimeric ?1(I) collagen. At the molecular level we attribute the loss in toughness to a decrease in the stabilizing enzymatic crosslinks and an increase in non-enzymatic crosslinks, which may break prematurely inhibiting plasticity. At the tissue level, high vascular canal density reduces the stable crack growth, and extensive woven bone limits the crack-deflection toughening during crack growth. This demonstrates how modifications at the bone molecular level have ramifications at larger length scales affecting the overall mechanical integrity of the bone; thus, treatment strategies have to address multiscale properties in order to regain bone toughness. In this regard, findings from the heterozygous oim bone, where defective as well as normal collagen are present, suggest that increasing the quantity of healthy collagen in these bones helps to recover toughness at the multiple length scales. PMID:24420672

  9. A computational analysis of bone formation in the cranial vault in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanyoung; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Kraft, Reuben H

    2015-01-01

    Bones of the cranial vault are formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts on a surface that surrounds the brain, eventually forming mineralized bone. Signaling pathways causative for cell differentiation include the actions of extracellular proteins driven by information from genes. We assume that the interaction of cells and extracellular molecules, which are associated with cell differentiation, can be modeled using Turing's reaction-diffusion model, a mathematical model for pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In this study, we hypothesize that regions of high concentration of an activator develop into primary centers of ossification, the earliest sites of cranial vault bone. In addition to the Turing model, we use another diffusion equation to model a morphogen (potentially the same as the morphogen associated with formation of ossification centers) associated with bone growth. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data showing skull bone formation in mouse at different embryonic days in mice carrying disease causing mutations and their unaffected littermates. The results show that the relative locations of the five ossification centers that form in our model occur at the same position as those identified in experimental data. As bone grows from these ossification centers, sutures form between the bones. PMID:25853124

  10. A Computational Analysis of Bone Formation in the Cranial Vault in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chanyoung; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2015-01-01

    Bones of the cranial vault are formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts on a surface that surrounds the brain, eventually forming mineralized bone. Signaling pathways causative for cell differentiation include the actions of extracellular proteins driven by information from genes. We assume that the interaction of cells and extracellular molecules, which are associated with cell differentiation, can be modeled using Turing’s reaction–diffusion model, a mathematical model for pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In this study, we hypothesize that regions of high concentration of an activator develop into primary centers of ossification, the earliest sites of cranial vault bone. In addition to the Turing model, we use another diffusion equation to model a morphogen (potentially the same as the morphogen associated with formation of ossification centers) associated with bone growth. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data showing skull bone formation in mouse at different embryonic days in mice carrying disease causing mutations and their unaffected littermates. The results show that the relative locations of the five ossification centers that form in our model occur at the same position as those identified in experimental data. As bone grows from these ossification centers, sutures form between the bones. PMID:25853124

  11. Effects of suspension-induced osteopenia on the mechanical behaviour of mouse long bones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Greenberg, A. R.; Luttges, M. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Whereas most studies of tail-suspension induced osteopenia have utilized rat femora, the present study investigated the effects of a 14 day tail-suspension on the mechanical behaviour of mice femora, tibiae and humeri. Force-deflection properties were obtained via three-point bending for long bones from suspended and control mice. Whole bone behaviour was characterized by converting the force-deflection values to stiffness, strength, ductility and energy parameters which were not normalized for specimen geometry. The effects of a systematic variation in the deflection rate over the range 0.1-10 mm min-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis indicated that the primary effect of the tail-suspension period was lowered bone mass which was manifested mechanically through lower values of the bone strength parameters. These effects were similar in the bones of both the fore and hind limbs. The results also demonstrated that the stiffness, ductility and energy characteristics were much less influenced by the tail-suspension. Whereas a significant dependence of the bone strength values upon deflection rate was observed for the femora and humeri, the other mechanical parameters were less sensitive. Based upon the nature of the physical and mechanical changes observed in the long bones following tail-suspension, the mouse appears to be a suitable animal model for the study of osteopenia.

  12. New mouse primary retinal degeneration (rd-3)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, B.; Hawes, N.L.; Roderick, T.H. ); Heckenlively, J.R. )

    1993-04-01

    A new mouse retinal degeneration that appears to be an excellent candidate for modeling human retinitis pigmentosa is reported. In this degeneration, called rd-3, differentiation proceeds postnatally through 2 weeks, and photoreceptor degeneration starts by 3 weeks. The rod photoreceptor loss is essentially complete by 5 weeks, whereas remnant cone cells are seen through 7 weeks. This is the only mouse homozygous retinal degeneration reported to date in which photoreceptors are initially normal. Crosses with known mouse retinal degenerations rd, Rds, nr, and pcd are negative for retinal degeneration in offspring, and linkage analysis places rd-3 on mouse chromosome 1 at 10 [+-]2.5 cM distal to Akp-1. Homology mapping suggests that the homologous human locus should be on chromosome 1q. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Primary melanoma of the petrous temporal bone.

    PubMed

    McJunkin, Jonathan L; Wiet, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes that is predominantly found in the skin. In rare cases, it arises from mucosal melanocytes. We describe a case of a solitary melanoma of the petrous apex of the temporal bone in a 67-year-old woman who presented with sudden hearing loss, aural fullness, and headaches, all on the right side. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a mass located at the right petrous apex; the lesion was hyperintense on T1-weighted imaging and isointense on T2 weighting, and it enhanced brightly with gadolinium contrast. The patient underwent removal of the lesion via a transcochlear approach with facial nerve translocation. Intra- and postoperative pathology identified a poorly differentiated malignancy consistent with a melanoma. Further investigations found no evidence of metastasis. Given a concern for residual disease, the patient was treated with radiation to the primary site. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 other case of primary melanoma of the petrous apex has been described in the literature. PMID:26214673

  14. Bone and bone-marrow blood flow in chronic granulocytic leukemia and primary myelofibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lahtinen, R.; Lahtinen, T.; Romppanen, T.

    1982-03-01

    Blood flow in hematopoietic bone marrow and in nonhematopoietic bone has been measured with a Xe-133 washout method in 20 patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) and in seven with primary myelofibrosis. Age-matched healthy persons served as controls. Bone-marrow blood flow in CGL was dependent upon the phase of the disease. In the metamorphosis phase, bone-marrow blood flow was high compared with that in the well-controlled phase. Apart from the initial phase, the mean values for bone blood flow in CGL were increased compared with the values of the healthy controls. In myelofibrosis the bone blood flow was also increased. Bone-marrow blood flow in these diseases was dependent upon the cellularity of bone marrow as measured morphometrically.

  15. Biomechanical properties of bone in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Bushra; Russell, David; Payne, Anthony; Constante, Diogo; Tanner, K. Elizabeth; Isaksson, Hanna; Mathavan, Neashan; Cobb, Stuart R.

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked genetic disorder and a major cause of intellectual disability in girls. Mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene are the primary cause of the disorder. Despite the dominant neurological phenotypes, MECP2 is expressed ubiquitously throughout the body and a number of peripheral phenotypes such as scoliosis, reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fractures are also common and important clinical features of the disorder. In order to explore whether MeCP2 protein deficiency results in altered structural and functional properties of bone and to test the potential reversibility of any defects, we have conducted a series of histological, imaging and biomechanical tests of bone in a functional knockout mouse model of RTT. Both hemizygous Mecp2stop/y male mice in which Mecp2 is silenced in all cells and female Mecp2stop/+ mice in which Mecp2 is silenced in ~ 50% of cells as a consequence of random X-chromosome inactivation, revealed significant reductions in cortical bone stiffness, microhardness and tensile modulus. Microstructural analysis also revealed alterations in both cortical and cancellous femoral bone between wild-type and MeCP2-deficient mice. Furthermore, unsilencing of Mecp2 in adult mice cre-mediated stop cassette deletion resulted in a restoration of biomechanical properties (stiffness, microhardness) towards wild-type levels. These results show that MeCP2-deficiency results in overt, but potentially reversible, alterations in the biomechanical integrity of bone and highlights the importance of targeting skeletal phenotypes in considering the development of pharmacological and gene-based therapies. PMID:25445449

  16. Biomechanical properties of bone in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Bushra; Russell, David; Payne, Anthony; Constante, Diogo; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Isaksson, Hanna; Mathavan, Neashan; Cobb, Stuart R

    2015-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked genetic disorder and a major cause of intellectual disability in girls. Mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene are the primary cause of the disorder. Despite the dominant neurological phenotypes, MECP2 is expressed ubiquitously throughout the body and a number of peripheral phenotypes such as scoliosis, reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fractures are also common and important clinical features of the disorder. In order to explore whether MeCP2 protein deficiency results in altered structural and functional properties of bone and to test the potential reversibility of any defects, we have conducted a series of histological, imaging and biomechanical tests of bone in a functional knockout mouse model of RTT. Both hemizygous Mecp2(stop/y) male mice in which Mecp2 is silenced in all cells and female Mecp2(stop/+) mice in which Mecp2 is silenced in ~50% of cells as a consequence of random X-chromosome inactivation, revealed significant reductions in cortical bone stiffness, microhardness and tensile modulus. Microstructural analysis also revealed alterations in both cortical and cancellous femoral bone between wild-type and MeCP2-deficient mice. Furthermore, unsilencing of Mecp2 in adult mice cre-mediated stop cassette deletion resulted in a restoration of biomechanical properties (stiffness, microhardness) towards wild-type levels. These results show that MeCP2-deficiency results in overt, but potentially reversible, alterations in the biomechanical integrity of bone and highlights the importance of targeting skeletal phenotypes in considering the development of pharmacological and gene-based therapies. PMID:25445449

  17. Reference point indentation is not indicative of whole mouse bone measures of stress intensity fracture toughness

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Alessandra; Bruse, Jan L.; Oldknow, Karla J.; Millán, José Luis; Farquharson, Colin; Shefelbine, Sandra J.

    2014-01-01

    Bone fragility is a concern for aged and diseased bone. Measuring bone toughness and understanding fracture properties of the bone are critical for predicting fracture risk associated with age and disease and for preclinical testing of therapies. A reference point indentation technique (BioDent) has recently been developed to determine bone's resistance to fracture in a minimally invasive way by measuring the indentation distance increase (IDI) between the first and last indentations over cyclic indentations in the same position. In this study, we investigate the relationship between fracture toughness KC and reference point indentation parameters (i.e. IDI, total indentation distance (TID) and creep indentation distance (CID)) in bones from 38 mice from six types (C57Bl/6, Balb, oim/oim, oim/+, Phospho1?/? and Phospho1 wild type counterpart). These mice bone are models of healthy and diseased bone spanning a range of fracture toughness from very brittle (oim/oim) to ductile (Phospho1?/?). Left femora were dissected, notched and tested in 3-point bending until complete failure. Contralateral femora were dissected and indented in 10 sites of their anterior and posterior shaft surface over 10 indentation cycles. IDI, TID and CID were measured. Results from this study suggest that reference point indentation parameters are not indicative of stress intensity fracture toughness in mouse bone. In particular, the IDI values at the anterior mid-diaphysis across mouse types overlapped, making it difficult to discern differences between mouse types, despite having extreme differences in stress intensity based toughness measures. When more locations of indentation were considered, the normalised IDIs could distinguish between mouse types. Future studies should investigate the relationship of the reference point indentation parameters for mouse bone in other material properties of the bone tissue in order to determine their use for measuring bone quality. PMID:25280470

  18. Primary mouse hepatocytes for systems biology approaches: a standardized in vitro system for

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    Primary mouse hepatocytes for systems biology approaches: a standardized in vitro system for the preparation and cultivation of primary mouse hepatocytes. To reliably monitor the dynamic induction was studied in the in vitro system. Thus, the mouse hepatocyte in vitro system provides an important basis

  19. The relevance of mouse models for investigating age-related bone loss in humans.

    PubMed

    Jilka, Robert L

    2013-10-01

    Mice are increasingly used for investigation of the pathophysiology of osteoporosis because their genome is easily manipulated, and their skeleton is similar to that of humans. Unlike the human skeleton, however, the murine skeleton continues to grow slowly after puberty and lacks osteonal remodeling of cortical bone. Yet, like humans, mice exhibit loss of cancellous bone, thinning of cortical bone, and increased cortical porosity with advancing age. Histologic evidence in mice and humans alike indicates that inadequate osteoblast-mediated refilling of resorption cavities created during bone remodeling is responsible. Mouse models of progeria also show bone loss and skeletal defects associated with senescence of early osteoblast progenitors. Additionally, mouse models of atherosclerosis, which often occurs in osteoporotic participants, also suffer bone loss, suggesting that common diseases of aging share pathophysiological pathways. Knowledge of the causes of skeletal fragility in mice should therefore be applicable to humans if inherent limitations are recognized. PMID:23689830

  20. Cross-talk between the mitogen activated protein kinase and bone morphogenetic protein/hemojuvelin pathways is required for the induction of hepcidin by holotransferrin in primary mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ramey, Guillemette; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Vaulont, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Background The circulating hormone hepcidin plays a central role in iron homeostasis. Our goal was to establish an ex vivo iron-sensing model and to characterize the molecular mechanisms linking iron to hepcidin. Design and Methods Murine hepatocytes were isolated by the collagenase method, either from wild type or HFE knockout mice, and cultured 42 h without serum before treatments. Results After 42 h of serum-free culture, hepcidin gene expression was undetectable in the hepatocytes. Hepcidin gene expression could, however, be re-activated by an additional 24 h of incubation with 10% serum. Interestingly, addition of 30 ?M holotransferrin consistently increased serum-dependent hepcidin levels 3- to 5-fold. The effects of serum and serum+holotransferrin were direct, transcriptional, independent of de novo protein synthesis and required the presence of bone morphogenetic protein. Transferrin receptor-2 activation by its ligand holotransferrin led to extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen activated protein kinase pathway stimulation and the ERK specific inhibitor U0-126 blunted holotransferrin-mediated induction of hepcidin. ERK activation by holotransferrin provoked increased levels of phospho-Smad1/5/8 highlighting cross-talk between the bone morphogenetic protein/hemojuvelin and ERK1/2 pathways. Finally, we demonstrated, using hepatocytes isolated from Hfe?/? mice, that HFE was not critical for the hepcidin response to holotransferrin but important for basal hepcidin expression. Conclusions We demonstrate that hepatocytes are liver iron-sensor cells and that transferrin receptor-2, by signaling through the ERK1/2 pathway, and bone morphogenetic protein/hemojuvelin, by signaling through the Smad pathways, coordinately regulate the iron-sensing machinery linking holotransferrin to hepcidin. PMID:19454495

  1. Curcumin analogue UBS109 prevents bone loss in breast cancer bone metastasis mouse model: involvement in osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Zhu, Shijun; Zhang, Shumin; Wu, Daqing; Moore, Terry M; Snyder, James P; Shoji, Mamoru

    2014-07-01

    Bone metastasis of breast cancer typically leads to osteolysis, which causes severe pathological bone fractures and hypercalcemia. Bone homeostasis is skillfully regulated through osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Bone loss with bone metastasis of breast cancer may be due to both activation of osteoclastic bone resorption and suppression of osteoblastic bone formation. This study was undertaken to determine whether the novel curcumin analogue UBS109 has preventive effects on bone loss induced by breast cancer cell bone metastasis. Nude mice were inoculated with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 bone metastatic cells (10(6) cells/mouse) into the head of the right and left tibia. One week after inoculation, the mice were treated with control (vehicle), oral administration (p.o.) of UBS109 (50 or 150 mg/kg body weight), or intraperitoneal administration (i.p.) of UBS109 (10 or 20 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 5 days per week for 7 weeks. After UBS109 administration for 7 weeks, hind limbs were assessed using an X-ray diagnosis system and hematoxylin and eosion staining to determine osteolytic destruction. Bone marrow cells obtained from the femurs and tibias were cultured to estimate osteoblastic mineralization and osteoclastogenesis ex vivo and in vitro. Remarkable bone loss was demonstrated in the tibias of mice inoculated with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 bone metastatic cells. This bone loss was prevented by p.o. administration of UBS109 (50 and 150 mg/kg body weight) and i.p. treatment of UBS109 (10 and 20 mg/kg) in vivo. Culture of bone marrow cells obtained from the bone tissues of mice with breast cancer cell bone metastasis showed suppressed osteoblastic mineralization and stimulated osteoclastogenesis ex vivo. These changes were not seen after culture of the bone marrow cells obtained from mice treated with UBS109. Moreover, UBS109 was found to stimulate osteoblastic mineralization and suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow cells obtained from normal nude mice in vitro. These findings suggest that the novel curcumin analogue UBS109 prevents breast cancer cell bone metastasis-induced bone loss by stimulating osteoblastic mineralization and suppressing osteoclastogenesis. PMID:24723227

  2. Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Robert A.; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes beneficial immunomodulatory factors, we examined if this candidate probiotic could reduce bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized (Ovx) mouse menopausal model. Strikingly, L. reuteri treatment significantly protected Ovx mice from bone loss. Osteoclast bone resorption markers and activators (Trap5 and RANKL) as well as osteoclastogenesis are significantly decreased in L. reuteri treated mice. Consistent with this, L. reuteri suppressed Ovx-induced increases in bone marrow CD4+ T-lymphocytes (which promote osteoclastogenesis) and directly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We also identif ied that L. reuteri treatment modifies microbial communities in the Ovx mouse gut. Together, our studies demonstrate that L. reuteri treatment suppresses bone resorption and loss associated with estrogen deficiency. Thus, L. reuteri treatment may be a straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce post-menopausal bone loss. PMID:24677054

  3. Immortalized Mouse Floxed Fam20c Dental Papillar Mesenchymal and Osteoblast Cell Lines Retain Their Primary Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Hua; Xie, Xiaohua; Liu, Peihong; Liu, Ying; Jani, Priyam H; Lu, Yongbo; Chen, Shuo; Qin, Chunlin

    2015-11-01

    Fam20c is essential for the normal mineralization of dentin and bone. The generation of odontoblast and osteoblast cell lines carrying floxed Fam20c allele can offer valuable tools for the study of the roles of Fam20c in the mineralization of dentin and bone. The limited capability of the primary odontoblasts and osteoblasts to proliferate necessitates the development of odontoblast and osteoblast cell lines serving as substitutes for the study of differentiation and mineralization of the odontoblasts and osteoblasts. In this study, we established and characterized immortalized mouse floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal and osteoblast cell lines. The isolated primary mouse floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts were immortalized by the infection of lentivirus containing Simian Virus 40 T-antigen (SV40 T-Ag). The immortalization of floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts was verified by the long-term passages and genomic integration of SV40 T-Ag. The immortalized floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal and osteoblast cell lines not only proliferated at a high rate and retained the morphology of their primary counterparts, but also preserved the dentin and bone specific gene expression as the primary dental papilla mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts did. Consistently, the capability of the primary floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts to mineralize was also inherited by the immortalized dental papilla mesenchymal and osteoblast cell lines. Thus, we have successfully generated the immortalized mouse floxed Fam20c dental papilla mesenchymal and osteoblast cell lines. PMID:25833681

  4. Genetics of primary and timing effects in the mnd mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Messer, A.; Plummer, J.; MacMillen, M.C.

    1995-06-05

    The mnd mouse shows a spontaneous adult-onset hereditary neurological disease, with motor abnormality by 6 months of age, progressing to severe spastic paralysis and premature death. The disease is autosomal recessive, with heterozygote effects seen under stress. It maps to mouse chromosome (chr) 8. Histopathology with Nissl stains documents substantial abnormalities of upper and lower motor neurons, and there is retinal degeneration beginning in the first month, even without light exposure. Increasing levels of autofluorescent lipopigment are found in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues as the mnd mice age. Recently, NCL-like inclusions and accumulating subunit c have also been described. When mnd is outcrossed to the AKR/J genetic background, ca. 40% of the mnd/mnd F2 progeny show early onset (onset by 4.5-5 months and death by 7 months). This accelerated timing effect seems to be strain-specific, and unlinked to the mnd gene itself. Our current working hypothesis is that the timing effect is due to 2 or 3 unlinked dominant genes with incomplete penetrance at any single locus. In a combined RFLP/PCR fragment genetic analysis, the strongest deviation from the expected ratio of AKR vs B6 alleles occurs with markers on proximal half of chr 1. Additional loci on chrs 5 and 10 may also be involved. The mechanism of interaction of these modifying genes with the primary mnd gene may offer new therapeutic avenues. 22 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Lineage specificity of primary cilia in the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bangs, Fiona K.; Schrode, Nadine; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Anderson, Kathryn V.

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are required for vertebrate cells to respond to specific intercellular signals. Here we define when and where primary cilia appear in the mouse embryo using a transgenic line that expresses ARL13B-mCherry in cilia and Centrin2-GFP in centrosomes. Primary cilia first appear on cells of the epiblast at e6.0 and are subsequently present on all derivatives of the epiblast. In contrast, extraembryonic cells of the visceral endoderm and trophectoderm lineages have centrosomes but no cilia. Stem cell lines derived from embryonic lineages recapitulate the in vivo pattern: epiblast stem cells are ciliated, whereas trophoblast stem cells and extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cells lack cilia. Basal bodies in XEN cells are mature and can form cilia when the AURKA/HDAC6 cilia disassembly pathway is inhibited. The lineage-dependent distribution of cilia is stable throughout much of gestation, defining which cells in the placenta and yolk sac are able respond to Hedgehog ligands. PMID:25599390

  6. Mineral metabolism in isolated mouse long bones: Opposite effects of microgravity on mineralization and resorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuijzen, Jean Paul; Vanloon, Jack J. W. A.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment using isolated skeletal tissues under microgravity, is reported. Fetal mouse long bones (metatarsals) were cultured for 4 days in the Biorack facility of Spacelab during the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle. Overall growth was not affected, however glucose consumption was significantly reduced under microgravity. Mineralization of the diaphysis was also strongly reduced under microgravity as compared to the on-board 1 g group. In contrast, mineral resorption by osteoclasts was signficantly increased. These results indicate that these fetal mouse long bones are a sensitive and useful model to further study the cellular mechanisms involved in the changed mineral metabolism of skeletal tissues under microgravity.

  7. Cadmium stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in mouse bone marrow cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, Tatsuro; Takata, Masakazu; Miyata, Masaki; Nagai, Miyuki; Sugure, Akemi; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kuze, Shougo )

    1991-08-01

    Most of cadmium (Cd)-treated animals have been reported to show osteoporosis-like changes in bones. This suggests that Cd may promote bone loss by a direct action on bone. It was found that Cd stimulated prostaglandin E{sub 2}(PGE{sub 2}) production in the osteoblast-like cell, MC3T3-E1. Therefore, Cd stimulates bone resorption by increasing PGE{sub 2} production. Recently, several bone marrow cell culture systems have been developed for examining the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells in vitro. As osteoblasts produce PGE{sub 2} by Cd-induced cyclooxygenase and may play an important role in osteoclast formation, the present study was undertaken to clarify the possibility that Cd might stimulate osteoclast formation in a mouse bone marrow culture system.

  8. Polarization in Raman spectroscopy helps explain bone brittleness in genetic mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, Alexander J.; Pence, Isaac J.; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Zein-Sabatto, Ahbid; Huszagh, Meredith C.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been extensively used to characterize bone composition. However, the link between bone biomechanics and RS measures is not well established. Here, we leveraged the sensitivity of RS polarization to organization, thereby assessing whether RS can explain differences in bone toughness in genetic mouse models for which traditional RS peak ratios are not informative. In the selected mutant mice—activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) or matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) knock-outs—toughness is reduced but differences in bone strength do not exist between knock-out and corresponding wild-type controls. To incorporate differences in the RS of bone occurring at peak shoulders, a multivariate approach was used. Full spectrum principal components analysis of two paired, orthogonal bone orientations (relative to laser polarization) improved genotype classification and correlation to bone toughness when compared to traditional peak ratios. When applied to femurs from wild-type mice at 8 and 20 weeks of age, the principal components of orthogonal bone orientations improved age classification but not the explanation of the maturation-related increase in strength. Overall, increasing polarization information by collecting spectra from two bone orientations improves the ability of multivariate RS to explain variance in bone toughness, likely due to polarization sensitivity to organizational changes in both mineral and collagen. PMID:25402627

  9. Activity of the human carcinogen MeCCNU in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay

    SciTech Connect

    Tinwell, H.; Ashby, J. )

    1991-01-01

    The nitrosourea mustard MeCCNU is the most recent organic chemical to be classified as a human carcinogen by IARC. MeCCNU gave a strong positive response when tested in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Activity was evident using either ip injection or oral gavage of the test chemical. These results further support the correlation between human carcinogens and their genotoxicity.

  10. A mouse model of craniofacial bone lesion of tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Wei, Xiaoxi; Hu, Min; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays critical roles in skeletal development. The impact and underlying mechanisms of its dysregulation in bone homeostasis is poorly defined. The best known and characterized mTOR signaling dysregulation in human disease is called Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). TSC is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome with a high frequency (>66%) of osseous manifestations such as sclerotic lesions in the craniofacial region. TSC is caused by mutations of TSC1 or TSC2, the heterodimer protein inhibitor of mTORC1 signaling. The underlying mechanism of bone lesions in TSC is unclear. We generated a TSC mouse model with TSC1 deletion in neural crest derived (NCD) cells, which recapitulated the sclerotic craniofacial bone lesion in TSC patients. We demonstrated that TSC1 null NCD osteoblasts overpopulated the NCD bones and the resultant increased bone formation is responsible for the sclerotic bone phenotype. Mechanistically, osteoblast number increase is due to the hyperproliferation of osteoprogenitor cells at an early postnatal stage. Noteworthy, administration of rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor at early postnatal stage can completely rescue the excess bone acquisition, but late treatment cannot. Altogether, our data suggested that enhanced mTORC1 signaling in NCD cells can enlarge the osteoprogenitor pool and lead to the excess bone acquisition, which is likely the underlying mechanism of sclerotic bone lesion observed in TSC patients. PMID:26052552

  11. Effects of 810 nm laser on mouse primary cortical neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkwal, Gitika B.; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Huang, Ying-Ying; De Taboada, Luis; McCarthy, Thomas; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2011-03-01

    In the past four decades numerous studies have reported the efficacy of low level light (laser) therapy (LLLT) as a treatment for diverse diseases and injuries. Recent studies have shown that LLLT can biomodulate processes in the central nervous system and has been extensively studied as a stroke treatment. However there is still a lack of knowledge on the effects of LLLT at the cellular level in neurons. The present study aimed to study the effect of 810 nm laser on several cellular processes in primary cortical neurons cultured from mouse embryonic brains. Neurons were irradiated with light dose of 0.03, 0.3, 3, 10 and 30 J/cm2 and intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and calcium were measured. The changes in mitochondrial function in response to light were studied in terms of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Light induced a significant increase in calcium, ATP and MMP at lower fluences and a decrease at higher fluence. ROS was induced significantly by light at all light doses. Nitric oxide levels also showed an increase on treatment with light. The results of the present study suggest that LLLT at lower fluences is capable of inducing mediators of cell signaling process which in turn may be responsible for the biomodulatory effects of the low level laser. At higher fluences beneficial mediators are reduced but potentially harmful mediators are increased thus offering an explanation for the biphasic dose response.

  12. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MINERAL IN DUCTILE AND BRITTLE CORTICAL MOUSE BONE

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Mukadam, Quresh; Saiz, Eduardo; Oldknow, Karla J.; Farquharson, Colin; Millán, José Luis; Boyde, Alan; Shefelbine, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a strong and tough material composed of apatite mineral, organic matter and water. Changes in composition and organization of these building blocks affect bone’s mechanical integrity. Skeletal disorders often affect bone’s mineral phase, either by variations in the collagen or directly altering mineralization. The aim of the current study was to explore the differences in the mineral of brittle and ductile cortical bone at the mineral (nm) and tissue (µm) levels using two mouse phenotypes. Osteogenesis imperfecta murine (oim?/?) mice were used to model brittle bone; PHOSPHO1 mutants (Phospho1?/?) had ductile bone. They were compared to their respective wild-type controls. Femora were defatted and ground to powder to measure average mineral crystal size using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and to monitor the bulk mineral to matrix ratio via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD scans were run after TGA for phase identification, to assess the fractions of hydroxyapatite and ?-tricalcium phosphate. Tibiae were embedded to measure elastic properties with nanoindentation and the extent of mineralization with backscattered electron microscopy (qbSEM). Interestingly, the mineral of brittle oim?/? and ductile Phospho1?/? bones had many similar characteristics. Both pathology models had smaller apatite crystals, lower mineral to matrix ratio, and showed more thermal conversion to ?-tricalcium phosphate than their wild-types, indicating deviations from stoichiometric hydroxyapatite in the original mineral. The degree of mineralization of the bone matrix was different for each strain: oim?/? were hypermineralized, while Phospho1?/? were hypomineralized. However, alterations in the mineral were associated with reduced tissue elastic moduli in both pathologies. Results revealed that despite having extremely different whole bone mechanics, the mineral of oim?/? and Phospho1?/? has several similar trends at smaller length scales. This indicates that alterations from normal crystal size, composition, and structure will reduce the mechanical integrity of bone. PMID:25418329

  13. Neuronal Representation of Ultraviolet Visual Stimuli in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhongchao; Sun, Wenzhi; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas; Ji, Na

    2015-01-01

    The mouse has become an important model for understanding the neural basis of visual perception. Although it has long been known that mouse lens transmits ultraviolet (UV) light and mouse opsins have absorption in the UV band, little is known about how UV visual information is processed in the mouse brain. Using a custom UV stimulation system and in vivo calcium imaging, we characterized the feature selectivity of layer 2/3 neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). In adult mice, a comparable percentage of the neuronal population responds to UV and visible stimuli, with similar pattern selectivity and receptive field properties. In young mice, the orientation selectivity for UV stimuli increased steadily during development, but not direction selectivity. Our results suggest that, by expanding the spectral window through which the mouse can acquire visual information, UV sensitivity provides an important component for mouse vision. PMID:26219604

  14. Soy protein diet and exercise training increase relative bone volume and enhance bone microarchitecture in a mouse model of uremia.

    PubMed

    Tomayko, Emily J; Chung, Hae R; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2011-11-01

    Soy protein consumption and exercise training have been widely studied for their effects on the vasculature and bone in healthy populations, but little is known about the effectiveness of these interventions in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiovascular disease and bone fracture risk are significantly elevated in CKD, and current pharmacological interventions have been unsuccessful in treating these conditions simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a soy protein diet and endurance exercise training, alone or in combination, on cardiovascular and bone health in a mouse model of renal insufficiency. At 8 weeks of age, 60 female apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice underwent a two-step surgical procedure to induce uremia. These mice were then randomized at 12 weeks of age to one of four treatment groups for the 16-week intervention period: sedentary, control diet (n = 16); sedentary, soy protein diet (n = 18); exercise, control diet (n = 14); and exercise, soy protein diet (n = 12). There were no significant treatment effects on atherosclerotic lesion areas or aortic calcium deposits. We demonstrated a significant main effect of both diet and exercise on relative bone volume, trabecular number, trabecular separation, and trabecular connective density in the proximal femur as measured by microcomputed tomography. There were no treatment effects on trabecular thickness. We also showed a main effect of diet on plasma urea levels. These data suggest that soy protein intake and exercise training exert beneficial effects on properties of bone and plasma urea levels in mice with surgically induced renal impairment. PMID:21638017

  15. Primary cilia act as mechanosensors during bone healing around an implant

    PubMed Central

    Leucht, P.; Monica, S.D.; Temiyasathit, S.; Lenton, K.; Manu, A.; Longaker, M.T.; Jacobs, C.R.; Spilker, R.L.; Guo, H.; Brunski, J.B.; Helms, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The primary cilium is an organelle that senses cues in a cell’s local environment. Some of these cues constitute molecular signals; here, we investigate the extent to which primary cilia can also sense mechanical stimuli. We used a conditional approach to delete Kif3a in pre-osteoblasts and then employed a motion device that generated a spatial distribution of strain around an intra-osseous implant positioned in the mouse tibia. We correlated interfacial strain fields with cell behaviors ranging from proliferation through all stages of osteogenic differentiation. We found that peri-implant cells in the Col1Cre;Kif3afl/fl mice were unable to proliferate in response to a mechanical stimulus, failed to deposit and then orient collagen fibers to the strain fields caused by implant displacement, and failed to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the lack of a functioning primary cilium blunts the normal response of a cell to a defined mechanical stimulus. The ability to manipulate the genetic background of peri-implant cells within the context of a whole, living tissue provides a rare opportunity to explore mechanotransduction from a multi-scale perspective. PMID:22784673

  16. Effect of cyclophosphamide and electromagnetic fields on mouse bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Cadossi, R.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Torelli, G. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that the exposure to low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF) of mice X-ray irradiated resulted in an increased damage to the bone marrow. The series of experiments here reported were designed to investigate the effect of PEMF exposure after intraperitoneum injection of 200mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY). Control mice were CY injected only; experimental mice were CY injected and then exposed to PEMF. Exposure to PEMF (24 hours/day) increased the rate of decline of white blood cells in peripheral blood. Spleen weight was statistically higher among control mice than among mice exposed to PEMF at day 6, 8 and 10 after CY injection. Spleen autoradiography proved to be higher among PEMF exposed mice than among controls at day 8 and 9 after CY injection. The grafting efficiency of the bone marrow obtained from control mice was higher than the grafting efficiency of the bone marrow recovered from mice exposed to PEMF. All these data indicate that the exposure to PEMF increases the cytotoxic effect of CY.

  17. Ex vivo determination of bone tissue strains for an in vivo mouse tibial loading model

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Alessandra; Abela, Lisa; Pitsillides, Andrew A.; Shefelbine, Sandra J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies introduced the digital image correlation (DIC) as a viable technique for measuring bone strain during loading. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of a DIC system in determining surface strains in a mouse tibia while loaded in compression through the knee joint. Specifically, we examined the effect of speckle distribution, facet size and overlap, initial vertical alignment of the bone into the loading cups, rotation with respect to cameras, and ex vivo loading configurations on the strain contour maps measured with a DIC system. We loaded tibiae of C57BL/6 mice (12 and 18 weeks old male) up to 12 N at 8 N/min. Images of speckles on the bone surface were recorded at 1 N intervals and DIC was used to compute strains. Results showed that speckles must have the correct size and density with respect to the facet size of choice for the strain distribution to be computed and reproducible. Initial alignment of the bone within the loading cups does not influence the strain distribution measured during peak loading, but bones must be placed in front of the camera with the same orientation in order for strains to be comparable. Finally, the ex vivo loading configurations with the tibia attached to the entire mouse, or to the femur and foot, or only to the foot, showed different strain contour maps. This work provides a better understanding of parameters affecting full field strain measurements from DIC in ex vivo murine tibial loading tests. PMID:24835472

  18. Microstructure of trabecular bone in a mouse model for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Trish; Ryan, Timothy M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2007-04-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and results in a suite of dysmorphic phenotypes, including effects on the postcranial skeleton and the skull. We have previously demonstrated parallels in the patterns of craniofacial dysmorphology in DS and in the Ts65Dn mouse model for DS. The specific mechanisms underlying the production of these changes in craniofacial shape remain unknown. High-resolution computed tomography scan data were collected for the presphenoid bone of euploid and aneuploid mice. Three-dimensional morphometric parameters of trabecular bone were quantified and compared between euploid and aneuploid mice using nonparametric statistical tests. Aneuploid presphenoid bones were smaller than those of their euploid littermates and had lower bone volume fraction and fewer, more rod-like trabeculae. The differences in cancellous bone structure suggest that bone development, perhaps including bone modeling and remodeling, is affected by aneuploidy. These differences may contribute to the observed dysmorphology of skull and postcranial skeletal phenotypes in DS. PMID:17514765

  19. Predicting cortical bone adaptation to axial loading in the mouse tibia

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, A. F.; Javaheri, B.; Pitsillides, A. A.; Shefelbine, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of predictive mathematical models can contribute to a deeper understanding of the specific stages of bone mechanobiology and the process by which bone adapts to mechanical forces. The objective of this work was to predict, with spatial accuracy, cortical bone adaptation to mechanical load, in order to better understand the mechanical cues that might be driving adaptation. The axial tibial loading model was used to trigger cortical bone adaptation in C57BL/6 mice and provide relevant biological and biomechanical information. A method for mapping cortical thickness in the mouse tibia diaphysis was developed, allowing for a thorough spatial description of where bone adaptation occurs. Poroelastic finite-element (FE) models were used to determine the structural response of the tibia upon axial loading and interstitial fluid velocity as the mechanical stimulus. FE models were coupled with mechanobiological governing equations, which accounted for non-static loads and assumed that bone responds instantly to local mechanical cues in an on–off manner. The presented formulation was able to simulate the areas of adaptation and accurately reproduce the distributions of cortical thickening observed in the experimental data with a statistically significant positive correlation (Kendall's ? rank coefficient ? = 0.51, p < 0.001). This work demonstrates that computational models can spatially predict cortical bone mechanoadaptation to a time variant stimulus. Such models could be used in the design of more efficient loading protocols and drug therapies that target the relevant physiological mechanisms. PMID:26311315

  20. Automated Cell Detection and Morphometry on Growth Plate Images of Mouse Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Du, Xia; Harding, James I; Beylerian, Emily N; de Silva, Brian M; Gross, Ben J; Kastein, Hannah K; Wang, Weiguang; Lyons, Karen M; Schaeffer, Hayden

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy imaging of mouse growth plates is extensively used in biology to understand the effect of specific molecules on various stages of normal bone development and on bone disease. Until now, such image analysis has been conducted by manual detection. In fact, when existing automated detection techniques were applied, morphological variations across the growth plate and heterogeneity of image background color, including the faint presence of cells (chondrocytes) located deeper in tissue away from the image’s plane of focus, and lack of cell-specific features, interfered with identification of cell. We propose the first method of automated detection and morphometry applicable to images of cells in the growth plate of long bone. Through ad hoc sequential application of the Retinex method, anisotropic diffusion and thresholding, our new cell detection algorithm (CDA) addresses these challenges on bright-field microscopy images of mouse growth plates. Five parameters, chosen by the user in respect of image characteristics, regulate our CDA. Our results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed numerical method relative to manual methods. Our CDA confirms previously established results regarding chondrocytes’ number, area, orientation, height and shape of normal growth plates. Our CDA also confirms differences previously found between the genetic mutated mouse Smad1/5CKO and its control mouse on fluorescence images. The CDA aims to aid biomedical research by increasing efficiency and consistency of data collection regarding arrangement and characteristics of chondrocytes. Our results suggest that automated extraction of data from microscopy imaging of growth plates can assist in unlocking information on normal and pathological development, key to the underlying biological mechanisms of bone growth. PMID:25525552

  1. Transgenic mouse model for neurocristopathy: Schwannomas and facial bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Jensen, N A; Rodriguez, M L; Garvey, J S; Miller, C A; Hood, L

    1993-04-15

    We have characterized a strain of double transgenic mice with simian virus 40 large tumor antigen and prokaryotic lacZ under the control of the myelin basic protein promoter that develops spindle-cell sarcomas and osteogenic sarcomas at 5-7 months of age. Although poorly differentiated, the spindle-cell sarcomas were characterized as malignant Schwannomas based on their neural association, the presence of basal lamina, and expression of Schwann cell-specific genes. The osteogenic sarcomas were often multiple and appeared predominantly in the facial bones, less frequently in the ribs and vertebral column, and only rarely in the appendicular skeleton. Benign osteoblastic lesions were often observed adjacent to these sarcomas. Both the osteoblastic cells in the facial skeleton and Schwann cells are regarded as neural crest derivatives. The biological properties and anatomical location of these tumors suggest that they may share a common origin from the neural crest or its derivatives. R.P. Bolande [Hum. Pathol. (1974) 5, 409-429] introduced the term neurocristopathy as a unifying concept to describe such lesions arising from the neural crest or its derivatives. Cell lines established from both bone and Schwann cell tumors arising in these transgenic mice express simian virus 40 large tumor antigen mRNA as well as functional large tumor antigen. Such cell lines are potentially valuable in the search for markers that identify mammalian neural crest derivatives. PMID:8386366

  2. Magnetic assembly-mediated enhancement of differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells cultured on magnetic colloidal assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianfei; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Jiqing; Song, Lina; Chen, Zihao; Liu, Haoyu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Here we reported an interesting phenomenon that the field-induced assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles can promote the differentiation of primary mouse bone marrow cells into osteoblasts. The reason was thought to lie in the remnant magnetic interaction inside the assemblies which resulted from the magnetic field-directed assembly. Influence of the assemblies on the cells was realized by means of interface effect rather than the internalization effect. We fabricated a stripe-like assemblies array on the glass plate and cultured cells on this surface. We characterized the morphology of assemblies and measured the mechanic property as well as the magnetic property. The cellular differentiation was measured by staining and quantitative PCR. Finally, Fe uptake was excluded as the reason to cause the phenomenon. PMID:24874764

  3. Magnetic assembly-mediated enhancement of differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells cultured on magnetic colloidal assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianfei; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Jiqing; Song, Lina; Chen, Zihao; Liu, Haoyu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2014-05-01

    Here we reported an interesting phenomenon that the field-induced assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles can promote the differentiation of primary mouse bone marrow cells into osteoblasts. The reason was thought to lie in the remnant magnetic interaction inside the assemblies which resulted from the magnetic field-directed assembly. Influence of the assemblies on the cells was realized by means of interface effect rather than the internalization effect. We fabricated a stripe-like assemblies array on the glass plate and cultured cells on this surface. We characterized the morphology of assemblies and measured the mechanic property as well as the magnetic property. The cellular differentiation was measured by staining and quantitative PCR. Finally, Fe uptake was excluded as the reason to cause the phenomenon.

  4. Dendritic Cells Cause Bone Lesions in a New Mouse Model of Histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Grosjean, Frédéric; Nasi, Sonia; Schneider, Pascal; Chobaz, Véronique; Liu, Alexandra; Mordasini, Vanessa; Moullec, Kristell; Vezzoni, Paolo; Lavanchy, Christine; Busso, Nathalie; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Ehirchiou, Driss

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease caused by the clonal accumulation of dendritic Langerhans cells, which is often accompanied by osteolytic lesions. It has been reported that osteoclast-like cells play a major role in the pathogenic bone destruction seen in patients with LCH and these cells are postulated to originate from the fusion of DCs. However, due to the lack of reliable animal models the pathogenesis of LCH is still poorly understood. In this study, we have established a mouse model of histiocytosis- recapitulating human disease for osteolytic lesions seen in LCH patients. At 12 weeks after birth, severe bone lesions were observed in our multisystem histiocytosis (Mushi) model, when CD8? conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are transformed (MuTuDC) and accumulate. Most importantly, our study demonstrates that bone loss in LCH can be accounted for the transdifferentiation of MuTuDCs into functional osteoclasts both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, we have shown that injected MuTuDCs reverse the osteopetrotic phenotype of oc/oc mice in vivo. In conclusion, our results support a crucial role of DCs in bone lesions in histiocytosis patients. Furthermore, our new model of LCH based on adoptive transfer of MuTuDC lines, leading to bone lesions within 1–2 weeks, will be an important tool for investigating the pathophysiology of this disease and ultimately for evaluating the potential of anti-resorptive drugs for the treatment of bone lesions. PMID:26247358

  5. Accretion of Bone Quantity and Quality in the Developing Mouse Skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Miller,L.; Little, W.; Schirmer, A.; Sheik, F.; Busa, B.; Judex, S.

    2007-01-01

    To meet the mechanical challenges during early development, the skeleton requires the rapid accretion of bone quality and bone quantity. Here, we describe early bone development in the mouse skeleton and test the hypothesis that specific compositional properties determine the stiffness of the tissue. Tibias of female BALB mice were harvested at eight time-points (n = 4 each) distributed between 1 and 40 days of age and subjected to morphometric ({mu}CT), chemical (Fourier transform infrared microscpectroscopy), and mechanical (nanoindentation) analyses. Tibias of 450-day-old mice served as fully mineralized control specimens. In this work, we found that bone mineral formation proceeded very rapidly in mice by 1 day of age, where the degree of mineralization, the tissue mineral density, and the mineral crystallinity reached 36%, 51%, and 87% of the adult values, respectively. However, even though significant mineralization had occurred, the elastic modulus of 1-day-old bone was only 14% of its adult value, indicating that the intrinsic stiffening of the bone lags considerably behind the initial mineral formation.

  6. Dysregulated TGF-? signaling alters bone microstructure in a mouse model of Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Ashvin K; Tomlinson, Ryan E; Mitchell, Stuart; Goh, Brian C; Yung, Rachel M; Kumar, Sarvesh; Tan, Eric W; Faugere, Marie-Claude; Dietz, Harry C; Clemens, Thomas L; Sponseller, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by vascular and skeletal abnormalities resembling Marfan syndrome, including a predisposition for pathologic fracture. LDS is caused by heterozygous mutations in the genes encoding transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) type 1 and type 2 receptors. In this study, we characterized the skeletal phenotype of mice carrying a mutation in the TGF-? type 2 receptor associated with severe LDS in humans. Cortical bone in LDS mice showed significantly reduced tissue area, bone area, and cortical thickness with increased eccentricity. However, no significant differences in trabecular bone volume were observed. Dynamic histomorphometry performed in calcein-labeled mice showed decreased mineral apposition rates in cortical and trabecular bone with normal numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Mechanical testing of femurs by three-point bending revealed reduced femoral strength and fracture resistance. In vitro, osteoblasts from LDS mice demonstrated increased mineralization with enhanced expression of osteoblast differentiation markers compared with control cells. These changes were associated with impaired TGF-?1-induced Smad2 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation and upregulated TGF-?1 ligand mRNA expression, compatible with G357W as a loss-of-function mutation in the TGF-? type 2 receptor. Paradoxically, phosphorylated Smad2/3 in cortical osteocytes measured by immunohistochemistry was increased relative to controls, possibly suggesting the cross-activation of TGF-?-related receptors. The skeletal phenotype observed in the LDS mouse closely resembles the principal structural features of bone in humans with LDS and establishes this mouse as a valid in vivo model for further investigation of TGF-? receptor signaling in bone. PMID:26173585

  7. Nitric oxide partially controls Coxiella burnetii phase II infection in mouse primary macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Dario S; Rabinovitch, Michel

    2003-03-01

    In most primary or continuous cell cultures infected with the Q-fever agent Coxiella burnetii, bacteria are typically sheltered in phagolysosome-like, large replicative vacuoles (LRVs). We recently reported that only a small proportion of mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMPhi) infected with a nonvirulent, phase II strain of C. burnetii developed LRVs and that their relative bacterial load increased only slowly. In the majority of infected PMPhi, the bacteria were confined to the small vesicles. We show here that nitric oxide (NO) induced by the bacteria partially accounts for the restricted development of LRVs in primary macrophages. Thus, (i) PMPhi and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMPhi) challenged with phase II C. burnetii produced significant amounts of NO; (ii) the NO synthase inhibitors aminoguanidine and N-methyl-L-arginine reduced the production of NO and increased the frequency of LRVs (although the relative bacterial loads of individual LRVs did not change, the estimated loads per well increased appreciably); (iii) gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside, added to BMMPhi prior to or after infection, reduced the development and the relative bacterial loads of LRVs and lowered the yield of viable bacteria recovered from the cultures; and (iv) these effects of IFN-gamma may not be entirely dependent on the production of NO since IFN-gamma also controlled the infection in macrophages from inducible NO synthase knockout mice. It remains to be determined whether NO reduced the development of LRVs by acting directly on the bacteria; by acting on the traffic, fusion, or fission of cell vesicles; or by a combination of these mechanisms. PMID:12595436

  8. Near IR fluorescent conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)bisphosphonate nanoparticles for in vivo bone targeting in a young mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rudnick-Glick, S; Corem-Salkmon, E; Grinberg, I; Yehuda, R; Margel, S

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonate (BP) compounds are widely used in the treatment of bone disorders. This group of drugs with a high affinity to Ca(+2) ions is rapidly attracted to bone mineral, especially in areas of high resorption. We have engineered unique biodegradable BP nanoparticles (NPs) by dispersion co-polymerization of the monomers methacrylate-PEG-BP) and (3-Aminopropyl)mathacrylamide) with the crosslinker monomer tetra ethylene glycol diacrylate. These NPs possess a dual functionality: (1) covalent attachment of a dye (e.g. near IR dye) or a drug to the nanoparticles through the primary amine groups on the surface of the NPs; (2) chelation to the bone mineral hydroxyapatite through the BP on the surface of the NPs. This study describes the uptake of the unique near IR fluorescent Cy 7-conjugated BP NPs in bone of a young mouse model. Blood half-life studies revealed a relatively long half-life (approximately 5 h) due to a high concentration of PEG in the BP NPs as well as a relatively long whole body clearance (approximately 2 weeks). Body distribution studies showed a specific uptake of the BP NPs in bone. These unique engineered BP NPs are planned to be utilized in future work for diagnostic and drug delivery systems that are targeted to bone disorders. PMID:26577112

  9. Primary tumour growth in an orthotopic osteosarcoma mouse model is not influenced by analgesic treatment with buprenorphine and meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Husmann, K; Arlt, M J E; Jirkof, P; Arras, M; Born, W; Fuchs, B

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the treatment of bone pain in animal models of bone cancer. In the present study, the orthotopic 143-B human osteosarcoma xenotransplantation model was used to address the following questions: (1) Can repetitive analgesic treatment extend the experimental period by prolonging the time to reach humane endpoints and (2) Does repetitive analgesic treatment affect bone tumour development and metastasis? The analgesics, buprenorphine and meloxicam, were either applied individually or in combination at 12?h intervals as soon as the animals began to avoid using the tumour cell injected leg. While control mice treated with NaCl showed continuous body weight loss, the major criterion previously for terminating the experiments, animals treated with analgesic substances did not. The control mice had to be sacrificed 26 days after tumour cell injection, whereas the groups of animals with the different pain treatments were euthanized after an additional eight days. Importantly, primary intratibial tumour growth was not affected in any of the experimental groups by any of the pain treatment procedures. Between days 26 and 34 after tumour cell injection an increase of about 100% of the number of lung metastases was found for the groups treated with buprenorphine alone or together with meloxicam, but not for the group treated with meloxicam alone. In summary, the results indicated that both buprenorphine and meloxicam are suitable analgesics for prolonging the experimental periods in an experimental intratibial osteosarcoma mouse model. PMID:25650386

  10. Establishment of primary mouse lung adenocarcinoma cell culture

    PubMed Central

    LUO, SHULI; SUN, MEI; JIANG, RUI; WANG, GUAN; ZHANG, XINYI

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease worldwide and is the leading cause of death from cancer. Primary cultures derived from lung cancer are essential for understanding abnormal growth function in lung epithelia. In this study, 2 out of 5 primary lung adenocarcinoma cultures derived from DNA repair-deficient mice were established and characterised using electron microscopy and immunostaining. Results of the tumourigenicity tests confirmed that these primary cells are tumourigenic. In conclusion, an effective primary culture method provides a tool for clinical antitumour drug testing. PMID:22848239

  11. Neonatal bone marrow transplantation prevents bone pathology in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I

    PubMed Central

    Pievani, Alice; Azario, Isabella; Antolini, Laura; Shimada, Tsutomu; Patel, Pravin; Remoli, Cristina; Rambaldi, Benedetta; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Riminucci, Mara; Biondi, Andrea; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity for genetic disorders by providing sustainable levels of the missing protein at birth, thus preventing tissue damage. We tested this concept in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS IH; Hurler syndrome), a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of ?-l-iduronidase. MPS IH is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, including severe progressive skeletal abnormalities. Although BMT increases the life span of patients with MPS IH, musculoskeletal manifestations are only minimally responsive if the timing of BMT delays, suggesting already irreversible bone damage. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that transplanting normal BM into newborn MPS I mice soon after birth can prevent skeletal dysplasia. We observed that neonatal BMT was effective at restoring ?-l-iduronidase activity and clearing elevated glycosaminoglycans in blood and multiple organs. At 37 weeks of age, we observed an almost complete normalization of all bone tissue parameters, using radiographic, microcomputed tomography, biochemical, and histological analyses. Overall, the magnitude of improvements correlated with the extent of hematopoietic engraftment. We conclude that BMT at a very early stage in life markedly reduces signs and symptoms of MPS I before they appear. PMID:25298037

  12. A Method for Generation of Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages from Cryopreserved Mouse Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Djalma S.; Zamboni, Dario S.

    2010-01-01

    The broad use of transgenic and gene-targeted mice has established bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) as important mammalian host cells for investigation of the macrophages biology. Over the last decade, extensive research has been done to determine how to freeze and store viable hematopoietic human cells; however, there is no information regarding generation of BMDM from frozen murine bone marrow (BM) cells. Here, we establish a highly efficient protocol to freeze murine BM cells and further generate BMDM. Cryopreserved murine BM cells maintain their potential for BMDM differentiation for more than 6 years. We compared BMDM obtained from fresh and frozen BM cells and found that both are similarly able to trigger the expression of CD80 and CD86 in response to LPS or infection with the intracellular bacteria Legionella pneumophila. Additionally, BMDM obtained from fresh or frozen BM cells equally restrict or support the intracellular multiplication of pathogens such as L. pneumophila and the protozoan parasite Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. Although further investigation are required to support the use of the method for generation of dendritic cells, preliminary experiments indicate that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can also be generated from cryopreserved BM cells. Overall, the method described and validated herein represents a technical advance as it allows ready and easy generation of BMDM from a stock of frozen BM cells. PMID:21179419

  13. Improved culture-based isolation of differentiating endothelial progenitor cells from mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Haruki; Ii, Masaaki; Jujo, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Ayumi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Asahara, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Numerous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-related investigations have been performed in mouse experiments. However, defined characteristics of mouse cultured EPC have not been examined. We focused on fast versus slow adherent cell population in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) in culture and examined their characteristics. After 24 h-culture of BMMNCs, attached (AT) cells and floating (FL) cells were further cultured in endothelial differentiation medium separately. Immunological and molecular analyses exhibited more endothelial-like and less monocyte/macrophage-like characteristics in FL cells compared with AT cells. FL cells formed thick/stable tube and hypoxia or shear stress overload further enhanced these endothelial-like features with increased angiogenic cytokine/growth factor mRNA expressions. Finally, FL cells exhibited therapeutic potential in a mouse myocardial infarction model showing the specific local recruitment to ischemic border zone and tissue preservation. These findings suggest that slow adherent (FL) but not fast attached (AT) BMMNCs in culture are EPC-rich population in mouse. PMID:22216102

  14. Geniposide, from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, inhibits the inflammatory response in the primary mouse macrophages and mouse models.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Liu, Bo; Liu, Jinhua; Liu, Zhicheng; Liang, Dejie; Li, Fengyang; Li, Depeng; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Xichen; Zhang, Naisheng; Yang, Zhengtao

    2012-12-01

    Geniposide, a main iridoid glucoside component of gardenia fruit, has been known to exhibit antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of geniposide on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated primary mouse macrophages in vitro and LPS induced lung injury model in vivo. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), inhibitory kappa B (I?B?) protein, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were determined by Western blot. Further analysis was carried out in mTLR4 and mMD-2 co-transfected HEK293 cells. The results showed that geniposide markedly inhibited the LPS-induced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? production both in vitro and in vivo. Geniposide blocked the phosphorylation of I?B?, p65, p38, ERK and JNK in LPS stimulated primary mouse macrophages. Furthermore, geniposide inhibited the expression of TLR4 in LPS stimulated primary mouse macrophages and inhibited the LPS-induced IL-8 production in HEK293-mTLR4/MD-2 cells. In vivo study, it was also observed that geniposide attenuated lung histopathologic changes in the mouse models. These results suggest that geniposide exerts an anti-inflammatory property by down-regulating the expression of TLR4 up-regulated by LPS. Geniposide is highly effective in inhibiting acute lung injury and may be a promising potential therapeutic reagent for acute lung injury treatment. PMID:22878137

  15. Mechanical Unloading of Mouse Bone in Microgravity Significantly Alters Cell Cycle Gene Set Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, Elizabeth; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo; Kaplan, Warren; Burns, Brnedan

    2012-07-01

    Spaceflight factors, including microgravity and space radiation, have many detrimental short-term effects on human physiology, including muscle and bone degradation, and immune system dysfunction. The long-term progression of these physiological effects is still poorly understood, and a serious concern for long duration spaceflight missions. We hypothesized that some of the degenerative effects of spaceflight may be caused in part by an inability of stem cells to proliferate and differentiate normally resulting in an impairment of tissue regenerative processes. Furthermore, we hypothesized that long-term bone tissue degeneration in space may be mediated by activation of the p53 signaling network resulting in cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis in osteoprogenitors. In our analyses we found that spaceflight caused significant bone loss in the weight-bearing bones of mice with a 6.3% reduction in bone volume and 11.9% decrease in bone thickness associated with increased osteoclastic activity. Along with this rapid bone loss we also observed alterations in the cell cycle characterized by an increase in the Cdkn1a/p21 cell cycle arrest molecule independent of Trp53. Overexpression of Cdkn1a/p21 was localized to osteoblasts lining the periosteal surface of the femur and chondrocytes in the head of the femur, suggesting an inhibition of proliferation in two key regenerative cell types of the femur in response to spaceflight. Additionally we found overexpression of several matrix degradation molecules including MMP-1a, 3 and 10, of which MMP-10 was localized to osteocytes within the shaft of the femur. This, in conjunction with 40 nm resolution synchrotron nano-Computed Tomography (nano-CT) observations of an increase in osteocyte lacunae cross-sectional area, perimeter and a decrease in circularity indicates a potential role for osteocytic osteolysis in the observed bone degeneration in spaceflight. To further investigate the genetic response of bone to mechanical unloading in spaceflight, we conducted genome wide microarray analysis of total RNA isolated from the mouse pelvis. Specifically, 16 week old mice were subjected to 15 days spaceflight onboard NASA's STS-131 space shuttle mission. The pelvis of the mice was dissected, the bone marrow was flushed and the bones were briefly stored in RNAlater. The pelvii were then homogenized, and RNA was isolated using TRIzol. RNA concentration and quality was measured using a Nanodrop spectrometer, and 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis. Samples of cDNA were analyzed using an Affymetrix GeneChip\\S Gene 1.0 ST (Sense Target) Array System for Mouse and GenePattern Software. We normalized the ST gene arrays using Robust Multichip Average (RMA) normalization, which summarizes perfectly matched spots on the array through the median polish algorithm, rather than normalizing according to mismatched spots. We also used Limma for statistical analysis, using the BioConductor Limma Library by Gordon Smyth, and differential expression analysis to identify genes with significant changes in expression between the two experimental conditions. Finally we used GSEApreRanked for Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), with Kolmogorov-Smirnov style statistics to identify groups of genes that are regulated together using the t-statistics derived from Limma. Preliminary results show that 6,603 genes expressed in pelvic bone had statistically significant alterations in spaceflight compared to ground controls. These prominently included cell cycle arrest molecules p21, and p18, cell survival molecule Crbp1, and cell cycle molecules cyclin D1, and Cdk1. Additionally, GSEA results indicated alterations in molecular targets of cyclin D1 and Cdk4, senescence pathways resulting from abnormal laminin maturation, cell-cell contacts via E-cadherin, and several pathways relating to protein translation and metabolism. In total 111 gene sets out of 2,488, about 4%, showed statistically significant set alterations. These alterations indicate significant impairment of normal cellular function in the mechanically unloaded envi

  16. ATRX dysfunction induces replication defects in primary mouse cells.

    PubMed

    Clynes, David; Jelinska, Clare; Xella, Barbara; Ayyub, Helena; Taylor, Stephen; Mitson, Matthew; Bachrati, Csanád Z; Higgs, Douglas R; Gibbons, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The chromatin remodeling protein ATRX, which targets tandem repetitive DNA, has been shown to be required for expression of the alpha globin genes, for proliferation of a variety of cellular progenitors, for chromosome congression and for the maintenance of telomeres. Mutations in ATRX have recently been identified in tumours which maintain their telomeres by a telomerase independent pathway involving homologous recombination thought to be triggered by DNA damage. It is as yet unknown whether there is a central underlying mechanism associated with ATRX dysfunction which can explain the numerous cellular phenomena observed. There is, however, growing evidence for its role in the replication of various repetitive DNA templates which are thought to have a propensity to form secondary structures. Using a mouse knockout model we demonstrate that ATRX plays a direct role in facilitating DNA replication. Ablation of ATRX alone, although leading to a DNA damage response at telomeres, is not sufficient to trigger the alternative lengthening of telomere pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells. PMID:24651726

  17. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  18. Experience-Dependent Plasticity of Binocular Responses in the Primary Visual Cortex of the Mouse

    E-print Network

    Stryker, Michael

    Experience-Dependent Plasticity of Binocular Responses in the Primary Visual Cortex of the Mouse-defined critical period, between P19 and P32. Further- more, binocular deprivation during this critical period did in the number of binocularly responsive neurons. Finally, a laminar analysis demonstrated plasticity of both

  19. Therapeutic effects of mouse bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Seok; Yi, Tac-Ghee; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young Min; Kim, Jun-Hyung; Shin, Dong-Hee; Tak, Seon Ji; Lee, Kyuheon; Lee, Youn Sook; Jeon, Myung-Shin; Hahm, Ki-Baik; Song, Sun U; Park, Seok Hee

    2015-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells (mcMSCs), which were originated from a single cell by a subfractionation culturing method, are recognized as new paradigm for stem cell therapy featured with its homogenous cell population. Next to proven therapeutic effects against pancreatitis, in the current study we demonstrated that mcMSCs showed significant therapeutic effects in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis model supported with anti-inflammatory and restorative activities. mcMSCs significantly reduced the disease activity index (DAI) score, including weight loss, stool consistency, and intestinal bleeding and significantly increased survival rates. The pathological scores were also significantly improved with mcMSC. We have demonstrated that especial mucosal regeneration activity accompanied with significantly lowered level of apoptosis as beneficiary actions of mcMSCs in UC models. The levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-17 were all significantly concurrent with significantly repressed NF-?B activation compared to the control group and significantly decreased infiltrations of responsible macrophage and neutrophil. Conclusively, our findings provide the rationale that mcMSCs are applicable as a potential source of cell-based therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases, especially contributing either to prevent relapse or to accelerate healing as solution to unmet medical needs in IBD therapy. PMID:26566304

  20. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R inhibits human prostate cancer experimental bone metastasis in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Toneri, Makoto; Miwa, Shinji; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Cameron; Yano, Shuya; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Bouvet, Michael; Nakanishi, Hayao; Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming

    2015-10-13

    Bone metastasis is a frequent occurrence in prostate cancer patients and often is lethal. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is often used for bone metastasis with limited efficacy. More effective models and treatment methods are required to improve the outcome of prostate cancer patients. In the present study, the effects of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R were analyzed in vitro and in vivo on prostate cancer cells and experimental bone metastasis. Both ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells expressing red fluorescent protien in vitro. To investigate the efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R on prostate cancer experimental bone metastasis, we established models of both early and advanced stage bone metastasis. The mice were treated with ZOL, S. typhimurium A1-R, and combination therapy of both ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R. ZOL and S. typhimurium A1-R inhibited the growth of solitary bone metastases. S. typhimurium A1-R treatment significantly decreased bone metastasis and delayed the appearance of PC-3 bone metastases of multiple mouse models. Additionally, S. typhimurium A1-R treatment significantly improved the overall survival of the mice with multiple bone metastases. The results of the present study indicate that S. typhimurium A1-R is useful to prevent and inhibit prostate cancer bone metastasis and has potential for future clinical use in the adjuvant setting. PMID:26431498

  1. Lack of prolidase causes a bone phenotype both in human and in mouse.

    PubMed

    Besio, Roberta; Maruelli, Silvia; Gioia, Roberta; Villa, Isabella; Grabowski, Peter; Gallagher, Orla; Bishop, Nicholas J; Foster, Sarah; De Lorenzi, Ersilia; Colombo, Raffaella; Diaz, Josč Luis Dapena; Moore-Barton, Haether; Deshpande, Charu; Aydin, Halil Ibrahim; Tokatli, Aysegul; Kwiek, Bartlomiej; Kasapkara, Cigdem Seher; Adisen, Esra Ozsoy; Gurer, Mehmet Ali; Di Rocco, Maja; Phang, James M; Gunn, Teresa M; Tenni, Ruggero; Rossi, Antonio; Forlino, Antonella

    2015-03-01

    The degradation of the main fibrillar collagens, collagens I and II, is a crucial process for skeletal development. The most abundant dipeptides generated from the catabolism of collagens contain proline and hydroxyproline. In humans, prolidase is the only enzyme able to hydrolyze dipeptides containing these amino acids at their C-terminal end, thus being a key player in collagen synthesis and turnover. Mutations in the prolidase gene cause prolidase deficiency (PD), a rare recessive disorder. Here we describe 12 PD patients, 9 of whom were molecularly characterized in this study. Following a retrospective analysis of all of them a skeletal phenotype associated with short stature, hypertelorism, nose abnormalities, microcephaly, osteopenia and genu valgum, independent of both the type of mutation and the presence of the mutant protein was identified. In order to understand the molecular basis of the bone phenotype associated with PD, we analyzed a recently identified mouse model for the disease, the dark-like (dal) mutant. The dal/dal mice showed a short snout, they were smaller than controls, their femurs were significantly shorter and pQCT and ?CT analyses of long bones revealed compromised bone properties at the cortical and at the trabecular level in both male and female animals. The differences were more pronounce at 1 month being the most parameters normalized by 2 months of age. A delay in the formation of the second ossification center was evident at postnatal day 10. Our work reveals that reduced bone growth was due to impaired chondrocyte proliferation and increased apoptosis rate in the proliferative zone associated with reduced hyperthrophic zone height. These data suggest that lack of prolidase, a cytosolic enzyme involved in the final stage of protein catabolism, is required for normal skeletogenesis especially at early age when the requirement for collagen synthesis and degradation is the highest. PMID:25460580

  2. Radiation sensitivity and cycling status of mouse bone marrow prothymocytes and day 8 colony forming units spleen (CFUs)

    SciTech Connect

    Boersma, W.J.

    1983-11-01

    Mouse bone marrow prothymocytes as determined in an in vivo thymus regeneration assay have an in vitro gamma radiation sensitivity which is different from that of spleen colony forming cells (CFUs). Determination of Do according to in vivo irradiation revealed similar but insignificant differences. Prothymocytes in normal bone marrow maintain a low but slightly different proliferative state as compared to CFUs, according to determinations using the /sup 3/H-TdR suicide technique. In regenerating bone marrow prothymocytes were found to be sensitive to an inhibitory effect of in vitro incubation with cold thymidine. CFUs and normal bone marrow prothymocytes were not affected by cold thymidine. Taking into account the cold thymidine effect it can be concluded that prothymocytes and CFUs in regenerating bone marrow are fully in cycle. These results are best explained when prothymocytes and CFUs are considered to be different cells.

  3. ALDH Activity Correlates with Metastatic Potential in Primary Sarcomas of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Nicholas; Schott, Trevor; Mu, Xiaodong; Rothenberg, Adam; Voigt, Clifford; McGough, Richard L.; Goodman, Mark; Huard, Johnny; Weiss, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS), chondrosarcoma (CSA), and Ewings sarcoma (ES) are the most common primary malignancies of bone, and are rare diseases. As with all sarcomas, the prognosis of these diseases ultimately depends on the presence of metastatic disease. Survival is therefore closely linked with the biology and metastatic potential of a particular bone tumor’s cells. Here we describe a significant correlation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and the presence/absence of distant metastases in ten consecutive cases of human bone sarcomas. Additionally, cultured human CSA cells, which are historically chemo- and radio-resistant, may be sensitive to the ALDH inhibitor, disulfiram. While it is premature to draw broad conclusions from such a small series, the importance of ALDH activity and inhibition in the metastatic potential of primary bone sarcomas should be investigated further. PMID:25328803

  4. Maternal beef and postweaning herring diets increase bone mineral density and strength in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Aysha; Olausson, Hanna; Nilsson, Staffan; Nookaew, Intawat; Khoomrung, Sakda; Andersson, Louise; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Holmäng, Agneta

    2013-12-01

    The maternal diet during gestation and lactation affects the long-term health of the offspring. We sought to determine whether maternal and postweaning crossover isocaloric diets based on fish or meat affect the geometry, mineral density, and biomechanical properties of bone in mouse offspring in adulthood. During gestation and lactation, C57BL/6 dams were fed a herring- or beef-based diet. After weaning, half of the pups in each group were fed the same diet as their dams, and half were fed the other diet. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body and lumbar spine were measured in the offspring by dual X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 21 weeks of age. At 22-26 weeks, tibia bone geometry (length, cortical volumetric (v) BMD, BMC, area and thickness) was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and the biomechanical properties of the tibia were analyzed by the three-point bending test. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 was analyzed at 12 weeks. In comparison to the maternal herring diet, the maternal beef diet increased aBMD and BMC in the whole body and lumbar spine of adult offspring, as well as cortical vBMD, BMC, bone area, and thickness at the mid-diaphyseal region of the tibia and the biomechanical properties of tibia strength. In contrast, a postweaning beef diet decreased aBMD in the lumbar spine and BMC in the whole body and lumbar spine compared with a postweaning herring diet, which instead increased plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. The change from a maternal beef diet before weaning to a herring diet after weaning decreased body weight and increased the cortical area, vBMD, BMC, thickness, and strength of the tibia. These significant crossover effects indicate that a preweaning maternal beef diet and a postweaning herring diet are optimal for increasing BMC and bone strength in offspring in adulthood. PMID:24157588

  5. An in vivo mouse model of primary dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Lu; CAO, Zhengyu; YU, Boyang; CHAI, Chengzhi

    2015-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological disorder. Hitherto, animal models which recapitulate clinical features of PD have not been fully established. We aimed to examine whether a pain model in mice could mimic the clinic features of PD. After pretreated with estradiol benzoate (1 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 3 consecutive days, non-pregnant female Imprinting Control Region mice (6–8 weeks old) was injected with 0.4 U of oxytocin to induce the stretching or writhing response which was recorded for a time period of 30 min. During the writhing period, the uterine artery blood flow alterations were examined by Doppler ultrasound detection. After writhing test, the uterine morphological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining histopathology. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to measure the levels of prostaglandins F2?/prostaglandins E2 (PGF2?/PGE2) and TXB2 (a metabolite of TXA2)/6-keto-PGF1? (a metabolite of PGI2) in the uterine tissue homogenates and plasma, respectively. Western blot analyses were performed to determine the expressions of oxytocin receptor (OTR), beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in uterine, which are responsible for the uterine contraction. The writhing response only occurred in the estrogen pretreated female mice. The area of uterine myometrium significantly decreased along with the increased thickness in the oxytocin-induced estrogen pretreated mice model. The uterine artery blood flow velocity dropped, while the pulsatility index and resistance index slightly increased after the injection of oxytocin. The PGF2?/PGE2 level significantly increased and the plasma TXB2/6-keto-PGF1? level significantly enhanced. Compared with the control group, the uterine histopathology demonstrated moderate to severe edema of endometrium lamina propria. In consistent with the uterine morphological changes, a significant reduction of beta2-AR and a significant increase of OTR and COX-2 in the uterine tissue were observed. The writhing response was caused by the abnormal contraction of uterus. The uterine spasm and ischemia changes of oxytocin-induced estrogen pretreated female mice model were similar to the pathology of human PD. We reported an in vivo mice model, which can be used to study PD and for clinical therapeutic evaluations. PMID:25912320

  6. PULSED FOCUSED ULTRASOUND TREATMENT OF MUSCLE MITIGATES PARALYSIS-INDUCED BONE LOSS IN THE ADJACENT BONE: A STUDY IN A MOUSE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Poliachik, Sandra L.; Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Wang, Yak-Nam; Simon, Julianna C.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Bone loss can result from bed rest, space flight, spinal cord injury or age-related hormonal changes. Current bone loss mitigation techniques include pharmaceutical interventions, exercise, pulsed ultrasound targeted to bone and whole body vibration. In this study, we attempted to mitigate paralysis-induced bone loss by applying focused ultrasound to the midbelly of a paralyzed muscle. We employed a mouse model of disuse that uses onabotulinumtoxinA-induced paralysis, which causes rapid bone loss in 5 d. A focused 2 MHz transducer applied pulsed exposures with pulse repetition frequency mimicking that of motor neuron firing during walking (80 Hz), standing (20 Hz), or the standard pulsed ultrasound frequency used in fracture healing (1 kHz). Exposures were applied daily to calf muscle for 4 consecutive d. Trabecular bone changes were characterized using micro-computed tomography. Our results indicated that application of certain focused pulsed ultrasound parameters was able to mitigate some of the paralysis-induced bone loss. PMID:24857416

  7. Role of aquaporin 9 in cellular accumulation of arsenic and its cytotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Sumi, Daigo; Toyama, Takashi; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2009-06-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) 9 is a member of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily of AQPs in the transfer of water and small solutes such as glycerol and arsenite. It is well recognized that arsenic toxicity is associated with intracellular accumulation of this metalloid. In the present study, we examined the contribution of AQP9 to the uptake of inorganic arsenite, thereby increasing arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes. Pretreatment with sorbitol as a competitive inhibitor of AQP9 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of AQP9 resulted in a significant decrease of arsenite uptake in the cell and its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, overexpression of AQP9 in HEK293 cells led to the enhancement of intracellular arsenic concentration, resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity after arsenite exposure. These results suggest that AQP9 is a channel to define arsenite sensitivity in primary mouse hepatocytes.

  8. Establishment and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell hybridomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) are an important model for studying the function of mucosal-type mast cells. In the present study, BMMCs were successfully immortalized by cell fusion using a hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium-sensitive variant of P815 mouse mastocytoma (P815-6TgR) as a partner cell line. The established mouse mast cell hybridomas (MMCHs) expressed {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits of high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (Fc{epsilon}RI) and possessed cytoplasmic granules devoid of or partially filled with electron-dense material. Four independent MMCH clones continuously proliferated without supplemental exogenous IL-3 and showed a degranulation response on stimulation with IgE+antigen. Furthermore, histamine synthesis and release by degranulation were confirmed in MMCH-D5, a MMCH clone that showed the strongest degranulation response. MMCH-D5 exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and cyclooxygenase 2, and production of prostaglandin D{sub 2} and leukotriene C{sub 4} in response to IgE-induced stimulation. MMCH clones also expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, 2, 4, and 6 and showed elevated levels of TNF-{alpha} expression in response to stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. The MMCHs established using this method should be suitable for studies on Fc{epsilon}RI- and TLR-mediated effector functions of mast cells.

  9. Raman spectroscopy detects deterioration in biomechanical properties of bone in a glucocorticoid-treated mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Jason R.; Takahata, Masahiko; Awad, Hani A.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2011-08-01

    Although glucocorticoids are frequently prescribed for the symptomatic management of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, extended glucocorticoid exposure is the leading cause of physician-induced osteoporosis and leaves patients at a high risk of fracture. To study the biochemical effects of glucocorticoid exposure and how they might affect biomechanical properties of the bone, Raman spectra were acquired from ex vivo tibiae of glucocorticoid- and placebo-treated wild-type mice and a transgenic mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis. Statistically significant spectral differences were observed due to both treatment regimen and mouse genotype. These differences are attributed to changes in the overall bone mineral composition, as well as the degree of phosphate mineralization in tibial cortical bone. In addition, partial least squares regression was used to generate a Raman-based prediction of each tibia's biomechanical strength as quantified by a torsion test. The Raman-based predictions were as accurate as those produced by microcomputed tomography derived parameters, and more accurate than the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. These results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a valuable tool for monitoring bone biochemistry in studies of bone diseases such as osteoporosis, including tests of drugs being developed to combat these diseases.

  10. Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor cells produces MCSF that stimulates monocyte proliferation in a novel mouse model of Ewing's sarcoma of bone.

    PubMed

    Margulies, B S; DeBoyace, S D; Damron, T A; Allen, M J

    2015-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma of bone is a primary childhood malignancy of bone that is treated with X-radiation therapy in combination with surgical excision and chemotherapy. To better study Ewing's sarcoma of bone we developed a novel model of primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone and then treated animals with X-radiation therapy. We identified that uncontrolled tumor resulted in lytic bone destruction while X-radiation therapy decreased lytic bone destruction and increased limb-length asymmetry, a common, crippling complication of X-radiation therapy. Osteoclasts were indentified adjacent to the tumor, however, we were unable to detect RANK-ligand in the Ewing's tumor cells in vitro, which lead us to investigate alternate mechanisms for osteoclast formation. Ewing's sarcoma tumor cells and archival Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor biopsy samples were shown to express MCSF, which could promote osteoclast formation. Increased monocyte numbers were detected in peripheral blood and spleen in animals with untreated Ewing's sarcoma tumor while monocyte number in animals treated with x-radiation had normal numbers of monocytes. Our data suggest that our Ewing's sarcoma of bone model will be useful in the study Ewing's sarcoma tumor progression in parallel with the effects of chemotherapy and X-radiation therapy. PMID:26051470

  11. Hypomorphic mutation in mouse Nppc gene causes retarded bone growth due to impaired endochondral ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Takehito Kondo, Eri; Yasoda, Akihiro; Inamoto, Masataka; Kiyosu, Chiyo; Nakao, Kazuwa; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2008-11-07

    Long bone abnormality (lbab/lbab) is a spontaneous mutant mouse characterized by dwarfism with shorter long bones. A missense mutation was reported in the Nppc gene, which encodes C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), but it has not been confirmed whether this mutation is responsible for the dwarf phenotype. To verify that the mutation causes the dwarfism of lbab/lbab mice, we first investigated the effect of CNP in lbab/lbab mice. By transgenic rescue with chondrocyte-specific expression of CNP, the dwarf phenotype in lbab/lbab mice was completely compensated. Next, we revealed that CNP derived from the lbab allele retained only slight activity to induce cGMP production through its receptor. Histological analysis showed that both proliferative and hypertrophic zones of chondrocytes in the growth plate of lbab/lbab mice were markedly reduced. Our results demonstrate that lbab/lbab mice have a hypomorphic mutation in the Nppc gene that is responsible for dwarfism caused by impaired endochondral ossification.

  12. Induction of bone formation in biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and primary osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Strobel, L A; Rath, S N; Maier, A K; Beier, J P; Arkudas, A; Greil, P; Horch, R E; Kneser, U

    2014-03-01

    Bone tissue engineering strategies mainly depend on porous scaffold materials. In this study, novel biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) matrices were generated by 3D-printing. High porosity was achieved by starch consolidation. This study aimed to characterise the porous BCP-scaffold properties and interactions of osteogenic cells and growth factors under in vivo conditions. Five differently treated constructs were implanted subcutaneously in syngeneic rats: plain BCP constructs (group A), constructs pre-treated with BMP-2 (group B; 1.6?µg BMP-2 per scaffold), seeded with primary osteoblasts (OB) (group C), seeded with OB and BMP-2 (group D) and constructs seeded with OB and pre-cultivated in a flow bioreactor for 6?weeks (group E). After 2, 4 and 6?weeks, specimens were explanted and subjected to histological and molecular biological analyses. Explanted scaffolds were invaded by fibrovascular tissue without significant foreign body reactions. Morphometric analysis demonstrated significantly increased bone formation in samples from group D (OB?+?BMP-2) compared to all other groups. Samples from groups B-E displayed significant mRNA expression of bone-specific genes after 6?weeks. Pre-cultivation in the flow bioreactor (group E) induced bone formation comparable with group B. In this study, differences in bone distribution between samples with BMP-2 or osteoblasts could be observed. In conclusion, combination of osteoblasts and BMP-2 synergistically enhanced bone formation in novel ceramic scaffolds. These results provide the basis for further experiments in orthotopic defect models with a focus on future applications in orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:22740314

  13. Lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyoshi, Ko; Kasahara, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato

    2009-10-30

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium, a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with lithium has been shown to induce elongation of their flagella, which are analogous structures to vertebrate cilia. In the mouse brain, adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) and certain neuropeptide receptors colocalize to the primary cilium of neuronal cells, suggesting a chemosensory function for the primary cilium in the nervous system. Here we show that lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells. Brain sections from mice chronically fed with Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were subjected to immunofluorescence study. Primary cilia carrying both AC3 and the receptor for melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were elongated in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of lithium-fed mice, as compared to those of control animals. Moreover, lithium-treated NIH3T3 cells and cultured striatal neurons exhibited elongation of the primary cilia. The present results provide initial evidence that a psychotropic agent can affect ciliary length in the central nervous system, and furthermore suggest that lithium exerts its therapeutic effects via the upregulation of cilia-mediated MCH sensing. These findings thus contribute novel insights into the pathophysiology of bipolar mood disorder and other psychiatric diseases.

  14. Defective Endochondral Ossification-Derived Matrix and Bone Cells Alter the Lymphopoietic Niche in Collagen X Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Elizabeth; Roberts, Douglas; Lin, Angela; Guldberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the appreciated interdependence of skeletal and hematopoietic development, the cell and matrix components of the hematopoietic niche remain to be fully defined. Utilizing mice with disrupted function of collagen X (ColX), a major hypertrophic cartilage matrix protein associated with endochondral ossification, our data identified a cytokine defect in trabecular bone cells at the chondro-osseous hematopoietic niche as a cause for aberrant B lymphopoiesis in these mice. Specifically, analysis of ColX transgenic and null mouse chondro-osseous regions via micro-computed tomography revealed an altered trabecular bone environment. Additionally, cocultures with hematopoietic and chondro-osseous cell types highlighted impaired hematopoietic support by ColX transgenic and null mouse derived trabecular bone cells. Further, cytokine arrays with conditioned media from the trabecular osteoblast cocultures suggested an aberrant hematopoietic cytokine milieu within the chondro-osseous niche of the ColX deficient mice. Accordingly, B lymphopoiesis was rescued in the ColX mouse derived trabecular osteoblast cocultures with interlukin-7, stem cell factor, and stromal derived factor-1 supplementation. Moreover, B cell development was restored in vivo after injections of interlukin-7. These data support our hypothesis that endrochondrally-derived trabecular bone cells and matrix constituents provide cytokine-rich niches for hematopoiesis. Furthermore, this study contributes to the emerging concept that niche defects may underlie certain immuno-osseous and hematopoietic disorders. PMID:23656481

  15. Targeted Mutation of Nuclear Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Impairs Secondary Immune Response in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Daniel S.; Goar, Wesley A.; Nichols, Brandt A.; Bailey, K. Tyson; Christensen, S. Loyd; Merriam, Kayla R.; Reynolds, Paul R.; Wilson, Eric; Weber, K. Scott; Bridgewater, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a nuclear variant of the BMP2 growth factor, called nBMP2. In an effort to understand the function of this variant protein, we generated a mouse line in which BMP2 is expressed and functions normally, but nBMP2 is excluded from the nucleus. This novel mutation allows the study of nBMP2 without compromising BMP2 function. To determine whether nBMP2 plays a role in immune function, we performed a series of experiments in which we compared mouse survival, organ weights, immune cells numbers, and bacterial load in wild type and nBmp2NLStm mice following primary and secondary challenges with Staphylococcus aureus. Following primary challenge with S. aureus, wild type and nBmp2NLStm mice showed no differences in survival or bacterial load and generated similar numbers and types of leukocytes, although mutant spleens were smaller than wild type. Secondary bacterial challenge with S. aureus, however, produced differences in survival, with increased mortality seen in nBmp2NLStm mice. This increased mortality corresponded to higher levels of bacteremia in nBmp2NLStm mice and to a reduced enlargement of mutant spleens in response to the secondary infection. Together, these results suggest that the recently described nuclear variant of BMP2 is necessary for efficient secondary immune responses. PMID:26491697

  16. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting with acute pancreatitis and asymptomatic bone involvement

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Aasem

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 15-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with vomiting and abdominal pain. She had two similar attacks in the previous three months both of them were diagnosed as pancreatitis in two different hospitals. On admission, her serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were very high. CT scan revealed left inferior parathyroid adenoma. Investigations to rule out possible multiple endocrine neoplasia were all negative. The patient was managed by intravenous fluids and furosemide to lower her serum calcium level. Then, left inferior parathyroidectomy was done. Postoperatively, the patient had hungry bone syndrome with severe hypocalcaemia and was managed by intravenous calcium infusion for five days in the intensive care unit. Later, she was kept on oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. She became symptom-free and her serum calcium improved gradually. PMID:26604950

  17. Rapid Structural Remodeling of Thalamocortical Synapses Parallels Experience-Dependent Functional Plasticity in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex

    E-print Network

    Coleman, Jason E.

    Monocular lid closure (MC) causes a profound shift in the ocular dominance (OD) of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). Anatomical studies in both cat and mouse V1 suggest that large-scale structural rearrangements of ...

  18. Automatic detection and quantitative analysis of cells in the mouse primary motor cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yunlong; He, Yong; Wu, Jingpeng; Chen, Shangbin; Li, Anan; Gong, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Neuronal cells play very important role on metabolism regulation and mechanism control, so cell number is a fundamental determinant of brain function. Combined suitable cell-labeling approaches with recently proposed three-dimensional optical imaging techniques, whole mouse brain coronal sections can be acquired with 1-?m voxel resolution. We have developed a completely automatic pipeline to perform cell centroids detection, and provided three-dimensional quantitative information of cells in the primary motor cortex of C57BL/6 mouse. It involves four principal steps: i) preprocessing; ii) image binarization; iii) cell centroids extraction and contour segmentation; iv) laminar density estimation. Investigations on the presented method reveal promising detection accuracy in terms of recall and precision, with average recall rate 92.1% and average precision rate 86.2%. We also analyze laminar density distribution of cells from pial surface to corpus callosum from the output vectorizations of detected cell centroids in mouse primary motor cortex, and find significant cellular density distribution variations in different layers. This automatic cell centroids detection approach will be beneficial for fast cell-counting and accurate density estimation, as time-consuming and error-prone manual identification is avoided.

  19. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates bone cancer pain involving decreasing spinal Tumor Necrosis Factor-? expression in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingsong; Zhang, Xi

    2015-12-01

    Tumor metastasis to bone often elicits a wide array of symptoms, in which pain is a significant factor in catastrophic complications of bone cancer. The complete understanding of bone cancer-related pain is still unknown, while several pathophysiological components have been suggested, from tumor-stimulated osteolysis, nerve compression, stimulations of ion channels, and locally generated inflammatory cytokines. In particular, it has been shown that pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF?-mediated actions are necessary for the development of bone cancer pain. As a member of catechin family in green tea extracts, EGCG (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate) can reduce excess free radicals and attenuate overactive inflammatory signaling including TNF?. In addition, EGCG or its related molecules have been used to control neuropathic pain in various preclinical settings. However, its potential use in bone cancer-caused pain has not yet been reported. Here we show that treating a mouse model of bone cancer by EGCG, results in a dramatic reduction in pain behavior and a significant decrease of TNF? expression within the spinal cord of tumor-bearing mice. Thus, this study reveals an anti-nociceptive role for EGCG in the progression of pain caused by tumor bone metastasis, and highlights a potential scheme by using anti-TNF? as a therapeutic option for osteolytic pain. PMID:26363974

  20. The impact of pathological fractures on therapy outcome in patients with primary malignant bone tumours

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Babak; Zahlten-Hinguranage, Anita; Lehner, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the implications of pathological fractures on therapy outcome in patients with primary malignant bone tumours and to determine whether limb salvage can be safely performed. A retrospective analysis of 447 patients with primary malignant bone tumours, treated between 1985 and 2005, was performed. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the influence of pathological fractures and further independent variables on survival rate. In 52 of the 447 patients, the primary malignant bone tumour was complicated by a pathological fracture. These fractures were more common in malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the bone and in the tumour stages IIa/b and III. Ablative surgery was performed in ten patients and limb salvage surgery in 42 patients. The mortality risk for patients with pathological fractures was significantly increased by a factor of 1.82 (p?=?0.015), and overall duration of survival was significantly lower in the fracture group, with a median of 6.2 years (p?primary malignant bone tumours is a predictor of worse survival and significantly increases mortality risk. Reconstructive surgery did not influence the survival rate, showing that limb salvage therapy is safe when adequate resection margins are achieved. PMID:20012861

  1. Primary structure of the mouse sperm receptor polypeptide determined by genomic cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Kinloch, R A; Roller, R J; Fimiani, C M; Wassarman, D A; Wassarman, P M

    1988-01-01

    The mouse sperm receptor, a glycoprotein called ZP3, is synthesized and secreted by growing oocytes. It is present in more than a billion copies in the unfertilized egg's extracellular coat, or zona pellucida. We have cloned and characterized a region of the mouse (CD-1) genome that spans 10 kilobases of the ZP3 locus. The genomic clones described encompass the entire ZP3 coding region, which contains eight exons. The exons were identified, mapped, and sequenced, yielding the entire primary structure of the ZP3 polypeptide chain (424 amino acids; Mr, 46,300), which includes a 22-amino acid signal sequence. In addition, sequencing of genomic clones has revealed some unusual features of ZP3 mRNA and a region just downstream of the ZP3 gene. Images PMID:2842770

  2. Multiple mouse models of primary lymphedema exhibit distinct defects in lymphovenous valve development.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xin; Cha, Boksik; Mahamud, Md Riaj; Lim, Kim-Chew; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Uddin, Mohammad K M; Miura, Naoyuki; Xia, Lijun; Simon, Alexander M; Engel, James Douglas; Chen, Hong; Lupu, Florea; Srinivasan, R Sathish

    2016-01-01

    Lymph is returned to the blood circulation exclusively via four lymphovenous valves (LVVs). Despite their vital importance, the architecture and development of LVVs is poorly understood. We analyzed the formation of LVVs at the molecular and ultrastructural levels during mouse embryogenesis and identified three critical steps. First, LVV-forming endothelial cells (LVV-ECs) differentiate from PROX1(+) progenitors and delaminate from the luminal side of the veins. Second, LVV-ECs aggregate, align perpendicular to the direction of lymph flow and establish lympho-venous connections. Finally, LVVs mature with the recruitment of mural cells. LVV morphogenesis is disrupted in four different mouse models of primary lymphedema and the severity of LVV defects correlate with that of lymphedema. In summary, we have provided the first and the most comprehensive analysis of LVV development. Furthermore, our work suggests that aberrant LVVs contribute to lymphedema. PMID:26542011

  3. Genetic modification of mouse bone marrow by lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of HPRT shRNA confers chemoprotection against 6-thioguanine cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hacke, Katrin; Treger, Janet A.; Bogan, Brooke T.; Schiestl, Robert H.; Kasahara, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    We have recently developed a novel and highly efficient strategy that exclusively employs the purine analog 6-thioguanine (6TG) for both pre-transplant conditioning and post-transplant chemoselection of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-deficient bone marrow (BM). In a mouse BM transplant model, combined 6TG preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection consistently achieved >95% engraftment of HPRT-deficient donor BM and long-term reconstitution of histologically and immunophenotypically normal hematopoiesis in both primary and secondary recipients, without significant toxicity and in the absence of any other cytotoxic conditioning regimen. In order to translate this strategy for combined 6TG conditioning and chemoselection into a clinically feasible approach, it is necessary to develop methods for genetic modification of normal HSC to render them HPRT-deficient and thus 6TG-resistant. Here we investigated a strategy to reduce HPRT expression and thereby confer protection against 6TG myelotoxicity to primary murine bone marrow cells by RNA interference (RNAi). Accordingly, we constructed and validated a lentiviral gene transfer vector expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) that targets the murine HPRT gene. Our results showed that lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of HPRT-targeted shRNA could achieve effective and long-term reduction of HPRT expression. Furthermore, in both an established murine cell line as well as in primary murine bone marrow cells, lentiviral transduction with HPRT-targeted shRNA was associated with enhanced resistance to 6TG cytotoxicity in vitro. Hence this represents a translationally feasible method to genetically engineer HSC for implementation of 6TG-mediated preconditioning and in vivo chemoselection. PMID:23769104

  4. Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, H.; Armentano, D.; Mackenzie-Graham, L.; Shen, R.F.; Darlington, G.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C. )

    1988-11-01

    Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. The authors report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of human phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating from the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the {alpha}{sub 1} antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes.

  5. Prognostic factors for elderly patients with primary malignant bone and soft tissue tumors

    PubMed Central

    IWAI, TADASHI; HOSHI, MANABU; TAKADA, JUN; OEBISU, NAOTO; AONO, MASANARI; TAKAMI, MASATSUGU; IEGUCHI, MAKOTO; NAKAMURA, HIROAKI

    2015-01-01

    The number of patients with primary malignant bone and soft tissue tumors in Japan is increasing in line with the increasing size of the elderly population. The aim of the present study was to determine the prognostic factors of primary malignant bone or soft tissue tumors in elderly patients. Clinical data was obtained from 90 patients, aged ?65 years, with primary malignant bone or soft tissue tumors (bone, 20 cases; and soft tissue, 70 cases), treated at the Osaka City University Hospital between 1993 and 2013. Clinical information prior to treatment and tumor type, location, size, depth, grade and American Society of Anesthesiologists-Physical Status (ASA-PS) score were evaluated in order to identify prognostic factors using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. In addition, 5-year survival rates were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The average follow-up period was 44.8 months and the 5-year overall survival rate was 77.5%. In the multivariate analysis, ASA-PS score and high-grade sarcoma were found to be associated with a poorer overall survival. No significant differences were observed between the patient group aged 65–74 years and that aged ?75 years. In general, aging is associated with physically reduced function and an increased prevalence of comorbidities. It was therefore expected that increasing age may be a predictive factor for poor prognosis. However, the results of the present study suggested that ASA-PS score and tumor grade were significant factors associated with poor prognosis, whereas increasing age was not. Therefore, the treatment of elderly patients with primary bone and soft tissue tumors should not be based on age.

  6. Imaging Primary Mouse Sarcomas After Radiation Therapy Using Cathepsin-Activatable Fluorescent Imaging Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, Kyle C.; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Javid, Melodi P.; Ferrer, Jorge M.; Kim, Yongbaek; Lee, W. David; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Brigman, Brian E.; Kirsch, David G.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes can detect tumors in mice and in canine patients. We previously showed that these probes can detect microscopic residual sarcoma in the tumor bed of mice during gross total resection. Many patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and other tumors undergo radiation therapy (RT) before surgery. This study assesses the effect of RT on the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between normal and cancerous tissue. Methods and Materials: A genetically engineered mouse model of STS was used to generate primary hind limb sarcomas that were treated with hypofractionated RT. Mice were injected intravenously with cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes, and various tissues, including the tumor, were imaged using a hand-held imaging device. Resected tumor and normal muscle samples were harvested to assess cathepsin expression by Western blot. Uptake of activated probe was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Parallel in vitro studies using mouse sarcoma cells were performed. Results: RT of primary STS in mice and mouse sarcoma cell lines caused no change in probe activation or cathepsin protease expression. Increasing radiation dose resulted in an upward trend in probe activation. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence showed that a substantial proportion of probe-labeled cells were CD11b-positive tumor-associated immune cells. Conclusions: In this primary murine model of STS, RT did not affect the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between tumor and normal muscle. Cathepsin-activated probes labeled tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages. Our results suggest that it would be feasible to include patients who have received preoperative RT in clinical studies evaluating cathepsin-activated imaging probes.

  7. Effects of major histocompatibility complex class II knockout on mouse bone mechanical properties during development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, Steven J.; Bateman, Ted A.; Smith, Erin E.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) knockout on the development of the mouse peripheral skeleton. These C2D mice had less skeletal development at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (B6) male mice. The C2D mice had decreased femur mechanical, geometric and compositional measurements compared to wild type mice at each of these ages. C2D femur stiffness (S), peak force in 3-pt bending (Pm), and mineral mass (Min-M) were 74%, 64% and 66%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values at 8 weeks of age. Similar differences were measured at 12 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 71%, 72% and 73%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values) and at 16 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 80%, 66% and 61%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values). MHC II knockout delays the development of adult bone properties and is accompanied by lower body mass compared to wild-type controls.

  8. Adenosine A2A receptors play an active role in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell development

    PubMed Central

    Katebi, Majid; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) play a role in wound healing and tissue repair and may also be useful for organ regeneration. As we have demonstrated previously that A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) promote tissue repair and wound healing by stimulating local repair mechanisms and enhancing accumulation of endothelial progenitor cells, we investigated whether A2AR activation modulates BM-MSC proliferation and differentiation. BM-MSCs were isolated and cultured from A2A-deficient and ecto-5?nucleotidase (CD73)-deficient female mice; the MSCs were identified and quantified by a CFU-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay. Procollagen ?2 type I expression was determined by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. MSC-specific markers were examined in primary cells and third-passage cells by cytofluorography. PCR and real time-PCR were used to quantitate adenosine receptor and CD73 expression. There were significantly fewer CFU-Fs in cultures of BM-MSCs from A2AR knockout (KO) mice or BM-MSCs treated with the A2AR antagonist ZM241385, 1 ?M. Similarly, there were significantly fewer procollagen ?2 type I-positive MSCs in cultures from A2AR KO and antagonist-treated cultures as well. In late passage cells, there were significantly fewer MSCs from A2A KO mice expressing CD90, CD105, and procollagen type I (P<0.05 for all; n=3). These findings indicate that adenosine and adenosine A2AR play a critical role in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of mouse BM-MSCs. PMID:19056861

  9. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Dural Lymphoma With Bone and Subcutaneous Tissue Involvement Mimicking Meningioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Ouayang, Taohui; Zhang, Na; Song, Zhibin; Gao, Jianwei; Li, Xuguang; Wang, Fang

    2015-09-01

    Primary dural lymphoma (PDL), a rare subtype of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), is usually a marginal zone B-cell lymphoma or low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type. Primary dural invasion by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is extremely rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The authors presented an unusual case of primary dural involvement by a high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that invaded parietal bone and subcutaneous tissue. The patient received tumor complete resection and cranioplasty as well as radiotherapy and chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after surgery. During 12 months follow-up, no tumor recurrence was found. Primary dural lymphoma should be differentially diagnosed with meningioma. Once the diagnosis of PDL is established, tumor resection and adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may obtain relatively good prognosis. PMID:26221858

  10. Binocular integration and disparity selectivity in mouse primary visual cortex Benjamin Scholl, Johannes Burge, and Nicholas J. Priebe

    E-print Network

    Burge, Johannes

    Binocular integration and disparity selectivity in mouse primary visual cortex Benjamin Scholl 26 November 2012; accepted in final form 18 March 2013 Scholl B, Burge J, Priebe NJ. Binocular integrated in primary visual cortex (V1). In many mammals, this binocular integration is an important first

  11. Changes in liver-specific compared to common gene transcription during primary culture of mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, D F; Darnell, J E

    1983-01-01

    Liver-specific mRNA sequences were examined in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes. After cell disaggregation by collagenase treatment and for at least 24 h in culture, little change in liver-specific mRNA concentrations was noted. Gradually over a period of 140 h, liver-specific mRNAs declined. In contrast, transcriptional assays in which liver cell nuclei were used to produce 32P-labeled nuclear RNA showed that liver-specific gene transcription was greatly diminished within 24 h, while polymerase II transcription of "common" genes and transcription of tRNA and rRNA did not decline. Thus, a prompt differential transcriptional effect seems to underlie the gradual loss of tissue specificity of the primary cultures. Images PMID:6633533

  12. Live-Cell Imaging of Phagosome Motility in Primary Mouse RPE Cells.

    PubMed

    Hazim, Roni; Jiang, Mei; Esteve-Rudd, Julian; Diemer, Tanja; Lopes, Vanda S; Williams, David S

    2016-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a post-mitotic epithelial monolayer situated between the light-sensitive photoreceptors and the choriocapillaris. Given its vital functions for healthy vision, the RPE is a primary target for insults that result in blinding diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). One such function is the phagocytosis and digestion of shed photoreceptor outer segments. In the present study, we examined the process of trafficking of outer segment disk membranes in live cultures of primary mouse RPE, using high speed spinning disk confocal microscopy. This approach has enabled us to track phagosomes, and determine parameters of their motility, which are important for their efficient degradation. PMID:26427485

  13. Primary Hyperoxaluria Diagnosed Based on Bone Marrow Biopsy in Pancytopenic Adult with End Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nematollahi, Pardis; Mohammadizadeh, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism cause increase of metabolites in serum and their deposition in various organs including bone marrow. Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a rare inborn error in the pathway of glyoxylate metabolism which causes excessive oxalate production. The disease is characterized by widespread deposition of calcium oxalate (oxalosis) in multiple organs. Urinary tract including renal parenchyma is the initial site of deposition followed by extrarenal organs such as bone marrow. This case report introduces a 54-year-old woman with end stage renal disease presenting with debilitating fatigue and pancytopenia. The remarkable point in her past medical history was recurrent episodes of nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, and urinary tract infection since the age of 5 years and resultant end stage renal disease in adulthood in the absence of appropriate medical evaluation and treatment. She had an unsuccessful renal transplantation with transplant failure. The patient underwent bone marrow biopsy for evaluation of pancytopenia. Microscopic study of bone marrow biopsy led to the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria. PMID:26634160

  14. Chemokine-Targeted Mouse Models of Human Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huanhuan Joyce; Sun, Jian; Huang, Zhiliang; Hou, Harry; Arcilla, Myra; Rakhilin, Nikolai; Joe, Daniel J.; Choi, Jiahn; Gadamsetty, Poornima; Milsom, Jeff; Nandakumar, Govind; Longman, Randy; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Edwards, Robert; Chen, Jonlin; Chen, Kai Yuan; Bu, Pengcheng; Wang, Lihua; Xu, Yitian; Munroe, Robert; Abratte, Christian; Miller, Andrew D.; Gümü?, Zeynep H.; Shuler, Michael; Nishimura, Nozomi; Edelmann, Winfried; Shen, Xiling; Lipkin, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Current orthotopic xenograft models of human colorectal cancer (CRC) require surgery and do not robustly form metastases in the liver, the most common site clinically. CCR9 traffics lymphocytes to intestine and colorectum. We engineered use of the chemokine receptor CCR9 in CRC cell lines and patient-derived cells to create primary gastrointestinal (GI) tumors in immunodeficient mice by tail-vein injection rather than surgery. The tumors metastasize inducibly and robustly to the liver. Metastases have higher DKK4 and NOTCH signaling levels and are more chemoresistant than paired sub-cutaneous xenografts. Using this approach, we generated 17 chemokine-targeted mouse models (CTMMs) that recapitulate the majority of common human somatic CRC mutations. We also show that primary tumors can be modeled in immunocompetent mice by microinjecting CCR9-expressing cancer cell lines into early-stage mouse blastocysts, which induces central immune tolerance. We expect that CTMMs will facilitate investigation of the biology of CRC metastasis and drug screening. PMID:26006007

  15. Establishment of primary cultures for mouse ameloblasts as a model of their lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Suzawa, Tetsuo . E-mail: suzawa@dent.showa-u.ac.jp; Itoh, Nao; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Katagiri, Takenobu; Morimura, Naoko; Kobayashi, Yasuna; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2006-07-07

    To understand how the properties of ameloblasts are spatiotemporally regulated during amelogenesis, two primary cultures of ameloblasts in different stages of differentiation were established from mouse enamel epithelium. Mouse primary ameloblasts (MPAs) prepared from immature enamel epithelium (MPA-I) could proliferate, whereas those from mature enamel epithelium (MPA-M) could not. MPA-M but not MPA-I caused apoptosis during culture. The mRNA expression of amelogenin, a marker of immature ameloblasts, was down-regulated, and that of enamel matrix serine proteiase-1, a marker of mature ameloblasts, was induced in MPA-I during culture. Using green fluorescence protein as a reporter, a visualized reporter system was established to analyze the promoter activity of the amelogenin gene. The region between -1102 bp and -261 bp was required for the reporter expression in MPA-I. These results suggest that MPAs are valuable in vitro models for investigation of ameloblast biology, and that the visualized system is useful for promoter analysis in MPAs.

  16. Protective effect of butylated hydroxylanisole against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Geun Hye; Jeon, Yu Jin; Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun; Baek, Kyoung Min; Chang, Woochul; Kim, Joong Sun; Kim, Lark Kyun; Lee, You-Mie; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jee, Jun-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic compound consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds: 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. We examined the effect of BHA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Cell viability was significantly decreased by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, H2O2 treatment increased Bax, decreased Bcl-2, and promoted PARP-1 cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with BHA before exposure to H2O2 significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability. H2O2 exposure resulted in an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with BHA or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, an ROS scavenger). H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability was also attenuated by pretreatment with BHA and NAC. Furthermore, H2O2-induced increase of Bax, decrease of Bcl-2, and PARP-1 cleavage was also inhibited by BHA. Taken together, results of this investigation demonstrated that BHA protects primary cultured mouse hepatocytes against H2O2-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ROS generation. PMID:25798044

  17. Ex vivo 3D osteocyte network construction with primary murine bone cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiaoling; Gu, Yexin; Zhang, Wenting; Dziopa, Leah; Zilberberg, Jenny; Lee, Woo

    2015-01-01

    Osteocytes reside as three-dimensionally (3D) networked cells in the lacunocanalicular structure of bones and regulate bone and mineral homeostasis. Despite of their important regulatory roles, in vitro studies of osteocytes have been challenging because: (1) current cell lines do not sufficiently represent the phenotypic features of mature osteocytes and (2) primary cells rapidly differentiate to osteoblasts upon isolation. In this study, we used a 3D perfusion culture approach to: (1) construct the 3D cellular network of primary murine osteocytes by biomimetic assembly with microbeads and (2) reproduce ex vivo the phenotype of primary murine osteocytes, for the first time to our best knowledge. In order to enable 3D construction with a sufficient number of viable cells, we used a proliferated osteoblastic population of healthy cells outgrown from digested bone chips. The diameter of microbeads was controlled to: (1) distribute and entrap cells within the interstitial spaces between the microbeads and (2) maintain average cell-to-cell distance to be about 19 µm. The entrapped cells formed a 3D cellular network by extending and connecting their processes through openings between the microbeads. Also, with increasing culture time, the entrapped cells exhibited the characteristic gene expressions (SOST and FGF23) and nonproliferative behavior of mature osteocytes. In contrast, 2D-cultured cells continued their osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation. This 3D biomimetic approach is expected to provide a new means of: (1) studying flow-induced shear stress on the mechanotransduction function of primary osteocytes, (2) studying physiological functions of 3D-networked osteocytes with in vitro convenience, and (3) developing clinically relevant human bone disease models. PMID:26421212

  18. RhoA/ROCK downregulates FPR2-mediated NADPH oxidase activation in mouse bone marrow granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Filina, Julia V; Gabdoulkhakova, Aida G; Safronova, Valentina G

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) express the high and low affinity receptors to formylated peptides (mFPR1 and mFPR2 in mice, accordingly). RhoA/ROCK (Rho activated kinase) pathway is crucial for cell motility and oxidase activity regulated via FPRs. There are contradictory data on RhoA-mediated regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes. We have shown divergent Rho GTPases signaling via mFPR1 and mFPR2 to NADPH oxidase in PMNs from inflammatory site. The present study was aimed to find out the role of RhoA/ROCK in the respiratory burst activated via mFPR1 and mFPR2 in the bone marrow PMNs. Different kinetics of RhoA activation were detected with 0.1?M fMLF and 1?M WKYMVM operating via mFPR1 and mFPR2, accordingly. RhoA was translocated in fMLF-activated cells towards the cell center and juxtamembrane space versus uniform allocation in the resting cells. Specific inhibition of RhoA by CT04, Rho inhibitor I, weakly depressed the respiratory burst induced via mFPR1, but significantly increased the one induced via mFPR2. Inhibition of ROCK, the main effector of RhoA, by Y27632 led to the same effect on the respiratory burst. Regulation of mFPR2-induced respiratory response by ROCK was impossible under the cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin D, whereas it persisted in the case of mFPR1 activation. Thus we suggest RhoA to be one of the regulatory and signal transduction components in the respiratory burst through FPRs in the mouse bone marrow PMNs. Both mFPR1 and mFPR2 binding with a ligand trigger the activation of RhoA. FPR1 signaling through RhoA/ROCK increases NADPH-oxidase activity. But in FPR2 action RhoA/ROCK together with cytoskeleton-linked systems down-regulates NADPH-oxidase. This mechanism could restrain the reactive oxygen species dependent damage of own tissues during the chemotaxis of PMNs and in the resting cells. PMID:24880063

  19. Self-deploying shape memory polymer scaffolds for grafting and stabilizing complex bone defects: A mouse femoral segmental defect study.

    PubMed

    Baker, Richard M; Tseng, Ling-Fang; Iannolo, Maria T; Oest, Megan E; Henderson, James H

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of complex bone defects places a significant burden on the US health care system. Current strategies for treatment include grafting and stabilization using internal metal plates/screws, intramedullary rods, or external fixators. Here, we introduce the use of shape memory polymer (SMP) materials for grafting and adjunct stabilization of segmental defects. Self-deploying SMP grafts and SMP sleeves capable of expanding and contracting, respectively, under intraoperative conditions were developed and evaluated in a mouse segmental defect model in vivo. Integration between grafts/sleeves and native bone was assessed using x-ray radiography, microcomputed tomography, and torsional mechanical testing. We found that SMP grafts were able to integrate with the native bone after 12 weeks, maintain defect stability, and provide torsional mechanical properties comparable to an allograft alone treatment; however no gross de novo bone formation was observed. SMP sleeves did not inhibit bony bridging at the margins, and limbs treated with a sleeve/allograft combination had torsional mechanical properties comparable to limbs treated with an allograft alone. In vitro torsional and bending tests suggest sleeves may provide additional torsional stability to defects. Incorporation of shape memory into synthetic bone graft substitutes and adjunct stabilization devices is anticipated to enhance functionality of synthetic materials employed in both applications. PMID:26561935

  20. In vivo visualizing the dynamics of bone marrow stem cells in mouse retina and choroidal-retinal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heuy-Ching H.; Zwick, Harry; Edsall, Peter R.; Cheramie, Rachel D.; Lund, David J.; Stuck, Bruce

    2007-02-01

    It has recently been shown that bone marrow cells can differentiate into various lineage cells including neural cells in vitro and in vivo. Therefore it is an attractive therapeutic intervention to apply autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells that may offer neuroprotection to laser-induced retinal injuries. The purpose of this study is to develop a method with which to visualize bone marrow stem cells dynamics in mouse retinal circulation. We have used a physiological method, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), to track the highly enriched stem/progenitor cells circulating in the retina. Stem cells were enriched by immunomagnetic depletion of cells committed to the T- and B lymphocytic, myeloid and erythorid lineages. CellTracker TM Green-labeled stem cells were injected into the tail veins of mice with laser-induced focal retinal injuries. Bone marrow stem cells labeled with CellTracker TM Green were visible in the retinal circulation for as long as 1 hour and 30 minutes. These studies suggest that stem cell-enriched bone marrow cells may have the ability to mobilize into laser-induced retinal injuries and possibly further proliferate, differentiate and functionally integrate into the retina.

  1. Constructing a multi-scan synchrotron X-ray microscope to study the function of osteocyte canaliculi in mouse bone

    SciTech Connect

    Nango, Nobuhito; Kubota, Shogo; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi; Takada, Yasunari; Matsuo, Koichi

    2012-07-31

    Formulating a multi-scan method applied to an X-ray microscope CT with synchrotron radiation, we attempted to analyze the 3D functional structure of osteocyte canaliculi inside the cortical bone of a mouse tibia. We employed a two-method combination to scan the same position of the specimen. To extract the internal bone canalicular structure, we first combined a Talbot interferometer with an X-ray microscope, and applied a differential phase imaging method to measure the absolute value of bone mineral around the canaliculi. Next, we used the X-ray microscope without the Talbot interferometer under a defocus condition, moving the specimen toward the zone plate by 6 mm. This defocus contrast method visualizes the canaliculi by emphasizing the edges of the bone. We performed CT scans by the two configurations and precisely aligned resultant 3D images so that the same position in the specimen is compared. We could extract the osteocyte canaliculi and evaluate the mineral density of their surroundings. The degree of mineralization varied for each osteocyte lacuna and canaliculus. The multi-scan microscopic X-ray CT is a powerful tool for analyzing bone mineralization.

  2. Constructing a multi-scan synchrotron X-ray microscope to study the function of osteocyte canaliculi in mouse bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nango, Nobuhito; Kubota, Shogo; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi; Takada, Yasunari; Matsuo, Koichi

    2012-07-01

    Formulating a multi-scan method applied to an X-ray microscope CT with synchrotron radiation, we attempted to analyze the 3D functional structure of osteocyte canaliculi inside the cortical bone of a mouse tibia. We employed a two-method combination to scan the same position of the specimen. To extract the internal bone canalicular structure, we first combined a Talbot interferometer with an X-ray microscope, and applied a differential phase imaging method to measure the absolute value of bone mineral around the canaliculi. Next, we used the X-ray microscope without the Talbot interferometer under a defocus condition, moving the specimen toward the zone plate by 6 mm. This defocus contrast method visualizes the canaliculi by emphasizing the edges of the bone. We performed CT scans by the two configurations and precisely aligned resultant 3D images so that the same position in the specimen is compared. We could extract the osteocyte canaliculi and evaluate the mineral density of their surroundings. The degree of mineralization varied for each osteocyte lacuna and canaliculus. The multi-scan microscopic X-ray CT is a powerful tool for analyzing bone mineralization.

  3. Isolation, purification and labeling of mouse bone marrow neutrophils for functional studies and adoptive transfer experiments.

    PubMed

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Lionakis, Michail S

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils are critical effector cells of the innate immune system. They are rapidly recruited at sites of acute inflammation and exert protective or pathogenic effects depending on the inflammatory milieu. Nonetheless, despite the indispensable role of neutrophils in immunity, detailed understanding of the molecular factors that mediate neutrophils' effector and immunopathogenic effects in different infectious diseases and inflammatory conditions is still lacking, partly because of their short half life, the difficulties with handling of these cells and the lack of reliable experimental protocols for obtaining sufficient numbers of neutrophils for downstream functional studies and adoptive transfer experiments. Therefore, simple, fast, economical and reliable methods are highly desirable for harvesting sufficient numbers of mouse neutrophils for assessing functions such as phagocytosis, killing, cytokine production, degranulation and trafficking. To that end, we present a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol, which can be adapted in any laboratory to isolate large numbers of neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice with high purity and viability. Moreover, we present a simple protocol that uses CellTracker dyes to label the isolated neutrophils, which can then be adoptively transferred into recipient mice and tracked in several tissues for at least 4 hr post-transfer using flow cytometry. Using this approach, differential labeling of neutrophils from wild-type and gene-deficient mice with different CellTracker dyes can be successfully employed to perform competitive repopulation studies for evaluating the direct role of specific genes in trafficking of neutrophils from the blood into target tissues in vivo. PMID:23892876

  4. The hedgehog target Vlk genetically interacts with Gli3 to regulate chondrocyte differentiation during mouse long bone development.

    PubMed

    Probst, Simone; Zeller, Rolf; Zuniga, Aimée

    2013-01-01

    Endochondral bone development is orchestrated by the spatially and temporally coordinated differentiation of chondrocytes along the longitudinal axis of the cartilage anlage. Initially, the slowly proliferating, periarticular chondrocytes give rise to the pool of rapidly dividing columnar chondrocytes, whose expansion determines the length of the long bones. The Indian hedgehog (IHH) ligand regulates both the proliferation of columnar chondrocytes and their differentiation into post-mitotic hypertrophic chondrocytes in concert with GLI3, one of the main transcriptional effectors of HH signal transduction. In the absence of Hh signalling, the expression of Vlk (vertebrate lonesome kinase, also called Pkdcc) is increased. We now show that the shortening of limb long bones in Vlk-deficient mouse embryos is aggravated by additional inactivation of Gli3. Our analysis establishes that Vlk and Gli3 synergize to control the temporal kinetics of chondrocyte differentiation during long bone development. Whereas differentiation of limb mesenchymal progenitors into chondrocytes and the initial formation of the cartilage anlagen of the limb skeleton are not altered, Vlk and Gli3 are required for the temporally coordinated differentiation of periarticular into columnar and ultimately hypertrophic chondrocytes in long bones. In limbs lacking both Vlk and Gli3, the appearance of columnar and hypertrophic chondrocytes is severely delayed and zones of morphologically distinct chondrocytes are not established until E16.5. At the molecular level, these morphological alterations are reflected by delayed activation and lowered expression of Ihh, Pth1r and Col10a1 in long bone rudiments of double mutant limbs. In summary, our genetic analysis establishes that VLK plays a role in the IHH/GLI3 interactions and that Vlk and Gli3 cooperate to regulate long bone development by modulating the temporal kinetics of establishing columnar and hypertrophic chondrocyte domains. PMID:23792766

  5. The role of bone marrow-derived cells in bone fracture repair in a green fluorescent protein chimeric mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro . E-mail: s3061@nms.ac.jp; Ogawa, Rei; Migita, Makoto; Hanawa, Hideki; Ito, Hiromoto; Orimo, Hideo

    2005-05-27

    We investigated the role of bone marrow cells in bone fracture repair using green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric model mice. First, the chimeric model mice were created: bone marrow cells from GFP-transgenic C57BL/6 mice were injected into the tail veins of recipient wild-type C57BL/6 mice that had been irradiated with a lethal dose of 10 Gy from a cesium source. Next, bone fracture models were created from these mice: closed transverse fractures of the left femur were produced using a specially designed device. One, three, and five weeks later, fracture lesions were extirpated for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. In the specimens collected 3 and 5 weeks after operation, we confirmed calluses showing intramembranous ossification peripheral to the fracture site. The calluses consisted of GFP- and osteocalcin-positive cells at the same site, although the femur consisted of only osteocalcin-positive cells. We suggest that bone marrow cells migrated outside of the bone marrow and differentiated into osteoblasts to make up the calluses.

  6. Metal block augmentation for bone defects of the medial tibia during primary total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stable and well-aligned placement of tibial components during primary total knee arthroplasty is challenging in patients with bone defects. Although rectangular block-shaped augmentations are widely used to reduce the shearing force between the tibial tray and bone compared with wedge-shaped augmentations, the clinical result remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of primary total knee arthroplasty with metal block augmentation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the 3- to 6-year follow-up results of 33 knees that underwent total knee arthroplasty with metal block augmentation (metal-augmented group) for bone defects of the medial tibia and 132 varus knees without bone defects as the control group. All surgeries were performed using posterior-stabilized cemented prostheses in both groups. Cemented stems were routinely augmented when the metal block was used. Results There were no differences in implant survival rates (100% in metal-augmented and 99.2% in control) or knee function scores (82 points in metal-augmented and 84 points in control) between the two groups at the final follow-up examination (P = 0.60 and P = 0.09, respectively). No subsidence or loosening of the tibial tray was observed. Of 33 metal-augmented total knee arthroplasties, a nonprogressive radiolucent line beneath the metal was detected in 10 knees (30.3%), and rounding of the medial edge of the tibia was observed in 17 knees (51.5%). Conclusions The clinical results of total knee arthroplasty with metal augmentation were not inferior to those in patients without bone defects. However, radiolucent lines were observed in 30.3%. PMID:24139483

  7. Primary nonunion of intertrochanteric fractures of femur: An analysis of results of valgization and bone grafting

    PubMed Central

    Dhammi, IK; Jain, AK; Singh, AP; Rehan-Ul-Haq; Mishra, P; Jain, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nonunion of intertrochanteric fractures is uncommon because there is excellent blood supply and good cancellous bone in the intertrochanteric region of the femur. A diagnosis of primary intertrochanteric nonunion is made when at least 15 weeks after the fracture there is radiological evidence of a fracture line, with either no callus (atrophic) or with callus that does not bridge the fracture site (hypertrophic). There is only one published series that exclusively describes seven primary nonunions of intertrochanteric fractures. The aim of the present study was to analyze the results of internal fixation, valgization with 135° dynamic hip screw (DHS), and bone grafting in patients with primary nonunion of intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients with primary intertrochanteric nonunion were included in the study; 16 were male and 2 were female. The age range was 30–70 years (mean: 46.9 years). The mean duration since index injury was 8.5 months (range: 4–18 months). As per the AO classification, the fractures were 31A 1.1 (n=1), 1.2 (n=1), 2.2 (n=3), 2.3 (n=9), and 3.3 (n=4). Three patients had hypermobile nonunion and 15 had stiff nonunion. The surgical principle was excision of pseudarthrosis, if present (n=3); freshening of the bone ends; stable fixation with 135° DHS, with good proximal purchase; bone grafting; and valgization. Results: Union was achieved in all patients at an average of 5.62 months (range: 4–7 months). The Harris hip score improved from 38 points preoperatively to 86 postoperatively at healing. The average limb shortening improved by 2 cm (range: 1.5 cm–3 cm). There was no infection and pain at the hip at final follow-up in any of the cases. All patients were subjectively satisfied with the outcome. All were capable of full weight bearing on their affected limb. Conclusion: Union in primary nonunion of intertrochanteric fractures in physiologically young patients with a well-preserved femoral head and good bone stock can be achieved with internal fixation, valgization, and grafting procedures. PMID:22144744

  8. Cytotoxic effects of propiconazole and its metabolites in mouse and human hepatoma cells and primary mouse hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Propiconazole is a triazole-containing fungicide that is used agriculturally on grasses, fruits, grains, seeds, hardwoods, and conifers. Propiconazole is a mouse liver hepatotoxicant and a hepatocarcinogen and has adverse reproductive and developmental toxicities in exp...

  9. A Mouse Primary Hepatocyte Culture Model for Studies of Circadian Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Penny C; Pyle, Lorna A; Dillon, Martha; Harrington, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms regulate many aspects of behavior and physiological processes, and, through external signals, help an organism entrain to its environment. These rhythms are driven by circadian clocks in many cells and tissues within our bodies, and are synchronized by a central pacemaker in the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Peripheral oscillators include the liver, whose circadian clock controls persistent daily rhythms in gene expression and in liver-specific functions such as metabolic homeostasis and drug metabolism. Chronic circadian clock disruption, as in rotating shiftwork, has been linked to disorders including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The mouse primary hepatocyte culture model allows the examination of circadian rhythms in these cells. This article describes a transgenic mouse model that uses a bioluminescent reporter to examine the circadian properties of a core clock gene Period2. Hepatocytes are isolated using a modified collagenase perfusion technique and cultured in a sandwich configuration, then sealed in a buffered medium containing luciferin for detection of whole-culture or single-cell bioluminescence. After synchronization by a medium change, cultures demonstrate coherent circadian period and phase measures of bioluminescence from the PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE reporter. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26629774

  10. Progression of primary pneumonic plague: A mouse model of infection, pathology, and bacterial transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Lathem, Wyndham W.; Crosby, Seth D.; Miller, Virginia L.; Goldman, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Although pneumonic plague is the deadliest manifestation of disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, there is surprisingly little information on the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for Y. pestis-triggered pathology in the lung. Therefore, to understand the progression of this unique disease, we characterized an intranasal mouse model of primary pneumonic plague. Mice succumbed to a purulent multifocal severe exudative bronchopneumonia that closely resembles the disease observed in humans. Analyses revealed a strikingly biphasic syndrome, in which the infection begins with an antiinflammatory state in the first 24-36 h that rapidly progresses to a highly proinflammatory state by 48 h and death by 3 days. To assess the adaptation of Y. pestis to a mammalian environment, we used DNA microarray technology to analyze the transcriptional responses of the bacteria during interaction with the mouse lung. Included among the genes up-regulated in vivo are those comprising the yop-ysc type III secretion system and genes contained within the chromosomal pigmentation locus, validating the use of this technology to identify loci essential to the virulence of Y. pestis. PMID:16306265

  11. Pathological interactions between hematopoietic stem cells and their niche revealed by mouse models of primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, Lilian; Mancini, Annalisa; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2009-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) belongs to the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms and is a hematological disorder caused by abnormal function of the hematopoietic stem cells. The disease manifests itself with a plethora of alterations, including anemia, splenomegaly and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Its hallmarks are progressive marrow fibrosis and atypical megakaryocytic hyperplasia, two distinctive features used to clinically monitor disease progression. In an attempt to investigate the role of abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis in the pathogenesis of PMF, several transgenic mouse models have been generated. These models are based either on mutations that interfere with the extrinsic (thrombopoietin and its receptor, MPL) and intrinsic (the GATA1 transcription factor) control of normal megakaryocytopoiesis, or on known genetic lesions associated with the human disease. Here we provide an up-to-date review on the insights into the pathobiology of human PMF achieved by studying these animal models, with particular emphasis on results obtained with Gata1low mice. PMID:20352017

  12. Effect of peripheral lymphoid cells on the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease following allogeneic mouse bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz, R.; Ballinger, W.; Sachs, D.H.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1983-02-01

    Experiments were performed to study the role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation-induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras. The incidence of GVHD was reduced significantly in BALB/c leads to C57BL/6 radiation chimeras if bone marrow donors were exsanguinated immediately prior to marrow harvest. Chimeras resulting from the injection of bone marrow from bled donors exhibited only donor cells in spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood and normal levels of Thy 1+ and Ia+ cells were found in each of these lymphoid compartments. The addition of as few as 3 X 10(4) peripheral mononuclear cells to the marrow from exsanguinated donors uniformly led to lethal GVHD. /sup 51/Cr-labeled cell traffic studies revealed that prior exsanguination of marrow donors led to about a 70% reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells contaminating the bone marrow at the time of marrow harvest. This decrease in contaminating peripheral cells was calculated to be in the appropriate range to account for the decreased GVHD seen when marrow from exsanguinated donors was used. It thus appears that peripheral cells contaminating marrow can be an important factor in causing lethal GVHD in allogeneic radiation chimeras.

  13. Administration of soluble activin receptor 2B increases bone and muscle mass in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    DiGirolamo, Douglas J.; Singhal, Vandana; Chang, Xiaoli; Lee, Se-Jin; Germain-Lee, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of heritable connective tissue disorders generally defined by recurrent fractures, low bone mass, short stature and skeletal fragility. Beyond the skeletal complications of OI, many patients also report intolerance to physical activity, fatigue and muscle weakness. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that skeletal muscle is also negatively affected by OI, both directly and indirectly. Given the well-established interdependence of bone and skeletal muscle in both physiology and pathophysiology and the observations of skeletal muscle pathology in patients with OI, we investigated the therapeutic potential of simultaneous anabolic targeting of both bone and skeletal muscle using a soluble activin receptor 2B (ACVR2B) in a mouse model of type III OI (oim). Treatment of 12-week-old oim mice with ACVR2B for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in both bone and muscle that were similar to those observed in healthy, wild-type littermates. This proof of concept study provides encouraging evidence for a holistic approach to treating the deleterious consequences of OI in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:26161291

  14. Positive Selection in Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Targets a Natural Mutation Associated with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency in Human

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Camille; Monestier, Olivier; Di Pasquale, Elisa; Pascal, Géraldine; Persani, Luca; Fabre, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) is a TGF?-like oocyte-derived growth factor involved in ovarian folliculogenesis as a critical regulator of many granulosa cell processes. Alterations of the BMP15 gene have been found associated with different ovarian phenotypic effects depending on the species, from sterility to increased prolificacy in sheep, slight subfertility in mouse or associated with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in women. To investigate the evolving role of BMP15, a phylogenetic analysis of this particular TGF? family member was performed. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of several TGF?/BMP family members expressed by the ovary showed that BMP15 has a very strong divergence and a rapid evolution compared to others. Moreover, among 24 mammalian species, we detected signals of positive selection in the hominidae clade corresponding to F146, L189 and Y235 residues in human BMP15. The biological importance of these residues was tested functionally after site directed-mutagenesis in a COV434 cells luciferase assay. By replacing the positively selected amino acid either by alanine or the most represented residue in other studied species, only L189A, Y235A and Y235C mutants showed a significant increase of BMP15 signaling when compared to wild type. Additionally, the Y235C mutant was more potent than wild type in inhibiting progesterone secretion of ovine granulosa cells in primary culture. Interestingly, the Y235C mutation was previously identified in association with POI in women. In conclusion, this study evidences that the BMP15 gene has evolved faster than other members of the TGFß family and was submitted to a positive selection pressure in the hominidae clade. Some residues under positive selection are of great importance for the normal function of the protein and thus for female fertility. Y235 represents a critical residue in the determination of BMP15 biological activity, thus indirectly confirming its role in the onset of POI in women. PMID:24147118

  15. Primary Epiphyseal Arteriopathy in a Mouse Model of Steroid-Induced Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Janke, Laura J.; Liu, Chengcheng; Vogel, Peter; Kawedia, Jitesh; Boyd, Kelli L.; Funk, Amy J.; Relling, Mary V.

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing glucocorticoid therapy for a variety of disorders, including autoimmune diseases and hematological malignancies, are at risk of developing osteonecrosis. Despite extensive research in both patients and animal models, the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. Proposed inciting mechanisms include intravascular thrombotic occlusion, marrow fat hypertrophy, osteocyte and/or endothelial cell apoptosis, hypercoagulability, and vasoconstriction of specific arteries and arterioles supplying bone. Our laboratory has developed a model of steroid-induced osteonecrosis in BALBcJ mice which reflects clinically relevant exposures to glucocorticoids in which treated mice develop osteonecrosis of the distal femoral epiphysis when administered 4 to 8 mg/L dexamethasone in drinking water for 6 weeks. We identified lesions in arterioles supplying this area, with the mildest occurring in knees without any evidence of osteonecrosis. However, arteriopathy was more common among mice that did versus did not develop osteonecrosis (P < 0.0001); in mice with osteonecrosis, the associated vessels showed transmural necrosis and thickening of the vessel wall progressing to the point of luminal obstruction. In the most severe cases of osteonecrosis, end-stage lesions consisted of fully occluded vessels with marrow and bone necrosis involving the entire epiphysis. We propose that a primary arteriopathy is the initiating event in the genesis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis and provides a basis for future investigation of this disease process. PMID:23673001

  16. Primary epiphyseal arteriopathy in a mouse model of steroid-induced osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Janke, Laura J; Liu, Chengcheng; Vogel, Peter; Kawedia, Jitesh; Boyd, Kelli L; Funk, Amy J; Relling, Mary V

    2013-07-01

    Patients undergoing glucocorticoid therapy for a variety of disorders, including autoimmune diseases and hematological malignancies, are at risk of developing osteonecrosis. Despite extensive research in both patients and animal models, the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. Proposed inciting mechanisms include intravascular thrombotic occlusion, marrow fat hypertrophy, osteocyte and/or endothelial cell apoptosis, hypercoagulability, and vasoconstriction of specific arteries and arterioles supplying bone. Our laboratory has developed a model of steroid-induced osteonecrosis in BALBcJ mice which reflects clinically relevant exposures to glucocorticoids in which treated mice develop osteonecrosis of the distal femoral epiphysis when administered 4 to 8 mg/L dexamethasone in drinking water for 6 weeks. We identified lesions in arterioles supplying this area, with the mildest occurring in knees without any evidence of osteonecrosis. However, arteriopathy was more common among mice that did versus did not develop osteonecrosis (P < 0.0001); in mice with osteonecrosis, the associated vessels showed transmural necrosis and thickening of the vessel wall progressing to the point of luminal obstruction. In the most severe cases of osteonecrosis, end-stage lesions consisted of fully occluded vessels with marrow and bone necrosis involving the entire epiphysis. We propose that a primary arteriopathy is the initiating event in the genesis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis and provides a basis for future investigation of this disease process. PMID:23673001

  17. Bone mass and body composition in children and adolescents with primary hypertension: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Pludowski, Pawel; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Sladowska, Joanna; Antoniewicz, Jolanta; Niemirska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Lorenc, Roman S

    2008-01-01

    Because primary hypertension (PH) is associated with calcium metabolism, it is hypothesized that PH may be related to osteoporosis risk. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between body composition and bone strength in hypertensive adolescents. Total body scans using x-ray absorptiometry (DPX-L, GE Healthcare) were performed in 94 PH children aged 6 to 18 years (21 girls and 73 boys). References of healthy control subjects were used for the calculation of Z scores (age and gender matched), SD scores (height and gender matched), and SDs scores (weight and gender matched). Total body bone mineral density, total body bone mineral content (TBBMC), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM) were investigated. Relative bone strength index was calculated as the TBBMC:LBM ratio. As evidenced by Z scores, PH case subjects had slightly higher total body bone mineral density, TBBMC, and LBM compared with healthy subjects. Reduced LBM/body weight (BW) Z scores of -1.9+/-1.5 and -1.2+/-1.4, increased FM Z scores of +2.5+/-2.5 and +1.7+/-2.0, and increased FM/BW Z scores of +1.6+/-1.3 and +1.1+/-1.4 were noted in girls and boys compared with healthy subjects, respectively (P<0.001). When increased BW was controlled for, PH girls differed in SDs scores for LBM (-1.4+/-1.7; P<0.01), FM (+1.6+/-2.2; P<0.05), FM/BW (+0.9+/-1.0; P<0.05), and FM/LBM (+1.3+/-1.4; P<0.01) but not for total body bone mineral density (+0.2+/-1.0; P value not significant), TBBMC (-1.2+/-1.6; P=0.07), LBM/BW (-0.7+/-1.0; P=0.07), and TBBMC/LBM (-1.0+/-2.1; P value not significant), when compared with respective SDs scores of -0.3+/-1.1, +0.3+/-1.1, +0.3+/-1.0, +0.3+/-1.0, -0.2+/-1.0, -0.6+/-1.9, -0.3+/-1.0, and -0.2+/-1.0 in PH boys. In conclusion, PH adolescents had increased FM and an imbalanced relationship among BW, FM, and LBM. In PH girls, bone strength, although proper for chronological age and body height, was lower than expected for BW. PMID:17984369

  18. Hydrocortisone effect of arylsulfatase A in primary mouse brain cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelo, A.; Pieringer, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    The primary goal of this study was to study the mechanism of action of hydrocortisone (HC) on arylsulfatase A (ASA) in primary cultures of cells that were dissociated from the brains of embryonic mice. Cells were cultured in a defined medium in the absence or in the presence of 3 ..mu..M HC. The specific activity of ASA in nontreated cells was 1.297 U/mg (U = ..mu..mol/hr) while the value for the HC-treated cells was 0.783 U/mg. The authors data shows that HC inhibits ASA activity in these cultures cells (p < 0.001). The determination of the ASA enzyme activity was assayed primarily with the artificial substrate p-nitrocatechol sulfate. However, the natural substrate (cerebroside /sup 35/S-sulfate) also as active and correlated linearly with the activity of p-nitrocatechol sulfate. Purified ASA was isolated from calf brains and used to generate an antibody (Ab) against ASA. The specificity of the Ab for the ASA protein of cell cultures was tested in Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion studies. The Ab was used in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify the number of ASA molecules in the cell extracts from the embryonic mouse cell cultures. Preliminary data suggest that HC decreases the number of ASA molecules.

  19. Phenotypic correction of a mouse model for primary hyperoxaluria with adeno-associated virus gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Salido, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Pena, Marisol; Santana, Alfredo; Beattie, Stuart G; Petry, Harald; Torres, Armando

    2011-05-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of the hepatic enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT or AGT) which leads to overproduction of oxalate by the liver and subsequent urolithiasis and renal failure. The current therapy largely depends on liver transplantation, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To explore an alternative treatment, we used somatic gene transfer in a mouse genetic model for PH1 (Agxt1KO). Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors containing the human AGXT complementary DNA (cDNA) were pseudotyped with capsids from either serotype 8 or 5, and delivered to the livers of Agxt1KO mice via the tail vein. Both AAV8-AGXT and AAV5-AGXT vectors were able to reduce oxaluria to normal levels. In addition, treated mice showed blunted increase of oxaluria after challenge with ethylene glycol (EG), a glyoxylate precursor. In mice, AGT enzyme activity in whole liver extracts were restored to normal without hepatic toxicity nor immunogenicity for the 50 day follow-up. In summary, this study demonstrates the correction of primary hyperoxaluria in mice treated with either AAV5 or AAV8 vectors. PMID:21119625

  20. Compensating for poor primary implant stability in different bone densities by varying implant geometry: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Möhlhenrich, S C; Heussen, N; Elvers, D; Steiner, T; Hölzle, F; Modabber, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of implant diameter and length on primary stability in artificial bone blocks. In total, 240 implants of various diameters (Ř 3.3, 4.1, and 4.8mm) and lengths (8 and 12mm) were inserted in four artificial bone blocks of different densities (D1-D4). The primary stability for each bone block density was measured and compared with the primary stability of a narrow and short implant (Ř 3.3mm, length 8mm) in the next higher density block. Analysis was done by three-way ANOVA, and mean differences were determined with the 95% confidence interval. Levels of primary stability achieved by choosing the next higher diameter or length were not comparable to those of the next level of block density. However, equivalent values could be achieved by selecting the largest diameter for short and long implants in the lowest block density D4, as well as for long implants in bone type D2. The diameter of an implant has greater influence on primary stability than length. In particular, in the case of poor bone quality, a variation of implant geometry can lead to significant improvement in primary stability. PMID:26362488

  1. Radionuclide bone scanning in neuroblastoma: skeletal metastases and primary tumor localization of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP

    SciTech Connect

    Podrasky, A.E.; Stark, D.D.; Hattner, R.S.; Gooding, C.A.; Moss, A.A.

    1983-09-01

    Of 42 radionuclide bone scans in 35 children with neuroblastoma, 21 were abnormal for the presence of skeletal metastases. Of the 21 abnormal scans, 16 were corroborated by positive bone-marrow biopsy or clinical data. The false-negative and false-positive rates for bone scanning were 4.8% and 9.5%, respectively. Calcification of the primary tumor was seen on pretreatment computed tomographic (CT) scans in 24 (89%) of 27 cases, while only 13 (48%) of 27 were detectable by plain radiographs. Uptake of /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphate /sup 99m/Tc-MDP) by the primary tumor occurred in 20 of 27 cases, but correlation between tumor uptake and calcification was not statistically significant. All children with markedly elevated urinary vanillylmandelic acid exhibited primary tumor uptake. Survival was not affected independently by primary tumor uptake.

  2. Pattern of primary tumors and tumor-like lesions of bone in children: retrospective survey of biopsy results

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Esra Akyüz; Göret, Ceren Canbey; Özdemir, Zeynep Tu?ba; Yan?k, Serdar; Do?an, Meryem; Gönülta?, Aylin; Akkoca, Ay?e Neslin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although primary bone tumors are relatively uncommon, they constitute the most important tumors in patients less than 20 years. We aimed to determine the frequencies of primary bone tumors and tumor-like lesions of bone and the anatomical sites of their occurrence. Methods: A retrospective review of histopathology reports of all bone specimens received in a private pathology laboratory in Istanbul between 2009 and 2015. Results: A total of 57 patients (aged 5 to 18 years) with a mean of 13.12 years were studied. Thirty five patients (61.4%) were males and 22 (38.6%) were females. Fifty five (94.4%) of the tumors were benign. Osteochondroma was the commonest tumor accounting for 31 cases (54.3%) followed by osteoid osteoma, 9 cases (15.7%). Chondrosarcoma observed in two patients and Ewing sarcoma in one patient as malignant tumors. Of the 57 bone tumors 13 (22.8%) occurred in the upper extremities, while 44 (77.2%) were in the lower extremities. Proximal humerus was the most commonly involved site in upper extremity tumors, with osteochondromas representing the most frequent type of tumor (4 patients; 7%). In the lower extremities again osteochondromas were the most common type of tumor (8 cases, 14%), with the femur being the most common site of involvement (18 patients, 31.5%). Of the patients with tumor-like lesions; four patients had fibrous dysplasia, 4 patients had non-ossified fibromas, 4 patients had simple bone cysts and 3 had aneurismal bone cyst. Conclusion: This study showed that primary bone tumors were mainly benign, settled predominantly in the lower extremities mostly in the femur with a male preponderance. Osteochondroma was the most common benign bone tumor. We didn’t observed osteosarcoma, which is the most frequent malignant bone tumor. PMID:26617888

  3. Protective effect of dieckol against chemical hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yu Jin; Kim, Hyoung Seok; Song, Kyung-Sik; Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun; Chang, Woochul; Lee, Min Young

    2015-04-01

    Hepatic ischemic injury is a major complication arising from liver surgery, transplantation, or other ischemic diseases, and both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory mediators play the role of key mediators in hepatic ischemic injury. In this study, we examined the effect of dieckol in chemical hypoxia-induced injury in mouse hepatocytes. Cell viability was significantly decreased after treatment with cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a well-known hypoxia mimetic agent in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with dieckol before exposure to CoCl2 significantly attenuated the CoCl2-induced decrease of cell viability. Additionally, pretreatment with dieckol potentiated the CoCl2-induced decrease of Bcl-2 expression and attenuated the CoCl2-induced increase in the expression of Bax and caspase-3. Treatment with CoCl2 resulted in an increased intracellular ROS generation, which is inhibited by dieckol or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger), and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which is also blocked by dieckol or NAC. In addition, dieckol and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) increased the CoCl2-induced decrease of Bcl-2 expression and decreased the CoCl2-induced increase of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. CoCl2-induced decrease of cell viability was attenuated by pretreatment with dieckol, NAC, and SB203580. Furthermore, dieckol attenuated CoCl2-induced COX-2 expression. Similar to the effect of dieckol, NAC also blocked CoCl2-induced COX-2 expression. Additionally, CoCl2-induced decrease of cell viability was attenuated not only by dieckol and NAC but also by NS-398 (a selective COX-2 inhibitor). In conclusion, dieckol protects primary cultured mouse hepatocytes against CoCl2-induced cell injury through inhibition of ROS-activated p38 MAPK and COX-2 pathway. PMID:25155888

  4. Original Article Targeting the LRP5 Pathway Improves Bone Properties in a Mouse Model of Osteogenesis

    E-print Network

    : Christina.Jacobsen@childrens.harvard.edu Disclosures: All authors state that they have no conflicts, 2014; Date Final Disposition Set January 30, 2014 Journal of Bone and Mineral Research © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research DOI 10.1002/jbmr.2198 #12;2 Abstract: The cell surface receptor low

  5. Array CGH analysis identifies two distinct subgroups of primary angiosarcoma of bone.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Sofie L J; de Jong, Danielle; Bertoni, Franco; Sciot, Raf; Antonescu, Cristina R; Szuhai, Karoly; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2015-02-01

    Molecular genetic studies on vascular tumors are rare. Recently, possible involvement of MYC and KDR has been documented in a subset of angiosarcomas of soft tissue. We performed a cytogenetic analysis of primary angiosarcomas of bone (n?=?13) and soft tissue (n?=?5) using high density array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). Regions of interest were validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Antibodies for candidate genes (SKI, MYC, KDR, and MAPK9) were selected and immunohistochemistry was performed. Six angiosarcomas of bone and four angiosarcomas of soft tissue showed chromosomal losses, gains, and high level amplifications. Cluster analysis identified two groups: a group with a complex genetic profile and a group with only few genetic aberrations. Five regions of interest were selected, which were located at chromosome bands 1p36.23, 2q32-34, 5q35, 8q24, and 17q21.32-24.2. Interphase FISH confirmed the high-level amplifications. Immunohistochemical analysis showed high expression of MYC (16/60), MAPK9 (63/69), and SKI (52/62). There were no differences between the two groups with regards to location, immunohistochemical expression nor survival. In summary, we identified two subgroups of angiosarcoma: those with few or no gross aberrations and those which show numerous genetic aberrations consisting of chromosomal losses, gains and high level amplifications or complex aberrations. The most common finding was amplification of 2q and 17q in both angiosarcoma of bone and soft tissue, suggesting overlap in tumorigenesis irrespective of their location. We show MYC amplification in primary angiosarcoma indicating this is not entirely specific for radiation-induced angiosarcoma. PMID:25231439

  6. A surgical procedure for resecting the mouse rib: a model for large-scale long bone repair.

    PubMed

    Tripuraneni, Nikita; Srour, Marissa K; Funnell, John W; Thein, Thu Zan Tun; Mariani, Francesca V

    2015-01-01

    This protocol introduces researchers to a new model for large-scale bone repair utilizing the mouse rib. The procedure details the following: preparation of the animal for surgery, opening the thoracic body wall, exposing the desired rib from the surrounding intercostal muscles, excising the desired section of rib without inducing a pneumothorax, and closing the incisions. Compared to the bones of the appendicular skeleton, the ribs are highly accessible. In addition, no internal or external fixator is necessary since the adjacent ribs provide a natural fixation. The surgery uses commercially available supplies, is straightforward to learn, and well-tolerated by the animal. The procedure can be carried out with or without removing the surrounding periosteum, and therefore the contribution of the periosteum to repair can be assessed. Results indicate that if the periosteum is retained, robust repair occurs in 1 - 2 months. We expect that use of this protocol will stimulate research into rib repair and that the findings will facilitate the development of new ways to stimulate bone repair in other locations around the body. PMID:25651082

  7. Glucocerebrosidase deficiency in zebrafish affects primary bone ossification through increased oxidative stress and reduced Wnt/?-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Zancan, Ilaria; Bellesso, Stefania; Costa, Roberto; Salvalaio, Marika; Stroppiano, Marina; Hammond, Chrissy; Argenton, Francesco; Filocamo, Mirella; Moro, Enrico

    2015-03-01

    Loss of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) function is responsible for several organ defects, including skeletal abnormalities in type 1 Gaucher disease (GD). Enhanced bone resorption by infiltrating macrophages has been proposed to lead to major bone defects. However, while more recent evidences support the hypothesis that osteoblastic bone formation is impaired, a clear pathogenetic mechanism has not been depicted yet. Here, by combining different molecular approaches, we show that Gba1 loss of function in zebrafish is associated with defective canonical Wnt signaling, impaired osteoblast differentiation and reduced bone mineralization. We also provide evidence that increased reactive oxygen species production precedes the Wnt signaling impairment, which can be reversed upon human GBA1 overexpression. Type 1 GD patient fibroblasts similarly exhibit reduced Wnt signaling activity, as a consequence of increased ?-catenin degradation. Our results support a novel model in which a primary defect in canonical Wnt signaling antecedes bone defects in type 1 GD. PMID:25326392

  8. Factors associated with pathological fractures in dogs with appendicular primary bone neoplasia: 84 cases (2007-2013).

    PubMed

    Rubin, Jacob A; Suran, Jantra N; Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Agnello, Kimberly A

    2015-10-15

    Objective-To determine the incidence of pathological fractures associated with appendicular primary bone tumors in dogs managed medically and to identify potential risk factors at the time of radiographic diagnosis that may be associated with eventual pathological fracture. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-84 dogs with primary long bone neoplasia treated medically. Procedures-Medical records for dogs with a diagnosis of primary long bone neoplasia based on results of radiography that was confirmed subsequently at necropsy were reviewed. Owners elected medical treatment at a pain clinic. Data regarding clinical signs, diagnostic testing, pathological findings, and outcome were evaluated. Results-84 dogs met study inclusion criteria with 85 limbs affected. Osteosarcoma was the most common tumor and was identified in 78 of 85 (91.8%) limbs. The median time from diagnosis to euthanasia was 111 days (range, 28 to 447 days). Pathological fractures were identified in 33 of 85 limbs (38%), with the femur most commonly affected, (8/14 [57.1%]), followed by the tibia (9/17 [52.9%]), humerus (10/27 [37%]), radius (5/25 [20%]), and ulna (1/2 [50%]). Logistic regression analysis indicated that tumors arising from long bones other than the radius had odds of eventual fracture 5.05 as great as the odds for tumors of the radius, and lytic tumors had odds of eventual fracture 3.22 as great as the odds for tumors that appeared blastic or mixed lytic-blastic. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that radial primary bone tumors were less likely and lytic tumors were more likely to fracture. The overall incidence of pathological fractures secondary to appendicular primary bone neoplasia in this study with patients treated by means of intensive management for bone pain was higher than previously reported. PMID:26421404

  9. Pou3f4-Mediated Regulation of Ephrin-B2 Controls Temporal Bone Development in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Raft, Steven; Coate, Thomas M.; Kelley, Matthew W.; Crenshaw, E. Bryan; Wu, Doris K.

    2014-01-01

    The temporal bone encases conductive and sensorineural elements of the ear. Mutations of POU3F4 are associated with unique temporal bone abnormalities and X-linked mixed deafness (DFNX2/DFN3). However, the target genes and developmental processes controlled by POU3F4 transcription factor activity have remained largely uncharacterized. Ephrin-B2 (Efnb2) is a signaling molecule with well-documented effects on cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Our analyses of targeted mouse mutants revealed that Efnb2 loss-of-function phenocopies temporal bone abnormalities of Pou3f4 hemizygous null neonates: qualitatively identical malformations of the stapes, styloid process, internal auditory canal, and cochlear capsule were present in both mutants. Using failed/insufficient separation of the stapes and styloid process as a quantitative trait, we found that single gene Efnb2 loss-of-function and compound Pou3f4/Efnb2 loss-of-function caused a more severe phenotype than single gene Pou3f4 loss-of-function. Pou3f4 and Efnb2 gene expression domains overlapped at the site of impending stapes-styloid process separation and at subcapsular mesenchyme surrounding the cochlea; at both these sites, Efnb2 expression was attenuated in Pou3f4 hemizygous null mutants relative to control. Results of immunoprecipitation experiments using chromatin isolated from nascent middle ear mesenchyme supported the hypothesis of a physical association between Pou3f4 and specific non-coding sequence of Efnb2. We propose that Efnb2 is a target of Pou3f4 transcription factor activity and an effector of mesenchymal patterning during temporal bone development. PMID:25299585

  10. Model-based analysis of pattern motion processing in mouse primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Dylan R.; Roth, Morgane M.; Helmchen, Fritjof; Kampa, Björn M.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in sensory areas of neocortex exhibit responses tuned to specific features of the environment. In visual cortex, information about features such as edges or textures with particular orientations must be integrated to recognize a visual scene or object. Connectivity studies in rodent cortex have revealed that neurons make specific connections within sub-networks sharing common input tuning. In principle, this sub-network architecture enables local cortical circuits to integrate sensory information. However, whether feature integration indeed occurs locally in rodent primary sensory areas has not been examined directly. We studied local integration of sensory features in primary visual cortex (V1) of the mouse by presenting drifting grating and plaid stimuli, while recording the activity of neuronal populations with two-photon calcium imaging. Using a Bayesian model-based analysis framework, we classified single-cell responses as being selective for either individual grating components or for moving plaid patterns. Rather than relying on trial-averaged responses, our model-based framework takes into account single-trial responses and can easily be extended to consider any number of arbitrary predictive models. Our analysis method was able to successfully classify significantly more responses than traditional partial correlation (PC) analysis, and provides a rigorous statistical framework to rank any number of models and reject poorly performing models. We also found a large proportion of cells that respond strongly to only one stimulus class. In addition, a quarter of selectively responding neurons had more complex responses that could not be explained by any simple integration model. Our results show that a broad range of pattern integration processes already take place at the level of V1. This diversity of integration is consistent with processing of visual inputs by local sub-networks within V1 that are tuned to combinations of sensory features. PMID:26300738

  11. Differentiation-specific increase in ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX accumulation in primary mouse keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ortel, B.; Chen, N.; Brissette, J.; Dotto, G. P.; Maytin, E.; Hasan, T.

    1998-01-01

    A treatment regimen that takes advantage of the induction of intracellular porphyrins such as protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) by exposure to exogenous 5-amino-laevulinic acid (ALA) followed by localized exposure to visible light represents a promising new approach to photodynamic therapy (PDT). Acting upon the suggestion that the effectiveness of ALA-dependent PDT may depend upon the state of cellular differentiation, we investigated the effect of terminal differentiation upon ALA-induced synthesis of and the subsequent phototoxicity attributable to PPIX in primary mouse keratinocytes. Induction of keratinocyte differentiation augmented intracellular PPIX accumulation in cells treated with ALA. These elevated PPIX levels resulted in an enhanced lethal photodynamic sensitization of differentiated cells. The differentiation-dependent increase in cellular PPIX levels resulted from several factors including: (a) increased ALA uptake, (b) enhanced PPIX production and (c) decreased PPIX export into the culture media. Simultaneously, steady-state levels of coproporphyrinogen oxidase mRNA increased but aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase mRNA levels remained unchanged. From experiments using 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, transforming growth factor beta 1 and calcimycin we demonstrated that the increase in PPIX concentration in terminally differentiating keratinocytes is calcium- and differentiation specific. Stimulation of the haem synthetic capacity is seen in primary keratinocytes, but not in PAM 212 cells that fail to undergo differentiation. Interestingly, increased PPIX formation and elevated coproporphyrinogen oxidase mRNA levels are not limited to differentiating keratinocytes; these were also elevated in the C2C12 myoblast and the PC12 adrenal cell lines upon induction of differentiation. Overall, the therapeutic implications of these results are that the effectiveness of ALA-dependent PDT depends on the differentiation status of the cell and that this may enable selective targeting of several tissue types. Images Figure 7 PMID:9667642

  12. The protocol for the isolation and cryopreservation of osteoclast precursors from mouse bone marrow and spleen.

    PubMed

    Boraschi-Diaz, Iris; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclasts are responsible for physiological bone remodeling as well as pathological bone destruction in osteoporosis, periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis, and thus represent a pharmacological target for drug development. We aimed to characterize and compare the cytokine-induced osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow and spleen precursors. Established protocols used to generate osteoclasts from bone marrow were modified to examine osteoclastogenesis of the spleen cells of healthy mice. Osteoclast formation was successfully induced from spleen precursors using receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (50 ng/ml) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (50 ng/ml). Compared to bone marrow cultures, differentiation from spleen required a longer cultivation time (9 days for spleen, as compared to 5 days for marrow cultures) and a higher plating density of non-adherent cells (75,000/cm(2) for spleen, as compared to 50,000/cm(2) for bone marrow). Osteoclasts generated from spleen precursors expressed osteoclast marker genes calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 and were capable of resorbing hydroxyapatite. The differentiation capacity of spleen and bone marrow precursors was comparable for BALB/c, C57BL/6 and FVB mice. We also developed and tested a cryopreservation protocol for the osteoclast precursors. While 70-80 % of cells were lost during the first week of freezing, during the subsequent 5 weeks the losses were within 2-5 % per week. Osteoclastogenesis from the recovered bone marrow precursors was successful up to 5 weeks after freezing. Spleen precursors retained their osteoclastogenic capacity for 1 week after freezing, but not thereafter. The described protocol is useful for the studies of genetically modified animals as well as for screening new osteoclast-targeting therapeutics. PMID:25245056

  13. Spatial organization of excitatory synaptic inputs to layer 4 neurons in mouse primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Megan B.; Manis, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Layer 4 (L4) of primary auditory cortex (A1) receives a tonotopically organized projection from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. However, individual neurons in A1 respond to a wider range of sound frequencies than would be predicted by their thalamic input, which suggests the existence of cross-frequency intracortical networks. We used laser scanning photostimulation and uncaging of glutamate in brain slices of mouse A1 to characterize the spatial organization of intracortical inputs to L4 neurons. Slices were prepared to include the entire tonotopic extent of A1. We find that L4 neurons receive local vertically organized (columnar) excitation from layers 2 through 6 (L6) and horizontally organized excitation primarily from L4 and L6 neurons in regions centered ~300–500 ?m caudal and/or rostral to the cell. Excitatory horizontal synaptic connections from layers 2 and 3 were sparse. The origins of horizontal projections from L4 and L6 correspond to regions in the tonotopic map that are approximately an octave away from the target cell location. Such spatially organized lateral connections may contribute to the detection and processing of auditory objects with specific spectral structures. PMID:25972787

  14. Contrast adaptation is spatial frequency specific in mouse primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    King, J L; Lowe, M P; Crowder, N A

    2015-12-01

    Contrast adaptation, generated by prolonged viewing of a high contrast spatial pattern, is known to reduce perceptual sensitivity to subsequently presented stimuli of similar spatial frequency (SF). Neural correlates of this pattern-specific contrast adaptation have been described in several classic studies in cat primary visual cortex (V1). These results have also recently been extended to mice, which is a genetically manipulable animal model. Here we attempt to parse the potential mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon by determining whether the SF specificity of contrast adaptation observed in mouse V1 neurons depends on the spike rate elicited by the adapting gratings. We found that adapting stimuli that drove a neuron more strongly generally produced more adaptation, implicating an intrinsic or fatigue-like process. Importantly, we also observed that slightly stronger contrast adaptation was produced when the adapting SF matched the test SF even when matched and nonmatched adapting gratings elicited similar spike rates indicating extrinsic or network processes contribute as well. PMID:26386296

  15. Biocompatibility effects of biologically synthesized graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Due to unique properties and unlimited possible applications, graphene has attracted abundant interest in the areas of nanobiotechnology. Recently, much work has focused on the synthesis and properties of graphene. Here we show that a successful reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using spinach leaf extract (SLE) as a simultaneous reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared SLE-reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dynamic light scattering technique was used to determine the average size of GO and S-rGO. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images provide clear surface morphological evidence for the formation of graphene. The resulting S-rGO has a mostly single-layer structure, is stable, and has significant water solubility. In addition, the biocompatibility of graphene was investigated using cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast (PMEFs) cells. The results suggest that the biologically synthesized graphene has significant biocompatibility with PMEF cells, even at a higher concentration of 100 ?g/mL. This method uses a ‘green’, natural reductant and is free of additional stabilizing reagents; therefore, it is an environmentally friendly, simple, and cost-effective method for the fabrication of soluble graphene. This study could open up a promising view for substitution of hydrazine by a safe, biocompatible, and powerful reduction for the efficient deoxygenation of GO, especially in large-scale production and potential biomedical applications. PMID:24059222

  16. Hydroxyproline metabolism in a mouse model of Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 3.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingsheng; Knight, John; Todd Lowther, W; Holmes, Ross P

    2015-12-01

    Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 3 is a recently discovered form of this autosomal recessive disease that results from mutations in the gene coding for 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase (HOGA1). This enzyme is one of the 2 unique enzymes in the hydroxyproline catabolism pathway. Affected individuals have increased urinary excretions of oxalate, 4-hydroxy-L-glutamate (4-OH-Glu), 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate (HOG), and 2,4-dihydroxyglutarate (DHG). While 4-OH-Glu and HOG are precursor substrates of HOGA1 and increases in their concentrations are expected, how DHG is formed and how HOG to oxalate are unclear. To resolve these important questions and to provide insight into possible therapeutic avenues for treating this disease, an animal model of the disease would be invaluable. We have developed a mouse model of this disease which has null mutations in the Hoga1 gene and have characterized its phenotype. It shares many characteristics of the human disease, particularly when challenged by the inclusion of hydroxyproline in the diet. An increased oxalate excretion is not observed in the KO mice which may be consistent with the recent recognition that only a small fraction of the individuals with the genotype for HOGA deficiency develop PH. PMID:26428388

  17. Biocompatibility effects of biologically synthesized graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-09-01

    Due to unique properties and unlimited possible applications, graphene has attracted abundant interest in the areas of nanobiotechnology. Recently, much work has focused on the synthesis and properties of graphene. Here we show that a successful reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using spinach leaf extract (SLE) as a simultaneous reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared SLE-reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dynamic light scattering technique was used to determine the average size of GO and S-rGO. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images provide clear surface morphological evidence for the formation of graphene. The resulting S-rGO has a mostly single-layer structure, is stable, and has significant water solubility. In addition, the biocompatibility of graphene was investigated using cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activity in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast (PMEFs) cells. The results suggest that the biologically synthesized graphene has significant biocompatibility with PMEF cells, even at a higher concentration of 100 ?g/mL. This method uses a `green', natural reductant and is free of additional stabilizing reagents; therefore, it is an environmentally friendly, simple, and cost-effective method for the fabrication of soluble graphene. This study could open up a promising view for substitution of hydrazine by a safe, biocompatible, and powerful reduction for the efficient deoxygenation of GO, especially in large-scale production and potential biomedical applications.

  18. Multicentric Primary Angiosarcoma of Bone Mimicking Metastasis on (18)F-FDG PET/CT in a Patient with a History of Sigmoid Colon Cancer: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Min Young; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Seok-Ki; Park, Seog-Yun; Kwon, Youngmee; Yun, Tak; Kim, Tae Sung

    2015-12-01

    Primary angiosarcoma of the bone (PAB) is a rare and fatal high-grade malignant vascular bone tumor. We report a rare case of multicentric PAB mimicking bone metastasis in a 59-year-old female patient with a history of sigmoid colon cancer. This patient complained of lower back and pelvic pain and presented with multiple osteolytic bone lesions on plain radiography and pelvic computed tomography. First, bone metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer was suspected. However, on the (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan, the patient presented unusual multiple hypermetabolic osteolytic bone lesions involving contiguous bones of the lower half of the body. After bone biopsy, these lesions were confirmed to be multicentric PAB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of an (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan in a patient with multicentric primary bone angiosarcoma. PMID:26550053

  19. Mechanical Properties of Calvarial Bones in a Mouse Model for Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Moazen, Mehran; Peskett, Emma; Babbs, Christian; Pauws, Erwin; Fagan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian cranial vault largely consists of five flat bones that are joined together along their edges by soft fibrous tissues called sutures. Premature closure of the cranial sutures, craniosynostosis, can lead to serious clinical pathology unless there is surgical intervention. Research into the genetic basis of the disease has led to the development of various animal models that display this condition, e.g. mutant type Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice which display early fusion of the coronal suture (joining the parietal and frontal bones). However, whether the biomechanical properties of the mutant and wild type bones are affected has not been investigated before. Therefore, nanoindentation was used to compare the elastic modulus of cranial bone and sutures in wild type (WT) and Fgfr2C342Y/+mutant type (MT) mice during their postnatal development. Further, the variations in properties with indentation position and plane were assessed. No difference was observed in the elastic modulus of parietal bone between the WT and MT mice at postnatal (P) day 10 and 20. However, the modulus of frontal bone in the MT group was lower than the WT group at both P10 (1.39±0.30 vs. 5.32±0.68 GPa; p<0.05) and P20 (5.57±0.33 vs. 7.14±0.79 GPa; p<0.05). A wide range of values was measured along the coronal sutures for both the WT and MT samples, with no significant difference between the two groups. Findings of this study suggest that the inherent mechanical properties of the frontal bone in the mutant mice were different to the wild type mice from the same genetic background. These differences may reflect variations in the degree of biomechanical adaptation during skull growth, which could have implications for the surgical management of craniosynostosis patients. PMID:25966306

  20. Establishment of a mast cell line, NCL-2, without Kit mutation, derived from NC mouse bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Hiragun, Takaaki; Yanase, Yuhki; Okabe, Tsutomu; Hiragun, Makiko; Kawai, Mikio; Hide, Michihiro

    2014-01-01

    Immortal mast cell lines, such as RBL-2H3 and HMC-1 cells, are commonly utilized to investigate the function of mast cells. However, they are tumor cells carrying a gain-of-function mutation of Kit. We established an immortal mast cell line without Kit mutation, NCL-2, derived from NC mouse bone marrow. NCL-2 cells could be maintained without additional growth factors and thus could respond to exogenous growth signals. Moreover, NCL-2 cells expressed Fc?RI and KIT, and release histamine and LTB4 in response to antigen stimulation. This cell line could be a useful tool to analyze proliferation, differentiation, and function of normal mast cells. PMID:24918047

  1. Evaluation of the correlation between insertion torque and primary stability of dental implants using a block bone test

    PubMed Central

    Bayarchimeg, Dorjpalam; Namgoong, Hee; Kim, Byung Kook; Kim, Myung Duk; Kim, Sungtae; Kim, Tae-Il; Seol, Yang Jo; Lee, Yong Moo; Ku, Young; Rhyu, In-Chul; Lee, Eun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Implant stability at the time of surgery is crucial for the long-term success of dental implants. Primary stability is considered of paramount importance to achieve osseointegration. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the insertion torque and primary stability of dental implants using artificial bone blocks with different bone densities and compositions to mimic different circumstances that are encountered in routine daily clinical settings. Methods In order to validate the objectives, various sized holes were made in bone blocks with different bone densities (#10, #20, #30, #40, and #50) using a surgical drill and insertion torque together with implant stability quotient (ISQ) values that were measured using the Osstell Mentor. The experimental groups under evaluation were subdivided into 5 subgroups according to the circumstances. Results In group 1, the mean insertion torque and ISQ values increased as the density of the bone blocks increased. For group 2, the mean insertion torque values decreased as the final drill size expanded, but this was not the case for the ISQ values. The mean insertion torque values in group 3 increased with the thickness of the cortical bone, and the same was true for the ISQ values. For group 4, the mean insertion torque values increased as the cancellous bone density increased, but the correlation with the ISQ values was weak. Finally, in group 5, the mean insertion torque decreased as the final drill size increased, but the correlation with the ISQ value was weak. Conclusions Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that primary stability does not simply depend on the insertion torque, but also on the bone quality. PMID:23508040

  2. Inflammation as a Keystone of Bone Marrow Stroma Alterations in Primary Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Desterke, Christophe; Martinaud, Christophe; Ruzehaji, Nadira; Le Bousse-Kerdilčs, Marie-Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a clonal myeloproliferative neoplasm where severity as well as treatment complexity is mainly attributed to a long lasting disease and presence of bone marrow stroma alterations as evidenced by myelofibrosis, neoangiogenesis, and osteosclerosis. While recent understanding of mutations role in hematopoietic cells provides an explanation for pathological myeloproliferation, functional involvement of stromal cells in the disease pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The current dogma is that stromal changes are secondary to the cytokine “storm” produced by the hematopoietic clone cells. However, despite therapies targeting the myeloproliferation-sustaining clones, PMF is still regarded as an incurable disease except for patients, who are successful recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Although the clinical benefits of these inhibitors have been correlated with a marked reduction in serum proinflammatory cytokines produced by the hematopoietic clones, further demonstrating the importance of inflammation in the pathological process, these treatments do not address the role of the altered bone marrow stroma in the pathological process. In this review, we propose hypotheses suggesting that the stroma is inflammatory-imprinted by clonal hematopoietic cells up to a point where it becomes “independent” of hematopoietic cell stimulation, resulting in an inflammatory vicious circle requiring combined stroma targeted therapies. PMID:26640324

  3. Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Treatments for Primary Malignant Bone Tumors Arising in the Acetabulum

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Ogura, Koichi; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Nakatani, Fumihiko; Chuman, Hirokazu; Kawai, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The functional and oncologic results of eighteen patients with primary malignant periacetabular tumors were reviewed to determine the impact of surgical treatment. The reconstruction procedures were endoprosthesis (11), hip transposition (4), iliofemoral arthrodesis (2), and frozen bone autograft (1). After a mean follow-up of 62 months, 13 patients were alive and 5 had died of their disease; the 5-year overall survival rate was 67.2%. The corresponding mean MSTS scores of patients with endoprosthesis (11) and other reconstructions (7) were 42% and 55% (49%, 68%, and 50%), respectively. Overall, postoperative complications including deep infection or dislocation markedly worsened the functional outcome. Iliofemoral arthrodesis provided better function than the other procedures, whereas endoprosthetic reconstruction demonstrated poor functional outcome except for patients who were reconstructed with the adequate soft tissue coverage. Avoiding postoperative complications is highly important for achieving better function, suggesting that surgical procedures with adequate soft tissue coverage or without the massive use of nonbiological materials are preferable. Appropriate selection of the reconstructive procedures for individual patients, considering the amount of remaining bone and soft tissues, would lead to better clinical outcomes. PMID:26451129

  4. Socioeconomic and demographic factors contributing to outcomes in patients with primary lymphoma of bone

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Andrew J.; Michels, Ryan; Stein, Joanna; Levin, Adam S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary lymphoma of bone (PLB) is a rare disease, comprising a malignant lymphoid infiltrate of bone. The goal of this study was to identify socioeconomic, demographic, and anatomic factors as prognostic indicators of survival for this disease using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Methods The SEER database was used to identify a study population of 692 patients diagnosed with PLB in the United States from 1989 to 2003. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method, with effects of potential prognostic factors on survival analyzed using the log-rank test. Multivariable analysis was performed by Cox proportional hazards regression. Results The overall 5-year survival rate was 49.6%, with a 10-year survival rate of 30.2%. Median overall survival was 4.9 years (95% CI: 3.9, 6.1). In multivariable analysis, age (p<0.0001), marital status (p=0.006), and appendicular vs. axial tumor location (p=0.004) were found to be independent predictors of survival. Conclusions This population-based study of PLB identified age, marital status, and tumor location as independent indicators of prognosis. This finding supports the clinical suspicion that an appendicular tumor location confers a better prognosis than an axial tumor location.

  5. Nicotinic receptor activation on primary sensory afferents modulates autorhythmicity in the mouse renal pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, M J; Angkawaijawa, S; Hashitani, H; Lang, R J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The modulation of the spontaneous electrical and Ca2+ signals underlying pyeloureteric peristalsis upon nicotinic receptor activation located on primary sensory afferents (PSAs) was investigated in the mouse renal pelvis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Contractile activity was followed using video microscopy, electrical and Ca2+ signals in typical and atypical smooth muscle cells (TSMCs and ASMCs) within the renal pelvis were recorded separately using intracellular microelectrodes and Fluo-4 Ca2+ imaging. KEY RESULTS Nicotine and carbachol (CCh; 1–100 ?M) transiently reduced the frequency and increased the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions in a manner unaffected by muscarininc antagonists, 4-DAMP (1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide) and pirenzipine (10 nM) or L-NAME (L-N?-nitroarginine methyl ester; 200 ?M), inhibitor of NO synthesis, but blocked by the nicotinic antagonist, hexamethonium or capsaicin, depletor of PSA neuropeptides. These negative chronotropic and delayed positive inotropic effects of CCh on TSMC contractions, action potentials and Ca2+ transients were inhibited by glibenclamide (Glib; 1 ?M), blocker of ATP-dependent K (KATP) channels. Nicotinic receptor-evoked inhibition of the spontaneous Ca2+ transients in ASMCs was prevented by capsaicin but not Glib. In contrast, the negative inotropic and chronotropic effects of the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin were not prevented by Glib. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The negative chronotropic effect of nicotinic receptor activation results from the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from PSAs, which suppresses Ca2+ signalling in ASMCs. PSA-released CGRP also evokes a transient hyperpolarization in TSMCs upon the opening of KATP channels, which reduces contraction propagation but promotes the recruitment of TSMC Ca2+ channels that underlie the delayed positive inotropic effects of CCh. PMID:24004375

  6. Protection of primary neurons and mouse brain from Alzheimer’s pathology by molecular tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Aida; Ripoli, Cristian; Riccardi, Elisa; Maiti, Panchanan; Li Puma, Domenica D.; Liu, Tingyu; Hayes, Jane; Jones, Mychica R.; Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Yang, Fusheng; Gale, Greg D.; Tseng, Chi-hong; Tan, Miao; Xie, Cui-Wei; Straudinger, Jeffrey L.; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Frautschy, Sally A.; Grassi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a devastating cureless neurodegenerative disorder affecting >35 million people worldwide. The disease is caused by toxic oligomers and aggregates of amyloid ? protein and the microtubule-associated protein tau. Recently, the Lys-specific molecular tweezer CLR01 has been shown to inhibit aggregation and toxicity of multiple amyloidogenic proteins, including amyloid ? protein and tau, by disrupting key interactions involved in the assembly process. Following up on these encouraging findings, here, we asked whether CLR01 could protect primary neurons from Alzheimer’s disease-associated synaptotoxicity and reduce Alzheimer’s disease–like pathology in vivo. Using cell culture and brain slices, we found that CLR01 effectively inhibited synaptotoxicity induced by the 42-residue isoform of amyloid ? protein, including ?80% inhibition of changes in dendritic spines density and long-term potentiation and complete inhibition of changes in basal synaptic activity. Using a radiolabelled version of the compound, we found that CLR01 crossed the mouse blood–brain barrier at ?2% of blood levels. Treatment of 15-month-old triple-transgenic mice for 1 month with CLR01 resulted in a decrease in brain amyloid ? protein aggregates, hyperphosphorylated tau and microglia load as observed by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, no signs of toxicity were observed in the treated mice, and CLR01 treatment did not affect the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid ? protein precursor. Examining induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 metabolism system by CLR01 revealed minimal interaction. Together, these data suggest that CLR01 is safe for use at concentrations well above those showing efficacy in mice. The efficacy and toxicity results support a process-specific mechanism of action of molecular tweezers and suggest that these are promising compounds for developing disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. PMID:23183235

  7. GPR18 Controls Reconstitution of Mouse Small Intestine Intraepithelial Lymphocytes following Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Amy M.; Callahan, Derrick J.; Richner, Justin M.; Choi, Jaebok; DiPersio, John F.; Diamond, Michael S.; Bhattacharya, Deepta

    2015-01-01

    Specific G protein coupled receptors (GPRs) regulate the proper positioning, function, and development of immune lineage subsets. Here, we demonstrate that GPR18 regulates the reconstitution of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) of the small intestine following bone marrow transplantation. Through analysis of transcriptional microarray data, we find that GPR18 is highly expressed in IELs, lymphoid progenitors, and mature follicular B cells. To establish the physiological role of this largely uncharacterized GPR, we generated Gpr18-/- mice. Despite high levels of GPR18 expression in specific hematopoietic progenitors, Gpr18-/- mice have no defects in lymphopoiesis or myelopoiesis. Moreover, antibody responses following immunization with hapten-protein conjugates or infection with West Nile virus are normal in Gpr18-/- mice. Steady-state numbers of IELs are also normal in Gpr18-/- mice. However, competitive bone marrow reconstitution experiments demonstrate that GPR18 is cell-intrinsically required for the optimal restoration of small intestine TCR??+ and TCR??+ CD8??+ IELs. In contrast, GPR18 is dispensable for the reconstitution of large intestine IELs. Moreover, Gpr18-/- bone marrow reconstitutes small intestine IELs similarly to controls in athymic recipients. Gpr18-/- chimeras show no changes in susceptibility to intestinal insults such as Citrobacter rodentium infections or graft versus host disease. These data reveal highly specific requirements for GPR18 in the development and reconstitution of thymus-derived intestinal IEL subsets in the steady-state and after bone marrow transplantation. PMID:26197390

  8. GPR18 Controls Reconstitution of Mouse Small Intestine Intraepithelial Lymphocytes following Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Becker, Amy M; Callahan, Derrick J; Richner, Justin M; Choi, Jaebok; DiPersio, John F; Diamond, Michael S; Bhattacharya, Deepta

    2015-01-01

    Specific G protein coupled receptors (GPRs) regulate the proper positioning, function, and development of immune lineage subsets. Here, we demonstrate that GPR18 regulates the reconstitution of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) of the small intestine following bone marrow transplantation. Through analysis of transcriptional microarray data, we find that GPR18 is highly expressed in IELs, lymphoid progenitors, and mature follicular B cells. To establish the physiological role of this largely uncharacterized GPR, we generated Gpr18-/- mice. Despite high levels of GPR18 expression in specific hematopoietic progenitors, Gpr18-/- mice have no defects in lymphopoiesis or myelopoiesis. Moreover, antibody responses following immunization with hapten-protein conjugates or infection with West Nile virus are normal in Gpr18-/- mice. Steady-state numbers of IELs are also normal in Gpr18-/- mice. However, competitive bone marrow reconstitution experiments demonstrate that GPR18 is cell-intrinsically required for the optimal restoration of small intestine TCR??+ and TCR??+ CD8??+ IELs. In contrast, GPR18 is dispensable for the reconstitution of large intestine IELs. Moreover, Gpr18-/- bone marrow reconstitutes small intestine IELs similarly to controls in athymic recipients. Gpr18-/- chimeras show no changes in susceptibility to intestinal insults such as Citrobacter rodentium infections or graft versus host disease. These data reveal highly specific requirements for GPR18 in the development and reconstitution of thymus-derived intestinal IEL subsets in the steady-state and after bone marrow transplantation. PMID:26197390

  9. Comparative Analysis of Temporal and Dose-Dependent TCDD-Elicited Gene Expression in Human, Mouse, and Rat Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)–elicited time- and dose-dependent differential gene expression was compared in human, mouse, and rat primary hepatocytes. Comprehensive time course (10 nM TCDD or dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control for 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48h) studies identified 495, 2305, and 711 differentially expressed orthologous genes in human, mouse, and rat hepatocytes, respectively. However, only 16 orthologs were differentially expressed across all three species, with the majority of orthologs exhibiting species-specific expression (399 human, 2097 mouse, and 533 rat), consistent with species-specific expression reported in other in vitro and in vivo comparative studies. TCDD also elicited the dose-dependent induction of 397 human, 100 mouse, and 443 rat genes at 12h and 615 human, 426 mouse, and 314 rat genes at 24h. Comparable EC50 values were obtained for AhR battery genes including Cyp1a1 (0.1 nM human, 0.05 nM mouse, 0.08 nM rat at 24h) and Tiparp (0.97 nM human, 0.63 nM mouse, 0.14 nM rat at 12h). Overrepresented functions and pathways included amino acid metabolism in humans, immune response in mice, and energy homeostasis in rats. Differentially expressed genes functionally associated with lipid transport, processing, and metabolism were overrepresented in all three species but exhibited species-specific expression consistent with the induction of hepatic steatosis in mice but not in rats following a single oral gavage of TCDD. Furthermore, human primary hepatocytes showed lipid accumulation following 48h of treatment with TCDD, suggesting that AhR-mediated steatosis in mice more closely resembles human hepatic fat accumulation compared with that in rats. Collectively, these results suggest that species-specific gene expression profiles mediate the species-specific effects of TCDD despite the conservation of the AhR and its signaling mechanism. PMID:23418086

  10. Cytogenetic abnormalities in primary myelodysplastic syndrome are highly predictive of outcome after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nevill, T J; Fung, H C; Shepherd, J D; Horsman, D E; Nantel, S H; Klingemann, H G; Forrest, D L; Toze, C L; Sutherland, H J; Hogge, D E; Naiman, S C; Le, A; Brockington, D A; Barnett, M J

    1998-09-15

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is the only curative therapy available for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In an attempt to identify prognostic factors influencing outcome, we collected data retrospectively on 60 consecutive adult patients who had undergone BMT at our center for primary MDS or acute myelogenous leukemia evolving from preexisting primary MDS (sAML). Patients were divided into subgroups according to cytogenetic abnormalities based on a recently described International MDS Workshop categorization system. The 7-year actuarial event-free survival (EFS), relapse rate, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for all patients were 29% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16% to 43%), 42% (CI, 24% to 67%), and 50% (CI, 37% to 64%), respectively. The EFS for the good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk cytogenetic subgroups were 51% (CI, 30% to 69%), 40% (CI, 16% to 63%), and 6% (CI, 0% to 24%), respectively (P = .003). The corresponding actuarial relapse rates were 19% (CI, 6% to 49%), 12% (CI, 2% to 61%), and 82% (CI, 48% to 99%), respectively (P = . 002) with no difference in NRM between the subgroups. Univariate analysis showed cytogenetic category, French-American-British (FAB) subtype, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis used to be predictive of relapse and EFS. In multivariate analysis, only the cytogenetic category was predictive of EFS, with the relative risk of treatment failure for the good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk cytogenetic subgroups being 1.0, 1.5, and 3.5, respectively (P = . 004). For adults with primary MDS and sAML, even after BMT, poor-risk cytogenetics are predictive of an unfavorable outcome; novel treatment strategies will be required to improve results with allogeneic BMT in this patient population. PMID:9731047

  11. Bone marrow origin of decidual cell precursors in the pseudopregnant mouse uterus

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Decidual cells are considered to be the endproduct of a hormonally induced transformation of endometrial stromal cells of the uterus. However, the source of these precursors remains unknown. This study of evaluated the possibility of their bone marrow origin by an examination of the H-2 phenotype of decidual cells in pseudopregnant bone marrow chimeras. These chimeras were produced by repopulating lethally irradiated CBA/J female (H-2k) mice with bone marrow from (CBA/J x C57BL/6J) F1 female (H-2kb) mice. Pseudopregnancy was produced with a hormonal regimen followed by an oil-induced decidual stimulus. Chimerism was evaluated radioautographically by an identification of the donor-specific Kb phenotype on cells with an immunolabeling technique with monospecific anti-H-2 serum followed by radioiodinated protein A. The extent of chimerism as indicated by the degree of Kb labeling on decidual cells as well as macrophages contained within the decidual nodules was quantitatively compared with that seen on splenic lymphocytes. Fair to good chimerism, as reflected by labeling for the donor-specific marker (Kb), was seen on splenic lymphocytes and macrophages within the decidual nodules in 6 out of 11 animals. A similar level of chimerism was detected on decidual cells in all but one of these six, in which case this was low. One animal showed low chimerism in the spleen but good chimerism on the decidual cells. The remaining four mice were nonchimeric for all three cell types. These results indicate that decidual cells and macrophages appearing within the decidual nodules of pseudopregnant mice are ultimate descendants of bone marrow cells. PMID:7069373

  12. ERR{alpha} regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalin, Ann-Marie; Pollock, Hanna; Aarnisalo, Piia; Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital

    2010-05-28

    The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-{alpha} (ERR{alpha}) has been reported to have both a positive and a negative regulatory role in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. We have studied the role of ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from ERR{alpha} deficient mice and their differentiation capacities were compared to that of the wild-type cells. ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced cellular proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralization. In the complementary experiment, overexpression of ERR{alpha} in MC3T3-E1 cells increased the expression of osteoblastic markers and mineralization. Alterations in the expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) may at least partially explain the effects on mineralization as BSP expression was reduced in ERR{alpha} deficient MSCs and enhanced upon ERR{alpha} overexpression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter construct driven by the BSP promoter was efficiently transactivated by ERR{alpha}. Under adipogenic conditions, ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced adipocytic differentiation. Our data thus propose a positive role for ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. The variability in the results yielded in the different studies implies that ERR{alpha} may play different roles in bone under different physiological conditions.

  13. Hormone Treatment Restores Bone Density for Young Women with Menopause-Like Condition (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News Releases News Release Monday, June 9, 2014 Hormone treatment restores bone density for young women with ... and lower spine to determine the effects of hormone treatment on bone mineral density of women with ...

  14. Autologous serum improves bone formation in a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite bone substitute in combination with mesenchymal stem cells and rhBMP-2 in the sheep model

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Anja M; Weigand, Annika; Deschler, Gloria; Gerber, Thomas; Arkudas, Andreas; Kneser, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E; Beier, Justus P

    2014-01-01

    New therapeutic strategies are required for critical size bone defects, because the gold standard of transplanting autologous bone from an unharmed area of the body often leads to several severe side effects and disadvantages for the patient. For years, tissue engineering approaches have been seeking a stable, axially vascularized transplantable bone replacement suitable for transplantation into the recipient bed with pre-existing insufficient conditions. For this reason, the arteriovenous loop model was developed and various bone substitutes have been vascularized. However, it has not been possible thus far to engineer a primary stable and axially vascularized transplantable bone substitute. For that purpose, a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite (HA) bone substitute in combination with blood, bone marrow, expanded, or directly retransplanted mesenchymal stem cells, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), and different carrier materials (fibrin, cell culture medium, autologous serum) was tested subcutaneously for 4 or 12 weeks in the sheep model. Autologous serum lead to an early matrix change during degradation of the bone substitute and formation of new bone tissue. The best results were achieved in the group combining mesenchymal stem cells expanded with 60 ?g/mL rhBMP-2 in autologous serum. Better ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue could be detected in the autologous serum group compared with the control (fibrin). Osteoclastic activity indicating an active bone remodeling process was observed after 4 weeks, particularly in the group with autologous serum and after 12 weeks in every experimental group. This study clearly demonstrates the positive effects of autologous serum in combination with mesenchymal stem cells and rhBMP-2 on bone formation in a primary stable silica-embedded nano-HA bone grafting material in the sheep model. In further experiments, the results will be transferred to the sheep arteriovenous loop model in order to engineer an axially vascularized primary stable bone replacement in clinically relevant size for free transplantation. PMID:25429218

  15. Effects of Kagocel® on the Counts of Multipotent Stromal Cells, Expression of Cytokine Genes in Primary Cultures of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells, and Serum Cytokine Concentrations in CBA Mice.

    PubMed

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Grabko, V I; Konopleva, M V; Suslov, A P; Nesterenko, V G

    2015-06-01

    The efficiency of cloning of bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (ECF-MSC) from CBA mice and the MSC counts in the femoral bone increased 24 h after a single in vivo (but not in vitro) injection of kagocel (active substance of antiviral drug Kagocel (®) ) 1.4 times (in response to 50-80 ?g) and 4.6 times (in response to 250 ?g). The maximum increase of ECF-MSC in response to 50 ?g per mouse was detected just 1 h after Kagocel injection to intact mice and to mice previously receiving the drug for 3 days (2 and 1.7 times, respectively). The increase of ECF-MSC was 3-fold less intense in response to oral Kagocel in a dose of 250 ?g/mouse vs. intraperitoneal Kagocel, ECF-MSC corresponding to its level in response to oral Poly (I:C). In vivo Kagocel led to emergence of proinflammatory cytokine IFN-?, IL-1?, and IL-8 mRNA in primary cultures of bone marrow stromal cells. Serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-4, and IL-12 increased 1.5 and 2 times just 1 h after Kagocel injection in doses of 30-50 and 250 ?g, respectively, to intact mice and to animals previously treated with the drug for 3 days. The cytokine concentrations normalized after 3 h and increased again after 24 h, though did not reach the levels recorded 1 h after the drug injection. These data indicated that the therapeutic and preventive effects of Kagocel, together with its previously demonstrated stimulation of ?- and ?-interferon production during several days, could be due to the capacity of this drug to increase the bone marrow ECF-MSC, serum cytokine concentrations, and induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes in the bone marrow stromal cells 1 h after its injection. PMID:26087752

  16. Incidence of distal bone metastases in patients treated for palliative radiotherapy and associations with primary tumour types

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Mark; Tiwana, Manpreet S.; Kiraly, Andrew; Hutchison, Mitch; Olson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assesses the incidence of distal bone metastases in palliative radiotherapy (RT) patients. Material and methods All courses of RT for bone metastases from 2007–2011 for patient living in British Columbia (BC) were identified in a provincial RT programme. Treated bone metastases (BoM) were categorized as distal if the BoM was located within or distal to the elbow or knee. Patients were grouped by primary tumour site as breast, lung, prostate gastrointestinal, haematological, melanoma, and other. The incidence of distal bone metastases and associations with primary tumour types were determined. Results From 2007 to 2011, 8008 patients were treated with 16,277 courses of RT, of which 425 (3%) were courses of RT for distal BoM. The incidence of distal BoM in decreasing order by primary tumour type was melanoma (5%), haematological (3%), lung (2%), other (2%), prostate (2%), breast (1%) and gastrointestinal (1%). Distal BoM where more commonly identified in the lower extremity (87%, p<0.001). Single fraction RT was used more commonly for distal vs non-distal BoM (66% vs. 49%; p<0.001). Conclusion The incidence of distal BoM among patients treated with palliative RT was 3% and most commonly identified in patients with melanoma and haematological malignancies.

  17. Missense Mutations in LRP5 Associated with High Bone Mass Protect the Mouse Skeleton from Disuse- and Ovariectomy-Induced Osteopenia

    PubMed Central

    Niziolek, Paul J.; Bullock, Whitney; Warman, Matthew L.; Robling, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 (LRP5), a co-receptor in the Wnt signaling pathway, modulates bone mass in humans and in mice. Lrp5 knock-out mice have severely impaired responsiveness to mechanical stimulation whereas Lrp5 gain-of-function knock-in and transgenic mice have enhanced responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. Those observations highlight the importance of Lrp5 protein in bone cell mechanotransduction. It is unclear if and how high bone mass-causing (HBM) point mutations in Lrp5 alter the bone-wasting effects of mechanical disuse. To address this issue we explored the skeletal effects of mechanical disuse using two models, tail suspension and Botulinum toxin-induced muscle paralysis, in two different Lrp5 HBM knock-in mouse models. A separate experiment employing estrogen withdrawal-induced bone loss by ovariectomy was also conducted as a control. Both disuse stimuli induced significant bone loss in WT mice, but Lrp5 A214V and G171V were partially or fully protected from the bone loss that normally results from disuse. Trabecular bone parameters among HBM mice were significantly affected by disuse in both models, but these data are consistent with DEXA data showing a failure to continue growing in HBM mice, rather than a loss of pre-existing bone. Ovariectomy in Lrp5 HBM mice resulted in similar protection from catabolism as was observed for the disuse experiments. In conclusion, the Lrp5 HBM alleles offer significant protection from the resorptive effects of disuse and from estrogen withdrawal, and consequently, present a potential mechanism to mimic with pharmaceutical intervention to protect against various bone-wasting stimuli. PMID:26554834

  18. ARTICLE IN PRESS Genetic variations that regulate bone morphology in the male mouse

    E-print Network

    to aging, menopause, or mechanical unloading, define an individual's susceptibility to osteoporosis [1­4]. Identification of the factors that may control these two primary predictors of osteoporosis, includ- ing

  19. Effect of bone marrow depletion on prostaglandin E-producing suppressor macrophages in mouse spleen

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Y.; Volkman, A.

    1985-12-01

    The i.p. injection of Corynebacterium parvum (CP) into CBA/J mice effected increases in macrophage colony-forming cells (M-CFC) when spleen cells were cultured with L cell culture filtrate as a source of colony-stimulating factor. Significant increases in phagocytic macrophages (M phi) with Fc receptors for IgG2a and IgG2b immune complexes were additionally noted among the spleen cells in these mice. These M phi effectively inhibited Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation, probably reflecting a 10-fold increase above normal controls in prostaglandin E to 47 ng/3 X 10(6) spleen cells/ml. To determine whether the suppressor M phi are immediate derivatives of splenic M-CFC, we tried to induce suppressor M phi by the injection of CP into mice depleted of bone marrow M-CFC by the earlier administration of the bone-seeking isotope, 89Sr. This procedure reduced M-CFC in the bone marrow to less than 1% of normal for more than 30 days. Monocytes in the blood fell to 5% of normal by day 10 and were 30% on day 30. Levels of resident peritoneal M phi showed relatively little change in this period. By contrast, splenic M-CFC increased to 20-fold higher than the cold 88Sr controls. CP-induced suppressor M phi activity, however, was sharply reduced in 89Sr marrow-depleted mice on day 10, despite the striking increase in M-CFC. There was a threefold increase in the number of phagocytic M phi binding IgG2a immune complexes, with no significant increase in IgG2b binding M phi. The kinetics of recovery of suppressor M phi activity showed that on days 20, 30, and 50 after 89Sr injection the activities reached 20%, 30%, and 70% of the cold control, respectively, and correlated with the recovery of significant levels of M-CFC in the bone marrow. Taken together, these observations suggest that splenic M-CFC are not an immediate source of PGE-suppressor M phi in vivo.

  20. Development of micro-CT protocols for in vivo follow-up of mouse bone architecture without major radiation side effects.

    PubMed

    Laperre, K; Depypere, M; van Gastel, N; Torrekens, S; Moermans, K; Bogaerts, R; Maes, F; Carmeliet, G

    2011-10-01

    In vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) will offer unique information on the time-related changes in bone mass and structure of living mice, provided that radiation-induced side effects are prevented. Lowering the radiation dose, however, inevitably decreases the image quality. In this study we developed and validated a protocol for in vivo micro-CT imaging of mouse bone architecture that retains high quality images but avoids radiation-induced side effects on bone structure and hematological parameters. The left hindlimb of male C57Bl/6 mice was scanned in vivo at 3 consecutive time points, separated each time by a 2-week interval. Two protocols for in vivo micro-CT imaging were evaluated, with pixel sizes of 9 and 18 ?m and administered radiation doses of 434 mGy and 166 mGy per scan, respectively. These radiation doses were found not to influence trabecular or cortical bone architecture in pre-pubertal or adult mice. In addition, there was no evidence for hematological side effects as peripheral blood cell counts and the colony-forming capacity of hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow and spleen were not altered. Although the images obtained with these in vivo micro-CT protocols were more blurred than those obtained with high resolution (5 ?m) ex vivo CT imaging, longitudinal follow-up of trabecular bone architecture in an orchidectomy model proved to be feasible using the 9 ?m pixel size protocol in combination with a suitable bone segmentation technique (i.e. local thresholding). The image quality of the 18 ?m pixel size protocol was too degraded for accurate bone segmentation and the use of this protocol is therefore restricted to monitor marked changes in bone structure such as bone metastatic lesions or fracture healing. In conclusion, we developed two micro-CT protocols which are appropriate for detailed as well as global longitudinal studies of mouse bone architecture and lack noticeable radiation-induced side effects. PMID:21763477

  1. Functional and Transcriptomic Recovery of Infarcted Mouse Myocardium Treated with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lachtermacher, Stephan; Esporcatte, Bruno L. B.; da Silva de Azevedo Fortes, Fábio; Rocha, Nazareth Novaes; Montalvăo, Fabrício; Costa, Patricia C.; Belem, Luciano; Rabischoffisky, Arnaldo; Neto, Hugo C. C. Faria; Vasconcellos, Rita; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Spray, David C.; Thomas, Neil M.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos

    2011-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNC) have been extensively used in cell therapy for cardiac diseases, little mechanistic information is available to support reports of their efficacy. To address this shortcoming, we compared structural and functional recovery and associated global gene expression profiles in post-ischaemic myocardium treated with BMNC transplantation. BMNC suspensions were injected into cardiac scar tissue 10 days after experimental myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, mice undergoing BMNC therapy were found to have normalized antibody repertoire and improved cardiac performance measured by ECG, treadmill exercise time and echocardiography. After functional testing, gene expression profiles in cardiac tissue were evaluated using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Expression of more than 18% of the 11981 quantified unigenes was significantly altered in the infarcted hearts. BMNC therapy restored expression of 2099 (96.2%) of the genes that were altered by infarction but led to altered expression of 286 other genes, considered to be a side effect of the treatment. Transcriptional therapeutic efficacy, a metric calculated using a formula that incorporates both recovery and side effect of treatment, was 73%. In conclusion, our results confirm a beneficial role for bone marrow-derived cell therapy and provide new information on molecular mechanisms operating after BMNC transplantation on post ischemic heart failure in mice. PMID:21671060

  2. Thymic repopulation following intrathymic injection of mouse bone marrow cells in MHC matched and mismatched recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Chervenak, R.

    1986-03-01

    T cell precursors (pre-T cells) have traditionally been detected by their ability to repopulate the thymus of heavily irradiated mice following intravenous injection. Recently, Goldschneider et. al. developed an assay system which involves the direct injection of pre-T cells into the thymus. The authors used this technique to evaluate the ability of bone marrow cells to repopulate thymuses in various donor-host strain combinations. Sub-lethally irradiated (600R) mice were injected intrathymically with 2 x 10/sup 6/ bone marrow cells which differed from the recipient with respect to their Thy 1 allotype. The percentage of thymus cells expressing either the donor or recipient type Thy 1 marker was determined 14 to 21 days after injection. These experiments showed that in MHC matched donor-host combinations (AKR/cum ..-->.. AKR/J and CBA/J ..-->.. AKR/J), cells derived from the donor inoculum accounted for 40% to 75% of the total thymus population. MHC mismatched donor-host combinations (C57BL/6J ..-->.. AKR/J and Balb/c ..-->.. AKR/J) resulted in significantly less donor-type repopulation of the thymus. In these cases, donor repopulation typically ranged from 0% to 4%. The ability of the pre-T cells detected by intrathymic injection to proliferate in the thymic environment, therefore, appears to be influenced by the MHC. This may reflect commitment of pre-T cells to MHC haplotype recognition prior to their migration to the thymus.

  3. In vivo imaging of transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mouse calvarium bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Lo Celso, Cristina; Lin, Charles P; Scadden, David T

    2011-01-01

    In vivo imaging of transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) was developed to investigate the relationship between HSPCs and components of their microenvironment in the bone marrow. In particular, it allows a direct observation of the behavior of hematopoietic cells during the first few days after transplantation, when the critical events in homing and early engraftment are occurring. By directly imaging these events in living animals, this method permits a detailed assessment of functions previously evaluated by crude assessments of cell counts (homing) or after prolonged periods (engraftment). This protocol offers a new means of investigating the role of cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic molecular regulators of hematopoiesis during the early stages of transplantation, and it is the first to allow the study of cell-cell interactions within the bone marrow in three dimensions and in real time. In this paper, we describe how to isolate, label and inject HSPCs, as well as how to perform calvarium intravital microscopy and analyze the resulting images. A typical experiment can be performed and analyzed in ~1 week. PMID:21212779

  4. Sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, suppresses cellular accumulation of arsenic and its cytotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Sumi, Daigo; Fukami, Ikuo; Ishii, Tetsuro; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2006-03-20

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is an activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a critical role in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics. Exposure of primary mouse hepatocytes to SFN resulted in activation of Nrf2 and significant elevation of protein expressions responsible for excretion of arsenic into extracellular space. Pretreatment with SFN 24 h prior to arsenite exposure reduced not only arsenic accumulation in the cells but also cellular toxicity of this metalloid. Therefore, our findings indicate a potential function of SFN in reducing cellular arsenic levels, thereby diminishing arsenic toxicity. PMID:16516206

  5. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Microspectroscopy and Tissue-Level Mechanical Testing Reveal Intraspecies Variation in Mouse Bone Mineral and Matrix Composition

    PubMed Central

    Courtland, Hayden-William; Nasser, Philip; Goldstone, Andrew B.; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Jepsen, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    Fracture susceptibility is heritable and dependent upon bone morphology and quality. However, studies of bone quality are typically overshadowed by emphasis on bone geometry and bone mineral density. Given that differences in mineral and matrix composition exist in a variety of species, we hypothesized that genetic variation in bone quality and tissue-level mechanical properties would also exist within species. Sixteen-week-old female A/J, C57BL/6J (B6), and C3H/HeJ (C3H) inbred mouse femora were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared imaging and tissue-level mechanical testing for variation in mineral composition, mineral maturity, collagen cross-link ratio, and tissue-level mechanical properties. A/J femora had an increased mineral-to-matrix ratio compared to B6. The C3H mineral-to-matrix ratio was intermediate of A/J and B6. C3H femora had reduced acid phosphate and carbonate levels and an increased collagen cross-link ratio compared to A/J and B6. Modulus values paralleled mineral-to-matrix values, with A/J femora being the most stiff, B6 being the least stiff, and C3H having intermediate stiffness. In addition, work-to-failure varied among the strains, with the highly mineralized and brittle A/J femora performing the least amount of work-to-failure. Inbred mice are therefore able to differentially modulate the composition of their bone mineral and the maturity of their bone matrix in conjunction with tissue-level mechanical properties. These results suggest that specific combinations of bone quality and morphological traits are genetically regulated such that mechanically functional bones can be constructed in different ways. PMID:18855037

  6. Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells prevents memory impairment in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kanamaru, Takuya; Kamimura, Naomi; Yokota, Takashi; Nishimaki, Kiyomi; Iuchi, Katsuya; Lee, Hyunjin; Takami, Shinya; Akashiba, Hiroki; Shitaka, Yoshitsugu; Ueda, Masayuki; Katsura, Ken-Ichiro; Kimura, Kazumi; Ohta, Shigeo

    2015-04-24

    Stem cell transplantation therapy is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of ischemic stroke, and several beneficial aspects have been reported. Similarly, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), stem cell therapy is expected to provide an efficient therapeutic approach. Indeed, the intracerebral transplantation of stem cells reduced amyloid-? (A?) deposition and rescued memory deficits in AD model mice. Here, we show that intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) improves cognitive function in two different AD mouse models, DAL and APP mice, and prevents neurodegeneration. GFP-positive BMMCs were isolated from tibiae and femurs of 4-week-old mice and then transplanted intravenously into DAL and APP mice. Transplantation of BMMCs suppressed neuronal loss and restored memory impairment of DAL mice to almost the same level as in wild-type mice. Transplantation of BMMCs to APP mice reduced A? deposition in the brain. APP mice treated with BMMCs performed significantly better on behavioral tests than vehicle-injected mice. Moreover, the effects were observed even with transplantation after the onset of cognitive impairment in DAL mice. Together, our results indicate that intravenous transplantation of BMMCs has preventive effects against the cognitive decline in AD model mice and suggest a potential therapeutic effect of BMMC transplantation therapy. PMID:25698614

  7. Genotoxic evaluation of aspirin eugenol ester using the Ames test and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianyong; Kong, Xiaojun; Li, Xiwang; Yang, Yajun; Zhang, Jiyu

    2013-12-01

    Aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) is a promising drug candidate for treatment of inflammation, pain and fever and prevention of cardiovascular diseases with less side effects and it is important to characterize its genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxicity of AEE was assessed with two standard genotoxicity assays of the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. In the Ames test, Salmonella strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535 were treated with or without the metabolic activation with a S9 fraction from Acroclor-induced rat liver. The doses of AEE were 5 mg/plate, 2.5 mg/plate, 1.25 mg/plate, 0.625 mg/plate and 0.3125 mg/plate, respectively. In the above tested strains, mutagenicity with or without the S-9 mixture was not detected. In the mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus assay, fifty mice were divided into five groups evenly and the AEE dose at 5000 mg/kg, 2500 mg/kg and 1250 mg/kg and the cyclophosphamide dose at 40 mg/kg as a positive control, the 0.5% of CMC-Na as negative control were administered. The results showed that AEE did not induce any significant increase in micronucleated erythrocytes after 24 h (p<0.01). Our results suggested that AEE was non-genotoxic in vivo or in vitro. PMID:24140966

  8. STAT3 mutations identified in human hematologic neoplasms induce myeloid malignancies in a mouse bone marrow transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Couronné, Lucile; Scourzic, Laurianne; Pilati, Camilla; Valle, Véronique Della; Duffourd, Yannis; Solary, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Damm, Frederik; Stern, Marc-Henri; Gaulard, Philippe; Lamant, Laurence; Delabesse, Eric; Merle-Beral, Hélčne; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Fontenay, Michaëla; Tilly, Hervé; Bastard, Christian; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bernard, Olivier A.; Mercher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    STAT3 protein phosphorylation is a frequent event in various hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Acquired STAT3 mutations have been recently identified in 40% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, a rare T-cell disorder. In this study, we investigated the mutational status of STAT3 in a large series of patients with lymphoid and myeloid diseases. STAT3 mutations were identified in 1.6% (4 of 258) of patients with T-cell neoplasms, in 2.5% (2 of 79) of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma but in no other B-cell lymphoma patients (0 of 104) or patients with myeloid malignancies (0 of 96). Functional in vitro assays indicated that the STAT3Y640F mutation leads to a constitutive phosphorylation of the protein. STA21, a STAT3 small molecule inhibitor, inhibited the proliferation of two distinct STAT3 mutated cell lines. Using a mouse bone marrow transplantation assay, we observed that STAT3Y640F expression leads to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms with expansion of either myeloid cells or megakaryocytes. Together, these data indicate that the STAT3Y640F mutation leads to constitutive activation of STAT3, induces malignant hematopoiesis in vivo, and may represent a novel therapeutic target in some lymphoid malignancies. PMID:23872306

  9. Identification of keratocyte-like cells differentiated from circulating bone marrow-derived cells in the mouse cornea.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yosuke; Ishida, Waka; Fukuda, Ken; Sumi, Tamaki; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Taguchi, Osamu; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2013-12-01

    Bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells have the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages of tissue resident cells. BM-derived cells have been detected in the mouse cornea, but most of these cells were found to be CD45(+) or CD11b(+) immunocompetent cells. Although some BM-derived cells in the cornea were negative for these cell surface markers, it has remained unclear whether cells of BM origin can differentiate into corneal resident cells. To address this issue, we subjected wild-type mice that had been exposed to a lethal dose of radiation to intravenous injection with BM cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. Two months after cell transplantation, fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of numerous GFP(+) cells throughout the cornea, with intense GFP fluorescence being apparent around the limbal region. Immunohistofluorescence analysis of corneal cross-sections revealed that most of the BM-derived GFP(+) cells expressed CD45 or CD11b, although a few GFP(+) cells were negative for these markers. Immunostaining of individual cells isolated from the corneal stroma, however, showed that a small proportion (~1 %) of GFP(+) BM-derived cells expressed the keratocyte-specific proteoglycan keratocan. Our results suggest that BM-derived cells introduced intravenously are able to differentiate into resident cells of the corneal stroma. PMID:23529138

  10. Development of a novel frontal bone defect mouse model for evaluation of osteogenesis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Young; Kwak, Sung Chul; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Baek, Jong Min; Jung, Sung Tae; Yun, Ki Jung; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2015-12-01

    The skull defect model is the existing representative osteogenesis model. The skull defect model involves monitoring osteogenesis patterns at the site of a skull defect, which has the advantages that identical defects can be induced across individual experimental animals and the results can be quantitatively evaluated. However, it can damage the cerebrum because it requires a complex surgery performed on the parietal bone. This study aims to develop a new osteogenesis model that compensates for the weak points of the existing model. Male 8-week-old imprinting control region mice were put under inhalational anesthesia, and the surgery area was disinfected with 70% ethanol prior to the creation of a 5-mm incision along the sagittal line between the glabella with a pair of scissors. The incised area was opened and, after we checked the positions of the inferior cerebral vein and the sagittal suture, a 21-gauge needle was used to make two symmetrical holes with respect to the sagittal suture 3 mm below the inferior cerebral vein and 2 mm on either side of the sagittal suture. After images were obtained using micro-computed tomography, the degree of osteogenesis was quantitatively analyzed. In addition, mRNA extracted from the site of the defect confirmed a significant increase in mRNA levels of collagen 1a, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Runx2, known markers for osteoblasts. The promotion of osteogenesis could be observed at the site of the defect, by histological analysis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3764-3771, 2015. PMID:26053543

  11. The effect of peripheral lymphoid cells on the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease following allogeneic mouse bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz, R.; Ballinger, W.; Sachs, D.H.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1983-02-01

    Experiments were performed to study the role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation-induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras. The incidence of GVHD was reduced significantly in BALB/c leads to C57BL/6 radiation chimeras if bone marrow donors were exsanguinated immediately prior to marrow harvest. Chimeras resulting from the injection of bone marrow from bled donors exhibited only donor cells in spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood and normal levels of Thy 1+ and Ia+ cells were found in each of these lymphoid compartments. The addition of as few as 3 X 10(4) peripheral mononuclear cells to the marrow from exsanguinated donors uniformly led to lethal GVHD. /sup 51/Cr-labeled cell traffic studies revealed that prior exsanguination of marrow donors led to about a 70% reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells contaminating the bone marrow at the time of marrow harvest. This decrease in contaminating peripheral cells was calculated to be in the appropriate range to account for the decreased GVHD seen when marrow from exsanguinated donors was used. It thus appears that peripheral cells contaminating marrow can be an important factor in causing lethal GVHD in allogeneic radiation chimeras. These results raise the possibility that the fulminant GVHD seen in human marrow transplantation is in part due to the major contamination of bone marrow with peripheral blood that results from the techniques currently used for human bone marrow harvest.

  12. Primary cilia mediate mechanosensing in bone cells by a calcium-independent mechanism

    E-print Network

    Stearns, Tim

    and disuse. intracellular signaling mechanotransduction osteoblast osteocyte fluid flow Mammalian cells the compartments (lacunae) that house osteocytes within mineralized bone and through the channels (canaliculae

  13. Gene Expression Profiles in Human and Mouse Primary Cells Provide New Insights into the Differential Actions of Vitamin D3 Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Tuohimaa, Pentti; Wang, Jing-Huan; Khan, Sofia; Kuuslahti, Marianne; Qian, Kui; Manninen, Tommi; Auvinen, Petri; Vihinen, Mauno; Lou, Yan-Ru

    2013-01-01

    1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1?,25(OH)2D3) had earlier been regarded as the only active hormone. The newly identified actions of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3) broadened the vitamin D3 endocrine system, however, the current data are fragmented and a systematic understanding is lacking. Here we performed the first systematic study of global gene expression to clarify their similarities and differences. Three metabolites at physiologically comparable levels were utilized to treat human and mouse fibroblasts prior to DNA microarray analyses. Human primary prostate stromal P29SN cells (hP29SN), which convert 25(OH)D3 into 1?,25(OH)2D3 by 1?-hydroxylase (encoded by the gene CYP27B1), displayed regulation of 164, 171, and 175 genes by treatment with 1?,25(OH)2D3, 25(OH)D3, and 24R,25(OH)2D3, respectively. Mouse primary Cyp27b1 knockout fibroblasts (mCyp27b1?/?), which lack 1?-hydroxylation, displayed regulation of 619, 469, and 66 genes using the same respective treatments. The number of shared genes regulated by two metabolites is much lower in hP29SN than in mCyp27b1?/?. By using DAVID Functional Annotation Bioinformatics Microarray Analysis tools and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, we identified the agonistic regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone remodeling between 1?,25(OH)2D3 and 25(OH)D3 and unique non-classical actions of each metabolite in physiological and pathological processes, including cell cycle, keratinocyte differentiation, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis signaling, gene transcription, immunomodulation, epigenetics, cell differentiation, and membrane protein expression. In conclusion, there are three distinct vitamin D3 hormones with clearly different biological activities. This study presents a new conceptual insight into the vitamin D3 endocrine system, which may guide the strategic use of vitamin D3 in disease prevention and treatment. PMID:24116037

  14. Quantitative trait loci, genes, and polymorphisms that regulate bone mineral density in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qing; Jiao, Yan; Hasty, Karen A.; Canale, S. Terry; Stuart, John M.; Beamer, Wesley G.; Deng, Hong-Wen; Baylink, David; Gu, Weikuan

    2010-01-01

    This is an in silico analysis of data available from genome-wide scans. Through analysis of QTL, genes and polymorphisms that regulate BMD, we identified 82 BMD QTL, 191 BMD-associated (BMDA) genes, and 83 genes containing known BMD-associated polymorphisms (BMDAP). The catalogue of all BMDA/BMDAP genes and relevant literatures are provided. In total, there are substantially more BMDA/BMDAP genes in regions of the genome where QTL have been identified than in non-QTL regions. Among 191 BMDA genes and 83 BMDAP genes, 133 and 58 are localized in QTL region, respectively. The difference was still noticeable for the chromosome distribution of these genes between QTL and non-QTL regions. These results have allowed us to generate an integrative profile of QTL, genes, polymorphisms that determine BMD. These data could facilitate more rapid and comprehensive identification of causal genes underlying the determination of BMD in mouse and provide new insights into how BMD is regulated in humans. PMID:19150398

  15. Extracellular matrix mineralization in murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures: an ultrastructural, compositional and comparative analysis with mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Addison, W N; Nelea, V; Chicatun, F; Chien, Y-C; Tran-Khanh, N; Buschmann, M D; Nazhat, S N; Kaartinen, M T; Vali, H; Tecklenburg, M M; Franceschi, R T; McKee, M D

    2015-02-01

    Bone cell culture systems are essential tools for the study of the molecular mechanisms regulating extracellular matrix mineralization. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell cultures are the most commonly used in vitro model of bone matrix mineralization. Despite the widespread use of this cell line to study biomineralization, there is as yet no systematic characterization of the mineral phase produced in these cultures. Here we provide a comprehensive, multi-technique biophysical characterization of this cell culture mineral and extracellular matrix, and compare it to mouse bone and synthetic apatite mineral standards, to determine the suitability of MC3T3-E1 cultures for biomineralization studies. Elemental compositional analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed calcium and phosphorus, and trace amounts of sodium and magnesium, in both biological samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) on resin-embedded intact cultures demonstrated that similar to 1-month-old mouse bone, apatite crystals grew with preferential orientations along the (100), (101) and (111) mineral planes indicative of guided biogenic growth as opposed to dystrophic calcification. XRD of crystals isolated from the cultures revealed that the mineral phase was poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite with 10 to 20nm-sized nanocrystallites. Consistent with the XRD observations, electron diffraction patterns indicated that culture mineral had low crystallinity typical of biological apatites. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed apatitic carbonate and phosphate within the biological samples. With all techniques utilized, cell culture mineral and mouse bone mineral were remarkably similar. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy showed that the cultures had a dense fibrillar collagen matrix with small, 100nm-sized, collagen fibril-associated mineralization foci which coalesced to form larger mineral aggregates, and where mineralized sites showed the accumulation of the mineral-binding protein osteopontin. Light microscopy, confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions showed that some cells had dendritic processes and became embedded within the mineral in an osteocyte-like manner. In conclusion, we have documented characteristics of the mineral and matrix phases of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures, and have determined that the structural and compositional properties of the mineral are highly similar to that of mouse bone. PMID:25460184

  16. Establishment of Green Fluorescent Protein and Firefly Luciferase Expressing Mouse Primary Macrophages for In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pajarinen, Jukka; Lin, Tzu-hua; Sato, Taishi; Loi, Florence; Yao, Zhenyu; Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Goodman, Stuart B.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play a key role in tissue homeostasis as well as in a range of pathological conditions including atherosclerosis, cancer, and autoimmunity. Many aspects of their in vivo behavior are, however, poorly understood. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and firefly luciferase (FLUC) labelled autologous reporter macrophages could potentially offer a powerful tool to study macrophage biology, but this approach has been hindered by the relative difficulty of efficient gene transfer into primary macrophages. Here we describe a straightforward method for producing large numbers of GFP/FLUC expressing mouse primary macrophages utilizing lentivirus vector, cyclosporine, and a double infection strategy. Using this method we achieved up to 60% of macrophages to express GFP with correspondingly high FLUC signal. When injected into the circulation using a mouse model of local biomaterial induced inflammation and osteolysis, macrophages were initially detectable within the lungs, followed by systemic homing to the local area of chronic inflammation in the distal femur. In addition, transduced macrophages maintained their ability to assume M1 and M2 phenotypes although the GFP/FLUC expression was altered by the polarizing signals. These reporter macrophages could prove to be valuable tools to study the role of macrophages in health and disease. PMID:26555613

  17. FDG-PET/CT Imaging Predicts Histopathologic Treatment Responses after Neoadjuvant Therapy in Adult Primary Bone Sarcomas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Benz, Matthias R.; Czernin, Johannes; Tap, William D.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Allen-Auerbach, Martin S.; Dry, Sarah M.; Phelps, Michael E.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Eilber, Fritz C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether FDG-PET allows an accurate assessment of histopathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment in adult patients with primary bone sarcomas.Methods. Twelve consecutive patients with resectable, primary high grade bone sarcomas were enrolled prospectively. FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed prior to the initiation and after completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Imaging findings were correlated with histopathologic response.Results. Histopathologic responders showed significantly more pronounced decreases in tumor FDG-SUVmax from baseline to late follow up than non-responders (64±19% versus29±30%, resp.;P=.03). Using a 60% decrease in tumor FDG-uptake as a threshold for metabolic response correctly classified 3more »of 4 histopathologic responders and 7 of 8 histopathologic non-responders as metabolic responders and non-responders, respectively (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 88%).Conclusion. These results suggest that changes in FDG-SUVmax at the end of neoadjuvant treatment can identify histopathologic responders and non-responders in adult primary bone sarcoma patients.« less

  18. Early-Stage Primary Bone Lymphoma: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network (RCN) Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Ling; Stauder, Michael C.; Zhang Yujing; Poortmans, Philip; Li Yexiong; Constantinou, Nicolaos; Thariat, Juliette; Kadish, Sidney P.; Nguyen, Tan Dat; Kirova, Youlia M.; Ghadjar, Pirus; Weber, Damien C.; Bertran, Victoria Tuset; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) represents less than 1% of all malignant lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the disease profile, outcome, and prognostic factors in patients with Stages I and II PBL. Patients and Methods: Thirteen Rare Cancer Network (RCN) institutions enrolled 116 consecutive patients with PBL treated between 1987 and 2008 in this study. Eighty-seven patients underwent chemoradiotherapy (CXRT) without (78) or with (9) surgery, 15 radiotherapy (RT) without (13) or with (2) surgery, and 14 chemotherapy (CXT) without (9) or with (5) surgery. Median RT dose was 40 Gy (range, 4-60). The median number of CXT cycles was six (range, 2-8). Median follow-up was 41 months (range, 6-242). Results: The overall response rate at the end of treatment was 91% (complete response [CR] 74%, partial response [PR] 17%). Local recurrence or progression was observed in 12 (10%) patients and systemic recurrence in 17 (15%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), lymphoma-specific survival (LSS), and local control (LC) were 76%, 78%, and 92%, respectively. In univariate analyses (log-rank test), favorable prognostic factors for OS and LSS were International Prognostic Index (IPI) score {<=}1 (p = 0.009), high-grade histology (p = 0.04), CXRT (p = 0.05), CXT (p = 0.0004), CR (p < 0.0001), and RT dose >40 Gy (p = 0.005). For LC, only CR and Stage I were favorable factors. In multivariate analysis, IPI score, RT dose, CR, and CXT were independently influencing the outcome (OS and LSS). CR was the only predicting factor for LC. Conclusion: This large multicenter retrospective study confirms the good prognosis of early-stage PBL treated with combined CXRT. An adequate dose of RT and complete CXT regime were associated with better outcome.

  19. The Use of Structural Allograft in Primary and Revision Knee Arthroplasty with Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kuchinad, Raul A.; Garbedian, Shawn; Rogers, Benedict A.; Backstein, David; Safir, Oleg; Gross, Allan E.

    2011-01-01

    Bone loss around the knee in the setting of total knee arthroplasty remains a difficult and challenging problem for orthopaedic surgeons. There are a number of options for dealing with smaller and contained bone loss; however, massive segmental bone loss has fewer options. Small, contained defects can be treated with cement, morselized autograft/allograft or metal augments. Segmental bone loss cannot be dealt with through simple addition of cement, morselized autograft/allograft, or metal augments. For younger or higher demand patients, the use of allograft is a good option as it provides a durable construct with high rates of union while restoring bone stock for future revisions. Older patients, or those who are low demand, may be better candidates for a tumour prosthesis, which provides immediate ability to weight bear and mobilize. PMID:21991418

  20. Brahmarasayana protects against Ethyl methanesulfonate or Methyl methanesulfonate induced chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Rasayana is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda which refers to rejuvenant therapy. It has been reported that rasayanas have immuno-modulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions, however, the genotoxic potential and modulation of DNA repair of many rasayanas have not been evaluated. Methods The present study assessed the role of Brahmarasayana (BR) on Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-and Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced genotoxicity and DNA repair in in vivo mouse test system. The mice were orally fed with BR (5?g or 8?mg / day) for two months and 24?h later EMS or MMS was given intraperitoneally. The genotoxicity was analyzed by chromosomal aberrations, sperm count, and sperm abnormalities. Results The results have revealed that BR did not induce significant chromosomal aberrations when compared to that of the control animals (p >0.05). On the other hand, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS (240?mg / kg body weight) or MMS (125?mg?/?kg body weight) were significantly higher (p<0.05) to that of the control group. The treatment of BR for 60?days and single dose of EMS or MMS on day 61, resulted in significant (p <0.05) reduction in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in comparison to EMS or MMS treatment alone, indicating a protective effect of BR. Constitutive base excision repair capacity was also increased in BR treated animals. Conclusion The effect of BR, as it relates to antioxidant activity was not evident in liver tissue however rasayana treatment was observed to increase constitutive DNA base excision repair and reduce clastogenicity. Whilst, the molecular mechanisms of such repair need further exploration, this is the first report to demonstrate these effects and provides further evidence for the role of brahmarasayana in the possible improvement of quality of life. PMID:22853637

  1. Interactions of silver nanoparticles with primary mouse fibroblasts and liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, S.; Jain, J.; Rajwade, J.M.; Paknikar, K.M.

    2009-05-01

    Primary cells are ideal for in vitro toxicity studies since they closely resemble tissue environment. Here, we report a detailed study on the in vitro interactions of 7-20 nm spherical silver nanoparticles (SNP) with primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells isolated from Swiss albino mice. The intended use of silver nanoparticles is in the form of a topical antimicrobial gel formulation for the treatment of burns and wounds. Upon exposure to SNP for 24 h, morphology of primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells remained unaltered up to 25 {mu}g/mL and 100 {mu}g/mL SNP, respectively, although with minor decrease in confluence. IC{sub 50} values for primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells as revealed by XTT assay were 61 {mu}g/mL and 449 {mu}g/mL, respectively. Ultra-thin sections of primary cells exposed to 1/2 IC{sub 50} SNP for 24 h, visualized under Transmission electron microscope showed the presence of dark, electron dense, spherical aggregates inside the mitochondria, and cytoplasm, probably representing the intracellular SNP. When the cells were challenged with {approx} 1/2 IC{sub 50} concentration of SNP (i.e. 30 {mu}g/mL and 225 {mu}g/mL for primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells, respectively), enhancement of GSH ({approx} 1.2 fold) and depletion of lipid peroxidation ({approx} 1.4 fold) were seen in primary fibroblasts which probably protect the cells from functional damage. In case of primary liver cells; increased levels of SOD ({approx} 1.4 fold) and GSH ({approx} 1.1 fold) as compared to unexposed cells were observed. Caspase-3 activity assay indicated that the SNP concentrations required for the onset of apoptosis were found to be much lower (3.12 {mu}g/mL in primary fibroblasts, 12.5 {mu}g/mL in primary liver cells) than the necrotic concentration (100 {mu}g/mL in primary fibroblasts, 500 {mu}g/mL in primary liver cells). These observations were confirmed by CLSM studies by exposure of cells to 1/2 IC{sub 50} SNP (resulting in apoptosis) and 2x IC{sub 50}) cells (resulting in necrosis). These results clearly suggest that although silver nanoparticles seem to enter the eukaryotic cells, cellular antioxidant mechanisms protect the cells from possible oxidative damage. This property, in conjunction with the finding that primary cells possess much higher SNP tolerance than the concentration in the gel ({approx} 20 {mu}g/g), indicates preliminary safety of the formulation and warrants further study for possible human application.

  2. The accuracy of computer-assisted primary mandibular reconstruction with vascularized bone flaps: iliac crest bone flap versus osteomyocutaneous fibula flap

    PubMed Central

    Modabber, Ali; Ayoub, Nassim; Möhlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Goloborodko, Evgeny; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Ghassemi, Mehrangiz; Loberg, Christina; Lethaus, Bernd; Ghassemi, Alireza; Hölzle, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background The intention of mandibular reconstruction is to restore the complex anatomy with maximum possible functionality and high accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of computer-assisted surgery in primary mandibular reconstruction with an iliac crest bone flap compared with an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap. Materials and methods Preoperative computed tomography data of the mandible and the iliac crest or fibula donor site were imported into a specific surgical planning software program. Surgical guides were manufactured using a rapid prototyping technique for translating the virtual plan, including information on the transplant dimensions and shape, into real-time surgery. Using postoperative computed tomography scans and an automatic surface-comparison algorithm, the actual postoperative situation was compared with the preoperative virtual simulation. Results The actual flap position showed a mean difference from the virtual plan of 2.43 mm (standard deviation [SD] ±1.26) and a surface deviation of 39% <2 mm and 15% <1 mm for the iliac crest bone flap, and a mean difference of 2.18 mm (SD ±1.93) and a surface deviation of 60% <2 mm and 37% <1 mm for the osteomyocutaneous fibula flap. The position of the neomandible reconstructed with an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap indicated a mean difference from the virtual plan of 1.25 mm (SD ±1.31) and a surface deviation of 82% <2 mm and 57% <1 mm, in contrast to a mean difference of 1.68 mm (SD ±1.25) and a surface deviation of 63% <2 mm and 38% <1 mm for the neomandible after reconstruction with an iliac crest bone flap. For shape analysis, a similarly high accuracy could be calculated for both flaps. Conclusion Virtual surgical planning is an effective method for mandibular reconstruction with vascularized bone flaps, and can help to restore the anatomy of the mandible with high accuracy in position and shape. It seems that primary mandibular reconstruction with the osteomyocutaneous fibula flap is more accurate compared with the vascularized iliac crest bone flap. PMID:24966700

  3. The production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) by primary bone cells is shear stress dependent.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A D; Soejima, K; Klein-Nulend, J; Burger, E H

    2001-05-01

    Loading-induced flow of interstitial fluid through the lacuno-canalicular network is a likely signal for bone cell adaptive responses. However, the nature of the stimulus that activates the cell is debated. Candidate stimuli include wall shear stress, streaming potentials, and chemotransport. We have addressed the nature of the flow-derived cell stimulus by comparing variations in fluid transport with variations in wall shear stress, using nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production as a parameter of bone cell activation. Adult mouse long bone cell cultures were treated for 15min with or without pulsating fluid flow using the following regimes: Low PFF, mean flow rate 0.20 cm(3)/s, 3 Hz, shear stress 0.4+/-0.12 Pa; Medium PFF, 0.33 cm(3)/s, 5 Hz, 0.6+/-0.27 Pa; and High PFF, 0.63 cm(3)/s, 9Hz, 1.2+/-0.37 Pa. In some Low PFF experiments, 2.8% neutral dextran (mol. wt. 4.98x10(4)) was added to the flow medium to increase the viscosity, thereby increasing the wall shear stress 3-fold to a level similar of the High PFF stimulus, but without affecting streaming potentials or chemotransport. NO and PGE(2) production were stimulated by Low, Medium, and High PFF in a dose-dependent manner. Application of Low PFF using dextran-supplemented medium, enhanced both the NO and PGE(2) response by 3-fold, to a level mimicking the response to High PFF at normal viscosity. These results show that the production of NO and PGE(2) by bone cells can be enhanced in a dose-dependent manner by fluid flow of increasing wall shear stress. Therefore, the stimulus leading to NO and PGE(2) production is the flow-derived shear stress, and not streaming potentials or chemotransport. PMID:11311708

  4. A mouse model of luciferase-transfected stromal cells of giant cell tumor of bone.

    PubMed

    Lau, Carol P Y; Wong, Kwok Chuen; Huang, Lin; Li, Gang; Tsui, Stephen K W; Kumta, Shekhar Madhukar

    2015-11-01

    A major barrier towards the study of the effects of drugs on Giant Cell Tumor of Bone (GCT) has been the lack of an animal model. In this study, we created an animal model in which GCT stromal cells survived and functioned as proliferating neoplastic cells. A proliferative cell line of GCT stromal cells was used to create a stable and luciferase-transduced cell line, Luc-G33. The cell line was characterized and was found that there were no significant differences on cell proliferation rate and recruitment of monocytes when compared with the wild type GCT stromal cells. We delivered the Luc-G33 cells either subcutaneously on the back or to the tibiae of the nude mice. The presence of viable Luc-G33 cells was assessed using real-time live imaging by the IVIS 200 bioluminescent imaging (BLI) system. The tumor cells initially propagated and remained viable on site for 7 weeks in the subcutaneous tumor model. We also tested in vivo antitumor effects of Zoledronate (ZOL) and Geranylgeranyl transferase-I inhibitor (GGTI-298) alone or their combinations in Luc-G33-transplanted nude mice. ZOL alone at 400?µg/kg and the co-treatment of ZOL at 400?µg/kg and GGTI-298 at 1.16?mg/kg reduced tumor cell viability in the model. Furthermore, the anti-tumor effects by ZOL, GGTI-298 and the co-treatment in subcutaneous tumor model were also confirmed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. In conclusion, we established a nude mice model of GCT stromal cells which allows non-invasive, real-time assessments of tumor development and testing the in vivo effects of different adjuvants for treating GCT. PMID:26327464

  5. CS-13BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN SIGNALING PROMOTES TUMORIGENESIS IN A TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODEL OF GLIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Hover, Laura; Owens, Philip; Munden, Alex; Abel, Ty

    2014-01-01

    Improved therapies for high grade glioma (HGG) are imperative, as the median survival after diagnosis with grade IV glioma is 15 months. Recently pathways regulating neural development, such as the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway, have been investigated as potential therapeutic targets in HGG. In xenograft transplant models, BMP signaling has been shown to have a tumor suppressive effect on the subpopulation of cells known as glioma-initiating or glioma stem cells. However, the degree to which BMP signaling plays a role in the bulk tumor cells or the more differentiated component in HGG is unknown. To investigate these questions we used both human samples of HGG and a novel murine model of human HGG established in our laboratory. We determined that BMP signaling is present and active in human HGG using a human HGG tissue-microarray. Our analysis of phospho-smad1/5/8 staining suggests that BMP signaling is present and active in most cells in many HGG gliomas, suggesting that BMP signaling is not limited to the glioma stem cell compartment. To examine the role of BMP signaling in differentiated, tumorigenic astrocytes, we deleted the BMP type IA receptor gene (Bmpr1a) in transformed astrocytes, effectively abrogating canonical BMP signaling in these cells. The cells were then transplanted orthotopically into immunocompetent adult host mice. Preliminary data suggest that, while BMP signaling may be tumor suppressive in stem-like cells, it acts as a tumor promoter in differentiated tumorigenic astrocytes. Compared to controls receiving cells with intact Bmpr1a, mice receiving Bmpr1a-knockout cells showed a significant increase in survival time upon orthotopic injection (21 vs. 52 days, p = 0.001). In vitro, deletion of Bmpr1a in oncogenic astrocytes resulted in decreased proliferation and increased Olig2 expression. Studies to further investigate the role of BMPs in HGG are underway.

  6. ``In-bone'' Utricle CulturesVA Simplified, Atraumatic Technique for In Situ Cultures of the Adult Mouse

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    Mouse (Mus musculus) Utricle *§Henry C. Ou, *Vincent Lin, and *Edwin W. Rubel *Virginia Merrill Bloedel is a reliable and atraumatic technique for cultur- ing mature mouse hair cells and studying hair cell death and protection. Background: The current in vitro technique for studying hair cells of the mature mouse utricle

  7. Genotoxic, Cytotoxic, Antigenotoxic, and Anticytotoxic Effects of Sulfonamide Chalcone Using the Ames Test and the Mouse Bone Marrow Micronucleus Test

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Flávio Fernandes Veloso; Bernardes, Aline; Perez, Caridad Noda; Silva, Daniela de Melo e

    2015-01-01

    Chalcones present several biological activities and sulfonamide chalcone derivatives have shown important biological applications, including antitumor activity. In this study, genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic activities of the sulfonamide chalcone N-{4-[3-(4-nitrophenyl)prop-2-enoyl]phenyl} benzenesulfonamide (CPN) were assessed using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test (Ames test) and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The results showed that CPN caused a small increase in the number of histidine revertant colonies in S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The antimutagenicity test showed that CPN significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants in strain TA98 at all doses tested (p < 0.05), whereas in strain TA100 this occurred only at doses higher than 50 ?g/plate (p < 0.05). The results of the micronucleus test indicated that CPN significantly increased the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) at 24 h and 48 h, revealing a genotoxic effect of this compound. Also, a significant decrease in polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCE/NCE) was observed at the higher doses of CPN at 24 h and 48 h (p < 0.05), indicating its cytotoxic action. CPN co-administered with mitomycin C (MMC) significantly decreased the frequency of MNPCE at almost all doses tested at 24 h (p < 0.05), showing its antigenotoxic activity, and also presented a small decrease in MNPCE at 48 h (p > 0.05). Additionally, CPN co-administered with MMC significantly increased PCE/NCE ratio at all doses tested, demonstrating its anticytotoxic effect. In summary, CPN presented genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic properties. PMID:26335560

  8. GATA2 is critical for the maintenance of cellular identity in differentiated mast cells derived from mouse bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Shin'ya; Moriguchi, Takashi; Noguchi, Yuki; Ikeda, Muneharu; Kobayashi, Kota; Tomaru, Nazuki; Ishijima, Yasushi; Ohneda, Osamu; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Ohneda, Kinuko

    2015-05-21

    GATA2 plays a crucial role for the mast cell fate decision. We herein demonstrate that GATA2 is also required for the maintenance of the cellular identity in committed mast cells derived from mouse bone marrow (BMMCs). The deletion of the GATA2 DNA binding domain (GATA2?CF) in BMMCs resulted in a loss of the mast cell phenotype and an increase in the number of CD11b- and/or Ly6G/C-positive cells. These cells showed the ability to differentiate into macrophage- and neutrophil-like cells but not into eosinophils. Although the mRNA levels of basophil-specific genes were elevated, CD49b, a representative basophil marker, never appeared on these cells. GATA2 ablation led to a significant upregulation of C/EBP?, and forced expression of C/EBP? in wild-type BMMCs phenocopied the GATA2?CF cells. Interestingly, simultaneous deletion of the Gata2 and Cebpa genes in BMMCs restored the aberrant increases of CD11b and Ly6G/C while retaining the reduced c-Kit expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that GATA2 directly binds to the +37-kb region of the Cebpa gene and thereby inhibits the RUNX1 and PU.1 binding to the neighboring region. Upregulation of C/EBP? following the loss of GATA2 was not observed in cultured mast cells derived from peritoneal fluid, whereas the repression of c-Kit and other mast cell-specific genes were observed in these cells. Collectively, these results indicate that GATA2 maintains cellular identity by preventing Cebpa gene activation in a subpopulation of mast cells, whereas it plays a fundamental role as a positive regulator of mast cell-specific genes throughout development of this cell lineage. PMID:25855601

  9. Prostaglandin E2 Production and T Cell Function in Mouse Adenovirus Type 1 Infection following Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Mary K.; Procario, Megan C.; Wilke, Carol A.; Moore, Bethany B.; Weinberg, Jason B.

    2015-01-01

    Adenovirus infections are important complications of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We demonstrate delayed clearance of mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) from lungs of mice following allogeneic BMT. Virus-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was greater in BMT mice than in untransplanted controls, but BMT using PGE2-deficient donors or recipients failed to improve viral clearance, and treatment of untransplanted mice with the PGE2 analog misoprostol did not affect virus clearance. Lymphocyte recruitment to the lungs was not significantly affected by BMT. Intracellular cytokine staining of lung lymphocytes demonstrated impaired production of INF-? and granzyme B by cells from BMT mice, and production of IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-17 following ex vivo stimulation was impaired in lymphocytes obtained from lungs of BMT mice. Viral clearance was not delayed in untransplanted INF-?-deficient mice, suggesting that delayed viral clearance in BMT mice was not a direct consequence of impaired IFN-? production. However, lung viral loads were higher in untransplanted CD8-deficient mice than in controls, suggesting that delayed MAV-1 clearance in BMT mice is due to defective CD8 T cell function. We did not detect significant induction of IFN-? expression in lungs of BMT mice or untransplanted controls, and viral clearance was not delayed in untransplanted type I IFN-unresponsive mice. We conclude that PGE2 overproduction in BMT mice is not directly responsible for delayed viral clearance. PGE2-independent effects on CD8 T cell function likely contribute to the inability of BMT mice to clear MAV-1 from the lungs. PMID:26407316

  10. [Effects of zinc deficiency on the c-fos gene expression and transcription in the epiphyses of fetal mouse long bone in culture].

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Yang, Q; Liu, K; Li, L

    2000-03-30

    The effects of zinc on c-fos gene expression and transcription in the epiphyses of fetal long bone were studied in mice. The long bones of 16-day fetal mouse were cultured for 48 hours(in medium GBJb) and then used for measuring c-fos gene expression and transcription by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The result was analyzed by an imaged-analyses system. The experiment was divided into zinc control group(ZC), zinc deficiency group(ZD), zinc deficiency replenish group(ZDR) and zinc stimulatory group(ZS) respectively. The result showed that 1) zinc deficiency caused c-fos protein and mRNA expression and the number of reactive cell decreased. 2) when zinc concentration of medium was 100 mumol/L, the expression and transcription of c-fos gene were increased in hypertrophic, proliferative and resting zone of epiphyses. The research suggested that zinc could affect the expression of c-fos gene in mouse fetal long bone. PMID:12725090

  11. Human primary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) subtype-specific pathology is preserved in a mouse intraductal (MIND) xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Kelli Elizabeth; Fan, Fang; Smith, William; Allred, D Craig; Medina, Daniel; Behbod, Fariba

    2011-12-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor of invasive breast cancer. The current recognition that DCIS lesions exhibit inter- and intra-lesion diversity suggests that the process of evolution to invasive breast cancer is more complex than previously recognized. Here we demonstrate the reproducible growth of primary DCIS cells derived from patient's surgical and biopsy samples by the mouse intraductal (MIND) model. MIND involves injection of cells into the NOD-SCID IL2Rgamma$^{{\\rm{null}}}$ (NSG) mouse mammary ducts. Twelve (eight unique and four repeats) DCIS and two atypical hyperplasia specimens, heterogeneous with respect to biomarker expression and histology, were injected into 48 mouse mammary glands and analysed for successful xenotransplantation. Overall, 14/34 and 11/14 MIND xenotransplanted glands contained human DCIS and atypical hyperplastic cells, respectively, after 8 weeks, which formed single and multi-layered epithelium inside the ducts, and were heterogeneous with respect to expression of human cytokeratins, oestrogen receptor ? (ER), and HER2. ER protein expression was recapitulated in MIND xenografts at ratios similar to the corresponding patient biopsies. In both patient biopsies and corresponding MIND xenografts, HER2 protein expression and nuclear HER2 gene overexpression were restricted to the DCIS lesions and were not found in the surrounding stroma or normal ducts. The xenografted DCIS lesions recapitulate the pathology and heterogeneity of human disease, thus providing a powerful tool for the characterization of the distinct cellular and molecular basis of inter- and intra-tumoural heterogeneity and the processes of DCIS to early invasive breast cancer progression. PMID:22025213

  12. Human primary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) subtype-specific pathology is preserved in a mouse intraductal (MIND) xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Kelli Elizabeth; Fang, Fan; Smith, William; Allred, D. Craig; Medina, Daniel; Behbod, Fariba

    2012-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor of invasive breast cancer. The current recognition that DCIS lesions exhibit inter- and intra-lesion diversity suggests that the process of evolution to invasive breast cancer is more complex than previously recognized. Here we demonstrate the reproducible growth of primary DCIS cells derived from patient’s surgical and biopsy samples by the mouse intraductal (MIND) model. MIND involves injection of cells into the NOD-SCID IL2Rgammanull (NSG) mouse mammary ducts. Twelve (8 unique and 4 repeats) DCIS and 2 atypical hyperplasia specimens, heterogeneous with respect to biomarker expression and histology, were injected into 48 mouse mammary glands and analyzed for successful xenotransplantation. Overall, 14/34 and 11/14 of MIND xenotransplanted glands contained human DCIS and atypical hyperplastic cells, respectively, after 8 weeks, which formed single and multi-layered epithelium inside the ducts, and were heterogeneous with respect to expression of human cytokeratins, estrogen receptor ? (ER), and HER2. ER protein expression was recapitulated in MIND xenografts at ratios similar to the corresponding patient biopsies. In both patient biopsies and corresponding MIND xenografts HER2 protein expression and nuclear HER2 gene over-expression was restricted to the DCIS lesions and were not found in the surrounding stroma or normal ducts. The xenografted DCIS lesions recapitulate the pathology and heterogeneity of human disease thus providing a powerful tool for the characterization of the distinct cellular and molecular basis of inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity and the processes of DCIS to early invasive breast cancer progression. PMID:22025213

  13. Effects of heavy ion to the primary culture of mouse brain cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Kohno, Yukio; Vazquez, Marcelo E.; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    To investigate effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to CNS system, we adopted mouse neonatal brain cells in culture being exposed to heavy ions by HIMAC at NIRS and NSRL at BNL. The applied dose varied from 0.05 Gy up to 2.0 Gy. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and neuron survival focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains, SCID, B6, B6C3F1, C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive and C3H the least sensitive to particle radiation as evaluated by 10% apoptotic criterion. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID and B6 cells exposing to different ions (H, C, Ne, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed in the high LET (55-200 keV/micrometers) and low dose (<0.5 Gy) regions. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. In this report, a result of memory and learning function to adult mice after whole-body and brain local irradiation at carbon ion and iron ion.

  14. First Neuromuscular Contact Correlates with Onset of Primary Myogenesis in Rat and Mouse Limb Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Duxson, Marilyn J.; Deries, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle development has been the focus of intensive study for many decades. Recent advances in genetic manipulation of the mouse have increased our understanding of the cell signalling involved in the development of muscle progenitors which give rise to adult skeletal muscles and their stem cell populations. However, the influence of a vital tissue type – the peripheral nerve—has largely been ignored since its earliest descriptions. Here we carefully describe the timing in which myogenic progenitors expressing Pax3 and Pax7 (the earliest markers of myogenic cells) enter the limb buds of rat and mouse embryos, as well as the spatiotemporal relationship between these progenitors and the ingrowing peripheral nerve. We show that progenitors expressing Pax3 enter the limb bud one full day ahead of the first neurites and that Pax7-expressing progenitors (associated with secondary myogenesis in the limb) are first seen in the limb bud at the time of nerve entry and in close proximity to the nerve. The initial entry of the nerve also coincides with the first expression of myosin heavy chain showing that the first contact between nerves and myogenic cells correlates with the onset of myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, as the nerve grows into the limb, Pax3 expression is progressively replaced by Pax7 expression in myogenic progenitors. These findings indicate that the ingrowing nerve enters the limb presumptive muscle masses earlier than what was generally described and raises the possibility that nerve may influence the differentiation of muscle progenitors in rodent limbs. PMID:26207754

  15. Co-regulation of primary mouse hepatocyte viability and function by oxygen and matrix

    E-print Network

    Buck, Lorenna D.

    Although oxygen and extracellular matrix cues both influence differentiation state and metabolic function of primary rat and human hepatocytes, relatively little is known about how these factors together regulate behaviors ...

  16. Activation of antioxidant response element in mouse primary cortical cultures with sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum parthenium

    PubMed Central

    Fischedick, Justin T; Standiford, Miranda; Johnson, Delinda A.; De Vos, Ric C.H.; Todorovi?, Sla?ana; Banjanac, Tijana; Verpoorte, Rob; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Tanacetum parthenium (Asteraceae) produces biologically active sesquiterpene lactones (SL). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate a series of genes termed the antioxidant response element (ARE). Activation of the Nrf2/ARE may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we isolated 11 sesquiterpene lactones from T. parthenium with centrifugal partition chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Compounds were screened in-vitro for their ability to activate the ARE on primary mouse cortical cultures as well as for their toxicity towards the cultures. All sesquiterpene lactones containing the ?-methylene-?-lactone moiety were able to activate the ARE although a number of compounds displayed significant cellular toxicity towards the cultures. The structure activity relationship of the sesquiterpene lactones indicate that the guaianolides isolated were more active and less toxic then the germacranolides. PMID:22923197

  17. The primary locus of motor neuron death in an ALS-PDC mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Grace; Chu, Tony; Shaw, Christopher A

    2009-09-23

    A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism-dementia complex based on the consumption of cycad seed flour was used to determine whether the observed pathology of motor neuron loss begins in the distal axons or the spinal cord. Assessments of neuromuscular junction integrity and motor neurons were performed at multiple time points. Mice fed cycad pellets performed worse on the wire hang than controls. Microglial activation in cycad-fed mice was observed with motor neuron degeneration at 12 weeks, but reactive astrocyte proliferation was not observed. After 33 weeks of cycad feeding, motor neuron loss had stabilized, with no evidence of neuromuscular junction endplate denervation. These data suggest that neuronal pathology begins at the soma and proceeds distally in a 'dying forward' pattern. PMID:19633581

  18. Expressional Analysis of GFP-Tagged Cells in an In Vivo Mouse Model of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S; Singh, M; Mak, I; Ghert, M

    2013-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone in a neoplastic stromal cell which survives for multiple passages in primary cell culture with a stable phenotype. In the pathological environment of GCT, the neoplastic nature of the mesenchymal stromal component drives local hematopoietic precursors to undergo fusion and form multinucleated osteoclast like giant cells. There is currently very limited knowledge about the pathogenesis of GCT due to the lack of suitable in vivo models for this tumor. Here we report stable gene transfer of Green fluorescence protein (GFP) in GCT stromal cells. In the present study, we have used GCT stromal cells that stably express enhanced green fluorescence protein (GFP) that are used in a new in vivo culture model. Our results show the utility of the GFP tagged cell lines that stably express GFP signals up to 52 weeks of continuous growth. The in vivo model described herein can serve as an excellent system for in vivo therapeutic and mechanistic evaluation of existing and novel targets for GCT. PMID:23730372

  19. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  20. Cured of Primary Bone Cancer, But at What Cost: A Qualitative Study of Functional Impairment and Lost Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Fauske, Lena; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Grov, Ellen Karine; Bondevik, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Our study aims to explore how former cancer patients experience physical and psychosocial late effects 3–7 years after they underwent treatment for primary bone sarcoma in the hip/pelvic region. A qualitative, phenomenological, and hermeneutic design was applied. Methods. Sarcoma survivors (n = 10) previously treated at Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital were selected to participate. In-depth and semistructured interviews were conducted. The interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results. The participants reported that the late effects had three core spheres of impact: “their current daily life,” “their future opportunities,” and “their identity.” They expressed negative changes in activity, increased dependence on others, and exclusion from participation in different areas. Their daily life, work, sports activities, and social life were all affected. Several of their experiences are similar to those described by people with functional impairment or disability. Conclusion. Patients cured of bone cancer in the hip/pelvic region pay a significant price in terms of functional impairment, practical challenges, exclusion from important aspects of life, and loss of previous identity. It is important to appreciate this in order to help bone cancer survivors who struggle to reorient their life and build a secure new identity. PMID:25949211

  1. Brg1 Controls the Expression of Pax7 to Promote Viability and Proliferation of Mouse Primary Myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Benavides, Teresita; Nasipak, Brian T; Imbalzano, Anthony N

    2015-12-01

    Brg1 (Brahma-related gene 1) is a catalytic component of the evolutionarily conserved mammalian SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes that disrupt histone-DNA contacts on the nucleosome. While the requirement for the SWI/SNF enzymes in cell differentiation has been extensively studied, its role in precursor cell proliferation and survival is not as well defined. Muscle satellite cells constitute the stem cell pool that sustains and regenerates myofibers in adult skeletal muscle. Here, we show that deletion of Brg1 in primary mouse myoblasts derived from muscle satellite cells cultured ex vivo leads to a cell proliferation defect and apoptosis. We determined that Brg1 regulates cell proliferation and survival by controlling chromatin remodeling and activating transcription at the Pax7 promoter, which is expressed during somite development and is required for controlling viability of the satellite cell population. Reintroduction of catalytically active Brg1 or of Pax7 into Brg1-deficient satellite cells rescued the apoptotic phenotype and restored proliferation. These data demonstrate that Brg1 functions as a positive regulator for cellular proliferation and survival of primary myoblasts. Therefore, the regulation of gene expression through Brg1-mediated chromatin remodeling is critical not just for skeletal muscle differentiation but for maintaining the myoblast population as well. PMID:26036967

  2. Zonisamide Enhances Neurite Elongation of Primary Motor Neurons and Facilitates Peripheral Nerve Regeneration In Vitro and in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Hideki; Ohkawara, Bisei; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Ishii, Hisao; Noto, Kimitoshi; Ohta, Kyotaro; Masuda, Akio; Imagama, Shiro; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2015-01-01

    No clinically applicable drug is currently available to enhance neurite elongation after nerve injury. To identify a clinically applicable drug, we screened pre-approved drugs for neurite elongation in the motor neuron-like NSC34 cells. We found that zonisamide, an anti-epileptic and anti-Parkinson’s disease drug, promoted neurite elongation in cultured primary motor neurons and NSC34 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The neurite-scratch assay revealed that zonisamide enhanced neurite regeneration. Zonisamide was also protective against oxidative stress-induced cell death of primary motor neurons. Zonisamide induced mRNA expression of nerve growth factors (BDNF, NGF, and neurotrophin-4/5), and their receptors (tropomyosin receptor kinase A and B). In a mouse model of sciatic nerve autograft, intragastric administration of zonisamide for 1 week increased the size of axons distal to the transected site 3.9-fold. Zonisamide also improved the sciatic function index, a marker for motor function of hindlimbs after sciatic nerve autograft, from 6 weeks after surgery. At 8 weeks after surgery, zonisamide was protective against denervation-induced muscle degeneration in tibialis anterior, and increased gene expression of Chrne, Colq, and Rapsn, which are specifically expressed at the neuromuscular junction. We propose that zonisamide is a potential therapeutic agent for peripheral nerve injuries as well as for neuropathies due to other etiologies. PMID:26571146

  3. Cross-species bone marrow transplantation: Evidence for tolerance induction, stem cell engraftment, and maturation of T lymphocytes in a xenogeneic stromal environment (rat----mouse)

    SciTech Connect

    Ildstad, S.T.; Wren, S.M.; Boggs, S.S.; Hronakes, M.L.; Vecchini, F.; Van den Brink, M.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Transplantation of untreated F344 rat bone marrow into irradiated B10 mouse recipients (non-TCD F344----B10) to produce fully xenogeneic chimeras resulted in stable xenogeneic lymphoid chimerism, ranging from 82% to 97% rat. Survival of animals was excellent, without evidence for GVH disease. The specificity of tolerance which resulted was highly donor-specific; MHC disparate third party mouse and rat skin grafts were promptly rejected while donor-specific F344 grafts were significantly prolonged (MST greater than 130 days). Multi-lineage rat stem cell-derived progeny including lymphoid cells (T- and B-lymphocytes), myeloid cells, erythrocytes, platelets, and natural killer (NK) cells were present in the fully xenogenic chimeras up to 7 months after bone marrow transplantation. Immature rat T-lymphocytes matured and acquired the {alpha}/{beta} T-cell receptor in the thymus of chimeras in a pattern similar to normal rat controls, suggesting that immature T-lymphocytes of rat origin could interact with the murine xenogeneic thymic stroma to undergo normal maturation and differentiation. This model may be useful to study the mechanisms responsible for the induction and maintenance of donor-specific transplantation tolerance across a species barrier.

  4. Space Radiation and Bone Loss.

    PubMed

    Willey, Jeffrey S; Lloyd, Shane A J; Nelson, Gregory A; Bateman, Ted A

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

  5. Over-expression of Plk4 induces centrosome amplification, loss of primary cilia and associated tissue hyperplasia in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paula A; Bury, Leah; Shahbazi, Marta N; Liakath-Ali, Kifayathullah; Tate, Peri H; Wormald, Sam; Hindley, Christopher J; Huch, Meritxell; Archer, Joy; Skarnes, William C; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena; Glover, David M

    2015-12-01

    To address the long-known relationship between supernumerary centrosomes and cancer, we have generated a transgenic mouse that permits inducible expression of the master regulator of centriole duplication, Polo-like-kinase-4 (Plk4). Over-expression of Plk4 from this transgene advances the onset of tumour formation that occurs in the absence of the tumour suppressor p53. Plk4 over-expression also leads to hyperproliferation of cells in the pancreas and skin that is enhanced in a p53 null background. Pancreatic islets become enlarged following Plk4 over-expression as a result of equal expansion of ?- and ?-cells, which exhibit centrosome amplification. Mice overexpressing Plk4 develop grey hair due to a loss of differentiated melanocytes and bald patches of skin associated with a thickening of the epidermis. This reflects an increase in proliferating cells expressing keratin 5 in the basal epidermal layer and the expansion of these cells into suprabasal layers. Such cells also express keratin 6, a marker for hyperplasia. This is paralleled by a decreased expression of later differentiation markers, involucrin, filaggrin and loricrin. Proliferating cells showed an increase in centrosome number and a loss of primary cilia, events that were mirrored in primary cultures of keratinocytes established from these animals. We discuss how repeated duplication of centrioles appears to prevent the formation of basal bodies leading to loss of primary cilia, disruption of signalling and thereby aberrant differentiation of cells within the epidermis. The absence of p53 permits cells with increased centrosomes to continue dividing, thus setting up a neoplastic state of error prone mitoses, a prerequisite for cancer development. PMID:26701933

  6. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signals through SHP2 to regulate primary mouse myoblast proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ju; Reed, Sarah A.; Johnson, Sally E.

    2009-08-01

    Niche localized HGF plays an integral role in G{sub 0} exit and the return to mitotic activity of adult skeletal muscle satellite cells. HGF actions are regulated by MET initiated intracellular signaling events that include recruitment of SHP2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase. The importance of SHP2 in HGF-mediated signaling was examined in myoblasts and primary cultures of satellite cells. Myoblasts stably expressing SHP2 (23A2-SHP2) demonstrate increased proliferation rates by comparison to controls or myoblasts expressing a phosphatase-deficient SHP2 (23A2-SHP2DN). By comparison to 23A2 myoblasts, treatment of 23A2-SHP2 cells with HGF does not further increase proliferation rates and 23A2-SHP2DN myoblasts are unresponsive to HGF. Importantly, the effects of SHP2 are independent of downstream ERK1/2 activity as inclusion of PD98059 does not blunt the HGF-induced proliferative response. SHP2 function was further evaluated in primary satellite cell cultures. Ectopic expression of SHP2 in satellite cells tends to decrease proliferation rates and siSHP2 causes an increase the percentage of dividing myogenic cells. Interestingly, treatment of satellite cells with high concentrations of HGF (50 ng/ml) inhibits proliferation, which can be overcome by knockdown of SHP2. From these results, we conclude that HGF signals through SHP2 in myoblasts and satellite cells to directly alter proliferation rates.

  7. Impaired bone remodeling and its correction by combination therapy in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis-I.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Sonja C; Koehne, Till; Cornils, Kerstin; Markmann, Sandra; Riedel, Christoph; Pestka, Jan M; Schweizer, Michaela; Baldauf, Christina; Yorgan, Timur A; Krause, Matthias; Keller, Johannes; Neven, Mona; Breyer, Sandra; Stuecker, Ralf; Muschol, Nicole; Busse, Bjoern; Braulke, Thomas; Fehse, Boris; Amling, Michael; Schinke, Thorsten

    2015-12-15

    Mucopolysaccharidosis-I (MPS-I) is a lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by inactivating mutations of IDUA, encoding the glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzyme ?-l-iduronidase. Although MPS-I is associated with skeletal abnormalities, the impact of IDUA deficiency on bone remodeling is poorly defined. Here we report that Idua-deficient mice progressively develop a high bone mass phenotype with pathological lysosomal storage in cells of the osteoblast lineage. Histomorphometric quantification identified shortening of bone-forming units and reduced osteoclast numbers per bone surface. This phenotype was not transferable into wild-type mice by bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In contrast, the high bone mass phenotype of Idua-deficient mice was prevented by BMT from wild-type donors. At the cellular level, BMT did not only normalize defects of Idua-deficient osteoblasts and osteocytes but additionally caused increased osteoclastogenesis. Based on clinical observations in an individual with MPS-I, previously subjected to BMT and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), we treated Idua-deficient mice accordingly and found that combining both treatments normalized all histomorphometric parameters of bone remodeling. Our results demonstrate that BMT and ERT profoundly affect skeletal remodeling of Idua-deficient mice, thereby suggesting that individuals with MPS-I should be monitored for their bone remodeling status, before and after treatment, to avoid long-term skeletal complications. PMID:26427607

  8. A Direct Projection from Mouse Primary Visual Cortex to Dorsomedial Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian striatum receives inputs from many cortical areas, but the existence of a direct axonal projection from the primary visual cortex (V1) is controversial. In this study we use anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques to demonstrate that V1 directly innervates a topographically defined longitudinal strip of dorsomedial striatum in mice. We find that this projection forms functional excitatory synapses with direct and indirect pathway striatal projection neurons (SPNs) and engages feed-forward inhibition onto these cells. Importantly, stimulation of V1 afferents is sufficient to evoke phasic firing in SPNs. These findings therefore identify a striatal region that is functionally innervated by V1 and suggest that early visual processing may play an important role in striatal-based behaviors. PMID:25141172

  9. Development of Layer-specific Axonal Arborizations in Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, DeLaine D.; Callaway, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    In the developing neocortex, pyramidal neurons use molecular cues to form axonal arbors selectively in the correct layers. Despite the utility of mice for molecular and genetic studies, little work has been done on the development of layer-specific axonal arborizations of pyramidal neurons in mice. We intracellularly labeled and reconstructed the axons of layer 2/3 and layer 5 pyramidal neurons in slices of primary somatosensory cortex from C57Bl6 mice aged postnatal day 7–21. For all neurons studied, the development of the axonal arborizations in mice follows a pattern similar to that seen in other species; laminar specificity of the earliest axonal branches is similar to that of mature animals. At P7, pyramidal neurons are very simple, having only a main descending axon and few primary branches. Between P7 and P10 there is a large increase in the total number of axonal branches and axons continue to increase in complexity and total length from P10 to P21. Unlike observations in ferrets, cats, and monkeys, two types of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons are present in both mature and developing mice; cells in superficial layer 2/3 lack axonal arbors in layer 4 while cells close to the layer 4 border have substantial axonal arbors within layer 4. We also describe axonal and dendritic arborization patterns of three pyramidal cell types in layer 5. The axons of tall-tufted layer 5 pyramidal neurons arborize almost exclusively within deep layers while tall-simple and short layer 5 pyramidal neurons also project axons to superficial layers. PMID:16320250

  10. Triptolide inhibits osteoclast formation, bone resorption, RANKL-mediated NF-?B activation and titanium particle-induced osteolysis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianbin; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Huafei; Pavlos, Nathan; Chim, Shek Man; Liu, Qian; Zhao, Jinmin; Xue, Wei; Tan, Ren Xiang; Ye, Jiming; Xu, Jun; Ang, Estabelle S; Feng, Haotian; Tickner, Jennifer; Xu, Jiake; Ding, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The RANKL-induced NF-?B signaling pathway is required for osteoclast formation and function. By screening for compounds that inhibit RANKL-induced NF-?B activation using a luciferase reporter gene assay in RAW264.7 cells, we identified triptolide (PG490), as a candidate compound targeting osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast-mediated osteolysis. Triptolide (PG490) is an active compound of the medicinal herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF) or Lei Gong Teng with known anti-inflammatory properties. We found that triptolide inhibited osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, as well as RANKL-induced NF-?B activities as monitored by luciferase reporter gene assays and the nuclear translocation of p65. In vivo studies showed that triptolide attenuates titanium-induced osteolysis and osteoclast formation in a mouse calvarial model. Considering that drugs which protect against localized bone loss are critically needed for the effective treatment of particle-induced osteolysis, our data suggest that triptolide might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of bone lytic diseases caused by prosthetic wear particles. PMID:25448849

  11. The potential of materials analysis by electron rutherford backscattering as illustrated by a case study of mouse bones and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Vos, Maarten; Tökési, Károly; Benkö, Ilona

    2013-06-01

    Electron Rutherford backscattering (ERBS) is a new technique that could be developed into a tool for materials analysis. Here we try to establish a methodology for the use of ERBS for materials analysis of more complex samples using bone minerals as a test case. For this purpose, we also studied several reference samples containing Ca: calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) and hydroxyapatite and mouse bone powder. A very good understanding of the spectra of CaCO(3) and hydroxyapatite was obtained. Quantitative interpretation of the bone spectrum is more challenging. A good fit of these spectra is only obtained with the same peak widths as used for the hydroxyapatite sample, if one allows for the presence of impurity atoms with a mass close to that of Na and Mg. Our conclusion is that a meaningful interpretation of spectra of more complex samples in terms of composition is indeed possible, but only if widths of the peaks contributing to the spectra are known. Knowledge of the peak widths can either be developed by the study of reference samples (as was done here) or potentially be derived from theory. PMID:23642665

  12. Connexin43 gap junctions in normal, regenerating, and cultured mouse bone marrow and in human leukemias: their possible involvement in blood formation.

    PubMed Central

    Krenacs, T.; Rosendaal, M.

    1998-01-01

    Communicating channels called gap junctions are thought to play a ubiquitous part in cell growth and development. Based on earlier work, we have recently found functional evidence of their presence in human and mouse bone marrow. In this study we studied the cell-type association of the gap junction channel-forming protein, connexin, in mouse and human bone marrow under different physiological and pathological conditions and tested the pathway of communication in bone marrow cultures. For high-resolution antigen demonstration we took advantage of semi-thin resin sections, antigen retrieval methods, immunofluorescence, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Connexin43 (Cx43) and its mRNA were consistently expressed in human and rodent marrow. Cx37 was found only in the arteriolar endothelium, but neither Cx32 nor -26 were expressed. In tissue sections, the immunostained junctions appeared as dots, which were digitally measured and counted. Their average size was 0.40 mm in human and 0.49 mm in mice marrow. There were at least twice as many gap junctions in the femoral midshaft of 6-week-old mice (1.75 x 10(5)/mm3) as in those older than 12 weeks (0.89 x 10(5)/mm3). Most Cx43 was associated with collagen III+ endosteal and adventitial stromal cells and with megakaryocytes. Elsewhere, they were few and randomly distributed between all kinds of hematopoietic cells. In the femoral epiphysis of juvenile mice, stromal cell processes full of Cx43 enmeshed three to six layers of hematopoietic cells near the endosteum. The same pattern was seen in the midshaft of regenerating mouse marrow 3 to 5 days after cytotoxic treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Functional tests in cultures showed the transfer of small fluorescent dyes, Lucifer Yellow and 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5, 6-carboxyfluorescein, between stromal cells and in rare cases between stromal and hematopoietic cells too. The stromal cells were densely packed with Cx43 and we found aggregates of connexon particles in their membrane replicas. In normocellular human bone marrow, gap junctions were as rare as in adult mouse and similarly distributed, except that they were also on adipocytic membranes. In a few leukemic samples, characterized by an increased stromal/hematopoietic cell ratio, there were two- to fourfold more Cx43 (2.8 x 10(5) to 3.9 x 10(5)/mm3) than in the normal (1.0 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(5)/mm3). The cases included a hypoplastic acute lymphoblastic leukemia, an acute myeloid leukemia (French-American-British classification M4-5), a case of myelodysplastic syndrome with elevated number of megakaryocytes, and a CD34+ acute hemoblastosis, probably acute myeloid leukemia (French-American-British classification M7). Taken together, our results indicate that direct cell-cell communication may be involved in hematopoiesis, ie, in developmentally active epiphyseal bone marrow and when there is a demand for progenitors in regeneration. However, gap junctions may not play as important a role in resting adult hematopoiesis and in leukemias. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:9546360

  13. The Structure of Pairwise Correlation in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Reveals Functional Organization in the Absence of an Orientation Map

    PubMed Central

    Denman, Daniel J.; Contreras, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Neural responses to sensory stimuli are not independent. Pairwise correlation can reduce coding efficiency, occur independent of stimulus representation, or serve as an additional channel of information, depending on the timescale of correlation and the method of decoding. Any role for correlation depends on its magnitude and structure. In sensory areas with maps, like the orientation map in primary visual cortex (V1), correlation is strongly related to the underlying functional architecture, but it is unclear whether this correlation structure is an essential feature of the system or arises from the arrangement of cells in the map. We assessed the relationship between functional architecture and pairwise correlation by measuring both synchrony and correlated spike count variability in mouse V1, which lacks an orientation map. We observed significant pairwise synchrony, which was organized by distance and relative orientation preference between cells. We also observed nonzero correlated variability in both the anesthetized (0.16) and awake states (0.18). Our results indicate that the structure of pairwise correlation is maintained in the absence of an underlying anatomical organization and may be an organizing principle of the mammalian visual system preserved by nonrandom connectivity within local networks. PMID:23689635

  14. Five bitter compounds display different anti-inflammatory effects through modulating cytokine secretion using mouse primary splenocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chi; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2011-01-12

    Bitter foods are generally recognized as anti-inflammatory agents in traditional Chinese medicine. To verify the anti-inflammatory effects of some bitter compounds in foods or plants, five bitter compounds, aloperine, amygdalin, berberine, crotaline, and naringenin, were selected and added to primary mouse splenocytes in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under four different in vitro experimental models. Anti-inflammatory cytokine secretions such as interleukin (IL)-10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that all selected bitter compounds except amygdalin exhibited apparent cytotoxic effects. On the basis of changes in the secretion profiles between anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the five selected bitter compounds demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities via modulating either IL-6/IL-10 or TNF-?/IL-10 ratios at noncytotoxic doses. Berberine and naringenin treatments showed the strongest potential for anti-inflammation among the five selected bitter compounds. Berberine especially displayed strong anti-inflammatory activity in both preventive and repair manners. PMID:21155568

  15. Skp2 promotes adipocyte differentiation via a p27{sup Kip1}-independent mechanism in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Mitsuru; Sakai, Tamon; Nakamura, Takehiro; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Kitajima, Shigetaka; Matsuki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Eijiro; Hiramatsu, Ryuji; Sakaue, Hiroshi Kasuga, Masato

    2009-02-06

    Skp2, the substrate-binding subunit of an SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, is a key regulator of cell cycle progression that targets substrates for degradation by the 26S proteasome. We have now shown that ablation of Skp2 in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) results both in impairment of adipocyte differentiation and in the accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27{sup Kip1}, a principal target of the SCF{sup Skp2} complex. Genetic ablation of p27{sup Kip1} in MEFs promoted both lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression. However, depletion of p27{sup Kip1} by adenovirus-mediated RNA interference failed to correct the impairment of adipocyte differentiation in Skp2{sup -/-} MEFs. In contrast, troglitazone, a high-affinity ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), largely restored lipid accumulation and PPAR{gamma} gene expression in Skp2{sup -/-} MEFs. Our data suggest that Skp2 plays an essential role in adipogenesis in MEFs in a manner that is at least in part independent of regulation of p27{sup Kip1} expression.

  16. Effect of microgravity and mechanical stimulation on the in vitro mineralization and resorption of fetal mouse long bones (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuijzen, J. Paul

    1992-01-01

    Mechanical forces play an important role in the differentiation, growth, and remodeling of skeletal tissues. An increase in the normal loading pattern of the skeleton leads to an increase in bone mass. An overall decrease in the functional load exerted on the skeleton produces mineral loss and osteoporosis. However, the responses of the skeletal tissue cells to various loading conditions are still largely unresolved, as is the mechanism of the cellular response to changed mechanical environment. Using an in vitro approach, we hope to avoid some problems encountered in the use of in vivo animal and man models, which have been extensively used in the past. In a number of experiments we have demonstrated that 16 and 17 day old fetal mouse long bone rudiments (metatarsalia), cultured in a liquid culture medium, are very suitable to study mineralization and resorption, respectively. We have also demonstrated that under hydrostatic compression, mineralization is increased while resorption is decreased. Culture of long bone rudiments under noncompressed control conditions can be regarded as a situation of partial unloading, showing some phenomena of a disuse situation. Under microgravity conditions, responses of osteoblasts and chondrocytes (involved in mineralization) and osteoclasts (involved in mineral resorption), to culture with and without compression, may be much more outspoken. This will have advantages for the study and the interpretation of the role of cellular events in the process of mineralization and resorption of developing skeletal tissues under various loading conditions. The BONES Experiment is carried out in four type I/O and four type I/E containers. Various aspects of the investigation are discussed.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor I is required for the anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone on mouse bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Leary, Colin; Elalieh, Hashem; Ginzinger, David; Rosen, Clifford J.; Beamer, Wesley; Majumdar, Sharmila; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic agent for bone, but the mechanism(s) by which it works remains imperfectly understood. Previous studies have indicated that PTH stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I production, but it remains uncertain whether IGF-I mediates some or all of the skeletal actions of PTH. To address this question, we examined the skeletal response to PTH in IGF-I-deficient (knockout [k/o]) mice. These mice and their normal littermates (NLMs) were given daily injections of PTH (80 microg/kg) or vehicle for 2 weeks after which their tibias were examined for fat-free weight (FFW), bone mineral content, bone structure, and bone formation rate (BFR), and their femurs were assessed for mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers. In wild-type mice, PTH increased FFW, periosteal BFR, and cortical thickness (C.Th) of the proximal tibia while reducing trabecular bone volume (BV); these responses were not seen in the k/o mice. The k/o mice had normal mRNA levels of the PTH receptor and increased mRNA levels of the IGF-I receptor but markedly reduced basal mRNA levels of the osteoblast markers. Surprisingly, these mRNAs in the k/o bones increased several-fold more in response to PTH than the mRNAs in the bones from their wild-type littermates. These results indicate that IGF-I is required for the anabolic actions of PTH on bone formation, but the defect lies distal to the initial response of the osteoblast to PTH.

  18. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A modulates the anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone in mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Kari B; Conover, Cheryl A

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic therapy for bone, and several studies have implicated local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in mediating this effect. The IGF system is complex and includes ligands and receptors, as well as IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and IGFBP proteases. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metalloprotease expressed by osteoblasts in vitro that has been shown to enhance local IGF action through cleavage of inhibitory IGFBP-4. This study was set up to test two specific hypotheses: 1) Intermittent PTH treatment increases the expression of IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A in bone in vivo, thereby increasing local IGF activity. 2) In the absence of PAPP-A, local IGF activity and the anabolic effects of PTH on bone are reduced. Wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice were treated with 80?g/kg human PTH 1-34 or vehicle by subcutaneous injection five days per week for six weeks. IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A mRNA expression in bone were significantly increased in response to PTH treatment. PTH treatment of WT mice, but not PAPP-A KO mice, significantly increased expression of an IGF-responsive gene. Bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by DEXA, was significantly decreased in femurs of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. Volumetric BMD, as measured by pQCT, was significantly decreased in femoral midshaft (primarily cortical bone), but not metaphysis (primarily trabecular bone), of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. These data suggest that stimulation of PAPP-A expression by intermittent PTH treatment contributes to PTH bone anabolism in mice. PMID:26297833

  19. Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived myeloid suppressor cell (MDSC) adoptive transfer in mouse models of autoimmunity and allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Drujont, Lucile; Carretero-Iglesia, Laura; Bouchet-Delbos, Laurence; Beriou, Gaelle; Merieau, Emmanuel; Hill, Marcelo; Delneste, Yves; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Louvet, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic use of immunoregulatory cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of uncontrolled immunity. During the last decade, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as novel key regulatory players in the context of tumor growth, inflammation, transplantation or autoimmunity. Recently, MDSC have been successfully generated in vitro from naive mouse bone marrow cells or healthy human PBMCs using minimal cytokine combinations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of adoptive transfer of such cells to control auto- and allo-immunity in the mouse. Culture of bone marrow cells with GM-CSF and IL-6 consistently yielded a majority of CD11b+Gr1hi/lo cells exhibiting strong inhibition of CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro. However, adoptive transfer of these cells failed to alter antigen-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in vivo. Furthermore, MDSC could not prevent the development of autoimmunity in a stringent model of type 1 diabetes. Rather, loading the cells prior to injection with a pancreatic neo-antigen peptide accelerated the development of the disease. Contrastingly, in a model of skin transplantation, repeated injection of MDSC or single injection of LPS-activated MDSC resulted in a significant prolongation of allograft survival. The beneficial effect of MDSC infusions on skin graft survival was paradoxically not explained by a decrease of donor-specific T cell response but associated with a systemic over-activation of T cells and antigen presenting cells, prominently in the spleen. Taken together, our results indicate that in vitro generated MDSC bear therapeutic potential but will require additional in vitro factors or adjunct immunosuppressive treatments to achieve safe and more robust immunomodulation upon adoptive transfer. PMID:24927018

  20. Evaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of Bone Marrow-Derived Myeloid Suppressor Cell (MDSC) Adoptive Transfer in Mouse Models of Autoimmunity and Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet-Delbos, Laurence; Beriou, Gaelle; Merieau, Emmanuel; Hill, Marcelo; Delneste, Yves; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Louvet, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic use of immunoregulatory cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of uncontrolled immunity. During the last decade, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as novel key regulatory players in the context of tumor growth, inflammation, transplantation or autoimmunity. Recently, MDSC have been successfully generated in vitro from naive mouse bone marrow cells or healthy human PBMCs using minimal cytokine combinations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of adoptive transfer of such cells to control auto- and allo-immunity in the mouse. Culture of bone marrow cells with GM-CSF and IL-6 consistently yielded a majority of CD11b+Gr1hi/lo cells exhibiting strong inhibition of CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro. However, adoptive transfer of these cells failed to alter antigen-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in vivo. Furthermore, MDSC could not prevent the development of autoimmunity in a stringent model of type 1 diabetes. Rather, loading the cells prior to injection with a pancreatic neo-antigen peptide accelerated the development of the disease. Contrastingly, in a model of skin transplantation, repeated injection of MDSC or single injection of LPS-activated MDSC resulted in a significant prolongation of allograft survival. The beneficial effect of MDSC infusions on skin graft survival was paradoxically not explained by a decrease of donor-specific T cell response but associated with a systemic over-activation of T cells and antigen presenting cells, prominently in the spleen. Taken together, our results indicate that in vitro generated MDSC bear therapeutic potential but will require additional in vitro factors or adjunct immunosuppressive treatments to achieve safe and more robust immunomodulation upon adoptive transfer. PMID:24927018

  1. Coactivator PGC-1{alpha} regulates the fasting inducible xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme CYP2A5 in mouse primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Arpiainen, Satu; Jaervenpaeae, Sanna-Mari; Manninen, Aki; Viitala, Pirkko; Lang, Matti A.; Pelkonen, Olavi; Hakkola, Jukka

    2008-10-01

    The nutritional state of organisms and energy balance related diseases such as diabetes regulate the metabolism of xenobiotics such as drugs, toxins and carcinogens. However, the mechanisms behind this regulation are mostly unknown. The xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A5 enzyme has been shown to be induced by fasting and by glucagon and cyclic AMP (cAMP), which mediate numerous fasting responses. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} triggers many of the important hepatic fasting effects in response to elevated cAMP levels. In the present study, we were able to show that cAMP causes a coordinated induction of PGC-1{alpha} and CYP2A5 mRNAs in murine primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, the elevation of the PGC-1{alpha} expression level by adenovirus mediated gene transfer increased CYP2A5 transcription. Co-transfection of Cyp2a5 5' promoter constructs with the PGC-1{alpha} expression vector demonstrated that PGC-1{alpha} is able to activate Cyp2a5 transcription through the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} response element in the proximal promoter of the Cyp2a5 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that PGC-1{alpha} binds, together with HNF-4{alpha}, to the same region at the Cyp2a5 proximal promoter. In conclusion, PGC-1{alpha} mediates the expression of CYP2A5 induced by cAMP in mouse hepatocytes through coactivation of transcription factor HNF-4{alpha}. This strongly suggests that PGC-1{alpha} is the major factor mediating the fasting response of CYP2A5.

  2. Hypoxia-induced down-regulation of neprilysin by histone modification in mouse primary cortical and hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Yang, Dehua; Zhang, Xiaojie; Li, Ting; Li, Jia; Tang, Yu; Le, Weidong

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid ?-peptide (A?) accumulation leads to neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A? metabolism is a dynamic process in the A? production and clearance that requires neprilysin (NEP) and other enzymes to degrade A?. It has been reported that NEP expression is significantly decreased in the brain of AD patients. Previously we have documented hypoxia is a risk factor for A? generation in vivo and in vitro through increasing A? generation by altering ?-cleavage and ?-cleavage of APP and down-regulating NEP, and causing tau hyperphosphorylation. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia-induced down-regulation of NEP. We found a significant decrease in NEP expression at the mRNA and protein levels after hypoxic treatment in mouse primary cortical and hippocampal neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and relative quantitative PCR (q-PCR) revealed an increase of histone H3-lysine9 demethylation (H3K9me2) and a decrease of H3 acetylation (H3-Ace) in the NEP promoter regions following hypoxia. In addition, we found that hypoxia caused up-regulation of histone methyl transferase (HMT) G9a and histone deacetylases (HDACs) HDAC-1. Decreased expression of NEP during hypoxia can be prevented by application with the epigenetic regulators 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), HDACs inhibitor sodium valproate (VA), and siRNA-mediated knockdown of G9a or HDAC1. DNA methylation PCR data do not support that hypoxia affects the methylation of NEP promoters. This study suggests that hypoxia may down-regulate NEP by increasing H3K9me2 and decreasing H3-Ace modulation. PMID:21559427

  3. Effects of Viscum album L. extract and quercetin on methotrexate-induced cyto-genotoxicity in mouse bone-marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Sekero?lu, Zülal Atl?; Sekero?lu, Vedat

    2012-07-01

    Viscum album, a semi-parasitic plant, has been used both in traditional and supplementary medicine in the treatment of many diseases. Quercetin (QE), one of the major flavonoids in some fruits and vegetables, has anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic activities. Methotrexate (MTX), an anti-folate anti-metabolite, is a widely used anti-neoplastic drug with significant clastogenic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cytogenotoxic effects of pre-treatment with V. album extract (VAE) and QE on MTX-induced chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in mouse bone-marrow cells. Pre-treatment of mice by gavage with VAE (250mg/kgbw/day for 10 days) and QE (50mg/kgbw/day for 10 days) caused a significant decrease in CAs and in the number of aberrant cells with CAs induced by intramuscular treatment of the mice with MTX (10mg/kgbw/day for 3 days), when compared with the group treated with MTX alone. These compounds also significantly increased the mitotic index (MI) in bone-marrow cells that had been suppressed by MTX. In conclusion, from the findings we suggest that VAE and QE may play a role in reducing cyto-genotoxicity induced by anti-neoplastic drugs during cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22464986

  4. Systemically administered human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem home into peripheral organs but do not induce neuroprotective effects in the MCAo-mouse model for cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Barbara; Roch, Manfred; Holtkamp, Nikola; Kurtz, Andreas

    2012-03-28

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow induce neuroprotective effects and improve clinical symptoms in animal models for acute cerebral ischemia. So far only few data are available from the murine system. Moreover, no data exist regarding neuroprotective effects depending on the application route. Because most preclinical trials regarding restorative therapy in stroke are performed in mice, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective capacities of human MSC (hMSC) in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-mouse model of cerebral ischemia. As systemic transplantation of MSC could provide a gentle therapeutic procedure for the (mostly elderly) stroke patients, we analyzed effects of this application at a clinically relevant time point. Bone marrow-derived hMSCs were administered intravenously 24 h after MCAo. Mortality and clinical outcome of the transplanted mice did not differ from PBS-treated controls. After 3 and 7 days hMSC were robustly detected in lung, spleen, kidney and intestine, but not in the brain. MRI measurements revealed no differences in infarct size in hMSC injected animals compared to controls. In the neurogenic subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus no significant increase of endogenous cell proliferation was detected following systemic hMSC transplantation. This data further prove the week neurogenic and neuroprotective effect and the limitations of systemically administered hMSCs in cerebral ischemia. PMID:22342911

  5. Squalene Selectively Protects Mouse Bone Marrow Progenitors Against Cisplatin and Carboplatin-Induced Cytotoxicity In Vivo Without Protecting Tumor Growth12

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bikul; Antoon, Roula; Tsuchida, Rika; Lotfi, Shamim; Morozova, Olena; Farhat, Walid; Malkin, David; Koren, Gideon; Yeger, Herman; Baruchel, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    Squalene, an isoprenoid antioxidant is a potential cytoprotective agent against chemotherapy-induced toxicity. We have previously published that squalene protects light-density bone marrow cells against cis-diamminedichloroplatinum( II) (cisplatin)-induced toxicity without protecting tumor cells in vitro. Here, we developed an in vivo mouse model of cisplatin and cis-diammine (cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylato) platinum(II) (carboplatin)-induced toxicity to further investigate squalene-mediated LD-BM cytoprotection including the molecular mechanism behind selective cytoprotection. We found that squalene significantly reduced the body weight loss of cisplatin and carboplatin-treated mice. Light-density bone marrow cells from squalene-treated mice exhibited improved formation of hematopoietic colonies (colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage). Furthermore, squalene also protected mesenchymal stem cell colonies (colony-forming unit-fibroblast) from cisplatin and carboplatin-induced toxicity. Squalene-induced protection was associated with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase/glutathione-S-transferase. Importantly, squalene did not protect neuroblastoma, small cell carcinoma, or medulloblastoma xenografts against cisplatin-induced toxicity. These results suggest that squalene is a potential candidate for future development as a cytoprotective agent against chemotherapeutic toxicity. PMID:18813359

  6. KINETICS OF IN VIVO SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE INDUCTION IN MOUSE BONE MARROW CELLS BY ALKYLATING AGENTS: CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Administration of cyclophosphamide (5, 10, 20 and 25 mg/kg body weight) to male CD-1 mice 2 hours after subcutaneous implantation of a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pellet (55 mg) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in bone marrow cells. Tre...

  7. Bone Histology and Primary Growth Rates in Hatchling Titanosaurs from Madagascar: New Insights from Micro-Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, B. C.; Whitney, M.; Rogers, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    Sauropods are the largest known terrestrial vertebrates and exhibit a greater ontogenetic variation in body size than any other taxon. More than 120 species of sauropods are known from the Jurassic and Cretaceous, and a wealth of specimens documents their enormous adult body sizes. Juvenile sauropods, in contrast, are rare. Though titanosaur eggs containing embryos have been recovered, to date the smallest known post-hatching juveniles are only a little less than half of known adult size, and details of the earliest stages of sauropod ontogeny remain particularly poorly understood. Here we report on two partial skeletons of hatchling Rapetosaurus krausei, a titanosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Maevarano Formation of Madagascar, and provide important new data on primary early stage growth rates in sauropods. The two partial skeletons come from different localities in the Anembalemba Member of the Maevarano Formation. There is no duplication of elements for either specimen. Comparison of greatest length ratios for appendicular elements to those of a complete sub-adult Rapetosaurus confirms that there are only two individuals present, that there is no significant allometry in Rapetosaurus postcranial ontogeny, and that each individual is less than 15% adult size. The smaller specimen includes a sacral neural arch, three caudal centra, three caudal neural arches, left pubis, right femur (maximum length [ml] = 19.3 cm), tibia (ml = 12.7 cm), and metacarpal III, left and right fibulae, humeri, and metatarsal I, and a phalanx. The larger specimen includes a caudal centrum and neural arch, right metacarpal I, right tibia (ml = 17.9 cm), and left metacarpal IV. In order to non-destructively sample these exceptional Rapetosaurus juvenile elements, we employed micro-computed tomography to garner bone histology data. The micro-computed tomography was carried out using an X5000 high-resolution microfocus X-ray CT system located in the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota. The microfocus head has a minimum focal spot size of < 6 microns and the detector has a pixel pitch of 74.8 ?m. Machine parameters (e.g. voltage, current, tube to detector distance) vary based on sample size and desired magnification. For this study 70-100 kV (260-370 ?A) was sufficient to penetrate the samples and obtain good contrast. We were able to achieve an effective pixel pitch of 36-48 ?m for the larger samples and 14-28 ?m for sub-volumes. 2-D radiographs were collected and these data were reconstructed to produce a 3-D volume for visual analysis, and slices of the 3-D volume for quantitative analysis. Our results indicate that primary bone growth in Rapetosaurus is highly vascularized woven and fibrolamellar bone. However, even in these very small juvenile individuals, endosteal remodeling is common at the mid-diaphysis and extends in some areas into the mid-cortex. The presence of a single line of arrested growth is recorded in each individual. These results are surprising given the small size of the elements, and support the hypothesis that intensive remodeling observed in the bones of older juvenile Rapetosaurus may be dictated, at least in part, by resource limitations during periods of drought/ecological stress recorded in the Maevarano Formation of Madagascar.

  8. Transplanted Bone Marrow–Derived Circulating PDGFR?+ Cells Restore Type VII Collagen in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Mouse Skin Graft

    PubMed Central

    Iinuma, Shin; Aikawa, Eriko; Fujita, Ryo; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Chino, Takenao; Kikuta, Junichi; McGrath, John A.; Uitto, Jouni; Ishii, Masaru; Iizuka, Hajime; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2015-01-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is an intractable genetic blistering skin disease in which the epithelial structure easily separates from the underlying dermis because of genetic loss of functional type VII collagen (Col7) in the cutaneous basement membrane zone. Recent studies have demonstrated that allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) ameliorates the skin blistering phenotype of RDEB patients by restoring Col7. However, the exact therapeutic mechanism of BMT in RDEB remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the roles of transplanted bone marrow–derived circulating mesenchymal cells in RDEB (Col7-null) mice. In wild-type mice with prior GFP-BMT after lethal irradiation, lineage-negative/GFP-positive (Lin?/GFP+) cells, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?-positive (PDGFR?+) mesenchymal cells, specifically migrated to skin grafts from RDEB mice and expressed Col7. Vascular endothelial cells and follicular keratinocytes in the deep dermis of the skin grafts expressed SDF-1?, and the bone marrow–derived PDGFR?+ cells expressed CXCR4 on their surface. Systemic administration of the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 markedly decreased the migration of bone marrow–derived PDGFR?+ cells into the skin graft, resulting in persistent epidermal detachment with massive necrosis and inflammation in the skin graft of RDEB mice; without AMD3100 administration, Col7 was significantly supplemented to ameliorate the pathogenic blistering phenotype. Collectively, these data suggest that the SDF1?/CXCR4 signaling axis induces transplanted bone marrow–derived circulating PDGFR?+ mesenchymal cells to migrate and supply functional Col7 to regenerate RDEB skin. PMID:25601922

  9. Cell context-specific expression of primary cilia in the human testis and ciliary coordination of Hedgehog signalling in mouse Leydig cells

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Marie Berg; Almstrup, Kristian; Lindbćk, Louise; Christensen, Sřren Tvorup; Svingen, Terje

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate numerous cellular signalling pathways during development and adulthood. Defects in ciliary assembly or function lead to a series of developmental disorders and diseases commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Still, little is known about the formation and function of primary cilia in the mammalian testis. Here, we characterized primary cilia in adult human testis and report a constitutive expression of cilia in peritubular myoid cells and a dynamic expression of cilia in differentiating Leydig cells. Primary cilia are generally absent from cells of mature seminiferous epithelium, but present in Sertoli cell-only tubules in Klinefelter syndrome testis. Peritubular cells in atrophic testis produce overly long cilia. Furthermore cultures of growth-arrested immature mouse Leydig cells express primary cilia that are enriched in components of Hedgehog signalling, including Smoothened, Patched-1, and GLI2, which are involved in regulating Leydig cell differentiation. Stimulation of Hedgehog signalling increases the localization of Smoothened to the cilium, which is followed by transactivation of the Hedgehog target genes, Gli1 and Ptch1. Our findings provide new information on the spatiotemporal formation of primary cilia in the testis and show that primary cilia in immature Leydig cells mediate Hedgehog signalling. PMID:25992706

  10. Identification of renin progenitors in the mouse bone marrow that give rise to B-cell leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Belyea, Brian C.; Xu, Fang; Pentz, Ellen S.; Medrano, Silvia; Li, Minghong; Hu, Yan; Turner, Stephen; Legallo, Robin; Jones, Craig A.; Tario, Joseph D.; Liang, Ping; Gross, Kenneth W.; Sequeira-Lopez, Maria Luisa S.; Gomez, R. Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The cell of origin and triggering events for leukaemia are mostly unknown. Here we show that the bone marrow contains a progenitor that expresses renin throughout development and possesses a B-lymphocyte pedigree. This cell requires RBP-J to differentiate. Deletion of RBP-J in these renin-expressing progenitors enriches the precursor B-cell gene programme and constrains lymphocyte differentiation, facilitated by H3K4me3 activating marks in genes that control the pre-B stage. Mutant cells undergo neoplastic transformation, and mice develop a highly penetrant B-cell leukaemia with multi-organ infiltration and early death. These renin-expressing cells appear uniquely vulnerable as other conditional models of RBP-J deletion do not result in leukaemia. The discovery of these unique renin progenitors in the bone marrow and the model of leukaemia described herein may enhance our understanding of normal and neoplastic haematopoiesis. PMID:24549417

  11. The citrus flavonone hesperetin prevents letrozole-induced bone loss in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengjuan; Chow, Simon; Cheung, Wing-hoi; Chan, Franky L; Chen, Shiuan; Leung, Lai K

    2013-06-01

    Aromatase is a key enzyme in estrogen synthesis, and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been developed for treating estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Because of its nondiscriminatory inhibition of estrogen synthesis, patients treated with AIs also contract diseases typically associated with estrogen deficiency, such as bone deterioration. Our laboratory found that the citrus flavonone hesperetin could inhibit aromatase, and the selective estrogen receptor modulator nature of flavonoid might counteract the undesirable effect of AIs. In the present study, we employed an established postmenopausal model for breast carcinogenesis to examine the drug interaction between hesperetin and letrozole, one of the AIs. Athymic mice were ovariectomized and transplanted with aromatase-overexpressing MCF-7 cells (MCF-7aro). Hesperetin was administered in the diet at 5000 ppm, and letrozole was injected sc at different doses. Results showed that either hesperetin or letrozole could reduce plasma estrogen level and inhibit tumor growth. Most importantly, the letrozole-induced bone loss measured as bone volume fraction was reversed by hesperetin without compromising on the deterrence of MCF-7aro tumor growth. Taken together, the present study suggested that hesperetin could be a potential cotherapeutic agent to AI. PMID:23238426

  12. The systemic delivery of an oncolytic adenovirus expressing decorin inhibits bone metastasis in a mouse model of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Neill, T; Yang, Y; Hu, Z; Cleveland, E; Wu, Y; Hutten, R; Xiao, X; Stock, S R; Shevrin, D; Kaul, K; Brendler, C; Iozzo, R V; Seth, P

    2015-03-01

    In an effort to develop a new therapy for prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastases, we have created Ad.dcn, a recombinant oncolytic adenovirus carrying the human decorin gene. Infection of PC-3 and DU-145, the human prostate tumor cells, with Ad.dcn or a non-replicating adenovirus Ad(E1-).dcn resulted in decorin expression; Ad.dcn produced high viral titers and cytotoxicity in human prostate tumor cells. Adenoviral-mediated decorin expression inhibited Met, the Wnt/?-catenin signaling axis, vascular endothelial growth factor A, reduced mitochondrial DNA levels and inhibited tumor cell migration. To examine the antitumor response of Ad.dcn, PC-3-luc cells were inoculated in the left heart ventricle to establish bone metastases in nude mice. Ad.dcn, in conjunction with control replicating and non-replicating vectors were injected via tail vein. The real-time monitoring of mice, once a week, by bioluminescence imaging and X-ray radiography showed that Ad.dcn produced significant inhibition of skeletal metastases. Analyses of the mice at the terminal time point indicated a significant reduction in the tumor burden, osteoclast number, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b levels, osteocalcin levels, hypercalcemia, inhibition of cancer cachexia and an increase in the animal survival. Based on these studies, we believe that Ad.dcn can be developed as a potential new therapy for PCa bone metastasis. PMID:25503693

  13. Evaluating microRNA profiles reveals discriminative responses following genotoxic or non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure in primary mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rieswijk, Linda; Brauers, Karen J J; Coonen, Maarten L J; van Breda, Simone G J; Jennen, Danyel G J; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2015-11-01

    Chemical carcinogenesis can be induced by genotoxic (GTX) or non-genotoxic (NGTX) carcinogens. GTX carcinogens have a well-described mode of action. However, the complex mechanisms by which NGTX carcinogens act are less clear and may result in conflicting results between species [e.g. Wy-14,643 (Wy)]. We hypothesise that common microRNA response pathways exist for each class of carcinogenic agents. Therefore, this study compares and integrates mRNA and microRNA expression profiles following short term acute exposure (24 and 48h) to three GTX [aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and cisplatin (CisPl)] or three NGTX (2,3,7,8-tetrachloordibenzodioxine (TCDD), cyclosporine A (CsA) and Wy) carcinogens in primary mouse hepatocytes. Discriminative gene sets, microRNAs (not for 24h) and processes were identified following 24 and 48h of exposure. From the three discriminative microRNAs found following 48h of exposure, mmu-miR-503-5p revealed to have an interaction with mRNA target gene cyclin D2 (Ccnd2 - 12444) which was involved in the discriminative process of p53 signalling and metabolism. Following exposure to NGTX carcinogens Mmu-miR-503-5p may have an oncogenic function by stimulating Ccnd2 possibly leading to a tumourigenic cell cycle progression. By contrast, after GTX carcinogen exposure it may have a tumour-suppressive function (repressing Ccnd2) leading to cell cycle arrest and to increased DNA repair activities. In addition, compound-specific microRNA-mRNA interactions [mmu-miR-301b-3p-Papss2 (for AFB1), as well as mmu-miR-29b-3p-Col4a2 and mmu-miR-24-3p-Flna (for BaP)] were found to contribute to a better understanding of microRNAs in cell cycle arrest and the impairment of the DNA damage repair, an important hallmark of GTX-induced carcinogenesis. Overall, our results indicate that microRNAs represent yet another relevant intracellular regulatory level in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:25976910

  14. Development of phenotypic screening assays for ?-globin induction using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Xie, Wensheng; Gore, Elizabeth R; Montoute, Monica N; Bee, Weilin Tiger; Zappacosta, Francesca; Zeng, Xin; Wu, Zining; Kallal, Lorena; Ames, Robert S; Pope, Andrew J; Benowitz, Andrew; Erickson-Miller, Connie L

    2013-12-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder of the ?-globin gene. SCA results in chronic ischemia with pain and tissue injury. The extent of SCA symptoms can be ameliorated by treatment with drugs, which result in increasing the levels of ?-globin in patient red blood cells. Hydroxyurea (HU) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for SCA, but it has dose-limiting toxicity, and patients exhibit highly variable treatment responses. To identify compounds that may lead to the development of better and safer medicines, we have established a method using primary human bone marrow day 7 erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) to screen for compounds that induce ?-globin production. First, human marrow CD34(+) cells were cultured and expanded for 7 days and characterized for the expression of erythroid differentiation markers (CD71, CD36, and CD235a). Second, fresh or cryopreserved EPCs were treated with compounds for 3 days in 384-well plates followed by ?-globin quantification by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was validated using HU and decitabine. From the 7408 compounds screened, we identified at least one new compound with confirmed ?-globin-inducing activity. Hits are undergoing analysis in secondary assays. In this article, we describe the method of generating fit-for-purpose EPCs; the development, optimization, and validation of the ELISA and secondary assays for ?-globin detection; and screening results. PMID:24163393

  15. Tissue-nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Deficiency Causes Abnormal Craniofacial Bone Development in the Alpl?/? Mouse Model of Infantile Hypophosphatasia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Nam, Hwa Kyung; Campbell, Cassie; Gasque, Kellen Cristina da Silva; Millán, José Luis; Hatch, Nan E.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is an enzyme present on the surface of mineralizing cells and their derived matrix vesicles that promotes hydroxyapatite crystal growth. Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn-error-of-metabolism that, dependent upon age of onset, features rickets or osteomalacia due to loss-of function mutations in the gene (Alpl) encoding TNAP. Craniosynostosis is prevalent in infants with HPP and other forms of rachitic disease but how craniosynostosis develops in these disorders is unknown. Objectives: Because craniosynostosis carries high morbidity, we are investigating craniofacial skeletal abnormalities in Alpl?/? mice to establish these mice as a model of HPP-associated craniosynostosis and determine mechanisms by which TNAP influences craniofacial skeletal development. Methods: Cranial bone, cranial suture and cranial base abnormalities were analyzed by micro-CT and histology. Craniofacial shape abnormalities were quantified using digital calipers. TNAP expression was suppressed in MC3T3E1(C4) calvarial cells by TNAP-specific shRNA. Cells were analyzed for changes in mineralization, gene expression, proliferation, apoptosis, matrix deposition and cell adhesion. Results: Alpl?/? mice feature craniofacial shape abnormalities suggestive of limited anterior-posterior growth. Craniosynostosis in the form of bony coronal suture fusion is present by three weeks after birth. Alpl?/? mice also exhibit marked histologic abnormalities of calvarial bones and the cranial base involving growth plates, cortical and trabecular bone within two weeks of birth. Analysis of calvarial cells in which TNAP expression was suppressed by shRNA indicates that TNAP deficiency promotes aberrant osteoblastic gene expression, diminished matrix deposition, diminished proliferation, increased apoptosis and increased cell adhesion. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that Alpl?/? mice exhibit a craniofacial skeletal phenotype similar to that seen in infants with HPP, including true bony craniosynostosis in the context of severely diminished bone mineralization. Future studies will be required to determine if TNAP deficiency and other forms of rickets promote craniosynostosis directly through abnormal calvarial cell behavior, or indirectly due to deficient growth of the cranial base. PMID:25014884

  16. Antiangiogenic antitumor activity of HPMA copolymer-paclitaxel-alendronate conjugate on breast cancer bone metastasis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Miller, Keren; Eldar-Boock, Anat; Polyak, Dina; Segal, Ehud; Benayoun, Liat; Shaked, Yuval; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit

    2011-08-01

    Polymer therapeutics have shown promise as tumor-targeted drug delivery systems in mice. The multivalency of polymers allows the attachment of different functional agents to a polymeric backbone, including chemotherapeutic and antiangiogenic drugs, as well as targeting moieties, such as the bone-targeting agent alendronate (ALN). We previously reported the conjugation of ALN and the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel (PTX) with N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer. The in vitro physicochemical properties, cancer cytotoxicity and antiangiogenic activity of HPMA copolymer-PTX-ALN conjugate were extensively characterized. The reported results warranted in vivo evaluations of the conjugate. In this manuscript, we evaluated the in vivo anticancer and antiangiogenic activity of HPMA copolymer-PTX-ALN conjugate. The conjugate exhibited an antiangiogenic effect by decreasing microvessel density (MVD), and inducing apoptotic circulating endothelial cells (CEC) following treatment of the mice. Using intravital imaging system and mCherry-labeled breast cancer cell lines, we were able to monitor noninvasively the progression of orthotopic metastatic tumors injected into the tibia of the mice. HPMA copolymer-PTX-ALN conjugate showed the greatest antitumor efficacy on mCherry-labeled 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma inoculated into the tibia, as compared with PTX alone or in combination with ALN. Treatment with the bone-targeted polymeric conjugate demonstrated improved efficacy, was better tolerated, and was more easily administered intravenously than the clinically used PTX formulated in Cremophor/ethanol. PMID:21545170

  17. Interactive local super-resolution reconstruction of whole-body MRI mouse data: a pilot study with applications to bone and kidney metastases.

    PubMed

    Dzyubachyk, Oleh; Khmelinskii, Artem; Plenge, Esben; Kok, Peter; Snoeks, Thomas J A; Poot, Dirk H J; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Botha, Charl P; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Weerd, Louise; Meijering, Erik; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

    2014-01-01

    In small animal imaging studies, when the locations of the micro-structures of interest are unknown a priori, there is a simultaneous need for full-body coverage and high resolution. In MRI, additional requirements to image contrast and acquisition time will often make it impossible to acquire such images directly. Recently, a resolution enhancing post-processing technique called super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) has been demonstrated to improve visualization and localization of micro-structures in small animal MRI by combining multiple low-resolution acquisitions. However, when the field-of-view is large relative to the desired voxel size, solving the SRR problem becomes very expensive, in terms of both memory requirements and computation time. In this paper we introduce a novel local approach to SRR that aims to overcome the computational problems and allow researchers to efficiently explore both global and local characteristics in whole-body small animal MRI. The method integrates state-of-the-art image processing techniques from the areas of articulated atlas-based segmentation, planar reformation, and SRR. A proof-of-concept is provided with two case studies involving CT, BLI, and MRI data of bone and kidney tumors in a mouse model. We show that local SRR-MRI is a computationally efficient complementary imaging modality for the precise characterization of tumor metastases, and that the method provides a feasible high-resolution alternative to conventional MRI. PMID:25265510

  18. A novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor restores chondrocyte differentiation and promotes bone growth in a gain-of-function Fgfr3 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jonquoy, Aurélie; Mugniery, Emilie; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Kaci, Nabil; Le Corre, Laurent; Barbault, Florent; Girard, Anne-Lise; Le Merrer, Yves; Busca, Patricia; Schibler, Laurent; Munnich, Arnold; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2012-02-15

    Activating germline fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations cause achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of human dwarfism and a spectrum of skeletal dysplasias. FGFR3 is a tyrosine kinase receptor and constitutive FGFR3 activation impairs endochondral ossification and triggers severe disorganization of the cartilage with shortening of long bones. To decipher the role of FGFR3 in endochondral ossification, we analyzed the impact of a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), A31, on both human and mouse mutant FGFR3-expressing cells and on the skeleton of Fgfr3(Y367C/+) dwarf mice. We found that A31 inhibited constitutive FGFR3 phosphorylation and restored the size of embryonic dwarf femurs using an ex vivo culture system. The increase in length of the treated mutant femurs was 2.6 times more than for the wild-type. Premature cell cycle exit and defective chondrocyte differentiation were observed in the Fgfr3(Y367C/+) growth plate. A31 restored normal expression of cell cycle regulators (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, KI67, cyclin D1 and p57) and allowed pre-hypertrophic chondrocytes to properly differentiate into hypertrophic chondocytes. Our data reveal a specific role for FGFR3 in the cell cycle and chondrocyte differentiation and support the development of TKIs for the treatment of FGFR3-related chondrodysplasias. PMID:22072392

  19. The Effects of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection on GM-CSF- and M-CSF-Induced Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophage from Resistant and Susceptible Mice Strains

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Silva, Calliandra; Tavares, Aldo Henrique; Sousa Jeronimo, Marcio; Soares de Lima, Yasmin; da Silveira Derengowski, Lorena; Lorenzetti Bocca, Anamélia; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete

    2015-01-01

    Considering the importance of macrophages as the first line of defense against fungal infection and the different roles played by the two M1- and M2-like polarized macrophages, we decided to evaluate the effects of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection on GM-CSF- and M-CSF-induced bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) from the A/J and B10.A mouse strains, an established model of resistance/susceptibility to PCM, respectively. Upon differentiation, the generated GM- or M-BMMs were characterized by morphological analyses, gene expression profiles, and cytokines production. Our main results demonstrate that GM-BMMs derived from A/J and B.10 produced high levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that may contribute to generate an unbalanced early immune response. In accordance with the literature, the B10.A susceptible mice lineage has an innate tendency to polarize into M1-like phenotype, whereas the opposite phenotype occurs in A/J resistance mice. In this context, our data support that susceptibility and resistance are strongly correlated with M1 and M2 polarization, respectively. PMID:26543326

  20. Reduction of bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Cindy

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on reduction of bone strength are presented. WEHI 231 B growth rates, experimental chambers used to apply the electric field to the cell cultures, and a mouse suspended by rotating cuff in electromagnetic field are shown.

  1. Mouse CD11b+Kupffer Cells Recruited from Bone Marrow Accelerate Liver Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Ikarashi, Masami; Kinoshita, Manabu; Nakashima, Masahiro; Aosasa, Suefumi; Seki, Shuhji; Yamamoto, Junji

    2015-01-01

    TNF and Fas/FasL are vital components, not only in hepatocyte injury, but are also required for hepatocyte regeneration. Liver F4/80+Kupffer cells are classified into two subsets; resident radio-resistant CD68+cells with phagocytic and bactericidal activity, and recruited radio-sensitive CD11b+cells with cytokine-producing capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these Kupffer cells in the liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) in mice. The proportion of Kupffer cell subsets in the remnant liver was examined in C57BL/6 mice by flow cytometry after PHx. To examine the role of CD11b+Kupffer cells/M?, mice were depleted of these cells before PHx by non-lethal 5 Gy irradiation with or without bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or the injection of a CCR2 (MCP-1 receptor) antagonist, and liver regeneration was evaluated. Although the proportion of CD68+Kupffer cells did not significantly change after PHx, the proportion of CD11b+Kupffer cells/M? and their FasL expression was greatly increased at three days after PHx, when the hepatocytes vigorously proliferate. Serum TNF and MCP-1 levels peaked one day after PHx. Irradiation eliminated the CD11b+Kupffer cells/M? for approximately two weeks in the liver, while CD68+Kupffer cells, NK cells and NKT cells remained, and hepatocyte regeneration was retarded. However, BMT partially restored CD11b+Kupffer cells/M? and recovered the liver regeneration. Furthermore, CCR2 antagonist treatment decreased the CD11b+Kupffer cells/M? and significantly inhibited liver regeneration. The CD11b+Kupffer cells/M? recruited from bone marrow by the MCP-1 produced by CD68+Kupffer cells play a pivotal role in liver regeneration via the TNF/FasL/Fas pathway after PHx. PMID:26333171

  2. Key role of mucosal primary afferents in mediating the inhibitory influence of capsaicin on vagally mediated contractions in the mouse esophagus.

    PubMed

    Boudaka, Ammar; Wörl, Jürgen; Shiina, Takahiko; Saito, Shouichiro; Atoji, Yasuro; Kobayashi, Haruo; Shimizu, Yasutake; Takewaki, Tadashi

    2007-04-01

    Transient receptor potential ion channel of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1)-dependent pathway, consisting of capsaicin-sensitive tachykininergic primary afferent and myenteric nitrergic neurons, was suggested to mediate the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on the vagally mediated striated muscle contractions in the rat esophagus. These primary afferent neurons upon entering into the esophagus are distributed through the myenteric plexus, terminating either in the myenteric ganglia or en route to the mucosa where they branch into a delicate net of fine varicose fibers. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether the mucosal primary afferents are a main mediator for the capsaicin inhibitory influence on vagally mediated contractions in the mouse esophagus. For this purpose, the vagally induced contractile activity of a thoracic esophageal segment was measured in the circular direction with a force transducer. Vagal stimulation (30 microsec, 25 V, 1-50 Hz for 1 sec) produced monophasic contractile responses, whose amplitudes were frequency-dependent. These contractions were completely abolished by d-tubocurarine (5 microM) while resistant to atropine (1 microM) and hexamethonium (100 microM). Capsaicin (30 microM) significantly inhibited the vagally induced contractions in esophagi with intact mucosa while its effect on preparations without mucosa was insignificant. Additionally, immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of TRPV1-positive nerve fibers in the tunica mucosa. Taken together, we conclude that in the mouse esophagus, capsaicin inhibits the vagally mediated striated muscle contractions mainly through its action on mucosal primary afferents, which in turn activate the presumed inhibitory local reflex arc. PMID:17485923

  3. Gene Targeting of Cdc42 and Cdc42GAP Affirms the Critical Involvement of Cdc42 in Filopodia Induction, Directed Migration, and Proliferation in Primary Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Linda; Wang, Lei

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies in Cdc42 knockout mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and ES-derived fibroblastoid cell lines raise concern on a body of literature derived by dominant mutant expression approach in a variety of cell lines implicating mammalian Cdc42 as a key regulator of filopodia induction, directional migration and cell cycle progression. To resolve the physiological function of mammalian Cdc42, we have characterized the Cdc42?/? and Cdc42GAP?/? primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) produced by gene targeting as the Cdc42 loss- or gain-of-activity cell model. The Cdc42?/? cells were defective in filopodia formation stimulated by bradykinin and in dorsal membrane ruffling stimulated by PDGF, whereas the Cdc42GAP?/? cells displayed spontaneous filopodia. The Cdc42 loss- or gain-of-activity cells were defective in adhesion to fibronectin, wound-healing, polarity establishment, and migration toward a serum gradient. These defects were associated with deficiencies of PAK1, GSK3?, myosin light chain, and FAK phosphorylation. Furthermore, Cdc42?/? cells were defective in G1/S-phase transition and survival, correlating with deficient NF-?B transcription and defective JNK, p70 S6K, and ERK1/2 activation. These results demonstrate a different requirement of Cdc42 activity in primary MEFs from ES or ES-derived clonal fibroblastoid cells and suggest that Cdc42 plays cell-type–specific signaling roles. PMID:16914516

  4. Immune Suppressive Effects of Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Mouse Bone-Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Kyung-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered valuable sources for cell therapy because of their immune regulatory function. Here, we investigated the effects of tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) on the differentiation, maturation, and function of dendritic cells (DCs). We examined the effect of T-MSCs on differentiation and maturation of bone-marrow- (BM-) derived monocytes into DCs and we found suppressive effect of T-MSCs on DCs via direct contact as well as soluble mediators. Moreover, T cell proliferation, normally increased in the presence of DCs, was inhibited by T-MSCs. Differentiation of CD4+ T cell subsets by the DC-T cell interaction also was inhibited by T-MSCs. The soluble mediators suppressed by T-MSCs were granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), RANTES, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Taken together, T-MSCs exert immune modulatory function via suppression of the differentiation, maturation, and function of BM-derived DCs. Our data suggests that T-MSCs could be used as a novel source of stem cell therapy as immune modulators. PMID:25784940

  5. Interdependent TTF1 - ErbB4 interactions are critical for surfactant protein-B homeostasis in primary mouse lung alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Marten, Elger; Nielsen, Heber C; Dammann, Christiane E L

    2015-09-01

    ErbB4 receptor and thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1 are important modulators of fetal alveolar type II (ATII) cell development and injury. ErbB4 is an upstream regulator of TTF-1, promoting its expression in MLE-12 cells, an ATII cell line. Both proteins are known to promote surfactant protein-B gene (SftpB) and protein (SP-B) expression, but their feedback interactions on each other are not known. We hypothesized that TTF-1 expression has a feedback effect on ErbB4 expression in an in-vitro model of isolated mouse ATII cells. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the effects of overexpressing HER4 and Nkx2.1, the genes of ErbB4 and TTF-1 on TTF-1 and ErbB4 protein expression, respectively, as well as SP-B protein expression in primary fetal mouse lung ATII cells. Transient ErbB4 protein overexpression upregulated TTF-1 protein expression in primary fetal ATII cells, similarly to results previously shown in MLE-12 cells. Transient TTF-1 protein overexpression down regulated ErbB4 protein expression in both cell types. TTF-1 protein was upregulated in primary transgenic ErbB4-depleted adult ATII cells, however SP-B protein expression in these adult transgenic ATII cells was not affected by the absence of ErbB4. The observation that TTF-1 is upregulated in fetal ATII cells by ErbB4 overexpression and also in ErbB4-deleted adult ATII cells suggests additional factors interact with ErbB4 to regulate TTF-1 levels. We conclude that the interdependency of TTF-1 and ErbB4 is important for surfactant protein levels. The interactive regulation of ErbB4 and TTF-1 needs further elucidation. PMID:26198867

  6. The Potential Role of Increasing the Release of Mouse ?- Defensin-14 in the Treatment of Osteomyelitis in Mice: A Primary Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chen; Wang, Jiaxing; Cheng, Tao; Li, Qingtian; Shen, Hao; Qin, Hui; Cheng, Mengqi; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian ?-defensins are small cationic peptides that have been implicated in mediating innate immune defenses against microbial infection. Mouse ?-defensin-14 (MBD-14), based on structural and functional similarities, appears to be an ortholog of human ?-defensin-3 (HBD-3). Previous studies identified signaling pathway p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) that contributed to the expression of MBD-14 in mouse osteoblasts upon contacted with methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) supernatant, which provided a theoretical basis as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of intramedullary infection with MRSA in vivo. In this study, the medullary cavities of tibiae were contaminated with MRSA 103 colony forming units and different doses of p38 MAPK agonists anisomycin were followed as group III or IV in 30 mice. Fifteen animals that received phosphate- buffered saline served as group II and 15 mice were not contaminated with MRSA and received phosphate-buffered saline served as controls (group I). Follow-up was 7 days. In day 1, day 4 and day 7 postoperatively, infection was evaluated by blood routine, microbiological and histological analyses after sacrifice. All animals of group II developed microbiological and histological signs of infection. Histological signs of infection, white blood counts and cultures of group III and IV showed significantly reduced bacterial growth compared to cultures of group II. Simultaneously, different doses of anisomycin significantly induced the expression of osteoblast-associated genes, including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and collagen type I. In addition, the expression of HBD-3 in human interfacial membranes around infected periprosthetic joint by staphylococcus contaminated was evaluated, and the expression pattern changed with significant induction of HBD-3 in infected periprosthetic joint compared with aseptic loosening under inflammatory conditions. Our primary study indicated that the potential antibacterial role of increased MBD-14 in the osteomyelitis mouse model. PMID:24489798

  7. European Bone Marrow Working Group trial on reproducibility of World Health Organization criteria to discriminate essential thrombocythemia from prefibrotic primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Buhr, Thomas; Hebeda, Konnie; Kaloutsi, Vassiliki; Porwit, Anna; Van der Walt, Jon; Kreipe, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization classification of myeloproliferative neoplasms discriminates between essential thrombocythemia and the prefibrotic phase of primary myelofibrosis. This discrimination is clinically relevant because essential thrombocythemia is associated with a favorable prognosis whereas patients with primary myelofibrosis have a higher risk of progression to myelofibrosis or blast crisis. Design and Methods To assess the reproducibility of the classification, six hematopathologists from five European countries re-classified 102 non-fibrotic bone marrow trephines, obtained because of sustained thrombocytosis. Results Consensus on histological classification defined as at least four identical diagnoses occurred for 63% of the samples. Inter-observer agreement showed low to moderate kappa values (0.28 to 0.57, average 0.41). The percentage of unclassifiable myeloproliferative neoplasms rose from 2% to 23% when minor criteria for primary myelofibrosis were taken into account. In contrast, the frequency of primary myelofibrosis dropped from 23% to 7%, indicating that the majority of patients with a histological diagnosis of primary myelofibrosis did not fulfill the complete criteria for this disease. Thus, over 50% of cases in this series either could not be reproducibly classified or fell into the category of unclassifiable myeloproliferative neoplasms. Conclusions World Health Organization criteria for discrimination of essential thrombocythemia from prefibrotic primary myelofibrosis are poorly to only moderately reproducible and lead to a higher proportion of non-classifiable myeloproliferative neoplasms than histology alone. PMID:22058215

  8. Maxi-anion channel as a candidate pathway for osmosensitive ATP release from mouse astrocytes in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Tao; Toychiev, Abduqodir H; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Sabirov, Ravshan Z; Okada, Yasunobu

    2008-05-01

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the pathways contributing to ATP release from mouse astrocytes during hypoosmotic stress. We first examined the expression of mRNAs for proteins constituting possible ATP-releasing pathways that have been suggested over the past several years. In RT-PCR analysis using both control and osmotically swollen astrocytes, amplification of cDNA fragments of expected size was seen for connexins (Cx32, Cx37, Cx43), pannexin 1 (Px1), the P2X7 receptor, MRP1 and MDR1, but not CFTR. Inhibitors of exocytotic vesicular release, gap junction hemi-channels, CFTR, MRP1, MDR1, the P2X7 receptor, and volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channels had no significant effects on the massive ATP release from astrocytes. In contrast, the hypotonicity-induced ATP release from astrocytes was most effectively inhibited by gadolinium (50 muM), an inhibitor of the maxi-anion channel, which has recently been shown to serve as a pathway for ATP release from several other cell types. Thus, we propose that the maxi-anion channel constitutes a major pathway for swelling-induced ATP release from cultured mouse astrocytes as well. PMID:18414449

  9. A phenotypically restricted set of primary afferent nerve fibers innervate the bone versus skin: therapeutic opportunity for treating skeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Mantyh, William G; Bloom, Aaron P; Xu, Haili; Ferng, Alice S; Dussor, Gregory; Vanderah, Todd W; Mantyh, Patrick W

    2010-02-01

    Although musculoskeletal pain is one of the most common causes of chronic pain and physical disability in both developing and developed countries, relatively little is known about the nerve fibers and mechanisms that drive skeletal pain. Small diameter sensory nerve fibers, most of which are C-fiber nociceptors, can be separated into two broad populations: the peptide-rich and peptide-poor nerve fibers. Peptide-rich nerve fibers express substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). In contrast, the peptide-poor nerve fibers bind to isolectin B4 (IB(4)) and express the purinergic receptor P(2)X(3) and Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor member d (Mrgprd). In the present report, we used mice in which the Mrgprd(+) nerve fibers express genetically encoded axonal tracers to determine the peptide-rich and peptide-poor sensory nerve fibers that innervate the glabrous skin of the hindpaw as compared to the bone marrow, mineralized bone and periosteum of the femur. Whereas the skin is richly innervated by CGRP(+), SP(+), P(2)X(3)(+) and Mrgprd(+) sensory nerve fibers, the bone marrow, mineralized bone and periosteum receive a significant innervation by SP(+) and CGRP(+), but not Mrgprd(+) and P(2)X(3)(+) nerve fibers. This lack of redundancy in the populations of C-fibers that innervate the bone may present a unique therapeutic opportunity for targeting skeletal pain as the peptide-rich and peptide-poor sensory nerve fibers generally express a different repertoire of receptors and channels to detect noxious stimuli. Thus, therapies that target the specific types of C-nerve fibers that innervate the bone may be uniquely effective in attenuating skeletal pain as compared to skin pain. PMID:19766746

  10. Osteoblast-specific expression of the fibrous dysplasia (FD)-causing mutation Gs?(R201C) produces a high bone mass phenotype but does not reproduce FD in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Remoli, Cristina; Michienzi, Stefano; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Consiglio, Alberto Di; Cersosimo, Stefania; Spica, Emanuela; Robey, Pamela G; Holmbeck, Kenn; Cumano, Ana; Boyde, Alan; Davis, Graham; Saggio, Isabella; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    We recently reported the generation and initial characterization of the first direct model of human fibrous dysplasia (FD; OMIM #174800), obtained through the constitutive systemic expression of one of the disease-causing mutations, Gs?(R201C) , in the mouse. To define the specific pathogenetic role(s) of individual cell types within the stromal/osteogenic system in FD, we generated mice expressing Gs?(R201C) selectively in mature osteoblasts using the 2.3kb Col1a1 promoter. We show here that this results in a striking high bone mass phenotype but not in a mimicry of human FD. The high bone mass phenotype involves specifically a deforming excess of cortical bone and prolonged and ectopic cortical bone remodeling. Expression of genes characteristic of late stages of bone cell differentiation/maturation is profoundly altered as a result of expression of Gs?(R201C) in osteoblasts, and expression of the Wnt inhibitor Sost is reduced. Although high bone mass is, in fact, a feature of some types/stages of FD lesions in humans, it is marrow fibrosis, localized loss of adipocytes and hematopoietic tissue, osteomalacia, and osteolytic changes that together represent the characteristic pathological profile of FD, as well as the sources of specific morbidity. None of these features are reproduced in mice with osteoblast-specific expression of Gs?(R201C) . We further show that hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells, as well as more mature cell compartments, and adipocyte development are normal in these mice. These data demonstrate that effects of Gs? mutations underpinning FD-defining tissue changes and morbidity do not reflect the effects of the mutations on osteoblasts proper. PMID:25487351

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Juvenile primary osteoporosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caused by a shortage of calcium and other minerals in bones (decreased bone mineral density), which makes the bones brittle and prone ... protein is involved in the regulation of bone mineral density. LRP5 gene mutations that cause juvenile primary ...

  12. Expression of the small T antigen of Lymphotropic Papovavirus is sufficient to transform primary mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tushar; Robles, Maria Teresa Sáenz; Schowalter, Rachel M; Buck, Christopher B; Pipas, James M

    2016-01-01

    Polyomaviruses induce cell proliferation and transformation through different oncoproteins encoded within the early region (ER): large T antigen (LT), small T antigen (sT) and, in some cases, additional components. Each virus utilizes different mechanisms to achieve transformation. For instance, the LTs of Simian virus 40 (SV40), BK and/or JC virus can induce transformation; but Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) requires expression of sT. Lymphotropic Papovavirus (LPV) is closely related to Human Polyomavirus 9 (HuPyV9) and, under similar conditions, mice expressing LPV.ER exhibit higher rates of tumor formation than mice expressing SV40.ER. We have investigated the contributions of individual LPV.ER components to cell transformation. In contrast to SV40, LPV.ER transforms mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but expression of LPV LT is insufficient to transform MEFs. Furthermore, LPV sT induces immortalization and transformation of MEFs. Thus, in the case of LPV, sT is the main mediator of oncogenesis. PMID:26517398

  13. Mechanical Loading Synergistically Increases Trabecular Bone Volume and Improves Mechanical Properties in the Mouse when BMP Signaling Is Specifically Ablated in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Iura, Ayaka; McNerny, Erin Gatenby; Zhang, Yanshuai; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Tantillo, Margaret; Lynch, Michelle; Kohn, David H.; Mishina, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is affected by several factors, particularly mechanical loading and growth factor signaling pathways. There is overwhelming evidence to validate the importance of these signaling pathways, however, whether these signals work synergistically or independently to contribute to proper bone maintenance is poorly understood. Weight-bearing exercise increases mechanical load on the skeletal system and can improves bone quality. We previously reported that conditional knockout (cKO) of Bmpr1a, which encodes one of the type 1 receptors for Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in an osteoblast-specific manner increased trabecular bone mass by suppressing osteoclastogenesis. The cKO bones also showed increased cortical porosity, which is expected to impair bone mechanical properties. Here, we evaluated the impact of weight-bearing exercise on the cKO bone phenotype to understand interactions between mechanical loading and BMP signaling through BMPR1A. Male mice with disruption of Bmpr1a induced at 9 weeks of age, exercised 5 days per week on a motor-driven treadmill from 11 to 16 weeks of age. Trabecular bone volume in cKO tibia was further increased by exercise, whereas exercise did not affect the trabecular bone in the control genotype group. This finding was supported by decreased levels of osteoclasts in the cKO tibiae. The cortical porosity in the cKO bones showed a marginally significant decrease with exercise and approached normal levels. Exercise increased ductility and toughness in the cKO bones. Taken together, reduction in BMPR1A signaling may sensitize osteoblasts for mechanical loading to improve bone mechanical properties. PMID:26489086

  14. Effect of diphenyl ether herbicides and oxadiazon on porphyrin biosynthesis in mouse liver, rat primary hepatocyte culture and HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Krijt, J; van Holsteijn, I; Hassing, I; Vokurka, M; Blaauboer, B J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the herbicides fomesafen, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon and fluazifop-butyl on porphyrin accumulation in mouse liver, rat primary hepatocyte culture and HepG2 cells were investigated. Ten days of herbicide feeding (0.25% in the diet) increased the liver porphyrins in male C57B1/6J mice from 1.4 +/- 0.6 to 4.8 +/- 2.1 (fomesafen) 16.9 +2- 2.9 (oxyfluorfen) and 25.9 +/- 3.1 (oxadiazon) nmol/g wet weight, respectively. Fluazifop-butyl had no effect on liver porphyrin metabolism. Fomesafen, oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon increased the cellular porphyrin content of rat hepatocytes after 24 h of incubation (control, 3.2 pmol/mg protein, fomesafen, oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon at 0.125 mM concentration 51.5, 54.3 and 44.0 pmol/mg protein, respectively). The porphyrin content of HepG2 cells increased from 1.6 to 18.2, 10.6 and 9.2 pmol/mg protein after 24 h incubation with the three herbicides. Fluazifop-butyl increased hepatic cytochrome P450 levels and ethoxy- and pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD and PROD) activity, oxyfluorfen increased PROD activity. Peroxisomal palmitoyl CoA oxidation increased after fomesafen and fluazifop treatment to about 500% of control values both in mouse liver and rat hepatocytes. Both rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells can be used as a test system for the porphyrogenic potential of photobleaching herbicides. PMID:8517781

  15. Proteolytic regulation of synaptic plasticity in the mouse primary visual cortex: analysis of matrix metalloproteinase 9 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Emily A.; Russo, Amanda S.; Jackson, Cory D.; Lamantia, Cassandra E.; Majewska, Ania K.

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to play important roles in regulating neuronal recovery from injury. The ECM can also impact physiological synaptic plasticity, although this process is less well understood. To understand the impact of the ECM on synaptic function and remodeling in vivo, we examined ECM composition and proteolysis in a well-established model of experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. We describe a rapid change in ECM protein composition during Ocular Dominance Plasticity (ODP) in adolescent mice, and a loss of ECM remodeling in mice that lack the extracellular protease, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). Loss of MMP9 also attenuated functional ODP following monocular deprivation (MD) and reduced excitatory synapse density and spine density in sensory cortex. While we observed no change in the morphology of existing dendritic spines, spine dynamics were altered, and MMP9 knock-out (KO) mice showed increased turnover of dendritic spines over a period of 2 days. We also analyzed the effects of MMP9 loss on microglia, as these cells are involved in extracellular remodeling and have been recently shown to be important for synaptic plasticity. MMP9 KO mice exhibited very limited changes in microglial morphology. Ultrastructural analysis, however, showed that the extracellular space surrounding microglia was increased, with concomitant increases in microglial inclusions, suggesting possible changes in microglial function in the absence of MMP9. Taken together, our results show that MMP9 contributes to ECM degradation, synaptic dynamics and sensory-evoked plasticity in the mouse visual cortex. PMID:26441540

  16. Cdk4 disruption renders primary mouse cells resistant to oncogenic transformation, leading to Arf/p53-independent senescence.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xianghong; Ray, Dipankar; Aziyu, Aileen; Christov, Konstantin; Boiko, Alexander D; Gudkov, Andrei V; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki

    2002-11-15

    A large number of human cancers display alterations in the Ink4a/cyclin D/Cdk4 genetic pathway, suggesting that activation of Cdk4 plays an important role in oncogenesis. Here we report that Cdk4-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts are resistant to transformation in response to Ras activation with dominant-negative (DN) p53 expression or in the Ink4a/Arf-null background, judged by foci formation, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenesis in athymic mice. Cdk4-null fibroblasts proliferate at normal rates during early passages. Whereas Cdk4(+/+)Ink4a/Arf(-/-) cells are immortal in culture, Cdk4(-/-)Ink4a/Arf(-/-) cells undergo senescence during continuous culture, as do wild-type cells. Activated Ras also induces premature senescence in Cdk4(-/-)Ink4a/Arf(-/-) cells and Cdk4(-/-) cells with DNp53 expression. Thus, Cdk4 deficiency causes senescence in a unique Arf/p53-independent manner, which accounts for the loss of transformation potential. Cdk4-null cells express high levels of p21(Cip1/Waf1) with increased protein stability. Suppression of p21(Cip1/Waf1) by small interfering RNA (siRNA), as well as expression of HPV-E7 oncoprotein, restores immortalization and Ras-mediated transformation in Cdk4(-/-)Ink4a/Arf(-/-) cells and Cdk4(-/-) cells with DNp53 expression. Therefore, Cdk4 is essential for immortalization, and suppression of Cdk4 could be a prospective strategy to recruit cells with inactive Arf/p53 pathway to senescence. PMID:12435633

  17. Azanitrile Cathepsin K Inhibitors: Effects on Cell Toxicity, Osteoblast-Induced Mineralization and Osteoclast-Mediated Bone Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Machuca-Gayet, Irma; Domenget, Chantal; Buchet, Rene; Wu, Yuqing; Jurdic, Pierre; Mebarek, Saida

    2015-01-01

    Aim The cysteine protease cathepsin K (CatK), abundantly expressed in osteoclasts, is responsible for the degradation of bone matrix proteins, including collagen type 1. Thus, CatK is an attractive target for new anti-resorptive osteoporosis therapies, but the wider effects of CatK inhibitors on bone cells also need to be evaluated to assess their effects on bone. Therefore, we selected, among a series of synthetized isothiosemicarbazides, two molecules which are highly selective CatK inhibitors (CKIs) to test their effects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Research Design and Methods Cell viability upon treatment of CKIs were was assayed on human osteoblast-like Saos-2, mouse monocyte cell line RAW 264.7 and mature mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow. Osteoblast-induced mineralization in Saos-2 cells and in mouse primary osteoblasts from calvaria, with or without CKIs,; were was monitored by Alizarin Red staining and alkaline phosphatase activity, while osteoclast-induced bone resorption was performed on bovine slices. Results Treatments with two CKIs, CKI-8 and CKI-13 in human osteoblast-like Saos-2, murine RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with RANKL and mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow stimulated with RANKL and MCSF were found not to be toxic at doses of up to 100 nM. As probed by Alizarin Red staining, CKI-8 did not inhibit osteoblast-induced mineralization in mouse primary osteoblasts as well as in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. However, CKI-13 led to a reduction in mineralization of around 40% at 10–100 nM concentrations in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells while it did not in primary cells. After a 48-hour incubation, both CKI-8 and CKI-13 decreased bone resorption on bovine bone slices. CKI-13 was more efficient than the commercial inhibitor E-64 in inhibiting bone resorption induced by osteoclasts on bovine bone slices. Both CKI-8 and CKI-13 created smaller bone resorption pits on bovine bone slices, suggesting that the mobility of osteoclasts was slowed down by the addition of CKI-8 and CKI-13. Conclusion CKI-8 and CKI-13 screened here show promise as antiresorptive osteoporosis therapeutics but some off target effects on osteoblasts were found with CKI-13. PMID:26168340

  18. Gender-dependence of bone structure and properties in adult osteogenesis imperfecta murine model

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiaomei; Carleton, Stephanie M.; Kettle, Arin D; Melander, Jennifer; Phillips, Charlotte L.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a dominant skeletal disorder characterized by bone fragility and deformities. Though the oim mouse model has been the most widely studied of the OI models, it has only recently been suggested to exhibit gender-dependent differences in bone mineralization. To characterize the impact of gender on the morphometry/ultra-structure, mechanical properties, and biochemical composition of oim bone on the congenic C57BL/J6 background, 4-month-old oim/oim, +/oim, and wild-type (wt) female and male tibiae were evaluated using micro-computed tomography, three-point bending, and Raman spectroscopy. Dramatic gender differences were evident in both cortical and trabecular bone morphological and geometric parameters. Male mice had inherently more bone and increased moment of inertia than genotype-matched female counterparts with corresponding increases in bone biomechanical strength. The primary influence of gender was structure/geometry in bone growth and mechanical properties, whereas the mineral/matrix composition, hydroxyproline content of bone were influenced primarily by the oim collagen mutation. This study provides evidence of the importance of gender in the evaluation and interpretation of potential therapeutic strategies when using mouse models of OI. PMID:23536112

  19. Dual-Energy Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging of Radiation-Induced Vascular Changes in Primary Mouse Sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Moding, Everett J.; Clark, Darin P.; Qi, Yi; Li, Yifan; Ma, Yan; Ghaghada, Ketan; Johnson, G. Allan; Kirsch, David G.; Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina ; Badea, Cristian T.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of radiation therapy on primary tumor vasculature using dual-energy (DE) micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Methods and Materials: Primary sarcomas were generated with mutant Kras and p53. Unirradiated tumors were compared with tumors irradiated with 20 Gy. A liposomal-iodinated contrast agent was administered 1 day after treatment, and mice were imaged immediately after injection (day 1) and 3 days later (day 4) with DE micro-CT. CT-derived tumor sizes were used to assess tumor growth. After DE decomposition, iodine maps were used to assess tumor fractional blood volume (FBV) at day 1 and tumor vascular permeability at day 4. For comparison, tumor vascularity and vascular permeability were also evaluated histologically by use of CD31 immunofluorescence and fluorescently-labeled dextrans. Results: Radiation treatment significantly decreased tumor growth from day 1 to day 4 (P<.05). There was a positive correlation between CT measurement of tumor FBV on day 1 and extravasated iodine on day 4 with microvascular density (MVD) on day 4 (R{sup 2}=0.53) and dextran accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.63) on day 4, respectively. Despite no change in MVD measured by histology, tumor FBV significantly increased after irradiation as measured by DE micro-CT (0.070 vs 0.091, P<.05). Both dextran and liposomal-iodine accumulation in tumors increased significantly after irradiation, with dextran fractional area increasing 5.2-fold and liposomal-iodine concentration increasing 4.0-fold. Conclusions: DE micro-CT is an effective tool for noninvasive assessment of vascular changes in primary tumors. Tumor blood volume and vascular permeability increased after a single therapeutic dose of radiation treatment.

  20. Limited Chemotherapy and Shrinking Field Radiotherapy for Osteolymphoma (Primary Bone Lymphoma): Results From the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 99.04 and Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group LY02 Prospective Trial;Bone; Lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, David; Dear, Keith; Le, Thai; Barton, Michael; Wirth, Andrew; Porter, David; Roos, Daniel; Pratt, Gary

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To establish benchmark outcomes for combined modality treatment to be used in future prospective studies of osteolymphoma (primary bone lymphoma). Methods and Materials: In 1999, the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) invited the Australasian Leukemia and Lymphoma Group (ALLG) to collaborate on a prospective study of limited chemotherapy and radiotherapy for osteolymphoma. The treatment was designed to maintain efficacy but limit the risk of subsequent pathological fractures. Patient assessment included both functional imaging and isotope bone scanning. Treatment included three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions using a shrinking field technique. Results: The trial closed because of slow accrual after 33 patients had been entered. Accrual was noted to slow down after Rituximab became readily available in Australia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, the five-year overall survival and local control rates are estimated at 90% and 72% respectively. Three patients had fractures at presentation that persisted after treatment, one with recurrent lymphoma. Conclusions: Relatively high rates of survival were achieved but the number of local failures suggests that the dose of radiotherapy should remain higher than it is for other types of lymphoma. Disability after treatment due to pathological fracture was not seen.

  1. Identification and characterization of the genes encoding human and mouse osteoactivin.

    PubMed

    Owen, T A; Smock, S L; Prakash, S; Pinder, L; Brees, D; Krull, D; Castleberry, T A; Clancy, Y C; Marks, S C; Safadi, F F; Popoff, S N

    2003-01-01

    Osteoactivin (OA) is more highly expressed in the bones of osteopetrotic mutant rats (op/op) than in those of their normal littermates and is the homologue of human nmb, a cDNA more highly expressed in melanoma-derived cell lines of low metastatic potential, and of mouse DC-HIL, which has been implicated in endothelial cell adhesion. The human OA gene is found on chromosome 7p15.1 and consists of 11 exons spanning 28.3 kb. Murine OA is encoded by a highly similar gene of 11 exons spanning 20.2 kb on mouse chromosome 6. Human OA uses the same transcriptional initiation site in both bone and kidney as was reported for melanoma cells. OA is expressed in primary human and mouse osteoblast cultures at all stages of differentiation, with increased levels observed concurrently with the expression of osteoblast phenotype markers. OA is also expressed in a wide variety of human and mouse tissues as determined by RT-PCR analysis. Immunohistochemical investigation of OA expression in late mouse embryonic development showed very high, cell-specific expression in the nervous system, basal layer of the skin, germinal cells of hair follicles, and in the forming nephrons of the kidney. Continuing investigation of the cell-specific expression of OA in bone as well as in other tissues will lead to a better understanding of its function in the development of these cell types. PMID:14696968

  2. Vision loss shifts the balance of feedforward and intracortical circuits in opposite directions in mouse primary auditory and visual cortices.

    PubMed

    Petrus, Emily; Rodriguez, Gabriela; Patterson, Ryan; Connor, Blaine; Kanold, Patrick O; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2015-06-10

    Loss of a sensory modality leads to widespread changes in synaptic function across sensory cortices, which are thought to be the basis for cross-modal adaptation. Previous studies suggest that experience-dependent cross-modal regulation of the spared sensory cortices may be mediated by changes in cortical circuits. Here, we report that loss of vision, in the form of dark exposure (DE) for 1 week, produces laminar-specific changes in excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of adult mice to promote feedforward (FF) processing and also strengthens intracortical inputs to primary visual cortex (V1). Specifically, DE potentiated FF excitatory synapses from layer 4 (L4) to L2/3 in A1 and recurrent excitatory inputs in A1-L4 in parallel with a reduction in the strength of lateral intracortical excitatory inputs to A1-L2/3. This suggests a shift in processing in favor of FF information at the expense of intracortical processing. Vision loss also strengthened inhibitory synaptic function in L4 and L2/3 of A1, but via laminar specific mechanisms. In A1-L4, DE specifically potentiated the evoked synaptic transmission from parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons to principal neurons without changes in spontaneous miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). In contrast, DE specifically increased the frequency of mIPSCs in A1-L2/3. In V1, FF excitatory inputs were unaltered by DE, whereas lateral intracortical connections in L2/3 were strengthened, suggesting a shift toward intracortical processing. Our results suggest that loss of vision produces distinct circuit changes in the spared and deprived sensory cortices to shift between FF and intracortical processing to allow adaptation. PMID:26063913

  3. Vision Loss Shifts the Balance of Feedforward and Intracortical Circuits in Opposite Directions in Mouse Primary Auditory and Visual Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Petrus, Emily; Rodriguez, Gabriela; Patterson, Ryan; Connor, Blaine; Kanold, Patrick O.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of a sensory modality leads to widespread changes in synaptic function across sensory cortices, which are thought to be the basis for cross-modal adaptation. Previous studies suggest that experience-dependent cross-modal regulation of the spared sensory cortices may be mediated by changes in cortical circuits. Here, we report that loss of vision, in the form of dark exposure (DE) for 1 week, produces laminar-specific changes in excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of adult mice to promote feedforward (FF) processing and also strengthens intracortical inputs to primary visual cortex (V1). Specifically, DE potentiated FF excitatory synapses from layer 4 (L4) to L2/3 in A1 and recurrent excitatory inputs in A1–L4 in parallel with a reduction in the strength of lateral intracortical excitatory inputs to A1–L2/3. This suggests a shift in processing in favor of FF information at the expense of intracortical processing. Vision loss also strengthened inhibitory synaptic function in L4 and L2/3 of A1, but via laminar specific mechanisms. In A1–L4, DE specifically potentiated the evoked synaptic transmission from parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons to principal neurons without changes in spontaneous miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). In contrast, DE specifically increased the frequency of mIPSCs in A1–L2/3. In V1, FF excitatory inputs were unaltered by DE, whereas lateral intracortical connections in L2/3 were strengthened, suggesting a shift toward intracortical processing. Our results suggest that loss of vision produces distinct circuit changes in the spared and deprived sensory cortices to shift between FF and intracortical processing to allow adaptation. PMID:26063913

  4. ABCC5 supports osteoclast formation and promotes breast cancer metastasis to bone

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Bone is the most common site of breast cancer metastasis, and complications associated with bone metastases can lead to a significantly decreased patient quality of life. Thus, it is essential to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of breast cancer skeletal metastases. Methods To search for novel molecular mediators that influence breast cancer bone metastasis, we generated gene-expression profiles from laser-capture microdissected trephine biopsies of both breast cancer bone metastases and independent primary breast tumors that metastasized to bone. Bioinformatics analysis identified genes that are differentially expressed in breast cancer bone metastases compared with primary, bone-metastatic breast tumors. Results ABCC5, an ATP-dependent transporter, was found to be overexpressed in breast cancer osseous metastases relative to primary breast tumors. In addition, ABCC5 was significantly upregulated in human and mouse breast cancer cell lines with high bone-metastatic potential. Stable knockdown of ABCC5 substantially reduced bone metastatic burden and osteolytic bone destruction in mice. The decrease in osteolysis was further associated with diminished osteoclast numbers in vivo. Finally, conditioned media from breast cancer cells with reduced ABCC5 expression failed to induce in vitro osteoclastogenesis to the same extent as conditioned media from breast cancer cells expressing ABCC5. Conclusions Our data suggest that ABCC5 functions as a mediator of breast cancer skeletal metastasis. ABCC5 expression in breast cancer cells is important for efficient osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Hence, ABCC5 may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer bone metastasis. PMID:23174366

  5. Connexin36 identified at morphologically mixed chemical/electrical synapses on trigeminal motoneurons and at primary afferent terminals on spinal cord neurons in adult mouse and rat

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, W.; McCrea, D. A.; Nagy, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    Morphologically mixed chemical/electrical synapses at axon terminals, with the electrical component formed by gap junctions, is common in the CNS of lower vertebrates. In mammalian CNS, evidence for morphologically mixed synapses has been obtained in only a few locations. Here, we used immunofluorescence approaches to examine the localization of the neuronally expressed gap junction forming protein connexin36 (Cx36) in relation to the axon terminal marker vesicular glutamate transporter1 (vglut1) in spinal cord and trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5) of rat and mouse. In adult rodents, immunolabelling for Cx36 appeared exclusively as Cx36-puncta, and was widely distributed at all rostro-caudal levels in most spinal cord laminae and in the Mo5. A high proportion of Cx36-puncta was co-localized with vglut1, forming morphologically mixed synapses on motoneurons, in intermediate spinal cord lamina, and in regions of medial lamina VII, where vglut1-containing terminals associated with Cx36 converged on neurons adjacent to the central canal. Unilateral transection of lumbar dorsal roots reduced immunolabelling of both vglut1 and Cx36 in intermediate laminae and lamina IX. Further, vglut1-terminals displaying Cx36-puncta were contacted by terminals labelled for glutamic acid decarboxylase65, which is known to be contained in presynaptic terminals on large diameter primary afferents. Developmentally, mixed synapses begin to emerge in the spinal cord only after the second to third postnatal week and thereafter increase to adult levels. Our findings demonstrate that axon terminals of primary afferent origin form morphologically mixed synapses containing Cx36 in broadly distributed areas of adult rodent spinal cord and Mo5. PMID:24406437

  6. Protein Kinase D Isoforms Are Expressed In Rat and Mouse Primary Sensory Neurons and Are activated by Agonists Of Protease-Activated Receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Amadesi, Silvia; Grant, Andrew D.; Cottrell, Graeme S.; Vaksman, Natalya; Poole, Daniel P.; Rozengurt, Enrique; Bunnett, Nigel W.

    2009-01-01

    Serine proteases generated during injury and inflammation cleave protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) on primary sensory neurons to induce neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia. Hyperalgesia requires sensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels by mechanisms involving phospholipase C and protein kinase C (PKC). The protein kinase D (PKD) serine/threonine kinases are activated by diacylglycerol and PKCs, and can phosphorylate TRPV1. Thus, PKDs may participate in novel signal transduction pathways triggered by serine proteases during inflammation and pain. However, it is not known whether PAR2 activates PKD, and the expression of PKD isoforms by nociceptive neurons is poorly characterized. Using HEK293 cells transfected with PKDs, we found that PAR2 stimulation promoted plasma membrane translocation and phosphorylation of PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3, indicating activation. This effect was partially dependent on PKC?. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, with antibodies against PKD1/PKD2, PKD3 and neuronal markers, we found that PKDs were expressed in rat and mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, including nociceptive neurons that expressed TRPV1, PAR2 and neuropeptides. PAR2 agonist induced phosphorylation of PKD in cultured DRG neurons, indicating PKD activation. Intraplantar injection of PAR2 agonist also caused phosphorylation of PKD in neurons of lumbar DRG, confirming activation in vivo. Thus, PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3 are expressed in primary sensory neurons that mediate neurogenic inflammation and pain transmission, and PAR2 agonists activate PKDs in HEK293 cells and DRG neurons in culture and in intact animals. PKD may be a novel component of a signal transduction pathway for protease-induced activation of nociceptive neurons and an important new target for anti-inflammatory and analgesic therapies. PMID:19575452

  7. Response of chemically induced primary colon tumours of the mouse to flavone acetic acid (NSC 347 512).

    PubMed Central

    Pratesi, G.; Manzotti, C.; Damia, G.; D'Incalci, M.

    1988-01-01

    Flavone acetic acid (FAA) is a compound with proven activity against various transplantable colon cancers in mice. In this study it was evaluated against primary colon tumours, chemically induced by methylazoxymethanol in outbred CF1 mice. FAA was given i.v. at doses of 70 or 100 or 150 mg kg-1 every 7 days for 6 weeks. Only 4 out of 60 FAA treated mice died of toxicity. FAA reduced tumour number and tumour burden compared to control mice (P less than 0.05 at least), with no apparent dose-response relationship. Antitumour activity of FAA was comparable to that of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) used as standard. Moreover, FAA was more effective that 5-FU against large tumours. FAA levels in plasma and different tissues (including colonic neoplastic lesions) after a single i.v. dose of 150 mg kg-1 were investigated. Tumour FAA levels appear insufficient to be responsible for the antitumour activity based only on a direct FAA cytotoxic effect. The results confirm clinical interest in FAA and suggest that mechanisms other than direct cytotoxicity may be involved in its activity. PMID:3166904

  8. Heightened Induction of Proapoptotic Signals in Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Primary Fibroblasts from a Mouse Model of Longevity*

    PubMed Central

    Sadighi Akha, Amir A.; Harper, James M.; Salmon, Adam B.; Schroeder, Bethany A.; Tyra, Heather M.; Rutkowski, D. Thomas; Miller, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory has shown that primary fibroblasts from long-lived Snell dwarf mice display a higher sensitivity to the lethal effects of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressors, such as thapsigargin, than cells from normal mice. Here we show that thapsigargin induces higher expression of CHOP, enhanced cleavage of caspase-12, higher caspase-3 activity, and increased phosphorylation of c-JUN, all indicators of enhanced apoptosis, in dwarf fibroblasts. Dwarf and normal fibroblasts show no genotypic difference in up-regulating BiP, GRP94, and ERp72 proteins after exposure to thapsigargin. However, dwarf fibroblasts express lower basal levels of a number of putative XBP1 target genes including Armet, Edem1, Erdj3, p58IPK and Sec61a1, as well as Ire1? itself. Furthermore, when exposed to thapsigargin, dwarf fibroblasts display attenuated splicing of Xbp1, but similar phosphorylation of eIF2?, in comparison to normal fibroblasts. These data support the notion that IRE1/XBP1 signaling is set at a lower level in dwarf fibroblasts. Diminished Xbp1 splicing in dwarf-derived fibroblasts may tilt the balance between prosurvival and proapoptotic signals in favor of apoptosis, thereby leading to higher induction of proapoptotic signals in these cells and ultimately their increased sensitivity to ER stressors. These results, together with recent findings in Caenorhabditis elegans daf-2 mutants, point to a potential interplay between insulin/IGF-1 signals and unfolded protein response signaling. PMID:21757703

  9. A Feedforward Inhibitory Circuit Mediates Lateral Refinement of Sensory Representation in Upper Layer 2/3 of Mouse Primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-yun; Ji, Xu-ying; Liang, Feixue; Li, Ya-tang; Xiao, Zhongju

    2014-01-01

    Sensory information undergoes ordered and coordinated processing across cortical layers. Whereas cortical layer (L) 4 faithfully acquires thalamic information, the superficial layers appear well staged for more refined processing of L4-relayed signals to generate corticocortical outputs. However, the specific role of superficial layer processing and how it is specified by local synaptic circuits remains not well understood. Here, in the mouse primary auditory cortex, we showed that upper L2/3 circuits play a crucial role in refining functional selectivity of excitatory neurons by sharpening auditory tonal receptive fields and enhancing contrast of frequency representation. This refinement is mediated by synaptic inhibition being more broadly recruited than excitation, with the inhibition predominantly originating from interneurons in the same cortical layer. By comparing the onsets of synaptic inputs as well as of spiking responses of different types of neuron, we found that the broadly tuned, fast responding inhibition observed in excitatory cells can be primarily attributed to feedforward inhibition originating from parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons, whereas somatostatin (SOM)-positive interneurons respond much later compared with the onset of inhibitory inputs to excitatory neurons. We propose that the feedforward circuit-mediated inhibition from PV neurons, which has an analogous function to lateral inhibition, enables upper L2/3 excitatory neurons to rapidly refine auditory representation. PMID:25297094

  10. La3+ Alters the Response Properties of Neurons in the Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex to Low-Temperature Noxious Stimulation of the Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yanjiao

    2015-01-01

    Although dental pain is a serious health issue with high incidence among the human population, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are assumed to be involved in the generation of dental pain. However, most of the studies were conducted with molecular biological or histological methods. In vivo functional studies on the role of TRP channels in the mechanisms of dental pain are lacking. This study uses in vivo cellular electrophysiological and neuropharmacological method to directly disclose the effect of LaCl3, a broad spectrum TRP channel blocker, on the response properties of neurons in the mouse primary somatosensory cortex to low-temperature noxious stimulation of the dental pulp. It was found that LaCl3 suppresses the high-firing-rate responses of all nociceptive neurons to noxious low-temperature stimulation and also inhibits the spontaneous activities in some nonnociceptive neurons. The effect of LaCl3 is reversible. Furthermore, this effect is persistent and stable unless LaCl3 is washed out. Washout of LaCl3 quickly revitalized the responsiveness of neurons to low-temperature noxious stimulation. This study adds direct evidence for the hypothesis that TRP channels are involved in the generation of dental pain and sensation. Blockade of TRP channels may provide a novel therapeutic treatment for dental pain. PMID:26604777

  11. Impaired bone homeostasis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice with muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ke; Yi, Jianxun; Xiao, Yajuan; Lai, Yumei; Song, Pingping; Zheng, Wei; Jiao, Hongli; Fan, Jie; Wu, Chuanyue; Chen, Di; Zhou, Jingsong; Xiao, Guozhi

    2015-03-27

    There is an intimate relationship between muscle and bone throughout life. However, how alterations in muscle functions in disease impact bone homeostasis is poorly understood. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive muscle atrophy. In this study we analyzed the effects of ALS on bone using the well established G93A transgenic mouse model, which harbors an ALS-causing mutation in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1. We found that 4-month-old G93A mice with severe muscle atrophy had dramatically reduced trabecular and cortical bone mass compared with their sex-matched wild type (WT) control littermates. Mechanically, we found that multiple osteoblast properties, such as the formation of osteoprogenitors, activation of Akt and Erk1/2 pathways, and osteoblast differentiation capacity, were severely impaired in primary cultures and bones from G93A relative to WT mice; this could contribute to reduced bone formation in the mutant mice. Conversely, osteoclast formation and bone resorption were strikingly enhanced in primary bone marrow cultures and bones of G93A mice compared with WT mice. Furthermore, sclerostin and RANKL expression in osteocytes embedded in the bone matrix were greatly up-regulated, and ?-catenin was down-regulated in osteoblasts from G93A mice when compared with those of WT mice. Interestingly, calvarial bone that does not load and long bones from 2-month-old G93A mice without muscle atrophy displayed no detectable changes in parameters for osteoblast and osteoclast functions. Thus, for the first time to our knowledge, we have demonstrated that ALS causes abnormal bone remodeling and defined the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. PMID:25648889

  12. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bone disease can make bones easy to break Bones can also develop cancer and infections Other bone diseases are caused by poor nutrition, genetic factors or ...

  13. Maneb-induced dopaminergic neuronal death is not affected by loss of mitochondrial complex I activity: Results from primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons cultured from individual Ndufs4+/+ and Ndufs4-/- mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Seok; Xia, Zhengui

    2014-01-01

    Primary cultures from embryonic mouse ventral mesencephalon are widely used for investigating the mechanisms of dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease models. Specifically, single mouse or embryo cultures from littermates can be very useful for comparative studies involving transgenic mice when the neuron cultures are to be prepared before genotyping. However, preparing single mouse embryo culture is technically challenging because of the small number of cells present in the mesencephalon of each embryo (150,000-300,000), of which only 0.5-5% are tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) -positive, dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we optimized the procedure for preparing primary mesencephalic neuron cultures from individual mouse embryos. Mesencephalic neurons that are dissociated delicately, plated on Aclar film coverslips, and incubated in DMEM supplemented with FBS for 5 days and then N2 supplement for 1 day resulted in the best survival of dopaminergic neurons from each embryo. Using this optimized method, we prepared mesencephalic neuron cultures from single Ndufs4+/+ or Ndufs4-/- embryos, and investigated the role of mitochondrial complex I in maneb-induced dopamine neuron death. Our results suggest that maneb toxicity to dopamine neurons is not affected by loss of mitochondrial complex I activity in Ndufs4-/- cultures. PMID:25275677

  14. Combined genome-wide expression profiling and targeted RNA interference in primary mouse macrophages reveals perturbation of transcriptional networks associated with interferon signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lacaze, Paul; Raza, Sobia; Sing, Garwin; Page, David; Forster, Thorsten; Storm, Petter; Craigon, Marie; Awad, Tarif; Ghazal, Peter; Freeman, Tom C

    2009-01-01

    Background Interferons (IFNs) are potent antiviral cytokines capable of reprogramming the macrophage phenotype through the induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Here we have used targeted RNA interference to suppress the expression of a number of key genes associated with IFN signalling in murine macrophages prior to stimulation with interferon-gamma. Genome-wide changes in transcript abundance caused by siRNA activity were measured using exon-level microarrays in the presence or absence of IFN?. Results Transfection of murine bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) with a non-targeting (control) siRNA and 11 sequence-specific siRNAs was performed using a cationic lipid transfection reagent (Lipofectamine2000) prior to stimulation with IFN?. Total RNA was harvested from cells and gene expression measured on Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Network-based analysis of these data revealed six siRNAs to cause a marked shift in the macrophage transcriptome in the presence or absence IFN?. These six siRNAs targeted the Ifnb1, Irf3, Irf5, Stat1, Stat2 and Nfkb2 transcripts. The perturbation of the transcriptome by the six siRNAs was highly similar in each case and affected the expression of over 600 downstream transcripts. Regulated transcripts were clustered based on co-expression into five major groups corresponding to transcriptional networks associated with the type I and II IFN response, cell cycle regulation, and NF-KB signalling. In addition we have observed a significant non-specific immune stimulation of cells transfected with siRNA using Lipofectamine2000, suggesting use of this reagent in BMDMs, even at low concentrations, is enough to induce a type I IFN response. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that the type I IFN response in murine BMDMs is dependent on Ifnb1, Irf3, Irf5, Stat1, Stat2 and Nfkb2, and that siRNAs targeted to these genes results in perturbation of key transcriptional networks associated with type I and type II IFN signalling and a suppression of macrophage M1 polarization. PMID:19664281

  15. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 expresses in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and stimulates their proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fenxi; Wang, Congrui; Jing, Suhua; Ren, Tongming; Li, Yonghai; Cao, Yulin; Lin, Juntang

    2013-04-15

    The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) have been widely used in cell transplant therapy, and the proliferative ability of bmMSCs is one of the determinants of the therapy efficiency. Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) as a transmembrane protein is responsible for binding, internalizing and degrading oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). It has been identified that LOX-1 is expressed in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and monocytes. In these cells, low concentration of ox-LDL (<40 ?g/mL) stimulates their proliferation via LOX-1 activation. However, it is poor understood that whether LOX-1 is expressed in bmMSCs and which role it plays. In this study, we investigated the status of LOX-1 expression in bmMSCs and its function on bmMSC proliferation. Our results showed that primary bmMSCs exhibiting a typical fibroblast-like morphology are positive for CD44 and CD90, but negative for CD34 and CD45. LOX-1 in both mRNA and protein levels is highly expressed in bmMSCs. Meanwhile, bmMSCs exhibit a strong potential to take up ox-LDL. Moreover, LOX-1 expression in bmMSCs is upregulated by ox-LDL with a dose- and time-dependent manner. Presence of ox-LDL also enhances the proliferation of bmMSCs. Knockdown of LOX-1 expression significantly inhibits ox-LDL-induced bmMSC proliferation. These findings indicate that LOX-1 plays a role in bmMSC proliferation. - Highlights: ? LOX-1 expresses in bmMSCs and mediates uptake of ox-LDL. ? Ox-LDL stimulates upregulation of LOX-1 in bmMSCs. ? Ox-LDL promotes bmMSC proliferation and expression of Mdm2, phosphor-Akt, phosphor-ERK1/2 and phosphor-NF-?B. ? LOX-1 siRNA inhibits ox-LDL-induced bmMSC proliferation and expression cell survival signals.

  16. Reason for Testing (Required-failure to include a diagnosis may delay testing. Include all pertinent diagnoses and ICD9 codes. Ie. Primary Lung Cancer 162.9 with metastasis to brain 198.3 and bone 198.5)

    E-print Network

    Grant, Gregory

    pertinent diagnoses and ICD9 codes. Ie. Primary Lung Cancer 162.9 with metastasis to brain 198.3 and bone management of the patient. The undersigned Client authorizes the Washington University School of Medicine Forest Park Avenue St. Louis, MO 63108 BJC Main Campus sample drop off locations: Children's Hospital One

  17. In Vivo Voltage-Sensitive Dye Study of Lateral Spreading of Cortical Activity in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Induced by a Current Impulse

    PubMed Central

    Fehérvári, Tamás Dávid; Sawai, Hajime; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian primary visual cortex (V1), lateral spreading of excitatory potentials is believed to be involved in spatial integrative functions, but the underlying cortical mechanism is not well understood. Visually-evoked population-level responses have been shown to propagate beyond the V1 initial activation site in mouse, similar to higher mammals. Visually-evoked responses are, however, affected by neuronal circuits prior to V1 (retina, LGN), making the separate analysis of V1 difficult. Intracortical stimulation eliminates these initial processing steps. We used in vivo RH1691 voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging and intracortical microstimulation in adult C57BL/6 mice to elucidate the spatiotemporal properties of population-level signal spreading in V1 cortical circuits. The evoked response was qualitatively similar to that measured in single-cell electrophysiological experiments in rodents: a fast transient fluorescence peak followed by a fast and a slow decrease or hyperpolarization, similar to EPSP and fast and slow IPSPs in single cells. The early cortical response expanded at speeds commensurate with long horizontal projections (at 5% of the peak maximum, 0.08–0.15 m/s) however, the bulk of the VSD signal propagated slowly (at half-peak maximum, 0.05–0.08 m/s) suggesting an important role of regenerative multisynaptic transmission through short horizontal connections in V1 spatial integrative functions. We also found a tendency for a widespread and fast cortical response suppression in V1, which was eliminated by GABAA-antagonists gabazine and bicuculline methiodide. Our results help understand the neuronal circuitry involved in lateral spreading in V1. PMID:26230520

  18. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  19. A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements

    PubMed Central

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that a small lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) prevented both cortical plasticity and sensory learning in the adult mouse visual system: While 3-month-old control mice continued to show ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in their primary visual cortex (V1) after monocular deprivation (MD), age-matched mice with a small photothrombotically induced (PT) stroke lesion in S1, positioned at least 1 mm anterior to the anterior border of V1, no longer expressed OD-plasticity. In addition, in the S1-lesioned mice, neither the experience-dependent increase of the spatial frequency threshold (“visual acuity”) nor of the contrast threshold (“contrast sensitivity”) of the optomotor reflex through the open eye was present. To assess whether these plasticity impairments can also occur if a lesion is placed more distant from V1, we tested the effect of a PT-lesion in the secondary motor cortex (M2). We observed that mice with a small M2-lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers no longer expressed an OD-shift towards the open eye after 7 days of MD in V1 of the lesioned hemisphere. Consistent with previous findings about the consequences of an S1-lesion, OD-plasticity in V1 of the nonlesioned hemisphere of the M2-lesioned mice was still present. In addition, the experience-dependent improvements of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the open eye were severely reduced. In contrast, sham-lesioned mice displayed both an OD-shift and improvements of visual capabilities of their open eye. To summarize, our data indicate that even a very small lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers and more than 3mm anterior to the anterior border of V1 compromised V1-plasticity and impaired learning-induced visual improvements in adult mice. Thus both plasticity phenomena cannot only depend on modality-specific and local nerve cell networks but are clearly influenced by long-range interactions even from distant brain regions. PMID:26368569

  20. The horse that was a zebra: primary lymphoma of bone mimicking shoulder strain in an elderly male

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Warren J; Morgan, Christopher; Pulinec, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Primary malignant tumours of the extremities are rarely seen in chiropractic clinics. A case is presented of an eighty year old male who had complained of pain in the right shoulder of several days duration. History and clinical examination were consistent with mechanical joint pain. Following an appropriate course of conservative care the patient continued to improve until a re-injury occurred 3 months later. At that time, radiographs revealed an ill-defined moth-eaten lesion in the proximal humeral head. Subsequent evaluation demonstrated it to be a rare histologic sub-type of lymphoma. This case highlights several important issues ranging from clinical presentation to case management. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2

  1. Primary over-expression of A?PP in muscle does not lead to the development of inclusion body myositis in a new lineage of the MCK-A?PP transgenic mouse.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yue-Bei; Johnsen, Russell D; Griffiths, Lisa; Needham, Merrilee; Fabian, Victoria A; Fletcher, Sue; Wilton, Steve D; Mastaglia, Frank L

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether primary over-expression of A?PP in skeletal muscle results in the development of features of inclusion body myositis (IBM) in a new lineage of the MCK-A?PP transgenic mouse. Quantitative histological, immunohistochemical and western blotting studies were performed on muscles from 3 to 18 month old transgenic and wild-type C57BL6/SJL mice. Electron microscopy was also performed on muscle sections from selected animals. Although western blotting confirmed that there was over-expression of full length A?PP in transgenic mouse muscles, deposition of amyloid-? and fibrillar amyloid could not be demonstrated histochemically or with electron microscopy. Additionally, other changes typical of IBM such as rimmed vacuoles, cytochrome C oxidase-deficient fibres, upregulation of MHC antigens, lymphocytic inflammatory infiltration and T cell fibre invasion were absent. The most prominent finding in both transgenic and wild-type animals was the presence of tubular aggregates which was age-related and largely restricted to male animals. Expression of full length A?PP in this MCK-A?PP mouse lineage did not reach the levels required for immunodetection or deposition of amyloid-? as in the original transgenic strains, and was not associated with the development of pathological features of IBM. These negative results emphasise the potential pitfalls of re-deriving transgenic mouse strains in different laboratories. PMID:24205796

  2. Effects of gentamicin and monomer on bone. An in vitro study

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, J.G.; Lund, B.

    1988-01-01

    Gentamicin-loaded bone cement is used with increasing frequency in primary and revision arthroplasty. Considering the high local concentration and the well-known toxic effect of gentamicin on the kidney, a similar inhibiting effect on bone tissue might be expected. In a series of in vitro studies using paired mouse calvaries cultured for 2 days, the authors found a dose-dependent decrease in the release of previously incorporated calcium-45 (UVCa) or tritiated proline and a decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity. In combination with methylmethacrylate, a small additional reduction in UVCa release and a marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity were recorded. These results indicate that released gentamicin and monomer from antibiotic-supplemented bone cement depresses bone turnover and might thus play an important part in the pathogenesis of loosening.

  3. An activating Fgfr3 mutation affects trabecular bone formation via a paracrine mechanism during growth.

    PubMed

    Mugniery, Emilie; Dacquin, Romain; Marty, Caroline; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Jurdic, Pierre; Munnich, Arnold; Geoffroy, Valérie; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2012-06-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) plays a critical role in the regulation of endochondral ossification. Fgfr3 gain-of-function mutations cause achondroplasia, the most common form of dwarfism, and a spectrum of chondrodysplasias. Despite a significant number of studies on the role of FGFR3 in cartilage, to date, none has investigated the influence of Fgfr3-mediated effects of the growth plate on bone formation. We studied three mouse models, each expressing Fgfr3 mutation either ubiquitously (CMV-Fgfr3(Y367C/+)), in chondrocytes (Col II-Fgfr3(Y367C/+)) or in mature osteoblasts (Col I-Fgfr3(Y367C/+)). Interestingly, we demonstrated that dwarfism with a significant defect in bone formation during growth was only observed in mouse models expressing mutant Fgfr3 in the cartilage. We observed a dramatic reduction in cartilage matrix mineralization and a strong defect of primary spongiosa. Anomalies of primary spongiosa were associated with an increase in osteoclast recruitment and a defect of osteoblasts at the mineralization front. A significant decrease in bone volume, trabecular thickness and number was also observed in the trabecular bone. Interestingly, no anomalies in proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts from CMV-Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice were observed. Based on these data, we excluded a potential function of Fgfr3 directly on osteoblasts at 3 weeks of age and we obtained evidence that the disorganization of the growth plate is responsible for the anomalies of the trabecular bone during bone formation. Herein, we propose that impaired FGFR3 signaling pathways may affect trabecular bone formation via a paracrine mechanism during growth. These results redefine our understanding of endochondral ossification in FGFR3-related chondrodysplasias. PMID:22367969

  4. Sho-saiko-to, a traditional herbal medicine, regulates gene expression and biological function by way of microRNAs in primary mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sho-saiko-to (SST) (also known as so-shi-ho-tang or xiao-chai-hu-tang) has been widely prescribed for chronic liver diseases in traditional Oriental medicine. Despite the substantial amount of clinical evidence for SST, its molecular mechanism has not been clearly identified at a genome-wide level. Methods By using a microarray, we analyzed the temporal changes of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA expression in primary mouse hepatocytes after SST treatment. The pattern of genes regulated by SST was identified by using time-series microarray analysis. The biological function of genes was measured by pathway analysis. For the identification of the exact targets of the microRNAs, a permutation-based correlation method was implemented in which the temporal expression of mRNAs and microRNAs were integrated. The similarity of the promoter structure between temporally regulated genes was measured by analyzing the transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region. Results The SST-regulated gene expression had two major patterns: (1) a temporally up-regulated pattern (463 genes) and (2) a temporally down-regulated pattern (177 genes). The integration of the genes and microRNA demonstrated that 155 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally up-regulated pattern and 19 genes could be the targets of microRNAs from the temporally down-regulated pattern. The temporally up-regulated pattern by SST was associated with signaling pathways such as the cell cycle pathway, whereas the temporally down-regulated pattern included drug metabolism-related pathways and immune-related pathways. All these pathways could be possibly associated with liver regenerative activity of SST. Genes targeted by microRNA were moreover associated with different biological pathways from the genes not targeted by microRNA. An analysis of promoter similarity indicated that co-expressed genes after SST treatment were clustered into subgroups, depending on the temporal expression patterns. Conclusions We are the first to identify that SST regulates temporal gene expression by way of microRNA. MicroRNA targets and non-microRNA targets moreover have different biological roles. This functional segregation by microRNA would be critical for the elucidation of the molecular activities of SST. PMID:24410935

  5. Micro-RNA-30a regulates ischemia-induced cell death by targeting heat shock protein HSPA5 in primary cultured cortical neurons and mouse brain after stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Nan; Liang, Jia; Li, Jiefei; Han, Song; Li, Junfa

    2015-11-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRs) have emerged as key gene regulators in many diseases, including stroke. We recently reported that miR-30a protects N2A cells against ischemic injury, in part through enhancing beclin 1-mediated autophagy. The present study explores further the involvement of miR-30a in ischemia-induced apoptosis and its possible mechanisms in primary cortical neurons and stroked mouse brain. We demonstrate that miR-30a level is significantly decreased in cortical neurons after 1-hr oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/24-hr reoxygenation. Overexpression of miR-30a aggravated the OGD-induced neuronal cell death, whereas inhibition of miR-30a attenuated necrosis and apoptosis as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-di-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide, lactate dehydrogenase, TUNEL, and cleaved caspase-3. The amount of HSPA5 protein, which is predicted to be a putative target of miR-30a by TargetScan, could be reduced by pre-miR-30a, whereas it was increased by anti-miR-30a. Furthermore, the luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-30a directly binds to the predicted 3'-UTR target sites of the hspa5 gene. The cell injury regulated by miR-30a in OGD-treated cells could be aggravated by HSPA5 siRNA. We also observed an interaction of HSPA5 and caspase-12 by coimmunoprecipitation and speculate that HSPA5 might be involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. In vivo, reduced miR-30a increased the HSPA5 level and attenuated ischemic brain infarction in focal ischemia-stroked mice. Downregulation of miR-30a could prevent neural ischemic injury through upregulating HSPA5 protein expression, and decreased ER stress-induced apoptosis might be one of the mechanisms underlying HSPA5-mediated neuroprotection. PMID:26301516

  6. House mouse colonization patterns on the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Archipelago suggest singular primary invasions and resilience against re-invasion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Starting from Western Europe, the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has spread across the globe in historic times. However, most oceanic islands were colonized by mice only within the past 300 years. This makes them an excellent model for studying the evolutionary processes during early stages of new colonization. We have focused here on the Kerguelen Archipelago, located within the sub-Antarctic area and compare the patterns with samples from other Southern Ocean islands. Results We have typed 18 autosomal and six Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci and obtained mitochondrial D-loop sequences for a total of 534 samples, mainly from the Kerguelen Archipelago, but also from the Falkland Islands, Marion Island, Amsterdam Island, Antipodes Island, Macquarie Island, Auckland Islands and one sample from South Georgia. We find that most of the mice on the Kerguelen Archipelago have the same mitochondrial haplotype and all share the same major Y-chromosomal haplotype. Two small islands (Cochons Island and Cimetičre Island) within the archipelago show a different mitochondrial haplotype, are genetically distinct for autosomal loci, but share the major Y-chromosomal haplotype. In the mitochondrial D-loop sequences, we find several single step mutational derivatives of one of the major mitochondrial haplotypes, suggesting an unusually high mutation rate, or the occurrence of selective sweeps in mitochondria. Conclusions Although there was heavy ship traffic for over a hundred years to the Kerguelen Archipelago, it appears that the mice that have arrived first have colonized the main island (Grande Terre) and most of the associated small islands. The second invasion that we see in our data has occurred on islands that are detached from Grande Terre and were likely to have had no resident mice prior to their arrival. The genetic data suggest that the mice of both primary invasions originated from related source populations. Our data suggest that an area colonized by mice is refractory to further introgression, possibly due to fast adaptations of the resident mice to local conditions. PMID:20977744

  7. Bone Mineral Measurements.

    PubMed

    Doroudinia, Abtin; Colletti, Patrick M

    2015-08-01

    The accurate measurement of bone mineral density using noninvasive methods can be of value in the detection and evaluation of primary and secondary causes of decreased bone mass. This includes primary osteoporosis and secondary disorders, such as hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, multiple myeloma, diffuse metastases, and glucocorticoid therapy or intrinsic excess.By far, the largest patient population is that encompassed by primary osteoporosis with increased susceptibility to fractures in the absence of other recognizable causes of bone loss.Primary osteoporosis is a common clinical disorder and a major public health problem because of the significant number of related bone fractures occurring annually. Because the risk of vertebral and femoral neck fractures rises dramatically as bone mineral density falls, fracture risk in individual patients may be estimated. Furthermore, in estrogen-deficient women, bone mineral density values may be used to make rational decisions about hormone replacement therapy, or other bone mineral therapies, and as follow-up in assessing the success of such treatment.In this article, we discuss different methods of bone densitometry and will focus on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with discussing the factors which should be considered for interpretation of DXA scan. PMID:26147459

  8. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in osteoporosis (weak bones that break easily), kidney stones (small clumps of calcium), and a decline in kidney function. DiD YOu knOW? Women are more likely than men to develop primary hyperparathyroidism, and the risk increases with age. FAcT SHeeT Parathyroid Glands thyroid Gland Back View ...

  9. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... D.C.: American Society of Bone and Mineral Research; 2009: 361–367. Eastell R, Arnold A, Brandi ML, et al. Diagnosis of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: proceedings of the Third International Workshop. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2009;94(2): ...

  10. Endocortical bone loss in osteoporosis: the role of bone surface availability

    E-print Network

    Buenzli, Pascal R; Clement, John G; Pivonka, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Age-related bone loss and postmenopausal osteoporosis are disorders of bone remodelling, in which less bone is reformed than resorbed. Yet, this dysregulation of bone remodelling does not occur equally in all bone regions. Loss of bone is more pronounced near the endocortex, leading to cortical wall thinning and medullary cavity expansion, a process sometimes referred to as "trabecularisation" or "cancellisation". Cortical wall thinning is of primary concern in osteoporosis due to the strong reduction in bone mechanical properties that it is associated with. In this paper, we examine the possibility that the nonuniformity of microscopic bone surface availability could explain the nonuniformity of bone loss in osteoporosis. We use a simple computational model of bone remodelling, in which microscopic bone surface availability influences bone turnover rate, to simulate the evolution of the bone volume fraction profile across the midshaft of a long bone. We find that bone loss is accelerated near the endocortica...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Primary myelofibrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... megakaryocytes stimulate another type of cell to release collagen. Collagen is a protein that normally provides structural support ... bone marrow. However, in primary myelofibrosis, the excess collagen forms scar tissue in the bone marrow. Although ...

  12. Improving In Vivo High-Resolution CT Imaging of the Tumour Vasculature in Xenograft Mouse Models through Reduction of Motion and Bone-Streak Artefacts

    PubMed Central

    Kersemans, Veerle; Kannan, Pavitra; Beech, John S.; Bates, Russell; Irving, Benjamin; Gilchrist, Stuart; Allen, Philip D.; Thompson, James; Kinchesh, Paul; Casteleyn, Christophe; Schnabel, Julia; Partridge, Mike; Muschel, Ruth J.; Smart, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preclinical in vivo CT is commonly used to visualise vessels at a macroscopic scale. However, it is prone to many artefacts which can degrade the quality of CT images significantly. Although some artefacts can be partially corrected for during image processing, they are best avoided during acquisition. Here, a novel imaging cradle and tumour holder was designed to maximise CT resolution. This approach was used to improve preclinical in vivo imaging of the tumour vasculature. Procedures A custom built cradle containing a tumour holder was developed and fix-mounted to the CT system gantry to avoid artefacts arising from scanner vibrations and out-of-field sample positioning. The tumour holder separated the tumour from bones along the axis of rotation of the CT scanner to avoid bone-streaking. It also kept the tumour stationary and insensitive to respiratory motion. System performance was evaluated in terms of tumour immobilisation and reduction of motion and bone artefacts. Pre- and post-contrast CT followed by sequential DCE-MRI of the tumour vasculature in xenograft transplanted mice was performed to confirm vessel patency and demonstrate the multimodal capacity of the new cradle. Vessel characteristics such as diameter, and branching were quantified. Results Image artefacts originating from bones and out-of-field sample positioning were avoided whilst those resulting from motions were reduced significantly, thereby maximising the resolution that can be achieved with CT imaging in vivo. Tumour vessels ? 77 ?m could be resolved and blood flow to the tumour remained functional. The diameter of each tumour vessel was determined and plotted as histograms and vessel branching maps were created. Multimodal imaging using this cradle assembly was preserved and demonstrated. Conclusions The presented imaging workflow minimised image artefacts arising from scanner induced vibrations, respiratory motion and radiopaque structures and enabled in vivo CT imaging and quantitative analysis of the tumour vasculature at higher resolution than was possible before. Moreover, it can be applied in a multimodal setting, therefore combining anatomical and dynamic information. PMID:26046526

  13. Primary bone neoplasms; Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Canine appendicular osteosarcoma is a serious cancer that causes lameness due to its aggressive local effects and death due to early and widespread metastases. Amputation alone is palliative, with a 10% rate of survival to 1 year. Cisplatin chemotherapy (with or without doxorubicin) improves the chances of survival, but metastatic cancer is still the cause of death in most affected dogs. Limb sparing may be a viable alternative in some dogs.

  14. Immortalization and characterization of mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Li-An; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi-an ; Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin; Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, Wuhan ; Ortiz-Gonzalez, Iris; Yang, Wuchen; Cui, Yong; MacDougall, Mary; Harris, Stephen; Chen, Shuo

    2009-08-14

    Generation of a floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line is a valuable tool for studying the modulatory effects of Bmp2 and Bmp4 on osteoblast differentiation as well as relevant molecular events. In this study, primary floxed Bmp2/4 mouse osteoblasts were cultured and transfected with simian virus 40 large T-antigen. Transfection was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To examine the characteristics of the transfected cells, morphology, proliferation and mineralization were analyzed, expression of cell-specific genes including Runx2, ATF4, Dlx3, Osx, dentin matrix protein 1, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and collagen type I was detected. These results show that transfected floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts bypassed senescence with a higher proliferation rate, but retain the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we for the first time demonstrate the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line.

  15. Amlexanox Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Guan, Hanfeng; Li, Jing; Fang, Zhong; Chen, Wenjian; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The activity of protein kinases IKK-? and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) has been shown to be associated with inflammatory diseases. As an inhibitor of IKK-? and TBK1, amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, immunomodulator and used for treatment of ulcer, allergic rhinitis and asthma in clinic. We hypothesized that amlexanox may be used for treatment of osteoclast-related diseases which frequently associated with a low grade of systemic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of amlexanox on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ovariectomy-mediated bone loss in vivo. In primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs), amlexanox inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption. At the molecular level, amlexanox suppressed RANKL-induced activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), c-Fos and NFATc1. Amlexanox decreased the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, MMP9, Cathepsin K and NFATc1. Moreover, amlexanox enhanced osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs. In ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model, amlexanox prevented OVX-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that amlexanox suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents OVX-induced bone loss. Therefore, amlexanox may be considered as a new therapeutic candidate for osteoclast-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26338477

  16. GM-CSF and uPA are required for Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss in a mouse periodontitis model.

    PubMed

    Lam, Roselind S; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Hamilton, John A; Lenzo, Jason C; Holden, James A; Brammar, Gail C; Orth, Rebecca K; Tan, Yan; Walsh, Katrina A; Fleetwood, Andrew J; Reynolds, Eric C

    2015-09-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) can contribute to the progression of chronic inflammatory diseases with possible involvement of macrophages. In this study, we investigated the role of both GM-CSF and uPA in Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced experimental periodontitis using GM-CSF-/- and uPA-/- mice. Intra-oral inoculation of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice with P. gingivalis resulted in establishment of the pathogen in plaque and a significant increase in alveolar bone resorption. The infected mice also exhibited a CD11b(+) CD86(+) macrophage infiltrate into the gingival tissue, as well as P. gingivalis-specific pro-inflammatory cytokine and predominantly IgG2b antibody responses. In comparison, intra-oral inoculation of P. gingivalis did not induce bone resorption and there was significantly less P. gingivalis recovered from plaque in GM-CSF-/- and uPA-/- mice. Furthermore, P. gingivalis did not induce a macrophage gingival infiltrate or activate isolated peritoneal macrophages from the gene-deficient mice. Pro-inflammatory P. gingivalis-specific T-cell cytokine responses and serum interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and IgG2b concentrations were significantly lower in GM-CSF-/- mice. In uPA-/- mice, T-cell responses were lower but serum IFN-? and IgG2b levels were comparable with WT mice levels. These results suggest that GM-CSF and uPA are both involved in the progression of experimental periodontitis, possibly via a macrophage-dependent mechanism(s). PMID:25753270

  17. Mouse and human CD14 (myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein) primary structure deduced from cDNA clones.

    PubMed

    Setoguchi, M; Nasu, N; Yoshida, S; Higuchi, Y; Akizuki, S; Yamamoto, S

    1989-07-01

    cDNA clones complementary to MS7-4 (Setoguchi et al. (1988) Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 14, 427-438) from a mouse macrophage cDNA library were separated. Sequence analysis of these clones demonstrated that the longest cDNA clone, MS7X, had a 1366 bp insert and high homology with that of the human CD14 gene (Ferrero and Goyert (1988) Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 4173). Using the MS7X cDNA probe, cDNA clones were separated from cDNA libraries constructed from a human macrophage cell line and macrophages. The total cDNA sequence was 1364 bp in length, with an open reading frame of 1125 nucleotides matching that of the human CD14 gene except for one nucleotide difference. The amino-acid sequence (mouse CD14), deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the MS7X insert consisted of 351 amino-acid residues with a high leucine content (17.66%) and five putative N-glycosylation sites, and in vitro translation predicted a protein of molecular mass of 37.5 kDa. Human CD14 had 356 amino-acid residues, with high leucine content (15.5%), and contained four putative N-glycosylation sites. Mouse CD14 showed 13 building blocks, of which internal nine blocks have a conserved leucine motif and significant homology with human leucine-rich alpha 2-glycoprotein. PMID:2472171

  18. Transgenic Expression of Osteoactivin/gpnmb Enhances Bone Formation In Vivo and Osteoprogenitor Differentiation Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Frara, Nagat; Abdelmagid, Samir M; Sondag, Gregory R; Moussa, Fouad M; Yingling, Vanessa R; Owen, Thomas A; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-01-01

    Initial identification of osteoactivin (OA)/glycoprotein non-melanoma clone B (gpnmb) was demonstrated in an osteopetrotic rat model, where OA expression was increased threefold in mutant bones, compared to normal. OA mRNA and protein expression increase during active bone regeneration post-fracture, and primary rat osteoblasts show increased OA expression during differentiation in vitro. To further examine OA/gpnmb as an osteoinductive agent, we characterized the skeletal phenotype of transgenic mouse overexpressing OA/gpnmb under the CMV-promoter (OA-Tg). Western blot analysis showed increased OA/gpnmb in OA-Tg osteoblasts, compared to wild-type (WT). In OA-Tg mouse femurs versus WT littermates, micro-CT analysis showed increased trabecular bone volume and thickness, and cortical bone thickness; histomorphometry showed increased osteoblast numbers, bone formation and mineral apposition rates in OA-Tg mice; and biomechanical testing showed higher peak moment and stiffness. Given that OA/gpnmb is also over-expressed in osteoclasts in OA-Tg mice, we evaluated bone resorption by ELISA and histomorphometry, and observed decreased serum CTX-1 and RANK-L, and decreased osteoclast numbers in OA-Tg, compared to WT mice, indicating decreased bone remodeling in OA-Tg mice. The proliferation rate of OA-Tg osteoblasts in vitro was higher, compared to WT, as was alkaline phosphatase staining and activity, the latter indicating enhanced differentiation of OA-Tg osteoprogenitors. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed increased TGF-?1 and TGF-? receptors I and II expression in OA-Tg osteoblasts, compared to WT. Together, these data suggest that OA overexpression has an osteoinductive effect on bone mass in vivo and stimulates osteoprogenitor differentiation ex vivo. PMID:25899717

  19. Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Colnot, C. . E-mail: colnotc@orthosurg.ucsf.edu; Huang, S.; Helms, J.

    2006-11-24

    The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track cells originating from bone marrow during fracture healing. Following lethal irradiation and engraftment of bone marrow expressing the LacZ transgene constitutively, wild type mice underwent tibial fracture. Donor bone marrow-derived cells, which originated from the hematopoietic compartment, did not participate in the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages during fracture healing. Instead, the donor bone marrow contributed to inflammatory and bone resorbing cells. This model can be exploited in the future to investigate the role of inflammation and matrix remodeling during bone repair, independent from osteogenesis and chondrogenesis.

  20. Plasticity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Mouse Bone Marrow in the Presence of Conditioned Medium of the Facial Nerve and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná; Cavalcanti, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva; Marinho, Maria Jocileide de Medeiros; Pereira, Wogelsanger Oliveira; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvăo; Costa, Miriam Stela Mariz de Oliveira; Júnior, Expedito Silva do Nascimento; Cavalcante, Jeferson Sousa

    2014-01-01

    A number of evidences show the influence of the growth of injured nerve fibers in peripheral nervous system as well as potential implant stem cells (SCs). The SCs implementation in the clinical field is promising and the understanding of proliferation and differentiation is essential. This study aimed to evaluate the plasticity of mesenchymal SCs from bone marrow of mice in the presence of culture medium conditioned with facial nerve explants and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The growth and morphology were assessed for over 72 hours. Quantitative phenotypic analysis was taken from the immunocytochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), protein OX-42 (OX-42), protein associated with microtubule MAP-2 (MAP-2), protein ?-tubulin III (?-tubulin III), neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), and neurofilament 200 (NF-200). Cells cultured with conditioned medium alone or combined with FGF-2 showed morphological features apparently similar at certain times to neurons and glia and a significant proliferative activity in groups 2 and 4. Cells cultivated only with conditioned medium acquired a glial phenotype. Cells cultured with FGF-2 and conditioned medium expressed GFAP, OX-42, MAP-2, ?-tubulin III, NeuN, and NF-200. This study improves our understanding of the plasticity of mesenchymal cells and allows the search for better techniques with SCs. PMID:25614888

  1. Administration of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Liver: Potential to Rescue Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum in a Mouse Model (Abcc6?/?)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiujie; Takahagi, Shunsuke; Uitto, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable ectopic mineralization disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the ABCC6 gene which is primarily expressed in the liver. There is currently no effective treatment for PXE. In this study, we characterized bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and evaluated their ability to contribute to liver regeneration, with the aim to rescue PXE phenotype. The MSCs, isolated from GFP-transgenic mice by magnetic cell sorting, were shown to have high potential for hepatic differentiation, with expression of Abcc6, in culture. These cells were transplanted into the livers of 4-week-old immunodeficient Abcc6?/? mice by intrasplenic injection one day after partial hepatectomy, when peak expression of the stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the liver was observed. Fluorescent bioimaging analyses indicated that transplanted MSCs homed into liver between day 1 and 7, and significant numbers of GFP-positive cells were confirmed in the liver by immunofluorescence. Moreover, enhanced engraftment efficiency was observed with MSCs with high expression levels of the chemokine receptor Cxcr4, a receptor for SDF-1. These data suggest that purified MSCs have the capability of differentiating into hepatic lineages relevant to PXE pathogenesis and may contribute to partial correction of the PXE phenotype. PMID:23251082

  2. Effect of Metformin on Viability, Morphology, and Ultrastructure of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Balb/3T3 Embryonic Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Czyrek, Aleksandra; Basinska, Katarzyna; Trynda, Justyna; Skaradzi?ska, Aneta; Siudzi?ska, Anna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Metformin, a popular drug used to treat diabetes, has recently gained attention as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treating cancer. In our research metformin was added to in vitro cultures of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and Balb/3T3 fibroblast at concentration of 1?mM, 5?mM, and 10?mM. Obtained results indicated that metformin negatively affected proliferation activity of investigated cells. The drug triggered the formation of autophagosomes and apoptotic bodies in all tested cultures. Additionally, we focused on determination of expression of genes involved in insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway. The most striking finding was that the mRNA level of IGF2 was constant in both BMSCs and Balb/3T3. Further, the analysis of IGF2 concentration in cell supernatants showed that it decreased in BMSC cultures after 5 and 10?mM metformin treatments. In case of Balb/3T3 the concentration of IGF2 in culture supernatants decreased after 1 and 5?mM and increased after 10?mM of metformin. Our results suggest that metformin influences the cytophysiology of somatic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner causing inhibition of proliferation and abnormalities of their morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:26064951

  3. Plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells from mouse bone marrow in the presence of conditioned medium of the facial nerve and fibroblast growth factor-2.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná; Cavalcanti, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva; Marinho, Maria Jocileide de Medeiros; Pereira, Wogelsanger Oliveira; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvăo; Costa, Miriam Stela Mariz de Oliveira; do Nascimento Júnior, Expedito Silva; Cavalcante, Jeferson Sousa

    2014-01-01

    A number of evidences show the influence of the growth of injured nerve fibers in peripheral nervous system as well as potential implant stem cells (SCs). The SCs implementation in the clinical field is promising and the understanding of proliferation and differentiation is essential. This study aimed to evaluate the plasticity of mesenchymal SCs from bone marrow of mice in the presence of culture medium conditioned with facial nerve explants and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The growth and morphology were assessed for over 72 hours. Quantitative phenotypic analysis was taken from the immunocytochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), protein OX-42 (OX-42), protein associated with microtubule MAP-2 (MAP-2), protein ?-tubulin III (?-tubulin III), neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), and neurofilament 200 (NF-200). Cells cultured with conditioned medium alone or combined with FGF-2 showed morphological features apparently similar at certain times to neurons and glia and a significant proliferative activity in groups 2 and 4. Cells cultivated only with conditioned medium acquired a glial phenotype. Cells cultured with FGF-2 and conditioned medium expressed GFAP, OX-42, MAP-2, ?-tubulin III, NeuN, and NF-200. This study improves our understanding of the plasticity of mesenchymal cells and allows the search for better techniques with SCs. PMID:25614888

  4. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  5. Bone marrow macrophages support prostate cancer growth in bone.

    PubMed

    Soki, Fabiana N; Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Yeo Won; Jones, Jacqueline D; Park, Serk In; Koh, Amy J; Entezami, Payam; Daignault-Newton, Stephanie; Pienta, Kenneth J; Roca, Hernan; McCauley, Laurie K

    2015-11-01

    Resident macrophages in bone play important roles in bone remodeling, repair, and hematopoietic stem cell maintenance, yet their role in skeletal metastasis remains under investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of macrophages in prostate cancer skeletal metastasis, using two in vivo mouse models of conditional macrophage depletion. RM-1 syngeneic tumor growth was analyzed in an inducible macrophage (CSF-1 receptor positive cells) ablation model (MAFIA mice). There was a significant reduction in tumor growth in the tibiae of macrophage-ablated mice, compared with control non-ablated mice. Similar results were observed when macrophage ablation was performed using liposome-encapsulated clodronate and human PC-3 prostate cancer cells where tumor-bearing long bones had increased numbers of tumor associated-macrophages. Although tumors were consistently smaller in macrophage-depleted mice, paradoxical results of macrophage depletion on bone were observed. Histomorphometric and micro-CT analyses demonstrated that clodronate-treated mice had increased bone volume, while MAFIA mice had reduced bone volume. These results suggest that the effect of macrophage depletion on tumor growth was independent of its effect on bone responses and that macrophages in bone may be more important to tumor growth than the bone itself. In conclusion, resident macrophages play a pivotal role in prostate cancer growth in bone. PMID:26459393

  6. Altered bone turnover during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Morey, E. R.; Liu, C.; Baylink, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Modifications in calcium metabolism during spaceflight were studied, using parameters that reflect bone turnover. Bone formation rate, medullary area, bone length, bone density, pore size distribution, and differential bone cell number were evaluated in growing rate both immediately after and 25 days after orbital spaceflights aboard the Soviet biological satellites Cosmos 782 and 936. The primary effect of space flight on bone turnover was a reversible inhibition of bone formation at the periosteal surface. A simultaneous increase in the length of the periosteal arrest line suggests that bone formation ceased along corresponding portions of that surface. Possible reasons include increased secretion of glucocorticoids and mechanical unloading of the skeleton due to near-weightlessness, while starvation and immobilization are excluded as causes.

  7. Decrease in IgE Fc receptor expression on mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells and inhibition of PAF-acether formation and of. beta. -hexosaminidase release by dexamethasone

    SciTech Connect

    Benhamou, M.; Ninio, E.; Salem, P.; Hieblot, C.; Bessou, G.; Pitton, C.; Liu, F.; Mencia-Huerta, J.M.

    1986-02-15

    The effect of dexamethasone (DM) on the immunologic and nonimmunologic release of paf-acether and of the granule marker ..beta..-hexosaminidase (BHEX) from mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) was studied. Preincubation of BMMC with DM inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion the immunologic release of paf-acether and of BHEX as compared with control cells. The antigen-induced increase in acetyltransferase activity, used as an index of cellular activation, was inhibited by 37 +/- 16% in 1 ..mu..M DM-treated BMMC as compared with untreated cells. Preincubation of BMMC with DM for 24 hr caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 125/I-IgE binding to the cells, with a half-maximal effect at 14 nM. The number of IgE Fc receptors was decreased by 55% in 1 ..mu..M DM-treated BMMC as compared with untreated cells. Cytofluorometer analysis of BMMC sensitized with a saturating amount of purified monoclonal IgE, followed by addition of a fluoresceinated anti-mouse IgG (heavy and light chains), revealed a single cellular population for both DM-treated and untreated BMMC. The possible link between the decreased sensitization of the cells consequent to the reduction in IgG Fc receptor expression and the alteration of the secretory response and acetyltransferase activity was investigated. BMMC were incubated with IgE under experimental conditions giving half-sensitization of the cells. Upon antigen challenge, a 10.5 +/- 3.7% decrease in acetyltransferase activity and a 29.2 +/- 3.5% decrease in paf-acether release were observed with half-sensitized cells as compared with cells sensitized with a saturating amount of IgE. These results indicate that DM inhibits the immunologic release of paf-acether and of BHEX from passively sensitized BMMC and decreases the IgE Fc receptor number available for sensitization. Thus, the modulation of IgE Fc receptor number could explain part of the anti-allergic properties of glucocorticosteroids.

  8. Microtubule nucleation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells is regulated by the concerted action of GIT1/?PIX proteins and calcium.

    PubMed

    Sulimenko, Vadym; Hájková, Zuzana; ?ernohorská, Markéta; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Sládková, Vladimíra; Dráberová, Lubica; Vinopal, Stanislav; Dráberová, Eduarda; Dráber, Pavel

    2015-05-01

    Ag-mediated activation of mast cells initiates signaling events leading to Ca(2+) response, release of allergic mediators from cytoplasmic granules, and synthesis of cytokines and chemokines. Although microtubule rearrangement during activation has been described, the molecular mechanisms that control their remodeling are largely unknown. Microtubule nucleation is mediated by complexes that are formed by ?-tubulin and ?-tubulin complex proteins. In this study, we report that, in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), ?-tubulin interacts with p21-activated kinase interacting exchange factor ? (?PIX) and G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein (GIT)1. Microtubule regrowth experiments showed that the depletion of ?PIX in BMMCs stimulated microtubule nucleation, whereas depletion of GIT1 led to the inhibition of nucleation compared with control cells. Phenotypic rescue experiments confirmed that ?PIX and GIT1 represent negative and positive regulators of microtubule nucleation in BMMCs, respectively. Live-cell imaging disclosed that both proteins are associated with centrosomes. Immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments revealed that an enhanced level of free cytosolic Ca(2+) affects ?-tubulin properties and stimulates the association of GIT1 and ?-tubulin complex proteins with ?-tubulin. Microtubule nucleation also was affected by Ca(2+) level. Moreover, in activated BMMCs, ?-tubulin formed complexes with tyrosine-phosphorylated GIT1. Further experiments showed that GIT1 and ?PIX are involved in the regulation of such important physiological processes as Ag-induced chemotaxis and degranulation. Our study provides for the first time, to our knowledge, a possible mechanism for the concerted action of tyrosine kinases, GIT1/?PIX proteins, and Ca(2+) in the propagation of signals leading to the regulation of microtubule nucleation in activated mast cells. PMID:25821222

  9. Dose-rate effects of protons on in vivo activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and cytokines in mouse bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rithidech, K.N.; Rusek, A.; Reungpatthanaphong, P.; Honikel, L.; Simon, S.R.

    2010-05-28

    The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation and cytokine expression in bone marrow (BM) cells of exposed mice as a function of the dose rate of protons. The cytokines included in this study are pro-inflammatory [i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}), interleukin-1beta (IL-1{beta}), and IL-6] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-4 and IL-10). We gave male BALB/cJ mice a whole-body exposure to 0 (sham-controls) or 1.0 Gy of 100 MeV protons, delivered at 5 or 10 mGy min{sup -1}, the dose and dose rates found during solar particle events in space. As a reference radiation, groups of mice were exposed to 0 (sham-controls) or 1 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays (10 mGy min{sup -1}). After irradiation, BM cells were collected at 1.5, 3, 24 h, and 1 month for analyses (five mice per treatment group per harvest time). The results indicated that the in vivo time course of effects induced by a single dose of 1 Gy of 100 MeV protons or {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays, delivered at 10 mGy min{sup -1}, was similar. Although statistically significant levels of NF-{kappa}B activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in BM cells of exposed mice when compared to those in the corresponding sham controls (Student's t-test, p < 0.05 or < 0.01) were induced by either dose rate, these levels varied over time for each protein. Further, only a dose rate of 5 mGy min{sup -1} induced significant levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The results indicate dose-rate effects of protons.

  10. Nongenotoxic effects and a reduction of the DXR-induced genotoxic effects of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower) seeds revealed by micronucleus assays in mouse bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This research evaluated the genotoxicity of oil and tincture of H. annuus L. seeds using the micronucleus assay in bone marrow of mice. The interaction between these preparations and the genotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DXR) was also analysed (antigenotoxicity test). Methods Experimental groups were evaluated at 24-48 h post treatment with N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (positive control – NEU), DXR (chemotherapeutic), NaCl (negative control), a sunflower tincture (THALS) and two sources of sunflower oils (POHALS and FOHALS). Antigenotoxic assays were carried out using the sunflower tincture and oils separately and in combination with NUE or DXR. Results For THALS, analysis of the MNPCEs showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250–2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. A significant reduction in MNPCE was observed when THALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) was administered in combination with DXR (5 mg.Kg-1). For POHALS or FOHALS, analysis of the MNPCEs also showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250–2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. However, the combination DXR?+?POHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) or DXR?+?FOHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) not contributed to the MNPCEs reduction. Conclusions This research suggests absence of genotoxicity of THALS, dose-, time- and sex-independent, and its combination with DXR can reduce the genotoxic effects of DXR. POHALS and FOHALS also showed absence of genotoxicity, but their association with DXR showed no antigenotoxic effects. PMID:24694203

  11. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  12. Boning up on Wolff's Law: Mechanical regulation of the cells that make and maintain bone

    E-print Network

    You, Lidan

    a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Accepted 21 August 2009 Keywords: Osteocyte Osteoprogenitor players in bone mechanobiology: osteocytes, the putative primary mechanosensors in intact bone by the cells in bone: osteocytes, the putative mechanosensors; osteoblasts that deposit bone matrix

  13. EPO?receptor is present in mouse C2C12 and human primary skeletal muscle cells but EPO does not influence myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lamon, Séverine; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Stephens, Andrew N.; Russell, Aaron P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The role and regulation of the pleiotropic cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) in skeletal muscle are controversial. EPO exerts its effects by binding its specific receptor (EPO?R), which activates intracellular signaling and gene transcription in response to internal and external stress signals. EPO is suggested to play a direct role in myogenesis via the EPO?R, but several studies have questioned the effect of EPO treatment in muscle in vitro and in vivo. The lack of certainty surrounding the use of nonspecific EPO?R antibodies contributes to the ambiguity of the field. Our study demonstrates that the EPO?R gene and protein are expressed at each stage of mouse C2C12 and human skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation and validates a specific antibody for the detection of the EPO?R protein. However, in our experimental conditions, EPO treatment had no effect on mouse C2C12 and human muscle cell proliferation, differentiation, protein synthesis or EPO?R expression. While an increase in Akt and MAPK phosphorylation was observed, we demonstrate that this effect resulted from the stress caused by changing medium and not from EPO treatment. We therefore suggest that skeletal muscle EPO?R might be present in a nonfunctional form, or too lowly expressed to play a role in muscle cell function. PMID:24760510

  14. EPO-receptor is present in mouse C2C12 and human primary skeletal muscle cells but EPO does not influence myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lamon, Séverine; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Stephens, Andrew N; Russell, Aaron P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The role and regulation of the pleiotropic cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) in skeletal muscle are controversial. EPO exerts its effects by binding its specific receptor (EPO-R), which activates intracellular signaling and gene transcription in response to internal and external stress signals. EPO is suggested to play a direct role in myogenesis via the EPO-R, but several studies have questioned the effect of EPO treatment in muscle in vitro and in vivo. The lack of certainty surrounding the use of nonspecific EPO-R antibodies contributes to the ambiguity of the field. Our study demonstrates that the EPO-R gene and protein are expressed at each stage of mouse C2C12 and human skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation and validates a specific antibody for the detection of the EPO-R protein. However, in our experimental conditions, EPO treatment had no effect on mouse C2C12 and human muscle cell proliferation, differentiation, protein synthesis or EPO-R expression. While an increase in Akt and MAPK phosphorylation was observed, we demonstrate that this effect resulted from the stress caused by changing medium and not from EPO treatment. We therefore suggest that skeletal muscle EPO-R might be present in a nonfunctional form, or too lowly expressed to play a role in muscle cell function. PMID:24760510

  15. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (?=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  16. The effects of eccentric training on muscle-bone function 

    E-print Network

    Hubal, Monica Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if eccentric exercise training can attenuate or prevent bone loss associated with estrogen-deficiency in the mouse model. A secondary purpose was to determine if any bone changes were due to changes in bone...

  17. Expression of wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family pathway effectors in lymphatic and hepatic metastases of patients with colorectal cancer: Associations with the primary tumor

    PubMed Central

    KRAUS, SEBASTIAN; VAY, CHRISTIAN; BALDUS, STEPHAN; KNOEFEL, WOLFRAM T.; STOECKLEIN, NIKOLAS H.; VALLBOHMER, DANIEL

    2015-01-01

    The wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family (Wnt) pathway plays a major role in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Its most important effector, the nuclear ?-catenin, influences not only transcription but also the proliferation and dedifferentiation of the colonic mucosa. This induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition which ultimately can lead to the development of cancer and the formation of metastases. However, little is known about the exact interaction and context-sensitive expression of Wnt-pathway effectors in the primary tumor and corresponding metastasis. Therefore, this study assessed the expression of the three most important effectors of the Wnt pathway, ?-catenin, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and Wnt-1, in the primary tumor and corresponding metastasis of patients with CRC. Immunohistochemical staining of ?-catenin, APC and Wnt-1 was performed in paraffin-embedded tissue samples of the primary tumor, and the corresponding hepatic and nodal metastasis samples from 24 patients with metastatic CRC. Isotype antibodies were used as negative controls. The results were visualized using the ABC-method. Analysis of the primary tumor comprised of a separate evaluation of the central tumor area as well as the invasion front. There was a significant overexpression of nuclear ?-catenin at the tumor invasion front (P<0.001). Compared to normal colonic mucosa, expression of cytoplasmic ?-catenin was significantly higher in the primary tumor (P<0.001) as well as all the corresponding hepatic and lymphatic metastases (hepatic metastases, P=0.001; nodal metastases, P=0.017). By contrast, APC expression was significantly lower in all analyzed tumor compartments compared with normal colonic mucosa (primary tumor, P=0.022; hepatic metastases, P=0.006; nodal metastases, P=0.012). Finally, Wnt-1 protein expression was significantly lower in liver metastases but not in the primary tumor or lymphatic metastases compared with normal colonic mucosa (P=0.003). The present study demonstrates that the major Wnt-effector proteins, ?-catenin, APC and Wnt-1, are heterogeneously expressed in the primary tumor and corresponding hepatic as well as nodal metastases of patients with CRC. This context-sensitive diverse expression of Wnt-effector proteins may be important for future individualized targeted therapies.

  18. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces adrenoleukodystrophy (Abcd2) gene in human X-ALD fibroblasts and inhibits the proinflammatory response in Abcd1/2 silenced mouse primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaspreet; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Singh, Inderjit

    2013-04-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. Accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) that have been attributed to reduced peroxisomal VLCFA ?-oxidation activity are the hallmark of the disease. Overexpression of ABCD2 gene, the closest homolog of ABCD1, has been shown to compensate for ABCD1, thus correcting the VLCFA derangement. The accumulation of VLCFA leads to a neuroinflammatory disease process associated with demyelination of the cerebral white matter. The present study underlines the importance of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in inducing the expression of ABCD2 (ALDRP), and normalizing the peroxisomal ?-oxidation as well as the levels of saturated and monounsaturated VLCFAs in cultured human skin fibroblasts of X-ALD patients. The expression of ELOVL1, the single elongase catalyzing the synthesis of both saturated VLCFA (C26:0) and mono-unsaturated VLCFA (C26:1), was also reduced by CAPE treatment. Importantly, CAPE upregulated Abcd2 expression and peroxisomal ?-oxidation and lowered the VLCFA levels in Abcd1-deficient U87 astrocytes and B12 oligodendrocytes. In addition, using Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes we examined the effects of CAPE in VLCFA-induced inflammatory response. CAPE treatment decreased the inflammatory response as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammatory cytokine, and activation of NF-?B in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes was reduced. The observations indicate that CAPE corrects both the metabolic disease of VLCFA as well as secondary inflammatory disease; therefore, it may be a potential drug candidate to be tested for X-ALD therapy in humans. PMID:23318275

  19. Surface modification of nano-silica on the ligament advanced reinforcement system for accelerated bone formation: primary human osteoblasts testing in vitro and animal testing in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiwen; Jiang, Jia; Sun, Jiashu; Li, Yuzhuo; Huang, Deyong; Long, Yun-Ze; Zheng, Wenfu; Chen, Shiyi; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-04-01

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) has been considered as a promising graft for ligament reconstruction. To improve its biocompatibility and effectiveness on new bone formation, we modified the surface of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligament with nanoscale silica using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and silica polymerization. The modified ligament is tested by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human osteoblast testing in vitro exhibits an ~21% higher value in cell viability for silica-modified grafts compared with original grafts. Animal testing in vivo shows that there is new formed bone in the case of a nanoscale silica-coated ligament. These results demonstrate that our approach for nanoscale silica surface modification on LARS could be potentially applied for ligament reconstruction.The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) has been considered as a promising graft for ligament reconstruction. To improve its biocompatibility and effectiveness on new bone formation, we modified the surface of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligament with nanoscale silica using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and silica polymerization. The modified ligament is tested by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human osteoblast testing in vitro exhibits an ~21% higher value in cell viability for silica-modified grafts compared with original grafts. Animal testing in vivo shows that there is new formed bone in the case of a nanoscale silica-coated ligament. These results demonstrate that our approach for nanoscale silica surface modification on LARS could be potentially applied for ligament reconstruction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01439e

  20. Neuroprotective Effect of Arctigenin via Upregulation of P-CREB in Mouse Primary Neurons and Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Wen, Qingping; Ren, Lu; Liang, Wenbo; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Dong; Hu, Yv; Hao, Haiguang; Yan, Yaping; Zhang, Guangxian; Yang, Jingxian; Kang, Tingguo

    2013-01-01

    Arctigenin (Arc) has been shown to act on scopolamine-induced memory deficit mice and to provide a neuroprotective effect on cultured cortical neurons from glutamate-induced neurodegeneration through mechanisms not completely defined. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Arc on H89-induced cell damage and its potential mechanisms in mouse cortical neurons and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We found that Arc prevented cell viability loss induced by H89 in human SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, Arc reduced intracellular beta amyloid (A?) production induced by H89 in neurons and human SH-SY5Y cells, and Arc also inhibited the presenilin 1(PS1) protein level in neurons. In addition, neural apoptosis in both types of cells, inhibition of neurite outgrowth in human SH-SY5Y cells and reduction of synaptic marker synaptophysin (SYN) expression in neurons were also observed after H89 exposure. All these effects induced by H89 were markedly reversed by Arc treatment. Arc also significantly attenuated downregulation of the phosphorylation of CREB (p-CREB) induced by H89, which may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of Arc. These results demonstrated that Arc exerted the ability to protect neurons and SH-SY5Y cells against H89-induced cell injury via upregulation of p-CREB. PMID:24025424

  1. High-throughput screening of mouse gene knockouts identifies established and novel skeletal phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Brommage, Robert; Liu, Jeff; Hansen, Gwenn M; Kirkpatrick, Laura L; Potter, David G; Sands, Arthur T; Zambrowicz, Brian; Powell, David R; Vogel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Screening gene function in vivo is a powerful approach to discover novel drug targets. We present high-throughput screening (HTS) data for 3?762 distinct global gene knockout (KO) mouse lines with viable adult homozygous mice generated using either gene-trap or homologous recombination technologies. Bone mass was determined from DEXA scans of male and female mice at 14 weeks of age and by microCT analyses of bones from male mice at 16 weeks of age. Wild-type (WT) cagemates/littermates were examined for each gene KO. Lethality was observed in an additional 850 KO lines. Since primary HTS are susceptible to false positive findings, additional cohorts of mice from KO lines with intriguing HTS bone data were examined. Aging, ovariectomy, histomorphometry and bone strength studies were performed and possible non-skeletal phenotypes were explored. Together, these screens identified multiple genes affecting bone mass: 23 previously reported genes (Calcr, Cebpb, Crtap, Dcstamp, Dkk1, Duoxa2, Enpp1, Fgf23, Kiss1/Kiss1r, Kl (Klotho), Lrp5, Mstn, Neo1, Npr2, Ostm1, Postn, Sfrp4, Slc30a5, Slc39a13, Sost, Sumf1, Src, Wnt10b), five novel genes extensively characterized (Cldn18, Fam20c, Lrrk1, Sgpl1, Wnt16), five novel genes with preliminary characterization (Agpat2, Rassf5, Slc10a7, Slc26a7, Slc30a10) and three novel undisclosed genes coding for potential osteoporosis drug targets. PMID:26273529

  2. Evolutionary Patterns of Bone Histology and Bone Compactness in Xenarthran Mammal Long Bones

    PubMed Central

    Straehl, Fiona R.; Scheyer, Torsten M.; Forasiepi, Analía M.; MacPhee, Ross D.; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness. PMID:23874932

  3. Evolutionary patterns of bone histology and bone compactness in xenarthran mammal long bones.

    PubMed

    Straehl, Fiona R; Scheyer, Torsten M; Forasiepi, Analía M; MacPhee, Ross D; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xenarthran long bones is composed of a mixture of woven, parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. The vascular canals have a longitudinal, reticular or radial orientation and are mostly arranged in an irregular manner. Concentric rows of vascular canals and laminar organization of the tissue are only found in anteater bones. The long bones of adult specimens are marked by dense Haversian bone, a feature that has been noted for most groups of mammals. In the long bones of armadillos, secondary osteons have an oblique orientation within the three-dimensional bone tissue, thus resulting in their irregular shape when the bones are sectioned transversely. Secondary remodeling is generally more extensive in large taxa than in small taxa, and this could be caused by increased loading. Lines of arrested growth are assumed to be present in all specimens, but they are restricted to the outermost layer in bones of armadillos and are often masked by secondary remodeling in large taxa. Parameters of bone compactness show a pattern in the femur that separates Cingulata and Pilosa (Folivora and Vermilingua), with cingulates having a lower compactness than pilosans. In addition, cingulates show an allometric relationship between humeral and femoral bone compactness. PMID:23874932

  4. Novel Techniques for High-Resolution Functional Imaging of Trabecular Bone

    E-print Network

    Hansma, Paul

    associated with osteoporosis (1, 2). Osteoporosis results in bone loss and deterioration in trabecular a primary endpoint in osteoporosis diagnosis and monitoring. Where strong correlations between bone density

  5. Silicon and bone health.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, R

    2007-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health. PMID:17435952

  6. SILICON AND BONE HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    JUGDAOHSINGH, R.

    2009-01-01

    Low bone mass (osteoporosis) is a silent epidemic of the 21st century, which presently in the UK results in over 200,000 fractures annually at a cost of over one billion pounds. Figures are set to increase worldwide. Understanding the factors which affect bone metabolism is thus of primary importance in order to establish preventative measures or treatments for this condition. Nutrition is an important determinant of bone health, but the effects of the individual nutrients and minerals, other than calcium, is little understood. Accumulating evidence over the last 30 years strongly suggest that dietary silicon is beneficial to bone and connective tissue health and we recently reported strong positive associations between dietary Si intake and bone mineral density in US and UK cohorts. The exact biological role(s) of silicon in bone health is still not clear, although a number of possible mechanisms have been suggested, including the synthesis of collagen and/or its stabilization, and matrix mineralization. This review gives an overview of this naturally occurring dietary element, its metabolism and the evidence of its potential role in bone health. PMID:17435952

  7. Bone Marrow Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma

    2014-01-01

    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  8. Bone Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the body, bones can get infected. The infections are usually bacterial, but can also be fungal. ... bloodstream. People who are at risk for bone infections include those with diabetes, poor circulation, or recent ...

  9. Bone tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bone metastases. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, et al., eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. ... aggressive tumors of bone. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  10. Bone Markers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alkaline Phosphatase; Osteocalcin; P1NP; Procollagen Type 1 N-Terminal Propeptide Formal name: Biochemical Markers of Bone Remodeling ... tests for evaluating bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker ...

  11. Functional and oncologic outcomes after excision of the total femur in primary bone tumors: Results with a low cost total femur prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Ajay; Gulia, Ashish; Chan, Wai Hoong

    2012-01-01

    Background: The extent of tumor may necessitate resection of the complete femur rarely to achieve adequate oncologic clearance in bone sarcomas. We present our experience with reconstruction in such cases using an indigenously manufactured, low-cost, total femoral prosthesis (TFP). We assessed the complications of the procedure, the oncologic and functional outcomes, and implant survival. Materials and Methods: Eight patients (four males and four females) with a mean age of 32 years, operated between December 2003 and June 2009, had a TFP implanted. The diagnosis included osteogenic sarcoma (5), Ewing's sarcoma (1), and chondrosarcoma (2). Mean followup was 33 months (9–72 months) for all and 40 months (24–72 months) in survivors. They were evaluated by Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score, implant survival as well as patient survival. Results: There was one local recurrence and five of seven patients are currently alive at the time of last followup. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score for patients ranged from 21 to 25 with a mean of 24 (80%). The implant survival was 88% at 5 years with only one TFP needing removal because of infection. Conclusions: A TFP in appropriately indicated patients with malignant bone tumors is oncologically safe. A locally manufactured, cost-effective implant provided consistent and predictable results after excision of the total femur with good functional outcomes. PMID:22912524

  12. In vitro CFU-E and BFU-E responses to androgen in bone marrow from children with primary hypoproliferative anaemia: a possible therapeutic assay.

    PubMed

    Claustres, M; Margueritte, G; Sultan, C

    1986-02-01

    The effects of natural and synthetic androgens on erythroid colony formation in children's bone marrow cultures were studied using a methylcellulose microculture assay. In an attempt to predict the clinical response to androgens in two children with Fanconi anaemia (FA) and two children with Diamond-Blackfan syndrome (DB), we tested the hormonal stimulation of testosterone, nortestosterone and etiocholanolone on CFU-E, BFU-E and uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity (UROS). We observed that colony formation and UROS activity were reduced when compared to values obtained with normal children's bone marrow cultures. The addition of steroids to the cultures significantly enhanced the numbers of CFU-E and BFU-E derived colonies and their UROS activity in marrow from patients with FA and one patient with DB. The strong depletion of marrow progenitor cells in the unresponsive marrow from child 4 with DB could explain the absence of hormonal response. Whereas the responsiveness to steroids varied according to the individual, the in vitro testing of erythroid differentiation in the presence of androgens theoretically may lead to an effective prediction of response to therapy in children with hypoplastic anaemia. PMID:3956534

  13. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-? in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  14. Morphogenesis of the compartmentalizing bone around the molar primordia in the mouse mandible during dental developmental stages between lamina, bell-stage, and root formation (E13-P20).

    PubMed

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert; Zimmermann, Camilla A; Mey, Robert; Matalova, Eva

    2015-07-01

    Despite increasing knowledge of the basic molecular aspects of bone formation and its regulation, the mechanisms of bone morphogenesis leading to a topologically specific shape remain unknown. The formation of the alveolar bone, which houses the dental primordia and later, the dental roots, may serve as a model to understand the formation of bone form in general. Thirty-eight heads of mice (C57 Bl/6J) ranging from stages E13-P20 were used to prepare histological serial sections. For each stage, virtual 3D-reconstructions were made in order to study the morphogenesis of the mandibular molar primordia concomitantly with their surrounding bone. Special focus was given to recording the remodeling pattern. It has been shown that, in early stages (E13, E14), bone formation is characterized by apposition only. In stage E15, the bony crypt around the dental primordia is remodeled mostly by resorption of bone. In stage E18, the bone remodeling pattern shows resorption all along the bony gutter, which houses the molar primordia. The medial and lateral margins are characterized by apposition. At birth (stage P0), a bony septum has begun to form between the primordium m1 and of m2, arising from both sides and characterized by pure apposition of bone. In stage P4, the crypts of m1 and m2, and also that of m3, show bone resorption inside, while the medial and lateral bony margins show apposition of bone throughout. Generally, during development, the bone gradually encapsulates the dental primordia, in such a way that the bone reaches over the dental primordia and leaves only a continuous longish opening of about 200?m width. The opening at the occlusal surface of m1, at the time of eruption, starting at stage P14, appears to have increased in size again. The distance between bone and dental primordium undergoes change during development. In erupted molars, it is around 100?m, during early developmental stages, it may be as less as 20?m. These data show the inevitability of bone remodeling. PMID:25723515

  15. TLR5, a novel mediator of innate immunity-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Ali; Henning, Petra; Kindlund, Bert; Lindholm, Catharina; Lerner, Ulf H

    2015-11-01

    Accumulating evidence points to the importance of the innate immune system in inflammation-induced bone loss in infectious and autoimmune diseases. TLRs are well known for being activated by ligands expressed by bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Recent findings indicate that also endogenous ligands in inflammatory processes are important, one being a TLR5 agonist present in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We found that activation of TLR5 by its specific ligand, flagellin, caused robust osteoclast formation and bone loss in cultured mouse neonatal parietal bones dependent on increased receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL):osteoprotegerin ratio, with half-maximal stimulation at 0.01 ?g/ml. Flagellin enhanced Rankl mRNA in isolated osteoblasts by a myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and NF-?B-dependent mechanism. Injection of flagellin locally over skull bones in 5-wk-old mice resulted in increased mRNA expression of Rankl and osteoclastic genes, robust osteoclast formation, and bone loss. The effects in vitro and in vivo were absent in Tlr5(-/-) mice. These data show that TLR5 is a novel activator of RANKL and osteoclast formation and, therefore, a potential key factor in inflammation-induced bone erosions in diseases like RA, reactive arthritis, and periodontitis. TLR5 might be a promising novel treatment target for prevention of inflammatory bone loss.-Kassem, A., Henning, P., Kindlund, B., Lindholm, C., Lerner, U. H. TLR5, a novel mediator of innate immunity-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. PMID:26207027

  16. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets.

    PubMed

    Ganley, Robert P; Iwagaki, Noboru; del Rio, Patricia; Baseer, Najma; Dickie, Allen C; Boyle, Kieran A; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Abraira, Victoria E; Zimmerman, Amanda; Riddell, John S; Todd, Andrew J

    2015-05-13

    The superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord contains numerous inhibitory interneurons, which regulate the transmission of information perceived as touch, pain, or itch. Despite the importance of these cells, our understanding of their roles in the neuronal circuitry is limited by the difficulty in identifying functional populations. One group that has been identified and characterized consists of cells in the mouse that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the prion protein (PrP) promoter. Previous reports suggested that PrP-GFP cells belonged to a single morphological class (central cells), received inputs exclusively from unmyelinated primary afferents, and had axons that remained in lamina II. However, we recently reported that the PrP-GFP cells expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and/or galanin, and it has been shown that nNOS-expressing cells are more diverse in their morphology and synaptic connections. We therefore used a combined electrophysiological, pharmacological, and anatomical approach to reexamine the PrP-GFP cells. We provide evidence that they are morphologically diverse (corresponding to "unclassified" cells) and receive synaptic input from a variety of primary afferents, with convergence onto individual cells. We also show that their axons project into adjacent laminae and that they target putative projection neurons in lamina I. This indicates that the neuronal circuitry involving PrP-GFP cells is more complex than previously recognized, and suggests that they are likely to have several distinct roles in regulating the flow of somatosensory information through the dorsal horn. PMID:25972186

  17. Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ganley, Robert P.; Iwagaki, Noboru; del Rio, Patricia; Baseer, Najma; Dickie, Allen C.; Boyle, Kieran A.; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Abraira, Victoria E; Zimmerman, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord contains numerous inhibitory interneurons, which regulate the transmission of information perceived as touch, pain, or itch. Despite the importance of these cells, our understanding of their roles in the neuronal circuitry is limited by the difficulty in identifying functional populations. One group that has been identified and characterized consists of cells in the mouse that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the prion protein (PrP) promoter. Previous reports suggested that PrP-GFP cells belonged to a single morphological class (central cells), received inputs exclusively from unmyelinated primary afferents, and had axons that remained in lamina II. However, we recently reported that the PrP-GFP cells expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and/or galanin, and it has been shown that nNOS-expressing cells are more diverse in their morphology and synaptic connections. We therefore used a combined electrophysiological, pharmacological, and anatomical approach to reexamine the PrP-GFP cells. We provide evidence that they are morphologically diverse (corresponding to “unclassified” cells) and receive synaptic input from a variety of primary afferents, with convergence onto individual cells. We also show that their axons project into adjacent laminae and that they target putative projection neurons in lamina I. This indicates that the neuronal circuitry involving PrP-GFP cells is more complex than previously recognized, and suggests that they are likely to have several distinct roles in regulating the flow of somatosensory information through the dorsal horn. PMID:25972186

  18. Metabolism of (13)C5-hydroxyproline in mouse models of Primary Hyperoxaluria and its inhibition by RNAi therapeutics targeting liver glycolate oxidase and hydroxyproline dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingsheng; Knight, John; Fargue, Sonia; Buchalski, Brianna; Guan, Zhengrong; Inscho, Edward W; Liebow, Abigail; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Querbes, William; Todd Lowther, W; Holmes, Ross P

    2016-02-01

    Excessive endogenous oxalate synthesis can result in calcium oxalate kidney stone formation and renal failure. Hydroxyproline catabolism in the liver and kidney contributes to endogenous oxalate production in mammals. To quantify this contribution we have infused Wt mice, Agxt KO mice deficient in liver alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase, and Grhpr KO mice deficient in glyoxylate reductase, with (13)C5-hydroxyproline. The contribution of hydroxyproline metabolism to urinary oxalate excretion in Wt mice was 22±2%, 42±8% in Agxt KO mice, and 36%±9% in Grhpr KO mice. To determine if blocking steps in hydroxyproline and glycolate metabolism would decrease urinary oxalate excretion, mice were injected with siRNA targeting the liver enzymes glycolate oxidase and hydroxyproline dehydrogenase. These siRNAs decreased the expression of both enzymes and reduced urinary oxalate excretion in Agxt KO mice, when compared to mice infused with a luciferase control preparation. These results suggest that siRNA approaches could be useful for decreasing the oxalate burden on the kidney in individuals with Primary Hyperoxaluria. PMID:26655602

  19. The Paracrine Effect of Transplanted Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells on Ovarian Function Improvement in a Mouse Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiaofen; Guo, Yuna; Wang, Qian; Xu, Minhua; Zhang, Qiuwan; Li, Ting; Lai, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) transplantation via tail vein has been reported to rescue ovarian function in mice with chemotherapy-induced primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). To test whether intraperitoneally transplanted hAECs could induce therapeutic effect and to characterize the paracrine effect of transplanted hAECs, we utilized a chemotherapy induced mice model of POI and investigated the ability of hAECs and conditioned medium collected from cultured hAECs (hAECs-CM) to restore ovarian function. We found that transplantation of hAECs or hAECs-CM either 24 hours or 7 days after chemotherapy could increase follicle numbers and partly restore fertility. By PCR analysis of recipient mice ovaries, the presence of SRY gene was only detected in mice transplanted with male hAECs 24 hours following chemotherapy. Further, the gene expression level of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in the ovaries decreased, although VEGFA increased 2 weeks after chemotherapy. After treatment with hAECs or hAEC-CM, the expression of both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 increased, consistent with the immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, both hAECs and hAECs-CM treatment enhanced angiogenesis in the ovaries. The results suggested that hAECs-CM, like hAECs, could partly restore ovarian function, and the therapeutic function of intraperitoneally transplanted hAECs was mainly induced by paracrine-mediated ovarian protection and angiogenesis. PMID:26664408

  20. The Molecular Signature of the Stroma Response in Prostate Cancer-Induced Osteoblastic Bone Metastasis Highlights Expansion of Hematopoietic and Prostate Epithelial Stem Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Secondini, Chiara; Wetterwald, Antoinette; Schwaninger, Ruth; Fleischmann, Achim; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Poch, Olivier; Delorenzi, Mauro; Temanni, Ramzi; Mills, Ian G.; van der Pluijm, Gabri; Thalmann, George N.; Cecchini, Marco G.

    2014-01-01

    The reciprocal interaction between cancer cells and the tissue-specific stroma is critical for primary and metastatic tumor growth progression. Prostate cancer cells colonize preferentially bone (osteotropism), where they alter the physiological balance between osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and elicit prevalently an osteoblastic response (osteoinduction). The molecular cues provided by osteoblasts for the survival and growth of bone metastatic prostate cancer cells are largely unknown. We exploited the sufficient divergence between human and mouse RNA sequences together with redefinition of highly species-specific gene arrays by computer-aided and experimental exclusion of cross-hybridizing oligonucleotide probes. This strategy allowed the dissection of the stroma (mouse) from the cancer cell (human) transcriptome in bone metastasis xenograft models of human osteoinductive prostate cancer cells (VCaP and C4-2B). As a result, we generated the osteoblastic bone metastasis-associated stroma transcriptome (OB-BMST). Subtraction of genes shared by inflammation, wound healing and desmoplastic responses, and by the tissue type-independent stroma responses to a variety of non-osteotropic and osteotropic primary cancers generated a curated gene signature (“Core” OB-BMST) putatively representing the bone marrow/bone-specific stroma response to prostate cancer-induced, osteoblastic bone metastasis. The expression pattern of three representative Core OB-BMST genes (PTN, EPHA3 and FSCN1) seems to confirm the bone specificity of this response. A robust induction of genes involved in osteogenesis and angiogenesis dominates both the OB-BMST and Core OB-BMST. This translates in an amplification of hematopoietic and, remarkably, prostate epithelial stem cell niche components that may function as a self-reinforcing bone metastatic niche providing a growth support specific for osteoinductive prostate cancer cells. The induction of this combinatorial stem cell niche is a novel mechanism that may also explain cancer cell osteotropism and local interference with hematopoiesis (myelophthisis). Accordingly, these stem cell niche components may represent innovative therapeutic targets and/or serum biomarkers in osteoblastic bone metastasis. PMID:25485970

  1. Blood and Bones: The Influence of the Mass Media on Australian Primary School Children's Understandings of Genes and DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Jenny; Venville, Grady

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that primary school children held several misconceptions about genetics of concern for their future lives. Included were beliefs that genes and DNA are separate substances, with genes causing family resemblance and DNA identifying suspects at crime scenes. Responses to this work "blamed" the mass media for these…

  2. Establishment of a long-term three-dimensional primary culture of mouse glandular stomach epithelial cells within the stem cell niche

    SciTech Connect

    Katano, Takahito; Ootani, Akifumi; Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 ; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanida, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Ozeki, Keiji; Ebi, Masahide; Mori, Yoshinori; Kataoka, Hiromi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Toda, Shuji; Joh, Takashi

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ? We established a 3D culture system to allow long-term culture of stomach cells. ? In this culture system, gastric epithelial cells grew for about 3 months. ? The cultured cells differentiated into multi-units of the stomach. ? This culture method should be useful for elucidating the cause of gastric diseases. -- Abstract: Compared to the small intestine and colon, little is known about stem cells in the stomach because of a lack of specific stem cell markers and an in vitro system that allows long-term culture. Here we describe a long-term three-dimensional (3D) primary gastric culture system within the stem cell niche. Glandular stomach cells from neonatal mice cultured in collagen gel yielded expanding sphere-like structures for 3 months. The wall of the gastrospheres consisted of a highly polarized epithelial monolayer with an outer lining of myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells showed a tall columnar cell shape, basal round nuclei, and mucus-filled cytoplasm as well as expression of MUC5AC, indicating differentiation into gastric surface mucous cells. These cells demonstrated the features of fully differentiated gastric surface mucous cells such as microvilli, junctional complexes, and glycogen and secretory granules. Fewer than 1% of cultured epithelial cells differentiated into enteroendocrine cells. Active proliferation of the epithelial cells and many apoptotic cells in the inner lumen revealed the rapid cell turnover in gastrospheres in vitro. This method enables us to investigate the role of signaling between cell–cell and epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in an environment that is extremely similar to the in vivo environment.

  3. Coamplification of Myc/Pvt1 and homozygous deletion of Nlrp1 locus are frequent genetics changes in mouse osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pulivarthi H; Zhao, Shuying; Zhao, Yi-Jue; Yu, Alexander; Rainusso, Nino; Trucco, Matteo; Allen-Rhoades, Wendy; Satterfield, Laura; Fuja, Daniel; Borra, Vishnupriya J; Man, Tsz-Kwong; Donehower, Lawrence A; Yustein, Jason T

    2015-12-01

    Osteosarcomas (OSs) are characterized by high levels of genomic instability (GI). To gain insights into the GI and its contribution toward understanding the genetic basis of OS, we characterized 19 primary and 13 metastatic mouse tumors in a genetically engineered novel mouse model of OS by a combination of genomic techniques. Through the bone-specific deletion of the wild-type Trp53 locus or activation of a metastatic-promoting missense R172Hp53 allele, C57BL/6 mice developed either localized or metastatic OS. Subsequent tumors were isolated and primary cultures created from primary bone and/or distal metastatic lesions, for example, lung and liver. These tumors exhibited high levels of GI with complex chromosomal rearrangements, amplifications, and deletions comparable to human OS. The combined genomic approaches identified frequent amplification of chromosome 15D1 and loss of 11B4 by CGH and/or SKY. Both 15D1 and 11B4 have homology with frequently altered chromosomal bands 8q24 and 17p13 in human OS, respectively. Subsequent array CGH, FISH, and qRT-PCR analysis identified coamplification and overexpression of Myc/Pvt1 transcripts from the 15D1 amplicon and loss and decreased expression of the Nlrp1b from 11B4. The Nlrp1 gene is the key mediator of apoptosis and interacts strongly with caspase 2. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26355645

  4. Activation of the mouse primary visual cortex by medial prefrontal subregion stimulation is not mediated by cholinergic basalo-cortical projections.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoang Nam; Huppé-Gourgues, Frédéric; Vaucher, Elvire

    2015-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) exerts top-down control of primary visual cortex (V1) activity. As there is no direct neuronal projection from mPFC to V1, this functional connection may use an indirect route, i.e., via basalo-cortical cholinergic projections. The cholinergic projections to V1 originate from neurons in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB), which receive neuronal projections from the ventral part of the mPFC, composed of prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic cortices (IL). Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether electrical stimulation of mice mPFC subregions activate (1) V1 neurons; and (2) HDB cholinergic neurons, suggesting that the HDB serves as a relay point in the mPFC-V1 interaction. Neuronal activation was quantified using c-Fos immunocytochemistry or thallium autometallography for each V1 layer using automated particle analysis tools and optical density measurement. Stimulation of IL and PrL induced significantly higher c-Fos expression or thallium labeling in layers II/III and V of V1 in the stimulated hemisphere only. A HDB cholinergic neuron-specific lesion by saporin administration reduced IL-induced c-Fos expression in layers II/III of V1 but not in layer V. However, there was no c-Fos expression or thallium labeling in the HDB neurons, suggesting that this area was not activated by IL stimulation. Stimulation of another mPFC subarea, the anterior cingulate cortex (AC), which is involved in attention and receives input from V1, activated neither V1 nor HDB. The present results indicate that IL and PrL, but not AC, stimulation activates V1 with the minor involvement of the HDB cholinergic projections. These results suggest a functional link between the ventral mPFC and V1, but this function is only marginally supported by HDB cholinergic neurons and may involve other brain regions. PMID:25709570

  5. Activation of the mouse primary visual cortex by medial prefrontal subregion stimulation is not mediated by cholinergic basalo-cortical projections

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoang Nam; Huppé-Gourgues, Frédéric; Vaucher, Elvire

    2015-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) exerts top-down control of primary visual cortex (V1) activity. As there is no direct neuronal projection from mPFC to V1, this functional connection may use an indirect route, i.e., via basalo-cortical cholinergic projections. The cholinergic projections to V1 originate from neurons in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB), which receive neuronal projections from the ventral part of the mPFC, composed of prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic cortices (IL). Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether electrical stimulation of mice mPFC subregions activate (1) V1 neurons; and (2) HDB cholinergic neurons, suggesting that the HDB serves as a relay point in the mPFC-V1 interaction. Neuronal activation was quantified using c-Fos immunocytochemistry or thallium autometallography for each V1 layer using automated particle analysis tools and optical density measurement. Stimulation of IL and PrL induced significantly higher c-Fos expression or thallium labeling in layers II/III and V of V1 in the stimulated hemisphere only. A HDB cholinergic neuron-specific lesion by saporin administration reduced IL-induced c-Fos expression in layers II/III of V1 but not in layer V. However, there was no c-Fos expression or thallium labeling in the HDB neurons, suggesting that this area was not activated by IL stimulation. Stimulation of another mPFC subarea, the anterior cingulate cortex (AC), which is involved in attention and receives input from V1, activated neither V1 nor HDB. The present results indicate that IL and PrL, but not AC, stimulation activates V1 with the minor involvement of the HDB cholinergic projections. These results suggest a functional link between the ventral mPFC and V1, but this function is only marginally supported by HDB cholinergic neurons and may involve other brain regions. PMID:25709570

  6. NMR assessment on bone simulated under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Q.; Qin, Y.

    Introduction Microgravity-induced bone loss has been suggested to be similar to disuse-osteoporosis on Earth which constitutes a challenging public health problem No current non-destructive method can provide the microstructural changes in bone particularly on cortical bone Recently the authors have applied low field nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spin-spin relaxation technique and computational analysis method to determine the porosity pore size distribution and microdamage of cortical bone 1-3 The studies by the authors have shown that this technology can be used to characterize microstructural changes as well as bone water distribution bound and mobile water changes of weightless treated simulating a microgravity condition turkey and mouse cortical bone We further determinate that the NMR spin-spin relaxation time T 2 spectrum derived parameters can be used as descriptions of bone quality e g matrix water distribution and porosity size distributions and alone or in combination with current techniques bone mineral density measurements more accurately predict bone mechanical properties Methods underline Bone sample preparation Two kinds of animal samples were collected and prepared for designed experiments from SUNY Cortical bones of the mid-diaphyses of the ulnae of 1-year-old male turkeys were dissected from freshly slaughtered animals Eight samples were categorized from normal or control and four samples were 4-week disuse treated by functionally isolated osteotomies disuse A total of 12

  7. Increased bone mineral density with monthly intravenous ibandronate contributes to fracture risk reduction in patients with primary osteoporosis: three-year analysis of the MOVER study.

    PubMed

    Hagino, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Seitaro; Hashimoto, Junko; Matsunaga, Masayuki; Tobinai, Masato; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between gains in bone mineral density (BMD) in the hip and the incidence of vertebral fractures in the MOVER study was examined. Japanese patients from the ibandronate and risedronate treatment groups whose hip BMD had increased during the 3-year treatment period were classified into those with or without vertebral fractures. In both the ibandronate group and the risedronate group, hip BMD gains in the patients who had developed no vertebral fractures during the treatment period were greater than in the patients who developed vertebral fractures. We categorized the gains in hip BMD at 6 months into 3 groups (?0, >0 to ?3, and >3%), and used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios and the probabilities of incidence of vertebral fractures at 12, 24, and 36 months. The current study demonstrated that greater gains in hip BMD during the first 6 months of treatment were associated with a reduction in the risk of subsequent vertebral fractures during the duration of treatment, and suggested that measurement of hip BMD gain at that time could lead to a prediction of the risk of the future vertebral fracture incidence. PMID:25377907

  8. Semi-Quantitative Calculations of Primary Tumor Metabolic Activity Using F-18 FDG PET/CT as a Predictor of Survival in 92 Patients With High-Grade Bone or Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Fuglo, Hanna Maria; Rasmussen, Sine Hvid; Petersen, Michael Mork; Loft, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To assess the prognostic value of primary tumor metabolic activity in patients with high-grade bone sarcomas (BS) or soft tissue sarcomas (STS) using F-18 FDG PET/CT. A single-site, retrospective study including 92 patients with high-grade BS or STS. Pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was performed. Clinical data were registered. Accuracy of maximum standardized uptake value of primary tumor (SUVmax) and tumor-to-background (T/B) uptake ratio as prognostic variables and identification of cut-off values to group patients were determined. Kaplan–Meier survival estimates and log-rank test were used to compare survival distributions. Prognostic variables were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Forty-one of 92 patients died during follow-up (45%). Average survival was 6.5 years (95% CI 5.8–7.3 years) and probability of 5-year survival was 52%. Accuracy of SUVmax and T/B uptake ratio as prognostic variables in all patients and during subgroup analysis of patients with STS was significant. No significant results for AUCs were registered in patients with BS. Surgery was independently prognostic for survival throughout multivariate regression analysis of all patients (P?=?0.001, HR 3.84) and subgroup analysis (BS: P?=?0.02, HR 11.62; STS: P?=?0.005, HR 4.13). SUVmax was significant as prognostic variable in all patients (P?=?0.02, HR 3.66) and in patients with STS (P?=?0.007, HR 3.75). No significant results were demonstrated for T/B uptake ratio. Estimation of primary tumor metabolic activity with pretherapeutic SUVmax using F-18 FDG PET/CT demonstrates independent properties beyond histologic grading for prediction of survival in patients with high-grade STS, but not with high-grade BS. PMID:26181552

  9. Regulation of ATP-binding Cassette Transporters and Cholesterol Efflux by Glucose in Primary Human Monocytes and Murine Bone Marrow-derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Spartano, N. L.; Lamon-Fava, S.; Matthan, N. R.; Ronxhi, J.; Greenberg, A. S.; Obin, M. S.; Lichtenstein, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. This may be partially attributable to suppression of macrophage ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediated cholesterol efflux by sustained elevated blood glucose concentrations. 2 models were used to assess this potential relationship: human monocytes/leukocytes and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Methods 10 subjects (4 F/6 M, 50–85 years, BMI 25–35 kg/m2) underwent an oral glucose challenge. Baseline and 1- and 2-h post-challenge ABC-transporter mRNA expression was determined in monocytes, leukocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In a separate study, murine-BMDM were exposed to 5 mmol/L D-glucose (control) or additional 20 mmol/L D-or L-glucose and 25 ug/mL oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). High density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux and ABC-transporter (ABCA1 and ABCG1) expression were determined. Results Baseline ABCA1and ABCG1 expression was lower (> 50 %) in human monocytes and PBMC than leukocytes (p < 0.05). 1 h post-challenge leukocyte ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression increased by 37 % and 30 %, respectively (p < 0.05), and began to return to baseline thereafter. There was no significant change in monocyte ABC-transporter expression. In murine BMDM, higher glucose concentrations suppressed HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux (10 %; p < 0.01) without significantly affecting ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. Data demonstrate that leukocytes are not a reliable indicator of monocyte ABC-transporter expression. Conclusions Human monocyte ABC-transporter gene expression was unresponsive to a glucose challenge. Correspondingly, in BMDM, hyperglycemia attenuated macrophage cholesterol efflux in the absence of altered ABC-transporter expression, suggesting that hyperglycemia, per se, suppresses cholesterol transporter activity. This glucose-related impairment in cholesterol efflux may potentially contribute to diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. PMID:24838154

  10. FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS Mouse ENCODE

    E-print Network

    Petrov, Dmitri

    FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS Mouse ENCODE The authors outline the focus of the encyclopaedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE), which is already underway. The project will functionally annotate the mouse genome using the same experimental pipelines that were established for human ENCODE. Mouse ENCODE aims to add

  11. Bone marrow and the control of immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ende; Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Lin; Kryczek, Ilona; Wu, Ke; Hu, Yu; Wang, Guobin; Zou, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow is thought to be a primary hematopoietic organ. However, accumulated evidences demonstrate that active function and trafficking of immune cells, including regulatory T cells, conventional T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, neutrophils, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, are observed in the bone marrow. Furthermore, bone marrow is a predetermined metastatic location for multiple human tumors. In this review, we discuss the immune network in the bone marrow. We suggest that bone marrow is an immune regulatory organ capable of fine tuning immunity and may be a potential therapeutic target for immunotherapy and immune vaccination. PMID:22020068

  12. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 mediates changes of bone marrow stem cells during the bone repair process.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kiyotaka; Kawao, Naoyuki; Yano, Masato; Tamura, Yukinori; Kurashimo, Shinzi; Okumoto, Katsumi; Kojima, Kotarou; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, and macrophages that participate in the bone repair process are derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the roles of these stem cells during the repair of injured bone tissue are still unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of bone defect on HSCs and MSCs in bone marrow and spleen in 75 mice and its mechanism. We analyzed the HSC and MSC populations in these tissues of a mouse with femoral bone damage by using flow cytometry. The number of HSCs in the bone marrow of mice with damaged femurs was significantly lower than the number of these cells in the bone marrow of the contralateral intact femurs on day 2 after injury. Meanwhile, the number of MSCs in the bone marrow of mice with damaged femurs was significantly higher than that of the contralateral femurs. Both intraperitoneal administration of AMD3100, a C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonist, and local treatment with an anti-stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) antibody blunted the observed decrease in HSC and increase in MSC populations within the bone marrow of injured femurs. In conclusion, the present study revealed that there is a concurrent decrease and increase in the numbers of HSCs and MSCs, respectively, in the bone marrow during repair of mouse femoral bone damage. Furthermore, the SDF-1/CXCR4 system was implicated as contributing to the changes in these stem cell populations upon bone injury. PMID:26530150

  13. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone resorption, and protects against alveolar bone loss in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Grundler, Florian M.W.; Miyaura, Chisato; Inada, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various cell functions. Here, we examined the function of EGCG in inflammatory bone resorption. In calvarial organ cultures, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption was clearly suppressed by EGCG. In osteoblasts, EGCG suppressed the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNAs, as well as prostaglandin E2 production, and also suppressed RANKL expression, which is essential for osteoclast differentiation. LPS-induced bone resorption of mandibular alveolar bones was attenuated by EGCG in vitro, and the loss of mouse alveolar bone mass was inhibited by the catechin in vivo. PMID:26155460

  14. Talking Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  15. Induction of fully stabilized cortical bone defects to study intramembranous bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Razidlo, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bone is a regenerative tissue with an innate ability to self-remodel in response to environmental stimuli and the need to repair damage. Rodent models of fracture healing, and in particular genetic mouse models, can be used to study the contributions of specific molecular switches to skeletal repair, as well as to recreate and exacerbate biological development and repair mechanisms in postnatal skeletons. Here, we describe methodology for producing fully stabilized, single-cortex defects in mouse femurs to study mechanisms of intramembranous bone regeneration. PMID:25331051

  16. The regulation and regulatory role of collagenase in bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Walling, H. W.; Bloch, S. R.; Omura, T. H.; Chan, P. T.; Pearman, A. T.; Chou, W. Y.

    1996-01-01

    Interstitial collagenase plays an important role in both the normal and pathological remodeling of collagenous extracellular matrices, including skeletal tissues. The enzyme is a member of the family of matrix metalloproteinases. Only one rodent interstitial collagenase has been found but there are two human enzymes, human collagenase-1 and -3, the latter being the homologue of the rat enzyme. In developing rat and mouse bone, collagenase is expressed by hypertrophic chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, a situation that is replicated in a fracture callus. Cultured osteoblasts derived from neonatal rat calvariae show greater amounts of collagenase transcripts late in differentiation. These levels can be regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH), retinoic acid, and insulin-like growth factors, as well as the degree of matrix mineralization. Much of the work on collagenase in bone has been derived from studies on the rat osteosarcoma cell line, UMR 106-01. All bone-resorbing agents stimulate these cells to produce collagenase mRNA and protein, with PTH being the most potent stimulator. Determination of secreted levels of collagenase has been difficult because UMR cells, normal rat osteoblasts, and rat fibroblasts possess a scavenger receptor that removes the enzyme from the extracellular space, internalizes and degrades it, thus imposing another level of control. PTH can also regulate the abundance of the receptor as well as the expression and synthesis of the enzyme. Regulation of the collagenase gene by PTH appears to involve the cAMP pathway as well as a primary response gene, possibly Fos, which then contributes to induction of the collagenase gene. The rat collagenase gene contains an activator protein-1 sequence that is necessary for basal expression, but other promoter regions may also participate in PTH regulation. Thus, there are many levels of regulation of collagenase in bone perhaps constraining what would otherwise be a rampant enzyme.

  17. Mammalian cortical bone in tension is non-Haversian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayya, Ashwij; Banerjee, Anuradha; Rajesh, R.

    2013-08-01

    Cortical bone, found in the central part of long bones like femur, is known to adapt to local mechanical stresses. This adaptation has been linked exclusively with Haversian remodelling involving bone resorption and formation of secondary osteons. Compared to primary/plexiform bone, the Haversian bone has lower stiffness, fatigue strength and fracture toughness, raising the question why nature prefers an adaptation that is detrimental to bone's primary function of bearing mechanical stresses. Here, we show that in the goat femur, Haversian remodelling occurs only at locations of high compressive stresses. At locations corresponding to high tensile stresses, we observe a microstructure that is non-Haversian. Compared with primary/plexiform bone, this microstructure's mineralisation is significantly higher with a distinctly different spatial pattern. Thus, the Haversian structure is an adaptation only to high compressive stresses rendering its inferior tensile properties irrelevant as the regions with high tensile stresses have a non-Haversian, apparently primary microstructure.

  18. Mammalian cortical bone in tension is non-Haversian

    PubMed Central

    Mayya, Ashwij; Banerjee, Anuradha; Rajesh, R.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical bone, found in the central part of long bones like femur, is known to adapt to local mechanical stresses. This adaptation has been linked exclusively with Haversian remodelling involving bone resorption and formation of secondary osteons. Compared to primary/plexiform bone, the Haversian bone has lower stiffness, fatigue strength and fracture toughness, raising the question why nature prefers an adaptation that is detrimental to bone's primary function of bearing mechanical stresses. Here, we show that in the goat femur, Haversian remodelling occurs only at locations of high compressive stresses. At locations corresponding to high tensile stresses, we observe a microstructure that is non-Haversian. Compared with primary/plexiform bone, this microstructure's mineralisation is significantly higher with a distinctly different spatial pattern. Thus, the Haversian structure is an adaptation only to high compressive stresses rendering its inferior tensile properties irrelevant as the regions with high tensile stresses have a non-Haversian, apparently primary microstructure. PMID:23982482

  19. TGF? and PDGF-B signaling blockade inhibits myofibroblast development from both bone marrow-derived and keratocyte-derived precursor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vivek; Jaini, Ritika; Torricelli, André A M; Santhiago, Marcony R; Singh, Nirbhai; Ambati, Bala K.; Wilson, Steven E

    2014-01-01

    Myofibroblasts, the primary cells associated with corneal stromal haze (opacity), can be derived from both cornea-derived and bone marrow-derived precursor cells. In the present study, the role of TGF? or PDGF blockage on bone marrow-derived myofibroblast development was investigated using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric bone marrow mouse model and plasmid vectors that blocked TGF? or PDGF signaling. At the peak of corneal haze one month after irregular phototherapeutic keratectomy the central stroma had significantly less alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA)-positive cells derived from GFP+ bone marrow-derived cells or GFP- keratocyte/corneal fibroblast-derived cells when corneas were treated with the TGF? blocking vector pGFPC1.TGFRBKDEL or the PDGF blocking vector pCMV.PDGFRB.23KDEL compared with the corresponding empty vector treated or untreated control groups. In individual animals, 30 to 60% of myofibroblasts were derived from bone marrow-derived precursor cells and 40 to 70% of myofibroblasts were derived from keratocyte-derived precursor cells. TGF? and PDGF regulate corneal myofibroblast development from bone marrow-derived precursor cells and keratocyte/corneal fibroblast-derived precursor cells. PMID:24582892

  20. Broken bone

    MedlinePLUS

    Bone - broken; Fracture; Stress fracture ... as those caused by running, can cause stress fractures of the foot, ankle, tibia, or hip ... circulation. Press firmly over the skin beyond the fracture site. (For example, if the fracture is in ...

  1. Abstract--The work ventured here will focus on the feasibility of attempting to authenticate online test takers utilizing mouse

    E-print Network

    Tappert, Charles

    online test takers utilizing mouse movement biometrics. Ongoing research has dealt with the collection of captured mouse movement data from online test takers. The data is collected through two different modes sequence of mouse moves while the unstructured mode uses arbitrary mouse input. The primary focus

  2. MOUSE SETS MITCH RUDOMINER

    E-print Network

    Rudominer, Mitch

    MOUSE SETS MITCH RUDOMINER terms, M is a "mouse". Consequently, we * *say that A is a mouse set. For a concrete examplenis* * a mouse set. Our work extends some similar results due to D.A. Martin, J.R. Steel, and

  3. Overexpressed TGF-? in subchondral bone leads to mandibular condyle degradation.

    PubMed

    Jiao, K; Zhang, M; Niu, L; Yu, S; Zhen, G; Xian, L; Yu, B; Yang, K; Liu, P; Cao, X; Wang, M

    2014-02-01

    Emerging evidence has implied that subchondral bone plays an important role during osteoarthritis (OA) pathology. This study was undertaken to investigate whether abnormalities of the condylar subchondral bone lead to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) OA. We used an osteoblast-specific mutant TGF-?1 transgenic mouse, the CED mouse, in which high levels of active TGF-?1 occur in bone marrow, leading to abnormal bone remodeling. Subchondral bone changes in the mandibular condyles were investigated by micro-CT, and alterations in TMJ condyles were confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Abnormalities in the condylar subchondral bone, characterized as fluctuant bone mineral density and microstructure and increased but uncoupled activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were apparent in the 1- and 4-month CED mouse groups, while obvious cartilage degradation, in the form of cell-free regions and proteoglycan loss, was observed in the 4-month CED group. In addition, increased numbers of apoptotic chondrocytes and MMP9- and VEGF-positive chondrocytes were observed in the condylar cartilage in the 4-month CED group, but not in the 1-month CED group, compared with their respective age-matched controls. This study demonstrated that progressive degradation of mandibular condylar cartilage could be induced by the abnormal remodeling of the underlying subchondral bone during TMJOA progression. PMID:24309371

  4. Bone marrow transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow ...

  5. A report from the Sixth International Mouse Genome Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    1992-12-31

    The Sixth Annual Mouse Genome Conference was held in October, 1992 at Buffalo, USA. The mouse is one of the primary model organisms in the Human Genome Project. Through the use of gene targeting studies the mouse has become a powerful biological model for the study of gene function and, in addition, the comparison of the many homologous mutations identified in human and mouse have widened our understanding of the biology of these two organisms. A primary goal in the mouse genome program has been to create a genetic map of STSs of high resolution (<1cM) that would form the basis for the physical mapping of the whole mouse genome. Buffalo saw substantial new progress towards the goal of a very high density genetic map and the beginnings of substantive efforts towards physical mapping in chromosome regions with a high density of genetic markers.

  6. Cell-specific activation and detoxification of benzene metabolites in mouse and human bone marrow: Identification of target cells and a potential role for modulation of apoptosis in benzene toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.; Siegel, D.; Schattenberg, D.G.

    1996-12-01

    The role of cell-specific metabolism in benzene toxicity was examined in both murine and human bone marrow. Hemopoietic progenitor cells and stromal cells are important control points for regulation of hemopoiesis. We show that the selective toxicity of hydroquinone at the level of the macrophage in murine bone marrow stroma may be explained by a high peroxidase/nicotanimicle adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced [NAD(P)H]:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) ratio. Peroxidases metabolize hydroquinone to the reactive 1,4-benzoquinone, whereas NQO1 reduces the quinones formed, resulting in detoxification. Peroxidase and NQO1 activity in human stromal cultures vary as a function of time in culture, with peroxidase activity decreasing and NQO1 activity increasing with time. Peroxidase activity and, more specifically, myeloperoxidase, which had previously been considered to be expressed at the promyelocyte level, was detected in murine lineage-negative and human CD34{sup +} progenitor cells. This provides a metabolic mechanism whereby phenolic metabolites of benzene can be bioactivated in progenitor cells, which are considered initial target cells for the development of leukemias. Consequences of a high peroxidase/NQO1 ratio in HL-60 cells were shown to include hydroquinone-induced apoptosis. Hydroquinone can also inhibit proteases known to play a role in induction of apoptosis, suggesting that it may be able to inhibit apoptosis induced by other stimuli. Modulation of apoptosis may lead to aberrant hemopoiesis and neoplastic progression. This enzyme-directed approach has identified target cells of the phenolic metabolites of benzene in bone marrow and provided a metabolic basis for benzene-induced toxicity at the level of the progenitor cell in both murine and human bone marrow. 60 refs., 8 figs.

  7. A Chemical Mutagenesis Screen Identifies Mouse Models with ERG Defects.

    PubMed

    Charette, Jeremy R; Samuels, Ivy S; Yu, Minzhong; Stone, Lisa; Hicks, Wanda; Shi, Lan Ying; Krebs, Mark P; Naggert, Jürgen K; Nishina, Patsy M; Peachey, Neal S

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models provide important resources for many areas of vision research, pertaining to retinal development, retinal function and retinal disease. The Translational Vision Research Models (TVRM) program uses chemical mutagenesis to generate new mouse models for vision research. In this chapter, we report the identification of mouse models for Grm1, Grk1 and Lrit3. Each of these is characterized by a primary defect in the electroretinogram. All are available without restriction to the research community. PMID:26427409

  8. Adeno-associated virus type 2-mediated transduction in primary human bone marrow-derived CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells: donor variation and correlation of transgene expression with cellular differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ponnazhagan, S; Mukherjee, P; Wang, X S; Qing, K; Kube, D M; Mah, C; Kurpad, C; Yoder, M C; Srour, E F; Srivastava, A

    1997-01-01

    Although the adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) is known to possess a broad host range that transcends the species barrier, we suggested in an earlier study that AAV infection of human cells is receptor mediated (S. Ponnazhagan et al., J. Gen. Virol. 77:1111-1122, 1996). In the present studies, we investigated the ability of AAV to infect primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells capable of multilineage differentiation. Bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells from 12 hematologically normal volunteer donors were infected with a recombinant AAV containing the beta-galactosidase gene under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter (vCMVp-lacZ). Whereas 15 to 80% of the cells from approximately 50% of the donors showed various levels of lacZ gene expression, the expression was undetectable in cells from the remaining donors. However, if cells from both sets of donors were stimulated with various combinations of cytokines to induce differentiation into myeloid and lymphoid lineages following AAV infection, then the level of expression of the transduced gene increased up to 20-fold over a period of 14 days. The results of virus-binding assays suggested that the observed difference between the two groups was due to the differential susceptibility of CD34+ cells to AAV infection rather than to differences in transcription and translation of the transduced gene. To corroborate these results, CD34+ cells from the two donor groups, KB (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cells, and M07e (human megakaryocytic leukemia) cells were infected with vCMVp-lacZ. KB cells served as a positive control for AAV infection, and M07e cells served as a negative control. Whereas abundant hybridization to the single-stranded viral DNA on Southern blots was detected in KB and CD34+ cells that were positive for lacZ gene expression, little activity was detected in M07e and CD34+ cells that did not show expression of the lacZ gene. These results suggest that the levels of expression of the putative cellular receptor for AAV vary widely in CD34+ cells from different donors. These studies have implications for the potential use of AAV vectors in human gene therapy involving primary human primitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. PMID:9343178

  9. VLA-5 is expressed by mouse and human long-term repopulating hematopoietic cells and mediates adhesion to extracellular matrix protein fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    van der Loo, J C; Xiao, X; McMillin, D; Hashino, K; Kato, I; Williams, D A

    1998-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN), an extracellular matrix protein, is involved in the adhesion and migration of hematopoietic cells and has been shown to enhance retroviral gene transfer into primitive hematopoietic cells by co-localization of target cells and retrovirus when used as a substrate in vitro. We have previously found that mouse hematopoietic stem cells could be transduced on a FN fragment that included the recognition sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), suggesting that stem cells may express the integrin very late antigen (VLA)-5. To address this, we investigated the binding of mouse and human hematopoietic cells to recombinant peptides that contained one or a combination of the three principle cell-binding domains of FN. These domains included the VLA-5- binding sequence RGD, the VLA-4-binding site CS1, and the high affinity heparin-binding domain. Here we show that mouse long-term in vivo repopulating stem cells, as well as primitive human NOD/SCID mouse repopulating cells, can bind extracellular matrix protein FN by using integrin VLA-5 in vitro. This binding is specific and can be inhibited by antibodies to VLA-5. In addition, preincubation of BM cells with peptide CH-296, which contains all three primary FN-binding domains, decreased the engraftment of cells in the bone marrow in vivo, while intravenous injection of the same peptide induced an increase of progenitor cells in the spleen. In summary, our data demonstrate that VLA-5 is expressed on primitive mouse and human hematopoietic cells and suggest that there may be significant cooperation between integrin receptors and proteoglycan molecules in the engraftment of bone marrow cells and hematopoietic cell adhesion in vivo. PMID:9727075

  10. Distinct organ-specific metastatic potential of individual breast cancer cells and primary tumors.

    PubMed

    Minn, Andy J; Kang, Yibin; Serganova, Inna; Gupta, Gaorav P; Giri, Dilip D; Doubrovin, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Gerald, William L; Blasberg, Ronald; Massagué, Joan

    2005-01-01

    We used bioluminescence imaging to reveal patterns of metastasis formation by human breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. Individual cells from a population established in culture from the pleural effusion of a breast cancer patient showed distinct patterns of organ-specific metastasis. Single-cell progenies derived from this population exhibited markedly different abilities to metastasize to the bone, lung, or adrenal medulla, which suggests that metastases to different organs have different requirements. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that these different single-cell progenies similarly express a previously described "poor-prognosis" gene expression signature. Unsupervised classification using the transcriptomic data set supported the hypothesis that organ-specific metastasis by breast cancer cells is controlled by metastasis-specific genes that are separate from a general poor-prognosis gene expression signature. Furthermore, by using a gene expression signature associated with the ability of these cells to metastasize to bone, we were able to distinguish primary breast carcinomas that preferentially metastasized to bone from those that preferentially metastasized elsewhere. These results suggest that the bone-specific metastatic phenotypes and gene expression signature identified in a mouse model may be clinically relevant. PMID:15630443

  11. Bone marrow aspiration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the hollow part of most bones. Bone marrow aspiration is the removal of a small amount of ... tissue in liquid form for examination. Bone marrow aspiration is not the same as bone marrow biopsy . ...

  12. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a person's ...

  13. [Bone transplant].

    PubMed

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands. PMID:16998521

  14. Mouse Models as a Translational Platform for the Development of New Therapeutic Agents in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Tassone, P; Neri, P; Burger, R; Di Martino, MT; Leone, E; Amodio, N; Caraglia, M; Tagliaferri, P

    2012-01-01

    Mouse models of multiple myeloma (MM) are basic tools for translational research and play a fundamental role in the development of new therapeutics against plasma cell malignancies. All available models, including transplantable murine tumors in syngenic mice, xenografts of established human cell lines in immunocompromised mice and transgenic models that mirror specific steps of MM pathogenesis, have demonstrated some weaknesses in predicting clinical results, particularly for new drugs targeting the human bone marrow microenvironment (huBMM). The recent interest to models recapitulating the in vivo growth of primary MM cells in a human (SCID-hu) or humanized (SCID-synth-hu) host recipient has provided powerful platforms for the investigation of new compounds targeting MM and/or its huBMM. Here, we review and discuss strengths and weaknesses of the key in vivo models that are currently utilized in the MM preclinical investigation. PMID:22671927

  15. Removing the bone brake.

    PubMed

    Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2014-09-01

    Osteoporosis results from an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. While bone resorption inhibitors are widely used to treat osteoporosis, stimulating bone formation is more challenging. Recently, McClung et al. (2014) found that neutralization of sclerostin, a potent inhibitor of bone formation, effectively increased bone mass in postmenopausal women. PMID:25185946

  16. Osteocalcin regulates murine and human fertility through a pancreas-bone-testis axis

    PubMed Central

    Oury, Franck; Ferron, Mathieu; Huizhen, Wang; Confavreux, Cyrille; Xu, Lin; Lacombe, Julie; Srinivas, Prashanth; Chamouni, Alexandre; Lugani, Francesca; Lejeune, Herve; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Plotton, Ingrid; Karsenty, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The osteoblast-derived hormone osteocalcin promotes testosterone biosynthesis in the mouse testis by binding to GPRC6A in Leydig cells. Interestingly, Osteocalcin-deficient mice exhibit increased levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), a pituitary hormone that regulates sex steroid synthesis in the testes. These observations raise the question of whether LH regulates osteocalcin’s reproductive effects. Additionally, there is growing evidence that osteocalcin levels are a reliable marker of insulin secretion and sensitivity and circulating levels of testosterone in humans, but the endocrine function of osteocalcin is unclear. Using mouse models, we found that osteocalcin and LH act in 2 parallel pathways and that osteocalcin-stimulated testosterone synthesis is positively regulated by bone resorption and insulin signaling in osteoblasts. To determine the importance of osteocalcin in humans, we analyzed a cohort of patients with primary testicular failure and identified 2 individuals harboring the same heterozygous missense variant in one of the transmembrane domains of GPRC6A, which prevented the receptor from localizing to the cell membrane. This study uncovers the existence of a second endocrine axis that is necessary for optimal male fertility in the mouse and suggests that osteocalcin modulates reproductive function in humans. PMID:23728177

  17. Chordomas at High Prevalence in the Captive Population of the Endangered Perdido Key Beach Mouse (Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis).

    PubMed

    Taylor, K R; Garner, M M; Russell, K; Epperson, E D; Grodi, H A; Roff, S R; Dumonceaux, G A; Struthers, J D; Dark, M J; Abbott, J R

    2016-01-01

    The Perdido Key beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis) is a critically endangered subspecies of the oldfield mouse. The captive population, currently maintained by 3 Florida zoos, is entirely derived from just 3 wild-caught ancestor mice. Necropsy and histopathology revealed chordoma of the vertebral column in 38 of 88 (43%) mice. The tumors were locally expansile and invasive masses of large physaliferous (vacuolated) cells with small, round, hyperchromatic nuclei, similar to the "classic" form of chordomas described in humans. Primary tumors rarely contained small amounts of bone and cartilaginous matrix, characteristic of the "chondroid" form. Neoplastic cells contained abundant granules positive by the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Brachyury and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 were detected in neoplastic cells by immunohistochemistry, but uncoupling protein 1 was not identified. Primary tumors occurred along the entire vertebral column-cervical, 5 of 38 (13%); thoracic, 16 (42%); lumbar, 13 (34%); and sacral, 10 (26%)-and 10 (26%) mice had multiple primary masses. Metastases to the lungs were noted in 13 of the 38 (34%) mice. Mice diagnosed with chordomas postmortem ranged from 424 to 2170 days old, with a mean of 1399 days. The prevalence of chordoma was not significantly different between males (n = 23 of 50; 46%) and females (n = 15 of 38; 39%). PMID:25791038

  18. Polymethoxy flavonoids, nobiletin and tangeretin, prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone loss in an experimental model for periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Hirata, Michiko; Matsumoto, Chiho; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2012-01-01

    Nobiletin, a polymethoxy flavonoid (PMF), inhibits systemic bone resorption and maintains bone mass in estrogen-deficient ovariectomized mice. This study examined the anti-inflammatory effects of PMFs, nobiletin, and tangeretin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption. Nobiletin and tangeretin suppressed LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption and suppressed the receptor activator of NF?B ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 macrophages. Nobiletin clearly restored the alveolar bone mass in a mouse experimental model for periodontitis by inhibiting LPS-induced bone resorption. PMFs may therefore provide a new therapeutic approach for periodontal bone loss. PMID:22850615

  19. Human fucosyltransferase 6 enables prostate cancer metastasis to bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Guillebon, A D; Hsu, J-w; Barthel, S R; Dimitroff, C J; Lee, Y-F; King, M R

    2013-01-01

    Background: The interaction between human prostate cancer (PCa) cells and bone marrow (BM) endothelium follows a rolling-and-adhesion cascade mediated by E-selectin ligand (ESL): E-selectin. This adhesion is enabled by elevated expression of ?-1,3-fucosyltransferases (FTs), enzymes responsible for ESL-mediated bone metastasis in humans. In contrast, the incidence of bone metastasis in mice is rare. Methods: FT 3, 6 and 7 were overexpressed in mouse PCa cells. The rolling cell number, cell-rolling velocity and transendothelial migration were characterised in vitro. Fucosyltransferases-transduced mouse PCa cells expressing luciferase were inoculated into mice via left ventricle to compare the capability of bone metastasis. Mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation were utilised for identification of ESLs. Results: Overexpression of FT3, FT6 or FT7 restored ESLs and enabled mouse PCa cells to roll and adhere in E-selectin-functionalised microtubes, similar to trafficking of circulating PCa cells in BM vessels. Following intracardiac inoculation, FT6-transduced cells induced robust bone metastasis in mice. Inhibition of FT6 by a fucose mimetic significantly reduced bone metastasis. Importantly, comparison of FT3, FT6 and FT7 gene expression in existing clinical samples showed significant upregulation of FT6 in PCa-distant metastases. Conclusion: FT6 is a key mediator of PCa cells trafficking to the BM. It may serve as a viable drug target in preclinical tests of therapeutics for reduction of PCa bone metastasis. PMID:24178760

  20. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Functional Bone Tissue Engineering: Lessons from Bone Mechanobiology

    PubMed Central

    Bodle, Josephine C.; Hanson, Ariel D.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to highlight the current and significant work in the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) in functional bone tissue engineering framed through the bone mechanobiology perspective. Over a century of work on the principles of bone mechanosensitivity is now being applied to our understanding of bone development. We are just beginning to harness that potential using stem cells in bone tissue engineering. ASC are the primary focus of this review due to their abundance and relative ease of accessibility for autologous procedures. This article outlines the current knowledge base in bone mechanobiology to investigate how the knowledge from this area has been applied to the various stem cell-based approaches to engineering bone tissue constructs. Specific emphasis is placed on the use of human ASC for this application. PMID:21338267

  1. Identification and analysis of alternative splicing events conserved in human and mouse

    E-print Network

    Poggio, Tomaso

    Identification and analysis of alternative splicing events conserved in human and mouse Gene W. Yeo. Alternative splic- ing (AS) events conserved since the divergence of human and mouse are likely of primary (ACEs), from other orthologous human mouse exons and integrate these features into an exon

  2. Decreased potassium stimulates bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Bushinsky, D A; Riordon, D R; Chan, J S; Krieger, N S

    1997-06-01

    Metabolic acidosis induces net calcium efflux (JCa+) from cultured bone, in part, through an increase in osteoclastic resorption and a decrease in osteoblastic formation. In humans provision of base as potassium (K+) citrate, but not sodium (Na+) citrate, reduces urine Ca (UCa), and oral KHCO3 decreases bone resorption and UCa in postmenopausal women. Potassium deprivation alone leads to an increase in UCa. To determine whether decreased extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]) at a constant pH, PCO2, and [HCO-3] alters JCa+ and bone cell activity, we measured JCa+, osteoblastic collagen synthesis, and osteoclastic beta-glucuronidase release from neonatal mouse calvariae cultured for 48 h in medium of varying [K+]. Calvariae were cultured in control medium (approximately 4 mM [K+]) or medium with mildly low K+ (MLK, approximately 3 mM [K+]), very low K+ (VLK, approximately 2 mM [K+]), or extremely low K+ (ELK, approximately 1 mM [K+]) (n > or = 9 in each group). Compared with control, ELK, but not MLK or VLK, resulted in a marked increase in JCa+ and an increase in beta-glucuronidase release and a decrease in collagen synthesis. JCa+ was correlated directly with medium beta-glucuronidase activity and inversely with collagen synthesis. To determine whether the reduction in medium [K+] was associated with a decrease in intracellular pH (pHi), we measured pHi in MC3T3-E1 cells, a mouse osteoblastic cell line. Incubation in 1 mM [K+] led to a significant decrease in pHi compared with 3 mM [K+]. Thus incubation in a reduced [K+] medium stimulates JCa+ and osteoclastic enzyme release and inhibits osteoblastic collagen synthesis, which may be mediated by a reduction in bone cell pH. PMID:9227639

  3. Inhibitory Effects of KP-A159, a Thiazolopyridine Derivative, on Osteoclast Differentiation, Function, and Inflammatory Bone Loss via Suppression of RANKL-Induced MAP Kinase Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ihn, Hye Jung; Lee, Doohyun; Lee, Taeho; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Hong-In; Bae, Yong Chul; Hong, Jung Min; Park, Eui Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Abnormally elevated formation and activation of osteoclasts are primary causes for a majority of skeletal diseases. In this study, we found that KP-A159, a newly synthesized thiazolopyridine derivative, inhibited osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro, and inflammatory bone loss in vivo. KP-A159 did not cause a cytotoxic response in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), but significantly inhibited the formation of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL). KP-A159 also dramatically inhibited the expression of marker genes related to osteoclast differentiation, including TRAP (Acp5), cathepsin K (Ctsk), dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Mmp9), and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (Nfatc1). Moreover, actin ring and resorption pit formation were inhibited by KP-A159. Analysis of the signaling pathway involved showed that KP-A159 inhibited RANKL-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase1/2 (MEK1/2). In a mouse inflammatory bone loss model, KP-A159 significantly rescued lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast numbers. Therefore, KP-A159 targets osteoclasts, and may be a potential candidate compound for prevention and/or treatment of inflammatory bone loss. PMID:26536233

  4. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuru, Satoru; Tamai, Katsuto . E-mail: tamai@gts.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-03-09

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood.

  5. Effect of zoledronic acid and amputation on bone invasion and lung metastasis of canine osteosarcoma in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Tobie D.; Somanathan Pillai, Smitha Pankajavally; Hildreth, Blake Eason; Lanigan, Lisa G.; Martin, Chelsea K.; Werbeck, Jillian L.

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is an aggressive, highly metastatic and lytic primary bone neoplasm commonly affecting the appendicular skeleton of dogs and children. Current treatment options include amputation of the afflicted limb, limb-sparing procedures, or palliative radiation with or without adjunct chemotherapy. Therapies that inhibit bone resorption, such as the bisphosphonates, may be an effective palliative therapy by limiting the local progression of OSA in those patients that are not viable candidates for amputation. We have developed a mouse model of canine skeletal OSA following intratibial inoculation of OSCA40 cells that spontaneously metastasized to the lungs. We demonstrated that therapy with a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (Zol), reduced OSA-induced bone lysis; however, Zol monotherapy or in combination with amputation was not effective at inhibiting pulmonary metastasis. While not reaching statistical significance, amputation of the tumor-bearing limb reduced the average incidence of lung metastases; however, this effect was nullified when Zol was added to the treatment protocol. In untreated mice, the magnitude of proximal tibial lysis was significantly correlated with the incidence of metastasis. The data support amputation alone for the management of appendicular OSA rather than combining amputation with Zol. However, in patients that are not viable candidates for amputation, Zol may be a useful palliative therapy for OSA by reducing the magnitude of lysis and therefore bone pain, despite the risk of increased pulmonary metastasis. PMID:21374084

  6. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone mineralization by ultrastructural imaging].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomoka

    2015-10-01

    Bone mineralization can be divided into two phases ; one is primary mineralization associated with osteoblastic bone formation, and the other is secondary mineralization which gradually increases mineral density of bone matrix after the primary mineralization. Primary mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles synthesized by mature osteoblasts. Crystalline calcium phosphates are nucleated inside these matrix vesicles, and then, get out of them forming spherical mineralized nodule, which can grow more by being supplied with Ca2+ and PO4(3-) (matrix vesicle mineralization). Thereafter, the mineralized nodules make contacts with surrounding collagen fibrils, extending mineralization along with their longitudinal axis from the contact points (collagen mineralization). In this review, the ultrastructural findings on bone mineralization, specially, primary mineralization will be provided. PMID:26412723

  7. Hypocalcaemic Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Keynes, W. M.; Caird, F. I.

    1970-01-01

    A patient with many symptoms and signs of primary hyperparathyroidism had hypocalcaemia when first seen. Bone section histology showed osteomalacia and osteitis fibrosa, and the hyperparathyroidism at this stage was considered to be secondary to osteomalacia with postgastrectomy steatorrhoea. On treatment with vitamin D (with disappearance of her bone pains and weakness) she developed hypercalcaemia. She regained her health after removal of a 6-g. parathyroid adenoma. Normal histology was shown in another parathyroid gland. We believe that the initial hypocalcaemia was due to vitamin-D deficiency, which produced ineffective hyperparathyroidism until it was corrected. A review of the few reports of patients with autonomous hyperparathyroidism with steatorrhoea and osteomalacia does not support the argument that these patients had “tertiary” disease. It suggests that most of them, like our patient, had primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:5412947

  8. [Frontier in bone biology].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Bone is an active organ in which bone mass is maintained by the balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, i.e., coupling of bone formation and bone resorption. Recent advances in molecular bone biology uncovered the molecular mechanism of the coupling. A fundamental role of osteocyte in the maintenance of bone mass and whole body metabolism has also been revealed recently. Moreover, neurons and neuropeptides have been shown to be intimately involved in bone homeostasis though inter-organ network, in addition to "traditional" regulators of bone metabolism such as soluble factors and cytokines PMID:26529922

  9. NCI Mouse Repository - Information

    Cancer.gov

    General Information About the NCI Mouse Repository Pricing Ordering Information Ordering Live Mice Ordering Cryoarchived Strains Health Reports Getting Assistance / Reporting a Problem Submitting Strains to the NCI Mouse Repository Material Transfer

  10. The morphology of the mouse masticatory musculature

    PubMed Central

    Baverstock, Hester; Jeffery, Nathan S; Cobb, Samuel N

    2013-01-01

    The mouse has been the dominant model organism in studies on the development, genetics and evolution of the mammalian skull and associated soft-tissue for decades. There is the potential to take advantage of this well studied model and the range of mutant, knockin and knockout organisms with diverse craniofacial phenotypes to investigate the functional significance of variation and the role of mechanical forces on the development of the integrated craniofacial skeleton and musculature by using computational mechanical modelling methods (e.g. finite element and multibody dynamic modelling). Currently, there are no detailed published data of the mouse masticatory musculature available. Here, using a combination of micro-dissection and non-invasive segmentation of iodine-enhanced micro-computed tomography, we document the anatomy, architecture and proportions of the mouse masticatory muscles. We report on the superficial masseter (muscle, tendon and pars reflecta), deep masseter, zygomaticomandibularis (anterior, posterior, infraorbital and tendinous parts), temporalis (lateral and medial parts), external and internal pterygoid muscles. Additionally, we report a lateral expansion of the attachment of the temporalis onto the zygomatic arch, which may play a role in stabilising this bone during downwards loading. The data presented in this paper now provide a detailed reference for phenotypic comparison in mouse models and allow the mouse to be used as a model organism in biomechanical and functional modelling and simulation studies of the craniofacial skeleton and particularly the masticatory system. PMID:23692055

  11. A living thick nanofibrous implant bifunctionalized with active growth factor and stem cells for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Eap, Sandy; Keller, Laetitia; Schiavi, Jessica; Huck, Olivier; Jacomine, Leandro; Fioretti, Florence; Gauthier, Christian; Sebastian, Victor; Schwinté, Pascale; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    New-generation implants focus on robust, durable, and rapid tissue regeneration to shorten recovery times and decrease risks of postoperative complications for patients. Herein, we describe a new-generation thick nanofibrous implant functionalized with active containers of growth factors and stem cells for regenerative nanomedicine. A thick electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) nanofibrous implant (from 700 ?m to 1 cm thick) was functionalized with chitosan and bone morphogenetic protein BMP-7 as growth factor using layer-by-layer technology, producing fish scale-like chitosan/BMP-7 nanoreservoirs. This extracellular matrix-mimicking scaffold enabled in vitro colonization and bone regeneration by human primary osteoblasts, as shown by expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein (BSPII), 21 days after seeding. In vivo implantation in mouse calvaria defects showed significantly more newly mineralized extracellular matrix in the functionalized implant compared to a bare scaffold after 30 days’ implantation, as shown by histological scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray microscopy study and calcein injection. We have as well bifunctionalized our BMP-7 therapeutic implant by adding human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The activity of this BMP-7-functionalized implant was again further enhanced by the addition of hMSCs to the implant (living materials), in vivo, as demonstrated by the analysis of new bone formation and calcification after 30 days’ implantation in mice with calvaria defects. Therefore, implants functionalized with BMP-7 nanocontainers associated with hMSCs can act as an accelerator of in vivo bone mineralization and regeneration. PMID:25709432

  12. A living thick nanofibrous implant bifunctionalized with active growth factor and stem cells for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Eap, Sandy; Keller, Laetitia; Schiavi, Jessica; Huck, Olivier; Jacomine, Leandro; Fioretti, Florence; Gauthier, Christian; Sebastian, Victor; Schwinté, Pascale; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    New-generation implants focus on robust, durable, and rapid tissue regeneration to shorten recovery times and decrease risks of postoperative complications for patients. Herein, we describe a new-generation thick nanofibrous implant functionalized with active containers of growth factors and stem cells for regenerative nanomedicine. A thick electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) nanofibrous implant (from 700 ?m to 1 cm thick) was functionalized with chitosan and bone morphogenetic protein BMP-7 as growth factor using layer-by-layer technology, producing fish scale-like chitosan/BMP-7 nanoreservoirs. This extracellular matrix-mimicking scaffold enabled in vitro colonization and bone regeneration by human primary osteoblasts, as shown by expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein (BSPII), 21 days after seeding. In vivo implantation in mouse calvaria defects showed significantly more newly mineralized extracellular matrix in the functionalized implant compared to a bare scaffold after 30 days' implantation, as shown by histological scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray microscopy study and calcein injection. We have as well bifunctionalized our BMP-7 therapeutic implant by adding human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The activity of this BMP-7-functionalized implant was again further enhanced by the addition of hMSCs to the implant (living materials), in vivo, as demonstrated by the analysis of new bone formation and calcification after 30 days' implantation in mice with calvaria defects. Therefore, implants functionalized with BMP-7 nanocontainers associated with hMSCs can act as an accelerator of in vivo bone mineralization and regeneration. PMID:25709432

  13. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  14. Postnatal histomorphogenesis of the mandible in the house mouse

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Montes, Laëtitia; Lamrous, Hayat; Ventura, Jacint; Cubo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The mandible of the house mouse, Mus musculus, is a model structure for the study of the development and evolution of complex morphological systems. This research describes the histomorphogenesis of the house mouse mandible and analyses its biological significance from the first to the eighth postnatal weeks. Histological data allowed us to test a hypothesis concerning modularity in this structure. We measured the bone growth rates by fluorescent labelling and identified the bone tissue types through microscopic analysis of histological cross-sections of the mandible during its postnatal development. The results provide evidence for a modular structure of the mouse mandible, as the alveolar region and the ascending ramus show histological differences throughout ontogeny. The alveolar region increases in length during the first two postnatal weeks by bone growth in the posterior region, while horizontally positioned incisors preclude bone growth in the anterior region. In the fourth postnatal week, growth dynamics shows a critical change. The alveolar region drifts laterally and the ramus becomes more vertical due to the medial growth direction of the coronoid region and the lateral growth of the ventral region of the ramus. Diet changes after weaning are probably involved in these morphological changes. In this way, the development of the masticatory muscles that insert on the ascending ramus may be particularly related to this shape modeling of the house mouse mandible. PMID:22372819

  15. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  16. Rethinking the nature of fibrolamellar bone: an integrative biological revision of sauropod plexiform bone formation.

    PubMed

    Stein, Koen; Prondvai, Edina

    2014-02-01

    We present novel findings on sauropod bone histology that cast doubt on general palaeohistological concepts concerning the true nature of woven bone in primary cortical bone and its role in the rapid growth and giant body sizes of sauropod dinosaurs. By preparing and investigating longitudinal thin sections of sauropod long bones, of which transverse thin sections were published previously, we found that the amount of woven bone in the primary complex has been largely overestimated. Using comparative cellular and light-extinction characteristics in the two section planes, we revealed that the majority of the bony lamina consists of longitudinally organized primary bone, whereas woven bone is usually represented only by a layer a few cells thin in the laminae. Previous arguments on sauropod biology, which have been based on the overestimated amount, misinterpreted formation process and misjudged role of woven bone in the plexiform bone formation of sauropod dinosaurs, are thereby rejected. To explain the observed pattern in fossil bones, we review the most recent advances in bone biology concerning bone formation processes at the cellular and tissue levels. Differentiation between static and dynamic osteogenesis (SO and DO) and the revealed characteristics of SO- versus DO-derived bone tissues shed light on several questions raised by our palaeohistological results and permit identification of these bone tissues in fossils with high confidence. By presenting the methods generally used for investigating fossil bones, we show that the major cause of overestimation of the amount of woven bone in previous palaeohistological studies is the almost exclusive usage of transverse sections. In these sections, cells and crystallites of the longitudinally organized primary bone are cut transversely, thus cells appear rounded and crystallites remain dark under crossed plane polarizers, thereby giving the false impression of woven bone. In order to avoid further confusion in palaeohistological studies, we introduce new osteohistological terms as well as revise widely used but incorrect terminology. To infer the role of woven bone in the bone formation of fast-growing tetrapods, we review some aspects of the interrelationships between the vascularity of bone tissues, basal metabolic rate, body size and growth rate. By putting our findings into the context of osteogenesis, we provide a new model for the diametrical limb bone growth of sauropods and present new implications for the evolution of fast growth in vertebrates. Since biomechanical studies of bone tissues suggest that predominant collagen fibre orientation (CFO) is controlled by endogenous, functional and perhaps phylogenetic factors, the relationship between CFO and bone growth rate as defined by Amprino's rule, which has been the basis for the biological interpretation of several osteohistological features, must be revised. Our findings draw attention to the urgent need for revising widely accepted basic concepts of palaeohistological studies, and for a more integrative approach to bone formation, biomechanics and bone microstructural features of extant and extinct vertebrates to infer life history traits of long extinct, iconic animals like dinosaurs. PMID:23647662

  17. Controlled release of growth factors on allograft bone in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhinong; Ryu, Wonhyoung; Ren, Peigen; Fasching, Rainer; Goodman, Stuart B

    2008-08-01

    Allografts are important alternatives to autografts for treating defects after major bone loss. Bone growth factors have both local autocrine and paracrine effects and regulate the growth, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. To study the effects of prolonged, continuous, local delivery of growth factors on bone growth, we developed a new microelectromechanical system (MEMS) drug delivery device. Bone marrow cells from mice were seeded on mouse allograft discs and cultured in osteogenic media with osteogenic protein 1 (OP-1) and/or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) delivered from MEMS devices for 6 weeks. We monitored bone formation by changes of bone volume using micro-CT scanning and release of osteocalcin using ELISA. The data suggest the MEMS devices delivered constant concentrations of OP-1 and FGF-2 to the media. Bone marrow cells grew on the allografts and increased bone volume. Addition of OP-1 increased bone formation whereas FGF-2 decreased bone formation. Local delivery of growth factors over a prolonged period modulated the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells on allograft bone. PMID:18509711

  18. Erythropoietin modulates the structure of bone morphogenetic protein 2-engineered cranial bone.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongli; Jung, Younghun; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Taichman, Russell S; Krebsbach, Paul H

    2012-10-01

    The ideally engineered bone should have similar structural and functional properties to the native tissue. Although structural integrity is critical for functional bone regeneration, we know less about modulating the structural properties of the engineered bone elicited by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) than efficacy and safety. Erythropoietin (Epo), a primary erythropoietic hormone, has been used to augment blood transfusion in orthopedic surgery. However, the effects of Epo on bone regeneration are not well known. Here, we determined the role of Epo in BMP2-induced bone regeneration using a cranial defect model. Epo administration improved the quality of BMP2-induced bone and more closely resembled natural cranial bone with a higher bone volume (BV) fraction and lower marrow fraction when compared with BMP2 treatment alone. Epo increased red blood cells (RBCs) in peripheral blood and also increased hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) populations in bone marrow. Consistent with our previous work, Epo increased osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Results from a metatarsal organ culture assay suggested that Epo-promoted osteoclastogenesis contributed to angiogenesis because angiogenesis was blunted when osteoclastogenesis was blocked by alendronate (ALN) or osteoprotegerin (OPG). Earlier calcification of BMP2-induced temporary chondroid tissue was observed in the Epo+BMP group compared to BMP2 alone. We conclude that Epo significantly enhanced the outcomes of BMP2-induced cranial bone regeneration in part through its actions on osteoclastogenesis and angiogenesis. PMID:22703029

  19. Construction of mouse phantoms from segmented CT scan data for radiation dosimetry studies.

    PubMed

    Welch, D; Harken, A D; Randers-Pehrson, G; Brenner, D J

    2015-05-01

    We present the complete construction methodology for an anatomically accurate mouse phantom made using materials which mimic the characteristics of tissue, lung, and bone for radiation dosimetry studies. Phantoms were constructed using 2?mm thick slices of tissue equivalent material which was precision machined to clear regions for insertion of lung and bone equivalent material where appropriate. Images obtained using a 3D computed tomography (CT) scan clearly indicate regions of tissue, lung, and bone that match their position within the original mouse CT scan. Additionally, radiographic films are used with the phantom to demonstrate dose mapping capabilities. The construction methodology presented here can be quickly and easily adapted to create a phantom of any specific small animal given a segmented CT scan of the animal. These physical phantoms are a useful tool to examine individual organ dose and dosimetry within mouse systems that are complicated by density inhomogeneity due to bone and lung regions. PMID:25860401

  20. Construction of mouse phantoms from segmented CT scan data for radiation dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, D.; Harken, A. D.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Brenner, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    We present the complete construction methodology for an anatomically accurate mouse phantom made using materials which mimic the characteristics of tissue, lung, and bone for radiation dosimetry studies. Phantoms were constructed using 2?mm thick slices of tissue equivalent material which was precision machined to clear regions for insertion of lung and bone equivalent material where appropriate. Images obtained using a 3D computed tomography (CT) scan clearly indicate regions of tissue, lung, and bone that match their position within the original mouse CT scan. Additionally, radiographic films are used with the phantom to demonstrate dose mapping capabilities. The construction methodology presented here can be quickly and easily adapted to create a phantom of any specific small animal given a segmented CT scan of the animal. These physical phantoms are a useful tool to examine individual organ dose and dosimetry within mouse systems that are complicated by density inhomogeneity due to bone and lung regions.

  1. Dietary Strontium Increases Bone Mineral Density in Intact Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model System for Bone Research

    PubMed Central

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W.; Nagy, Tim R.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p?bone mineral density. In addition, trace amounts of strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model. PMID:20874492

  2. A Novel 3D Segmentation of Vertebral Bones from Volumetric CT Images Using Graph Cuts

    E-print Network

    Farag, Aly A.

    accurate than other known alternatives. 1 Introduction The spine bone consists of the VB and spinal of the vertebral bones of spine column with a particular focus on the lumbar spine. The primary goal

  3. Ginseng Berry Extract Promotes Maturation of Mouse Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Cho, Si-Young; Xiang, Gao; Min, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng extract has been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor and immune-activating effects. However, the immunostimulatory effect of ginseng berry extract (GB) has been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of GB on the activation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. GB treatment induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Interestingly, GB induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation than ginseng root extract (GR) at the same concentrations. Moreover, in vivo administration of GB promoted up-regulation of CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen DCs. GB also promoted the generation of Th1 and Tc1 cells. Furthermore, Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway were essential for DC activation induced by GB. In addition, GB strongly prompted the proliferation of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, GB induced DC activation in tumor-bearing mice and the combination of OVA and GB treatment inhibited B16-OVA tumor cell growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results demonstrate that GB is a novel tumor therapeutic vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC and T cell activation. PMID:26090808

  4. Enhanced release of bone morphogenetic proteins from demineralized bone matrix by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2015-06-01

    Gamma irradiation is a useful method for sterilizing demineralized bone matrix (DBM), but its effect on the osteoinductivity of DBM is still controversial. In this study, the osteoinductive activity of gamma-irradiated DBM was examined using a mouse myoblastic cell line (C2C12). DBM was extracted from adult bovine bone and was irradiated at a dose of 25 kGy using a 60cobalt gamma-irradiator. Cell proliferation with DBM was not affected by gamma-irradiation, but alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin productions were significantly increased in C2C12 cell groups treated with gamma-irradiated DBM. It was reasoned that bone morphogenetic proteins were more efficiently released from gamma-irradiated DBM than from the non-irradiated control. This result suggests the effectiveness of radiation sterilization of bone implants

  5. Can the adult skeleton recover lost bone?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian; Schneider, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The loss of bone mineral with aging and subsequent development of osteoporosis is a common problem in elderly women, and as life expectancy increases, in elderly men as well. Space flight also causes bone loss and could be a limiting factor for long duration missions, such as, a Mars expedition or extended occupation of a Space Station. Before effective countermeasures can be devised, a thorough knowledge of the extent, location, and rate of bone loss during weightlessness is needed from actual space flight data or ground-based disuse models. In addition, the rate and extent that these losses are reversed after return from space flight are of primary importance. Although the mechanisms are not likely to be the same in aging and space flight, there are common elements. For example, strategies developed to prevent disuse bone loss or to enhance the rate of recovery following space flight might have direct applicability to clinical medicine. For various reasons, little attention has been given to recovery of bone mass following space flight. As a prelude to the design of strategies to enhance recovery of bone, this paper reviews published literature related to bone recovery in the adult. We conclude that recovery can be expected, but the rate and extent will be individual and bone site dependent. The development of strategies to encourage or enhance bone formation following space flight may be as important as implementing countermeasures during flight.

  6. Can the adult skeleton recover lost bone?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, A; Schneider, V

    1991-01-01

    The loss of bone mineral with aging and subsequent development of osteoporosis is a common problem in elderly women, and as life expectancy increases, in elderly men as well. Space flight also causes bone loss and could be a limiting factor for long duration missions, such as, a Mars expedition or extended occupation of a space station. Before effective countermeasures can be devised, a thorough knowledge of the extent, location, and rate of bone loss during weightlessness is needed from actual space flight data or ground-based disuse models. In addition, the rate and extent that these losses are reversed after return from space flight are of primary importance. Although the mechanisms are not likely to be the same in aging and space flight, there are common elements. For example, strategies developed to prevent disuse bone loss or to enhance the rate of recovery following space flight might have direct applicability to clinical medicine. For various reasons, little attention has been given to recovery of bone mass following space flight. As a prelude to the design of strategies to enhance recovery of bone, this paper reviews published literature related to bone recovery in the adult. We conclude that recovery can be expected, but the rate and extent will be individual and bone site dependent. The development of strategies to encourage or enhance bone formation following space flight may be as important as implementing countermeasures during flight. PMID:1915690

  7. [Bone and Calcium Research Update 2015. Recent advances in clinical assessment of trabecular bone architecture: trabecular bone score (TBS)].

    PubMed

    Sone, Teruki

    2015-01-01

    Although dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is regarded as the gold-standard technique for diagnosing osteoporosis, bone mineral density (BMD) alone by DXA is not sufficient for bone strength assessment. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a texture analysis parameter that evaluates pixel gray-level variations in DXA images of the lumbar spine and allows to assess bone microarchitectural status that is one of the determinants of bone strength. Recent clinical evidences show that TBS is associated with fracture risk in primary and secondary osteoporosis, has a complementary role to lumbar spine BMD and responds to osteoporosis medications somewhat differently than BMD. Thus TBS has the potential to become a valuable clinical tool in the diagnosis of osteoporosis and in fracture risk assessment. PMID:25530526

  8. Dysregulated Toll-like receptor expression and signaling in bone marrow-derived macrophages at

    E-print Network

    Toledo, University of

    Dysregulated Toll-like receptor expression and signaling in bone marrow-derived macrophages, rodent Abstract The expression, responsiveness and regulation of mouse Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in bone The Toll-like family of receptors, comprising 13 members (TLR1­TLR13), is now well recognized to play a key

  9. Inhibition of osteolytic bone metastasis of breast cancer by combined treatment with the bisphosphonate ibandronate and tissue inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, T; Sasaki, A; Dunstan, C; Williams, P J; Bauss, F; De Clerck, Y A; Mundy, G R

    1997-01-01

    Multiple steps are involved in the metastasis of cancer cells from primary sites to distant organs. These steps should be considered in the design of pharmacologic approaches to prevent or inhibit the metastatic process. In the present study, we have compared the effects of inhibiting several steps involved in the bone metastatic process individually with inhibition of both together. The steps we chose were matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion, likely involved in tumor cell invasion, and osteoclastic bone resorption, the final step in the process. We used an experimental model in which inoculation of human estrogen-independent breast cancer MDA-231 cells into the left cardiac ventricle of female nude mice causes osteolytic lesions in bone. To inhibit cancer invasiveness, the tissue inhibitor of the MMP-2 (TIMP-2), which is a natural inhibitor of MMPs, was overexpressed in MDA-231 cells. To inhibit bone resorption, a potent bisphosphonate, ibandronate (4 microg/mouse) was daily administered subcutaneously. Nude mice received either; (a) nontransfected MDA-231 cells; (b) nontransfected MDA231 cells and ibandronate; (c) TIMP-2-transfected MDA-231 cells; or (d) TIMP-2-transfected MDA-231 cells and ibandronate. In mice from group a, radiographs revealed multiple osteolytic lesions. However, in mice from group b or group c, osteolytic lesions were markedly decreased. Of particular note, in animals from group d receiving both ibandronate and TIMP-2-transfected MDA-231 cells, there were no radiologically detectable osteolytic lesions. Survival rate was increased in mice of groups c and d. There was no difference in local enlargement in the mammary fat pad between nontransfected and TIMP-2-transfected MDA-231 cells. These results suggest that inhibition of both MMPs and osteoclastic bone resorption are more efficacious treatment for prevention of osteolytic lesions than either alone, and suggest that when therapies are designed based on the uniqueness of the bone microenvironment and combined with several common steps in the metastatic process, osteolytic bone metastases can be more efficiently and selectively inhibited. PMID:9153295

  10. The immune-enhancing effect of the Cronobacter sakazakii ES2 phage results in the activation of nuclear factor-?B and dendritic cell maturation via the activation of IL-12p40 in the mouse bone marrow.

    PubMed

    An, Tae-Woo; Kim, Sun-Joong; Lee, Young-Duck; Park, Jong-Hyun; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

    2014-01-01

    The bacteriophage ES2 is a virus for bacterial host cells. Unlike other phages that are known for their therapeutic effects, the ES2 phage has never been clearly examined as a therapeutic agent. To systematically and conclusively evaluate its therapeutic efficacy, the expression of the surface markers CD86, CD40, and MHCII, the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1?, IL-1?, and TNF-?, and the underlying NF-?B signaling pathway in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) in response to ES2 phage infection were examined. The bacteriophage ES2, which was isolated from swine fecal samples an antigen, affected the expression of the cell surface molecules and proinflammatory cytokines that are associated with the DC maturation processes. Treatment with ES2 phage also led to NF-?Bp65 activation and translocation to the nucleus, which indicates the activation of NF-?B signaling. Furthermore, the ES2 phage induced the promoter activity of IL-12p40. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that p65 was enriched at the IL12-p40 promoter as a direct target of chromatin. The present study demonstrates that the ES2 phage potently induces DC maturation via immune-enhancement processes. PMID:24184907

  11. In vitro derivation of macrophage from guinea pig bone marrow with human M-CSF.

    PubMed

    Yu, Karl O A; Porcelli, Steven A; Shuman, Howard A

    2013-03-29

    The guinea pig has a storied history as a model in the study of infectious disease and immunology. Because of reproducibility of data and availability of various reagents, inbred mice have since supplanted the guinea pig as the animal model-of-choice in these fields. However, several clinically-significant microorganisms do not cause the same pathology in mice, or mice may not be susceptible to these infections. These demonstrate the utility of other animal models - either as the primary method to study a particular infection, or to confirm or refute findings in the mouse before translating basic science into clinical practice. The mononuclear phagocyte, or macrophage (M?), plays a key role in antigen presentation and the pathogenesis of intracellular bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Legionella pneumophila. Because of variable yield and difficult extraction from tissue, the preferred method of producing M? for in vitro studies is to expand murine bone marrow (BM) precursors with mouse macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). This has not been shown in the guinea pig. Here, we report the empiric observation that human M-CSF - but not mouse M-CSF, nor human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor - can be used to induce BM precursor differentiation into bonafide M?. The differentiated cells appeared as enlarged adherent cells, capable of both pinocytosis and large particle phagocytosis. Furthermore, we showed that these guinea pig BM-derived M?, similar to human monocyte/M? lines but unlike most murine BM M?, support growth of wild type L. pneumophila. This method may prove useful for in vitro studies of M? in the guinea pig, as well as in the translation of results found using mouse BM-derived M? towards studies in human immunology and infectious disease. PMID:23333710

  12. The major leukocyte chemotactic and activating factors in the mouse gut lumen are not N-formylpeptide receptor 1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Ojode, Teresa; Schneider, Erich H; Tiffany, H Lee; Yung, Sunny; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Cultured bacteria release N-formylpeptides, which are potent chemoattractants for phagocytic leukocytes acting at G-protein-coupled receptors FPR1 and FPR2. However, the distribution and immunologic activity of these molecules at mucosal surfaces, where large numbers of bacteria are separated from the immune system by epithelium, remain undefined. To investigate this for the gut, we tested leukocyte responses to cell-free gut luminal contents from C57Bl/6 mice fed a chow diet. Small and large intestine contents were able to compete with labeled N-formylpeptide for binding to FPR1, indicating the presence of FPR1 ligands in the gut lumen. Material from both small and large intestine induced robust calcium flux responses by primary FPR1(+) leukocytes (mouse bone marrow cells and splenocytes and human peripheral blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells), as well as chemotactic responses by both mouse bone marrow cells and human peripheral blood neutrophils. However, unlike defined N-formylpeptides, calcium flux responses induced by gut luminal contents were insensitive both to pertussis toxin treatment of leukocytes and to proteinase K digestion of the samples. Moreover, the gut samples were fully active on neutrophils from mice lacking Fpr1, and the kinetics of the calcium flux response differed markedly for neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The active factor(s) could be dialyzed using a 3.5-kDa pore size membrane. Thus, mouse intestinal lumen contains small, potent and highly efficacious leukocyte chemotactic and activating factors that may be distinct from neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and distinct from Fpr1 agonists. PMID:22722599

  13. Osteoporosis: The Bone Thief

    MedlinePLUS

    ... raquo Osteoporosis: The Bone Thief Heath and Aging Osteoporosis: The Bone Thief Who Has Osteoporosis? What Is ... of this makes your bones weaker. Who Has Osteoporosis? Ten million Americans have osteoporosis. They are mostly ...

  14. Menopause and Bone Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or no exercise • Smoking cigarettes • Drinking too much alcohol Healthy Bone Osteoporosis Over time, this bone loss ... osteoporosis? • How often should I have a bone density test? • Should I take calcium and vitamin D ...

  15. Bone Lesions and Damage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the risk of fractures. Bone loss frequently accompanies multiple myeloma, and 85% of patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma have ... result in pain, bone fractures, spinal cord compression, and hypercalcemia. Multiple myeloma bone lesions may be treated with bisphosphonates or ...

  16. Forschungsprofil Primary cilia and polycystic kidney disease

    E-print Network

    Witzgall, Ralph - Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät III

    Forschungsprofil Primary cilia and polycystic kidney disease Karin Babinger and Ralph Witzgall Situs inversus and polycystic kidney disease converge at primary cilia Although at first glance our body, the inv mouse, not only presents with situs inversus but also with polycystic kidneys. At the time of its

  17. Primary Syphilis

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Primary Syphilis Information for adults A A A This image displays a painless ulcer with a red base, typical of primary syphilis. Overview Primary syphilis is a disease caused by ...

  18. Raloxifene protects against seizures and neurodegeneration in a mouse model mimicking epilepsy in postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Pottoo, F H; Bhowmik, M; Vohora, D

    2014-12-18

    Epilepsy in menopausal women presents several challenges in the treatment including an increased risk of seizures due to hormone replacement therapy. We investigated the hypothesis if raloxifene, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, could be employed to prevent behavioural seizures and morphological alterations in a mouse model mimicking epilepsy in postmenopausal women. Female mice were made ovotoxic by treatment with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) to mimic a postmenopausal state. They were then subjected to kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures and neurotoxicity, as assessed by microscopic examination of hippocampus, relevant to human temporal lobe epilepsy. VCD administration (for 15days followed by a drug-free period of 30days) induced ovotoxicity in mice as evidenced by reduced number of primary ovarian follicles. This was accompanied by a 62.4% reduction in serum oestradiol levels. The bone mineral density of ovotoxic mice, however, remained unaffected. Raloxifene (8mg/kg) reduced the seizure severity score in both normal and ovotoxic mice and protected against degeneration induced by KA in the CA3, CA1 sub-fields and hilus of the DG. Hippocampal TGF-?3 levels were not affected by any of the treatments. We show the potential protective role of raloxifene in preventing seizures and neuronal damage in a mouse model mimicking epilepsy in postmenopausal women which was found unrelated to hippocampal TGF-?3. Raloxifene might represent a novel therapeutic option for postmenopausal temporal lobe epileptic woman. PMID:25218046

  19. Vaccination against strontium-90-induced bone tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, A.E.; Triest, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    The thesis was tested that immunization against a murine osteosarcoma virus can reduce the incidence of bone tumors induced by /sup 90/Sr. C57BL/6J female mice (190) were divided into three sets of 2 groups. Each set consisted of a control group and an experimental group treated ip with 1.0 muCi /sup 90/Sr at 66 days of age. The three sets of groups received the following additional treatments: none (controls), 6 injections of Formalin-inactivated FBJ osteosarcoma virus (vaccinated group), or 6 injections of active FBJ virus (active virus controls). Only 1 bone tumor developed in a mouse not treated with /sup 90/Sr in the active virus controls. In /sup 90/Sr-treated mice, vaccination reduced bone tumor deaths during the first 600 days from 9 of 36 in controls to 1 of 33 in vaccinated mice (P less than .01), but bone tumor deaths during the entire life-span, 10 of 36 and 5 of 33, respectively, were not significantly different (P . .07). Thus the vaccination procedure delayed the development of bone tumors. In contrast, injection of active virus into /sup 90/Sr-treated mice increased the lifetime incidence of bone tumors from 10 of 36 in controls to 19 of 32 (P . .01).

  20. Kinetic examination of femoral bone modeling in broilers.

    PubMed

    Prisby, R; Menezes, T; Campbell, J; Benson, T; Samraj, E; Pevzner, I; Wideman, R F

    2014-05-01

    Lameness in broilers can be associated with progressive degeneration of the femoral head leading to femoral head necrosis and osteomyelitis. Femora from clinically healthy broilers were dissected at 7 (n = 35, 2), 14 (n = 32), 21 (n = 33), 28 (n = 34), and 42 (n = 28) d of age, and were processed for bone histomorphometry to examine bone microarchitecture and bone static and dynamic properties in the secondary spongiosa (IISP) of the proximal femoral metaphysis. Body mass increased rapidly with age, whereas the bone volume to tissue volume ratio remained relatively consistent. The bone volume to tissue volume ratio values generally reflected corresponding values for both mean trabecular thickness and mean trabecular number. Bone metabolism was highest on d 7 when significant osteoblast activity was reflected by increased osteoid surface to bone surface and mineralizing surface per bone surface ratios. However, significant declines in osteoblast activity and bone formative processes occurred during the second week of development, such that newly formed but unmineralized bone tissue (osteoid) and the percentages of mineralizing surfaces both were diminished. Osteoclast activity was elevated to the extent that measurement was impossible. Intense osteoclast activity presumably reflects marked bone resorption throughout the experiment. The overall mature trabecular bone volume remained relatively low, which may arise from extensive persistence of chondrocyte columns in the metaphysis, large areas in the metaphysis composed of immature bone, destruction of bone tissue in the primary spongiosa, and potentially reduced bone blood vessel penetration that normally would be necessary for robust development. Delayed bone development in the IISP was attributable to an uncoupling of osteoblast and osteoclast activity, whereby bone resorption (osteoclast activity) outpaced bone formation (osteoblast activity). Insufficient maturation and mineralization of the IISP may contribute to subsequent pathology of the femoral head in fast-growing broilers. PMID:24795304

  1. Periodontal breakdown in the Dmp1 null mouse model of hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Ye, L; Zhang, S; Ke, H; Bonewald, L F; Feng, J Q

    2008-07-01

    Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in alveolar bone and cementum, which are important components of the periodontium. Therefore, we hypothesized that Dmp1 is critical for the integrity of the periodontium, and that deletion may lead to increased susceptibility to disease. An early-onset periodontal defect was observed in the Dmp1 null mouse, a mouse model of hypophosphatemic rickets. The alveolar bone is porous, with increased proteoglycan expression. The cementum is also defective, as characterized by irregular, punctate fluorochrome labeling and elevated proteoglycan. The osteocyte and cementocyte lacuno-canalicular system of both alveolar bone and cementum is abnormal, with irregular lacunar walls and fewer canaliculi. As a consequence, there is significant interproximal alveolar bone loss, combined with detachment between the periodontal ligament (PDL) and cementum. We propose that defective alveolar bone and cementum may account for the periodontal breakdown and increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in Dmp1 null mice. PMID:18573980

  2. Syphilis - primary

    MedlinePLUS

    Primary syphilis; Secondary syphilis; Late syphilis; Tertiary syphilis ... Syphilis has three stages: Primary syphilis Secondary syphilis Tertiary syphilis (the late phase of the illness) Secondary ...

  3. Bone densitometry: patients receiving prolonged steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Erlichman, M; Holohan, T V

    1996-09-01

    Bone mass loss and osteoporosis are associated with various conditions, such as asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism, and treatments, such as prolonged steroid therapy. Bone densitometry is used to measure bone mass density to determine the degree of osteoporosis and to estimate fracture risk. Bone densitometers measure the radiation absorption by the skeleton to determine bone mass of the peripheral, axial, and total skeleton. Common techniques include single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the forearm and heel, dual-photon (DPA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine and hip, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the spine or forearm, and radiographic absorptiometry (RA) of the hand. Part I of this report addresses important technical considerations of bone densitometers, including radiation dose, site selection, and accuracy and precision, as well as cost and charges. Part II evaluates the clinical utility of bone densitometry in the management of patients receiving prolonged steroid therapy. Steroids have broad effects on both immune and inflammatory processes and have been used to treat a wide variety of immunologically mediated diseases. Osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures have been considered major complications of prolonged steroid therapy. Bone loss is also a direct result of many of the diseases treated with steroids. Issues addressed are the type and extent of bone loss associated with steroid therapy, risk for fracture, whether steroid dose reduction or alternative therapy is an option, and whether osteoporosis associated with prolonged steroid use can be prevented or treated. The other assessments in this series address the clinical utility of bone densitometry for patients with: asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism, end-stage renal disease, vertebral abnormalities, and estrogen-deficient women. PMID:9059877

  4. Are nonresorbing osteoclasts sources of bone anabolic activity?

    PubMed

    Karsdal, Morten A; Martin, Thomas J; Bollerslev, Jens; Christiansen, Claus; Henriksen, Kim

    2007-04-01

    Some osteopetrotic mutations lead to low resorption, increased numbers of osteoclasts, and increased bone formation, whereas other osteopetrotic mutations lead to low resorption, low numbers of osteoclasts, and decreased bone formation. Elaborating on these findings, we discuss the possibility that osteoclasts are the source of anabolic signals for osteoblasts. In normal healthy individuals, bone formation is coupled to bone resorption in a tight equilibrium. When this delicate balance is disturbed, the net result is pathological situations, such as osteopetrosis or osteoporosis. Human osteopetrosis, caused by mutations in proteins involved in the acidification of the resorption lacuna (ClC-7 or the a3-V-ATPase), is characterized by decreased resorption in face of normal or even increased bone formation. Mouse mutations leading to ablation of osteoclasts (e.g., loss of macrophage-colony stimulating factor [M-CSF] or c-fos) lead to secondary negative effects on bone formation, in contrast to mutations where bone resorption is abrogated with sustained osteoclast numbers, such as the c-src mice. These data indicate a central role for osteoclasts, and not necessarily their resorptive activity, in the control of bone formation. In this review, we consider the balance between bone resorption and bone formation, reviewing novel data that have shown that this principle is more complex than originally thought. We highlight the distinct possibility that osteoclast function can be divided into two more or less separate functions, namely bone resorption and stimulation of bone formation. Finally, we describe the likely possibility that bone resorption can be attenuated pharmacologically without the undesirable reduction in bone formation. PMID:17227224

  5. Radiographic features of bone in several strains of laboratory mice and of their tumours induced by bone-seeking radionuclides.

    PubMed Central

    Loutit, J F; Corp, M J; Ardran, G M

    1976-01-01

    The natural radiographic appearance of the various bones of the skeleton are described for several strains of laboratory mice. The Harwell substrains of CBA, A and 101 are generally similar and become osteoporotic on ageing. Harwell C57BL have similar, but more delicately chiseled, bones. Harwell C3H mice have bones with stouter cortices and may show osteosclerosis on ageing. CF1 females (donated by Dr M. Finkel) showed osteosclerosis and osteophytic outgrowths when aged. NMRI mice (donated by Dr A. Luz) appeared larger than the pure-strain Harwell mice. In general, mouse bones are simple tubular structures with an ivory cortex and a marrow cavity. Cancellous trabecular bone is scanty, even in vertebrae, flat bones and the metaphyses of long bones. Bone-seeking radionuclides administered to mice lead to skeletal tumours: (a) osteosarcomata, which are commonly radio-opaque to a variable degree owing to calcified tumour bone, but which may be osteolytic, (b) primitive mesenchymal (angio-) sarcomata which are non-osteogenic and osteolytic, (c) fibrosarcomata--which also are osteolytic--and to local or general lymphomata from irradiation of parental cells in bone marrow, but no special radiological features have been found associated with these last-named tumours. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1069700

  6. Therapeutic effects of anti-CD115 monoclonal antibody in mouse cancer models through dual inhibition of tumor-associated macrophages and osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Fend, Laetitia; Accart, Nathalie; Kintz, Jacqueline; Cochin, Sandrine; Reymann, Carine; Le Pogam, Fabrice; Marchand, Jean-Baptiste; Menguy, Thierry; Slos, Philippe; Rooke, Ronald; Fournel, Sylvie; Bonnefoy, Jean-Yves; Préville, Xavier; Haegel, Hélčne

    2013-01-01

    Tumor progression is promoted by Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs) and metastasis-induced bone destruction by osteoclasts. Both myeloid cell types depend on the CD115-CSF-1 pathway for their differentiation and function. We used 3 different mouse cancer models to study the effects of targeting cancer host myeloid cells with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) capable of blocking CSF-1 binding to murine CD115. In mice bearing sub-cutaneous EL4 tumors, which are CD115-negative, the anti-CD115 mAb depleted F4/80(+) CD163(+) M2-type TAMs and reduced tumor growth, resulting in prolonged survival. In the MMTV-PyMT mouse model, the spontaneous appearance of palpable mammary tumors was delayed when the anti-CD115 mAb was administered before malignant transition and tumors became palpable only after termination of the immunotherapy. When administered to mice already bearing established PyMT tumors, anti-CD115 treatment prolonged their survival and potentiated the effect of chemotherapy with Paclitaxel. As shown by immunohistochemistry, this therapeutic effect correlated with the depletion of F4/80(+)CD163(+) M2-polarized TAMs. In a breast cancer model of bone metastasis, the anti-CD115 mAb potently blocked the differentiation of osteoclasts and their bone destruction activity. This resulted in the inhibition of cancer-induced weight loss. CD115 thus represents a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, since a specific blocking antibody may not only inhibit the growth of a primary tumor through TAM depletion, but also metastasis-induced bone destruction through osteoclast inhibition. PMID:24019914

  7. Bone and bone marrow involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Yachoui, Ralph; Parker, Brian J; Nguyen, Thanhcuong T

    2015-11-01

    Bone and bone marrow involvement in sarcoidosis have been infrequently reported. We aimed to describe the clinical features, radiological descriptions, pathological examinations, and outcomes of three patients with osseous sarcoidosis and one patient with bone marrow sarcoidosis seen at our institution. Our case series included fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography descriptions in assessing the whole-body extent of sarcoidosis. In the era of advanced imaging, large bone and axial skeleton sarcoidosis lesions are more common than previously reported. PMID:26248533

  8. Fragility fractures in men with idiopathic osteoporosis are associated with undermineralization of the bone matrix without evidence of increased bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Misof, Barbara M; Nawrot-Wawrzyniak, Kamilla; Pötter-Lang, Sarah; Muschitz, Christian; Resch, Heinrich; Klaushofer, Klaus; Zwettler, Elisabeth

    2011-05-01

    The pathogenesis of primary osteoporosis in younger individuals is still elusive. An important determinant of the biomechanical competence of bone is its material quality. In this retrospective study we evaluated bone material quality based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging to assess bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in bone biopsies of 25 male patients (aged 18-61 years) who sustained fragility fractures but were otherwise healthy. BMDD of cancellous bone was compared with previously established adult reference data. Complementary information was obtained by bone histomorphometry. The histomorphometric results showed a paucity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the bone surface in the majority of patients. BMDD revealed a significant shift to lower mineralization densities for cancellous bone values: CaMean (weighted mean Ca content, -5.9%), CaPeak (mode of the BMDD, -5.6%), and CaHigh (portion of fully mineralized bone, -76.8%) were decreased compared to normative reference; CaWidth (heterogeneity in mineralization, +18.5%) and CaLow (portion of low mineralized bone, +68.8; all P < 0.001) were significantly increased. The shift toward lower mineral content in the bone matrix in combination with reduced indices of bone formation and bone resorption suggests an inherent mineralization defect leading to undermineralized bone matrix, which might contribute to the susceptibility to fragility fractures of the patients. The alteration in bone material might be related to osteoblastic dysfunction and seems fundamentally different from that in high bone turnover osteoporosis with a negative bone balance. PMID:21318401

  9. Celecoxib reduces glucocorticoids in vitro and in a mouse model with adrenocortical hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Berthon, Annabel; Starost, Matthew F.; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Salpea, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Faucz, Fabio R.; Martinez, Antoine; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), whether in the context of Carney complex (CNC) or isolated, leads to adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) - independent Cushing’s syndrome (CS). CNC and PPNAD are caused typically by inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A, a gene coding for the type 1a regulatory subunit (R1?) of cAMP–dependent protein kinase (PKA). Mice lacking Prkar1a, specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO) developed CS caused by bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH), which is formed from the abnormal proliferation of fetal-like adrenocortical cells. Celecoxib is a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor. In bone, Prkar1a inhibition is associated with COX2 activation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production that, in turn, activates proliferation of bone stromal cells. We hypothesized that COX2 inhibition may have an effect in PPNAD. In vitro treatment of human cell lines, including one from a patient with PPNAD, with Celecoxib resulted in decreased cell viability. We then treated AdKO and control mice with 1,500 mg/kg Celecoxib or vehicle. Celecoxib treatment led to decreased PGE2 and corticosterone levels, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of adrenocortical cells, and decreased steroidogenic gene expression. We conclude that, in vitro and in vivo, Celecoxib led to decreased steroidogenesis. In a mouse model of PPNAD, Celecoxib caused histological changes that reversed, at least in part, BAH and this was associated with a reduction of corticosterone levels. PMID:26438728

  10. Celecoxib reduces glucocorticoids in vitro and in a mouse model with adrenocortical hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sisi; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Berthon, Annabel; Starost, Matthew F; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Salpea, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Faucz, Fabio R; Martinez, Antoine; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), whether in the context of Carney complex (CNC) or isolated, leads to ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CS). CNC and PPNAD are caused typically by inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A, a gene coding for the type 1a regulatory subunit (R1?) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Mice lacking Prkar1a, specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO) developed CS caused by bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH), which is formed from the abnormal proliferation of fetal-like adrenocortical cells. Celecoxib is a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) inhibitor. In bone, Prkar1a inhibition is associated with COX2 activation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production that, in turn, activates proliferation of bone stromal cells. We hypothesized that COX2 inhibition may have an effect in PPNAD. In vitro treatment of human cell lines, including one from a patient with PPNAD, with celecoxib resulted in decreased cell viability. We then treated AdKO and control mice with 1500?mg/kg celecoxib or vehicle. Celecoxib treatment led to decreased PGE2 and corticosterone levels, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of adrenocortical cells, and decreased steroidogenic gene expression. We conclude that, in vitro and in vivo, celecoxib led to decreased steroidogenesis. In a mouse model of PPNAD, celecoxib caused histological changes that, at least in part, reversed BAH and this was associated with a reduction of corticosterone levels. PMID:26438728

  11. Salidroside stimulates DNA repair enzyme Parp-1 activity in mouse HSC maintenance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Sipple, Jared; Pang, Qishen; Du, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Salidroside is a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola rosea, which has potent antioxidant properties. Here we show that salidroside prevented the loss of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in mice under oxidative stress. Quiescent HSCs were recruited into cell cycling on in vivo challenge with oxidative stress, which was blocked by salidroside. Surprisingly, salidroside does not prevent the production of reactive oxygen species but reduces hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA-strand breaks in bone marrow cells enriched for HSCs. We tested whether salidroside enhances oxidative DNA damage repair in mice deficient for 5 DNA repair pathways known to be involved in oxidative DNA damage repair; we found that salidroside activated poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a component of the base excision repair pathway, in mouse bone marrow HSCs as well as primary fibroblasts and human lymphoblasts. PARP-1 activation by salidroside protects quiescent HSCs from oxidative stress-induced cycling in native animals and self-renewal defect in transplanted recipients, which was abrogated by genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibition of PARP-1. Together, these findings suggest that activation of PARP-1 by salidroside could affect the homeostasis and function of HSCs and contribute to the antioxidant effects of salidroside. PMID:22427203

  12. INVEST IN YOUR BONES Bone Basics

    E-print Network

    in your bones? Osteoporosis, a major health problem in America, affects over 10 million persons, with 34 million at a high risk of developing the disease (National Osteoporosis Foundation, 2010). Dubbed as the "silent thief", osteoporosis is a debilitating disease which causes normal bones (above bone figure

  13. Regulation of bone formation by baicalein via the mTORC1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-fa; Tang, Jia-jun; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Ting; Chen, Tian-yu; Yan, Bo; Huang, Bin; Wang, Liang; Huang, Min-jun; Zhang, Zhong-min; Jin, Da-di

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease that is characterized by low bone density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. The increasing prevalence of osteoporosis has attracted much attention. In this study, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were treated with the natural compound, baicalein (0.1 ?mol/L, 1 ?mol/L, 10 ?mol/L), to stimulate differentiation over a 14-day period. In addition, a canonical ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model was used to investigate the effect of 3-month baicalein treatment (10 mg/kg per day) in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis. In vitro, we found that baicalein induced activation of alkaline phosphatase, stimulated the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway, and induced expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, ie, osteocalcin, osterix, collagen I?1, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), in osteoblasts. In vivo, several bone parameters, including trabecular thickness, trabecular bone mineral density, and trabecular number, in the distal femoral metaphysis were significantly increased in OVX mice treated intragastrically with baicalein for 3 months compared with OVX mice that were not treated with baicalein. We also found that expression of osteocalcin and RUNX2 was decreased in primary ossified tissue from the OVX group, and baicalein increased the levels of osteocalcin and RUNX2 in OVX mice. These data suggest that baicalein can stimulate MC3T3-E1 cells to differentiate into osteoblasts via activation of the mTORC1 signaling pathway, which includes protein kinases and transcription factors such as P-4E/BP1 and P-S6K1. PMID:26392752

  14. Quantitative Assessment of Murine Articular Cartilage and Bone Using X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Yuan, Huihui; Wu, Mingshu; Dong, Linan; Zhang, Lu; Shi, Hongli; Luo, Shuqian

    2014-01-01

    Murine models for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) research can provide important insights for understanding RA pathogenesis and evaluating the efficacy of novel treatments. However, simultaneously imaging both murine articular cartilage and subchondral bone using conventional techniques is challenging because of low spatial resolution and poor soft tissue contrast. X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) is a new technique that offers high spatial resolution for the visualisation of cartilage and skeletal tissues. The purpose of this study was to utilise XPCI to observe articular cartilage and subchondral bone in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) murine model and quantitatively assess changes in the joint microstructure. XPCI was performed on the two treatment groups (the control group and CIA group, n?=?9 per group) to monitor the progression of damage to the femur from the knee joint in a longitudinal study (at 0, 4 and 8 weeks after primary injection). For quantitative assessment, morphologic parameters were measured in three-dimensional (3D) images using appropriate image analysis software. Our results showed that the average femoral cartilage volume, surface area and thickness were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the CIA group compared to the control group. Meanwhile, these decreases were accompanied by obvious destruction of the surface of subchondral bone and a loss of trabecular bone in the CIA group. This study confirms that XPCI technology has the ability to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate microstructural changes in mouse joints. This technique has the potential to become a routine analysis method for accurately monitoring joint damage and comprehensively assessing treatment efficacy. PMID:25369528

  15. Autophagy in bone: Self-eating to stay in balance.

    PubMed

    Pierrefite-Carle, Valérie; Santucci-Darmanin, Sabine; Breuil, Véronique; Camuzard, Olivier; Carle, Georges F

    2015-11-01

    Autophagy, a major catabolic pathway responsible of the elimination of damaged proteins and organelles, is now recognized as an anti-aging process. In addition to its basal role in cell homeostasis, autophagy is also a stress-responsive mechanism for survival purposes. Here, we review recent literature to highlight the autophagy role in the different bone cell types, i.e., osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. We also discuss the effects of autophagy modulators in bone physiology and of bone anabolic compounds in autophagy. Finally, we analyzed studies regarding bone cell autophagy-deficient mouse models to obtain a more general view on how autophagy modulates bone physiology and pathophysiology, particularly during aging. PMID:26318060

  16. Genomic analysis of mouse tumorigenesis

    E-print Network

    Tam, Mandy Chi-Mun

    2006-01-01

    The availability of the human and mouse genome sequences has spurred a growing interest in analyzing mouse models of human cancer using genomic techniques. Comparative genomic studies on mouse and human tumors can be ...

  17. Remodeling in bone without osteocytes: Billfish challenge bone structure–function paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Ayelet; Dean, Mason N.; Habegger, Maria Laura; Motta, Phillip J.; Ofer, Lior; Repp, Felix; Shipov, Anna; Weiner, Steve; Currey, John D.; Shahar, Ron

    2014-01-01

    A remarkable property of tetrapod bone is its ability to detect and remodel areas where damage has accumulated through prolonged use. This process, believed vital to the long-term health of bone, is considered to be initiated and orchestrated by osteocytes, cells within the bone matrix. It is therefore surprising that most extant fishes (neoteleosts) lack osteocytes, suggesting their bones are not constantly repaired, although many species exhibit long lives and high activity levels, factors that should induce considerable fatigue damage with time. Here, we show evidence for active and intense remodeling occurring in the anosteocytic, elongated rostral bones of billfishes (e.g., swordfish, marlins). Despite lacking osteocytes, this tissue exhibits a striking resemblance to the mature bone of large mammals, bearing structural features (overlapping secondary osteons) indicating intensive tissue repair, particularly in areas where high loads are expected. Billfish osteons are an order of magnitude smaller in diameter than mammalian osteons, however, implying that the nature of damage in this bone may be different. Whereas billfish bone material is as stiff as mammalian bone (unlike the bone of other fishes), it is able to withstand much greater strains (relative deformations) before failing. Our data show that fish bone can exhibit far more complex structure and physiology than previously known, and is apparently capable of localized repair even without the osteocytes believed essential for this process. These findings challenge the unique and primary role of osteocytes in bone remodeling, a basic tenet of bone biology, raising the possibility of an alternative mechanism driving this process. PMID:25331870

  18. Remodeling in bone without osteocytes: billfish challenge bone structure-function paradigms.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Ayelet; Dean, Mason N; Habegger, Maria Laura; Motta, Phillip J; Ofer, Lior; Repp, Felix; Shipov, Anna; Weiner, Steve; Currey, John D; Shahar, Ron

    2014-11-11

    A remarkable property of tetrapod bone is its ability to detect and remodel areas where damage has accumulated through prolonged use. This process, believed vital to the long-term health of bone, is considered to be initiated and orchestrated by osteocytes, cells within the bone matrix. It is therefore surprising that most extant fishes (neoteleosts) lack osteocytes, suggesting their bones are not constantly repaired, although many species exhibit long lives and high activity levels, factors that should induce considerable fatigue damage with time. Here, we show evidence for active and intense remodeling occurring in the anosteocytic, elongated rostral bones of billfishes (e.g., swordfish, marlins). Despite lacking osteocytes, this tissue exhibits a striking resemblance to the mature bone of large mammals, bearing structural features (overlapping secondary osteons) indicating intensive tissue repair, particularly in areas where high loads are expected. Billfish osteons are an order of magnitude smaller in diameter than mammalian osteons, however, implying that the nature of damage in this bone may be different. Whereas billfish bone material is as stiff as mammalian bone (unlike the bone of other fishes), it is able to withstand much greater strains (relative deformations) before failing. Our data show that fish bone can exhibit far more complex structure and physiology than previously known, and is apparently capable of localized repair even without the osteocytes believed essential for this process. These findings challenge the unique and primary role of osteocytes in bone remodeling, a basic tenet of bone biology, raising the possibility of an alternative mechanism driving this process. PMID:25331870

  19. Quantitative interactions between Pb2+ and Ca2+ homeostasis in cultured osteoclastic bone cells.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J F; Pounds, J G

    1989-05-01

    Cellular calcium homeostasis and calcium-mediated cell functions are conceptually attractive processes to be involved in the manifestation(s) of lead toxicity including impaired skeletal growth and cardiovascular and neurological dysfunction. Knowledge of Ca:Pb and Pb:Ca ratios in different structural and functional compartments of cells is essential for identifying, characterizing, and understanding the significance of Pb2+-Ca2+ interactions. Experiments were conducted to characterize the steady-state kinetic distribution and behavior of 45Ca in primary cultures of murine osteoclastic bone cells. Bone cells, derived from mouse calvaria, were enriched for osteoclasts by a sequential collagenase digestion and maintained in primary culture for 1 week. Cultures were labeled with 45Ca for two or 24 hr and the kinetic parameters were obtained by analysis of 45Ca washout curves. Cellular metabolism was based upon a model with three kinetic pools of intracellular Ca2+ containing approximately 45, 25, and 30% of the total cell calcium. In addition, we describe quantitative measurements of Ca:Pb and Pb:Ca ratios at important functional cell sites of Ca2+ transport and storage in intact cells. The intracellular relationships of Ca2+ and Pb2+ were calculated concurrently in individual cultures, using kinetic analysis of dual-label 45Ca and 203Pb washout curves. The Ca:Pb ratios of the rate constants and half-times were approximately 1:1, supporting the concept of similar cellular metabolism of the two elements. The Ca:Pb ratios for the kinetic pools and fluxes were considerably higher than 1:1. These in situ Ca:Pb relationships should be useful for designing and evaluating Ca-Pb studies with calmodulin, isolated mitochondria, and other individual components of the calcium messenger system. Moreover, these data demonstrate both similarities and differences in the kinetic distribution and behavior of Ca2+ and Pb2+ in osteoclastic bone cells. PMID:2718179

  20. The role of growth differentiation factor 15 in the pathogenesis of primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Tatsuki; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Miura, Yasuo; Yoshioka, Satoshi; Iwasa, Masaki; Yao, Hisayuki; Sakamoto, Soichiro; Fujimoto, Masakazu; Haga, Hironori; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Maekawa, Taira; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a pleiotropic cytokine that belongs to the transforming growth factor-? superfamily. Elevated serum concentrations of this cytokine have been reported in patients with various malignancies. To assess the potential roles of GDF15 in hematologic malignancies, we measured its serum levels in patients with these diseases. We found that serum GDF15 levels were elevated in almost all these patients, particularly in patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Immunohistochemical staining of bone marrow (BM) specimens revealed that GDF15 was strongly expressed by megakaryocytes, which may be sources of increased serum GDF15 in PMF patients. Therefore, we further assessed the contribution of GDF15 to the pathogenesis of PMF. Recombinant human (rh) GDF15 enhanced the growth of human BM mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs), and it enhanced the potential of these cells to support human hematopoietic progenitor cell growth in a co-culture system. rhGDF15 enhanced the growth of human primary fibroblasts, but it did not affect their expression of profibrotic genes. rhGDF15 induced osteoblastic differentiation of BM-MSCs in vitro, and pretreatment of BM-MSCs with rGDF15 enhanced the induction of bone formation in a xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that serum levels of GDF15 in PMF are elevated, that megakaryocytes are sources of this cytokine in BM, and that GDF15 may modulate the pathogenesis of PMF by enhancing proliferation and promoting osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. PMID:26276681

  1. Bone Response to Fluoride Exposure Is Influenced by Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Cláudia A. N.; Leite, Aline L.; Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Carvalho, Juliane G.; Whitford, Gary M.; Everett, Eric T.; Siqueira, Walter L.; Buzalaf, Marília A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors influence the effects of fluoride (F) on amelogenesis and bone homeostasis but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. A label-free proteomics approach was employed to identify and evaluate changes in bone protein expression in two mouse strains having different susceptibilities to develop dental fluorosis and to alter bone quality. In vivo bone formation and histomorphometry after F intake were also evaluated and related to the proteome. Resistant 129P3/J and susceptible A/J mice were assigned to three groups given low-F food and water containing 0, 10 or 50 ppmF for 8 weeks. Plasma was evaluated for alkaline phosphatase activity. Femurs, tibiae and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated using micro-CT analysis and mineral apposition rate (MAR) was measured in cortical bone. For quantitative proteomic analysis, bone proteins were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), followed by label-free semi-quantitative differential expression analysis. Alterations in several bone proteins were found among the F treatment groups within each mouse strain and between the strains for each F treatment group (ratio ?1.5 or ?0.5; p<0.05). Although F treatment had no significant effects on BMD or bone histomorphometry in either strain, MAR was higher in the 50 ppmF 129P3/J mice than in the 50 ppmF A/J mice treated with 50 ppmF showing that F increased bone formation in a strain-specific manner. Also, F exposure was associated with dose-specific and strain-specific alterations in expression of proteins involved in osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. In conclusion, our findings confirm a genetic influence in bone response to F exposure and point to several proteins that may act as targets for the differential F responses in this tissue. PMID:25501567

  2. Human mesenchymal stem cells towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in an immunodeficient mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Sandra; Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Stock, Peggy; Brückner, Sandra; Dollinger, Matthias; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Christ, Bruno

    2014-08-15

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a frequent clinical picture characterised by hepatic inflammation, lipid accumulation and fibrosis. When untreated, NASH bears a high risk of developing liver cirrhosis and consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma requiring liver transplantation in its end-stage. However, donor organ scarcity has prompted the search for alternatives, of which hepatocyte or stem cell-derived hepatocyte transplantation are regarded auspicious options of treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells and thus may represent an alternative cell source to primary hepatocytes. In addition these cells feature anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative characteristics, which might favour liver recovery from NASH. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefit of hepatocyte-like cells derived from human bone marrow MSC in a mouse model of diet-induced NASH. Seven days post-transplant, human hepatocyte-like cells were found in the mouse liver parenchyma. Triglyceride depositions were lowered in the liver but restored to normal in the blood. Hepatic inflammation was attenuated as verified by decreased expression of the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, inflammation-associated markers (e.g. lipocalin 2), as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF?. Moreover, the proliferation of host hepatocytes that indicate the regenerative capacity in livers receiving cell transplants was enhanced. Transplantation of MSC-derived human hepatocyte-like cells corrects NASH in mice by restoring triglyceride depositions, reducing inflammation and augmenting the regenerative capacity of the liver. - Highlights: • First time to show NASH in an immune-deficient mouse model. • Human MSC attenuate NASH and improve lipid homeostasis. • MSC act anti-fibrotic and augment liver regeneration by stimulation of proliferation. • Pre-clinical assessment of human MSC for stem cell-based therapy of NASH.

  3. Stress reaction in the carpal bones caused by breakdancing.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Martina; Kivisaari, Leena; Partio, Esa K

    2003-10-01

    Stress reactions in the bones of the lower extremities are a common finding on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The primary finding in the bone marrow is nonspecific edema without any visible fracture line that may even mimic tumor or infection. Continuing stress may eventually lead to a stress fracture. We present the case of a stress reaction related to breakdancing in a less typical localization, in the triquetral bone in the wrist. PMID:15290518

  4. Mouse Repository Strain Details

    Cancer.gov

    These mice express human c-Myc in the mouse prostate. They develop PIN lesions as early as 2 weeks which progress to cancer by 6 months. They serve as a good tool to study the progression of prostate cancer in a mouse model.

  5. JB6 Mouse Model

    Cancer.gov

    JB6 Mouse Model The mouse Balb/C JB6 model (1) is the only well characterized model of genetic variants for a neoplastic transformation response to tumor promoters. These cells are not differentially sensitive to tumor promoter induced mitogenesis or diff

  6. Mouse Proteomic Technologies Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    Mouse models of human cancer offer many opportunities to optimize procedures for profiling major human cancers. The National Cancer Institute's Mouse Proteomic Technologies Initiative, designed to use these animal models to develop and standardize technologies to help improve the accurate measurement of proteins and peptides linked to cancer processes.

  7. Osteoclast-independent bone resorption by fibroblast-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Pap, Thomas; Claus, Anja; Ohtsu, Susumu; Hummel, Klaus M; Schwartz, Peter; Drynda, Susanne; Pap, Géza; Machner, Andreas; Stein, Bernhard; George, Michael; Gay, Renate E; Neumann, Wolfram; Gay, Steffen; Aicher, Wilhelm K

    2003-01-01

    To date, mesenchymal cells have only been associated with bone resorption indirectly, and it has been hypothesized that the degradation of bone is associated exclusively with specific functions of osteoclasts. Here we show, in aseptic prosthesis loosening, that aggressive fibroblasts at the bone surface actively contribute to bone resorption and that this is independent of osteoclasts. In two separate models (a severe combined immunodeficient mouse coimplantation model and a dentin pit formation assay), these cells produce signs of bone resorption that are similar to those in early osteoclastic resorption. In an animal model of aseptic prosthesis loosening (i.e. intracranially self-stimulated rats), it is shown that these fibroblasts acquire their ability to degrade bone early on in their differentiation. Upon stimulation, such fibroblasts readily release acidic components that lower the pH of their pericellular milieu. Through the use of specific inhibitors, pericellular acidification is shown to involve the action of vacuolar type ATPases. Although fibroblasts, as mesenchymal derived cells, are thought to be incapable of resorbing bone, the present study provides the first evidence to challenge this widely held belief. It is demonstrated that fibroblast-like cells, under pathological conditions, may not only enhance but also actively contribute to bone resorption. These cells should therefore be considered novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of bone destructive disorders. PMID:12723988

  8. Basic bone radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    This clinical book surveys the skeletal system as seen through radiological imaging. It emphasizing abnormalities, disease, and trauma, and includes vital information on bones, bone growth, and the cells involved in bone pathology. It covers many bone diseases and injuries which are rarely covered in medical texts, as well as descriptions of radiologic procedures that specifically relate to the skeleton. This edition includes many illustrations, information on MR imaging and CT scanning, and discussions of osteoporosis, dysplasias, and metabolic bone disease.

  9. Does running strengthen bone?

    PubMed

    Boudenot, Arnaud; Achiou, Zahra; Portier, Hugues

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a living tissue needing mechanical stress to maintain strength. Traditional endurance exercises offer only modest effects on bone. Walking and running produce low impact but lead to bone fatigue. This article is specifically addressed to therapists and explains the mechanisms involved for the effects of exercise on bone. Intermittent exercise limits bone fatigue, and downhill exercises increase ground impact forces and involve eccentric muscle contractions, which are particularly osteogenic. PMID:26562001

  10. Childhood cortical porosity is related to microstructural properties of the bone-muscle junction.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Christine M

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cortical porosity is attributable to giant asymmetrical drifting osteonal canals that arise predominantly along the primary-secondary bone interface (PSBI). Bone from the external iliac crest cortex of 92 subjects aged 0 to 25 years was examined histomorphometrically for differences in microstructural properties between primary and secondary bone that might account for features of drifting osteonal canals. Primary compared with secondary bone showed greater numbers of osteocyte lacunae, thinner collagen lamellae, and a scaffold of elastic perforating fibers (PFs). The greater number of osteocyte lacunae compounded by known perilacunar strain amplification and the presence of elastic PFs are expected to be associated with greater bone tissue strain in primary than in secondary bone and thus with strain gradients at the PSBI. Strain gradients may lead local osteocytes to originate resorption canals and to promote transverse drift of the resorption front into lower-strain secondary bone, thus creating giant asymmetrical drifting osteonal canals that remodel primary to secondary bone. PFs extended from muscle fibers through periosteum and primary bone to the PSBI, where they were resorbed by origination of drifting canals. Growth modeling by periosteal osteoblasts proceeds in the gaps between PFs. Through the direct connection between muscle and the PSBI via PFs, muscle forces may influence not only modeling by raising strain but also remodeling of primary to secondary bone by increasing strain gradients at the PSBI. With reduction in primary bone width after the mid-teens, numbers of drifting canals and porosity declined. Differences in microstructural properties between primary and secondary bone are expected to generate strain gradients at the PSBI that contribute to site, transverse drift, asymmetry and large size of drifting canals, and, hence, to cortical porosity. Cortical porosity in children is a physiological feature of bone growth in width. Advisability of therapeutic intervention remains to be defined. PMID:25042978

  11. Microcapsule-Induced Toughening of Bone Cement Gina M. Miller

    E-print Network

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    27 Microcapsule-Induced Toughening of Bone Cement Gina M. Miller Senior in Aerospace Engineering R. White, and TAM Prof. Nancy R. Sottos Acrylic bone cement is the primary material used cement, it may be possible to extend the lifetime of the implant, thus reducing the occurrence

  12. Estrogen and bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, H K; Härkönen, P L

    1996-05-01

    Estrogen plays an important role in the growth and maturation of bone as well as in the regulation of bone turnover in adult bone. During bone growth estrogen is needed for proper closure of epiphyseal growth plates both in females and in males. Also in young skeleton estrogen deficiency leads to increased osteoclast formation and enhanced bone resorption. In menopause estrogen deficiency induces cancellous as well as cortical bone loss. Highly increased bone resorption in cancellous bone leads to general bone loss and destruction of local architecture because of penetrative resorption and microfractures. In cortical bone the first response of estrogen withdrawal is enhanced endocortical resorption. Later, also intracortical porosity increases. These lead to decreased bone mass, disturbed architecture and reduced bone strength. At cellular level in bone estrogen inhibits differentiation of osteoclasts thus decreasing their number and reducing the amount of active remodeling units. This effect is probably mediated through some cytokines, IL-1 and IL-6 being strongest candidates. Estrogen regulates the expression of IL-6 in bone marrow cells by a so far unknown mechanism. It is still uncertain if the effects of estrogen on osteoblasts is direct or is due to coupling phenomenon between bone formation to resorption. PMID:8865143

  13. Oxytocin and bone

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Zallone, Alberta

    2014-01-01

    One of the most meaningful results recently achieved in bone research has been to reveal that the pituitary hormones have profound effect on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis has become one of the major topics in skeletal physiology. Here, we discuss the relevant evidence about the posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin (OT), previously thought to exclusively regulate parturition and breastfeeding, which has recently been established to directly regulate bone mass. Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts express OT receptors (OTR), whose stimulation enhances bone mass. Consistent with this, mice deficient in OT or OTR display profoundly impaired bone formation. In contrast, bone resorption remains unaffected in OT deficiency because, even while OT stimulates the genesis of osteoclasts, it inhibits their resorptive function. Furthermore, in addition to its origin from the pituitary, OT is also produced by bone marrow osteoblasts acting as paracrine-autocrine regulator of bone formation modulated by estrogens. In turn, the power of estrogen to increase bone mass is OTR-dependent. Therefore, OTR?/? mice injected with 17?-estradiol do not show any effects on bone formation parameters, while the same treatment increases bone mass in wild-type mice. These findings together provide evidence for an anabolic action of OT in regulating bone mass and suggest that bone marrow OT may enhance the bone-forming action of estrogen through an autocrine circuit. This established new physiological role for OT in the maintenance of skeletal integrity further suggests the potential use of this hormone for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25209411

  14. Photodynamic therapy of diseased bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisland, Stuart K.; Yee, Albert; Siewerdsen, Jeffery; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

    2005-08-01

    Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) defines the oxygen-dependent reaction that occurs upon light-mediated activation of a photosensitizing compound, culminating in the generation of cytotoxic, reactive oxygen species, predominantly, singlet oxygen. We are investigating PDT treatment of diseased bone. Methods: Using a rat model of human breast cancer (MT-1)-derived bone metastasis we confirmed the efficacy of benzoporphyrin-derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-PDT for treating metastatic lesions within vertebrae or long bones. Results: Light administration (150 J) 15 mins after BPDMA (2.5 mg/Kg, i.v.) into the lumbar (L3) vertebra of rats resulted in complete ablation of the tumour and surrounding bone marrow 48 hrs post-PDT without paralysis. Porcine vertebrae provided a model comparable to that of human for light propagation (at 150 J/cm) and PDT response (BPD-MA; 6 mg/m2, i.v.) in non-tumour vertebrae. Precise fibre placement was afforded by 3-D cone beam computed tomography. Average penetration depth of light was 0.16 +/- 0.04 cm, however, the necrotic/non-necrotic interface extended 0.6 cm out from the treatment fiber with an average incident fluence rate of 4.3 mW/cm2. Non-necrotic tissue damage was evident 2 cm out from the treatment fiber. Current studies involving BPD-MA-PDT treatment of primary osteosarcomas in the forelimbs of dogs are very promising. Magnetic resonance imaging 24 hr post treatment reveal well circumscribed margins of treatment that encompass the entire 3-4 cm lesion. Finally, we are also interested in using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT to treat osteomyelitis. Response to therapy was monitored as changes in bioluminescence signal of staphylococcus aureus (SA)-derived biofilms grown onto 0.5 cm lengths of wire and subjected to ALA-PDT either in vitro or in vivo upon implant into the intramedullary space of rat tibia. Transcutaneous delivery of PDT (75 J/cm2) effectively eradicated SAbiofilms within bone. Conclusions: Results support the application of PDT to the treatment of primary or metastatic lesions within bone. Secondly, that ALA-PDT may be useful as a treatment for osteomyelitis. Further studies aim to optimize the parameters of delivering PDT into bone and explore imaging technologies that can be used for clinical PDT.

  15. Wnt5a is expressed in spondyloarthritis and exerts opposite effects on enthesis and bone in murine organ and cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Bougault, Carole; Briolay, Anne; Boutet, Marie-Astrid; Pilet, Paul; Delplace, Séverine; Le Goff, Benoît; Guicheux, Jérôme; Blanchard, Frédéric; Magne, David

    2015-12-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disorder that initiates at the enthesis, where tendons attach to bone through a fibrocartilage zone. At late stages, excessive bone apposition appears within the diseased enthesis. Because Wnt5a participates to normal bone formation and appears related to inflammatory processes, we investigated the role of this Wnt growth factor in inflammation-associated ossification in SpA. The concentration of Wnt5a assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in synovial fluids of patients with SpA (2.58 ± 0.98 ng/mL) was higher than in osteoarthritic patients (1.33 ± 0.71 ng/mL). In murine primary cultures of tendon cells, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts and in an organotypic model of mouse ankle, we showed that tumor necrosis factor ? reversibly diminished Wnt5a expression and secretion, respectively. Wnt5a decreased gene expression of differentiation markers and mineralization in cultured chondrocytes and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity in Achilles tendon enthesis (-14%) and osteocalcin protein levels released by ankle explants (-36%). On the contrary, Wnt5a stimulated ossification markers' expression in cultured osteoblasts and increased the bone volume of the tibial plateau of the cultured explants (+19%). In conclusion, our results suggest that Wnt5a is expressed locally in the joints of patients with SpA. Wnt5a appears more associated with ossification than with inflammation and tends to inhibit mineralization in chondrocytes and enthesis, whereas it seems to favor the ossification process in osteoblasts and bone. Further studies are needed to decipher the opposing effects observed locally in enthesis and systemically in bone in SpA. PMID:26163991

  16. Longitudinal Evaluation of FGF23 Changes and Mineral Metabolism Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Jason R.; He, Nan; Idiculla, Arun; Gillihan, Ryan; Liu, Shiguang; David, Valentin; Hong, Yan; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic and vitamin D-regulatory hormone of putative bone origin that is elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The mechanisms responsible for elevations of FGF23 and its role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) remain uncertain. We investigated the association between FGF23 serum levels and kidney disease progression, as well as the phenotypic features of CKD-MBD in a Col4a3 null mouse model of human autosomal-recessive Alport syndrome. These mice exhibited progressive renal failure, declining 1,25(OH)2D levels, increments in PTH and FGF23, late onset hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, high-turnover bone disease, and increased mortality. Serum levels of FGF23 increased in the earliest stages of renal damage, prior to elevations in BUN and creatinine. FGF23 gene transcription in bone, however, did not increase until late-stage kidney disease, when serum FGF23 levels were exponentially elevated. Further evaluation of bone revealed trabecular osteocytes to be the primary cell source for FGF23 production in late-stage disease. Changes in FGF23 mirrored the rise in serum PTH and the decline in circulating 1,25(OH) 2D. The rise in PTH and FGF23 in Col4a3 null mice coincided with an increase in the urinary fractional excretion of phosphorus and a progressive decline in sodium-phosphate co-transporter gene expression in the kidney. Our findings suggest elevations of FGF23 in CKD to be an early marker of renal injury that increases prior to BUN and serum creatinine. An increased production of FGF23 by bone may not be responsible for early increments in FGF23 in CKD, but does appear to contribute to FGF23 levels in late-stage disease. Elevations in FGF23 and PTH coincide with an increase in urinary phosphate excretion that likely prevents the early onset of hyperphosphatemia in the face of increased bone turnover and a progressive decline in functional renal mass. PMID:22031097

  17. Enhanced Activation of Canonical Wnt Signaling Confers Mesoderm-Derived Parietal Bone with Similar Osteogenic and Skeletal Healing Capacity to Neural Crest-Derived Frontal Bone

    PubMed Central

    Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Grey, Nathaniel; Bai, Xue; Longaker, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Bone formation and skeletal repair are dynamic processes involving a fine-tuned balance between osteoblast proliferation and differentiation orchestrated by multiple signaling pathways. Canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling is known to playing a key role in these processes. In the current study, using a transgenic mouse model with targeted disruption of axin2, a negative regulator of cWnt signaling, we investigated the impact of enhanced activation of cWnt signaling on the osteogenic capacity and skeletal repair. Specifically, we looked at two calvarial bones of different embryonic tissue origin: the neural crest-derived frontal bone and the mesoderm-derived parietal bone, and we investigated the proliferation and apoptotic activity of frontal and parietal bones and derived osteoblasts. We found dramatic differences in cell proliferation and apoptotic activity between Axin2-/- and wild type calvarial bones, with Axin2-/- showing increased proliferative activity and reduced levels of apoptosis. Furthermore, we compared osteoblast differentiation and bone regeneration in Axin2-/- and wild type neural crest-derived frontal and mesoderm-derived parietal bones, respectively. Our results demonstrate a significant increase either in osteoblast differentiation or bone regeneration in Axin2-/- mice as compared to wild type, with Axin2-/- parietal bone and derived osteoblasts displaying a “neural crest-derived frontal bone-like” profile, which is typically characterized by higher osteogenic capacity and skeletal repair than parietal bone. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that enhanced activation of cWnt signaling increases the skeletal potential of a calvarial bone of mesoderm origin, such as the parietial bone to a degree similar to that of a neural crest origin bone, like the frontal bone. Thus, providing further evidence for the central role played by the cWnt signaling in osteogenesis and skeletal-bone regeneration. PMID:26431534

  18. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly nonlinear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology. PMID:26347868

  19. Osteoporosis-bone remodeling and animal models.

    PubMed

    Bonucci, Ermanno; Ballanti, Paola

    2014-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a very common skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mass and altered trabecular microarchitecture that leads to bone fragility and fractures. Such disease is due to alterations of the remodeling process that occurs in the basic multicellular units that are transitory cellular complexes including an osteoclastic phase (osteoclast activation and resorption of microscopic portions of bone), a reversion phase (osteoclast replacement by so-called postosteoclastic cells), and an osteoblastic phase (osteoblastic reconstruction of the resorbed bone matrix till the initial volume is regained). Bone remodeling is regulated by a number of systemic and local factors; among the former, besides physical activity and mechanical stresses, a primary role is played by hormones such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D metabolites, estrogens, calcitonin, and glucocorticoids; among the latter, several growth factors (macrophage colony-stimulating factor, transforming growth factor ?, platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 1, bone morphogenetic protein, and insulin-like growth factor 1), as well as the osteoprotegerin-receptor activator of nuclear factor-? B ligand system and the sclerostin, play a primary function. The remodeling phases can be evaluated by static and dynamic histomorphometry. Their abnormalities may lead to several osteopathies, the most common of which is osteoporosis (above all senile and postmenopausal), a rather elusive disease chiefly due to its slow development. The use of animal models in its study is emphasized. PMID:24285673

  20. Primary Aldosteronism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD, MSc What is primary aldosteronism? Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a type of hyperaldosteronism. This condition occurs ... stroke may be even greater in people with PA than in other people with high blood pressure. ...

  1. Neural crest-specific TSC1 deletion in mice leads to sclerotic craniofacial bone lesion†

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Fang; Sun, Shaogang; Wang, Li; Guan, Jun-Lin; Giovannini, Marco; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. TSC has high frequency of osseous manifestations such as sclerotic lesions in the craniofacial region. However, an animal model that replicates TSC craniofacial bone lesions has not yet been described. The roles of Tsc1 and the sequelae of Tsc1 dysfunction in bone are unknown. In this study, we generated a mouse model of TSC with a deletion of Tsc1 in neural crest-derived (NCD) cells that recapitulated the sclerotic craniofacial bone lesions in TSC. Analysis of this mouse model demonstrated that TSC1 deletion led to enhanced mTORC1 signaling in NCD bones and the increase in bone formation is responsible for the aberrantly increased bone mass. Lineage mapping revealed that TSC1 deficient NCD cells overpopulated the NCD bones. Mechanistically, hyperproliferation of osteoprogenitors at an early postnatal stage accounts for the increased osteoblast pool. Intriguingly, early postnatal treatment with rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, can completely rescue the aberrant bone mass, but late treatment cannot. Our data suggest that enhanced mTOR signaling in NCD cells can increase bone mass through enlargement of the osteoprogenitor pool, which likely explains the sclerotic bone lesion observed in TSC patients. PMID:25639352

  2. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB): a central electronic resource for locating and integrating mouse tumor pathology data.

    PubMed

    Begley, D A; Krupke, D M; Neuhauser, S B; Richardson, J E; Bult, C J; Eppig, J T; Sundberg, J P

    2012-01-01

    The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB) is designed to provide an electronic data storage, search, and analysis system for information on mouse models of human cancer. The MTB includes data on tumor frequency and latency, strain, germ line, and somatic genetics, pathologic notations, and photomicrographs. The MTB collects data from the primary literature, other public databases, and direct submissions from the scientific community. The MTB is a community resource that provides integrated access to mouse tumor data from different scientific research areas and facilitates integration of molecular, genetic, and pathologic data. Current status of MTB, search capabilities, data types, and future enhancements are described in this article. PMID:21282667

  3. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB): A Central Electronic Resource for Locating and Integrating Mouse Tumor Pathology Data

    PubMed Central

    Begley, D. A.; Krupke, D. M.; Neuhauser, S. B.; Richardson, J. E.; Bult, C. J.; Eppig, J. T.; Sundberg, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB) is designed to provide an electronic data storage, search, and analysis system for information on mouse models of human cancer. MTB includes data on tumor frequency and latency, strain, germ line and somatic genetics, pathologic notations, and photomicrographs. MTB collects data from the primary literature, other public databases, and direct submissions from the scientific community. MTB is a community resource that provides integrated access to mouse tumor data from different scientific research areas and facilitates integration of molecular, genetic, and pathologic data. Current status of MTB, search capabilities, data types, and future enhancements are detailed in this article. PMID:21282667

  4. Mechanistic aspects of the fracture toughness of elk antler bone M.E. Launey a

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Robert

    Mechanistic aspects of the fracture toughness of elk antler bone M.E. Launey a , P.-Y. Chen b , J 24 November 2009 Keywords: Biomaterials Elk antler Cortical bone Fracture toughness Resistance examine the fracture toughness of compact bone of elk antler, which is an extremely fast-growing primary

  5. Wnt Signaling and the Polarity of the Primary Body Axis

    E-print Network

    Petersen, Christian P.

    How animals establish and pattern the primary body axis is one of the most fundamental problems in biology. Data from diverse deuterostomes (frog, fish, mouse, and amphioxus) and from planarians (protostomes) suggest that ...

  6. Type XII collagen regulates osteoblast polarity and communication during bone formation