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1

Mouse bone collagenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of mouse bone collagenase recovered in the tissue culture medium of bone culturedin vitro was increased by the addition of heparin at an optimal concentration of approximately 50 units\\/ml of tissue culture medium. Dextran sulfate and Treburon (a synthetic polysaccharide-sulfuric ester) which are structurally and chemically related to heparin were as effective as heparin in increasing the amount

Seizaburo Sakamoto; Paul Goldhaber; Melvin J. Glimcher

1973-01-01

2

Bone Marrow Transplantation Restores Follicular Maturation and Steroid Hormones Production in a Mouse Model for Primary Ovarian Failure  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) are promising grafts to treat a variety of diseases, including reproductive dysfunction. Primary ovarian failure is characterized by amenorrhea and infertility in a normal karyotype female, with an elevated serum level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and a decrease level of estrogen caused by a mutation in FSH receptor (FSHR) gene. Currently, there is no effective treatment for this condition. The phenotype of FSHR (?/?) mouse, FORKO (follitropin receptor knockout), is a suitable model to study ovarian failure in humans. Female FORKO mice have elevated FSH, decreased estrogen levels, are sterile because of the absence of folliculogenesis, and display thin uteri and small nonfunctional ovaries. In this study, we determined the effects of BMSC transplantation on reproductive physiology in this animal model. Twenty four hours post BMSC transplantation, treated animals showed detectable estroidogeneic changes in daily vaginal smear. Significant increase in total body weight and reproductive organs was observed in treated animals. Hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) evaluation of the ovaries demonstrated significant increase in both the maturation and the total number of the follicles in treated animals. The FSH dropped to 40–50% and estrogen increased 4–5.5 times in the serum of treated animals compared to controls. The FSHR mRNA was detected in the ovaries of treated animals. Our results show that intravenously injected BMSCs were able to reach the ovaries of FORKO mice, differentiate and express FHSR gene, make FSHR responsive to FSH, resume estrogen hormone production, and restore folliculogenesis. PMID:22412875

Ghadami, Mohsen; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Zhang, Dong; Salama, Salama A.; Binhazim, Awadh A.; Archibong, Anthony E.; Chen, Xinlei; Ballard, Billy R.; Sairam, M. Ram; Al-Hendy, Ayman

2012-01-01

3

Primary Bone Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary bone tumours of the sternocostoclavicular region include a diverse group of lesions of osseous and cartilaginous origin.\\u000a Radiological assessment is an essential component of the management of these tumours. Evaluation usually includes conventional\\u000a chest radiography to detect and localise the lesion, cross-sectional imaging (CT or MRI) to further characterise and define\\u000a tumour extent, and anatometabolic correlations with FDG PET\\/CT.

Ukihide Tateishi; Umio Yamaguchi; Mototaka Miyake; Tetsuo Maeda; Hirokazu Chuman; Yasuaki Arai

4

Osteoclast derivation from mouse bone marrow.  

PubMed

Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that are derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage of the bone marrow. Their unique ability to resorb both the organic and inorganic matrices of bone means that they play a key role in regulating skeletal remodeling. Together, osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the dynamic coupling process that involves both bone resorption and bone formation acting together to maintain the normal skeleton during health and disease. As the principal bone-resorbing cell in the body, changes in osteoclast differentiation or function can result in profound effects in the body. Diseases associated with altered osteoclast function can range in severity from lethal neonatal disease due to failure to form a marrow space for hematopoiesis, to more commonly observed pathologies such as osteoporosis, in which excessive osteoclastic bone resorption predisposes to fracture formation. An ability to isolate osteoclasts in high numbers in vitro has allowed for significant advances in the understanding of the bone remodeling cycle and has paved the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies that combat these diseases. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate and cultivate osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow that will yield large numbers of osteoclasts. PMID:25407120

Tevlin, Ruth; McArdle, Adrian; Chan, Charles K F; Pluvinage, John; Walmsley, Graham G; Wearda, Taylor; Marecic, Owen; Hu, Michael S; Paik, Kevin J; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Atashroo, David A; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Wan, Derrick C; Weissman, Irving L; Longaker, Michael T

2014-01-01

5

Mouse Genetics Have Uncovered New Paradigms in Bone Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, mouse models have improved our understanding of bone biology. Given the fact that osteoporosis is among the most common diseases, this review will focus on the regulation of differentiation and function of the bone-resorbing osteoclasts and the bone-forming osteoblasts. Mouse genetic studies have revealed a cascade controlling osteoclastogenesis that includes the recently discovered molecules osteoprotegerin, RANK

Thomas Günther; Thorsten Schinke

2000-01-01

6

Primary Neoplasms of the Carpal Bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary neoplasms of the carpal bones are rare. We found 44 primary tumors of the carpal bones of 26,800 bone neoplasms (prevalence, 0.16%). Original histologic slides and original radiographs were reviewed in 36 and 29 cases, respectively. Thirty-eight tumors (86%) were benign; 6 (14%) were malignant. The average patient age was 35 years. Benign lesions were diagnosed at a younger

Peter M. Murray; Richard A. Berger; Carrie Y. Inwards

1999-01-01

7

How Tough Is Brittle Bone? Investigating Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Mouse Bone  

E-print Network

to resist fractures. In osteogenesis imperfecta, or brittle bone disease, genetic mutations affect the quality and/or quantity of collagen, dramatically increasing bone fracture risk. Here we reveal how Research. KEY WORDS: BRITTLE BONE; BONE FRACTURE; FRACTURE MECHANICS; MOUSE BONE; CRACK INITIATION; CRACK

Ritchie, Robert

8

Primary xanthoma of calcaneus bone: Case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Xanthoma (or xanthofibroma) is a benign proliferative lesion, mostly seen in soft tissue. Xanthoma of bone is very rare benign primary bone tumor, more frequently seen in men and in patients over 20 years of age. Histologically, it is characterized by mononuclear macrophage-like cells, abundant foam cells, and multinucleated giant cells. It is sometimes discovered coincidentally and the most frequent symptom is pain. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a 50-year-old healthy male patient with primary xanthoma of the calcaneus, who was treated by curettage and bone cement. He presented with a pathological fracture in a calcaneus bone lesion. Giant cell tumor was suspected on X-ray and MRI. Curettage and bone cementing was done through the posterolateral approach. Lipid profile was normal and histological examination revealed findings consistent with primary xanthoma of calcaneus bone. DISCUSSION To avoid an erroneous diagnosis, all material should be examined microscopically, the radiological features of the lesion should be studied properly and lipid profile should be investigated to differentiate between primary and secondary xanthoma. Primary xanthoma may be treated with curettage and bone graft while secondary xanthoma is treated nonsurgically and the skeletal manifestations will disappear with systemic treatment of hyperlipidemia. CONCLUSION We present this case to raise the suspicion of this lesion that is rarely described in the literatures. This is the first case of primary xanthoma of calcaneus bone that has been reported in Qatar. PMID:25194608

Ahmed, Ghalib; Al Dosari, Mohammed; El-Mahi, Muatasim; Abolfotouh, Sameh M.

2014-01-01

9

Modern concepts of primary aneurysmal bone cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Despite the long experience of radiologists, pathologists and orthopaedists with aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC), there is limited\\u000a knowledge regarding the cause of the lesion and the optimal treatment. The pathogenesis of ABC remains unclear with theories\\u000a ranging from a post-traumatic, reactive vascular malformation to genetically predisposed bone tumours. Recent genetic and\\u000a immunohistochemical studies proposed that primary ABC is a tumour

Jérôme Cottalorda; Sophie Bourelle

2007-01-01

10

THE GROWTH OF MOUSE BONE MARROW CELLS IN VITRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple in vitro technique is described for the growth of colonies from single cell suspensions of mouse bone marrow. The system involves the plating of marrow cells in agar on feeder layers of other cells, those from 8-day-old mouse kidney and 17th day mouse embryo being shown to be the most efficient types of feeder layers.Approximalely 400 colonies per

TR Bradley; D Metcalf

1966-01-01

11

Spatial integration in mouse primary visual cortex.  

PubMed

Responses of many neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by stimuli exceeding the classical receptive field (RF), an important property that might underlie the computation of visual saliency. Traditionally, it has proven difficult to disentangle the underlying neural circuits, including feedforward, horizontal intracortical, and feedback connectivity. Since circuit-level analysis is particularly feasible in the mouse, we asked whether neural signatures of spatial integration in mouse V1 are similar to those of higher-order mammals and investigated the role of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) inhibitory interneurons. Analogous to what is known from primates and carnivores, we demonstrate that, in awake mice, surround suppression is present in the majority of V1 neurons and is strongest in superficial cortical layers. Anesthesia with isoflurane-urethane, however, profoundly affects spatial integration: it reduces the laminar dependency, decreases overall suppression strength, and alters the temporal dynamics of responses. We show that these effects of brain state can be parsimoniously explained by assuming that anesthesia affects contrast normalization. Hence, the full impact of suppressive influences in mouse V1 cannot be studied under anesthesia with isoflurane-urethane. To assess the neural circuits of spatial integration, we targeted PV+ interneurons using optogenetics. Optogenetic depolarization of PV+ interneurons was associated with increased RF size and decreased suppression in the recorded population, similar to effects of lowering stimulus contrast, suggesting that PV+ interneurons contribute to spatial integration by affecting overall stimulus drive. We conclude that the mouse is a promising model for circuit-level mechanisms of spatial integration, which relies on the combined activity of different types of inhibitory interneurons. PMID:23719206

Vaiceliunaite, Agne; Erisken, Sinem; Franzen, Florian; Katzner, Steffen; Busse, Laura

2013-08-01

12

Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma Primary of the Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is an uncommon tumor originally decribed in soft tissues. We repor a case of SEF primary of the left iliac bone in a 42ear-old woman. The tumor was grossly well circumscribed. The histologic examinaion disclosed a hypocellular neoplasm with densely hyalinized stroma. It was composed predominantly of small-to-moderate-sized round-to-ovoid cells, relatively uniform, often with clear cytoplasm,

Ihab Abdulkader; José Cameselle-Teijeiro; Máiximo Fraga; Ana Caparrini; Jerónimo Forteza

2002-01-01

13

Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma primary of the bone.  

PubMed

Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is an uncommon tumor originally described in soft tissues. We report a case of SEF primary of the left iliac bone in a 42-year-old woman. The tumor was grossly well circumscribed. The histologic examination disclosed a hypocellular neoplasm with densely hyalinized stroma. It was composed predominantly of small-to-moderate-sized round-to-ovoid cells, relatively uniform, often with clear cytoplasm, and arranged in nest, cord, and strand patterns. Because the distinctive morphologic patterns and the immunohistochemical profile of this entity may be mistaken for many different tumors, we here emphasize the differential diagnostic problems of this variant of fibrosarcoma. To our knowledge, this is the first tumor of this kind described in the bone. PMID:12232581

Abdulkader, Ihab; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José; Fraga, Máximo; Caparrini, Ana; Forteza, Jerónimo

2002-07-01

14

The Primary Cilium as a Novel Extracellular Sensor in Bone  

PubMed Central

Mechanically induced adaptation of bone is required to maintain a healthy skeleton and defects in this process can lead to dramatic changes in bone mass, resulting in bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Therefore, understanding how this process occurs could yield novel therapeutics to treat diseases of excessive bone loss or formation. Over the past decade the primary cilium has emerged as a novel extracellular sensor in bone, being required to transduce changes in the extracellular mechanical environment into biochemical responses regulating bone adaptation. In this review, we introduce the primary cilium as a novel extracellular sensor in bone; discuss the in vitro and in vivo findings of primary cilia based sensing in bone; explore the role of the primary cilium in regulating stem cell osteogenic fate commitment and finish with future directions of research and possible development of cilia targeting therapeutics to treat bone diseases. PMID:22707948

Hoey, David A.; Chen, Julia C.; Jacobs, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

15

Cytogenetic effects of benzimidazoles in mouse bone marrow.  

PubMed

The cytogenetic effects of three benzimidazoles, i.e., benomyl, methyl thiophanate and methyl 2-benzimidazolecarbamate (MBC), were studied in mouse bone marrow cells by analyzing three genetic endpoints: micronuclei, structural chromosome aberrations plus or minus gaps, and aneugenic effects (hyperdiploidy or polyploidy). In general, the effects were small, but it was observed that benomyl and MBC significantly induced micronuclei as well as aneugenic effects, hyperdiploidy (no metaphases with more than one or two extra chromosomes, 2n + 1 or 2n + 2, were observed) and polyploidy (4n). The induction of chromosome gaps and breaks was less evident. Methyl thiophanate significantly induced micronuclei, but it was less effective than benomyl and MBC. Our results showed that micronuclei are a good indicator of aneugenic effects in mouse bone marrow cells. A curvilinear trend test has been devised to fit the curves originating from the time-dependent responses. PMID:7683764

Barale, R; Scapoli, C; Meli, C; Casini, D; Minunni, M; Marrazzini, A; Loprieno, N; Barrai, I

1993-06-01

16

Identification of Clonogenic Common Lymphoid Progenitors in Mouse Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of a common lymphoid progenitor that can only give rise to T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells remains controversial and constitutes an important gap in the hematopoietic lineage maps. Here, we report that the Lin?IL-7R+Thy-1?Sca-1loc-Kitlo population from adult mouse bone marrow possessed a rapid lymphoid-restricted (T, B, and NK) reconstitution capacity in vivo but completely

Motonari Kondo; Irving L. Weissman; Koichi Akashi

1997-01-01

17

Effects of suspension-induced osteopenia on the mechanical behaviour of mouse long bones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whereas most studies of tail-suspension induced osteopenia have utilized rat femora, the present study investigated the effects of a 14 day tail-suspension on the mechanical behaviour of mice femora, tibiae and humeri. Force-deflection properties were obtained via three-point bending for long bones from suspended and control mice. Whole bone behaviour was characterized by converting the force-deflection values to stiffness, strength, ductility and energy parameters which were not normalized for specimen geometry. The effects of a systematic variation in the deflection rate over the range 0.1-10 mm min-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis indicated that the primary effect of the tail-suspension period was lowered bone mass which was manifested mechanically through lower values of the bone strength parameters. These effects were similar in the bones of both the fore and hind limbs. The results also demonstrated that the stiffness, ductility and energy characteristics were much less influenced by the tail-suspension. Whereas a significant dependence of the bone strength values upon deflection rate was observed for the femora and humeri, the other mechanical parameters were less sensitive. Based upon the nature of the physical and mechanical changes observed in the long bones following tail-suspension, the mouse appears to be a suitable animal model for the study of osteopenia.

Simske, S. J.; Greenberg, A. R.; Luttges, M. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1991-01-01

18

Primary temporal bone angiosarcoma: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a rare case of temporal bone angiosarcoma diagnosed in a 26-year-old female patient at 36 week of pregnancy. The patient was referred with a 2 months history of left otalgia and tinnitus with a tender swelling above the mastoid. Cranial imaging studies showed a 7 × 5 × 4 cm hypervascularized mass located in the left middle fossa with lysis

Martin Scholsem; Daniel Raket; Pierre Flandroy; Raf Sciot; Manuel Deprez

2005-01-01

19

Chordoma: The Nonsarcoma Primary Bone Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chordomas are rare, slowly growing, locally aggres- sive neoplasms of bone that arise from embryonic remnants of the notochord. These tumors typically occur in the axial skeleton and have a proclivity for the spheno-occipital region of the skull base and sa- cral regions. In adults, 50% of chordomas involve the sacrococcygeal region, 35% occur at the base of the skull

RASHMI CHUGH; HUSSEIN TAWBI; DAVID R. LUCAS; J. SYBIL BIERMANN; SCOTT M. SCHUETZE; LAURENCE H. BAKERa

20

An RNAseq Protocol to Identify mRNA Expression Changes in Mouse Diaphyseal Bone: Applications in  

E-print Network

An RNAseq Protocol to Identify mRNA Expression Changes in Mouse Diaphyseal Bone: Applications in Mice with Bone Property Altering Lrp5 Mutations Ugur M Ayturk,1,2 Christina M Jacobsen,1,3 Danos C) significantly decrease or increase bone mass, respectively. These human skeletal phenotypes have been

21

The bone diagnostic instrument III: Testing mouse femora Connor Randall,1  

E-print Network

The bone diagnostic instrument III: Testing mouse femora Connor Randall,1 Phillip Mathews,1 Eugene; accepted 11 May 2009; published online 17 June 2009 Here we describe modifications that allow the bone, 075105 2006 , developed to test human bone, to test the femora of mice. These modifications include

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

22

Nanoindentation and whole-bone bending estimates of material properties in bones from the senescence accelerated mouse SAMP6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The senescence accelerated mouse, strain P6 (SAMP6) has been described as a model of senile osteoporosis. Recent results from whole-bone bending tests indicate that, despite having increased moments of inertia, SAMP6 long bones are weak and brittle compared to SAMR1 controls. In the current study we determined material properties of cortical bone from SAMP6 and SAMR1 femora and tibiae by

Matthew J. Silva; Michael D. Brodt; Zaifeng Fan; Jae-Young Rho

2004-01-01

23

Cytogenetic risk assessment of etoposide from mouse bone marrow.  

PubMed

Increased clinical applications of the anticancer drug etoposide (a non-intercalative epipodophyllotoxin derivative) and the frequent induction of a second malignancy, particularly leukaemia, in post-etoposide-treated cancer survivors warrant detailed genotoxicity testing of etoposide. The genotoxicity test results available on etoposide are either primarily in in vitro test systems or in lower organisms after treatment with unusually high doses, or after chronic exposures, having little extrapolative value to humans. Therefore, a cytogenetic risk assessment study on etoposide in mouse in vivo was undertaken after a low dose (in accordance with the human therapeutic dose) single exposure. The cytogenetic toxicity of etoposide was assessed from bone marrow of mouse at three separate endpoints: chromosomal aberration and mitotic index studies at 24 h post-treatment and the micronucleus test (MNT) at 30 h post-treatment. The flame drying technique using colchicine, hypotonic sodium citrate, methanol-glacial acetic acid and Giemsa was followed for the preparation of slides for the metaphase chromosomal aberration and mitotic index studies and a simple technique was followed for the MNT. Although induction of chromosomal aberrations, excluding gaps, per 100 metaphases by 10 and 15 mg kg(-1) etoposide was not significant statistically, 20 mg kg(-1) of etoposide induced a significantly higher number of chromosomal aberrations in female (P < or = 0.01) and male (P < or = 0.05) mice. There was no significant change in the induced percentages of dividing cells by any of the doses of etoposide tested. The micronucleus induction also was not significant statistically with the lowest dose but it was significant in female (P mouse bone marrow after a single treatment with such low doses. However, the drug did not interfere with cell cycle progression. Although it is a DNA-non-intercalating agent, etoposide is known for its interference in the activity of DNA topoisomerase IIalpha enzyme, particularly in the proliferative cells where the concentration and activity of the enzyme are greater. This might be the reason for the induction of leukaemia in post-etoposide-treated cancer survivors. Therefore, it has become absolutely necessary to make etoposide target-specific, i.e. specific to the topoisomerase II enzymes of cancerous cells. PMID:15052606

Choudhury, Ramesh C; Palo, Anil K; Sahu, Prajyoti

2004-01-01

24

Bone Remodeling and Hydroxyapatite Resorption in Coated Primary Hip Prostheses  

PubMed Central

Hydroxyapatite coatings for THA promote bone ongrowth, but bone and coating are exposed to stress shielding-driven osteoclastic resorption. We asked: (1) if the resorption of hydroxyapatite coating and bone ongrowth correlated with demographics; (2) if the resorption related to the stem level; and (3) what happens to the implant-bone interface when all hydroxyapatite coating is resorbed? We recovered 13 femoral components from cadaveric specimens 3.3 to 11.2 years after uneventful primary THA. Three cross sections (proximal, medial, distal) of the hydroxyapatite-coated proximal implant sleeve were analyzed by measuring the percentage of residual hydroxyapatite and bone ongrowth on the implant perimeter. Hydroxyapatite resorption was independent of patient age but increased with time in vivo and mostly was gone after 8 years. Bone ongrowth was independent of time in vivo but decreased with aging patients. Only in the most proximal section did less residual hydroxyapatite correlate with less bone ongrowth. Hydroxyapatite resorption, which was more proximal than distal, showed no adverse effects on the implant-bone interface. PMID:18855086

Tonino, Alphons J.; Heyligers, Ide C.; Grimm, Bernd

2008-01-01

25

Development, validation and characterization of a novel mouse model of Adynamic Bone Disease (ABD).  

PubMed

The etiology of Adynamic Bone Disease (ABD) is poorly understood but the hallmark of ABD is a lack of bone turnover. ABD occurs in renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and is suspected to occur in elderly patients on long-term anti-resorptive therapy. A major clinical concern of ABD is diminished bone quality and an increased fracture risk. To our knowledge, experimental animal models for ABD other than ROD-ABD have not been developed or studied. The objectives of this study were to develop a mouse model of ABD without the complications of renal ablation, and to characterize changes in bone quality in ABD relative to controls. To re-create the adynamic bone condition, 4-month old female Col2.3?tk mice were treated with ganciclovir to specifically ablate osteoblasts, and pamidronate was used to inhibit osteoclastic resorption. Four groups of animals were used to characterize bone quality in ABD: Normal bone controls, No Formation controls, No Resorption controls, and an Adynamic group. After a 6-week treatment period, the animals were sacrificed and the bones were harvested for analyses. Bone quality assessments were conducted using established techniques including bone histology, quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), microcomputed tomography (microCT), and biomechanical testing. Histomorphometry confirmed osteoblast-related hallmarks of ABD in our mouse model. Bone formation was near complete suppression in the No Formation and Adynamic specimens. Inhibition of bone resorption in the Adynamic group was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain. Normal bone mineral density and architecture were maintained in the Adynamic group, whereas the No Formation group showed a reduction in bone mineral content and trabecular thickness relative to the Adynamic group. As expected, the No Formation group had a more hypomineralized profile and the Adynamic group had a higher mean mineralization profile that is similar to suppressed bone turnover in human. This data confirms successful replication of the adynamic bone condition in a mouse without the complication of renal ablation. Our approach is the first model of ABD that uses pharmacological manipulation in a transgenic mouse to mimic the bone cellular dynamics observed in the human ABD condition. We plan to use our mouse model to investigate the adynamic bone condition in aging and to study changes to bone quality and fracture risk as a consequence of over-suppressed bone turnover. PMID:25111968

Ng, Adeline H; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

2014-11-01

26

Primary granulocytic sarcoma in the sphenoidal bone and orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case reportWe report a case of a primary cranial chloroma in boy aged 2 years and 8 months. The symptoms were progressive bilateral exophthalmos, right abducens palsy, and bilateral papilledema. The tumor was partially calcified and was a round mass located in the bilateral sphenoidal bone extending into the orbit. Laboratory study did not show hematological abnormality. The tumor was partially removed

Kohei Ohta; Takeshi Kondoh; Kensaku Yasuo; Yoshiyuki Kohsaka; Eiji Kohmura

2003-01-01

27

Binocular integration and disparity selectivity in mouse primary visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Signals from the two eyes are first integrated in primary visual cortex (V1). In many mammals, this binocular integration is an important first step in the development of stereopsis, the perception of depth from disparity. Neurons in the binocular zone of mouse V1 receive inputs from both eyes, but it is unclear how that binocular information is integrated and whether this integration has a function similar to that found in other mammals. Using extracellular recordings, we demonstrate that mouse V1 neurons are tuned for binocular disparities, or spatial differences, between the inputs from each eye, thus extracting signals potentially useful for estimating depth. The disparities encoded by mouse V1 are significantly larger than those encoded by cat and primate. Interestingly, these larger disparities correspond to distances that are likely to be ecologically relevant in natural viewing, given the stereo-geometry of the mouse visual system. Across mammalian species, it appears that binocular integration is a common cortical computation used to extract information relevant for estimating depth. As such, it is a prime example of how the integration of multiple sensory signals is used to generate accurate estimates of properties in our environment. PMID:23515794

Scholl, Benjamin; Burge, Johannes

2013-01-01

28

The humoral immune response of mouse bone marrow lymphocytes in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Mouse bone marrow (BM) small lymphocytes are shown to contain competent precursors for a primary haemolytic plaque forming cell (PFC) response to heterologous red blood cells and TNP in an in vitro culture system. Their response is dependent on T co-operative factors, which can be provided by irradiated spleen cells activated by concanavalin A or the supernatant of an allogeneic culture, added at the beginning or after 24 h of culture. The frequency of PFC precursors for the response to SRBC is found to be equal or higher in BM than spleen cultures. However, BM lymphocyte cultures stimulated by E. coli lipopolysaccharide show an increase of DNA synthesis but contain only few polyclonal PFC, in contrast to spleen. PMID:301118

Ryser, J E; Dutton, R W

1977-01-01

29

The relevance of mouse models for investigating age-related bone loss in humans.  

PubMed

Mice are increasingly used for investigation of the pathophysiology of osteoporosis because their genome is easily manipulated, and their skeleton is similar to that of humans. Unlike the human skeleton, however, the murine skeleton continues to grow slowly after puberty and lacks osteonal remodeling of cortical bone. Yet, like humans, mice exhibit loss of cancellous bone, thinning of cortical bone, and increased cortical porosity with advancing age. Histologic evidence in mice and humans alike indicates that inadequate osteoblast-mediated refilling of resorption cavities created during bone remodeling is responsible. Mouse models of progeria also show bone loss and skeletal defects associated with senescence of early osteoblast progenitors. Additionally, mouse models of atherosclerosis, which often occurs in osteoporotic participants, also suffer bone loss, suggesting that common diseases of aging share pathophysiological pathways. Knowledge of the causes of skeletal fragility in mice should therefore be applicable to humans if inherent limitations are recognized. PMID:23689830

Jilka, Robert L

2013-10-01

30

In vitro organoid culture of primary mouse colon tumors.  

PubMed

Several human and murine colon cancer cell lines have been established, physiologic integrity of colon tumors such as multiple cell layers, basal-apical polarity, ability to differentiate, and anoikis are not maintained in colon cancer derived cell lines. The present study demonstrates a method for culturing primary mouse colon tumor organoids adapted from Sato T et al. (1), which retains important physiologic features of colon tumors. This method consists of mouse colon tumor tissue collection, adjacent normal colon epithelium dissociation, colon tumor cells digestion into single cells, embedding colon tumor cells into matrigel, and selective culture based on the principle that tumor cells maintain growth on limiting nutrient conditions compared to normal epithelial cells. The primary tumor organoids if isolated from genetically modified mice provide a very useful system to assess tumor autonomous function of specific genes. Moreover, the tumor organoids are amenable to genetic manipulation by virus meditated gene delivery; therefore signaling pathways involved in the colon tumorigenesis could also be extensively investigated by overexpression or knockdown. Primary tumor organoids culture provides a physiologic relevant and feasible means to study the mechanisms and therapeutic modalities for colon tumorigenesis. PMID:23711911

Xue, Xiang; Shah, Yatrik M

2013-01-01

31

Bone Windows for Distinguishing Malignant from Benign Primary Bone Tumors on FDG PET/CT  

PubMed Central

Objective. The default window setting on PET/CT workstations is soft tissue. This study investigates whether bone windowing and hybrid FDG PET/CT can help differentiate between malignant and benign primary bone tumors. Materials and methods. A database review included 98 patients with malignant (n=64) or benign primary bone (n=34) tumors. The reference standard was biopsy for malignancies and biopsy or >1 year imaging follow-up of benign tumors. Three radiologists and/or nuclear medicine physicians blinded to diagnosis and other imaging viewed the lesions on CT with bone windows (CT-BW) without and then with PET (PET/CT-BW), and separate PET-only images for malignancy or benignity. Three weeks later the tumors were viewed on CT with soft tissue windows (CT-STW) without and then with PET (PET/CT-STW). Results. Mean sensitivity and specificity for identifying malignancies included: CT-BW: 96%, 90%; CT-STW: 90%, 90%; PET/CT-BW: 95%, 85%, PET/CT-STW: 95%, 86% and PET-only: 96%, 75%, respectively. CT-BW demonstrated higher specificity than PET-only and PET/CT-BW (p=0.0005 and p=0.0103, respectively) and trended toward higher sensitivity than CT-STW (p=0.0759). Malignant primary bone tumors were more avid than benign lesions overall (p<0.0001) but the avidity of benign aggressive lesions (giant cell tumors and Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis) trended higher than the malignancies (p=0.08). Conclusion. Bone windows provided high specificity for distinguishing between malignant and benign primary bone tumors and are recommended when viewing FDG PET/CT. PMID:23983816

Costelloe, Colleen M.; Chuang, Hubert H.; Chasen, Beth A.; Pan, Tinsu; Fox, Patricia S.; Bassett, Roland L.; Madewell, John E.

2013-01-01

32

Mechanical loading, damping, and load-driven bone formation in mouse tibiae  

PubMed Central

Mechanical loads play a pivotal role in the growth and maintenance of bone and joints. Although loading can activate anabolic genes and induce bone remodeling, damping is essential for preventing traumatic bone injury and fracture. In this study we investigated the damping capacity of bone, joint tissue, muscle, and skin using a mouse hindlimb model of enhanced loading in conjunction with finite element modeling to model bone curvature. Our hypothesis was that loads were primarily absorbed by the joints and muscle tissue, but that bone also contributed to damping through its compression and natural bending. To test this hypothesis, fresh mouse distal lower limb segments were cyclically loaded in axial compression in sequential bouts, with each subsequent bout having less surrounding tissue. A finite element model was generated to model effects of bone curvature in silico. Two damping-related parameters (phase shift angle and energy loss) were determined from the output of the loading experiments. Interestingly, the experimental results revealed that the knee joint contributed to the largest portion of the damping capacity of the limb, and bone itself accounted for approximately 38% of the total phase shift angle. Computational results showed that normal bone curvature enhanced the damping capacity of the bone by approximately 40%, and the damping effect grew at an accelerated pace as curvature was increased. Although structural curvature reduces critical loads for buckling in beam theory, evolution apparently favors maintaining curvature in the tibia. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia revealed that in response to axial loading, bone formation was significantly enhanced in the regions that were predicted to receive a curvature-induced bending moment. These results suggest that in addition to bone’s compressive damping capacity, surrounding tissues, as well as naturally-occurring bone curvature, also contribute to mechanical damping, which may ultimately affect bone remodeling and bone quality. PMID:22878153

Dodge, Todd; Wanis, Mina; Ayoub, Ramez; Zhao, Liming; Watts, Nelson B.; Bhattacharya, Amit; Akkus, Ozan; Robling, Alexander; Yokota, Hiroki

2012-01-01

33

Primary diagnosis of Whipple's disease in bone marrow.  

PubMed

Whipple's disease (WD) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease of infectious origin caused by Tropheryma whipplei (TW). Abdominal pain and recurrent diarrhea are usually the main symptoms leading to the suspicion of a primary bowel disease. Systemic manifestations can mimic hematologic disorders. A 49-year-old man presented with fever, weight loss, long-standing arthralgia, and diarrhea. A duodenal biopsy was unremarkable. Bone marrow histology provided no evidence of a malignant hematological disorder but revealed noncaseating granulomas. TW was detected in the bone marrow trephine by polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report to describe TW-associated granulomatous myelitis as the initially recognized organ manifestation of WD, proven at the molecular level. This observation is relevant for the differential diagnosis of patients with systemic symptoms and granulomatous diseases affecting the bone marrow, emphasizing that WD should be considered in cases of unexplained granulomatous myelitis, even when small bowel biopsy specimens are negative. PMID:15116337

Kröber, Stefan Martin; Kaiserling, Edwin; Horny, Hans-Peter; Weber, Achim

2004-04-01

34

Characterization of primary afferent spinal innervation of mouse uterus  

PubMed Central

The primary afferent innervation of the uterus is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to identify the location and characteristics of primary afferent neurons that innervate the uterine horn of mice and correlate the different morphological types of putative primary afferent nerve endings, immunoreactive to the sensory marker, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP). Using retrograde tracing, injection of 5–10 ?L of 1,1?-didodecyl-3,3,3,3?-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) into discrete single sites in each uterine horn revealed a biomodal distribution of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) with peak labeling occurring between T13-L3 and a second smaller peak between L6-S1. The mean cross sectional area of labeled cells was 463 ?m2 ± s.e.m. A significantly greater proportion of labeled neurons consisted of small cell bodies (<300 ?m2) in the sacral spinal cord (S2) compared with peak labeling at the lumbar (L2) region. In both sections and whole mount preparations, immunohistochemical staining for CGRP revealed substantial innervation of the uterus by CGRP-positive nerve fibers located primarily at the border between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers (N = 4). The nerve endings were classified into three distinct types: “single,” “branching,” or “complex,” that often aligned preferentially in either the circular or longitudinal axis of the smooth muscles. Complex endings were often associated with mesenteric vessels. We have identified that the cell bodies of primary afferent neurons innervating the mouse uterus lie primarily in DRG at L2 and S1 spinal levels. Also, the greatest density of CGRP immunoreactivity lies within the myometrium, with at least three different morphological types of nerve endings identified. These findings will facilitate further investigations into the mechanisms underlying sensory transduction in mouse uterus. PMID:25120416

Herweijer, Geraldine; Kyloh, Melinda; Beckett, Elizabeth A. H.; Dodds, Kelsi N.; Spencer, Nick J.

2014-01-01

35

A Mortality Study of Primary Tumours of Bone in Canada  

PubMed Central

A five-year study was undertaken to determine the incidence of primary bone cancer in Canada in order to assess the effects of subsequent increases in background radiation, should such occur. Eight hundred and twenty-seven cases were investigated, and the annual incidence rate was estimated to be 6.3 per million population. Osteosarcoma was the most common type of tumour, accounting for more than half of all confirmed cases. Over 60% of the tumours occurred in males. PMID:14261150

Phillips, A. J.

1965-01-01

36

Quantitative ultrasound assessment of bone in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.  

PubMed

Quantitative ultrasound measurements were done in a group of 26 patients (4 males and 22 females, aged 55.4 +/- 14.2 years) with primary hyperparathyroidism, and the results were compared with bone mineral density (BMD) carried out at various skeletal sites. Speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and stiffness were measured with the Achilles ultrasound bone densitometer (Lunar Corp., Madison, WI). Mean +/- SD values of SOS, BUA, and stiffness in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were 1522 +/- 38 m/seconds, 111 +/- 16 dB/MHz, and 80.4 +/- 19.8%, respectively. There were significant differences of mean T-score BUA values (-0.63 +/- 1.11) compared with corresponding T-score BMD values found at ultradistal (-1.85 +/- 1.73, P < 0.01), proximal radius (-2.40 +/- 2.13, P < 0.001), and total femoral (-1.60 +/- 1.32, P < 0.001) sites. Correlation coefficients between both SOS and BUA values with BMD measurements at specific skeletal sites varied, but stiffness correlated moderately (0.6-0.9) with BMD. Our data strongly indicate that in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, bone structure of some skeletal sites, as evaluated by BUA measurement, is compromised to a lesser extent than BMD. In this respect it is interesting to note the lack of significant differences (in terms of mean T-score values) in the comparison of two sites of mostly trabecular composition, that is, the lumbar level (-1.17 +/- 1.54) and the femoral Ward's triangle (-0.99 +/- 1.25). Our results seem to lend further support to the hypothesis that in primary hyperparathyroidism cancellous bone architecture might be preferentially maintained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7648479

Minisola, S; Rosso, R; Scarda, A; Pacitti, M T; Romagnoli, E; Mazzuoli, G

1995-06-01

37

Bone and joint disease associated with primary immune deficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) are characterized by functional and\\/or quantitative abnormalities of one or more immune system components. Several bone and joint abnormalities can occur in patients with PID, with arthritis being the most common. Joint manifestations, of which arthritis is the most common, occur chiefly in humoral PIDs (agammaglobulinemia, common variable immunodeficiency, hyper-IgM syndromes, and IgA deficiency) and occasionally

Christelle Sordet; Alain Cantagrel; Thierry Schaeverbeke; Jean Sibilia

2005-01-01

38

Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model.  

PubMed

Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes beneficial immunomodulatory factors, we examined if this candidate probiotic could reduce bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized (Ovx) mouse menopausal model. Strikingly, L. reuteri treatment significantly protected Ovx mice from bone loss. Osteoclast bone resorption markers and activators (Trap5 and RANKL) as well as osteoclastogenesis are significantly decreased in L. reuteri-treated mice. Consistent with this, L. reuteri suppressed Ovx-induced increases in bone marrow CD4+ T-lymphocytes (which promote osteoclastogenesis) and directly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We also identified that L. reuteri treatment modifies microbial communities in the Ovx mouse gut. Together, our studies demonstrate that L. reuteri treatment suppresses bone resorption and loss associated with estrogen deficiency. Thus, L. reuteri treatment may be a straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce post-menopausal bone loss. PMID:24677054

Britton, Robert A; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R

2014-11-01

39

Application of retinoic acid to obtain osteocytes cultures from primary mouse osteoblasts.  

PubMed

The need for osteocyte cultures is well known to the community of bone researchers; isolation of primary osteocytes is difficult and produces low cell numbers. Therefore, the most widely used cellular system is the osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cell line. The method here described refers to the use of retinoic acid to generate a homogeneous population of ramified cells with morphological and molecular osteocyte features. After isolation of osteoblasts from mouse calvaria, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is added to cell medium, and cell monitoring is conducted daily under an inverted microscope. First morphological changes are detectable after 2 days of treatment and differentiation is generally complete in 5 days, with progressive development of dendrites, loss of the ability to produce extracellular matrix, down-regulation of osteoblast markers and up-regulation of osteocyte-specific molecules. Daily cell monitoring is needed because of the inherent variability of primary cells, and the protocol can be adapted with minimal variation to cells obtained from different mouse strains and applied to transgenic models. The method is easy to perform and does not require special instrumentation, it is highly reproducible, and rapidly generates a mature osteocyte population in complete absence of extracellular matrix, allowing the use of these cells for unlimited biological applications. PMID:24894124

Mattinzoli, Deborah; Messa, Piergiorgio; Corbelli, Alessandro; Ikehata, Masami; Mondini, Anna; Zennaro, Cristina; Armelloni, Silvia; Li, Min; Giardino, Laura; Rastaldi, Maria Pia

2014-01-01

40

Endochondral bone formation in embryonic mouse pre-metatarsals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long term exposure to a reduced gravitational environment has a deleterious effect on bone. The developmental events which occur prior to initial bone deposition will provide insight into the regulation of mature bone physiology. We have characterized a system in which the events preceding bone formation take place in an isolated in vitro organ culture environment. We show that cultured pre-metatarsal tissue parallels development of pre-metatarsal tissue in the embryo. Both undergo mesenchyme differentiation and morphogenesis to form a cartilage rod, which resembles the future bone, followed by terminal chondrocyte differentiation in a definite morphogenetic pattern. These sequential steps occur prior to osteoblast maturation and bone matrix deposition in the developing organism. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is a distinctive enzymatic marker for mineralizing tissues. We have measured this activity throughout pre-metatarsal development and show (a) where in the tissue it is predominantly found, and (b) that this is indeed the mineralizing isoform of the enzyme.

Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

1992-01-01

41

Bone and Mineral Metabolism in Patients with Primary Aldosteronism  

PubMed Central

Primary aldosteronism represents major cause of secondary hypertension, strongly associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aldosterone excess may influence mineral homeostasis, through higher urinary calcium excretion inducing secondary increase of parathyroid hormone. Recently, in a cohort of PA patients a significant increase of primary hyperparathyroidism was found, suggesting a bidirectional functional link between the adrenal and parathyroid glands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aldosterone excess on mineral metabolism and bone mass density. In 73 PA patients we evaluated anthropometric and biochemical parameters, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and bone mineral density; control groups were 73 essential hypertension (EH) subjects and 40 healthy subjects. Compared to HS and EH, PA subjects had significantly lower serum calcium levels and higher urinary calcium excretion. Moreover, PA patients showed higher plasma PTH, lower serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels, higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (65% versus 25% and 25%; P < 0.001), and higher prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis (38.5 and 10.5%) than EH (28% and 4%) and NS (25% and 5%), respectively. This study supports the hypothesis that bone loss and fracture risk in PA patients are potentially the result of aldosterone mediated hypercalciuria and the consecutive secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:24864141

Petramala, Luigi; Zinnamosca, Laura; Settevendemmie, Amina; Marinelli, Cristiano; Nardi, Matteo; Concistre, Antonio; Corpaci, Francesco; Tonnarini, Gianfranco; De Toma, Giorgio; Letizia, Claudio

2014-01-01

42

Spatiotemporal specificity of contrast adaptation in mouse primary visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Prolonged viewing of high contrast gratings alters perceived stimulus contrast, and produces characteristic changes in the contrast response functions of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1). This is referred to as contrast adaptation. Although contrast adaptation has been well-studied, its underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. Therefore, we investigated contrast adaptation in mouse V1 with the goal of establishing a quantitative description of this phenomenon in a genetically manipulable animal model. One interesting aspect of contrast adaptation that has been observed both perceptually and in single unit studies is its specificity for the spatial and temporal characteristics of the stimulus. Therefore, in the present work we determined if the magnitude of contrast adaptation in mouse V1 neurons was dependent on the spatial frequency and temporal frequency of the adapting grating. We used protocols that were readily comparable with previous studies in cats and primates, and also a novel contrast ramp stimulus that characterized the spatial and temporal specificity of contrast adaptation simultaneously. Similar to previous work in higher mammals, we found that contrast adaptation was strongest when the spatial frequency and temporal frequency of the adapting grating matched the test stimulus. This suggests similar mechanisms underlying contrast adaptation across animal models and indicates that the rapidly advancing genetic tools available in mice could be used to provide insights into this phenomenon. PMID:24106461

LeDue, Emily E.; King, Jillian L.; Stover, Kurt R.; Crowder, Nathan A.

2013-01-01

43

Mineral metabolism in isolated mouse long bones: Opposite effects of microgravity on mineralization and resorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment using isolated skeletal tissues under microgravity, is reported. Fetal mouse long bones (metatarsals) were cultured for 4 days in the Biorack facility of Spacelab during the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle. Overall growth was not affected, however glucose consumption was significantly reduced under microgravity. Mineralization of the diaphysis was also strongly reduced under microgravity as compared to the on-board 1 g group. In contrast, mineral resorption by osteoclasts was signficantly increased. These results indicate that these fetal mouse long bones are a sensitive and useful model to further study the cellular mechanisms involved in the changed mineral metabolism of skeletal tissues under microgravity.

Veldhuijzen, Jean Paul; Vanloon, Jack J. W. A.

1994-01-01

44

Cadmium stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in mouse bone marrow cell cultures  

SciTech Connect

Most of cadmium (Cd)-treated animals have been reported to show osteoporosis-like changes in bones. This suggests that Cd may promote bone loss by a direct action on bone. It was found that Cd stimulated prostaglandin E{sub 2}(PGE{sub 2}) production in the osteoblast-like cell, MC3T3-E1. Therefore, Cd stimulates bone resorption by increasing PGE{sub 2} production. Recently, several bone marrow cell culture systems have been developed for examining the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells in vitro. As osteoblasts produce PGE{sub 2} by Cd-induced cyclooxygenase and may play an important role in osteoclast formation, the present study was undertaken to clarify the possibility that Cd might stimulate osteoclast formation in a mouse bone marrow culture system.

Miyahara, Tatsuro; Takata, Masakazu; Miyata, Masaki; Nagai, Miyuki; Sugure, Akemi; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kuze, Shougo (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

1991-08-01

45

Exogenous regucalcin suppresses osteoblastogenesis and stimulates adipogenesis in mouse bone marrow culture.  

PubMed

Regucalcin plays a pivotal role in regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis and consequently has a profound effect on multiple intracellular signal transduction pathways. The regucalcin transgenic rat displays pronounced bone loss and hyperlipidemia. Consistent with these effects exogenous regucalcin has been shown to promote osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures and to suppress the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3 osteoblast precursors. Regucalcin may induce hyperlipidemia in vivo by suppressing osteoblast differentiation and stimulating adipogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The present study demonstrates that exogenous regucalcin suppresses differentiation to osteoblasts and stimulates adipogenesis in mouse bone marrow cell culture ex vivo. Moreover, exogenous regucalcin was found to enhance adipogenesis stimulated by insulin which is involved in the extracellular signal-related kinase pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. PMID:22868942

Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Weitzmann, M Neale; Baile, Clifton A; Murata, Tomiyasu

2012-10-01

46

A method for isolating high quality RNA from mouse cortical and cancellous bone.  

PubMed

The high incidence of fragility fractures in cortico-cancellous bone locations, plus the fact that individual skeletal sites exhibit different responsiveness to load and disease, emphasizes the need to document separately gene expression in cortical and cancellous bone. A further confounding factor is marrow contamination since its high cellularity may effect gene expression measurements. We isolated RNA from cortical and cancellous bone of intact mouse tibiae, and also after marrow removal by flushing or centrifugation. RNA isolated from cancellous bone by each method was sufficient for gene expression analysis. Centrifugation removed contaminating cells more efficiently than flushing, as indexed by histology and decreased expression of Icam4, a highly expressed erythroid gene. In contrast, centrifuged cortical bone had 12- and 13- fold higher expression of the bone-related genes Col1a1 and Bglap, while levels in marrow-free cancellous bone were 30- and 31-fold higher when compared to bone where marrow was left intact. Furthermore, cortical bone had higher expression of Col1a1 and Bglap than cancellous bone. Thus, RNA isolated by this novel approach can reveal site-specific changes in gene expression in cortical and cancellous bone sites. PMID:25073031

Kelly, Natalie H; Schimenti, John C; Patrick Ross, F; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

2014-11-01

47

Primary calvarial bone grafting in oro-ocular clefts.  

PubMed

Oro-ocular clefts were classified by Tessier as 3-11 or 4-10 facial clefts. These rare clefts require both bony and soft tissue correction and present a significant challenge to the innovative skill of the craniofacial surgeon. A review of three male children with oro-ocular clefts and their management (including surgical planning and operative treatment) is presented. We would propose that the use of calvarial bone grafting as part of the primary closure is regarded as desirable based on our experience. PMID:19464971

O'Sullivan, J B; Earley, M J

2010-05-01

48

The primary structure of genetic variants of mouse hemoglobin  

SciTech Connect

The primary structures of the ..cap alpha.. globins from CE/J, DBA/2J, and a stock of Potter's mice were determined to identify the amino acid substitutions associated with the unique isoelectric focusing patterns of these hemoglobins. In addition, the primary structures of the ..cap alpha.. globins from MOL III and PERU mice were studied in search of amino acid substitutions that may not be detected by isoelectric focusing. CE/J hemoglobin contains a unique kind of ..cap alpha.. globin called chain 5. It differs from the single kind of ..cap alpha.. globin (chain 1) in C57BL/6 by having alanine rather than glycine at position 78. DBA/2J hemoglobin has two kinds of ..cap alpha.. globins: one half is like chain 5 and the other half is like chain 1. The hemoglobin from Potter's stock of Mus musculus molossinus also contains chains 1 and 5, but they are expressed at different levels (i.e., 80% chain 1 and 20% chain 5). MOL III hemoglobin has a single kind of ..cap alpha.. globin identical to that in C57BL/6, and PERU hemoglobin contains approximately 40% chain 1 and 60% chain 4. Chains 1 and 4 have different amino acids at positions 25, 62, and 68. These studies confirm that mouse hemoglobins separable by isoelectric focusing, but not by other means of electrophoresis, have substitutions of neutrally charged amino acids in their ..cap alpha.. chains.

Popp, R.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Bailiff, E.G.; Skow, L.C.; Whitney, J.B. III

1982-01-01

49

Primary mouse hepatocytes for systems biology approaches: a standardized in vitro system for  

E-print Network

Primary mouse hepatocytes for systems biology approaches: a standardized in vitro system and differentiation of hepatocytes. By combining experimental data with mathematical modelling, systems biology holds for the preparation and cultivation of primary mouse hepatocytes. To reliably monitor the dynamic induction

Timmer, Jens

50

Hydroxyproline metabolism in mouse models of primary hyperoxaluria  

PubMed Central

Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) and type 2 (PH2) are rare genetic diseases that result from deficiencies in glyoxylate metabolism. The increased oxalate synthesis that occurs can lead to kidney stone formation, deposition of calcium oxalate in the kidney and other tissues, and renal failure. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) catabolism, which occurs mainly in the liver and kidney, is a prominent source of glyoxylate and could account for a significant portion of the oxalate produced in PH. To determine the sensitivity of mouse models of PH1 and PH2 to Hyp-derived oxalate, animals were fed diets containing 1% Hyp. Urinary excretions of glycolate and oxalate were used to monitor Hyp catabolism and the kidneys were examined to assess pathological changes. Both strains of knockout (KO) mice excreted more oxalate than wild-type (WT) animals with Hyp feeding. After 4 wk of Hyp feeding, all mice deficient in glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR KO) developed severe nephrocalcinosis in contrast to animals deficient in alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT KO) where nephrocalcinosis was milder and with a lower frequency. Plasma cystatin C measurements over 4-wk Hyp feeding indicated no significant loss of renal function in WT and AGXT KO animals, and significant and severe loss of renal function in GRHPR KO animals after 2 and 4 wk, respectively. These data suggest that GRHPR activity may be vital in the kidney for limiting the conversion of Hyp-derived glyoxylate to oxalate. As Hyp catabolism may make a major contribution to the oxalate produced in PH patients, Hyp feeding in these mouse models should be useful in understanding the mechanisms associated with calcium oxalate deposition in the kidney. PMID:22189945

Holmes, Ross P.; Cramer, Scott D.; Takayama, Tatsuya; Salido, Eduardo

2012-01-01

51

Hydroxyproline metabolism in mouse models of primary hyperoxaluria.  

PubMed

Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) and type 2 (PH2) are rare genetic diseases that result from deficiencies in glyoxylate metabolism. The increased oxalate synthesis that occurs can lead to kidney stone formation, deposition of calcium oxalate in the kidney and other tissues, and renal failure. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) catabolism, which occurs mainly in the liver and kidney, is a prominent source of glyoxylate and could account for a significant portion of the oxalate produced in PH. To determine the sensitivity of mouse models of PH1 and PH2 to Hyp-derived oxalate, animals were fed diets containing 1% Hyp. Urinary excretions of glycolate and oxalate were used to monitor Hyp catabolism and the kidneys were examined to assess pathological changes. Both strains of knockout (KO) mice excreted more oxalate than wild-type (WT) animals with Hyp feeding. After 4 wk of Hyp feeding, all mice deficient in glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR KO) developed severe nephrocalcinosis in contrast to animals deficient in alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT KO) where nephrocalcinosis was milder and with a lower frequency. Plasma cystatin C measurements over 4-wk Hyp feeding indicated no significant loss of renal function in WT and AGXT KO animals, and significant and severe loss of renal function in GRHPR KO animals after 2 and 4 wk, respectively. These data suggest that GRHPR activity may be vital in the kidney for limiting the conversion of Hyp-derived glyoxylate to oxalate. As Hyp catabolism may make a major contribution to the oxalate produced in PH patients, Hyp feeding in these mouse models should be useful in understanding the mechanisms associated with calcium oxalate deposition in the kidney. PMID:22189945

Knight, John; Holmes, Ross P; Cramer, Scott D; Takayama, Tatsuya; Salido, Eduardo

2012-03-15

52

Activity of the human carcinogen MeCCNU in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay  

SciTech Connect

The nitrosourea mustard MeCCNU is the most recent organic chemical to be classified as a human carcinogen by IARC. MeCCNU gave a strong positive response when tested in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Activity was evident using either ip injection or oral gavage of the test chemical. These results further support the correlation between human carcinogens and their genotoxicity.

Tinwell, H.; Ashby, J. (ICI Central Toxicology Lab, Cheshire (England))

1991-01-01

53

Pathological features of bone marrow transplantation-related toxicity in a mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this case report, we present a mock-transduced bone marrow (BM) transplantation in a mouse, which was found moribund and autopsied to evaluate pathogenesis. Macroscopically, red discoloration of systemic organs was observed. Hematological values revealed a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and platelets, but an increase in reticulocytes. In BM cytology, hematopoietic cell lines were

Yong-Hoon Kim; Chang-Su Ha; Hyun-Sook Lee; Sun-Hwa Lim; Kyoung-Sik Moon; Moon-Koo Chung; Hwa-Young Son

2009-01-01

54

Primary sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of bone: analysis of a series.  

PubMed

Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare, aggressive malignant neoplasm characterized by small nests and linear arrays of epithelioid cells embedded in a dense collagenous matrix. Very few primary SEFs of bone have been reported. Recognition is critical, as the dense extracellular collagenous matrix can be interpreted as osteoid, leading to misdiagnosis as-osteosarcoma. MUC4 and SATB2 are 2 recently characterized immunohistochemical markers for SEF and osteosarcoma, respectively. In reports to date, osteosarcomas are positive for SATB2 and negative for MUC4, whereas soft tissue SEFs have shown the opposite immunohistochemical profile (SATB2-/MUC4+). The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 8 primary SEFs of bone. The patients presented at a wide range of ages (25 to 73 y; median 52 y). Tumors mostly involved long bones of the extremities, with 3 cases involving the femur, 2 involving the ulna, and 1 involving the humerus. Other sites of involvement included the second rib (1) and the C6 vertebra (1). Follow-up information was available for 7 patients, 3 of whom developed metastases within 2 years of diagnosis. The other 4 patients were free of local recurrence or metastases at 1, 5, 12, and >84 months of follow-up, respectively. Radiographically, the tumors were predominantly lytic and poorly marginated. Histologically, 6 tumors showed pure SEF morphology, and 2 showed hybrid SEF/low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma morphology. Focal dystrophic mineralization was seen in 1 case but was limited to areas of necrosis. None of the tumors showed the lace-like pattern of mineralization typical of osteosarcoma. The majority (6/8) of the tumors strongly expressed MUC4. SATB2 was negative in all but 1 case, which showed variable weak to moderate staining in ?50% of nuclei. In general, the combination of morphology, MUC4 expression, and the absence of SATB2 expression was highly useful in arriving at the correct diagnosis. PMID:24921641

Wojcik, John B; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Dal Cin, Paola; Bredella, Miriam A; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Hornicek, Francis J; Deshpande, Vikram; Hornick, Jason L; Nielsen, G Petur

2014-11-01

55

Mutagenicity testing with transgenic mice. Part I: Comparison with the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test  

PubMed Central

As part of a larger literature study on transgenic animals in mutagenicity testing, test results from the transgenic mutagenicity assays (lacI model; commercially available as the Big Blue® mouse, and the lacZ model; commercially available as the Muta™Mouse), were compared with the results on the same substances in the more traditional mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. 39 substances were found which had been tested in the micronucleus assay and in the above transgenic mouse systems. Although, the transgenic animal mutation assay is not directly comparable with the micronucleus test, because different genetic endpoints are examined: chromosome aberration versus gene mutation, the results for the majority of substances were in agreement. Both test systems, the transgenic mouse assay and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, have advantages and they complement each other. However, the transgenic animal assay has some distinct advantages over the micronucleus test: it is not restricted to one target organ and detects systemic as well as local mutagenic effects. PMID:15655069

Wahnschaffe, U; Bitsch, A; Kielhorn, J; Mangelsdorf, I

2005-01-01

56

Effects of 810 nm laser on mouse primary cortical neurons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past four decades numerous studies have reported the efficacy of low level light (laser) therapy (LLLT) as a treatment for diverse diseases and injuries. Recent studies have shown that LLLT can biomodulate processes in the central nervous system and has been extensively studied as a stroke treatment. However there is still a lack of knowledge on the effects of LLLT at the cellular level in neurons. The present study aimed to study the effect of 810 nm laser on several cellular processes in primary cortical neurons cultured from mouse embryonic brains. Neurons were irradiated with light dose of 0.03, 0.3, 3, 10 and 30 J/cm2 and intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and calcium were measured. The changes in mitochondrial function in response to light were studied in terms of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Light induced a significant increase in calcium, ATP and MMP at lower fluences and a decrease at higher fluence. ROS was induced significantly by light at all light doses. Nitric oxide levels also showed an increase on treatment with light. The results of the present study suggest that LLLT at lower fluences is capable of inducing mediators of cell signaling process which in turn may be responsible for the biomodulatory effects of the low level laser. At higher fluences beneficial mediators are reduced but potentially harmful mediators are increased thus offering an explanation for the biphasic dose response.

Kharkwal, Gitika B.; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Huang, Ying-Ying; De Taboada, Luis; McCarthy, Thomas; Hamblin, Michael R.

2011-03-01

57

Effects of mouse genotype on bone wound healing and irradiation-induced delay of healing.  

PubMed

We tested the effects of mouse genotype (C57BL/6NHsd, NOD/SCID, SAMR1, and SAMP6) and ionizing irradiation on bone wound healing. Unicortical wounds were made in the proximal tibiae, and the time course of spontaneous healing and effects of irradiation were monitored radiographically and histologically. There was reproducible healing beginning with intramedullary osteogenesis, subsequent bone resorption by osteoclasts, gradual bridging of the cortical wound, and re-population of medullary hematopoietic cells. The most rapid wound closure was noted in SAMR1 mice, followed by SAMP6, C57BL/6NHsd, and NOD/SCID. Ionizing irradiation (20 Gy) to the leg significantly delayed bone wound healing in mice of all four genotypes. Mice with genetically-determined predisposition to early osteopenia (SAMP6) or with immune deficiency (NOD/SCID) had impairments in bone wound healing. These mouse models should be valuable for determining the effects of irradiation on bone healing and also for the design and testing of novel bone growth-enhancing drugs and mitigators of ionizing irradiation. PMID:24632972

Glowacki, Julie; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kung, Jason; Goff, Julie; Epperly, Michael; Dixon, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S

2014-01-01

58

Marrow Stromal Cell-Based Cyclooxygenase 2 Ex Vivo Gene-Transfer Strategy Surprisingly Lacks Bone-Regeneration Effects and Suppresses the Bone-Regeneration Action of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 in a Mouse Critical-Sized Calvarial Defect Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated whether the murine leukemia virus (MLV)–based cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) ex vivo gene-transfer strategy promotes healing of calvarial defects and\\/or synergistically enhances bone morphogenetic\\u000a protein (BMP) 4–mediated bone regeneration. Gelatin scaffolds impregnated with mouse marrow stromal cells (MSCs) transduced\\u000a with MLV-expressing BMP4, Cox-2, or a control gene were implanted into mouse calvarial defects. Bone regeneration was assessed by X-ray,

K.-H. William Lau; Reinhard Gysin; Shin-Tai Chen; Jon E. Wergedal; David J. Baylink; Subburaman Mohan

2009-01-01

59

Primary bone tumours of the thoracic skeleton: an audit of the Leeds regional bone tumour registry.  

PubMed Central

An audit of the Leeds regional bone tumour registry found that primary bone tumours of the thoracic skeleton constituted 90 of the 2004 cases (4.5%). Thirty seven per cent occurred in the ribs, 32% in the scapulae, 11% in the thoracic vertebrae, 11% in the sternum, and 9% in the clavicles. Malignant tumours were more common than benign (54 v 36) and occurred in an older population (mean ages 47 and 31 years). The scapula was the most common site for malignant lesions and the ribs the most common site for benign tumours. Chondrosarcoma was the commonest tumour in older patients, fibrous dysplasia and plasmacytoma in the middle age group, and eosinophilic granuloma in children. Presenting symptoms were a poor guide to whether the lesion was malignant or not. This and the small proportion of correct preoperative diagnoses indicate the need for early biopsy. Bone tumour registries provide a valuable source of cumulative information about uncommon tumours and facilitate accurate diagnosis, teaching, and research. PMID:2256013

Waller, D A; Newman, R J

1990-01-01

60

Ex vivo determination of bone tissue strains for an in vivo mouse tibial loading model.  

PubMed

Previous studies introduced the digital image correlation (DIC) as a viable technique for measuring bone strain during loading. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of a DIC system in determining surface strains in a mouse tibia while loaded in compression through the knee joint. Specifically, we examined the effect of speckle distribution, facet size and overlap, initial vertical alignment of the bone into the loading cups, rotation with respect to cameras, and ex vivo loading configurations on the strain contour maps measured with a DIC system. We loaded tibiae of C57BL/6 mice (12 and 18 weeks old male) up to 12 N at 8 N/min. Images of speckles on the bone surface were recorded at 1N intervals and DIC was used to compute strains. Results showed that speckles must have the correct size and density with respect to the facet size of choice for the strain distribution to be computed and reproducible. Initial alignment of the bone within the loading cups does not influence the strain distribution measured during peak loading, but bones must be placed in front of the camera with the same orientation in order for strains to be comparable. Finally, the ex vivo loading configurations with the tibia attached to the entire mouse, or to the femur and foot, or only to the foot, showed different strain contour maps. This work provides a better understanding of parameters affecting full field strain measurements from DIC in ex vivo murine tibial loading tests. PMID:24835472

Carriero, Alessandra; Abela, Lisa; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Shefelbine, Sandra J

2014-07-18

61

Ex vivo determination of bone tissue strains for an in vivo mouse tibial loading model  

PubMed Central

Previous studies introduced the digital image correlation (DIC) as a viable technique for measuring bone strain during loading. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of a DIC system in determining surface strains in a mouse tibia while loaded in compression through the knee joint. Specifically, we examined the effect of speckle distribution, facet size and overlap, initial vertical alignment of the bone into the loading cups, rotation with respect to cameras, and ex vivo loading configurations on the strain contour maps measured with a DIC system. We loaded tibiae of C57BL/6 mice (12 and 18 weeks old male) up to 12 N at 8 N/min. Images of speckles on the bone surface were recorded at 1 N intervals and DIC was used to compute strains. Results showed that speckles must have the correct size and density with respect to the facet size of choice for the strain distribution to be computed and reproducible. Initial alignment of the bone within the loading cups does not influence the strain distribution measured during peak loading, but bones must be placed in front of the camera with the same orientation in order for strains to be comparable. Finally, the ex vivo loading configurations with the tibia attached to the entire mouse, or to the femur and foot, or only to the foot, showed different strain contour maps. This work provides a better understanding of parameters affecting full field strain measurements from DIC in ex vivo murine tibial loading tests. PMID:24835472

Carriero, Alessandra; Abela, Lisa; Pitsillides, Andrew A.; Shefelbine, Sandra J.

2014-01-01

62

Survival of Free and Encapsulated Human and Rat Islet Xenografts Transplanted into the Mouse Bone Marrow  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation. PMID:24625569

Meier, Raphael P. H.; Seebach, Jörg D.; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H.; Muller, Yannick D.

2014-01-01

63

Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.  

PubMed

Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation. PMID:24625569

Meier, Raphael P H; Seebach, Jörg D; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H; Muller, Yannick D

2014-01-01

64

Effect of sex hormones on bone in primary osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

The effect of sex hormones on bone tissue was studied in 12 osteoporotic patients. Surfaces of bone undergoing formation and resorption were determined by quantitative microradiography of iliac crest biopsy samples before and after treatment with estrogens in 11 postmenopausal women and with testosterone in one gonadally competent man. Before treatment, bone resorption was greater than normal in all but one patient and bone formation was normal. After treatment, bone resorption decreased to within the normal range in all patients, and bone formation did not change significantly. Biochemical studies showed significant decreases in serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels and in urinary excretion of calcium and hydroxyproline. These changes are believed to be the consequence of the effect of the hormones on bone. The data indicate that the major effect of sex hormones in osteoporosis is an inhibition of bone resorption. Images PMID:5771187

Riggs, B. Lawrence; Jowsey, Jenifer; Kelly, Patrick J.; Jones, James D.; Maher, Frank T.

1969-01-01

65

Magnetic assembly-mediated enhancement of differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells cultured on magnetic colloidal assemblies  

PubMed Central

Here we reported an interesting phenomenon that the field-induced assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles can promote the differentiation of primary mouse bone marrow cells into osteoblasts. The reason was thought to lie in the remnant magnetic interaction inside the assemblies which resulted from the magnetic field-directed assembly. Influence of the assemblies on the cells was realized by means of interface effect rather than the internalization effect. We fabricated a stripe-like assemblies array on the glass plate and cultured cells on this surface. We characterized the morphology of assemblies and measured the mechanic property as well as the magnetic property. The cellular differentiation was measured by staining and quantitative PCR. Finally, Fe uptake was excluded as the reason to cause the phenomenon. PMID:24874764

Sun, Jianfei; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Jiqing; Song, Lina; Chen, Zihao; Liu, Haoyu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

2014-01-01

66

Bone morphogenetic protein signaling is impaired in an Hfe knockout mouse model of hemochromatosis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Mutations in HFE are the most common cause of the iron-overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). Levels of the main iron regulatory hormone, hepcidin, are inappropriately low in HH mouse models and patients with HFE mutations, indicating that HFE regulates hepcidin. The bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6)-SMAD signaling pathway is an important endogenous regulator of hepcidin expression. We investigated whether HFE is involved in BMP6-SMAD regulation of hepcidin expression. Methods The BMP6-SMAD pathway was examined in Hfe knockout (KO) mice and in wild-type (WT) mice as controls. Mice were placed on diets of varying iron content. Hepcidin induction by BMP6 was examined in primary hepatocytes from Hfe KO mice; data were compared with those of WT mice. Results Liver levels of Bmp6 mRNA were higher in Hfe KO mice; these were appropriate for the increased hepatic levels of iron in these mice, compared with WT mice. However, levels of hepatic phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8 protein (an intracellular mediator of Bmp6 signaling) and Id1 mRNA (a target gene of Bmp6) were inappropriately low for the body iron burden and Bmp6 mRNA levels in Hfe KO, compared with WT mice. BMP6 induction of hepcidin expression was reduced in Hfe KO hepatocytes compared with WT hepatocytes. Conclusions HFE is not involved in regulation of BMP6 by iron, but does regulate the downstream signals of BMP6 that are triggered by iron. PMID:19591830

Corradini, Elena; Garuti, Cinzia; Montosi, Giuliana; Ventura, Paolo; Andriopoulos, Billy; Lin, Herbert Y.; Pietrangelo, Antonello; Babitt, Jodie L.

2009-01-01

67

Genotoxic evaluation of a methanolic extract of Verbascum thapsus using micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow.  

PubMed

Verbascum thapsus L. is a medicinal plant and has been used to treat numerous pulmonary diseases, asthma, inflammatory disease, spasmodic coughs and migraine headaches. Several studies have demonstrated that different extracts of V. thapsus present antimicrobial activity. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of a methanolic extract of Verbascum thapsus, using micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow. No toxicity in bone marrow was detected in the extract-treated groups. The methanolic extract of V. thapsus at doses of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, did not produce a significant increase in the frequency of MNPCE in bone marrow and neither altered the relationship PCE/NCE respect to negative control. These cytogenotoxic findings contribute the preclinical knowledge of methanolic extract of V. thapsus and provide security in its use as herbal medicine. PMID:21834240

Escobar, Franco Matías; Sabini, María Carola; Zanon, Silvia Matilde; Cariddi, Laura Noelia; Tonn, Carlos Eugenio; Sabini, Liliana Inés

2011-07-01

68

Function of NKG2D in natural killer cell–mediated rejection of mouse bone marrow grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation-resistant natural killer (NK) cells in an F1 recipient can reject parental bone marrow, and host NK cells can also prevent engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow. We show here that repopulating bone marrow cells in certain mouse strains expressed retinoic acid early inducible 1 proteins, which are ligands for the activating NKG2D NK cell receptor. Treatment with a neutralizing antibody

Kouetsu Ogasawara; Jonathan Benjamin; Rayna Takaki; Joseph H Phillips; Lewis L Lanier

2005-01-01

69

Deterioration of fracture healing in the mouse model of NF1 long bone dysplasia.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease resulting from inactivating mutations in the gene encoding the protein neurofibromin. NF1 manifests as a heritable susceptibility to tumours of neural tissue mainly located in the skin (neurofibromas) and pigmented skin lesions. Besides these more common clinical manifestations, many NF1 patients (50%) have abnormalities of the skeleton. Long bones are often affected (usually the tibia) and the clinical signs range from bowing to spontaneous fractures and non-unions. Here we present the analysis of bone fracture healing in the Nf1(Prx1)-knock-out mouse, a model of NF1 long bone dysplasia. In line with previously reported cortical bone injury results, fracture healing was impaired in Nf1(Prx1) mice. We showed that the defective fracture healing in Nf1(Prx1) mice is characterized by diminished cartilaginous callus formation and a thickening of the periosteal bone. These changes are paralleled by fibrous tissue accumulation within the fracture site. We identify a population of fibrous tissue cells within the Nf1 deficient fracture as alpha-smooth muscle actin positive myofibroblasts. Additionally, histological and in-situ hybridization analysis reveal a direct contact of the fracture site with muscle fascia, suggesting a possible involvement of muscle derived cells in the fracture deterioration. PMID:22868293

El Khassawna, T; Toben, D; Kolanczyk, M; Schmidt-Bleek, K; Koennecke, I; Schell, H; Mundlos, S; Duda, G N

2012-10-01

70

Effects of parathyroidectomy on lead mobilization from bone in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since lead (Pb) accrued from environmental exposure accumulates in bone with a half life time between 6 and 10 years, a release of bone Pb into the circulation and\\/or urine (PbU) should be expected in diseases with increased bone metabolism such as hyperparathyroidism.We studied 60 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT, 50 women, 10 men, aged 61.4 ± 10.6 and 64.1

W. Osterode; R. Winker; C. Bieglmayer; H. Vierhapper

2004-01-01

71

Sl/Sld mouse bone marrow stroma in vitro contains an active radiation-sensitive inhibitor of normal hemopoiesis  

SciTech Connect

Sl/Sld mice have a defective hemopoietic microenvironment. It has been assumed, based upon previous studies, that the primary abnormality in these mice is simply lack of a necessary supportive or inductive material within the hemopoietic stroma. We used in vitro long-term bone marrow cultures to characterize further the nature of the hemopoietic microenvironmental defect in Sl/Sld mice. Sl/Sld mouse bone marrow cells consistently produced less than 10% of the total hemopoietic cells and multipotent and unipotent hemopoietic progenitor cells produced in cultures of marrow from normal, congenic +/+ mice. If fresh Sl/Sld and +/+ marrow cells were mixed prior to establishing long-term marrow cultures, there was a direct correlation between number of Sl/Sld cells added and degree of inhibition of +/+ hemopoiesis. A pre-established, confluent Sl/Sld adherent stromal layer inhibited hemopoiesis by fresh +/+ marrow cells by nearly 70%, as compared with dishes with irradiated +/+ or no stroma. This inhibitory effect was abrogated by irradiation of the Sl/Sld stroma prior to addition of the fresh +/+ marrow cells. Similarly, unirradiated, but not 9 to 200 Gy irradiated Sl/Sld stroma inhibited proliferation of the factor-dependent FDC-P1 hemopoietic progenitor cell line. Thus, the Sl/Sld hemopoietic microenvironment actively inhibits hemopoiesis in vitro, and this inhibition can be at least partially eliminated by irradiation of the Sl/Sld stroma.

Zuckerman, K.S.; Prince, C.W.; Ribadeneira, M.

1986-12-01

72

Early Stage Primary Bone Lymphoma: a retrospective, multicenter Rare Cancer Network (RCN) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePrimary bone lymphoma (PBL) represents less than 1% of all malignant lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the disease profile, outcome, and prognostic factors in patients with stage I and II PBL.

Ling Cai; Michael C. Stauder; Yu-Jing Zhang; Philip Poortmans; Ye-Xiong Li; Nicolaos Constantinou; Juliette Thariat; Sidney P. Kadish; Tan Dat Nguyen; Youlia M. Kirova; Pirus Ghadjar; Damien C. Weber; Victoria Tuset Bertran; Mahmut Ozsahin; René-Olivier Mirimanoff

73

Mechanical Unloading of Mouse Bone in Microgravity Significantly Alters Cell Cycle Gene Set Expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spaceflight factors, including microgravity and space radiation, have many detrimental short-term effects on human physiology, including muscle and bone degradation, and immune system dysfunction. The long-term progression of these physiological effects is still poorly understood, and a serious concern for long duration spaceflight missions. We hypothesized that some of the degenerative effects of spaceflight may be caused in part by an inability of stem cells to proliferate and differentiate normally resulting in an impairment of tissue regenerative processes. Furthermore, we hypothesized that long-term bone tissue degeneration in space may be mediated by activation of the p53 signaling network resulting in cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis in osteoprogenitors. In our analyses we found that spaceflight caused significant bone loss in the weight-bearing bones of mice with a 6.3% reduction in bone volume and 11.9% decrease in bone thickness associated with increased osteoclastic activity. Along with this rapid bone loss we also observed alterations in the cell cycle characterized by an increase in the Cdkn1a/p21 cell cycle arrest molecule independent of Trp53. Overexpression of Cdkn1a/p21 was localized to osteoblasts lining the periosteal surface of the femur and chondrocytes in the head of the femur, suggesting an inhibition of proliferation in two key regenerative cell types of the femur in response to spaceflight. Additionally we found overexpression of several matrix degradation molecules including MMP-1a, 3 and 10, of which MMP-10 was localized to osteocytes within the shaft of the femur. This, in conjunction with 40 nm resolution synchrotron nano-Computed Tomography (nano-CT) observations of an increase in osteocyte lacunae cross-sectional area, perimeter and a decrease in circularity indicates a potential role for osteocytic osteolysis in the observed bone degeneration in spaceflight. To further investigate the genetic response of bone to mechanical unloading in spaceflight, we conducted genome wide microarray analysis of total RNA isolated from the mouse pelvis. Specifically, 16 week old mice were subjected to 15 days spaceflight onboard NASA's STS-131 space shuttle mission. The pelvis of the mice was dissected, the bone marrow was flushed and the bones were briefly stored in RNAlater. The pelvii were then homogenized, and RNA was isolated using TRIzol. RNA concentration and quality was measured using a Nanodrop spectrometer, and 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis. Samples of cDNA were analyzed using an Affymetrix GeneChip\\S Gene 1.0 ST (Sense Target) Array System for Mouse and GenePattern Software. We normalized the ST gene arrays using Robust Multichip Average (RMA) normalization, which summarizes perfectly matched spots on the array through the median polish algorithm, rather than normalizing according to mismatched spots. We also used Limma for statistical analysis, using the BioConductor Limma Library by Gordon Smyth, and differential expression analysis to identify genes with significant changes in expression between the two experimental conditions. Finally we used GSEApreRanked for Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), with Kolmogorov-Smirnov style statistics to identify groups of genes that are regulated together using the t-statistics derived from Limma. Preliminary results show that 6,603 genes expressed in pelvic bone had statistically significant alterations in spaceflight compared to ground controls. These prominently included cell cycle arrest molecules p21, and p18, cell survival molecule Crbp1, and cell cycle molecules cyclin D1, and Cdk1. Additionally, GSEA results indicated alterations in molecular targets of cyclin D1 and Cdk4, senescence pathways resulting from abnormal laminin maturation, cell-cell contacts via E-cadherin, and several pathways relating to protein translation and metabolism. In total 111 gene sets out of 2,488, about 4%, showed statistically significant set alterations. These alterations indicate significant impairment of normal cellular function in the mechanically unloaded envi

Blaber, Elizabeth; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo; Kaplan, Warren; Burns, Brnedan

2012-07-01

74

Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

75

Anatomical origins of ocular dominance in mouse primary visual cortex  

E-print Network

Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity is a classic paradigm for studying the effect of experience and deprivation on cortical development, and is manifested as shifts in the relative strength of binocular inputs to primary ...

Coleman, Jason E.

76

ATRX Dysfunction Induces Replication Defects in Primary Mouse Cells  

PubMed Central

The chromatin remodeling protein ATRX, which targets tandem repetitive DNA, has been shown to be required for expression of the alpha globin genes, for proliferation of a variety of cellular progenitors, for chromosome congression and for the maintenance of telomeres. Mutations in ATRX have recently been identified in tumours which maintain their telomeres by a telomerase independent pathway involving homologous recombination thought to be triggered by DNA damage. It is as yet unknown whether there is a central underlying mechanism associated with ATRX dysfunction which can explain the numerous cellular phenomena observed. There is, however, growing evidence for its role in the replication of various repetitive DNA templates which are thought to have a propensity to form secondary structures. Using a mouse knockout model we demonstrate that ATRX plays a direct role in facilitating DNA replication. Ablation of ATRX alone, although leading to a DNA damage response at telomeres, is not sufficient to trigger the alternative lengthening of telomere pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells. PMID:24651726

Clynes, David; Jelinska, Clare; Xella, Barbara; Ayyub, Helena; Taylor, Stephen; Mitson, Matthew; Bachrati, Csanad Z.; Higgs, Douglas R.; Gibbons, Richard J.

2014-01-01

77

Evaluation of perfluoroalkyl acid activity using primary mouse and human hepatocytes.  

PubMed

While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is known about the biological activity of other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) detected in the environment. Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-1 cells, our group has previously evaluated a variety of PFAAs for activity associated with activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?). Here we use primary heptatocytes to further assess the biological activity of a similar group of PFAAs using custom designed Taqman Low Density Arrays. Primary mouse and human hepatoyctes were cultured for 48h in the presence of varying concentrations of 12 different PFAAs or Wy14,643, a known activator of PPAR?. Total RNA was collected and the expression of 48 mouse or human genes evaluated. Gene selection was based on either in-house liver microarray data (mouse) or published data using primary hepatocytes (human). Gene expression in primary mouse hepatocytes was more restricted than expected. Genes typically regulated in whole tissue by PPAR? agonists were not altered in mouse cells including Acox1, Me1, Acaa1a, Hmgcs1, and Slc27a1. Cyp2b10, a gene regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor and a transcript normally up-regulated by in vivo exposure to PFAAs, was also unchanged in cultured mouse hepatocytes. Cyp4a14, Ehhadh, Pdk4, Cpt1b, and Fabp1 were regulated as expected in mouse cells. A larger group of genes were differentially expressed in human primary hepatocytes, however, little consistency was observed across compounds with respect to which genes produced a significant dose response making the determination of relative biological activity difficult. This likely reflects weaker activation of PPAR? in human versus rodent cells as well as variation among individual cell donors. Unlike mouse cells, CYP2B6 was up-regulated in human hepatocytes by a number of PFAAs as was PPAR?. Rankings were conducted on the limited dataset. In mouse hepatocytes, the pattern was similar to that previously observed in the COS-1 reporter cell assay. With the exception of PFHxA, longer chain PFAA carboxylates were the most active. The pattern was similar in human hepatocytes, although PFDA and PFOS showed higher activity than previously observed while PFOA showed somewhat less activity. These data reflect inherent challenges in using primary hepatocytes to predict toxicological response. PMID:23567314

Rosen, Mitchell B; Das, Kaberi P; Wood, Carmen R; Wolf, Cynthia J; Abbott, Barbara D; Lau, Christopher

2013-06-01

78

Isolating Primary Melanocyte-like Cells from the Mouse Heart.  

PubMed

We identified a novel population of melanocyte-like cells (also known as cardiac melanocytes) in the hearts of mice and humans that contribute to atrial arrhythmia triggers in mice. To investigate the electrical and biological properties of cardiac melanocytes we developed a procedure to isolate them from mouse hearts that we derived from those designed to isolate neonatal murine cardiomyocytes. In order to obtain healthier cardiac melanocytes suitable for more extensive patch clamp or biochemical studies, we developed a refined procedure for isolating and plating cardiac melanocytes based on those originally designed to isolate cutaneous melanocytes. The refined procedure is demonstrated in this review and produces larger numbers of healthy melanocyte-like cells that can be plated as a pure population or with cardiomyocytes. PMID:25285608

Hwang, Hayoung; Liu, Fang; Levin, Mark D; Patel, Vickas V

2014-01-01

79

Comparative proteomics study on liver mitochondria of primary biliary cirrhosis mouse model  

PubMed Central

Background Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a liver specific chronic disease with unclear pathogenesis, especially for the early stage molecular events. The mitochondrion is a multi-functional organelle associated with various diseases including PBC. The purpose of this study was to discover the alterations in the mitochondria proteome using an early stage PBC mouse model for revealing the possible pathogenesis mechanisms in the early stages of PBC. Methods Mouse model of early stage of PBC was constructed by consecutive administration of poly I:C. Mitochondria of mouse models and controls were purified and comparative proteomics was performed by iTRAQ technology. Then, differentially expressed proteins were validated by western blotting. Results In total 354 proteins that satisfied the criteria for comparative proteomics study were identified. Of them, nine proteins were downregulated and 20 were up-regulated in liver mitochondria of PBC mouse model. Most differentially expressed proteins are associated with oxidation-reduction and lipid metabolism, and some are involved in the biosynthesis of steroid hormone and primary bile acid. Interestingly, four proteins (HCDH, CPT I, DECR, ECHDC2) involved in the fatty acid beta-oxidation were all upregulated. Conclusions iTRAQ is a powerful tool for comparative proteomics study of PBC mouse model and differentially expressed proteins in mitochondria proteome of PBC mouse model provide insights for the pathogenesis mechanism at early stage of PBC. PMID:23586776

2013-01-01

80

Stimulation of alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured neonatal mouse calvarial bone cells by parathyroid hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on alkaline phosphatase activity was examined in confluent, serum-free primary cultures\\u000a of neonatal mouse calvarial cells. It was found that synthetic bPTH-(1-34) caused an increase in the specific activity of\\u000a skeletal alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme by 18 hours. Between 10 and 500 ng\\/ml, the mganitude of the change was directly related\\u000a to peptide concentration. The

John A. Yee

1985-01-01

81

"In-bone" utricle cultures - A simplified, atraumatic technique for in situ cultures of the adult mouse (Mus musculus) utricle  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis The “in-bone” method of culturing utricles described here is a reliable and atraumatic technique for culturing mature mouse hair cells and studying hair cell death and protection. Background The current in vitro technique for studying hair cells of the mature mouse utricle involves removal from the temporal bone and free floating culture in media. This technique can be problematic due to variability in the preservation of the sensory epithelium and a steep learning curve that results in injury of the sensory epithelium in less experienced hands. We present a new atraumatic technique of culturing the utricle in situ within the temporal bone. Methods Leaving the temporal bone largely intact, a window is opened in the bony vestibule overlying the mouse utricle. The entire temporal bone is then placed into culture media. Utricles were cultured in situ for several days with minimal damage to the epithelium. The utricles are then fixed in situ, removed from the temporal bone, and processed. A standardized aminoglycoside-induced hair cell damage protocol was developed. Results Mature mouse utricles maintained hair cell numbers for 3 days in culture. Exposure to neomycin resulted in significant dose-dependent hair cell toxicity (p<.0001, one-way ANOVA). Exposure to the protective drug tacrine resulted in significant protection against neomycin (p<.05, three-way ANOVA). Conclusion The “in-bone” technique is a reliable and atraumatic method for culturing mature mouse utricles and studying hair cell death and protection. It is easily mastered and can make in vitro study of hair cells accessible to more research groups. PMID:23444481

Ou, Henry C.; Lin, Vincent; Rubel, Edwin W

2013-01-01

82

[Pitfalls in MRI diagnosis of primary malignant bone tumors].  

PubMed

MRI has gained an undisputed place in the evaluation of malignant bone tumors, not only for verifying results of conventional radiographs and clarifying differential diagnoses; it has also become increasingly important for the assessment of the malignant/benign nature of the tumor, its growth rate, definition of adequate sites for biopsy, local preoperative staging, and evaluation of the response to chemotherapy. However, several pitfalls have to be observed regarding choice of technical parameters (coils, sequences, imaging planes), tissue differentiation, and tumor staging. When staging malignant tumors, critical aspects which have to be observed are tumor extension, integrity of the cortical bone, soft tissue components, infiltration of a joint or neurovascular bundle. The use of contrast agents provides important additional information but can also give rise to misinterpretations. Thus, all features of a tumor have to be observed in order to establish a final diagnosis. Particular difficulties can occur with the interpretation of MR images of osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma, stress and insufficiency fractures, bone infarcts, myositis ossificans, hemangiomas, and aneurysmal bone cysts. PMID:9700774

Bader, T R; Imhof, H; Dominkus, M; Breitenseher, M J

1998-06-01

83

Neuroprotective effects of hesperetin in mouse primary neurones are independent of CREB activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary flavonoids, including the citrus flavanone hesperetin, may have stimulatory effects on cytoprotective intracellular signalling pathways. In primary mouse cortical neurone cultures, but not SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells or human primary dermal fibroblasts (Promocells), hesperetin (100–300nM, 15min) caused significant increases in the level of ERK1\\/2 phosphorylation, but did not increase CREB phosphorylation. Administration of hesperetin for 18h did not alter

Stephanie Rainey-Smith; Lars-Wilhelm Schroetke; Parmvir Bahia; Ahmed Fahmi; Rachel Skilton; Jeremy P. E. Spencer; Catherine Rice-Evans; Marcus Rattray; Robert J. Williams

2008-01-01

84

Altered basement membrane protein biosynthesis by primary cultures of cpk\\/cpk mouse kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered basement membrane protein biosynthesis by primary cultures of cpk\\/cpk mouse kidney. Previously, kidneys from three-week-old cpk\\/cpk C57\\/B16 mice were found to contain elevated mRNA levels for the basement membrane components collagen IV and laminin [1]. Here primary cultures of kidney epithelial cells derived from cpk\\/cpk C57\\/B16 mice were established and the production of these proteins in culture was studied.

Mary Taub; Gordon W Laurie; George R Martin; Hynda K Kleinman

1990-01-01

85

The tumor cells were derived from primary mouse medulloblastomas, which are cerebel-  

E-print Network

The tumor cells were derived from primary mouse medulloblastomas, which are cerebel- lar tumors that, in humans, occur primarily between 5 and 10 years of age7. Because the tumors spread through anti-Parkinsonian drugs to the recent finding of reduced prevalence of brain tumors in patients

Doyle, Patrick S.

86

Supplemental Methods Measurement of heparan sulfate in primary mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells.  

E-print Network

. The material was dried and dissolved with 200 µl of H2O. Chondroitin sulfate was removed by treating a sampleSupplemental Methods Measurement of heparan sulfate in primary mouse lung microvascular endothelial used as a measurement of heparan sulfate in the sample. #12; TABLE S1 GBS strain A909 A909 R185

Nizet, Victor

87

Autograft reconstructions for bone defects in primary total knee replacement in severe varus knees  

PubMed Central

Background: Large posteromedial defects encountered in severe varus knees during primary total knee arthroplasty can be treated by cementoplasty, structural bone grafts or metallic wedges. The option is selected depending upon the size of the defect. We studied the outcome of autograft (structural and impaction bone grafting) reconstruction of medial tibial bone defects encountered during primary total knee replacement in severe varus knees. Materials and Methods: Out of 675 primary varus knees operated, bone defects in proximal tibia were encountered in 54 knees. Posteromedial defects involving 25-40% of the tibial condyle cut surface and measuring more than 5 mm in depth were grafted using a structural graft obtained from cut distal femur or proximal tibia in 48 knees. For larger, peripheral uncontained vertical defects in six cases, measuring >25 mm in depth and involving >40% cut surface of proximal tibial condyle, impaction bone grafting with a mesh support was used. Results: Bone grafts incorporated in 54 knees in 6 months. There was no graft collapse or stress fractures, loosening or nonunion. The average followup period was 7.8 years (range 5-10 years). We observed an average postoperative increase in the Knee Society Score from 40 to 90 points. There was improvement in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores in terms of pain, stiffness and physical function during activities of daily living. Conclusion: Bone grafting for defects in primary total knee is justified as it is biological, available then and is cost effective besides preserving bone stock for future revisions. Structural grafts should be used in defects >5 mm deep and involving 25-40% of the cut proximal tibial condyle surface. For larger peripheral vertical defects, impaction bone grafting contained in a mesh should be done. PMID:24932040

Kharbanda, Yatinder; Sharma, Mrinal

2014-01-01

88

Pathology of primary malignant bone and cartilage tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone- and cartilage-forming tumours (osteosarcomas and chondrosarcomas) are rare malignant neoplasms. These tumours are clinically aggressive and often need extensive local and\\/or systemic treatment. Whereas no other treatment but surgery is currently available for chondrosarcomas, osteosarcomas show an approximately 50–80% response rate to adjuvant chemotherapy. Surgical removal of these tumours is currently mostly performed with limb salvage, but amputation may

L. B. Rozeman; A. M. Cleton-Jansen; P. C. W. Hogendoorn

2006-01-01

89

Bone loss in survival motor neuron (Smn?/?SMN2) genetic mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by degenerating lower motor neurons and an increased incidence of congenital bone fractures. Survival motor neuron (SMN) levels are significantly reduced due to deletions/mutations in the telomeric SMN1 gene in these patients. We utilized the Smn?/? SMN2 mouse model of SMA to determine the functional role for SMN in bone remodelling. ?CT analysis of lumber vertebrae, tibia and femur bones from SMA mice revealed an osteoporotic bone phenotype. Histological analysis demonstrated a thin porous cortex of cortical bone and thin trabeculae at the proximal end of the growth plate in the vertebrae of SMA mice compared to wild-type mice. Histochemical staining of the vertebrae showed the presence of abundant activated osteoclasts on the sparse trabeculae and on the endosteal surface of the thin cortex in SMA mice. Histomorphometric analysis of vertebrae from SMA mice showed an increased number of osteoclasts. Serum TRAcP5b and urinary NTx levels were elevated, consistent with increased bone resorption in these mice. SMA mice showed a significant decrease in the levels of osteoblast differentiation markers, osteocalcin, osteopontin and osterix mRNA expression; however, there were no change in the levels of alkaline phosphatase expression compared to WT mice. SMA mouse bone marrow cultures revealed an increased rate of osteoclast formation (54%) and bone resorption capacity (46%) compared to WT mice. Pre-osteoclast cells from SMA mice showed constitutive up-regulation of RANK receptor signalling molecules critical for osteoclast differentiation. Our results implicate SMN function in bone remodelling and skeletal pathogenesis in SMA. Understanding basic mechanisms of SMN action in bone remodelling may uncover new therapeutic targets for preventing bone loss/fracture risk in SMA. PMID:19434631

Shanmugarajan, Srinivasan; Tsuruga, Eichi; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Maria, Bernard L; Ries, William L; Reddy, Sakamuri V

2009-01-01

90

Effects of implant neck design on primary stability and overload in a type IV mandibular bone.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effect of implant neck design on primary stability and overload using 3D finite element analysis. Four commercial dental implants and mandibular segments are created. Various parameters including the osseointegration condition (non-osseointegration and full osseointegration), force direction (vertical and horizontal), and cortical bone thickness (Tc?=?0.3, 0.5, and 1?mm) are considered. The vertical and horizontal forces, 500?N and 250?N, are statically applied at the top of the platform, respectively. Micromotion and von Mises stress are employed to evaluate the risk of osseointegration and bone fatigue before osseointegration condition. After osseointegration, the principal stress is used to analyze the bone overload. Maximal von Mises stress and micromotion of the peri-implant bone decreased as cortical bone thickness increased. Horizontal force induces stress concentration in the bone around the implant neck easier than that of vertical force, and it may result in crestal bone loss. Thinner cortical bone should avoid dental implantation because it causes a noteworthy larger micromotion and stress concentration in cortical bone in particular Tc less than 0.3?mm. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24799197

Chou, I-Chiang; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Jiang, Cho-Pei

2014-11-01

91

Guidelines for histopathological specimen examination and diagnostic reporting of primary bone tumours  

PubMed Central

This review is intended to provide histopathologists with guidelines for clinical assessment, specimen handling and diagnostic reporting of benign and malignant primary bone tumours. Information from radiology, surgical, oncology and other clinical colleagues involved in the diagnosis and treatment of primary bone tumours should be properly assessed before undertaking a structured approach to specimen handling and histological reporting. This ensures that the information needed for planning appropriate treatment of these complex tumours is provided. Consistency in diagnostic evaluation with respect to both terminology and report content facilitates liaison at multidisciplinary bone tumour meetings and collaboration between cancer units and networks, as well as providing a common database for audit of the clinical, radiological and pathological aspects of bone tumours. PMID:22613930

2011-01-01

92

Impaired cholesterol esterification in primary brain cultures of the lysosomal cholesterol storage disorder (LCSD) mouse mutant  

SciTech Connect

Esterification of cholesterol was investigated in primary neuroglial cultures obtained from newborn lysosomal cholesterol storage disorder (LCSD) mouse mutants. An impairment in /sup 3/H-oleic acid incorporation into cholesteryl esters was demonstrated in cultures of homozygous LCSD brain. Primary cultures derived from other phenotypically normal pups of the carrier breeders esterified cholesterol at normal levels or at levels which were intermediary between normal and deficient indicating a phenotypic expression of the LCSD heterozygote genotype. These observations on LCSD mutant brain cells indicate that the defect in cholesterol esterification is closely related to the primary genetic defect and is expressed in neuroglial cells in culture.

Patel, S.C.; Suresh, S.; Weintroub, H.; Brady, R.O.; Pentchev, P.G.

1987-02-27

93

Mouse Genome-Wide Association and Systems Genetics Identify Asxl2 As a Regulator of Bone Mineral Density and Osteoclastogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances have been made in the discovery of genes affecting bone mineral density (BMD); however, our understanding of its genetic basis remains incomplete. In the current study, genome-wide association (GWA) and co-expression network analysis were used in the recently described Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) to identify and functionally characterize novel BMD genes. In the HMDP, a GWA of

Charles R. Farber; Brian J. Bennett; Luz Orozco; Wei Zou; Ana Lira; Emrah Kostem; Hyun Min Kang; Nicholas Furlotte; Ani Berberyan; Anatole Ghazalpour; Jaijam Suwanwela; Thomas A. Drake; Eleazar Eskin; Q. Tian Wang; Steven L. Teitelbaum; Aldons J. Lusis

2011-01-01

94

Reconstruction of cortical bone remodeling in untreated primary hyperparathyroidism and following surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iliac crest bone biopsies from 39 patients (23 women, 16 men) with untreated primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) were examined. Static histomorphometric parameters for cortical bone was compared with values obtained from 39 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Thirty-five of the patients were double-labeled with tetracycline before biopsy. The cortical remodeling cycle was reconstructed in these patients and compared with 24 sex-matched

H. Brockstedt; P. Christiansen; L. Mosekilde; F. Melsen

1995-01-01

95

Radiation sensitivity and cycling status of mouse bone marrow prothymocytes and day 8 colony forming units spleen (CFUs)  

SciTech Connect

Mouse bone marrow prothymocytes as determined in an in vivo thymus regeneration assay have an in vitro gamma radiation sensitivity which is different from that of spleen colony forming cells (CFUs). Determination of Do according to in vivo irradiation revealed similar but insignificant differences. Prothymocytes in normal bone marrow maintain a low but slightly different proliferative state as compared to CFUs, according to determinations using the /sup 3/H-TdR suicide technique. In regenerating bone marrow prothymocytes were found to be sensitive to an inhibitory effect of in vitro incubation with cold thymidine. CFUs and normal bone marrow prothymocytes were not affected by cold thymidine. Taking into account the cold thymidine effect it can be concluded that prothymocytes and CFUs in regenerating bone marrow are fully in cycle. These results are best explained when prothymocytes and CFUs are considered to be different cells.

Boersma, W.J.

1983-11-01

96

Identification of differentially expressed genes and their subpathways in recurrent versus primary bone giant cell tumors.  

PubMed

Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bone is a benign but locally aggressive bone neoplasm with a strong tendency to develop local recurrent and metastatic disease. Thus, it provides a useful model system for the identification of biological mechanisms involved in bone tumor progression and metastasis. This study profiled 24 cases of recurrent versus primary bone GCT tissues using QuantiGene 2.0 Multiplex Arrays that included Human p53 80-Plex Panels and Human Stem Cell 80-Plex Panels. A total of 32 differentially expressed genes were identified, including the 20 most upregulated genes and the 12 most downregulated genes in recurrent GCT. The genes identified are related to cell growth, adhesion, apoptosis, signal transduction and bone formation. Furthermore, iSubpathwayMiner analyses were performed to identify significant biological pathway regions (subpathway) associated with this disease. The pathway analysis identified 11 statistically significant enriched subpathways, including pathways in cancer, p53 signaling pathway, osteoclast differentiation pathway and Wnt signaling pathway. Among these subpathways, four genes (IGF1, MDM2, STAT1 and RAC1) were presumed to play an important role in bone GCT recurrence. The differentially expressed MDM2 protein was immunohistochemically confirmed in the recurrent versus primary bone GCT tissues. This study identified differentially expressed genes and their subpathways in recurrent GCT, which may serve as potential biomarkers for the prediction of GCT recurrence. PMID:24969034

Chen, Shuxin; Li, Chunquan; Wu, Bingli; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Cheng; Lin, Xiaoxu; Wu, Xiangqiao; Sun, Lingling; Liu, Chunpeng; Chen, Bo; Zhong, Zhigang; Xu, Liyan; Li, Enmin

2014-09-01

97

Induction of lacZ Mutations in Muta(TM)Mouse Primary Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

We have developed an in vitro mutation assay using primary hepatocytes from the transgenic Muta™Mouse. Primary hepatocytes were isolated using a two-step perfusion method with purification by Percoll, cultured, and treated with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl- imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 3-nitrobenzoanthrone (3-NBA), and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). The mean lacZ mutant frequency (MF) for the solvent control was approximately twofold greater than the spontaneous MF observed in liver tissue. A concentration-dependent increase in MF (up to 3.7-fold above control) was observed following exposure to BaP. Fourfold and twofold increases in mutant frequency were observed for 3-NBA and PhIP exposures, respectively, without the addition of any exogenous metabolic activation. A slight but statistically significant increase in lacZ MF was observed for CSC, but only at the lowest concentration. This is the first report demonstrating that mutations can be detected in cultured primary hepatocytes from Muta™Mouse. The preliminary results presented suggest that the Muta™Mouse primary hepatocyte mutagenicity assay can be used as a cost-effective tool for screening of environmental mutagens and therapeutic products. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 51:330–337, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19953605

Chen, Guosheng; Gingerich, John; Soper, Lynda; Douglas, George R; White, Paul A

2010-01-01

98

Pulsed focused ultrasound treatment of muscle mitigates paralysis-induced bone loss in the adjacent bone: a study in a mouse model.  

PubMed

Bone loss can result from bed rest, space flight, spinal cord injury or age-related hormonal changes. Current bone loss mitigation techniques include pharmaceutical interventions, exercise, pulsed ultrasound targeted to bone and whole body vibration. In this study, we attempted to mitigate paralysis-induced bone loss by applying focused ultrasound to the midbelly of a paralyzed muscle. We employed a mouse model of disuse that uses onabotulinumtoxinA-induced paralysis, which causes rapid bone loss in 5 d. A focused 2 MHz transducer applied pulsed exposures with pulse repetition frequency mimicking that of motor neuron firing during walking (80 Hz), standing (20 Hz), or the standard pulsed ultrasound frequency used in fracture healing (1 kHz). Exposures were applied daily to calf muscle for 4 consecutive d. Trabecular bone changes were characterized using micro-computed tomography. Our results indicated that application of certain focused pulsed ultrasound parameters was able to mitigate some of the paralysis-induced bone loss. PMID:24857416

Poliachik, Sandra L; Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Simon, Julianna C; Bailey, Michael R

2014-09-01

99

Optimisation of the differing conditions required for bone formation in vitro by primary osteoblasts from mice and rats  

PubMed Central

The in vitro culture of calvarial osteoblasts from neonatal rodents remains an important method for studying the regulation of bone formation. The widespread use of transgenic mice has created a particular need for a reliable, simple method that allows the differentiation and bone-forming activity of murine osteoblasts to be studied. In the present study, we established such a method and identified key differences in optimal culture conditions between mouse and rat osteoblasts. Cells isolated from neonatal rodent calvariae by collagenase digestion were cultured for 14–28 days before staining for tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and bone mineralisation (alizarin red). The reliable differentiation of mouse osteoblasts, resulting in abundant TNAP expression and the formation of mineralised ‘trabecular-shaped’ bone nodules, occurred only following culture in ? minimum essential medium (?MEM) and took 21–28 days. Dexamethasone (10 nM) inhibited bone mineralisation in the mouse osteoblasts. By contrast, TNAP expression and bone formation by rat osteoblasts were observed following culture in both ?MEM and Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) after approximately 14 days (although ~3-fold more effectively in ?MEM) and was strongly dependent on dexamethasone. Both the mouse and rat osteoblasts required ascorbate (50 ?g/ml) for osteogenic differentiation and ?-glycerophosphate (2 mM) for mineralisation. The rat and mouse osteoblasts showed similar sensitivity to the well-established inhibitors of mineralisation, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP; 1–100 ?M). The high efficiency of osteogenic differentiation observed following culture in ?MEM, compared with culture in DMEM possibly reflects the richer formulation of the former. These findings offer a reliable technique for inducing mouse osteoblasts to form bone in vitro and a more effective method for culturing bone-forming rat osteoblasts. PMID:25200658

ORRISS, ISABEL R.; HAJJAWI, MARK O.R.; HUESA, CARMEN; MACRAE, VICKY E.; ARNETT, TIMOTHY R.

2014-01-01

100

Role of aquaporin 9 in cellular accumulation of arsenic and its cytotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

Aquaporin (AQP) 9 is a member of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily of AQPs in the transfer of water and small solutes such as glycerol and arsenite. It is well recognized that arsenic toxicity is associated with intracellular accumulation of this metalloid. In the present study, we examined the contribution of AQP9 to the uptake of inorganic arsenite, thereby increasing arsenic-induced cytotoxicity in primary mouse hepatocytes. Pretreatment with sorbitol as a competitive inhibitor of AQP9 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of AQP9 resulted in a significant decrease of arsenite uptake in the cell and its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, overexpression of AQP9 in HEK293 cells led to the enhancement of intracellular arsenic concentration, resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity after arsenite exposure. These results suggest that AQP9 is a channel to define arsenite sensitivity in primary mouse hepatocytes.

Shinkai, Yasuhiro [Organization for Frontier Research in Preventive Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Ho-3 Kanagawa-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1181 (Japan); Sumi, Daigo; Toyama, Takashi [Department of Environmental Medicine, Doctoral Programs in Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Kaji, Toshiyuki [Organization for Frontier Research in Preventive Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Ho-3 Kanagawa-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1181 (Japan); Kumagai, Yoshito [Department of Environmental Medicine, Doctoral Programs in Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan)], E-mail: yk-em-tu@md.tsukuba.ac.jp

2009-06-01

101

Activation of CYP1A1 gene expression during primary culture of mouse hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of CYP1A1 mRNA in mouse hepatocytes in primary culture was investigated. The expression was obvious on day 3 of culture without addition of any known ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and increased with culture period. Removal of insulin from and addition of hydrogen peroxide to the medium enhanced and suppressed the expression, respectively. The CYP1A1 mRNA expression was

Hisako Tamaki; Tsutomu Sakuma; Yo-ichi Uchida; Atika Jaruchotikamol; Nobuo Nemoto

2005-01-01

102

Primary B-lymphoblastic lymphoma of gallbladder involving mandibular bone.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 75-year-old man who presented for evaluation of painless hematuria persisting for more than 1 month. At the time of presentation, the patient did not report any systemic symptoms and had no fever, weight loss, or dysuria. Computed tomography showed several enhancing, sessile polyps in the gall bladder (1.5 cm or smaller). There was no associated stone or biliary dilation. Since no other abnormality was evident, we performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He was diagnosed as having B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) after surgical resection of the gall bladder (GB). As the left mandibular swelling was developed after the diagnosis of the B-LBL involving GB, facial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added to the imaging scan. Facial MRI revealed mass formation in the left mandible, left medial pterygoid, masticator, and buccinator muscles. The biopsy samples from the mandibular bone were also diagnosed as B-LBL. The definitive pathological diagnosis was B-LBL, stage IV. Systemic chemotherapy was done with subsequent response in size of the left mandible mass. PMID:24789124

Kim, Hee-Jun; Lee, Tae Jin; Choi, Yoo Shin

2014-06-01

103

A blinded study of bone marrow examinations in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia  

PubMed Central

Objective The role of bone marrow examinations in patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is uncertain. The objectives of this study were to determine the inter-rater reliability of bone marrow examinations and to identify distinguishing morphological features of ITP bone marrows under controlled conditions. Methods Histological slides of bone marrow biopsy specimens and aspirates from 32 adult patients with severe primary ITP who had failed a median of two treatments, and 51 non-thrombocytopenic controls were retrieved from hospital archives. Slides were arranged in random order in a slide box and coded. Blinded to the diagnosis and platelet counts, three independent hematopathologists were asked to identify the ITP bone marrows and to evaluate megakaryocyte number, morphology, and distribution. Results Overall chance-corrected agreement on ITP classification among the three raters was poor [kappa (?) = 0.30; 95% confidence interval 0.22–0.38]. Raters were generally unable to correctly identify the ITP bone marrows from controls. Increased number of megakaryocytes, while an uncommon finding, was more frequent among ITP patients compared with controls (6/32, 18.8%; vs. 2/51, 3.9%; P = 0.05), and abnormal megakaryocyte morphology often led individual raters to reach a diagnosis of ITP. Overall sensitivity and specificity of bone marrow examinations were 24% and 90%, respectively. Conclusions This study confirms methodologically that bone marrow examinations are unreliable and frequently non-diagnostic in ITP. Thus, they are not useful for patients with typical disease. Rare subsets of patients with severe ITP demonstrated unique features such as increased number of megakaryocytes. PMID:23140198

Mahabir, Vishwanath K.; Ross, Catherine; Popovic, Snezana; Sur, Mona Lisa; Bourgeois, Jacqueline; Lim, Wendy; George, James N.; Wang, Grace; Cook, Richard J.; Toltl, Lisa J.; Nazi, Ishac; Kelton, John G.; Arnold, Donald M.

2014-01-01

104

Rapid Structural Remodeling of Thalamocortical Synapses Parallels Experience-Dependent Functional Plasticity in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex  

E-print Network

Monocular lid closure (MC) causes a profound shift in the ocular dominance (OD) of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). Anatomical studies in both cat and mouse V1 suggest that large-scale structural rearrangements of ...

Coleman, Jason E.

105

Human prostate cancer metastases target the hematopoietic stem cell niche to establish footholds in mouse bone marrow  

PubMed Central

HSC homing, quiescence, and self-renewal depend on the bone marrow HSC niche. A large proportion of solid tumor metastases are bone metastases, known to usurp HSC homing pathways to establish footholds in the bone marrow. However, it is not clear whether tumors target the HSC niche during metastasis. Here we have shown in a mouse model of metastasis that human prostate cancer (PCa) cells directly compete with HSCs for occupancy of the mouse HSC niche. Importantly, increasing the niche size promoted metastasis, whereas decreasing the niche size compromised dissemination. Furthermore, disseminated PCa cells could be mobilized out of the niche and back into the circulation using HSC mobilization protocols. Finally, once in the niche, tumor cells reduced HSC numbers by driving their terminal differentiation. These data provide what we believe to be the first evidence that the HSC niche serves as a direct target for PCa during dissemination and plays a central role in bone metastases. Our work may lead to better understanding of the molecular events involved in bone metastases and new therapeutic avenues for an incurable disease. PMID:21436587

Shiozawa, Yusuke; Pedersen, Elisabeth A.; Havens, Aaron M.; Jung, Younghun; Mishra, Anjali; Joseph, Jeena; Kim, Jin Koo; Patel, Lalit R.; Ying, Chi; Ziegler, Anne M.; Pienta, Michael J.; Song, Junhui; Wang, Jingcheng; Loberg, Robert D.; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Taichman, Russell S.

2011-01-01

106

Prolonged Bioluminescence Monitoring in Mouse Ex Vivo Bone Culture Revealed Persistent Circadian Rhythms in Articular Cartilages and Growth Plates  

PubMed Central

The bone is a metabolically active organ which undergoes repeated remodeling cycles of bone resorption and formation. In this study, we revealed a robust and extremely long-lasting circadian rhythm in ex vivo culture maintained for over six months from the femoral bone of a PERIOD2Luciferase mouse. Furthermore, we also identified robust circadian clocks in flat bones. High- or low-magnification real-time bioluminescence microscopic imaging revealed that the robust circadian rhythms emanated from the articular cartilage and the epiphyseal cartilage within the growth plate of juvenile animals. Stimulation by forskolin or dexamethasone treatment caused type 0 phase resetting, indicating canonical entraining properties of the bone clock. Together, our findings from long-term ex vivo culture revealed that “tissue-autonomous” circadian rhythm in the articular cartilage and the growth plate of femoral bone functions for several months even in an organ culture condition, and provided a useful in vitro assay system investigating the role of the biological clock in bone formation or development. PMID:24223788

Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Umemura, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshiki; Shirai, Toshiharu; Oda, Ryo; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu; Yagita, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

107

Intraspinal dural-based primary osteoblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst-like change.  

PubMed

Osteoblastoma is a benign bone-forming neoplasm that occurs commonly in the posterior elements of the spine and the sacrum. However, so far there has been no report of intradural osteoblastoma described in the literature. We present a unique case of intraspinal dural-based osteoblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst-like change without evidence of vertebral involvement. An 11-year-old Chinese girl presented with a 3-month history of gradually progressive back pain and a weakness of both lower limbs. Thoracic MRI revealed a well-demarcated subdural mass at the T5 level with heterogeneous enhancement. Histologically, the tumor was found to be attached to the dura and composed of numerous osteoid spicules and trabecular bone with diffusely scattered osteoclast-type, multinucleated giant cells. Ectactic blood vessels and blood-filled cystic spaces were also observed. A diagnosis of primary intraspinal dural-based osteoblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst-like change was made. To our best knowledge, this is possibly the first case of primary osteoblastoma arising from meninges. Meningeal osteocartilaginous tumors are rare, with obscure histogenesis. The differential diagnosis of osteoblastoma in unusual locations is difficult and the confirmation of diagnosis should be cautiously made. Awareness of dural-based osteoblastoma and its histological features is important to avoid a diagnostic pitfall caused by histological similarities to other intra-craniospinal lesions with osteoid differentiation or bone formation. PMID:24984761

Fu, Xinge; Jiang, Juhong; Luo, Bo-Ning; Tian, Xiao-Ying; Li, Zhi

2014-10-01

108

Automatic detection and quantitative analysis of cells in the mouse primary motor cortex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neuronal cells play very important role on metabolism regulation and mechanism control, so cell number is a fundamental determinant of brain function. Combined suitable cell-labeling approaches with recently proposed three-dimensional optical imaging techniques, whole mouse brain coronal sections can be acquired with 1-?m voxel resolution. We have developed a completely automatic pipeline to perform cell centroids detection, and provided three-dimensional quantitative information of cells in the primary motor cortex of C57BL/6 mouse. It involves four principal steps: i) preprocessing; ii) image binarization; iii) cell centroids extraction and contour segmentation; iv) laminar density estimation. Investigations on the presented method reveal promising detection accuracy in terms of recall and precision, with average recall rate 92.1% and average precision rate 86.2%. We also analyze laminar density distribution of cells from pial surface to corpus callosum from the output vectorizations of detected cell centroids in mouse primary motor cortex, and find significant cellular density distribution variations in different layers. This automatic cell centroids detection approach will be beneficial for fast cell-counting and accurate density estimation, as time-consuming and error-prone manual identification is avoided.

Meng, Yunlong; He, Yong; Wu, Jingpeng; Chen, Shangbin; Li, Anan; Gong, Hui

2014-09-01

109

A Systems Biology Study on NF?B Signaling in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) is one of the key factors during the priming phase of liver regeneration as well as in hepatocarcinogenesis. TNF? activates the nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF?B) signaling pathway and contributes to the conversion of quiescent hepatocytes to activated hepatocytes that are able to proliferate in response to growth factor stimulation. Different mathematical models have been previously established for TNF?/NF?B signaling in the context of tumor cells. Combining these mathematical models with time-resolved measurements of expression and phosphorylation of TNF?/NF?B pathway constituents in primary mouse hepatocytes revealed that an additional phosphorylation step of the NF?B isoform p65 has to be considered in the mathematical model in order to sufficiently describe the dynamics of pathway activation in the primary cells. Also, we addressed the role of basal protein turnover by experimentally measuring the degradation rate of pivotal players in the absence of TNF? and including this information in the model. To elucidate the impact of variations in the protein degradation rates on TNF?/NF?B signaling on the overall dynamic behavior we used global sensitivity analysis that accounts for parameter uncertainties and showed that degradation and translation of p65 had a major impact on the amplitude and the integral of p65 phosphorylation. Finally, our mathematical model of TNF?/NF?B signaling was able to predict the time-course of the complex formation of p65 and of the inhibitor of NF?B (I?B) in primary mouse hepatocytes, which was experimentally verified. Hence, we here present a mathematical model for TNF?/NF?B signaling in primary mouse hepatocytes that provides an important basis to quantitatively disentangle the complex interplay of multiple factors in liver regeneration and tumorigenesis. PMID:23293603

Pinna, Federico; Sahle, Sven; Beuke, Katharina; Bissinger, Michaela; Tuncay, Selcan; D'Alessandro, Lorenza A.; Gauges, Ralph; Raue, Andreas; Timmer, Jens; Klingmuller, Ursula; Schirmacher, Peter; Kummer, Ursula; Breuhahn, Kai

2012-01-01

110

Bone metabolism in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism before and after surgery.  

PubMed

Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is accompanied with a reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of fracture. Surgery is the only option for cure. It is hypothesized that in patients with PHPT bone metabolism normalizes after parathyroidectomy (PTX) and that BMD gradually increases. Fifty-two patients with PHPT who underwent surgery were prospectively followed for 1 year. Biochemical analyses were performed at baseline and 1, 4, 7 days; 6 weeks; and 3, 6, and 12 months, and BMD before and one year after surgery. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and the bone resorption marker dropped immediately, but transiently after PTX, bone formation decreased more slowly. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) as well as cathepsin K did not show significant changes. BMD of the lumbar spine, but not of the femoral neck, increased significantly within one year after surgery. Moderate correlations existed between the changes of total calcium, ionized calcium, as well as bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and changes of the lumbar BMD. Patients who needed postoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D had significantly higher PTH levels. Some gender-specific differences in patients with PHPT were observed. In patients with PHPT, males appear to be more severely affected than females. Within the first year after PTX, bone metabolism normalized, and BMD of the lumbar spine increased. Patients who needed a supplementation with calcium and vitamin D after PTX preoperatively had higher serum levels of PTH. PMID:22495973

Kerschan-Schindl, K; Riss, P; Krestan, C; Rauner, M; Bieglmayer, C; Gleiss, A; Fialka-Moser, V; Niederle, B; Pietschmann, P

2012-06-01

111

An advanced culture method for generating large quantities of highly pure dendritic cells from mouse bone marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

As dendritic cells (DC) are rare populations in all organs, their generation from hematopoietic precursors in large quantities has proven critical to study their biology. From murine bone marrow about 5×106 cells at 70% purity are obtained per mouse after 8 days of culture with GM-CSF. We have improved this standard method and routinely achieve a 50-fold higher yield, i.e.,

Manfred B Lutz; Nicole Kukutsch; Alexandra L. J Ogilvie; Susanne Rößner; Franz Koch; Nikolaus Romani; Gerold Schuler

1999-01-01

112

Identification of clonogenic common Flt3+M-CSFR+ plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cell progenitors in mouse bone marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphoid tissue plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are continuously regenerated from hematopoietic stem cells. The cytokine dependence and biology of plasmacytoid and conventional DCs suggest that regeneration might proceed through common DC-restricted developmental intermediates. By selecting for cytokine receptor expression relevant to DC development, we identify here highly cycling Lin?c-KitintFlt3+M-CSFR+ cells with a distinct gene-expression profile in mouse bone

Nobuyuki Onai; Aya Obata-Onai; Michael A Schmid; Toshiaki Ohteki; David Jarrossay; Markus G Manz

2007-01-01

113

Effects of major histocompatibility complex class II knockout on mouse bone mechanical properties during development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the effect of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) knockout on the development of the mouse peripheral skeleton. These C2D mice had less skeletal development at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (B6) male mice. The C2D mice had decreased femur mechanical, geometric and compositional measurements compared to wild type mice at each of these ages. C2D femur stiffness (S), peak force in 3-pt bending (Pm), and mineral mass (Min-M) were 74%, 64% and 66%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values at 8 weeks of age. Similar differences were measured at 12 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 71%, 72% and 73%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values) and at 16 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 80%, 66% and 61%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values). MHC II knockout delays the development of adult bone properties and is accompanied by lower body mass compared to wild-type controls.

Simske, Steven J.; Bateman, Ted A.; Smith, Erin E.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Chapes, Stephen K.

2002-01-01

114

Bone Mass Is Preserved and Cancellous Architecture Altered Due to Cyclic Loading of the Mouse Tibia After Orchidectomy*  

PubMed Central

Introduction The study of adaptation to mechanical loading under osteopenic conditions is relevant to the development of osteoporotic fracture prevention strategies. We previously showed that loading increased cancellous bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness in normal male mice. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cyclic mechanical loading of the mouse tibia inhibits orchidectomy (ORX)-associated cancellous bone loss. Materials and Methods Ten-week-old male C57BL/6 mice had in vivo cyclic axial compressive loads applied to one tibia every day, 5 d/wk, for 6 wk after ORX or sham operation. Adaptation of proximal cancellous and diaphyseal cortical bone was characterized by ?CT and dynamic histomorphometry. Comparisons were made between loaded and nonloaded contralateral limbs and between the limbs of ORX (n = 10), sham (n = 11), and basal (n = 12) groups and tested by two-factor ANOVA with interaction. Results Cyclic loading inhibited bone loss after ORX, maintaining absolute bone mass at age-matched sham levels. Relative to sham, ORX resulted in significant loss of cancellous bone volume fraction (?78%) and trabecular number (?35%), increased trabecular separation (67%), no change in trabecular thickness, and smaller loss of diaphyseal cortical properties, consistent with other studies. Proximal cancellous bone volume fraction was greater with loading (ORX: 290%, sham: 68%) than in contralateral nonloaded tibias. Furthermore, trabeculae thickened with loading (ORX: 108%, sham: 48%). Dynamic cancellous bone histomorphometry indicated that loading was associated with greater mineral apposition rates (ORX: 32%, sham: 12%) and smaller percent mineralizing surfaces (ORX: ?47%, sham: ?39%) in the final week. Loading resulted in greater BMC (ORX: 21%, sham: 15%) and maximum moment of inertia (ORX: 39%, sham: 24%) at the cortical midshaft. Conclusions This study shows that cancellous bone mass loss can be prevented by mechanical loading after hormonal compromise and supports further exploration of nonpharmacologic measures to prevent rapid-onset osteopenia and associated fractures. PMID:18433300

Fritton, J Christopher; Myers, Elizabeth R; Wright, Timothy M; van der Meulen, Marjolein CH

2008-01-01

115

A three-dimensional tissue culture model to study primary human bone marrow and its malignancies.  

PubMed

Tissue culture has been an invaluable tool to study many aspects of cell function, from normal development to disease. Conventional cell culture methods rely on the ability of cells either to attach to a solid substratum of a tissue culture dish or to grow in suspension in liquid medium. Multiple immortal cell lines have been created and grown using such approaches, however, these methods frequently fail when primary cells need to be grown ex vivo. Such failure has been attributed to the absence of the appropriate extracellular matrix components of the tissue microenvironment from the standard systems where tissue culture plastic is used as a surface for cell growth. Extracellular matrix is an integral component of the tissue microenvironment and its presence is crucial for the maintenance of physiological functions such as cell polarization, survival, and proliferation. Here we present a 3-dimensional tissue culture method where primary bone marrow cells are grown in extracellular matrix formulated to recapitulate the microenvironment of the human bone (rBM system). Embedded in the extracellular matrix, cells are supplied with nutrients through the medium supplemented with human plasma, thus providing a comprehensive system where cell survival and proliferation can be sustained for up to 30 days while maintaining the cellular composition of the primary tissue. Using the rBM system we have successfully grown primary bone marrow cells from normal donors and patients with amyloidosis, and various hematological malignancies. The rBM system allows for direct, in-matrix real time visualization of the cell behavior and evaluation of preclinical efficacy of novel therapeutics. Moreover, cells can be isolated from the rBM and subsequently used for in vivo transplantation, cell sorting, flow cytometry, and nucleic acid and protein analysis. Taken together, the rBM method provides a reliable system for the growth of primary bone marrow cells under physiological conditions. PMID:24637629

Parikh, Mukti R; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M; Kirshner, Julia

2014-01-01

116

Retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary mouse hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

Genetic therapy for phenylketonuria (severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) may require introduction of a normal phenylalanine hydroxylase gene into hepatic cells of patients. The authors report development of a recombinant retrovirus based on the N2 vector for gene transfer and expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA in primary mouse hepatocytes. This construct contains an internal promoter of the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin gene driving transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase cDNA. Primary mouse hepatocytes were isolated from newborn mice, infected with the recombinant virus, and selected for expression of the neomycin-resistance gene. Hepatocytes transformed with the recombinant virus contained high levels of human phenylalanine hydroxylase mRNA transcripts originating from the retroviral and internal promoters. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulatory elements of the {alpha}{sub 1} antitrypsin gene retain their tissue-specific function in the recombinant provirus and establish a method for efficient transfer and high-level expression of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in primary hepatocytes.

Peng, H.; Armentano, D.; Mackenzie-Graham, L.; Shen, R.F.; Darlington, G.; Ledley, F.D.; Woo, S.L.C. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

1988-11-01

117

Primary Multicentric Angiosarcoma of Bone: True Entity or Metastases from an Unknown Primary? Value of Comparative Genomic Hybridization on Paraffin Embedded Tissues  

PubMed Central

Multicentric primary angiosarcoma of bone has been described as a distinct entity from bone metastases from angiosarcoma. Bone angiosarcoma accounts for less than 1% of sarcomas. It has dismal prognosis overall, but the multicentric expression does not confer worse prognosis. We describe the case of an old male with bone angiosarcoma of the extremities with multicentric presentation. He soon after had soft tissue angiosarcoma of the head and neck. Histology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with the diagnosis of high-grade angiosarcoma. Comparative genomic hybridization on paraffin-embedded samples of the bone and head and neck samples suggested additional abnormalities in the bone fragment, thus suggesting than bone lesions were indeed metastatic from his head and neck angiosarcoma; although these preliminary analyses warrant confirmation in other similar rare cases. The patient died after 3 years of relapsed acute leukemia with progressive angiosarcoma. PMID:24179665

Thariat, Juliette; Peyrottes, Isabelle; Chibon, Frederic; Benchetrit, Maxime; Saada, Esma; Gastaud, Lauris; Dassonville, Olivier; Iannessi, Antoine; Thyss, Antione

2013-01-01

118

Characteristics and response of mouse bone marrow derived novel low adherent mesenchymal stem cells acquired by quantification of extracellular matrix  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of present study was to identify characteristic and response of mouse bone marrow (BM) derived low-adherent bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) obtained by quantification of extracellular matrix (ECM). MATERIALS AND METHODS Non-adherent cells acquired by ECM coated dishes were termed low-adherent BMMSCs and these cells were analyzed by in vitro and in vivo methods, including colony forming unit fibroblast (CFU-f), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), multi-potential differentiation, flow cytometry and transplantation into nude mouse to measure the bone formation ability of these low-adherent BMMSCs. Titanium (Ti) discs with machined and anodized surfaces were prepared. Adherent and low-adherent BMMSCs were cultured on the Ti discs for testing their proliferation. RESULTS The amount of CFU-f cells was significantly higher when non-adherent cells were cultured on ECM coated dishes, which was made by 7 days culturing of adherent BMMSCs. Low-adherent BMMSCs had proliferation and differentiation potential as adherent BMMSCs in vitro. The mean amount bone formation of adherent and low-adherent BMMSCs was also investigated in vivo. There was higher cell proliferation appearance in adherent and low-adherent BMMSCs seeded on anodized Ti discs than machined Ti discs by time. CONCLUSION Low-adherent BMMSCs acquired by ECM from non-adherent cell populations maintained potential characteristic similar to those of the adherent BMMSCs and therefore could be used effectively as adherent BMMSCs in clinic. PMID:25352957

Zheng, Ri-Cheng; Heo, Seong-Joo; Koak, Jai-Young; Lee, Joo-Hee; Park, Ji-Man

2014-01-01

119

Imaging Primary Mouse Sarcomas After Radiation Therapy Using Cathepsin-Activatable Fluorescent Imaging Agents  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes can detect tumors in mice and in canine patients. We previously showed that these probes can detect microscopic residual sarcoma in the tumor bed of mice during gross total resection. Many patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and other tumors undergo radiation therapy (RT) before surgery. This study assesses the effect of RT on the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between normal and cancerous tissue. Methods and Materials: A genetically engineered mouse model of STS was used to generate primary hind limb sarcomas that were treated with hypofractionated RT. Mice were injected intravenously with cathepsin-activated fluorescent probes, and various tissues, including the tumor, were imaged using a hand-held imaging device. Resected tumor and normal muscle samples were harvested to assess cathepsin expression by Western blot. Uptake of activated probe was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Parallel in vitro studies using mouse sarcoma cells were performed. Results: RT of primary STS in mice and mouse sarcoma cell lines caused no change in probe activation or cathepsin protease expression. Increasing radiation dose resulted in an upward trend in probe activation. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence showed that a substantial proportion of probe-labeled cells were CD11b-positive tumor-associated immune cells. Conclusions: In this primary murine model of STS, RT did not affect the ability of cathepsin-activated probes to differentiate between tumor and normal muscle. Cathepsin-activated probes labeled tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages. Our results suggest that it would be feasible to include patients who have received preoperative RT in clinical studies evaluating cathepsin-activated imaging probes.

Cuneo, Kyle C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Mito, Jeffrey K.; Javid, Melodi P. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ferrer, Jorge M. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Kim, Yongbaek [Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Clinical Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. David [The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)] [The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Bawendi, Moungi G. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Brigman, Brian E. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kirsch, David G., E-mail: david.kirsch@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

2013-05-01

120

Case report and review of primary bone diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the calcaneus.  

PubMed

Primary bone lymphoma from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a very rare condition, especially in the foot. In the present case report, a 23-year-old female patient presented with long-term pain along the lateral aspect of her right calcaneus. Ancillary magnetic resonance imaging revealed a radiolucent bone tumor in the calcaneus. Computed tomography-guided biopsy of the bone was completed and revealed chronic inflammation with hematopoietic elements. The patient continued to have pain and limitation in her daily activities after the biopsy. The patient underwent surgical excision and curettage by the senior author. Pathologic examination revealed that the lesion was consistent with diffuse, large, B-cell lymphoma, stage IAE. The lesion appeared to have been completely excised at surgery, and the patient underwent 3 cycles of chemotherapy and 15 radiotherapy sessions to the calcaneus. At the last follow-up visit, the patient had been disease free for 5 years. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of primary bone, diffuse, large B-cell lymphoma of the calcaneus to be treated with a combination of surgical excision, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. PMID:23628193

Blume, Peter; Charlot-Hicks, Farlyn; Mohammed, Samirah

2013-01-01

121

Primary Neoplasms of Bones in Mice: Retrospective Study and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

To compare and summarize the mechanisms, frequencies of occurrence, and classification schemes of spontaneous, experimental, and genetically engineered, mouse skeletal neoplasms, the literature was reviewed and archived case material at The Jackson Laboratory examined. The frequency of occurrence of spontaneous bone neoplasms was less than 1% for most strains, with the exceptions of osteomas in CF-1 (5.5% and 10% in two studies) and OF-1 outbred strains (35%), and osteosarcomas in NOD/ShiLtJ (11.5%) and NOD derived (7.1%) mice. The frequency was 100% for osteochondromas induced by conditional inactivation of exostoses (multiple) 1 (Ext1) in chondrocytes, osteosarcomas induced by tibial intramedullary inoculation of Moloney’s murine sarcoma virus, and osteosarcomas induced by conditional inactivation of Trp53-with or without inactivation of Rb1-in osteoblast precursors. Spontaneous osteogenic neoplasms were more frequent than spontaneous cartilaginous and vascular types. Malignant neoplasms were more frequent than benign ones. The age of occurrence for spontaneous neoplasms ranged from 37 to 720 (Mean 316.35) days for benign, and 35 to 990 (Mean 299.28) days for malignant neoplasms. In genetically engineered mice, the average age of occurrence ranged from 28 to 70 days for benign, and from 35 to 690 days for malignant neoplasms. Histologically, non-osteogenic neoplasms were similar across strains and mutant stocks; osteogenic neoplasms exhibited greater diversity. This comparison and summarization of mouse bone neoplasms provides valuable information for the selection of strains to create, compare, and validate models of bone neoplasms. PMID:21343597

Kavirayani, A. M.; Sundberg, J. P.; Foreman, O.

2011-01-01

122

Examination of ER? signaling pathways in bone of mutant mouse models reveals the importance of ERE-dependent signaling.  

PubMed

The mechanisms of estrogen receptor (ER)-? activity can be categorized into those involving direct (classical) or indirect (nonclassical) DNA binding. Although various mouse models have demonstrated the importance of ER? in bone, the specific gene expression patterns affected by these modes of ER? action are unknown. In this report, the gene expression patterns of ER?-deficient (ERKO) mice and nonclassical ER knock-in (NERKI) mice, which can function only by nonclassical means, were analyzed. Three-month-old mice were ovariectomized and implanted with estrogen pellets for 1 month to normalize estrogen levels. Microarray analysis of flushed cortical bone revealed 28% (210 of 763) of the genes differentially expressed in ERKO mice were altered in NERKI mice, suggesting estrogen response element-dependent regulation of these genes in bone. Pathway analysis revealed alterations in genes involved in focal adhesion and extracellular matrix interactions. However, the majority of genes regulated in ERKO mice (72%) were unique (i.e. not altered in NERKI mice), suggesting these are regulated by nonclassical mechanisms. To further explore the pathways affected in ERKO mice, we performed focused quantitative PCR arrays for genes involved in various aspects of bone physiology. Genes involved in bone formation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy were significantly regulated. Overall, the majority of the genes regulated by ER? in bone are via nonclassical pathways. However, because NERKI mice display an osteoporotic phenotype, it can be deduced that the minority of the estrogen response element-dependent genes/pathways play critical roles in the regulation of bone physiology. These data demonstrate the importance of classical ER? signaling in regulating bone metabolism. PMID:23015293

Chokalingam, Kumar; Roforth, Matthew M; Nicks, Kristy M; McGregor, Ulrike; Fraser, Daniel; Khosla, Sundeep; Monroe, David G

2012-11-01

123

Evaluation and validation of multiple cell lines and primary mouse macrophages to predict phospholipidosis potential.  

PubMed

Phospholipidosis (PLD) in preclinical species can lead to regulatory delays thereby creating incentives to screen for PLD during drug discovery. The objective of this work was to compare, optimize, and validate in vitro PLD assays in primary mouse macrophages and hepatocyte- (HepG2, HuH7) or macrophage-derived cells lines (I.13.35, RAW264.7) and to evaluate whether primary cells were better at predicting PLD. Assay precision, determined by a measure of signal to noise window (Z'), within assay variability, and day-to-day variability, using amiodarone, was generally acceptable for all cell types; however, precision limits for HepG2 and HuH7 were slightly below assay acceptance criteria. Up to 66 known PLD inducers and non-inducers were subsequently tested to validate the assays. The concordance for predicting PLD in primary macrophages, I-13.35, RAW264.7, HuH7, and HepG2 cells was 91%, 74%, 73%, 62%, and 62% respectively using a decision limit of EC50?125 ?M as a positive finding. Increasing the number of negative controls tested in RAW264.7 cells and changing the decision limit to ?4-fold increase in PLD, improved the specificity and overall concordance to 88%. RAW264.7 cells were selected as the primary screen for predicting PLD, and together with the primary macrophages, were integrated into an overall testing paradigm proposed for use in PLD risk identification. PMID:21767630

LeCureux, Lloyd; Cheng, Charles S; Herbst, John; Reilly, Timothy P; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois; Otieno, Monicah

2011-12-01

124

Surface characteristics and primary bone marrow stromal cell response of a nanostructured strontium-containing oxide layer produced on a microrough titanium surface.  

PubMed

Strontium (Sr) has been successfully used for the treatment of osteoporotic bone, increasing new bone formation while reducing bone resorption by stimulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells and inhibiting osteoclast function. In this study, Sr-incorporated Ti oxide layer was produced on clinically relevant osteoconductive implant surface, that is, a grit-blasted microrough Ti surface, by a simple hydrothermal treatment with the expectation of utilizing the osteoblast response enhancement effect of Sr for the future applications as a more osteoconductive surface of the permanent load-bearing endosseous implants, without altering the original microrough surface features of grit-blasted Ti at the micron-scale. This surface exhibits a hierarchical structure (i.e., a nanoscale surface architecture of the Sr-incorporated Ti oxide layer (SrTiO(3)) imposed on micron-scale rough Ti structure) and Sr ion release into physiological solution. In vitro experiments using primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) revealed that the hydrothermally produced SrTiO(3) coating promotes both the early and late cell response of BMSCs grown on a microrough Ti surface, with notably enhanced attachment, spreading, focal adhesion, alkaline phosphatase activity, and expression of critical integrins and osteoblastic phenotype genes. These results indicate that a hydrothermally produced SrTiO(3) coating improves the osteoconductivity of the microrough Ti surface by enhancing both the early and late cell response of BMSCs. PMID:22396121

Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youn-Jeong; Jang, Je-Hee; Suh, Jo-Young

2012-06-01

125

Establishment of primary cultures for mouse ameloblasts as a model of their lifetime  

SciTech Connect

To understand how the properties of ameloblasts are spatiotemporally regulated during amelogenesis, two primary cultures of ameloblasts in different stages of differentiation were established from mouse enamel epithelium. Mouse primary ameloblasts (MPAs) prepared from immature enamel epithelium (MPA-I) could proliferate, whereas those from mature enamel epithelium (MPA-M) could not. MPA-M but not MPA-I caused apoptosis during culture. The mRNA expression of amelogenin, a marker of immature ameloblasts, was down-regulated, and that of enamel matrix serine proteiase-1, a marker of mature ameloblasts, was induced in MPA-I during culture. Using green fluorescence protein as a reporter, a visualized reporter system was established to analyze the promoter activity of the amelogenin gene. The region between -1102 bp and -261 bp was required for the reporter expression in MPA-I. These results suggest that MPAs are valuable in vitro models for investigation of ameloblast biology, and that the visualized system is useful for promoter analysis in MPAs.

Suzawa, Tetsuo [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: suzawa@dent.showa-u.ac.jp; Itoh, Nao [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Showa University (Japan); Takahashi, Naoyuki [Institute for Oral Science, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri 399-0781 (Japan); Katagiri, Takenobu [Division of Pathophysiology, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical School, Hidaka 350-1241 (Japan); Morimura, Naoko [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuna [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Showa University (Japan); Yamamoto, Toshinori [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Showa University (Japan); Kamijo, Ryutaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)

2006-07-07

126

The role of bone marrow-derived cells in bone fracture repair in a green fluorescent protein chimeric mouse model  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the role of bone marrow cells in bone fracture repair using green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric model mice. First, the chimeric model mice were created: bone marrow cells from GFP-transgenic C57BL/6 mice were injected into the tail veins of recipient wild-type C57BL/6 mice that had been irradiated with a lethal dose of 10 Gy from a cesium source. Next, bone fracture models were created from these mice: closed transverse fractures of the left femur were produced using a specially designed device. One, three, and five weeks later, fracture lesions were extirpated for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. In the specimens collected 3 and 5 weeks after operation, we confirmed calluses showing intramembranous ossification peripheral to the fracture site. The calluses consisted of GFP- and osteocalcin-positive cells at the same site, although the femur consisted of only osteocalcin-positive cells. We suggest that bone marrow cells migrated outside of the bone marrow and differentiated into osteoblasts to make up the calluses.

Taguchi, Kazuhiro [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan) and Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: s3061@nms.ac.jp; Ogawa, Rei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Migita, Makoto [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Hanawa, Hideki [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Hiromoto [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Orimo, Hideo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

2005-05-27

127

In vivo visualizing the dynamics of bone marrow stem cells in mouse retina and choroidal-retinal circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been shown that bone marrow cells can differentiate into various lineage cells including neural cells in vitro and in vivo. Therefore it is an attractive therapeutic intervention to apply autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells that may offer neuroprotection to laser-induced retinal injuries. The purpose of this study is to develop a method with which to visualize bone marrow stem cells dynamics in mouse retinal circulation. We have used a physiological method, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), to track the highly enriched stem/progenitor cells circulating in the retina. Stem cells were enriched by immunomagnetic depletion of cells committed to the T- and B lymphocytic, myeloid and erythorid lineages. CellTracker TM Green-labeled stem cells were injected into the tail veins of mice with laser-induced focal retinal injuries. Bone marrow stem cells labeled with CellTracker TM Green were visible in the retinal circulation for as long as 1 hour and 30 minutes. These studies suggest that stem cell-enriched bone marrow cells may have the ability to mobilize into laser-induced retinal injuries and possibly further proliferate, differentiate and functionally integrate into the retina.

Wang, Heuy-Ching H.; Zwick, Harry; Edsall, Peter R.; Cheramie, Rachel D.; Lund, David J.; Stuck, Bruce

2007-02-01

128

Enumeration of the colony-forming units-fibroblast from mouse and human bone marrow in normal and pathological conditions.  

PubMed

Bone marrow stromal cell populations, containing a subset of multipotential skeletal stem cells, are increasingly contemplated for use in tissue engineering and stem cell therapy, whereas their involvement in the pathogenetic mechanisms of skeletal disorders is far less recognized. We compared the concentrations of stromal clonogenic cells, colony forming units-fibroblast (CFU-Fs), in norm and pathology. Initially, culture conditions were optimized by demonstrating that fetal bovine serum heat inactivation could significantly repress colony formation. Using non-heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, the concentration of CFU-Fs (colony-forming efficiency, CFE) ranged from 3.5 +/- 1.0 to 11.5 +/- 4.0 per 1 x 10(5) nucleated cells in five inbred mouse strains. In four transgenic lines with profound bone involvement, CFE was either significantly reduced or increased compared to wild-type littermates. In normal human donors, CFE decreased slightly with age and averaged 52.2 +/- 4.1 for children and 32.3 +/- 3.0 for adults. CFE was significantly altered in patients with several skeletal, metabolic, and hematological disorders: reduced in congenital generalized lipodystrophy, achondroplasia (SADDAN), pseudoachondroplasia, and Paget disease of bone and elevated in alcaptonuria and sickle cell anemia. Our findings indicate that under appropriate culture conditions, CFE values may provide useful insights into bone/bone marrow pathophysiology. PMID:19383412

Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Mankani, Mahesh H; Bianco, Paolo; Robey, Pamela G

2009-01-01

129

Constructing a multi-scan synchrotron X-ray microscope to study the function of osteocyte canaliculi in mouse bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formulating a multi-scan method applied to an X-ray microscope CT with synchrotron radiation, we attempted to analyze the 3D functional structure of osteocyte canaliculi inside the cortical bone of a mouse tibia. We employed a two-method combination to scan the same position of the specimen. To extract the internal bone canalicular structure, we first combined a Talbot interferometer with an X-ray microscope, and applied a differential phase imaging method to measure the absolute value of bone mineral around the canaliculi. Next, we used the X-ray microscope without the Talbot interferometer under a defocus condition, moving the specimen toward the zone plate by 6 mm. This defocus contrast method visualizes the canaliculi by emphasizing the edges of the bone. We performed CT scans by the two configurations and precisely aligned resultant 3D images so that the same position in the specimen is compared. We could extract the osteocyte canaliculi and evaluate the mineral density of their surroundings. The degree of mineralization varied for each osteocyte lacuna and canaliculus. The multi-scan microscopic X-ray CT is a powerful tool for analyzing bone mineralization.

Nango, Nobuhito; Kubota, Shogo; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi; Takada, Yasunari; Matsuo, Koichi

2012-07-01

130

Constructing a multi-scan synchrotron X-ray microscope to study the function of osteocyte canaliculi in mouse bone  

SciTech Connect

Formulating a multi-scan method applied to an X-ray microscope CT with synchrotron radiation, we attempted to analyze the 3D functional structure of osteocyte canaliculi inside the cortical bone of a mouse tibia. We employed a two-method combination to scan the same position of the specimen. To extract the internal bone canalicular structure, we first combined a Talbot interferometer with an X-ray microscope, and applied a differential phase imaging method to measure the absolute value of bone mineral around the canaliculi. Next, we used the X-ray microscope without the Talbot interferometer under a defocus condition, moving the specimen toward the zone plate by 6 mm. This defocus contrast method visualizes the canaliculi by emphasizing the edges of the bone. We performed CT scans by the two configurations and precisely aligned resultant 3D images so that the same position in the specimen is compared. We could extract the osteocyte canaliculi and evaluate the mineral density of their surroundings. The degree of mineralization varied for each osteocyte lacuna and canaliculus. The multi-scan microscopic X-ray CT is a powerful tool for analyzing bone mineralization.

Nango, Nobuhito; Kubota, Shogo; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi; Takada, Yasunari; Matsuo, Koichi [Ratoc System Engineering Co., Ltd, Toho Edogawabashi Bldg. 4F, 1-24-8 Sekiguchi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0014 (Japan); Dept. of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Lab. of Cell and Tissue Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

2012-07-31

131

Comparative micronucleus quantitation in pre- and post-column fractionated mouse bone marrow by manual and flow methods.  

PubMed

In the present study, cellulose-column fractionation methodology which has been used to eliminate nucleated cells in bone marrow was verified for its usefulness in micronucleus analysis and compared to standard smear methodology using cyclophosphamide as the test compound. Also, the possibility of using column-fractionated cells in the evaluation of micronucleus frequency by flow cytometry has been explored and comparative results are reported. The results indicated that column fractionation was effective in removing nucleated cells from mouse bone marrow and provided clean preparations of polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes (PCEs and NCEs). An initial comparison of manual scoring of cyclophosphamide-induced (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) micronucleus frequency between standard whole bone-marrow smear and column-fractionated cytospun smears from the same animals showed comparable results. In a definitive study, manual scoring of micronuclei in whole bone marrow was compared with the column-fractionated cell preparations quantified manually and using flow cytometry. Statistically significant positive dose-related trends were detected with all 3 methods, with each treatment group having significantly elevated micronucleated PCEs (MNPCEs) compared to the control group. The 3 methods provided comparable MNPCE values for the lower dose groups but diverged somewhat for the high dose group. The flow method yielded similar individual animal variability in the data when compared to the other two methods. These results support the use of column fractionation in the enumeration of MNPCEs and indicate that coupling this technique with flow cytometry may provide a rapid and sensitive method for the conduct of mouse bone-marrow micronucleus studies. PMID:7684506

Kirshna, G; Brott, D; Urda, G; McKeel, M; Zandee, J; Theiss, J

1993-06-01

132

An automated technique for double staining mouse fetal and neonatal skeletal specimens to differentiate bone and cartilage.  

PubMed

Historically, some fetuses for regulatory developmental toxicity studies have been stained with alizarin red S and cleared with glycerol to visualize the ossified portion of their skeletons. Interest in examining cartilage arose owing to its inclusion in some regulatory guidelines. Methods for double staining rat skeletons have been published previously. The method described here for staining mouse skeletons is fully automated and uses alizarin red S to stain bone and Alcian blue to stain cartilage. Pregnant mice (Crl:CD1) were euthanized on gestation day 18 to obtain fetal specimens. Day 0 post-partum mouse pups also were stained. Our method was developed using the Shandon Pathcentre , which is a fully enclosed automated staining system that allows staining to be carried out at 30° C with a final clearing at 35° C. Our method uses the same solutions as for fetal rat processing, but with reduced time periods for the smaller size of mice vs. rat specimens. Staining, maceration and clearing of the specimens requires approximately 2 days. The time required of laboratory personnel, however, is minimal, because all solutions are changed automatically and the specimens do not require examination or removal from the processor until processing is complete. After processing, the specimens are suitable for immediate assessment of bone and cartilage. A mouse developmental toxicity study using 20 animals/group and approximately 10 fetuses/animal could be processed in only three runs using one machine. PMID:24359336

Trueman, D; Stewart, J

2014-05-01

133

In Vivo Gene Therapy with Interleukin12 Inhibits Primary Vascular Tumor Growth and Induces Apoptosis in a Mouse Model1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-12 is proposed to have anti-neoplastic activity on the basis of both its anti-angiogenic and immunologic effects. Gene gun therapy with interleukin-12 cDNA into the peritumoral area of immunocompetent 129\\/J mice with life-threatening primary vascular tumors reduced tumor volume 7.5-fold and almost tripled the duration of mouse survival, in contrast with luciferase-bombarded control mice. Epidermal expression of mouse interleukin-12 elevated

Chong Wang; M. Eugenia Quevedo; Brian J. Lannutti; Kenneth B. Gordon; Danqing Guo; Wenn Sun; Amy S. Paller

1999-01-01

134

MOUSE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York City, the MOUSE organization works to empower "underserved students to provide technology support and leadership in their schools, supporting their academic and career success." On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs, learn about supporting the MOUSE organization, and read up on their resources. In the "Resources" area, visitors can learn about their outreach activities in New York City, Chicago, and California. Visitors working in educational outreach will appreciate the information offered here, including materials on how different groups can receive assistance from the MOUSE organization. Also, visitors can look over the "News" updates to learn about their new programs, their educational seminars, and their outreach activities.

135

Establishment and Genomic Characterization of Mouse Xenografts of Human Primary Prostate Tumors  

PubMed Central

Serum prostate-specific antigen screening has led to earlier detection and surgical treatment of prostate cancer, favoring an increasing incidence-to-mortality ratio. However, about one third of tumors that are diagnosed when still confined to the prostate can relapse within 10 years from the first treatment. The challenge is therefore to identify prognostic markers of aggressive versus indolent tumors. Although several preclinical models of advanced prostate tumors are available, a model that recapitulates the genetic and growth behavior of primary tumors is still lacking. Here, we report a complete histopathological and genomic characterization of xenografts derived from primary localized low- and high-grade human prostate tumors that were implanted under the renal capsule of immunodeficient mice. We obtained a tumor take of 56% and show that these xenografts maintained the histological as well as most genomic features of the parental tumors. Serum prostate-specific antigen levels were measurable only in tumor xenograft-bearing mice, but not in those implanted with either normal prostate tissue or in tumors that likely regressed. Finally, we show that a high proliferation rate, but not the pathological stage or the Gleason grade of the original tumor, was a fundamental prerequisite for tumor take in mice. This mouse xenograft model represents a useful preclinical model of primary prostate tumors for their biological characterization, biomarker discovery, and drug testing. PMID:20167861

Priolo, Carmen; Agostini, Michelle; Vena, Natalie; Ligon, Azra H.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Shin, Eyoung; Farsetti, Antonella; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Sicinska, Ewa; Loda, Massimo

2010-01-01

136

OLIGOMERIC IGA: THE MAJOR COMPONENT OF THE IN VITRO PRIMARY RESPONSE OF MOUSE SPLEEN FRAGMENTS  

PubMed Central

The primary antibody response elicited from mouse spleen explants by conjugates of the 3-nitro-5-iodo-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (NIP) hapten consisted mostly of the IgA class. Poly-L-lysine, pneumococcal polysaccharide Type SIII, keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and sheep erythrocytes were effective carriers in this system, whereas chicken globulin was not. The anti-NIP response against all of the immunogenic conjugates was detectable in culture media 4 days after explantation and immunization, and reached peak titers by 8–10 days. IgA was identified by sucrose gradient velocity centrifugation in conjunction with the use of a class-specific antiserum. The media collected at 4 days contained low titers of IgM antibody, whereas the peak response at 8 days consisted almost entirely of IgA. The primary response IgA secreted by the spleen fragments was characterized as polymeric by its sedimentation rate through a sucrose gradient, and as polyvalent by its drastically greater avidity for NIP14BSA than for free NIP-aminocaproic acid. Its haptenated phage-inactivating activity was abolished by treatment with 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol. These experiments indicate that precursor cells existing in the spleen before primary immunization can give rise to production of polymeric IgA. PMID:4542738

Nakamura, Ichiro; Ray, Alex; Mäkelä, O.

1973-01-01

137

Positive Selection in Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 Targets a Natural Mutation Associated with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency in Human  

PubMed Central

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) is a TGF?-like oocyte-derived growth factor involved in ovarian folliculogenesis as a critical regulator of many granulosa cell processes. Alterations of the BMP15 gene have been found associated with different ovarian phenotypic effects depending on the species, from sterility to increased prolificacy in sheep, slight subfertility in mouse or associated with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in women. To investigate the evolving role of BMP15, a phylogenetic analysis of this particular TGF? family member was performed. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of several TGF?/BMP family members expressed by the ovary showed that BMP15 has a very strong divergence and a rapid evolution compared to others. Moreover, among 24 mammalian species, we detected signals of positive selection in the hominidae clade corresponding to F146, L189 and Y235 residues in human BMP15. The biological importance of these residues was tested functionally after site directed-mutagenesis in a COV434 cells luciferase assay. By replacing the positively selected amino acid either by alanine or the most represented residue in other studied species, only L189A, Y235A and Y235C mutants showed a significant increase of BMP15 signaling when compared to wild type. Additionally, the Y235C mutant was more potent than wild type in inhibiting progesterone secretion of ovine granulosa cells in primary culture. Interestingly, the Y235C mutation was previously identified in association with POI in women. In conclusion, this study evidences that the BMP15 gene has evolved faster than other members of the TGFß family and was submitted to a positive selection pressure in the hominidae clade. Some residues under positive selection are of great importance for the normal function of the protein and thus for female fertility. Y235 represents a critical residue in the determination of BMP15 biological activity, thus indirectly confirming its role in the onset of POI in women. PMID:24147118

Meslin, Camille; Monestier, Olivier; Di Pasquale, Elisa; Pascal, Géraldine; Persani, Luca; Fabre, Stéphane

2013-01-01

138

Pathological interactions between hematopoietic stem cells and their niche revealed by mouse models of primary myelofibrosis  

PubMed Central

Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) belongs to the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms and is a hematological disorder caused by abnormal function of the hematopoietic stem cells. The disease manifests itself with a plethora of alterations, including anemia, splenomegaly and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Its hallmarks are progressive marrow fibrosis and atypical megakaryocytic hyperplasia, two distinctive features used to clinically monitor disease progression. In an attempt to investigate the role of abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis in the pathogenesis of PMF, several transgenic mouse models have been generated. These models are based either on mutations that interfere with the extrinsic (thrombopoietin and its receptor, MPL) and intrinsic (the GATA1 transcription factor) control of normal megakaryocytopoiesis, or on known genetic lesions associated with the human disease. Here we provide an up-to-date review on the insights into the pathobiology of human PMF achieved by studying these animal models, with particular emphasis on results obtained with Gata1low mice. PMID:20352017

Varricchio, Lilian; Mancini, Annalisa; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

2009-01-01

139

Effects of leukemia inhibitory factor on bone resorption and DNA synthesis in neonatal mouse calvaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a recently characterized cytokine which has been shown to regulate cell growth and differentiation\\u000a in a variety of tissues. We have shown that LIF stimulates bone resorption and DNA synthesis in bone organ culture and,in vivo, LIF has been shown to have marked effects on bone remodeling. The present study examines further the dose-response, time

Carolyn Lowe; Jill Cornish; T. John Martin; Ian R. Reid

1991-01-01

140

Multiple Cellular Phenotypes in an Insertional Mutation in Mouse Affecting Bone Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The 6093 line of transgenic mice exhibits altered bone development as a result of an insertional mutation by the transgene.\\u000a Female transgenic mice show a marked kyphosis as early as 2 weeks of age. Vertebrae from female mice have lower total bone\\u000a area and mineral content than age-matched, gender-matched controls, although the bone mineral density is not changed. The

N. L. Nadon; C.-J. Doersen; D. A. Lade; K. Medina; L. Thompson; M. Rohrer; J. M. Gimble

2000-01-01

141

Nanomechanics and Raman spectroscopy of fibrillin 2 knock-out mouse bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absence of fibrillin 2 (Fbn2), a non-collagenous bone protein, causes a connective tissue disorder called congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA)\\u000a and has been associated with decreased bone mineral density. Nanoindentation and Raman microspectroscopy have been used to\\u000a compare the mechanical and chemical properties of cortical bone from femora of Fbn2?\\/? deficient mice and their wild-type controls (Fbn2+\\/+). It was found that

N. B. Kavukcuoglu; E. Arteaga-Solis; S. Lee-Arteaga; F. Ramirez; A. B. Mann

2007-01-01

142

A primary sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the pubic bone, with evidence of divergent epithelial differentiation.  

PubMed

Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare variant of fibrosarcoma, described initially by Meis-Kindblom et al. in 1995 (Meis-Kindblom JM, Kindblom L-G, Enzinger FM. Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: a variant of fibrosarcoma simulating carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 1995;19:979-993): more than 80 cases have been documented clinicopathologically since. Bone is a rare primary site for SEF, with only 2 cases so far reported. This paper documents the detailed clinical, histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of a case occurring in the pubic bone of a 57-year-old diabetic woman presenting with a history of pain and compromised mobility involving her hip. Radiology revealed a destructive lesion in the right pubic bone. The lesion was resected, and 7 months postoperatively it recurred. The patient died following metastases to multiple bony sites and liver, some 4 years after the onset of symptoms. Histologically, the tumor was consistent with SEF, although it showed some anomalous immunostaining, which, however, is typical of the tumor (for example, for S-100 protein and epithelial membrane antigen). By electron microscopy, some rough endoplasmic reticulum was present, but also tonofibrils and desmosomes. The overall features were of an SEF with the ultrastructural but incomplete immunohistochemical evidence for divergent epithelial differentiation. The differential diagnosis of this tumor is discussed. PMID:20192707

Wang, Guofeng; Eyden, Brian

2010-04-01

143

Disrupted Bone Remodeling Leads to Cochlear Overgrowth and Hearing Loss in a Mouse Model of Fibrous Dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Normal hearing requires exquisite cooperation between bony and sensorineural structures within the cochlea. For example, the inner ear secretes proteins such as osteoprotegrin (OPG) that can prevent cochlear bone remodeling. Accordingly, diseases that affect bone regulation can also result in hearing loss. Patients with fibrous dysplasia develop trabecular bone overgrowth resulting in hearing loss if the lesions affect the temporal bones. Unfortunately, the mechanisms responsible for this hearing loss, which could be sensorineural and/or conductive, remain unclear. In this study, we used a unique transgenic mouse model of increased Gs G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling induced by expression of an engineered receptor, Rs1, in osteoblastic cells. These ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ mice showed dramatic bone lesions that histologically and radiologically resembled fibrous dysplasia. We found that ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ mice showed progressive and severe conductive hearing loss. Ossicular chain impingement increased with the size and number of dysplastic lesions. While sensorineural structures were unaffected, ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae had abnormally high osteoclast activity, together with elevated tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (Rankl) mRNA expression. ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae also showed decreased expression of Sclerostin (Sost), an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway that normally increases bone formation. The osteocyte canalicular networks of ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae were disrupted and showed abnormal osteocyte morphology. The osteocytes in the ColI(2.3)+/Rs1+ cochleae showed increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) and TRAP, both of which can support osteocyte-mediated peri-lacunar remodeling. Thus, while the ossicular chain impingement is sufficient to account for the progressive hearing loss in fibrous dysplasia, the deregulation of bone remodeling extends to the cochlea as well. Our findings suggest that factors regulating bone remodeling, including peri-lacunar remodeling by osteocytes, may be useful targets for treating the bony overgrowths and hearing changes of fibrous dysplasia and other bony pathologies. PMID:24788917

Chang, Jolie; Li, Alfred; Chang, Wenhan; Lustig, Lawrence R.; Alliston, Tamara; Hsiao, Edward C.

2014-01-01

144

Mu and Delta Opiate Receptors Coupled Negatively to Adenylate Cyclase on Embryonic Neurons from the Mouse Striatum in Primary Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary cultures of pure populations of neuronal or glial cells from the striatum, the cerebral cortex, and the mesenceph- alon of the mouse embryo were used to look for the presence of opiate receptors coupled to adenylate cyclase. Leu-en- kephalin inhibited CAMP production in membranes of em- bryonic striatal neurons but not in those of other cell types examined. Mu

Jacques Glowinski

145

BMEC-1: a human bone marrow microvascular endothelial cell line with primary cell characteristics.  

PubMed

Bone marrow microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) are a functional component of the bone marrow stroma and have been shown to release hematopoietic regulatory factors as well as to selectively adhere and support the proliferation and differentiation of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. An early passage of these cells was immortalized by transfection with a vector (pSVT) encoding the large T antigen of SV40. The transformed cell line (CDC/CU.BMEC-1) expresses the SV40 transcript, retains the primary cell expression of Ulex europeaus and vWF/ FVIII, and incorporates acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition, BMEC-1 mirrors the phenotype of the primary cells with only a few exceptions. Both cell populations express the cellular adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and PECAM and also VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 after upregulation by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The fibronectin receptor, hyaluronate receptor, collagen receptor, integrins VLA-alpha 3, VLA-alpha 4, and beta 4, endoglin, collagen IV, CD58, and CD61 are also expressed. The only differences are that BMEC-1 expresses higher levels of ICAM-1, CD58, CD34, CD36, and c-kit than the primary cells. The supernatants of primary cell and BMEC-1 contain stem cell factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1 alpha, IL-11, and G-CSF. The functional significance of these hematopoietic cytokines was demonstrated in transwell cultures. Both cell populations supported the expansion of progeny from CD34+ cell-enriched cord blood mononuclear cells suspended in the upper chamber. These characteristics, plus the fact that BMEC-1 can be maintained independently of exogenous growth factors and exhibit contact inhibition, indicate that this cell line can be used to further define the role of BMEC in hematopoiesis. PMID:8954864

Candal, F J; Rafii, S; Parker, J T; Ades, E W; Ferris, B; Nachman, R L; Kellar, K L

1996-11-01

146

Targeting the LRP5 pathway improves bone properties in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.  

PubMed

The cell surface receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) is a key regulator of bone mass and bone strength. Heterozygous missense mutations in LRP5 cause autosomal dominant high bone mass (HBM) in humans by reducing binding to LRP5 by endogenous inhibitors, such as sclerostin (SOST). Mice heterozygous for a knockin allele (Lrp5(p.A214V) ) that is orthologous to a human HBM-causing mutation have increased bone mass and strength. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a skeletal fragility disorder predominantly caused by mutations that affect type I collagen. We tested whether the LRP5 pathway can be used to improve bone properties in animal models of OI. First, we mated Lrp5(+/p.A214V) mice to Col1a2(+/p.G610C) mice, which model human type IV OI. We found that Col1a2(+/p.G610C) ;Lrp5(+/p.A214V) offspring had significantly increased bone mass and strength compared to Col1a2(+/p.G610C) ;Lrp5(+/+) littermates. The improved bone properties were not a result of altered mRNA expression of type I collagen or its chaperones, nor were they due to changes in mutant type I collagen secretion. Second, we treated Col1a2(+/p.G610C) mice with a monoclonal antibody that inhibits sclerostin activity (Scl-Ab). We found that antibody-treated mice had significantly increased bone mass and strength compared to vehicle-treated littermates. These findings indicate increasing bone formation, even without altering bone collagen composition, may benefit patients with OI. PMID:24677211

Jacobsen, Christina M; Barber, Lauren A; Ayturk, Ugur M; Roberts, Heather J; Deal, Lauren E; Schwartz, Marissa A; Weis, MaryAnn; Eyre, David; Zurakowski, David; Robling, Alexander G; Warman, Matthew L

2014-10-01

147

MR signal characteristics of cadaveric bone allografts in three children with primary bone tumors treated with limb salvage therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three children with adult cadaveric bone allografts for the treatment of bone malignancies are presented. Follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated decreased signal on T1-weighted imaging and increased signal on T2-weighted imaging in the allograft without clinical evidence of recurrent disease. These signal characteristics appear to be a normal finding in cadaveric bone allografts and should not be mistaken for

T. L. Levin; T. T. Miller; D. M. Panicek; N. Rosenfield; C. Ruzal-Shapiro; H. S. Dick; W. E. Berdon

1994-01-01

148

Intrinsic differences in BRITE adipogenesis of primary adipocytes from two different mouse strains.  

PubMed

BRITE (brown-in-white) cells are brown adipocyte-like cells found in white adipose tissue (WAT) of rodents and/or humans. The recruitment of BRITE adipocytes, referred to as the browning of WAT, is hallmarked by the expression of UCP1 and exerts beneficial metabolic effects. Here we address whether beyond systemic cues depot- and strain-specific variation in BRITE recruitment is determined by a cellular program intrinsic to progenitors. Therefore we compared the browning capacity of serum and investigated brown and BRITE adipogenesis in primary cultures of stromal-vascular cells isolated from interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) in two inbred mouse strains C57BL/6J (B6, a strain with low browning propensity) and 129/S6SvEv (129, a strain with high browning propensity). Paradoxically, serum collected from B6 mice was more potent in the promotion of browning than serum collected from 129 mice. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that depot- and strain-specific differences observed in vivo are pheno-copied in primary cultures in vitro, as judged by UCP1 expression and by functional analysis. Notably, primary adipocytes from 129 mice had a higher capacity for isoproterenol-induced uncoupled respiration than B6. We conclude that cues intrinsic to the progenitor cells contribute to differential BRITE adipogenesis. Further analyses demonstrate that these cues are independent of autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, BRITE progenitor abundance and genetic variation in the gene regulatory region of Ucp1 but rather depend on trans-acting factors. These results provide new insights on the molecular basis of strain and depot-specific differences in BRITE adipogenesis. PMID:24953778

Li, Yongguo; Bolze, Florian; Fromme, Tobias; Klingenspor, Martin

2014-09-01

149

Voluntary Physical Exercise Promotes Ocular Dominance Plasticity in Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

Ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) declines during aging and is absent beyond postnatal day (P) 110 when mice are raised in standard cages (SCs; Lehmann and Löwel, 2008). In contrast, raising mice in an enriched environment (EE) preserved a juvenile-like OD plasticity into late adulthood (Greifzu et al., 2014). EE raising provides the mice with more social interactions, voluntary physical exercise, and cognitive stimulation compared with SC, raising the question whether all components are needed or whether one of them is already sufficient to prolong plasticity. To test whether voluntary physical exercise alone already prolongs the sensitive phase for OD plasticity, we raised mice from 7 d before birth to adulthood in slightly larger than normal SCs with or without a running wheel (RW). When the mice were older than P135, we visualized V1 activity before and after monocular deprivation (MD) using intrinsic signal optical imaging. Adult RW-raised mice continued to show an OD shift toward the open eye after 7 d of MD, while age-matched SC mice without a RW did not show OD plasticity. Notably, running just during the 7 d MD period restored OD plasticity in adult SC-raised mice. In addition, the OD shift of the RW mice was mediated by a decrease of deprived-eye responses in V1, a signature of “juvenile-like” plasticity. We conclude that voluntary physical exercise alone is sufficient to promote plasticity in adult mouse V1. PMID:25392514

Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Haack, Franziska

2014-01-01

150

In vivo 4-dimensional tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in adult mouse calvarial bone marrow.  

PubMed

Through a delicate balance between quiescence and proliferation, self renewal and production of differentiated progeny, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain the turnover of all mature blood cell lineages. The coordination of the complex signals leading to specific HSC fates relies upon the interaction between HSCs and the intricate bone marrow microenvironment, which is still poorly understood([1-2]). We describe how by combining a newly developed specimen holder for stable animal positioning with multi-step confocal and two-photon in vivo imaging techniques, it is possible to obtain high-resolution 3D stacks containing HSPCs and their surrounding niches and to monitor them over time through multi-point time-lapse imaging. High definition imaging allows detecting ex vivo labeled hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) residing within the bone marrow. Moreover, multi-point time-lapse 3D imaging, obtained with faster acquisition settings, provides accurate information about HSPC movement and the reciprocal interactions between HSPCs and stroma cells. Tracking of HSPCs in relation to GFP positive osteoblastic cells is shown as an exemplary application of this method. This technique can be utilized to track any appropriately labeled hematopoietic or stromal cell of interest within the mouse calvarium bone marrow space. PMID:25225854

Scott, Mark K; Akinduro, Olufolake; Lo Celso, Cristina

2014-01-01

151

Relief of Preintegration Inhibition and Characterization of Additional Blocks for HIV Replication in Primary Mouse T Cells  

PubMed Central

Development of a small animal model to study HIV replication and pathogenesis has been hampered by the failure of the virus to replicate in non-primate cells. Most studies aimed at achieving replication in murine cells have been limited to fibroblast cell lines, but generating an appropriate model requires overcoming blocks to viral replication in primary T cells. We have studied HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells from human CD4/ CCR5/Cyclin T1 transgenic mice. Expression of hCD4 and hCCR5 in mouse CD4+ T cells enabled efficient entry of R5 strain HIV-1. In mouse T cells, HIV-1 underwent reverse transcription and nuclear import as efficiently as in human T cells. In contrast, chromosomal integration of HIV-1 proviral DNA was inefficient in activated mouse T cells. This process was greatly enhanced by providing a secondary T cell receptor (TCR) signal after HIV-1 infection, especially between 12 to 24 h post infection. This effect was specific for primary mouse T cells. The pathways involved in HIV replication appear to be PKC??, CARMA1-, and WASp-independent. Treatment with Cyclosporin A (CsA) further relieved the pre-integration block. However, transcription of HIV-1 RNA was still reduced in mouse CD4+ T cells despite expression of the hCyclin T1 transgene. Additional post-transcriptional defects were observed at the levels of Gag expression, Gag processing, Gag release and virus infectivity. Together, these post-integration defects resulted in a dramatically reduced yield of infectious virus (300–500 fold) after a single cycle of HIV-1 replication. This study implies the existence of host factors, in addition to those already identified, that are critical for HIV-1 replication in mouse cells. This study also highlights the differences between primary T cells and cell lines regarding pre-integration steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle. PMID:18446227

Zhang, Jing-xin; Diehl, Gretchen E.; Littman, Dan R.

2008-01-01

152

Pharmacologic inhibition of bone resorption prevents cancer-induced osteolysis but enhances soft tissue metastasis in a mouse model of osteolytic breast cancer.  

PubMed

Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily, which binds to the receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) and inhibits osteoclast activity and bone resorption. Systemic administration of recombinant OPG was previously shown to inhibit tumor growth in bone and to prevent cancer-induced osteolysis. In this study, we examined the effect of OPG, when produced locally by breast cancer cells located within bone, using a mouse model of osteolytic breast cancer. MDA-MB-231-TXSA breast cancer cells, tagged with a luciferase reporter gene construct and engineered to overexpress full-length human OPG, were transplanted directly into the tibial marrow cavity of nude mice. Overexpression of OPG by breast cancer cells protected the bone from breast cancer-induced osteolysis and diminished intra-osseous tumor growth but had no effect on extra-skeletal tumor growth. This effect was associated with a significant reduction in the number of osteoclasts that lined the bone surface, resulting in a net increase in bone volume. Despite limiting breast cancer-mediated bone loss, OPG overexpression resulted in a significant increase in the incidence of pulmonary metastasis. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption by OPG when secreted locally by tumors in bone may affect the behaviour of cancer cells within the bone microenvironment and their likelihood of spreading and establishing metastasis elsewhere in the body. PMID:24865346

Zinonos, Irene; Luo, Ke-Wang; Labrinidis, Agatha; Liapis, Vasilios; Hay, Shelley; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Denichilo, Mark; Ko, Chun-Hay; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Ingman, Wendy; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Atkins, Gerald J; Findlay, David M; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Evdokiou, Andreas

2014-08-01

153

Host bone marrow-derived IL-12 enhances donor T cell engraftment in a mouse model of bone marrow transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Donor cell engraftment is critical for the success of allogeneic bone marrow transplants. Graft failure is a result of donor cells either failing to engraft initially or being eliminated at later time points. Donor cell engraftment is facilitated by donor T cells, which eliminate residual host hemato-lymphoid effector cells such as NK cells and T cells. Methods We aimed to explore the role of host hematopoietic cell derived IL-12 on donor cell engraftment in a murine model of BMT. We established radiation chimeras by transplanting C57BL6/J (B6) mice with BM from either congenic B6 mice or IL-12p40 KO mice. These WT ? WT or IL-12 KO ? WT chimeras then underwent a secondary transplant with allogeneic (FVB) BM. Survival, engraftment, donor T cell expansion, cytokine production by donor T cells, as well as expression of stimulatory markers on donor T cells was analyzed. Results Mice whose residual host hematopoietic cells were capable of producing IL-12 had modestly higher survival, higher donor T cell engraftment, and significantly higher donor erythroid engraftment. We have also found that an increased number of donor T cells in IL-12 KO ? WT chimeras have a regulatory phenotype, expressing FoxP3, producing lower levels of TNF-?, higher levels of IL-10, and expressing higher levels of ICOS as well as PD-1 on CD4+ T cells. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of a beneficial role of IL-12 production by host cells in the context of bone marrow engraftment in a murine model of BMT. These findings support the clinical use of exogenous IL-12 for use in settings where graft failure is of concern. PMID:24580829

2014-01-01

154

Pou3f4-Mediated Regulation of Ephrin-B2 Controls Temporal Bone Development in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

The temporal bone encases conductive and sensorineural elements of the ear. Mutations of POU3F4 are associated with unique temporal bone abnormalities and X-linked mixed deafness (DFNX2/DFN3). However, the target genes and developmental processes controlled by POU3F4 transcription factor activity have remained largely uncharacterized. Ephrin-B2 (Efnb2) is a signaling molecule with well-documented effects on cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Our analyses of targeted mouse mutants revealed that Efnb2 loss-of-function phenocopies temporal bone abnormalities of Pou3f4 hemizygous null neonates: qualitatively identical malformations of the stapes, styloid process, internal auditory canal, and cochlear capsule were present in both mutants. Using failed/insufficient separation of the stapes and styloid process as a quantitative trait, we found that single gene Efnb2 loss-of-function and compound Pou3f4/Efnb2 loss-of-function caused a more severe phenotype than single gene Pou3f4 loss-of-function. Pou3f4 and Efnb2 gene expression domains overlapped at the site of impending stapes-styloid process separation and at subcapsular mesenchyme surrounding the cochlea; at both these sites, Efnb2 expression was attenuated in Pou3f4 hemizygous null mutants relative to control. Results of immunoprecipitation experiments using chromatin isolated from nascent middle ear mesenchyme supported the hypothesis of a physical association between Pou3f4 and specific non-coding sequence of Efnb2. We propose that Efnb2 is a target of Pou3f4 transcription factor activity and an effector of mesenchymal patterning during temporal bone development. PMID:25299585

Raft, Steven; Coate, Thomas M.; Kelley, Matthew W.; Crenshaw, E. Bryan; Wu, Doris K.

2014-01-01

155

Effect of peripherally administered leptin antagonist on whole body metabolism and bone microarchitecture and biomechanical properties in the mouse.  

PubMed

Leptin's in vivo effect on the rodent skeleton depends on the model used and the mode of administration. Superactive mouse leptin antagonist (SMLA) was produced and then pegylated (PEG) to prolong and enhance its in vivo activity. We blocked leptin signaling by injecting this antagonist peripherally into normal mice at various time points and studied their metabolic and skeletal phenotypes. Subcutaneous PEG-SMLA injections into 4-wk-old female C57BL/6J mice increased weight gain and food consumption significantly after only 1 mo, and the effect lasted for the 3 mo of the experiment, proving its central inhibiting activity. Mice showed a significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and HOMA-IR throughout the experiment. Quantification of gene expression in "metabolic" tissues also indicated the development of insulin resistance. Bone analyses revealed a significant increase in trabecular and cortical parameters measured in both the lumbar vertebrae and tibiae in PEG-SMLA-treated mice in the 1st and 3rd months as well as a significant increase in tibia biomechanical parameters. Interestingly, 30 days of treatment with the antagonist in older mice (aged 3 and 6 mo) affected body weight and eating behavior, just as they had in the 1-mo-old mice, but had no effect on bone parameters, suggesting that leptin's effect on bones, either directly or through its obesogenic effect, is dependent upon stage of skeletal development. This potent and reversible antagonist enabled us to study leptin's in vivo role in whole body and bone metabolism and holds potential for future therapeutic use in diseases involving leptin signaling. PMID:24169045

Solomon, Gili; Atkins, Ayelet; Shahar, Ron; Gertler, Arieh; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

2014-01-01

156

VCP Associated Inclusion Body Myopathy and Paget Disease of Bone Knock-In Mouse Model Exhibits Tissue Pathology Typical of Human Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominant mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP) gene cause inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). We have generated a knock-in mouse model with the common R155H mutation. Mice demonstrate progressive muscle weakness starting approximately at the age of 6 months. Histology of mutant muscle showed progressive vacuolization of myofibrils and centrally located

Mallikarjun Badadani; Angèle Nalbandian; Giles D. Watts; Jouni Vesa; Masashi Kitazawa; Hailing Su; Jasmin Tanaja; Eric Dec; Douglas C. Wallace; Jogeshwar Mukherjee; Vincent Caiozzo; Matthew Warman; Virginia E. Kimonis

2010-01-01

157

Differential gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes exposed to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonists  

PubMed Central

Background Fibrates are a unique hypolipidemic drugs that lower plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels through their action as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) agonists. The activation of PPAR? leads to a cascade of events that result in the pharmacological (hypolipidemic) and adverse (carcinogenic) effects in rodent liver. Results To understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for the pleiotropic effects of PPAR? agonists, we treated mouse primary hepatocytes with three PPAR? agonists (bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643) at multiple concentrations (0, 10, 30, and 100 ?M) for 24 hours. When primary hepatocytes were exposed to these agents, transactivation of PPAR? was elevated as measured by luciferase assay. Global gene expression profiles in response to PPAR? agonists were obtained by microarray analysis. Among differentially expressed genes (DEGs), there were 4, 8, and 21 genes commonly regulated by bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643 treatments across 3 doses, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Treatments with 100 ?M of bezafibrate, fenofibrate, and WY-14,643 resulted in 151, 149, and 145 genes altered, respectively. Among them, 121 genes were commonly regulated by at least two drugs. Many genes are involved in fatty acid metabolism including oxidative reaction. Some of the gene changes were associated with production of reactive oxygen species, cell proliferation of peroxisomes, and hepatic disorders. In addition, 11 genes related to the development of liver cancer were observed. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment of PPAR? agonists results in the production of oxidative stress and increased peroxisome proliferation, thus providing a better understanding of mechanisms underlying PPAR? agonist-induced hepatic disorders and hepatocarcinomas. PMID:17118139

Guo, Lei; Fang, Hong; Collins, Jim; Fan, Xiao-hui; Dial, Stacey; Wong, Alex; Mehta, Kshama; Blann, Ernice; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Dragan, Yvonne P

2006-01-01

158

Sodium-independent transport of noradrenaline in mouse and rat astrocytes in primary culture.  

PubMed

The uptake of noradrenaline by primary cultures of mouse and rat astrocytes was investigated in order to examine whether an inhibition of extraneuronal noradrenaline uptake was the mechanism whereby some trace biogenic amines potentiate neuronal responses to noradrenaline. In the presence of inhibitors of the enzymes monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyl transferase, it was found that astrocytes took up noradrenaline by a temperature-dependent, sodium-independent mechanism that was saturable with a Km = 3.4 x 10(-7) M and a Vmax = 1.6 pmole/mg protein/2 min. This uptake mechanism did not concentrate noradrenaline within the cell. The uptake of noradrenaline was inhibited by ascorbic acid (IC50 = 3.4 x 10(-7) M), adrenaline (IC50 = 7.9 x 10(-7) M), and dopamine (IC50 = 1.5 x 1.0(-6) M). It was not inhibited by the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline and desmethylimipramine or the trace biogenic amines beta-phenylethylamine, phenylethanolamine, p- and m-tyramine and p- and m-octopamine. Nor was the uptake inhibited by fluoxetine or 5-hydroxytryptamine. It is concluded that astrocytes take up noradrenaline by a facilitated-diffusion mechanism and that this uptake resembles the extraneuronal uptake described in preparations of brain tissue. It is also concluded that the trace biogenic amines do not potentiate neuronal responses to noradrenaline by inhibiting extraneuronal uptake. PMID:2746699

Paterson, I A; Hertz, L

1989-05-01

159

Activation of CYP1A1 gene expression during primary culture of mouse hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Expression of CYP1A1 mRNA in mouse hepatocytes in primary culture was investigated. The expression was obvious on day 3 of culture without addition of any known ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and increased with culture period. Removal of insulin from and addition of hydrogen peroxide to the medium enhanced and suppressed the expression, respectively. The CYP1A1 mRNA expression was also enhanced in the presence of anti-oxidant, t-butylhydroquinone, in the medium. Several kinds of kinase inhibitors markedly increased the CYP1A1 mRNA expression. In contrast, the inhibitory expression was prolonged in the presence of okadaic acid, a potent inhibitor of serine/threonine phosphatase PP1 and PP2. These observations suggest that there might be a repressive pathway in the regulation of CYP1A1 mRNA expression and that the presently observed expression pathway differs at several points from those previously reported, such as ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor- or omeprazole-mediated expression. Modulation of CYP1A2 mRNA expression after exposing hepatocytes to agents affecting phosphorylation pathways differed from that of CYP1A1 mRNA. This implies that regulatory pathways for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression may differ. PMID:16169145

Tamaki, Hisako; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Uchida, Yo-Ichi; Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Nemoto, Nobuo

2005-12-15

160

Re-evaluation of the need for multiple sampling times in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay: results for DMBA  

SciTech Connect

7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) is confirmed as active in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay 24 hr after dosing as corn-oil homogenate via either oral gavage or intraperitoneal (ip) injection. These data are consistent with recent observations made by several investigators. However, when dosed via ip injection as a solution in DMSO, peak activity was evident 48 hr after dosing and a dramatic reduction in erythropoiesis was observed. It is suggested that a maximum of two sampling times is adequate and that, as a consequence, the number of animals employed in the conduct of the test could be reduced with no loss of sensitivity. The present data also suggest that the use of a corn-oil homogenate of insoluble test agents may provide an efficient replacement for the use of ground suspensions or solutions in DMSO.

Ashby, J.; Mirkova, E.

1987-01-01

161

Establishment of a mast cell line, NCL-2, without Kit mutation, derived from NC mouse bone marrow  

PubMed Central

Immortal mast cell lines, such as RBL-2H3 and HMC-1 cells, are commonly utilized to investigate the function of mast cells. However, they are tumor cells carrying a gain-of-function mutation of Kit. We established an immortal mast cell line without Kit mutation, NCL-2, derived from NC mouse bone marrow. NCL-2 cells could be maintained without additional growth factors and thus could respond to exogenous growth signals. Moreover, NCL-2 cells expressed Fc?RI and KIT, and release histamine and LTB4 in response to antigen stimulation. This cell line could be a useful tool to analyze proliferation, differentiation, and function of normal mast cells. PMID:24918047

Hiragun, Takaaki; Yanase, Yuhki; Okabe, Tsutomu; Hiragun, Makiko; Kawai, Mikio; Hide, Michihiro

2014-01-01

162

Modification of clastogenicity of lead and aluminium in mouse bone marrow cells by dietary ingestion of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract.  

PubMed

Extract of Phyllanthus emblica fruit and ascorbic acid were evaluated separately for protection against clastogenicity induced by lead (Pb) and aluminium (Al) salts on mouse bone marrow chromosomes. Oral administration of Phyllanthus fruit extract (PFE) for 7 days before exposure to both metals by intraperitoneal injection increased the frequency of cell division and reduced the frequency of chromosome breaks significantly. Comparable doses of synthetic ascorbic acid (AA) were less effective and could protect against the effects of Al and only a low dose of Pb (10 mg/kg body weight). AA administered before treatment in mice given higher doses of Pb (40 mg/kg body weight) enhanced the frequency of chromosome breaks, giving a synergistic effect. The higher protection afforded by PFE may be due to the combined action of all ingredients, rather than to AA alone. PMID:2366810

Dhir, H; Roy, A K; Sharma, A; Talukder, G

1990-07-01

163

Magnetic resonance microscopy of morphological alterations in mouse trabecular bone structure under conditions of simulated microgravity.  

PubMed

This work describes the use of magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy to examine changes in tibial trabecular bone structure in mice following 28 days of hindlimb suspension, a model simulating the effects of microgravity in rodents. In this first MR study involving mice, analysis of 3D images showed that apparent bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness were decreased, and apparent trabecular spacing increased, significantly (P < 0.05) in hindlimb-suspended mice compared to controls. These changes agreed well with light microscopy measurements from an independent study and also with actual spaceflight experiments with rats. PMID:11378892

Gardner, J R; Hess, C P; Webb, A G; Tsika, R W; Dawson, M J; Gulani, V

2001-06-01

164

Prognostic significance of soft tissue extension, international prognostic index, and multifocality in primary bone lymphoma: a single institutional experience.  

PubMed

Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) is a rare disease. The literature is inconsistent in regard to definition, stage and prognostic factors. We examined the PBL cases seen at the Moffitt Cancer Center between 1998 and 2013 using the 2013 World Health Organization criteria for bone/soft tissue tumours. Seventy PBL patients were included, of whom 53 (75.7%) patients were histologically classified as primary bone diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PB-DLBCL). Femur was the most commonly involved site in PBLs with unifocal bone lesions, whereas PBLs with multifocal bone lesions most frequently presented with spine disease. Further analysis of the PB-DLBCL subgroup showed that these patients had 3- and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 61.2% and 46.9%, respectively and 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) of 81.1% and 74.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified soft tissue extension and International Prognostic Index (IPI) score as the most important unfavourable prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. Multifocality was also highly significantly associated with a worse PFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P < 0.001), although it was not identified in multivariate analysis due to its incorporation into the IPI. The results warrant further investigation regarding whether PBL with multifocal bone lesions could be considered as a systemic and more aggressive disease rather than a conventional PBL. PMID:24673481

Wu, Huanwen; Zhang, Ling; Shao, Haipeng; Sokol, Lubomir; Sotomayor, Eduardo; Letson, Douglas; Bui, Marilyn M

2014-07-01

165

Molecular cytogenetic evaluation of the mechanism of genotoxic potential of amsacrine and nocodazole in mouse bone marrow cells.  

PubMed

The mechanism of genotoxic potential of the cancer chemotherapeutic drugs amsacrine and nocodazole in mouse bone marrow was investigated using a micronucleus test complemented by fluorescence in situ hybridization assay with mouse centromeric and telomeric DNA probes. In animals treated with different doses of amsacrine (0.5-12 mg kg(-1) ), the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes increased significantly after treatment with 9 and 12 mg kg(-1) . A statistically significant increase in micronuclei frequency was also detected for 75 mg kg(-1) nocodazole (two exposures, spaced 24 h apart). Both compounds caused significant suppressions of erythroblast proliferation at higher doses. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated for the first time that amsacrine has high incidences of clastogenicity and low incidences of aneugenicity whereas nocodazole has high incidences of aneugenicity and low incidences of clastogenicity during mitotic phases in vivo. The assay also showed that chromosomes can be enclosed in the micronuclei before and after centromere separation. Therefore, the clinical use of these genotoxic drugs must be weighed against the risks of the development of chromosomal aberrations in cancer patients and medical personnel exposed to drug regimens that include these chemicals. PMID:22081495

Attia, Sabry M

2013-06-01

166

ARTICLE IN PRESS Genetic variations that regulate bone morphology in the male mouse  

E-print Network

, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2580, USA b The Jackson Laboratory, Bone Biology Group, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA little influence on the susceptibility of a specific site to unloading. Cross-gender comparisons with previous data from female BALB and C3H mice further suggest strong interactions by which gender, genotype

167

Asfotase-? improves bone growth, mineralization and strength in mouse models of neurofibromatosis type-1.  

PubMed

Individuals with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) can manifest focal skeletal dysplasias that remain extremely difficult to treat. NF1 is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, which encodes the RAS GTPase-activating protein neurofibromin. We report here that ablation of Nf1 in bone-forming cells leads to supraphysiologic accumulation of pyrophosphate (PPi), a strong inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation, and that a chronic extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent increase in expression of genes promoting PPi synthesis and extracellular transport, namely Enpp1 and Ank, causes this phenotype. Nf1 ablation also prevents bone morphogenic protein-2-induced osteoprogenitor differentiation and, consequently, expression of alkaline phosphatase and PPi breakdown, further contributing to PPi accumulation. The short stature and impaired bone mineralization and strength in mice lacking Nf1 in osteochondroprogenitors or osteoblasts can be corrected by asfotase-? enzyme therapy aimed at reducing PPi concentration. These results establish neurofibromin as an essential regulator of bone mineralization. They also suggest that altered PPi homeostasis contributes to the skeletal dysplasias associated with NF1 and that some of the NF1 skeletal conditions could be prevented pharmacologically. PMID:24997609

de la Croix Ndong, Jean; Makowski, Alexander J; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Vignaux, Guillaume; Ono, Koichiro; Perrien, Daniel S; Joubert, Simon; Baglio, Serena R; Granchi, Donatella; Stevenson, David A; Rios, Jonathan J; Nyman, Jeffry S; Elefteriou, Florent

2014-08-01

168

Onset of apoprotein E secretion during differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes  

SciTech Connect

A number of macrophage functions were sequentially expressed when the bone marrow precursors of mononuclear phagocytes differentiated in culture in the presence of a specific growth factor, colony-stimulating factor-1. The authors defined the expression of apoprotein E (ApoE), a major secreted protein of resident peritoneal macrophages, during maturation of adherent bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes into macrophages. By 5 d the bone marrow macrophages were active secretory cells, but few cells contained intracellular immunoreactive ApoE, and little, if any, ApoE was secreted. ApoE secretion was initiated at 9 d, and this correlated with an increase in the percentage of macrophages containing intracellular ApoE. The onset of ApoE secretion was selective, and little change occurred in the other major secreted proteins detected by (/sup 35/S)methionine incorporation. In parallel, the high rate of plasminogen activator secretion, which peaked at 7 d, decreased markedly. ApoE secretion was not associated with altered expression of the macrophage surface antigen, la, or with secretion of fibronectin. Virtually all cells in independent colonies of bone marrow-derived macrophages eventually expressed ApoE. The proliferating monocyte/macrophage-like cell lines P388D1, J774.2, WHEI-3, RAW 264.1, and MGI.D/sup +/ secreted little or no ApoE. These data establish that ApoE secretion is developmentally regulated.

Werb, Z.; Chin, J.R.

1983-10-01

169

Primary malignant bone tumors and solitary metastases of the thoracolumbar spine: results by management with total en bloc spondylectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary malignant spinal tumors and solitary vertebral metastases of selected tumor entities in the thoracolumbar spine are\\u000a indications for total en bloc spondylectomy (TES). This study aimed to describe our oncological and surgical management and\\u000a to analyze the treatment results by management with TES for extra- and intracompartmental solitary spinal metastases and primary\\u000a malignant vertebral bone tumors. In 15 patients

Ingo Melcher; Alexander C. Disch; Cyrus Khodadadyan-Klostermann; Stefan Tohtz; Mirko Smolny; Ulrich Stöckle; Norbert P. Haas; Klaus-Dieter Schaser

2007-01-01

170

Is bone marrow biopsy always indicated in patients with primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma?  

PubMed

Bone marrow involvement at the time of diagnosis is uncommon in patients with primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (PCMZL). Moreover, in these patients such involvement is rarely found in isolation on diagnosis. Typically the few patients with PCMZL who have early bone marrow involvement also present secondary nodal or visceral involvement, which is detected by other staging studies (usually computed tomography). In recent years, this has given rise to some debate about whether a bone marrow biopsy should be routinely performed in patients diagnosed with PCMZL in view of the good prognosis and low incidence of bone marrow infiltration and/or extracutaneous involvement in this type of lymphoma. PMID:23954046

Muniesa, C; Hernández-Machín, B

2013-10-01

171

Ultrastructural and biochemical alterations induced in human, rat and mouse hepatocytes in primary culture exposed to selected carcinogens  

SciTech Connect

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB{sub 1}), dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and actinomycin D are all potential human liver carcinogens. In order to investigate carcinogenic susceptibility of human liver to these agents, primary cultures of normal human hepatocytes were exposed to the four carcinogens. In the first series of experiments, human, rat, and mouse hepatocytes in primary culture were exposed to actinomycin D, AFB{sub 1}, and DMN for 24 h and examined for ultrastructural alterations. In an effort to relate the ultrastructural effects with total covalent binding of the carcinogen to DNA, human, rat and mouse hepatocytes were exposed to 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M ({sup 3}H)AFB{sub 1} for 24 h. Hepatocytes from male rats had the highest degree of ({sup 3}H)AFB{sub 1}-DNA binding. Human hepatocytes contained the next highest binding level, while hepatocytes from female rats bound 38 pmoles/mg DNA. The AFB{sub 1}-DNA binding level in mouse hepatocytes was 1.4 pmoles/mg DNA. In similar experiments, human, and male and female rat hepatocytes in primary culture were exposed to the carcinogen 2-acetylamino (9-{sup 14}C)fluorene for 24 h. It was determined that male rat hepatocytes had the highest amount of radiolabeled 2-AAF bound to their DNA, female rats contained 0.57 nmoles/mg DNA, while human hepatocytes contained 0.29 nmoles/mg DNA.

Cole, K.H.

1987-01-01

172

Age-related BMAL1 change affects mouse bone marrow stromal cell proliferation and osteo-differentiation potential  

PubMed Central

Introduction Aging people's bone regeneration potential is always impaired. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) contain progenitors of osteoblasts. Donor age may affect MSCs’ proliferation and differentiation potential, but the genomic base is still unknown. Due to recent research's indication that a core circadian component, brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 protein (BMAL1), has a role in premature aging, we investigated the normal aging mechanism in mice with their MSCs and Bmal1 gene/protein level. Material and methods 1, 6 and 16 month old C57BL/6 mice were used and the bone marrow stromal cells were gained and cultured at early passage. Bmal1 gene and protein level were detected in these cells. Marrow stromal cells were also induced to differentiate to osteoblasts or adipocytes. Three groups of mice MSCs were compared on proliferation by flow cytometry, on cell senescence by SA-?-gal expression and after osteo-induction on osteogenic potential by the expression of osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN). Results Bmal1 gene and protein level as well as S-phase fraction of the cell cycle decreased in MSCs along with the aging process. At the same time, SA-?-gal+ levels increased, especially in the aged mice MSCs. When induced to be osteogenic, Osx gene expression and ALP activity declined in the mid-age and aged mice MSCs, while OCN protein secretion deteriorated in the aged mice MSCs. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that mouse MSCs changed with their proliferation and osteo-differentiation abilities at different aging stages, and that Bmal1 is related to the normal aging process in MSCs. PMID:22457671

Chen, Yijia; Xu, Xiaomei; Tan, Zhen; Ye, Cui; Chen, Yangxi

2012-01-01

173

Abnormalities in cartilage and bone development in the Apert syndrome FGFR2+\\/S252W mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apert syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by malformations of the skull, limbs and viscera. Two-thirds of affected individuals have a S252W mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). To study the pathogenesis of this condition, we generated a knock-in mouse model with this mutation. The Fgfr2 +\\/S252W mutant mice have abnormalities of the skeleton, as well as

Yingli Wang; Ran Xiao; Fan Yang; Baktiar O. Karim; Anthony J. Iacovelli; Juanliang Cai; Charles P. Lerner; Joan T. Richtsmeier; Jen M. Leszl; Cheryl A. Hill; Kai Yu; David M. Ornitz; Jennifer Elisseeff; David L. Huso; Ethylin Wang Jabs

2005-01-01

174

Factors related to the use of bone densitometry: survey responses of 494 primary care physicians in New England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large population-based surveys have shown that approximately 30% of people over age 65 years have osteoporosis and that 17% of the population over 65 years will sustain a fracture during their lifetime. Many people with osteoporosis are never being evaluated even though effective treatments are available. We examined why primary care physicians order few bone mineral density scans. We conducted

D. H. Solomon; M. T. Connelly; C. J. Rosen; B. Dawson-Hughes; D. P. Kiel; S. L. Greenspan; E. S. Leib; M. Holick; A. H. Miguel; J. S. Finkelstein

2003-01-01

175

Arsenic Compromises Conducting Airway Epithelial Barrier Properties in Primary Mouse and Immortalized Human Cell Cultures  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a lung toxicant that can lead to respiratory illness through inhalation and ingestion, although the most common exposure is through contaminated drinking water. Lung effects reported from arsenic exposure include lung cancer and obstructive lung disease, as well as reductions in lung function and immune response. As part of their role in innate immune function, airway epithelial cells provide a barrier that protects underlying tissue from inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants frequently found in inspired air. We evaluated the effects of a five-day exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic {<4?M [~300 ?g/L (ppb)] as NaAsO2} on airway epithelial barrier function and structure. In a primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cell model we found that both micromolar (3.9 ?M) and submicromolar (0.8 ?M) arsenic concentrations reduced transepithelial resistance, a measure of barrier function. Immunofluorescent staining of arsenic-treated MTE cells showed altered patterns of localization of the transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin (Cl) Cl-1, Cl-4, Cl-7 and occludin at cell-cell contacts when compared with untreated controls. To better quantify arsenic-induced changes in tight junction transmembrane proteins we conducted arsenic exposure experiments with an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-). We found that arsenic exposure significantly increased the protein expression of Cl-4 and occludin as well as the mRNA levels of Cl-4 and Cl-7 in these cells. Additionally, arsenic exposure resulted in altered phosphorylation of occludin. In summary, exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can alter both the function and structure of airway epithelial barrier constituents. These changes likely contribute to the observed arsenic-induced loss in basic innate immune defense and increased infection in the airway. PMID:24349408

Sherwood, Cara L.; Liguori, Andrew E.; Olsen, Colin E.; Lantz, R. Clark; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Boitano, Scott

2013-01-01

176

Neurogenic and Neurotrophic Effects of BDNF Peptides in Mouse Hippocampal Primary Neuronal Cell Cultures  

PubMed Central

The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is down regulated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), depression, stress, and anxiety; conversely the level of this neurotrophin is increased in autism spectrum disorders. Thus, modulating the level of BDNF can be a potential therapeutic approach for nervous system pathologies. In the present study, we designed five different tetra peptides (peptides B-1 to B-5) corresponding to different active regions of BDNF. These tetra peptides were found to be non-toxic, and they induced the expression of neuronal markers in mouse embryonic day 18 (E18) primary hippocampal neuronal cultures. Additionally, peptide B-5 induced the expression of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB, suggesting a positive feedback mechanism. The BDNF peptides induced only a moderate activation (phosphorylation at Tyr 706) of the TrkB receptor, which could be blocked by the Trk’s inhibitor, K252a. Peptide B-3, when combined with BDNF, potentiated the survival effect of this neurotrophin on H2O2-treated E18 hippocampal cells. Peptides B-3 and B-5 were found to work as partial agonists and as partial antagonists competing with BDNF to activate the TrkB receptor in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that the described BDNF tetra peptides are neurotrophic, can modulate BDNF signaling in a partial agonist/antagonist way, and offer a novel therapeutic approach to neural pathologies where BDNF levels are dysregulated. PMID:23320097

Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria del Carmen; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

2013-01-01

177

Protection of primary neurons and mouse brain from Alzheimer's pathology by molecular tweezers  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease is a devastating cureless neurodegenerative disorder affecting >35 million people worldwide. The disease is caused by toxic oligomers and aggregates of amyloid ? protein and the microtubule-associated protein tau. Recently, the Lys-specific molecular tweezer CLR01 has been shown to inhibit aggregation and toxicity of multiple amyloidogenic proteins, including amyloid ? protein and tau, by disrupting key interactions involved in the assembly process. Following up on these encouraging findings, here, we asked whether CLR01 could protect primary neurons from Alzheimer’s disease-associated synaptotoxicity and reduce Alzheimer’s disease–like pathology in vivo. Using cell culture and brain slices, we found that CLR01 effectively inhibited synaptotoxicity induced by the 42-residue isoform of amyloid ? protein, including ?80% inhibition of changes in dendritic spines density and long-term potentiation and complete inhibition of changes in basal synaptic activity. Using a radiolabelled version of the compound, we found that CLR01 crossed the mouse blood–brain barrier at ?2% of blood levels. Treatment of 15-month-old triple-transgenic mice for 1 month with CLR01 resulted in a decrease in brain amyloid ? protein aggregates, hyperphosphorylated tau and microglia load as observed by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, no signs of toxicity were observed in the treated mice, and CLR01 treatment did not affect the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid ? protein precursor. Examining induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 metabolism system by CLR01 revealed minimal interaction. Together, these data suggest that CLR01 is safe for use at concentrations well above those showing efficacy in mice. The efficacy and toxicity results support a process-specific mechanism of action of molecular tweezers and suggest that these are promising compounds for developing disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. PMID:23183235

Attar, Aida; Ripoli, Cristian; Riccardi, Elisa; Maiti, Panchanan; Li Puma, Domenica D.; Liu, Tingyu; Hayes, Jane; Jones, Mychica R.; Lichti-Kaiser, Kristin; Yang, Fusheng; Gale, Greg D.; Tseng, Chi-hong; Tan, Miao; Xie, Cui-Wei; Straudinger, Jeffrey L.; Klarner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Frautschy, Sally A.; Grassi, Claudio

2012-01-01

178

Altered maturation of the primary somatosensory cortex in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability and results from the loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Many fragile X-related cognitive and behavioral features emerge during childhood and are associated with abnormal synaptic and cellular organization of the cerebral cortex. Identifying the roles of FMRP in cortical development will provide a basis for understanding the pathogenesis of the syndrome. However, how the loss of FMRP influences the developmental trajectory of cortical maturation remains unclear. We took advantage of the stereotyped and well-characterized development of the murine primary somatosensory cortex to examine cortical maturation during a time-window that corresponds to late embryonic and early postnatal development in the human. In the Fmr1 knockout mouse, we find a delay in somatosensory map formation, alterations in the morphology profile of dendrites and spines of layer 4 neurons and a decrease in the synaptic levels of proteins involved in glutamate receptor signaling at times corresponding to the highest levels of FMRP expression. In contrast, cortical arealization, synaptic density in layer 4 and early postnatal regulation of mRNAs encoding synaptic proteins are not altered in Fmr1 knockout mice. The specificity of the developmental delay in Fmr1 knockout mice indicates that the loss of FMRP does not result in a general stalling of cerebral cortex maturation. Instead, our results suggest that inaccurate timing of developmental processes caused by the loss of FMRP may lead to alterations in neural circuitry that underlie behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions associated with FXS. PMID:22328088

Till, Sally M; Wijetunge, Lasani S; Seidel, Viktoria G; Harlow, Emily; Wright, Ann K; Bagni, Claudia; Contractor, Anis; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Kind, Peter C

2012-05-15

179

Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) change their phenotype when cultured with fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

The heparin-containing mast cells (HP-MC) that reside in the connective tissues of the mouse, but not the chondroitin sulfate containing mast cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa, stain with safranin when exposed to alcian blue/safranin. Mouse BMMC (the presumptive in vitro counterpart of the in vivo differentiated mucosal mast cell) were cultured for 2-14 days with confluent skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts in RPMI-1640 containing 10% fetal calf serum and 50% WEHI-3 conditioned medium. Although the BMMC adhered to the fibroblast monolayer, they continued to divide, probably due to the presence of interleukin-3 in the conditioned medium. The mast cells remained viable throughout the period of co-culture, since they failed to release LDG and because they increased their histamine content per cell approx.15-fold. After 8-9 days of co-culture, >50% of the BMMC changed histochemically becoming safranin positive. At this time, 30-50% of the (/sup 35/S)glycosaminoglycans on the proteoglycans synthesized by these co-cultured mass cells were heparin, whereas the initial BMMC synthesized proteoglycans containing only chondroitin sulfate E. That interleukin 3-dependent mouse BMMC can be induced to undergo a phenotypic change so as to express characteristics of a HP-MC suggests that the tissue microenvironment determines the differentiated characteristics of these cells.

Levi-Schaffer, F.; Austen, K.F.; Stevens, R.L.

1986-03-05

180

Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes.  

PubMed

A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3?-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in <1 min and initial rate and maximal uptake of HDL free cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null mice and hepatocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that L-FABP, particularly in the absence of SCP-2, plays a significant role in HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary hepatocytes. PMID:22241858

Storey, Stephen M; McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

2012-04-15

181

Breed-specific incidence rates of canine primary bone tumors--a population based survey of dogs in Norway.  

PubMed

This is one of few published population-based studies describing breed specific rates of canine primary bone tumors. Incidence rates related to dog breeds could help clarify the impact of etiological factors such as birth weight, growth rate, and adult body weight/height on development of these tumors. The study population consisted of dogs within 4 large/giant breeds; Irish wolfhound (IW), Leonberger (LB), Newfoundland (NF), and Labrador retriever (LR), born between January 1st 1989 and December 31st 1998. Questionnaires distributed to owners of randomly selected dogs--fulfilling the criteria of breed, year of birth, and registration in the Norwegian Kennel Club--constituted the basis for this retrospective, population-based survey. Of the 3748 questionnaires received by owners, 1915 were completed, giving a response rate of 51%. Forty-three dogs had been diagnosed with primary bone tumors, based upon clinical examination and x-rays. The breeds IW and LB, with 126 and 72 cases per 10 000 dog years at risk (DYAR), respectively, had significantly higher incidence rates of primary bone tumors than NF and LR (P < 0.0001). Incidence rates for the latter were 11 and 2 cases per 10 000 DYAR, respectively. Pursuing a search for risk factors other than body size/weight is supported by the significantly different risks of developing primary bone tumors between similarly statured dogs, like NF and LB, observed in this study. Defining these breed-specific incidence rates enables subsequent case control studies, ultimately aiming to identify specific etiological factors for developing primary bone tumors. PMID:22210997

Anfinsen, Kristin P; Grotmol, Tom; Bruland, Oyvind S; Jonasdottir, Thora J

2011-07-01

182

Clastogenic potential of Ruta graveolens extract and a homeopathic preparation in mouse bone marrow cells.  

PubMed

Ruta graveolens belonging to family Rutaceae has long been traditionally used as a medicinal plant as well as a flavoring agent in food. However, very little data are available on the toxicity of the plant. This report presents evidence on the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of an extract of Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C, a homeopathic preparation. Various types of chromosomal aberrations were noted in bone marrow cells after treatment. The percentage of aberrated cells in the 400mg/kgb.wt extract administered group was found to be 21% and with 1,000 mg/kg.b.wt it was 31%. The value for the Ruta 200C treated group was also elevated to 23% as compared to the 3%for untreated animals. In addition, bone marrow cells had higher incidence of micronuclei induction when treated with the extract (400 mg and 1,000 mg/kg body weight) and Ruta 200C for 30 days. Administration of the extract (1,000 mg/kg.b.wt) over a period of 30 days also resulted in damage to cellular DNA as evidenced by comet formation where the comet parameters such as percentage DNA in tail, tail length, tail moment of the bone marrow cells were increased several fold over control values. The comet tail moment of the bone marrow cells increased from 4.5 to 50.2 after the extract treatment. Administration of Ruta 200C for 5 consecutive days increased the tail moment to 11.7. These results indicate that Ruta graveolens and Ruta 200C may induce genotoxicity in animals. PMID:19256773

Preethi, Korengath C; Nair, Cherappally K K; Kuttan, Ramadasan

2008-01-01

183

ERR{alpha} regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells  

SciTech Connect

The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-{alpha} (ERR{alpha}) has been reported to have both a positive and a negative regulatory role in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. We have studied the role of ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from ERR{alpha} deficient mice and their differentiation capacities were compared to that of the wild-type cells. ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced cellular proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralization. In the complementary experiment, overexpression of ERR{alpha} in MC3T3-E1 cells increased the expression of osteoblastic markers and mineralization. Alterations in the expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) may at least partially explain the effects on mineralization as BSP expression was reduced in ERR{alpha} deficient MSCs and enhanced upon ERR{alpha} overexpression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter construct driven by the BSP promoter was efficiently transactivated by ERR{alpha}. Under adipogenic conditions, ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced adipocytic differentiation. Our data thus propose a positive role for ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. The variability in the results yielded in the different studies implies that ERR{alpha} may play different roles in bone under different physiological conditions.

Rajalin, Ann-Marie; Pollock, Hanna [Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki (Finland)] [Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki (Finland); Aarnisalo, Piia, E-mail: piia.aarnisalo@helsinki.fi [Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki (Finland) [Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland)

2010-05-28

184

Autologous serum improves bone formation in a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite bone substitute in combination with mesenchymal stem cells and rhBMP-2 in the sheep model  

PubMed Central

New therapeutic strategies are required for critical size bone defects, because the gold standard of transplanting autologous bone from an unharmed area of the body often leads to several severe side effects and disadvantages for the patient. For years, tissue engineering approaches have been seeking a stable, axially vascularized transplantable bone replacement suitable for transplantation into the recipient bed with pre-existing insufficient conditions. For this reason, the arteriovenous loop model was developed and various bone substitutes have been vascularized. However, it has not been possible thus far to engineer a primary stable and axially vascularized transplantable bone substitute. For that purpose, a primary stable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite (HA) bone substitute in combination with blood, bone marrow, expanded, or directly retransplanted mesenchymal stem cells, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), and different carrier materials (fibrin, cell culture medium, autologous serum) was tested subcutaneously for 4 or 12 weeks in the sheep model. Autologous serum lead to an early matrix change during degradation of the bone substitute and formation of new bone tissue. The best results were achieved in the group combining mesenchymal stem cells expanded with 60 ?g/mL rhBMP-2 in autologous serum. Better ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue could be detected in the autologous serum group compared with the control (fibrin). Osteoclastic activity indicating an active bone remodeling process was observed after 4 weeks, particularly in the group with autologous serum and after 12 weeks in every experimental group. This study clearly demonstrates the positive effects of autologous serum in combination with mesenchymal stem cells and rhBMP-2 on bone formation in a primary stable silica-embedded nano-HA bone grafting material in the sheep model. In further experiments, the results will be transferred to the sheep arteriovenous loop model in order to engineer an axially vascularized primary stable bone replacement in clinically relevant size for free transplantation.

Boos, Anja M; Weigand, Annika; Deschler, Gloria; Gerber, Thomas; Arkudas, Andreas; Kneser, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E; Beier, Justus P

2014-01-01

185

Long-term enzyme correction and lipid reduction in multiple organs of primary and secondary transplanted Fabry mice receiving transduced bone marrow cells  

PubMed Central

Fabry disease is a compelling target for gene therapy as a treatment strategy. A deficiency in the lysosomal hydrolase ?-galactosidase A (?-gal A; EC 3.2.1.22) leads to impaired catabolism of ?-galactosyl-terminal lipids such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Patients develop vascular occlusions that cause cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal disease. Unlike for some lysosomal storage disorders, there is limited primary nervous system involvement in Fabry disease. The enzyme defect can be corrected by gene transfer. Overexpression of ?-gal A by transduced cells results in secretion of this enzyme. Secreted enzyme is available for uptake by nontransduced cells presumably by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Correction of bystander cells may occur locally or systemically after circulation of the enzyme in the blood. In this paper we report studies on long-term genetic correction in an ?-gal A-deficient mouse model of Fabry disease. ?-gal A-deficient bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) were transduced with a retrovirus encoding ?-gal A and transplanted into sublethally and lethally irradiated ?-gal A-deficient mice. ?-gal A activity and Gb3 levels were analyzed in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, BMMCs, liver, spleen, heart, lung, kidney, and brain. Primary recipient animals were followed for up to 26 weeks. BMMCs were then transplanted into secondary recipients. Increased ?-gal A activity and decreased Gb3 storage were observed in all recipient groups in all organs and tissues except the brain. These effects occurred even with a low percentage of transduced cells. The findings indicate that genetic correction of bone marrow cells derived from patients with Fabry disease may have utility for phenotypic correction of patients with this disorder. PMID:10840053

Takenaka, Toshihiro; Murray, Gary J.; Qin, Gangjian; Quirk, Jane M.; Ohshima, Toshio; Qasba, Pankaj; Clark, Kelly; Kulkarni, Ashok B.; Brady, Roscoe O.; Medin, Jeffrey A.

2000-01-01

186

Long-term enzyme correction and lipid reduction in multiple organs of primary and secondary transplanted Fabry mice receiving transduced bone marrow cells.  

PubMed

Fabry disease is a compelling target for gene therapy as a treatment strategy. A deficiency in the lysosomal hydrolase alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-gal A; EC ) leads to impaired catabolism of alpha-galactosyl-terminal lipids such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Patients develop vascular occlusions that cause cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal disease. Unlike for some lysosomal storage disorders, there is limited primary nervous system involvement in Fabry disease. The enzyme defect can be corrected by gene transfer. Overexpression of alpha-gal A by transduced cells results in secretion of this enzyme. Secreted enzyme is available for uptake by nontransduced cells presumably by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Correction of bystander cells may occur locally or systemically after circulation of the enzyme in the blood. In this paper we report studies on long-term genetic correction in an alpha-gal A-deficient mouse model of Fabry disease. alpha-gal A-deficient bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) were transduced with a retrovirus encoding alpha-gal A and transplanted into sublethally and lethally irradiated alpha-gal A-deficient mice. alpha-gal A activity and Gb3 levels were analyzed in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, BMMCs, liver, spleen, heart, lung, kidney, and brain. Primary recipient animals were followed for up to 26 weeks. BMMCs were then transplanted into secondary recipients. Increased alpha-gal A activity and decreased Gb3 storage were observed in all recipient groups in all organs and tissues except the brain. These effects occurred even with a low percentage of transduced cells. The findings indicate that genetic correction of bone marrow cells derived from patients with Fabry disease may have utility for phenotypic correction of patients with this disorder. PMID:10840053

Takenaka, T; Murray, G J; Qin, G; Quirk, J M; Ohshima, T; Qasba, P; Clark, K; Kulkarni, A B; Brady, R O; Medin, J A

2000-06-20

187

Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha on bone formation and resorption in cultured neonatal mouse calvariae: Role of prostaglandin E2 production  

SciTech Connect

Although most studies show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most potent and effective of the prostanoids in bone, recent data in cell culture suggest that PGF2 alpha may have unique effects, particularly on cell replication. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of PGF2 alpha and PGE2 in cultured neonatal mouse parietal bones by simultaneous measurement of bone resorption as release of previously incorporated 45Ca, bone formation as incorporation of (3H)proline into collagenase-digestible (CDP) and noncollagen protein, and DNA synthesis as incorporation of (3H)thymidine. PGF2 alpha was less effective than PGE2 as a stimulator of bone resorption, and its effects were partially inhibited by indomethacin and markedly inhibited by glucocorticoids. In contrast, the resorptive response to PGE2 was unaffected by indomethacin and only partially inhibited by cortisol. PGF2 alpha had little effect on bone formation, in contrast to the biphasic effect of PGE2, which inhibited labeling of CDP in the absence of cortisol and stimulated CDP labeling in the presence of cortisol. PGF2 alpha increased thymidine incorporation into DNA, but the effect was smaller than that of PGE2 and was inhibited by indomethacin. These observations suggested that PGF2 alpha might act in part by stimulating PGE2 production. By RIA, PGE2 concentrations were increased in the medium of bones treated with PGF2 alpha, and this increase was blocked by indomethacin. By HPLC, bones prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid showed an increase in labeled PGE2 release, and RIA showed an increase in PGE2 after PGF2 alpha treatment. These results indicate that PGF2 alpha is a relatively weak agonist in bone compared to PGE2 and that some of the effects of PGF2 alpha on bone resorption, formation, and cell replication may be mediated by an increase in endogenous PGE2 production.

Raisz, L.G.; Alander, C.B.; Fall, P.M.; Simmons, H.A. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington (USA))

1990-02-01

188

Allogeneic Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with UDCA-Resistant Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cell transplantation (BM-MSCT) for patients with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)-resistant primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Ten patients were enrolled in this trial of BM-MSCT. All patients were permitted to concurrently continue their previous UDCA treatment. The efficacy of BM-MSCT in UDCA-resistant PBC was assessed at various time points throughout the 12-month follow up. No transplantation-related side effects were observed. The life quality of the patients was improved after BM-MSCT as demonstrated by responses to the PBC-40 questionnaire. Serum levels of ALT, AST, ?-GT, and IgM significantly decreased from baseline after BM-MSCT. In addition, the percentage of CD8(+) T cells was reduced, while that of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells was increased in peripheral lymphocytic subsets. Serum levels of IL-10 were also elevated. Notably, the optimal therapeutic outcome was acquired in 3 to 6 months and could be maintained for 12 months after BM-MSCT. In conclusion, allogeneic BM-MSCT in UDCA-resistant PBC is safe and appears to be effective. PMID:24835895

Wang, Li; Han, Qin; Chen, Hua; Wang, Ke; Shan, Guang-Liang; Kong, Fang; Yang, Yun-Jiao; Li, Yong-Zhe; Zhang, Xuan; Dong, Fen; Wang, Qian; Xu, Dong; Hu, Zhao-Jun; Wang, Shi-Hua; Keating, Armand; Bi, Ya-Lan; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Zhao, Robert Chun-Hua

2014-10-15

189

Functional and Transcriptomic Recovery of Infarcted Mouse Myocardium Treated with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

Although bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNC) have been extensively used in cell therapy for cardiac diseases, little mechanistic information is available to support reports of their efficacy. To address this shortcoming, we compared structural and functional recovery and associated global gene expression profiles in post-ischaemic myocardium treated with BMNC transplantation. BMNC suspensions were injected into cardiac scar tissue 10 days after experimental myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, mice undergoing BMNC therapy were found to have normalized antibody repertoire and improved cardiac performance measured by ECG, treadmill exercise time and echocardiography. After functional testing, gene expression profiles in cardiac tissue were evaluated using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Expression of more than 18% of the 11981 quantified unigenes was significantly altered in the infarcted hearts. BMNC therapy restored expression of 2099 (96.2%) of the genes that were altered by infarction but led to altered expression of 286 other genes, considered to be a side effect of the treatment. Transcriptional therapeutic efficacy, a metric calculated using a formula that incorporates both recovery and side effect of treatment, was 73%. In conclusion, our results confirm a beneficial role for bone marrow-derived cell therapy and provide new information on molecular mechanisms operating after BMNC transplantation on post ischemic heart failure in mice. PMID:21671060

Lachtermacher, Stephan; Esporcatte, Bruno L. B.; da Silva de Azevedo Fortes, Fabio; Rocha, Nazareth Novaes; Montalvao, Fabricio; Costa, Patricia C.; Belem, Luciano; Rabischoffisky, Arnaldo; Neto, Hugo C. C. Faria; Vasconcellos, Rita; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Spray, David C.; Thomas, Neil M.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos

2011-01-01

190

Differential effects of simvastatin on IL-13-induced cytokine gene expression in primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma causes significant morbidity worldwide in adults and children alike, and incurs large healthcare costs. The statin drugs, which treat hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases, have pleiotropic effects beyond lowering cholesterol, including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic properties which may benefit lung health. Using an allergic mouse model of asthma, we previously demonstrated a benefit of statins in reducing peribronchiolar eosinophilic inflammation, airway hyperreactivity, goblet cell hyperplasia, and lung IL-4 and IL-13 production. Objectives In this study, we evaluated whether simvastatin inhibits IL-13-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression of asthma-related cytokines in well-differentiated primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cell cultures. We hypothesized that simvastatin reduces the expression of IL-13-inducible genes in MTE cells. Methods We harvested tracheal epithelial cells from naïve BALB/c mice, grew them under air-liquid interface (ALI) cell culture conditions, then assessed IL-13-induced gene expression in MTE cells using a quantitative real-time PCR mouse gene array kit. Results We found that simvastatin had differential effects on IL-13-mediated gene expression (inhibited eotaxin-1; MCP-1,-2,-3; and osteopontin (SPP1), while it induced caspase-1 and CCL20 (MIP-3?)) in MTE cells. For other asthma-relevant genes such as TNF, IL-4, IL-10, CCL12 (MCP-5), CCL5 (RANTES), and CCR3, there were no significant IL-13-inducible or statin effects on gene expression. Conclusions Simvastatin modulates the gene expression of selected IL-13-inducible pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells. The airway epithelium may be a viable target tissue for the statin drugs. Further research is needed to assess the mechanisms of how statins modulate epithelial gene expression. PMID:22583375

2012-01-01

191

Generation of Large Numbers of Dendritic Cells from Mouse Bone Marrow Cultures Supplemented with Granulocyte\\/Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Antigen-presenting, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-rich dendritic cells are known to arise from bone marrow. However, marrow lacks mature dendritic cells, and substantial numbers of proliferating less-mature cells have yet to be identified. The methodology for inducing dendritic cell growth that was recently described for mouse blood now has been modified to MHC class II-negative precursors in marrow.

Kayo Inaba; Muneo Inaba; Nikolaus Romani; Hideki Aya; Masashi Deguchi; Susumu Ikehara; Shigeru Muramatsu; Ralph M. Steinmanll

1992-01-01

192

?-Adrenergic agonist and antagonist regulation of autophagy in HepG2 cells, primary mouse hepatocytes, and mouse liver.  

PubMed

Autophagy recently has been shown to be involved in normal hepatic function and in pathological conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Adrenergic signalling also is an important regulator of hepatic metabolism and function. However, currently little is known about the potential role of adrenergic signaling on hepatic autophagy, and whether the ?-adrenergic receptor itself may be a key regulator of autophagy. To address these issues, we investigated the actions of the ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol on hepatic autophagy. Surprisingly, we found that clenbuterol stimulated autophagy and autophagic flux in hepatoma cells, primary hepatocytes and in vivo. Similar effects also were observed with epinephrine treatment. Interestingly, propranolol caused a late block in autophagy in the absence and presence of clenbuterol, both in cell culture and in vivo. Thus, our results demonstrate that the ?2-adrenergic receptor is a key regulator of hepatic autophagy, and that the ?-blocker propranolol can independently induce a late block in autophagy. PMID:24950230

Farah, Benjamin L; Sinha, Rohit A; Wu, Yajun; Singh, Brijesh K; Zhou, Jin; Bay, Boon-Huat; Yen, Paul M

2014-01-01

193

?-Adrenergic Agonist and Antagonist Regulation of Autophagy in HepG2 Cells, Primary Mouse Hepatocytes, and Mouse Liver  

PubMed Central

Autophagy recently has been shown to be involved in normal hepatic function and in pathological conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Adrenergic signalling also is an important regulator of hepatic metabolism and function. However, currently little is known about the potential role of adrenergic signaling on hepatic autophagy, and whether the ?-adrenergic receptor itself may be a key regulator of autophagy. To address these issues, we investigated the actions of the ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol on hepatic autophagy. Surprisingly, we found that clenbuterol stimulated autophagy and autophagic flux in hepatoma cells, primary hepatocytes and in vivo. Similar effects also were observed with epinephrine treatment. Interestingly, propranolol caused a late block in autophagy in the absence and presence of clenbuterol, both in cell culture and in vivo. Thus, our results demonstrate that the ?2- adrenergic receptor is a key regulator of hepatic autophagy, and that the ?-blocker propranolol can independently induce a late block in autophagy. PMID:24950230

Farah, Benjamin L.; Sinha, Rohit A.; Wu, Yajun; Singh, Brijesh K.; Zhou, Jin; Bay, Boon-Huat; Yen, Paul M.

2014-01-01

194

Forty mouse strain survey of voluntary calcium intake, blood calcium, and bone mineral content  

PubMed Central

We measured voluntary calcium intake, blood calcium, and bone mineral content of male and female mice from 40 inbred strains. Calcium intakes were assessed using 48-h two-bottle tests with a choice between water and one of the following: water, 7.5, 25, and 75 mM CaCl2, then 7.5, 25, and 75 mM calcium lactate (CaLa). Intakes were affected by strain, sex, anion, and concentration. In 11 strains females consumed more calcium than did males and in the remaining 29 strains there were no sex differences. Nine strains drank more CaLa than CaCl2 whereas only one strain (JF1/Ms) drank more CaCl2 than CaLa. Some strains had consistently high calcium intakes and preferred all calcium solutions relative to water (e.g., PWK/PhJ, BTBR T+tf/J, JF1/Ms). Others had consistently low calcium intakes and avoided all calcium solutions relative to water (e.g., KK/H1J, C57BL/10J, CE/J, C58/J). After behavioral tests, blood was sampled and assayed for pH, ionized calcium concentration, and plasma total calcium concentration. Bone mineral density and content were assessed by DEXA. There were no significant correlations between any of these physiological measures and calcium intake. However, strains of mice that had the highest calcium intakes generally fell at the extremes of the physiological distributions. We conclude that the avidity for calcium is determined by different genetic architecture and thus different physiological mechanisms in different strains. PMID:17493644

Tordoff, Michael G.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Reed, Danielle R.

2007-01-01

195

Radioprotective effect of combinations of WR-2721 and mercaptopropionylglycine on mouse bone marrow chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

The radioprotective and toxic effects of low to moderate doses of S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) and its combination with mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) on the chromosomes of the bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice were studied at 24 h and 14 days postirradiation. Significant protection against radiation-induced chromosome aberrations was observed with 50 mg/kg WR-2721. The protection increased with the dose of the drug administered, and the degree of protection per unit dose increment was more pronounced at lower than at higher doses. A combination of WR-2721 and MPG given before exposure resulted in a significantly greater number of normal metaphases at 24 h postirradiation compared to the respective single-drug treatment groups. On Day 14 postirradiation, when the presence of WR-2721 resulted in an increase in the frequency of aberrant cells, combination with MPG helped to reduce this value markedly, especially at WR-2721 doses below 200 mg/kg. On the basis of these results it is suggested that 150 mg/kg WR-2721 may be considered an optimum dose for combination with MPG for protection of chromosomes of bone marrow cells when repeated drug administrations are not needed. Changes in the level of glutathione (GSH) in the blood were studied at different times following the administration of 150 mg/kg WR-2721 and its combination with MPG before sham irradiation or exposure to 4.5 Gy 60Co gamma rays. The results showed that WR-2721 elevated blood GSH levels significantly above normal values by the time radiation was delivered, while MPG did not. Glutathione appears to have an important role in the action of WR-2721, while protection by MPG may not be mediated through GSH. Injection of MPG after WR-2721 helps to maintain the higher GSH level for a longer duration compared to treatment with WR-2721 alone.

Uma Devi, P.; Prasanna, P.G. (Kasturba Medical College, Karnataka (India))

1990-11-01

196

Genes affected by mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) proviral insertions in mouse mammary tumors are deregulated or mutated in primary human mammary tumors  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of mutations is a contributing factor in the initiation of premalignant mammary lesions and their progression to malignancy and metastasis. We have used a mouse model in which the carcinogen is the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) which induces clonal premalignant mammary lesions and malignant mammary tumors by insertional mutagenesis. Identification of the genes and signaling pathways affected in MMTV-induced mouse mammary lesions provides a rationale for determining whether genetic alteration of the human orthologues of these genes/pathways may contribute to human breast carcinogenesis. A high-throughput platform for inverse PCR to identify MMTV-host junction fragments and their nucleotide sequences in a large panel of MMTV-induced lesions was developed. Validation of the genes affected by MMTV-insertion was carried out by microarray analysis. Common integration site (CIS) means that the gene was altered by an MMTV proviral insertion in at least two independent lesions arising in different hosts. Three of the new genes identified as CIS for MMTV were assayed for their capability to confer on HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells the ability for invasion, anchorage independent growth and tumor development in nude mice. Analysis of MMTV induced mammary premalignant hyperplastic outgrowth (HOG) lines and mammary tumors led to the identification of CIS restricted to 35 loci. Within these loci members of the Wnt, Fgf and Rspo gene families plus two linked genes (Npm3 and Ddn) were frequently activated in tumors induced by MMTV. A second group of 15 CIS occur at a low frequency (2-5 observations) in mammary HOGs or tumors. In this latter group the expression of either Phf19 or Sdc2 was shown to increase HC11 cells invasion capability. Foxl1 expression conferred on HC11 cells the capability for anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar and tumor development in nude mice. The published transcriptome and nucleotide sequence analysis of gene expression in primary human breast tumors was interrogated. Twenty of the human orthologues of MMTV CIS associated genes are deregulated and/or mutated in human breast tumors. PMID:23131872

Callahan, Robert; Mudunuri, Uma; Bargo, Sharon; Raafat, Ahmed; McCurdy, David; Boulanger, Corinne; Lowther, William; Stephens, Robert; Luke, Brian T.; Stewart, Claudia; Wu, Xiaolin; Munroe, David; Smith, Gilbert H.

2012-01-01

197

Convergence of bone morphogenetic protein and laminin-1 signaling pathways promotes proliferation and colony formation by fetal mouse pancreatic cells  

SciTech Connect

We previously reported that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor superfamily, together with the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin-1 (Ln-1), promote proliferation of fetal pancreatic cells and formation of colonies containing peripheral insulin-positive cells. Here, we further investigate the cross-talk between BMP and Ln-1 signals. By RT-PCR, receptors for BMP (BMPR) (excepting BMPR-1B) and Ln-1 were expressed in the fetal pancreas between E13.5 and E17.5. Specific blocking antibodies to BMP-4 and -6 and selective BMP antagonists partially inhibited colony formation by fetal pancreas cells. Colony formation induced by BMP-6 and Ln-1 was completely abolished in a dose-dependent manner by blocking Ln-1 binding to its {alpha}{sub 6} integrin and {alpha}-dystroglycan receptors or by blocking the Ln-1 signaling molecules, phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (P13K) and MAP kinase kinase-1. These results demonstrate a convergence of BMP and Ln-1 signaling through P13K and MAP kinase pathways to induce proliferation and colony formation in E15.5 fetal mouse pancreatic cells.

Jiang Fangxu [Autoimmunity and Transplantation Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville 3050 (Australia)]. E-mail: jiang@wehi.edu.au; Harrison, Leonard C. [Autoimmunity and Transplantation Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville 3050 (Australia)

2005-08-01

198

Splitting placodes: effects of bone morphogenetic protein and Activin on the patterning and identity of mouse incisors.  

PubMed

The single large rodent incisor in each jaw quadrant is evolutionarily derived from a mammalian ancestor with many small incisors. The embryonic placode giving rise to the mouse incisor is considerably larger than the molar placode, and the question remains whether this large incisor placode is a developmental requisite to make a thick incisor. Here we used in vitro culture system to experiment with the molecular mechanism regulating tooth placode development and how mice have thick incisors. We found that large placodes are prone to disintegration and formation of two to three small incisor placodes. The balance between one large or multiple small placodes was altered through the regulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Activin signaling. Exogenous Noggin, which inhibits BMP signaling, or exogenous Activin cause the development of two to three incisors. These incisors were more slender than normal incisors. Additionally, two inhibitor molecules, Sostdc1 and Follistatin, which regulate the effects of BMPs and Activin and have opposite expression patterns, are likely to be involved in the incisor placode regulation in vivo. Furthermore, inhibition of BMPs by recombinant Noggin has been previously suggested to cause a change in the tooth identity from the incisor to the molar. This evidence has been used to support a homeobox code in determining tooth identity. Our work provides an alternative interpretation, where the inhibition of BMP signaling can lead to splitting of the large incisor placode and the formation of partly separate incisors, thereby acquiring molar-like morphology without a change in tooth identity. PMID:20618434

Munne, Pauliina M; Felszeghy, Szabolcs; Jussila, Maria; Suomalainen, Marika; Thesleff, Irma; Jernvall, Jukka

2010-01-01

199

The applicability of the Greulich & Pyle Atlas for bone age assessment in primary school-going children of Karachi, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the degree of applicability of bone age calculated by Greulich & Pyle Atlas in estimation of chronological age for therapeutic and medico legal purposes. Methods: Two Hundred and Twenty children (139 males, 81 females) between ages of 56 and 113 months (4.5 to 9.5 years) were randomly selected from 4 primary schools of Shireen Jinnah & Clifton, Karachi. Digital images of hand and wrist radiographs were obtained by a computed radiography at Ziauddin Hospital Clifton. Bone ages were computed using Greulich & Pyle Atlas by radiologists at Ziauddin Hospital, North Nazimabad, Karachi. Results: On average, the Greulich & Pyle Atlas underestimates chronological age by 6.65 ± 13.47 months in females and 15.78 ± 12.83 months in males (p-values < 0.001). High correlation was found between chronological age and bone age in both genders (Females r=0.778; p-value< 0.001, Males r=0.816; p-value < 0.001). Conclusion: Bone age calculated by Greulich & Pyle Atlas should not be used for estimating chronological age in children of ages 56-113 months in situations where high accuracy is required (e.g. medicolegal cases). However, serial measurements of bone age by this atlas can be used in management of growth related endocrine disorders in these children. PMID:24772153

Manzoor Mughal, Arsalan; Hassan, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Anwar

2014-01-01

200

Primary Repair Combined With Bone Marrow Stimulation in Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament LesionsResults in a Group of Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The anterior cruciate ligament has been shown to have poor healing ability, and reconstruction is the standard treatment.Hypothesis: Primary anterior cruciate ligament repair combined with bone marrow stimulation could restore stability and function in athletes with acute anterior cruciate ligament incomplete tears.Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.Methods: Among a group of 99 patients with clinically diagnosed anterior

Alberto Gobbi; Lyndon Bathan; Lorenzo Boldrini

2009-01-01

201

Histomorphometry of bone marrow biopsies in primary osteomyelofibrosis\\/sclerosis (agnogenic myeloid metaplasia) - correlations between clinical and morphological features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histomorphometry was performed on representative trephine biopsies of the bone marrow on admission of 50 patients (21 male, 29 female-age 67 years) with so-called primary osteomyelofibrosis\\/-sclerosis (OMF) not preceded by any other subtype of chronic myeloproliferative disorders. This study was firstly aimed at testing correlations between histological features (amount of haematopoiesis, cytological aspects of mega-karyocytes, density of reticulin and collagen

Juergen Thiele; Bert Hoeppner; Rudolf Zankovich; Robert Fischer

1989-01-01

202

Early-Stage Primary Bone Lymphoma: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network (RCN) Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) represents less than 1% of all malignant lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the disease profile, outcome, and prognostic factors in patients with Stages I and II PBL. Patients and Methods: Thirteen Rare Cancer Network (RCN) institutions enrolled 116 consecutive patients with PBL treated between 1987 and 2008 in this study. Eighty-seven patients underwent chemoradiotherapy (CXRT) without (78) or with (9) surgery, 15 radiotherapy (RT) without (13) or with (2) surgery, and 14 chemotherapy (CXT) without (9) or with (5) surgery. Median RT dose was 40 Gy (range, 4-60). The median number of CXT cycles was six (range, 2-8). Median follow-up was 41 months (range, 6-242). Results: The overall response rate at the end of treatment was 91% (complete response [CR] 74%, partial response [PR] 17%). Local recurrence or progression was observed in 12 (10%) patients and systemic recurrence in 17 (15%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), lymphoma-specific survival (LSS), and local control (LC) were 76%, 78%, and 92%, respectively. In univariate analyses (log-rank test), favorable prognostic factors for OS and LSS were International Prognostic Index (IPI) score {<=}1 (p = 0.009), high-grade histology (p = 0.04), CXRT (p = 0.05), CXT (p = 0.0004), CR (p < 0.0001), and RT dose >40 Gy (p = 0.005). For LC, only CR and Stage I were favorable factors. In multivariate analysis, IPI score, RT dose, CR, and CXT were independently influencing the outcome (OS and LSS). CR was the only predicting factor for LC. Conclusion: This large multicenter retrospective study confirms the good prognosis of early-stage PBL treated with combined CXRT. An adequate dose of RT and complete CXT regime were associated with better outcome.

Cai Ling [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, VD (Switzerland); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Stauder, Michael C. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Zhang Yujing [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Poortmans, Philip [Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Li Yexiong [Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Constantinou, Nicolaos [Theagenio Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, Macedonia (Greece); Thariat, Juliette [Centre Anti-Cancereux Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice, Cote d'Azur (France); Kadish, Sidney P. [University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (United States); Nguyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean-Godinot, Reims, Champagne-Ardenne (France); Kirova, Youlia M. [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Ghadjar, Pirus [Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Weber, Damien C. [Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve (Switzerland); Bertran, Victoria Tuset [Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Barcelona (Spain); Ozsahin, Mahmut [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, VD (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier, E-mail: Rene-Olivier.Mirimanoff@chuv.ch [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, VD (Switzerland)

2012-05-01

203

Graft versus Host Disease in the Bone Marrow, Liver and Thymus Humanized Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Mice bearing a “humanized” immune system are valuable tools to experimentally manipulate human cells in vivo and facilitate disease models not normally possible in laboratory animals. Here we describe a form of GVHD that develops in NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human fetal bone marrow, liver and thymus (NS BLT mice). The skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and parotid glands are affected with progressive inflammation and sclerosis. Although all mice showed involvement of at least one organ site, the incidence of overt clinical disease was approximately 35% by 22 weeks after reconstitution. The use of hosts lacking the IL2 common gamma chain (NOD/SCID/?c?/?) delayed the onset of disease, but ultimately did not affect incidence. Genetic analysis revealed that particular donor HLA class I alleles influenced the risk for the development of GVHD. At a cellular level, GVHD is associated with the infiltration of human CD4+ T cells into the skin and a shift towards Th1 cytokine production. GVHD also induced a mixed M1/M2 polarization phenotype in a dermal murine CD11b+, MHC class II+ macrophage population. The presence of xenogenic GVHD in BLT mice both presents a major obstacle in the use of humanized mice and an opportunity to conduct preclinical studies on GVHD in a humanized model. PMID:22957096

Greenblatt, Matthew B.; Vbranac, Vladimir; Tivey, Trevor; Tsang, Kelly; Tager, Andrew M.; Aliprantis, Antonios O.

2012-01-01

204

The mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay can be used to distinguish aneugens from clastogens.  

PubMed

The occurrence of aneuploidy can be measured in several assays. However, none of them have been sufficiently validated. The bone marrow micronucleus test may be considered as a method for aneuploidy detection. In this work, micronuclei were induced by two aneugens, vincristine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg) and nocodazole (80 mg/kg), and two clastogens ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) (300 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg). Three criteria have been examined in order to distinguish micronuclei induced by aneugens and clastogens: the area of the micronuclei, the percentage of micronuclei with C-band-positive material and the DNA content of the micronuclei. C-band-positive micronuclei were found in 47% of the micronuclei for vincristine sulfate, 58% for nocodazole, 17% for EMS and 20% for cyclophosphamide. Areas of micronuclei showed a significant difference when induced by aneugens or by clastogens. Finally, the DNA content of micronuclei also showed a totally different distribution pattern when comparing the aneugen vincristine sulfate with the clastogen EMS. The three methods analysed could thus all make a difference between micronuclei induced by aneugens and those induced by clastogens. PMID:2654553

Vanderkerken, K; Vanparys, P; Verschaeve, L; Kirsch-Volders, M

1989-01-01

205

Primary antiphospholipid syndrome in premenopausal women: low vitamin D, high fat mass and maintained bone mineral mass.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze vitamin D levels and their association with bone mineral density and body composition in primary antiphospholipid syndrome. For this cross-sectional study 23 premenopausal women with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (Sapporo criteria) and 23 age- and race-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical and laboratorial data were collected using clinical interview and chart review. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, parathormone, calcium and 24-hour urinary calcium were evaluated in all subjects. Bone mineral density and body composition were studied by dual X-ray absorptiometry. The mean age of patients and controls was 33 years. Weight (75.61 [20.73] vs. 63.14 [7.34] kg, p = 0.009), body mass index (29.57 [7.17] vs. 25.35 [3.37] kg, p = 0.014) and caloric ingestion (2493 [1005.6] vs. 1990 [384.1] kcal/day, p = 0.03) were higher in PAPS than controls. All PAPS were under oral anticoagulant with INR within therapeutic range. Interestingly, biochemical bone parameters revealed lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [21.64 (11.26) vs. 28.59 (10.67) mg/dl, p = 0.039], serum calcium [9.04 (0.46) vs. 9.3 (0.46) mg/dl, p = 0.013] and 24-hour urinary calcium [106.55 (83.71) vs. 172.92 (119.05) mg/d, p = 0.027] in patients than in controls. Supporting these findings, parathormone levels were higher in primary antiphospholipid syndrome than in controls [64.82 (37.83) vs. 44.53 (19.62) pg/ml, p = 0.028]. The analysis of osteoporosis risk factors revealed that the two groups were comparable (p > 0.05). Lumbar spine, femoral neck, total femur and whole body bone mineral density were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Higher fat mass [28.51 (12.93) vs. 20.01 (4.68) kg, p = 0.005] and higher percentage of fat [36.08 (7.37) vs. 31.23 (4.64)%, p = 0.010] were observed in PAPS in comparison with controls; although no difference was seen regarding lean mass. In summary, low vitamin D in primary antiphospholipid syndrome could be secondary to higher weight and fat mass herein observed most likely due to adipocyte sequestration. This weight gain may also justify the maintenance of bone mineral density even with altered biochemical bone parameters. PMID:20534647

Paupitz, J A; Freire de Carvalho, J; Caparbo, V F; Klack, K; Pereira, R M R

2010-10-01

206

Ectopic expression of NCAM in mouse fibroblasts stimulates self-aggregation, and promotes integration into primary cerebellum cell aggregates.  

PubMed

We have undertaken aggregation experiments using mouse LMTK(-)-fibroblasts transfected with various isotypes of the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM. We found that self-aggregation of NCAM-positive fibroblasts is enhanced compared to control-transfected cells. The aggregation properties are partly dependent on the expressed NCAM isotype. Fibroblasts expressing a NCAM 140 isotype with exons a3 and pi were further tested in primary cerebellum cell re-aggregation experiments. While control-transfected fibroblasts could not be found in forming aggregates, fibroblasts ectopically expressing NCAM were integrated into neural cell aggregates. Time-lapse photography indicated that the nascent primary cell aggregates actively participated in the integration process by migration and attachment to nearby NCAM-positive fibroblasts. PMID:7820532

Hartmann, U; Vens, C; Vopper, G; Wille, W; Heinlein, U A

1994-08-01

207

In Vitro Assays Using Primary Embryonic Mouse Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Uncover Key Roles for FGFR1 Signalling in Lymphangiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels during development and disease, the signalling pathways underpinning vessel construction remain poorly characterised. Primary mouse endothelial cells have traditionally proven difficult to culture and as a consequence, few assays have been developed to dissect gene function and signal transduction pathways in these cells ex vivo. Having established methodology for the purification, short-term culture and transfection of primary blood (BEC) and lymphatic (LEC) vascular endothelial cells isolated from embryonic mouse skin, we sought to optimise robust assays able to measure embryonic LEC proliferation, migration and three-dimensional tube forming ability in vitro. In the course of developing these assays using the pro-lymphangiogenic growth factors FGF2 and VEGF-C, we identified previously unrecognised roles for FGFR1 signalling in lymphangiogenesis. The small molecule FGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5402, but not inhibitors of VEGFR-2 (SU5416) or VEGFR-3 (MAZ51), inhibited FGF2 mediated LEC proliferation, demonstrating that FGF2 promotes proliferation directly via FGF receptors and independently of VEGF receptors in primary embryonic LEC. Further investigation revealed that FGFR1 was by far the predominant FGF receptor expressed by primary embryonic LEC and correspondingly, siRNA-mediated FGFR1 knockdown abrogated FGF2 mediated LEC proliferation. While FGF2 potently promoted LEC proliferation and migration, three dimensional tube formation assays revealed that VEGF-C primarily promoted LEC sprouting and elongation, illustrating that FGF2 and VEGF-C play distinct, cooperative roles in lymphatic vascular morphogenesis. These assays therefore provide useful tools able to dissect gene function in cellular events important for lymphangiogenesis and implicate FGFR1 as a key player in developmental lymphangiogenesis in vivo. PMID:22792354

Betterman, Kelly L.; Harvey, Natasha L.

2012-01-01

208

TNF-? Regulates the Effects of Irradiation in the Mouse Bone Marrow Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary bone marrow (BM) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are increasingly common, as a result of radio or chemotherapy administered to a majority of cancer patients. Patients with secondary MDS have increased BM cell apoptosis, which results in BM dysfunction (cytopenias), and an increased risk of developing fatal acute leukemias. In the present study we asked whether TNF-?, known to regulate cell apoptosis, could modulate the onset of secondary MDS. Principal Findings We show that TNF-? is induced by irradiation and regulates BM cells apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to irradiated wild type (WT) mice, TNF-? deficient (TNF-? KO) mice or WT mice treated with a TNF-?-neutralizing antibody were partially protected from the apoptotic effects of irradiation. Next we established a 3-cycle irradiation protocol, in which mice were sub-lethally irradiated once monthly over a 3 month period. In this model, irradiated WT mice presented loss of microsatellite markers on BM cells, low white blood cell (WBC) counts, reduced megakaryocyte (MK) and platelet levels (thrombocytopenia) and macrocytic anemia, phenoypes that suggest the irradiation protocol resulted in BM dysfunction with clinical features of MDS. In contrast, TNF-? KO mice were protected from the irradiation effects: BM cell apoptosis following irradiation was significantly reduced, concomitant with sustained BM MK numbers and absence of other cytopenias. Moreover, irradiated WT mice with long term (?5 months) BM dysfunction had increased BM angiogenesis, MMPs and VEGF and NFkB p65, suggestive of disease progression. Conclusion Taken together, our data shows that TNF-? induction following irradiation modulates BM cell apoptosis and is a crucial event in BM dysfunction, secondary MDS onset and progression. PMID:20126546

Cachaco, Ana Sofia; Carvalho, Tania; Santos, Ana Cristina; Igreja, Catia; Fragoso, Rita; Osorio, Catarina; Ferreira, Manuela; Serpa, Jacinta; Correia, Sofia; Pinto-do-O, Perpetua; Dias, Sergio

2010-01-01

209

Primary bone carcinosarcoma of the fibula with chondrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma components  

PubMed Central

Carcinosarcoma is defined as a malignant neoplasm that is composed of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. The occurrence of carcinosarcoma in the bone is extremely rare. In this report, we describe the third documented de novo case of carcinosarcoma of the bone. A 59-year-old Japanese female presented with a painful tumor in her right lower leg. Plane radiography revealed an osteolytic destructive lesion with periosteal reaction and mineralization in the right fibula. Resection of the fibula tumor was performed under a clinical diagnosis of chondrosarcoma. Histopathological study revealed that the tumor was comprised of three components. The main component was proliferation of small round to short spindle cells (approximately 50%), and the remaining components were chondrosarcoma (30%) and squamous cell carcinoma (20%). Immunohistochemically, SOX9 was expressed in the small round to spindle cells and chondrosarcoma component, and p63 and p40 were expressed in all three components. Accordingly, an ultimate diagnosis of carcinosarcoma of the bone was made. The clinicopathological analysis of carcinosarcoma of the bone revealed that this type of tumor affects the middle-aged to elderly persons and occurs in the long bone. All three de novo cases had chondrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma components. One of the 3 patients died of the disease. The histogenesis of carcinosarcoma of the bone remains a matter of controversy, although a multpotential stem cell theory has been proposed. Additional studies are required to clarify the clinical behavior and histogenesis of carcinosarcoma of the bone. PMID:24133601

Ishida, Mitsuaki; Kodama, Narihito; Takemura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Matsusue, Yoshitaka; Okabe, Hidetoshi

2013-01-01

210

Interactions of silver nanoparticles with primary mouse fibroblasts and liver cells  

SciTech Connect

Primary cells are ideal for in vitro toxicity studies since they closely resemble tissue environment. Here, we report a detailed study on the in vitro interactions of 7-20 nm spherical silver nanoparticles (SNP) with primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells isolated from Swiss albino mice. The intended use of silver nanoparticles is in the form of a topical antimicrobial gel formulation for the treatment of burns and wounds. Upon exposure to SNP for 24 h, morphology of primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells remained unaltered up to 25 {mu}g/mL and 100 {mu}g/mL SNP, respectively, although with minor decrease in confluence. IC{sub 50} values for primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells as revealed by XTT assay were 61 {mu}g/mL and 449 {mu}g/mL, respectively. Ultra-thin sections of primary cells exposed to 1/2 IC{sub 50} SNP for 24 h, visualized under Transmission electron microscope showed the presence of dark, electron dense, spherical aggregates inside the mitochondria, and cytoplasm, probably representing the intracellular SNP. When the cells were challenged with {approx} 1/2 IC{sub 50} concentration of SNP (i.e. 30 {mu}g/mL and 225 {mu}g/mL for primary fibroblasts and primary liver cells, respectively), enhancement of GSH ({approx} 1.2 fold) and depletion of lipid peroxidation ({approx} 1.4 fold) were seen in primary fibroblasts which probably protect the cells from functional damage. In case of primary liver cells; increased levels of SOD ({approx} 1.4 fold) and GSH ({approx} 1.1 fold) as compared to unexposed cells were observed. Caspase-3 activity assay indicated that the SNP concentrations required for the onset of apoptosis were found to be much lower (3.12 {mu}g/mL in primary fibroblasts, 12.5 {mu}g/mL in primary liver cells) than the necrotic concentration (100 {mu}g/mL in primary fibroblasts, 500 {mu}g/mL in primary liver cells). These observations were confirmed by CLSM studies by exposure of cells to 1/2 IC{sub 50} SNP (resulting in apoptosis) and 2x IC{sub 50}) cells (resulting in necrosis). These results clearly suggest that although silver nanoparticles seem to enter the eukaryotic cells, cellular antioxidant mechanisms protect the cells from possible oxidative damage. This property, in conjunction with the finding that primary cells possess much higher SNP tolerance than the concentration in the gel ({approx} 20 {mu}g/g), indicates preliminary safety of the formulation and warrants further study for possible human application.

Arora, S.; Jain, J.; Rajwade, J.M. [Centre for Nanobioscience, Agharkar Research Institute, G.G. Agarkar Road, Pune 411004 (India); Paknikar, K.M. [Centre for Nanobioscience, Agharkar Research Institute, G.G. Agarkar Road, Pune 411004 (India)], E-mail: kpaknikar@gmail.com

2009-05-01

211

Markers of primary mineralization are correlated with bone-bonding ability of titanium or stainless steel in vivo.  

PubMed

Critical events in the adaptation of osseous tissues to implant materials involve initial calcification of the newly synthesized bone. Previous studies indicated that bone-bonding but not nonbonding glass ceramics increase the matrix vesicle number, thereby compensating for delayed maturation of the extracellular organelles. The present study assessed whether this was also true for metal implants commonly used in orthopaedics and oral medicine. Bone-bonding titanium (Ti) or nonbonding stainless steel (SS) implants were placed in the right tibias of Sabra rats following ablation of the marrow. At 3, 6, 14, and 21 days postinjury, newly formed endosteal bone in the treated and contralateral limbs was removed and matrix vesicle-enriched membranes isolated. Alkaline phosphatase and phospholipase A2 specific activities and phosphatidylserine (PS) content were determined and compared with those of a nonsurgical control group. Results show that matrix vesicle alkaline phosphatase and phospholipase A2 activity and PS content was increased in the Ti-implanted limbs at 6 (peak), 14, and 21 days, although at levels less than observed in normal healing. Alkaline phosphatase activity remained elevated throughout the healing period. In contrast, these parameters were markedly inhibited in the SS-implanted limbs with respect to Ti or to normal healing. Both implants altered the systemic response associated with marrow ablation, but in an implant-specific manner. The results support the hypothesis that cells adjacent to bone-bonding materials can compensate for negative effects on primary mineralization during osteogenesis, whereas cells adjacent to nonbonding materials either do not compensate or are further depressed. The data support the use of the rat marrow ablation model as a tool for rapid, initial assessment of biomaterials in bone. PMID:7669863

Braun, G; Kohavi, D; Amir, D; Luna, M; Caloss, R; Sela, J; Dean, D D; Boyan, B D; Schwartz, Z

1995-03-01

212

Differentiating Functional Roles of Gene Expression from Immune and Non-immune Cells in Mouse Colitis by Bone Marrow Transplantation  

PubMed Central

To understand the role of a gene in the development of colitis, we compared the responses of wild-type mice and gene-of-interest deficient knockout mice to colitis. If the gene-of-interest is expressed in both bone marrow derived cells and non-bone marrow derived cells of the host; however, it is possible to differentiate the role of a gene of interest in bone marrow derived cells and non- bone marrow derived cells by bone marrow transplantation technique. To change the bone marrow derived cell genotype of mice, the original bone marrow of recipient mice were destroyed by irradiation and then replaced by new donor bone marrow of different genotype. When wild-type mice donor bone marrow was transplanted to knockout mice, we could generate knockout mice with wild-type gene expression in bone marrow derived cells. Alternatively, when knockout mice donor bone marrow was transplanted to wild-type recipient mice, wild-type mice without gene-of-interest expressing from bone marrow derived cells were produced. However, bone marrow transplantation may not be 100% complete. Therefore, we utilized cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules (CD45.1 and CD45.2) as markers of donor and recipient cells to track the proportion of donor bone marrow derived cells in recipient mice and success of bone marrow transplantation. Wild-type mice with CD45.1 genotype and knockout mice with CD45.2 genotype were used. After irradiation of recipient mice, the donor bone marrow cells of different genotypes were infused into the recipient mice. When the new bone marrow regenerated to take over its immunity, the mice were challenged by chemical agent (dextran sodium sulfate, DSS 5%) to induce colitis. Here we also showed the method to induce colitis in mice and evaluate the role of the gene of interest expressed from bone-marrow derived cells. If the gene-of-interest from the bone derived cells plays an important role in the development of the disease (such as colitis), the phenotype of the recipient mice with bone marrow transplantation can be significantly altered. At the end of colitis experiments, the bone marrow derived cells in blood and bone marrow were labeled with antibodies against CD45.1 and CD45.2 and their quantitative ratio of existence could be used to evaluate the success of bone marrow transplantation by flow cytometry. Successful bone marrow transplantation should show a vast majority of donor genotype (in term of CD molecule marker) over recipient genotype in both the bone marrow and blood of recipient mice. PMID:23052552

Koon, Hon Wai; Ho, Samantha; Cheng, Michelle; Ichikawa, Ryan; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

2012-01-01

213

Mechanical stimulation and intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment induce disproportional osteogenic, geometric, and biomechanical effects in growing mouse bone  

PubMed Central

Mechanical loading and intermittent parathyroid (iPTH) treatment are both osteoanabolic stimuli, and are regulated by partially overlapping cellular signaling pathways. iPTH has been shown clinically to be effective in increasing bone mass and reducing fracture risk. Likewise, mechanical stimulation can significantly enhance bone apposition and prevent bone loss, but its clinical effects on fracture susceptibility are less certain. Many of the osteogenic effects of iPTH are localized to biomechanically suboptimal bone surfaces, whereas mechanical loading directs new bone formation to high-stress areas and not to strain-neutral areas. These differences in localization in new tissue, resulting from load-induced vs iPTH-induced bone accumulation, should affect the relation between bone mass and bone strength, or “tissue economy.” We investigated the changes in bone mass and strength induced by 6 wks mechanical loading, and compared them to changes induced by 6 wks iPTH treatment. Loading and iPTH both increased ulnar bone accrual, as measured by bone mineral density and content, and fluorochrome-derived bone formation. iPTH induced a significantly greater increase in bone mass than loading, but ulnar bone strength was increased approximately the same amount by both treatments. Mechanical loading during growth can spatially optimize new bone formation to improve structural integrity with a minimal increase in mass, thereby increasing tissue economy i.e., the amount of strength returned per unit bone mass added. Furthermore, exercise studies in which only small changes in bone mass are detected might be more beneficial to bone health and fracture resistance than has commonly been presumed. PMID:20306026

McAteer, Maureen E.; Niziolek, Paul J.; Ellis, Shana N.; Alge, Daniel L.; Robling, Alexander G.

2011-01-01

214

Isolation and culture of primary osteocytes from the long bones of skeletally mature and aged mice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to establish a methodology to enable the isolation and study of osteocytes from skeletally mature young (4-month-old) and old (22-month-old) mice. The location of osteocytes deep within bone is ideal for their function as mechanosensors. However, this location makes the observation and study of osteocytes in vivo technically difficult. Osteocytes were isolated from murine long bones through a process of extended collagenase digestions combined with EDTA-based decalcification. A tissue homogenizer was used to reduce the remaining bone fragments to a suspension of bone particles, which were placed in culture to yield an outgrowth of osteocyte-like cells. All of the cells obtained from this outgrowth that displayed an osteocyte-like morphology stained positive for the osteocyte marker E11/GP38. The osteocyte phenotype was further confirmed by a lack of staining for alkaline phosphatase and the absence of collagen1a1 expression. The outgrowth of osteocytes also expressed additional osteocyte-specific genes such as Sost and Mepe. This technique facilitates the isolation of osteocytes from skeletally mature bone. This novel enabling methodology should prove useful in advancing our understanding of the roles mature osteocytes play in bone health and disease. PMID:22668415

Stern, Amber Rath; Stern, Matthew M; Van Dyke, Mark E; Jähn, Katharina; Prideaux, Matthew; Bonewald, Lynda F

2012-06-01

215

Chemotaxis of bone marrow derived eosinophils in vivo: a novel method to explore receptor-dependent trafficking in the mouse.  

PubMed

Here, we describe a novel method via which ex vivo cultured mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils (bmEos) can be adoptively transferred into recipient mice in order to study receptor-dependent recruitment to lung tissue in vivo. Intratracheal instillation of recombinant human eotaxin-2 (hCCL24) prior to introduction of bmEos via tail vein injection resulted in an approximately fourfold increase in Siglec F-positive/CD11c-negative eosinophils in the lungs of eosinophil-deficient ?dblGATA recipient mice compared with controls. As anticipated, bmEos generated from CCR3-gene-deleted mice did not migrate to the lung in response to hCCL24 in this model, indicating specific receptor dependence. BmEos generated from GFP-positive BALB/c mice responded similarly to hCCL24 in vitro and were detected in lung tissue of BALB/c WT as well as BALB/c ?dblGATA eosinophil-deficient recipient mice, at approximately fourfold (at 5 h post-injection) and approximately threefold (at 24 h postinjection) over baseline, respectively. Comparable results were obtained with GFP-positive C57BL/6 bmEos responding to intratracheal hCCL24 in C57BL/6 ?dblGATA recipient mice. The use of ex vivo cultured bmEos via one or more of these methods offers the possibility of manipulating bmEos prior to transfer into a WT or gene-deleted recipient host. Thus, this chemotaxis model represents a novel and robust tool for pharmacological studies in vivo. PMID:23670593

Sturm, Eva M; Dyer, Kimberly D; Percopo, Caroline M; Heinemann, Akos; Rosenberg, Helene F

2013-08-01

216

VCP Associated Inclusion Body Myopathy and Paget Disease of Bone Knock-In Mouse Model Exhibits Tissue Pathology Typical of Human Disease  

PubMed Central

Dominant mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP) gene cause inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD). We have generated a knock-in mouse model with the common R155H mutation. Mice demonstrate progressive muscle weakness starting approximately at the age of 6 months. Histology of mutant muscle showed progressive vacuolization of myofibrils and centrally located nuclei, and immunostaining shows progressive cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43 and ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies in quadriceps myofibrils and brain. Increased LC3-II staining of muscle sections representing increased number of autophagosomes suggested impaired autophagy. Increased apoptosis was demonstrated by elevated caspase-3 activity and increased TUNEL-positive nuclei. X-ray microtomography (uCT) images show radiolucency of distal femurs and proximal tibiae in knock-in mice and uCT morphometrics shows decreased trabecular pattern and increased cortical wall thickness. Bone histology and bone marrow derived macrophage cultures in these mice revealed increased osteoclastogenesis observed by TRAP staining suggestive of Paget bone disease. The VCPR155H/+ knock-in mice replicate the muscle, bone and brain pathology of inclusion body myopathy, thus representing a useful model for preclinical studies. PMID:20957154

Kitazawa, Masashi; Su, Hailing; Tanaja, Jasmin; Dec, Eric; Wallace, Douglas C.; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Caiozzo, Vincent; Warman, Matthew; Kimonis, Virginia E.

2010-01-01

217

BMP-Non-Responsive Sca1+CD73+CD44+ Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Osteoprogenitor Cells Respond to Combination of VEGF and BMP-6 to Display Enhanced Osteoblastic Differentiation and Ectopic Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Clinical trials on fracture repair have challenged the effectiveness of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) but suggest that delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might be beneficial. It has also been reported that BMPs could not increase mineralization in several MSCs populations, which adds ambiguity to the use of BMPs. However, an exogenous supply of MSCs combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and BMPs is reported to synergistically enhance fracture repair in animal models. To elucidate the mechanism of this synergy, we investigated the osteoblastic differentiation of cloned mouse bone marrow derived MSCs (D1 cells) in vitro in response to human recombinant proteins of VEGF, BMPs (-2, -4, -6, -9) and the combination of VEGF with BMP-6 (most potent BMP). We further investigated ectopic bone formation induced by MSCs pre-conditioned with VEGF, BMP-6 or both. No significant increase in mineralization, phosphorylation of Smads 1/5/8 and expression of the ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes was observed upon addition of VEGF or BMPs alone to the cells in culture. The lack of CD105, Alk1 and Alk6 expression in D1 cells correlated with poor response to BMPs indicating that a greater care in the selection of MSCs is necessary. Interestingly, the combination of VEGF and BMP-6 significantly increased the expression of ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes and D1 cells pre-conditioned with VEGF and BMP-6 induced greater bone formation in vivo than the non-conditioned control cells or the cells pre-conditioned with either VEGF or BMP-6 alone. This enhanced bone formation by MSCs correlated with higher CADM1 expression and OPG/RANKL ratio in the implants. Thus, combined action of VEGF and BMP on MSCs enhances osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs and increases their bone forming ability, which cannot be achieved through use of BMPs alone. This strategy can be effectively used for bone repair. PMID:25048464

Madhu, Vedavathi; Li, Ching-Ju; Dighe, Abhijit S.; Balian, Gary; Cui, Quanjun

2014-01-01

218

Klf10 inhibits IL-12p40 production in macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), differentiate into GM-CSF-induced mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (GM-BMMs) or M-CSF-induced mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (M-BMMs), which have an M1 or M2 profile, respectively. GM-BMMs produce large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and mediate resistance to pathogens, whereas M-BMMs produce anti-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to tissue repair and remodeling. M-BMMs stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are in an antiinflammatory state, with an IL-12low IL-10high phenotype. However, the regulation of this process remains unclear. Klf10 belongs to the family of Krüppel-like transcription factors and was initially described as a TGF-? inducible early gene 1. IL-12p40 is upregulated in LPS-stimulated M-BMMs from Klf10-deficient mice, but downregulated during Klf10 overexpression. Klf11, another member of the Krüppel-like factor family, can also repress the production of IL-12p40. Furthermore, Klf10 binds to the CACCC element of the IL-12p40 promoter and inhibits its transcription. We have therefore identified Klf10 as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of IL-12p40 in M-BMMs. PMID:23065757

Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuelian; Xia, Xiaoping; Liu, Xia; Suo, Shanshan; Guo, Jing; Li, Min; Cao, Wenqiang; Cai, Zhijian; Hui, Zhaoyuan; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Lie

2013-01-01

219

UKA Can Be Safely Revised to Primary Knee Arthroplasty by Using an Autologous Bone Plate From the Proximal Lateral Tibia.  

PubMed

The bone-preservation by UKA in medial osteoarthritis constitutes only an advantage if in the case of revision an unconstrained TKA can be implanted. The aim of this study was to evaluate a revision technique using an autologous bone slice from the lateral to the medial proximal tibia. We report on 17 patients with a mean follow up of 3.1years. Patient's satisfaction and pain, WOMAC- and Oxford-Knee-Score, radiological and clinical knee symptoms/function were assessed. No loosening, wear or implant subsidence could be detected during the follow up. In comparison with results after primary TKA in the literature we found our clinical results to be within the range. The study demonstrates that thismethod is safe and produces good midterm results. PMID:25007728

Pietschmann, Matthias F; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Wohlleb, Lisa; Schmidutz, Florian; Jansson, Volkmar; Müller, Peter E

2014-10-01

220

Amelanotic malignant melanoma of unknown primary origin metastasizing to the bone marrow: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We herein describe the case of a 77-year-old Japanese man who presented with progressive thrombocytopenia. No lymphadenopathies, bone lesions, hepatosplenomegaly or masses within any internal organs were detectable. Bone marrow smears revealed diffuse infiltration of large atypical cells morphologically resembling mature lymphoid neoplasms. A flow cytometric analysis showed that the tumor cells strongly expressed CD56 without myeloid or lymphoid antigens, suggesting that they were non-hematologic in origin. Ultimately, amelanotic malignant melanoma of unknown primary origin was diagnosed based on positive immunostaining for S100 proteins, HMB-45 and Melan-A. This case illustrates the usefulness of flow cytometric analyses for making such diagnoses. We also review the available literature on similar cases. PMID:24531089

Suzuki, Tomotaka; Kusumoto, Shigeru; Iida, Shinsuke; Tada, Toyohiro; Mori, Fumiko

2014-01-01

221

Multiple quantitative trait loci for cortical and trabecular bone regulation map to mid-distal mouse chromosome 4 that shares linkage homology to human chromosome 1p36.  

PubMed

The mid-distal region of mouse chromosome 4 (Chr 4) is homologous with human Chr 1p36. Previously, we reported that mouse Chr 4 carries a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with strong regulatory effect on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD). The intent of this study is to utilize nested congenic strains to decompose the genetic complexity of this gene-rich region. Adult females and males from 18 nested congenic strains carrying discrete C3H sequences were phenotyped for femoral mineral and volume by pQCT and for trabecular bone volume (BV), tissue volume (TV), trabecular number (Trab.no), and trabecular thickness (Trab.thk) by MicroCT 40. Our data show that the mouse Chr 4 region consists of at least 10 regulatory QTL regions that affected either or both pQCT and MicroCT 40 phenotypes. The pQCT phenotypes were typically similar between sexes, whereas the MicroCT 40 phenotypes were divergent. Individual congenic strains contained one to seven QTL regions. These regions conferred large positive or negative effects in some congenic strains, depending on the particular bone phenotype. The QTL regions II to X are syntenic with human 1p36, containing from 1 to 102 known genes. We identified 13 candidate genes that can be linked to bone within these regions. Six of these genes were linked to osteoblasts, three linked to osteoclasts, and two linked to skeletal development. Three of these genes have been identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) linked to 1p36. In region III, there is only one gene, Lck, which conferred negative pQCT and MicroCT 40 phenotypes in both sexes. This gene is important to development and functioning of T cells, has been associated with osteoclast activity, and represents a novel bone regulatory gene that merits further experimental evaluation. In summary, congenic strains are powerful tools for identifying regulatory regions that influence bone biology and offer models for testing hypotheses about gene-gene and gene-environment interactions that are not available to experimental work in humans. PMID:22031020

Beamer, Wesley G; Shultz, Kathryn L; Coombs, Harold F; Horton, Lindsay G; Donahue, Leah Rae; Rosen, Clifford J

2012-01-01

222

Semi-quantitative investigation of primary tumor and bone metastasis in lung cancer patients using the PET-CT approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Although advanced diagnostic and therapeutic development are achieved, lung cancer is the most leading cause of death. The stage of tumor is still the most important factor in determining the prognosis of cancer. Purpose: The overarching goal of this study is to understand the relationship between the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) and bone metastasis using the PET-CT approach in lung cancer prognosis and survival research. Materials and methods: The PET-CT analyses of previously diagnosed totally 86 lung cancer patients were retrospectively studied. Primer tumor standard uptake values for each patient were meticulously calculated and correlated with bone metastasis. Results: The demographics of the 86 patients is as follows; 79 man, 7 women with an age average of 59.44 ± 5.99, youngest being 46 and oldest 72. The number of small cell (SCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were 10 (11.6%) and 76 (88.4%), respectively. Additionally, bone metastasis was detected in 35 (40.7%) patients. The patients were divided in 4 categories based on the observed primer tumor sizes of 0-3 cm (23.3%), 3-5 cm (27.9%), 5-7 cm (32.6%), and larger than 7 cm (16.3%). Patients with bone metastasis (35 in total) were divided in 2 categories based on the number of metastasis of being less than 3 (45.7%) and more than 3 (54.5%). We also used SUVmax values to clarify the study. 31.4% of the total patients had the SUVmax value lower than 10 and 68.6% of them had higher. 68.6% of the bone metastasis patients had SUV values lower than 8 and 31.4% of them had higher than 8. Conclusion: The present study suggests a 27.2% positive relationship in primary tumor SUVmax value and tumor size. Although the average bone metastasis SUV with primary tumor SUV values higher than 10 is higher than the ones lower than 10, this difference did not generate a statistically significant data for cancer patients. PMID:25356118

Kandemir, Ozan; Karakus, Kayhan; Katrancioglu, Ozgur; Sarikaya, Ali

2014-01-01

223

The Spike Protein of Murine Coronavirus Mouse Hepatitis Virus Strain A59 Is Not Cleaved in Primary Glial Cells and Primary Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59) produces meningoencephalitis and severe hepatitis during acute infection. Infection of primary cells derived from the central nervous system (CNS) and liver was examined to analyze the interaction of virus with individual cell types derived from the two principal sites of viral replication in vivo. In glial cell cultures derived from C57BL/6 mice, MHV-A59 produces a productive but nonlytic infection, with no evidence of cell-to-cell fusion. In contrast, in continuously cultured cells, this virus produces a lytic infection with extensive formation of syncytia. The observation of few and delayed syncytia following MHV-A59 infection of hepatocytes more closely resembles infection of glial cells than that of continuously cultured cell lines. For MHV-A59, lack of syncytium formation correlates with lack of cleavage of the fusion glycoprotein, or spike (S) protein. The absence of cell-to-cell fusion following infection of both primary cell types prompted us to examine the cleavage of the spike protein. Cleavage of S protein was below the level of detection by Western blot analysis in MHV-A59-infected hepatocytes and glial cells. Furthermore, no cleavage of this protein was detected in liver homogenates from C57BL/6 mice infected with MHV-A59. Thus, cleavage of the spike protein does not seem to be essential for entry and spread of the virus in vivo, as well as for replication in vitro. PMID:9445064

Hingley, Susan T.; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Weiss, Susan R.

1998-01-01

224

Activation of antioxidant response element in mouse primary cortical cultures with sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum parthenium  

PubMed Central

Tanacetum parthenium (Asteraceae) produces biologically active sesquiterpene lactones (SL). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate a series of genes termed the antioxidant response element (ARE). Activation of the Nrf2/ARE may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we isolated 11 sesquiterpene lactones from T. parthenium with centrifugal partition chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Compounds were screened in-vitro for their ability to activate the ARE on primary mouse cortical cultures as well as for their toxicity towards the cultures. All sesquiterpene lactones containing the ?-methylene-?-lactone moiety were able to activate the ARE although a number of compounds displayed significant cellular toxicity towards the cultures. The structure activity relationship of the sesquiterpene lactones indicate that the guaianolides isolated were more active and less toxic then the germacranolides. PMID:22923197

Fischedick, Justin T; Standiford, Miranda; Johnson, Delinda A.; De Vos, Ric C.H.; Todorovic, Sla?ana; Banjanac, Tijana; Verpoorte, Rob; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

225

Activation of antioxidant response element in mouse primary cortical cultures with sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum parthenium.  

PubMed

Tanacetum parthenium produces biologically active sesquiterpene lactones (SL). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate a series of genes termed the antioxidant response element (ARE). Activation of Nrf2/ARE may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we isolated 11 SL from T. parthenium with centrifugal partition chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. Compounds were screened in vitro for their ability to activate the ARE on primary mouse cortical cultures as well as for their toxicity towards the cultures. All SL containing the ?-methylene-?-lactone moiety were able to activate the ARE and cause cellular toxicity. The structure-activity relationship among the SL isolated indicates that the guaianolides were more active and when lacking the endoperoxide functionality less toxic then the germacranolides. PMID:22923197

Fischedick, Justin T; Standiford, Miranda; Johnson, Delinda A; De Vos, Ric C H; Todorovi?, Sla?ana; Banjanac, Tijana; Verpoorte, Rob; Johnson, Jeffrey A

2012-11-01

226

[Primary bone tumors and tumor-like lesions of the spine. The accuracy of radiological assessment criteria].  

PubMed

In 79 primary bone tumors and tumorlike lesions of the spine radiological criteria are analyzed, which allow to assess the biological nature. Criteria associated with benign lesions, are: regular, trabecular matrix, osteoplastic matrix, exostotic growth, location in the posterior elements, absent soft tissue mass, and bulging of the vertebra. Criteria suggestive of malignancy are: Soft tissue mass, location inside the vertebral body, no alteration of the vertebral shape, compression fracture, and osteolysis. Benign lesions can be diagnosed with a higher degree of reliability than malignant tumors. Diagnostic accuracy increases in lesions exhibiting more than one criterion of the same group. PMID:2819964

Erlemann, R; Reiser, M; Roessner, A; Wuismann, P; Peters, P E; Grundmann, E

1987-08-01

227

Monosynaptic Inputs to ErbB4 Expressing Inhibitory Neurons in Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex  

PubMed Central

Previous reports have described inputs to the somatosensory cortex (S1) in mouse or rat using retrograde or anterograde tracers. Such studies do not, however, reveal which particular cell types within the S1 cortex receive direct monosynaptic connections from these input sources. Here we describe the monosynaptic inputs to a subpopulation of mouse S1 inhibitory neurons that express ErbB4. We used a previously described “bridge protein”, composed of the ErbB4 ligand, neuregulin (NRG1), fused to the avian viral receptor TVB (TVB-NRG1), along with EnvB pseudotyped lentivirus (LV) and rabies virus (RV), to selectively co-infect ErbB4 expressing neurons (Choi et al., 2010). The RV had its glycoprotein gene deleted and replaced with mCherry, so that infected cells express mCherry and the virus cannot spread without provision of rabies glycoprotein (RG) by transcomplementation. The LV encoded and expressed RG to allow transcomplementation in co-infected neurons, so that the RV could spread transsynaptically and label their direct monosynaptic inputs. The RV could not spread beyond the direct inputs, due to the lack of RG in presynaptic cells. This method revealed long-range connections from thalamus, nucleus basalis, Raphe, and distant cortical areas, including ipsilateral motor, secondary somatosensory, retrosplenial, and perirhinal cortex and contralateral S1. In addition, local connections from ipsilateral pyramidal neurons within S1 were labeled. These input sources account for all of the known inputs to S1 described with standard tracers, suggesting that the subpopulation of ErbB4 positive inhibitory neurons infected using the TVB-NRG1 bridge protein receives inputs indiscriminately from S1 input sources. PMID:21618237

Choi, Jiwon; Callaway, Edward M.

2013-01-01

228

Massive osteolytic bone metastases from a primary aortic sarcoma: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an unusual case of an aortic intimal sarcoma, which originally manifested itself by the presence of extensive radiologically osteolytic lesions in the long bones of the lower limbs. The histology of these was puzzling and was first considered to represent a low grade sarcoma of vasoformative tissue and subsequently skeletal angiomatosis. Despite a good initial clinical response to

Kaushik R Patel; Tariq B. M Niazi; Anthony P Griffiths; Graham J Hardy; Charles A. N Maclaren; Ian N Reid

1997-01-01

229

Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Turn Activated Macrophages into a Regulatory-Like Profile  

PubMed Central

In recent years it has become clear that the therapeutic properties of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are related not only to their ability to differentiate into different lineages but also to their capacity to suppress the immune response. We here studied the influence of MSC on macrophage function. Using mouse thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages (M) stimulated with LPS, we found that MSC markedly suppressed the production of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, IL-12p70 and interferon-? while increased the production of IL-10 and IL-12p40. Similar results were observed using supernatants from MSC suggesting that factor(s) constitutively released by MSC are involved. Supporting a role for PGE2 we observed that acetylsalicylic acid impaired the ability of MSC to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines and to stimulate the production of IL-10 by LPS-stimulated M. Moreover, we found that MSC constitutively produce PGE2 at levels able to inhibit the production of TNF-? and IL-6 by activated M. MSC also inhibited the up-regulation of CD86 and MHC class II in LPS-stimulated M impairing their ability to activate antigen-specific T CD4+ cells. On the other hand, they stimulated the uptake of apoptotic thymocytes by M. Of note, MSC turned M into cells highly susceptible to infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi increasing more than 5-fold the rate of M infection. Using a model of inflammation triggered by s.c. implantation of glass cylinders, we found that MSC stimulated the recruitment of macrophages which showed a low expression of CD86 and the MHC class II molecule Iab and a high ability to produce IL-10 and IL-12p40, but not IL-12 p70. In summary, our results suggest that MSC switch M into a regulatory profile characterized by a low ability to produce inflammatory cytokines, a high ability to phagocyte apoptotic cells, and a marked increase in their susceptibility to infection by intracellular pathogens. PMID:20169081

Maggini, Julian; Mirkin, Gerardo; Bognanni, Ianina; Holmberg, Josefina; Piazzon, Isabel M.; Nepomnaschy, Irene; Costa, Hector; Canones, Cristian; Raiden, Silvina; Vermeulen, Monica; Geffner, Jorge R.

2010-01-01

230

In vitro differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into endometrial epithelial cells in mouse: a proteomic analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated to differentiate into female endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) in vivo. Our previous studies demonstrated that BMSCs can differentiate in the direction of EECs when co-cultured with endometrial stromal cells in vitro. Here, we obtain and analyse differential proteins and their relevant pathways in the process of BMSCs differentiating into EECs by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis. Methods: A 0.4-?m pore size indirect co-culture system was established with female mice endometrial stromal cells (EStCs) restricted in the upper Transwell chamber and BMSCs in the lower well plate. After indirect co-culture for several days, the BMSCs were revealed to progressively differentiate towards EECs in vitro. Then, four groups were divided according to different co-culture days with single culture groups of BMSCs as controls. Proteins were detected using iTRAQ based on 2DLC-ESI-MS/MS and data were analysed by bioinformatics. Results: A total number of 311 proteins were detected, of which 210 proteins were identified with relative quantitation. Among them, 107 proteins were differentially expressed with a 1.2-fold change as the benchmark, with 61 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated proteins. Differential proteins CK19 and CK8 were epithelial markers and upregulated. Stromal marker vimentin were downregulated. Top canonical pathways was “remodeling of epithelial adhesions junctions” and “actin cytoskeleton signaling”. Top networks was “cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, tissue development and cellular movement” regulated by ERK/MAPK and ?-catenin. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first preliminary study of differential protein expression in the differentiation process of BMSCs into EECs in vitro. We further elucidated BMSCs differentiated in the direction of EECs. In addition, ERK/MAPK and ?-catenin played important roles by regulating core differential proteins in the “cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, tissue development and cellular movement” network. PMID:25120742

Cong, Qing; Li, Bin; Wang, Yisheng; Zhang, Wenbi; Cheng, Mingjun; Wu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Congjian

2014-01-01

231

Combined Zoledronic Acid and Meloxicam Reduced Bone Loss and Tumor Growth in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Bone-Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is common in cats and humans and invades oral bone. We hypothesized that the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, meloxicam, with the bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZOL), would inhibit tumor growth, osteolysis and invasion in feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) xenografts in mice. Human and feline OSCC cell lines expressed cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and 2 and the SCCF2 cells had increased COX-2 mRNA expression with bone conditioned medium. Luciferase-expressing feline SCCF2Luc cells were injected beneath the perimaxillary gingiva and mice were treated with 0.1 mg/kg ZOL twice weekly, 0.3 mg/kg meloxicam daily, combined ZOL and meloxicam, or vehicle. ZOL inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption at the tumor-bone interface. Meloxicam was more effective than ZOL at reducing xenograft growth but did not affect osteoclastic bone resorption. Although a synergistic effect of combined ZOL and meloxicam was not observed, combination therapy was well tolerated and may be useful in the clinical management of bone-invasive feline OSCC. PMID:23651067

Martin, C.K.; Dirksen, W.P.; Carlton, M.M.; Lanigan, L.G.; Pillai, S.P.; Werbeck, J.L.; Simmons, J.K.; Hildreth, B.E.; London, C.A.; Toribio, R.E.; Rosol, T.J.

2013-01-01

232

Genotoxicity assessment of NIM-76 and its formulation (pessary) in an in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay and in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.  

PubMed

The possible genotoxic potential of NIM-76, a volatile fraction obtained from neem oil, having promising contraceptive activity, as well as its formulation product, called pessary (7.5% NIM-76 in polyethylene glycol), were evaluated in the Ames assay and mouse bone marrow micronucleus (MN) assay. Genotoxicity of NIM-76 (0.1-1000 µg/plate) and pessary (0.1-10,000 µg/plate) were studied using the liquid preincubation protocol of the Ames assay both in the presence and absence of S9. Likewise, the ability of NIM-76 [1-1000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)] and its formulation product (18.75-300 mg/kg b.w.) to induce clastogenic effects were studied in the female mouse bone marrow MN test by using a two-dose intraperitoneal treatment protocol. There was no increase in the number of revertant colonies resulting from NIM-76 or pessary at any of their doses over the respective negative control plates, either in the presence or absence of S9. Similarly, in the MN assay, neither of them showed any clastogenic activity because there was no significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, over the negative control group of animals. The use of this compound in humans is therefore not likely to have mutagenic effects and may be considered as safe with regard to genotoxic potential. PMID:23527474

Vijayan, Vinod; Meshram, Ghansham P

2013-10-01

233

Routine use of antibiotic laden bone cement for primary total knee arthroplasty: impact on infecting microbial patterns and resistance profiles.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-laden bone cement (ALBC) is used in primary arthroplasties throughout Europe. In North America, ALBC is only FDA approved for revision arthroplasty after periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). No article has evaluated whether infecting microbial profile and resistance has changed with the introduction of ALBC. We hypothesized that prophylactic use of ALBC in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has not had a significant impact on infecting pathogens, and antibiotic resistance profiles. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of all PJI patients undergoing primary TKA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) between January 2000 and January 2009. No significant change in the patterns of infecting PJI pathogens, and no notable increase in percentage resistance was found among organisms grown from patients with PJI that had received prophylactic antibiotic-loaded cement in their primary joint arthroplasty. Early findings suggest that routine prophylactic use of ALBC has not led to changes in infecting pathogen profile, nor has led to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance at our institution. PMID:24418770

Hansen, Erik N; Adeli, Bahar; Kenyon, Robert; Parvizi, Javad

2014-06-01

234

Variation and Genetic Control of Gene Expression in Primary Immunocytes across Inbred Mouse Strains.  

PubMed

To determine the breadth and underpinning of changes in immunocyte gene expression due to genetic variation in mice, we performed, as part of the Immunological Genome Project, gene expression profiling for CD4(+) T cells and neutrophils purified from 39 inbred strains of the Mouse Phenome Database. Considering both cell types, a large number of transcripts showed significant variation across the inbred strains, with 22% of the transcriptome varying by 2-fold or more. These included 119 loci with apparent complete loss of function, where the corresponding transcript was not expressed in some of the strains, representing a useful resource of "natural knockouts." We identified 1222 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) that control some of this variation. Most (60%) cis-eQTLs were shared between T cells and neutrophils, but a significant portion uniquely impacted one of the cell types, suggesting cell type-specific regulatory mechanisms. Using a conditional regression algorithm, we predicted regulatory interactions between transcription factors and potential targets, and we demonstrated that these predictions overlap with regulatory interactions inferred from transcriptional changes during immunocyte differentiation. Finally, comparison of these and parallel data from CD4(+) T cells of healthy humans demonstrated intriguing similarities in variability of a gene's expression: the most variable genes tended to be the same in both species, and there was an overlap in genes subject to strong cis-acting genetic variants. We speculate that this "conservation of variation" reflects a differential constraint on intraspecies variation in expression levels of different genes, either through lower pressure for some genes, or by favoring variability for others. PMID:25267973

Mostafavi, Sara; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Bogue, Molly A; Hattori, Kimie; Pop, Cristina; Koller, Daphne; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe; Blair, David A; Dustin, Michael L; Shinton, Susan A; Hardy, Richard R; Shay, Tal; Regev, Aviv; Cohen, Nadia; Brennan, Patrick; Brenner, Michael; Kim, Francis; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Wagers, Amy; Heng, Tracy; Ericson, Jeffrey; Rothamel, Katherine; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe; Kreslavsky, Taras; Fletcher, Anne; Elpek, Kutlu; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angelique; Malhotra, Deepali; Turley, Shannon; Miller, Jennifer; Brown, Brian; Merad, Miriam; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Jakubzick, Claudia; Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Monach, Paul; Best, Adam J; Knell, Jamie; Goldrath, Ananda; Jojic, Vladimir; Koller, Daphne; Laidlaw, David; Collins, Jim; Gazit, Roi; Rossi, Derrick J; Malhotra, Nidhi; Sylvia, Katelyn; Kang, Joonsoo; Bezman, Natalie A; Sun, Joseph C; Min-Oo, Gundula; Kim, Charlie C; Lanier, Lewis L

2014-11-01

235

RNA Interference-Mediated Silencing of Atp6i Prevents Both Periapical Bone Erosion and Inflammation in the Mouse Model of Endodontic Disease  

PubMed Central

Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the United States, affecting approximately 80% of children and the majority of adults. Dental caries may lead to endodontic disease, where the bacterial infection progresses to the root canal system of the tooth, leading to periapical inflammation, bone erosion, severe pain, and tooth loss. Periapical inflammation may also exacerbate inflammation in other parts of the body. Although conventional clinical therapies for this disease are successful in approximately 80% of cases, there is still an urgent need for increased efficacy of treatment. In this study, we applied a novel gene-therapeutic approach using recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Atp6i RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of Atp6i/TIRC7 gene expression to simultaneously target periapical bone resorption and periapical inflammation. We found that Atp6i inhibition impaired osteoclast function in vitro and in vivo and decreased the number of T cells in the periapical lesion. Notably, AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown gene therapy reduced bacterial infection-stimulated bone resorption by 80% in the mouse model of endodontic disease. Importantly, Atp6i+/? mice with haploinsufficiency of Atp6i exhibited protection similar to that in mice with bacterial infection-stimulated bone erosion and periapical inflammation, which confirms the potential therapeutic effect of AAV-small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-Atp6i/TIRC7. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown in periapical tissues can inhibit endodontic disease development, bone resorption, and inflammation, indicating for the first time that this potential gene therapy may significantly improve the health of those who suffer from endodontic disease. PMID:23166162

Ma, Junqing; Zhang, Lijie; Tucker, Byron; Zhu, Guochun; Sasaki, Hajime; Hao, Liang; Wang, Lin; Ci, Hongliang; Jiang, Hongbing; Stashenko, Philip

2013-01-01

236

Space Radiation and Bone Loss  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S.; Lloyd, Shane A.J.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Bateman, Ted A.

2011-01-01

237

Space Radiation and Bone Loss.  

PubMed

Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

Willey, Jeffrey S; Lloyd, Shane A J; Nelson, Gregory A; Bateman, Ted A

2011-01-01

238

Circadian Rhythms of PER2::LUC in Individual Primary Mouse Hepatocytes and Cultures  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocytes, the parenchymal cells of the liver, express core clock genes, such as Period2 and Cryptochrome2, which are involved in the transcriptional/translational feedback loop of the circadian clock. Whether or not the liver is capable of sustaining rhythms independent of a central pacemaker is controversial. Whether and how circadian information may be shared among cells in the liver in order to sustain oscillations is currently unknown. Results In this study we isolated primary hepatocytes from transgenic Per2Luc mice and used bioluminescence as a read-out of the state of the circadian clock. Hepatocytes cultured in a collagen gel sandwich configuration exhibited persistent circadian rhythms for several weeks. The amplitude of the rhythms damped, but medium changes consistently reset the phase and amplitude of the cultures. Cry2?/? Per2Luc cells oscillated robustly and expressed a longer period. Co-culturing with wildtype cells did not significantly shorten the period, indicating that coupling among hepatocytes is insufficient to synchronize cells with significantly differing periods. However, spatial patterns revealed by cellular imaging of wildtype cultures provided evidence of weak local coupling among the hepatocytes. Conclusions Our results with primary hepatocyte cultures demonstrate that cultured hepatocytes are weakly coupled. While this coupling is not sufficient to sustain global synchrony, it does increase local synchrony, which may stabilize the circadian rhythms of peripheral oscillators, such as the liver, against noise in the entraining signals. PMID:24498336

Molyneux, Penny C.; Yu, Jimmy K.; Li, Alexander S.; Leise, Tanya L.; Harrington, Mary E.

2014-01-01

239

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signals through SHP2 to regulate primary mouse myoblast proliferation  

PubMed Central

Niche localized HGF plays an integral role in G0 exit and the return to mitotic activity of adult skeletal muscle satellite cells. HGF actions are regulated by MET initiated intracellular signaling events that include recruitment of SHP2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase. The importance of SHP2 in HGF-mediated signaling was examined in myoblasts and primary cultures of satellite cells. Myoblasts stably expressing SHP2 (23A2-SHP2) demonstrate increased proliferation rates by comparison to controls or myoblasts expressing a phosphatase-deficient SHP2 (23A2-SHP2DN). By comparison to 23A2 myoblasts, treatment of 23A2-SHP2 cells with HGF does not further increase proliferation rates and 23A2-SHP2DN myoblasts are unresponsive to HGF. Importantly, the effects of SHP2 are independent of downstream ERK1/2 activity as inclusion of PD98059 does not blunt the HGF induced proliferative response. SHP2 function was further evaluated in primary satellite cell cultures. Ectopic expression of SHP2 in satellite cells tends to decrease proliferation rates and siSHP2 causes an increase the percentage of dividing myogenic cells. Interestingly, treatment of satellite cells with high concentrations of HGF (50 ng/ml) inhibits proliferation, which can be overcome by knockdown of SHP2. From these results, we conclude that HGF signals through SHP2 in myoblasts and satellite cells to directly alter proliferation rates. PMID:19393645

Li, Ju; Reed, Sarah A.; Johnson, Sally E.

2009-01-01

240

Microstructure of the trabecula and cortex of iliac bone in primary hyperparathyroidism patients determined using histomorphometry and node–strut analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The purpose of this study was to use histomorphometry to compare the microstructure of trabecular and cortical bone in patients\\u000a with primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) with that seen in osteoporosis. Histomorphometric and node–strut analyses of iliac bones\\u000a were performed on 11 female patients with PH (61.3 ± 8.0 years old) and 61 age-matched female patients with involutional osteoporosis\\u000a (OP) (63.6

Toru Uchiyama; Tatsuhiko Tanizawa; Akemi Ito; Naoto Endo; Hideaki E. Takahashi

1999-01-01

241

Damaging effects of chronic low-dose methotrexate usage on primary bone formation in young rats and potential protective effects of folinic acid supplementary treatment.  

PubMed

Methotrexate (MTX) is a most commonly used anti-metabolite in cancer treatment and as an anti-rheumatic drug. While MTX chemotherapy at a high dose is known to cause bone growth defects in growing bones, effects of its chronic use at a low dose on growing skeleton remain less clear. Here, we examined effects on bone growth of long-term MTX chemotherapy at a low dose in young rats, and potential protective effects of supplementary treatment with antidote folinic acid (given ip at 1 mg/kg 6 h after MTX). After two cycles of 5 once-daily MTX injections (at 0.75 mg/kg, 5 days on/9 days off/5 days on), histological analysis showed that MTX at this dose caused significant reduction in heights of growth plate and primary spongiosa bone on day 22 compared to controls (P<0.05). In contrast, a similar dosing regimen but at a lower dose (0.4 mg/kg) caused only slight or no reduction in heights of both regions. However, after the induction phase at this 0.4 mg/kg dosing, continued use of MTX at a low dose (once weekly at 0.2 mg/kg) caused a reduction in primary spongiosa height and bone volume on weeks 9 and 14, which was associated with an increased osteoclast formation and their bone surface density as well as a decreased osteoblast bone surface density in the primary spongiosa. Folinic acid supplementation was shown able to prevent the MTX effects in the primary spongiosa. These results suggest that acute use of MTX can damage growth plate and primary bone at a high dose, but not at a low dose. However, long-term use of MTX at a low dose can reduce primary bone formation probably due to decreased osteoblastic function but increased osteoclastic formation and function, and supplementary treatment with folinic acid may be potentially useful in protecting bone growth during long-term low-dose MTX chemotherapy. PMID:18976724

Fan, Chiaming; Cool, Johanna C; Scherer, Michaela A; Foster, Bruce K; Shandala, Tetyana; Tapp, Heather; Xian, Cory J

2009-01-01

242

The European Consensus on grading of bone marrow fibrosis allows a better prognostication of patients with primary myelofibrosis.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between the International Prognostic Scoring System of the International Working Group for Myelofibrosis Research and Treatment and the European Consensus on grading of bone marrow fibrosis (MF) in patients with primary myelofibrosis. We compared them in 196 consecutive primary myelofibrosis patients (median follow-up 45.7 months; range 7.4-159). International Prognostic Scoring System classified 42 cases as low risk, 73 as intermediate risk-1, 69 as intermediate risk-2, and 12 as high risk; European Consensus on grading of bone marrow fibrosis classified 83 cases as MF-0, 58 as MF-1, 41 as MF-2, and 14 as MF-3. By the time of the analysis, 30 patients (15.3%) had died. Overall median survival was 3.8 years (95% confidence interval: 3.3-4.3). Multivariate analysis confirmed that both scoring systems independently predicted survival, with hazard ratios similar to those provided by univariate analysis (respectively, 2.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.47-3.91) and 2.58 (95% confidence interval: 1.72-3.89) but the likelihood ratio increased from 19.6 of the International Prognostic Scoring System or 29.0 of the European Consensus on grading of bone MF to 42.3 when both measures were considered together. Analysis of the overall survival curves documented that patients classified as having the most favourable rate with both prognostic scores (ie low risk and MF-0) survive longer than those with only one favourable score (ie low risk but MF >0 or MF-0, but International Prognostic Scoring System >low risk). In contrast, those patients classified as having the most unfavourable rate for both scores (high risk and MF-3) have a shorter survival than those with only one unfavourable score (ie high risk but MF<3 or MF-3, but International Prognostic Scoring System primary myelofibrosis patients when both systems are used together. PMID:22627739

Gianelli, Umberto; Vener, Claudia; Bossi, Anna; Cortinovis, Ivan; Iurlo, Alessandra; Fracchiolla, Nicola S; Savi, Federica; Moro, Alessia; Grifoni, Federica; De Philippis, Chiara; Radice, Tommaso; Bosari, Silvano; Lambertenghi Deliliers, Giorgio; Cortelezzi, Agostino

2012-09-01

243

Metastatic bone tumors: Analysis of factors affecting prognosis and efficacy of CT and 18F-FDG PET-CT in identifying primary lesions  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the prognostic factors in patients with metastatic bone tumors and evaluated the efficacy of different modalities in identifying the primary lesions. A total of 145 patients with bone metastases who attended the orthopaedic outpatient clinic were included in this study. The most frequent site of bone metastases was the spine. The primary tumor type was differently distributed between patients with a known primary tumor at the first visit and those with an unknown primary lesion. The number of breast cancer cases was statistically significantly lower in the primary-unknown group. However, the number of myeloma cases was significantly higher in the primary-unknown group. Survival was significantly lower in the skeletal-related events (SREs) compared to that in the non-SREs group. Furthermore, survival was significantly worse in patients with a performance status (PS) of ?2 compared to those with a PS of ?1 and neurological complications occurred statistically more often in the group with worse PS (?2). Survival rates were significantly lower in the non-spinal compared to those in the spinal metastatic group. Since the majority of breast cancer patients presented with metastasis in the spine, a breast cancer origin was a positive prognostic factor in patients with spinal metastases. Although there were no significant differences between computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-CT in detecting primary lesions, CT may be the first choice due to its feasibility. In conclusion, lung cancer, SREs and worse PS were adverse prognostic factors for patients with bone metastasis. In addition, CT scans may be more useful for determining the primary lesion of a bone metastasis compared to 18F-FDG PET-CT in a timelier manner. PMID:25054061

SHIMADA, HIROFUMI; SETOGUCHI, TAKAO; YOKOUCHI, MASAHIRO; SASAKI, HIROMI; ISHIDOU, YASUHIRO; KAWAMURA, ICHIRO; ABEMATSU, MASAHIKO; NAGANO, SATOSHI; KOMIYA, SETSURO

2014-01-01

244

Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Is Used to Detect Both Orientation and Contrast Changes  

PubMed Central

In mammals, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and the superior colliculus (SC) are the major targets of visual inputs from the retina. The LGN projects mainly to primary visual cortex (V1) while the SC targets the thalamus and brainstem, providing two potential pathways for processing visual inputs. Indeed, cortical lesion experiments in rodents have yielded mixed results, leading to the hypothesis that performance of simple visual behaviors may involve computations performed entirely by this subcortical pathway through the SC. However, these previous experiments have been limited by both their assays of behavioral performance and their use of lesions to change cortical activity. To determine the contribution of V1 to these tasks, we trained mice to perform threshold detection tasks in which they reported changes in either the contrast or orientation of visual stimuli. We then reversibly inhibited V1 by optogenetically activating parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons with channelrhodopsin-2. We found that suppressing activity in V1 substantially impaired performance in visual detection tasks. The behavioral deficit depended on the retinotopic position of the visual stimulus, confirming that the effect was due to the specific suppression of the visually driven V1 neurons. Behavioral effects were seen with only moderate changes in neuronal activity, as inactivation that raised neuronal contrast thresholds by a median of only 14% was associated with a doubling of behavioral contrast detection threshold. Thus, detection of changes in either orientation or contrast is dependent on, and highly sensitive to, the activity of neurons in V1. PMID:24336708

Histed, Mark H.; Maunsell, John H. R.

2013-01-01

245

[Detection of abnormal plasma cells in bone marrow contributes to the diagnosis of primary systemic light chain amyloidosis-review].  

PubMed

Primary systemic light chain amyloidosis or immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is the most common type of systemic amyloidosis.AL is a proteotoxic clonal plasma cell disease, a hematological malignancy, characterised by overproduction of immunoglobulin light chains that form characteristic abnormally folded and aggregated, insoluble fibrillar deposits in various organs, including kidneys, heart, liver, and autonomic and peripheral nerves, etc, these processes lead to organ dysfunction and death. Systemic amyloidosis have various types with different causes, thereby its clinical diagnosis and treatment are more difficult. Recent developments on studies that have significantly aided the management of patients with AL include diagnostic techniques for definitive typing of amyloid deposits by using flow cytometry and immunophenotype analysis. These methods can detect abnormalities of bone marrow plasma cell clones, such as CD38(+), CD138(+), CD56(+), CD19(-) in AL patients. The monitoring abnormal plasma cells with immunoglobulin light chain restriction and abnormal plasma cell phenotypic characteristics contributes to the early diagnosis of AL and detection of minimal residual disease after treatment, which greatly improved AL treatment and prognosis. In this review the diagnosis and typing, clinical characteristics, flow cytometry, immunophenotyping of bone marrow cells, immunoglobulin light chain restriction and phenotypic characteristics of abnormal plasma cells of AL are briefly summarized. PMID:23114159

Hu, Yang; Zhu, Ping

2012-10-01

246

Insulin-like growth factor I is required for the anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone on mouse bone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic agent for bone, but the mechanism(s) by which it works remains imperfectly understood. Previous studies have indicated that PTH stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I production, but it remains uncertain whether IGF-I mediates some or all of the skeletal actions of PTH. To address this question, we examined the skeletal response to PTH in IGF-I-deficient (knockout [k/o]) mice. These mice and their normal littermates (NLMs) were given daily injections of PTH (80 microg/kg) or vehicle for 2 weeks after which their tibias were examined for fat-free weight (FFW), bone mineral content, bone structure, and bone formation rate (BFR), and their femurs were assessed for mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers. In wild-type mice, PTH increased FFW, periosteal BFR, and cortical thickness (C.Th) of the proximal tibia while reducing trabecular bone volume (BV); these responses were not seen in the k/o mice. The k/o mice had normal mRNA levels of the PTH receptor and increased mRNA levels of the IGF-I receptor but markedly reduced basal mRNA levels of the osteoblast markers. Surprisingly, these mRNAs in the k/o bones increased several-fold more in response to PTH than the mRNAs in the bones from their wild-type littermates. These results indicate that IGF-I is required for the anabolic actions of PTH on bone formation, but the defect lies distal to the initial response of the osteoblast to PTH.

Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Leary, Colin; Elalieh, Hashem; Ginzinger, David; Rosen, Clifford J.; Beamer, Wesley; Majumdar, Sharmila; Halloran, Bernard P.

2002-01-01

247

Contrasting actions of staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, on human neutrophils and primary mouse epidermal cells.  

PubMed

Staurosporine, a recently described microbial alkaloid, is uniquely potent as an inhibitor of protein kinase C in vitro, being active at nM concentrations rather than the microM concentrations typical of other inhibitor classes. Like these other inhibitors, however, staurosporine exhibits only limited selectivity among different protein kinases. We report here that, in intact human neutrophils, nM concentrations of staurosporine blocked the action of the phorbol ester tumor promoters. In mouse primary epidermal cells, on the other hand, staurosporine failed to block the effects of phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate on epidermal growth factor binding and on induction of ornithine decarboxylase and epidermal transglutaminase. Unexpectedly, staurosporine induced morphological changes in keratinocytes to a dendritic shape resembling that induced by the phorbol esters. It also induced epidermal transglutaminase and cornified envelope production, markers of the differentiative pathway in the epidermal cells. We conclude that the effectiveness of staurosporine as a protein kinase C inhibitor in intact cells may depend markedly on the cell system. Other actions of staurosporine may predominate, and, in keratinocytes, its activity is suggestive of a tumor promoter rather than of an inhibitor of tumor promotion. PMID:2899457

Sako, T; Tauber, A I; Jeng, A Y; Yuspa, S H; Blumberg, P M

1988-08-15

248

Skp2 promotes adipocyte differentiation via a p27{sup Kip1}-independent mechanism in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

Skp2, the substrate-binding subunit of an SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, is a key regulator of cell cycle progression that targets substrates for degradation by the 26S proteasome. We have now shown that ablation of Skp2 in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) results both in impairment of adipocyte differentiation and in the accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27{sup Kip1}, a principal target of the SCF{sup Skp2} complex. Genetic ablation of p27{sup Kip1} in MEFs promoted both lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression. However, depletion of p27{sup Kip1} by adenovirus-mediated RNA interference failed to correct the impairment of adipocyte differentiation in Skp2{sup -/-} MEFs. In contrast, troglitazone, a high-affinity ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), largely restored lipid accumulation and PPAR{gamma} gene expression in Skp2{sup -/-} MEFs. Our data suggest that Skp2 plays an essential role in adipogenesis in MEFs in a manner that is at least in part independent of regulation of p27{sup Kip1} expression.

Okada, Mitsuru; Sakai, Tamon; Nakamura, Takehiro [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Kitajima, Shigetaka [Department of Biochemical Genetics, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Matsuki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Eijiro; Hiramatsu, Ryuji [Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., Takarazuka 665-0051 (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroshi [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Pharmacology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama 589-8511 (Japan)], E-mail: hsakaue@med.kindai.ac.jp; Kasuga, Masato [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan)

2009-02-06

249

Strain-dependent brain defects in mouse models of primary ciliary dyskinesia with mutations in Pcdp1 and Spef2.  

PubMed

Hydrocephalus is caused by the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral ventricular system which results in an enlargement of the cranium due to increased intraventricular pressure. The increase in pressure within the brain typically results in sloughing of ciliated ependymal cells, loss of cortical gray matter, and increased gliosis. Congenital hydrocephalus is associated with several syndromes including primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a rare, genetically heterogeneous, pediatric syndrome that results from defects in motile cilia and flagella. We have examined the morphological and physiological defects in the brains of two mouse models of PCD, nm1054 and bgh, which have mutations in Pcdp1 (also known as Cfap221) and Spef2, respectively. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of mice with these mutations on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac genetic backgrounds demonstrate strain-dependent morphological brain damage. Alterations in astrocytosis, microglial activation, myelination, and the neuronal population were identified and are generally more severe on the C57BL/6J background. Analysis of ependymal ciliary clearance ex vivo and CSF flow in vivo demonstrate a physiological defect in nm1054 and bgh mice on both genetic backgrounds, indicating that abnormal cilia-driven flow is not the sole determinant of the severity of hydrocephalus in these models. These results suggest that genetic modifiers play an important role in susceptibility to severe PCD-associated hydrocephalus. PMID:25073043

Finn, R; Evans, C C; Lee, L

2014-09-26

250

Chronic axial compression of the mouse tail segment induces MRI bone marrow edema changes that correlate with increased marrow vasculature and cellularity  

PubMed Central

MRI of bone marrow edema (BME) has been found to be helpful in the diagnosis of back pain attributed to degenerative disk disease (DDD) and spondyloarthropathy (SA), but its interpretation is limited by a lack of knowledge of its nature and natural history. To address this, we assessed effects of compressive forces to mouse tail segments of WT and TNF-Tg mice with SA, via contrast enhanced MRI and histology. Normalized marrow contrast enhancement (NMCE) of uninstrumented WT vertebrae significantly decrease 3-fold (p<0.01) from 8 to 12 weeks of age, consistent with red to yellow marrow conversion, while the NMCE of TNF-Tg vertebrae remained elevated. Chronic compressive loading 6X body weight to WT tails increased NMCE 2-fold (p<0.02) within 2-weeks, which was equal to 6X loaded TNF-Tg tails within 4-weeks. Histology confirmed degenerative changes and that load-induced NMCE corresponded to increased vascular sinus tissue (35± 3% vs. 19± 3%; p<0.01) and cellularity (4,235± 886 vs.1,468± 320 cells/mm2; p<0.01) for the loaded vs. unloaded WT respectively. However, micro-CT analyses failed to detect significant load-induced changes to bone. While the bone marrow of loaded WT and TNF-Tg vertebrae were similar, histology demonstrated mild cellular infiltrate and increased osteoclastic resorption in the WT tails versus severe inflammatory-erosive arthritis in TNF-Tg joints. Significant (p<0.05) decreases in cortical and trabecular bone volume in uninstrumented TNF-Tg vs. WT vertebrae were confirmed by micro-CT. Thus, chronic load-induced DDD causes BME signals in vertebrae similar to those observed from Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS), and both DDD and AS signals correlate with a conversion from yellow to red marrow, with increased vascularity. PMID:20187115

Papuga, M. Owen; Proulx, Steven T.; Kwok, Edmund; You, Zhigang; Rubery, Paul T.; Dougherty, Paul E.; Hilton, Matthew J.; Awad, Hani A.; Schwarz, Edward M.

2010-01-01

251

Effect of microgravity and mechanical stimulation on the in vitro mineralization and resorption of fetal mouse long bones (7-IML-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical forces play an important role in the differentiation, growth, and remodeling of skeletal tissues. An increase in the normal loading pattern of the skeleton leads to an increase in bone mass. An overall decrease in the functional load exerted on the skeleton produces mineral loss and osteoporosis. However, the responses of the skeletal tissue cells to various loading conditions are still largely unresolved, as is the mechanism of the cellular response to changed mechanical environment. Using an in vitro approach, we hope to avoid some problems encountered in the use of in vivo animal and man models, which have been extensively used in the past. In a number of experiments we have demonstrated that 16 and 17 day old fetal mouse long bone rudiments (metatarsalia), cultured in a liquid culture medium, are very suitable to study mineralization and resorption, respectively. We have also demonstrated that under hydrostatic compression, mineralization is increased while resorption is decreased. Culture of long bone rudiments under noncompressed control conditions can be regarded as a situation of partial unloading, showing some phenomena of a disuse situation. Under microgravity conditions, responses of osteoblasts and chondrocytes (involved in mineralization) and osteoclasts (involved in mineral resorption), to culture with and without compression, may be much more outspoken. This will have advantages for the study and the interpretation of the role of cellular events in the process of mineralization and resorption of developing skeletal tissues under various loading conditions. The BONES Experiment is carried out in four type I/O and four type I/E containers. Various aspects of the investigation are discussed.

Veldhuijzen, J. Paul

1992-01-01

252

Berberine down-regulates the Th1/Th2 cytokine gene expression ratio in mouse primary splenocytes in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide in a preventive manner.  

PubMed

Berberine is a natural isoquinoline alkaloid. This study investigated the effects of berberine on cytokine gene expression in mouse primary splenocytes in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using 4 different experimental models in vitro. The relative expression of the following cytokine genes was determined using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay: pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10, T-helper type 1 (Th1) (IL-2), and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines. The results showed that berberine down-regulated ratios of the relative Th1 (IL-2)/Th2 (IL-4) cytokines expression fold in mouse primary splenocytes in the absence or presence of LPS in a preventive manner. This study suggests that berberine may possess anti-inflammatory potential by shifting the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th2 polarization. PMID:21867779

Lin, Wei-Chi; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

2011-12-01

253

Splitting placodes: effects of bone morphogenetic protein and Activin on the patterning and identity of mouse incisors  

E-print Network

and identity of mouse incisors Pauliina M. Munne,a Szabolcs Felszeghy,b Maria Jussila,a Marika Suomalainen identity from the incisor to the molar. This evidence has been used to support a homeobox code in determining tooth identity. Our work provides an alternative interpretation, where the inhibition of BMP

Jernvall, Jukka

254

[In vitro effects of Wnt3a gene modification on mitigating damage of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by Ara-C].  

PubMed

This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Wit3a gene modification on mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells against the injury induced by Ara-C. The gene-modified MSC steadily expressing Wnt3a were established by adenovirus system. The acute direct damage effects of different concentrations of Ara-C on the unmodified MSC and the gene-modified MSC were assessed by using an in vitro culture system, and the corresponding controls were set. The proliferation and apoptosis of MSC exposed to Ara-C were detected by cell count kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry. The expression of BCL-2 protein related with cell apoptosis was assayed by Western blot. The results indicated that as compared with unmodified MSC, Ara-C exhibited a less inhibitory effect on the proliferation of gene-modified MSC. There was obvious difference between unmodified MSC and gene-modified MSC (p < 0.05). The proliferation of gene-modified MSC began to recover at 72 hours after removal of Ara-C. However, unmodified MSC showed sustained suppression of proliferation after withdrawal of Ara-C. In apoptosis, the apoptosis rate of gene-modified MSC induced by Ara-C was significantly lower than those of unmodified MSC (p < 0.05). In addition, the expression levels of BCL-2 protein in gene-modified MSC were up-regulated compared with unmodified MSC (p < 0.05). It is concluded that Wnt3a gene modification can significantly mitigate the damage of mouse bone marrow MSC induced by Ara-C. PMID:21867639

Lu, Guang; Li, Zhen-Yu; Mou, Wei-Wei; He, Xu-Peng; Pan, Xiu-Ying; Xu, Kai-Lin

2011-08-01

255

Evaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of Bone Marrow-Derived Myeloid Suppressor Cell (MDSC) Adoptive Transfer in Mouse Models of Autoimmunity and Allograft Rejection  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic use of immunoregulatory cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of uncontrolled immunity. During the last decade, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as novel key regulatory players in the context of tumor growth, inflammation, transplantation or autoimmunity. Recently, MDSC have been successfully generated in vitro from naive mouse bone marrow cells or healthy human PBMCs using minimal cytokine combinations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of adoptive transfer of such cells to control auto- and allo-immunity in the mouse. Culture of bone marrow cells with GM-CSF and IL-6 consistently yielded a majority of CD11b+Gr1hi/lo cells exhibiting strong inhibition of CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro. However, adoptive transfer of these cells failed to alter antigen-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in vivo. Furthermore, MDSC could not prevent the development of autoimmunity in a stringent model of type 1 diabetes. Rather, loading the cells prior to injection with a pancreatic neo-antigen peptide accelerated the development of the disease. Contrastingly, in a model of skin transplantation, repeated injection of MDSC or single injection of LPS-activated MDSC resulted in a significant prolongation of allograft survival. The beneficial effect of MDSC infusions on skin graft survival was paradoxically not explained by a decrease of donor-specific T cell response but associated with a systemic over-activation of T cells and antigen presenting cells, prominently in the spleen. Taken together, our results indicate that in vitro generated MDSC bear therapeutic potential but will require additional in vitro factors or adjunct immunosuppressive treatments to achieve safe and more robust immunomodulation upon adoptive transfer. PMID:24927018

Bouchet-Delbos, Laurence; Beriou, Gaelle; Merieau, Emmanuel; Hill, Marcelo; Delneste, Yves; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Louvet, Cedric

2014-01-01

256

Preclinical evaluation of Sunitinib as a single agent in the prophylactic setting in a mouse model of bone metastases  

PubMed Central

Background A substantial number of breast cancer patients are identified as being at high risk of developing metastatic disease. With increasing number of targeted therapeutics entering clinical trials, chronic administration of these agents may be a feasible approach for the prevention of metastases within this subgroup of patients. In this preclinical study we examined whether Sunitinib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor which has anti-angiogenic and anti-resorptive activity, is effective in the prevention of bone metastases. Method Sunitinib was administered daily with the first dose commencing prior to tumor cell inoculation. Intracardiac injection was performed with MDA-MB23 bone-seeking cells, which were stably transfected with DsRed2. In vivo plain radiography and fluorescent imaging (Berthold NightOwl) was used in the analysis of bone metastases. Histomorphometry was used for the quantification of TRAP+ cells from bone sections and immunohistochemistry was performed using an antibody reactive to CD34 for quantification of microvessel density. Results Preventive dosing administration of Sunitinib does not inhibit colonization of tumor cells to bone or reduce the size of osteolytic lesions. There was a decrease in the number of TRAP+ cells with Sunitinib treatment but this did not reach significance. Sunitinib inhibited tumor growth as determined by imaging of fluorescent tumor area. Immunohistochemical analyses of microvessel density revealed a concomitant decrease in the number of tumor blood vessels. Conclusions The findings suggest that Sunitinib can be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of bone metastases but as a single agent it is not effective in terms of prevention. Therefore a combination approach with other cytostatic drugs should be pursued. PMID:23347638

2013-01-01

257

Detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells in blood of primary breast cancer patients by RT-PCR and comparison to status of bone marrow disseminated cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The role of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood of primary breast cancer patients is still under investigation. We evaluated the incidence of CTCs in blood, we evaluated the correlation between CTCs and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM), and we characterized CTCs for the expression of HER2, the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor

Tanja Fehm; Oliver Hoffmann; Bahriye Aktas; Sven Becker; Erich F Solomayer; Diethelm Wallwiener; Rainer Kimmig; Sabine Kasimir-Bauer

2009-01-01

258

Histomorphometry of bone marrow biopsies in chronic myeloproliferative disorders with associated thrombocytosis - features of significance for the diagnosis of primary (essential) thrombocythaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A histomorphometric analysis was performed on trephine biopsies of the bone marrow in 55 patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPDs) and marked thrombocytosis (platelet count exceeding 600 × 109\\/l). This study aimed at discriminating primary (essential) thrombocythaemia (PTH) from the various other subtypes of CMPDs presenting with thrombocytosis. Following the diagnostic requirements postulated by the Polycythemia-vera-Study-Group for PTH and polycythaemia

J. Thiele; G. Schneider; B. Hoeppner; St. Wienhold; R. Zankovich; R. Fischer

1988-01-01

259

FTY720, a sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor modulator, improves liver fibrosis in a mouse model by impairing the motility of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

FTY720 is a novel immunosuppressant that modulates sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors for the treatment of several diseases. Several hallmarks of liver fibrosis are influenced by S1P, and the interference of S1P signaling by treatment with FTY720 results in beneficial effects in various animal models of fibrosis. However, whether these treatment strategies suppress liver fibrosis progression is incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms by which FTY720 improves liver fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse model. FTY720 treatment significantly attenuated the expression of fibrotic markers in the injured liver of both wild-type and SCID-beige mice. The migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to circulation, and subsequently the injured liver, was suppressed by FTY720. Furthermore, in vitro, phosphorylated-FTY720 blocked the migration of BMSCs mediated by S1P. Thus, FTY720 is an effective therapy for liver fibrosis via the suppression of BMSC migration in the CCl4-induced mouse model. PMID:24682874

Kong, Yaxian; Wang, Hong; Wang, Shuling; Tang, Na

2014-08-01

260

Bone Histology and Primary Growth Rates in Hatchling Titanosaurs from Madagascar: New Insights from Micro-Computed Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sauropods are the largest known terrestrial vertebrates and exhibit a greater ontogenetic variation in body size than any other taxon. More than 120 species of sauropods are known from the Jurassic and Cretaceous, and a wealth of specimens documents their enormous adult body sizes. Juvenile sauropods, in contrast, are rare. Though titanosaur eggs containing embryos have been recovered, to date the smallest known post-hatching juveniles are only a little less than half of known adult size, and details of the earliest stages of sauropod ontogeny remain particularly poorly understood. Here we report on two partial skeletons of hatchling Rapetosaurus krausei, a titanosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Maevarano Formation of Madagascar, and provide important new data on primary early stage growth rates in sauropods. The two partial skeletons come from different localities in the Anembalemba Member of the Maevarano Formation. There is no duplication of elements for either specimen. Comparison of greatest length ratios for appendicular elements to those of a complete sub-adult Rapetosaurus confirms that there are only two individuals present, that there is no significant allometry in Rapetosaurus postcranial ontogeny, and that each individual is less than 15% adult size. The smaller specimen includes a sacral neural arch, three caudal centra, three caudal neural arches, left pubis, right femur (maximum length [ml] = 19.3 cm), tibia (ml = 12.7 cm), and metacarpal III, left and right fibulae, humeri, and metatarsal I, and a phalanx. The larger specimen includes a caudal centrum and neural arch, right metacarpal I, right tibia (ml = 17.9 cm), and left metacarpal IV. In order to non-destructively sample these exceptional Rapetosaurus juvenile elements, we employed micro-computed tomography to garner bone histology data. The micro-computed tomography was carried out using an X5000 high-resolution microfocus X-ray CT system located in the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota. The microfocus head has a minimum focal spot size of < 6 microns and the detector has a pixel pitch of 74.8 ?m. Machine parameters (e.g. voltage, current, tube to detector distance) vary based on sample size and desired magnification. For this study 70-100 kV (260-370 ?A) was sufficient to penetrate the samples and obtain good contrast. We were able to achieve an effective pixel pitch of 36-48 ?m for the larger samples and 14-28 ?m for sub-volumes. 2-D radiographs were collected and these data were reconstructed to produce a 3-D volume for visual analysis, and slices of the 3-D volume for quantitative analysis. Our results indicate that primary bone growth in Rapetosaurus is highly vascularized woven and fibrolamellar bone. However, even in these very small juvenile individuals, endosteal remodeling is common at the mid-diaphysis and extends in some areas into the mid-cortex. The presence of a single line of arrested growth is recorded in each individual. These results are surprising given the small size of the elements, and support the hypothesis that intensive remodeling observed in the bones of older juvenile Rapetosaurus may be dictated, at least in part, by resource limitations during periods of drought/ecological stress recorded in the Maevarano Formation of Madagascar.

Bagley, B. C.; Whitney, M.; Rogers, K. C.

2012-12-01

261

Characterisation of the p53-Mediated Cellular Responses Evoked in Primary Mouse Cells Following Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light can cause significant damage to mammalian cells and, although the spectrum of damage produced varies with the wavelength of UV, all parts of the UV spectrum are recognised as being detrimental to human health. Characterising the cellular response to different wavelengths of UV therefore remains an important aim so that risks and their moderation can be evaluated, in particular in relation to the initiation of skin cancer. The p53 tumour suppressor protein is central to the cellular response that protects the genome from damage by external agents such as UV, thus reducing the risk of tumorigenesis. In response to a variety of DNA damaging agents including UV light, wild-type p53 plays a role in mediating cell-cycle arrest, facilitating apoptosis and stimulating repair processes, all of which prevent the propagation of potentially mutagenic defects. In this study we examined the induction of p53 protein and its influence on the survival of primary mouse fibroblasts exposed to different wavelengths of UV light. UVC was found to elevate p53 protein and its sequence specific DNA binding capacity. Unexpectedly, UVA treatment failed to induce p53 protein accumulation or sequence specific DNA binding. Despite this, UVA exposure of wild-type cells induced a p53 dependent G1 cell cycle arrest followed by a wave of p53 dependent apoptosis, peaking 12 hours post-insult. Thus, it is demonstrated that the elements of the p53 cellular response evoked by exposure to UV radiation are wavelength dependent. Furthermore, the interrelationship between various endpoints is complex and not easily predictable. This has important implications not only for understanding the mode of action of p53 but also for the use of molecular endpoints in quantifying exposure to different wavelengths of UV in the context of human health protection. PMID:24098727

McFeat, Gillian D.; Allinson, Sarah L.; McMillan, Trevor J.

2013-01-01

262

Breakdown of tolerance to pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in experimental autoimmune cholangitis: a mouse model of primary biliary cirrhosis.  

PubMed

The autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by autoreactive responses to a highly conserved self-antigen, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). We recently reported the development of PBC-like lesions in SJL mice sensitized with PDC and have named this model disease experimental autoimmune cholangitis (EAC). In the present study, the breakdown of tolerance to PDC has been investigated in animals sensitized for EAC. Splenic mononuclear cells from SJL mice sensitized with bovine heart PDC (bPDC) in adjuvant showed T-cell proliferative and mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine secretory responses following in vitro stimulation with bPDC. Despite the likelihood of extensive sequence homology with mouse PDC (there is a greater than 95% sequence identity between rat and human PDC-E2 subunits), bPDC was highly immunogenic inducing significant T- and B-cell responses in the absence of any form of adjuvant. The multi-subunit quaternary structure of intact PDC was critical for this immunostimulatory activity because no response was produced by sensitization with monomeric recombinant PDC-E2 inner lipoyl domain. Mice sensitized with bPDC and CFA developed, within 2 weeks of sensitization, high-titer antibody responses reactive with bPDC that were fully cross-reactive with the murine homologue. Breakdown of T-cell tolerance to self-PDC took significantly longer, not being seen until 20 weeks postsensitization; a similar length of time to that previously shown to be required for EAC lesion development. Conclusions drawn from these data may have important implications for our understanding, and therapeutic manipulation, of PBC in humans. PMID:10385640

Jones, D E; Palmer, J M; Yeaman, S J; Kirby, J A; Bassendine, M F

1999-07-01

263

Coactivator PGC-1{alpha} regulates the fasting inducible xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme CYP2A5 in mouse primary hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

The nutritional state of organisms and energy balance related diseases such as diabetes regulate the metabolism of xenobiotics such as drugs, toxins and carcinogens. However, the mechanisms behind this regulation are mostly unknown. The xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A5 enzyme has been shown to be induced by fasting and by glucagon and cyclic AMP (cAMP), which mediate numerous fasting responses. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} triggers many of the important hepatic fasting effects in response to elevated cAMP levels. In the present study, we were able to show that cAMP causes a coordinated induction of PGC-1{alpha} and CYP2A5 mRNAs in murine primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, the elevation of the PGC-1{alpha} expression level by adenovirus mediated gene transfer increased CYP2A5 transcription. Co-transfection of Cyp2a5 5' promoter constructs with the PGC-1{alpha} expression vector demonstrated that PGC-1{alpha} is able to activate Cyp2a5 transcription through the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} response element in the proximal promoter of the Cyp2a5 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that PGC-1{alpha} binds, together with HNF-4{alpha}, to the same region at the Cyp2a5 proximal promoter. In conclusion, PGC-1{alpha} mediates the expression of CYP2A5 induced by cAMP in mouse hepatocytes through coactivation of transcription factor HNF-4{alpha}. This strongly suggests that PGC-1{alpha} is the major factor mediating the fasting response of CYP2A5.

Arpiainen, Satu; Jaervenpaeae, Sanna-Mari [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Manninen, Aki [Biocenter Oulu, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Viitala, Pirkko [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Lang, Matti A. [Division of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Uppsala Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Pelkonen, Olavi [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Hakkola, Jukka [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland)], E-mail: jukka.hakkola@oulu.fi

2008-10-01

264

Hypoxia-induced down-regulation of neprilysin by histone modification in mouse primary cortical and hippocampal neurons.  

PubMed

Amyloid ?-peptide (A?) accumulation leads to neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A? metabolism is a dynamic process in the A? production and clearance that requires neprilysin (NEP) and other enzymes to degrade A?. It has been reported that NEP expression is significantly decreased in the brain of AD patients. Previously we have documented hypoxia is a risk factor for A? generation in vivo and in vitro through increasing A? generation by altering ?-cleavage and ?-cleavage of APP and down-regulating NEP, and causing tau hyperphosphorylation. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia-induced down-regulation of NEP. We found a significant decrease in NEP expression at the mRNA and protein levels after hypoxic treatment in mouse primary cortical and hippocampal neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and relative quantitative PCR (q-PCR) revealed an increase of histone H3-lysine9 demethylation (H3K9me2) and a decrease of H3 acetylation (H3-Ace) in the NEP promoter regions following hypoxia. In addition, we found that hypoxia caused up-regulation of histone methyl transferase (HMT) G9a and histone deacetylases (HDACs) HDAC-1. Decreased expression of NEP during hypoxia can be prevented by application with the epigenetic regulators 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), HDACs inhibitor sodium valproate (VA), and siRNA-mediated knockdown of G9a or HDAC1. DNA methylation PCR data do not support that hypoxia affects the methylation of NEP promoters. This study suggests that hypoxia may down-regulate NEP by increasing H3K9me2 and decreasing H3-Ace modulation. PMID:21559427

Wang, Zheng; Yang, Dehua; Zhang, Xiaojie; Li, Ting; Li, Jia; Tang, Yu; Le, Weidong

2011-01-01

265

Effects of Viscum album L. extract and quercetin on methotrexate-induced cyto-genotoxicity in mouse bone-marrow cells.  

PubMed

Viscum album, a semi-parasitic plant, has been used both in traditional and supplementary medicine in the treatment of many diseases. Quercetin (QE), one of the major flavonoids in some fruits and vegetables, has anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic activities. Methotrexate (MTX), an anti-folate anti-metabolite, is a widely used anti-neoplastic drug with significant clastogenic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cytogenotoxic effects of pre-treatment with V. album extract (VAE) and QE on MTX-induced chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in mouse bone-marrow cells. Pre-treatment of mice by gavage with VAE (250mg/kgbw/day for 10 days) and QE (50mg/kgbw/day for 10 days) caused a significant decrease in CAs and in the number of aberrant cells with CAs induced by intramuscular treatment of the mice with MTX (10mg/kgbw/day for 3 days), when compared with the group treated with MTX alone. These compounds also significantly increased the mitotic index (MI) in bone-marrow cells that had been suppressed by MTX. In conclusion, from the findings we suggest that VAE and QE may play a role in reducing cyto-genotoxicity induced by anti-neoplastic drugs during cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22464986

Sekero?lu, Zülal Atl?; Sekero?lu, Vedat

2012-07-01

266

Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) interacts with regulated in development and DNA damage response 2 (REDD2) in the cytoplasm of mouse bone marrow cells.  

PubMed

IRF-1 is a critical hematopoietic transcription factor, which regulates cell growth, development of immune cells, immune response, tumor suppression, apoptosis and autophagy in mammalian cells. Protein-protein interactions of IRF-1 in mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) by GST-IRF-1 pull-down followed by mass spectrometry, coimmunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and colocalization show that regulated in development and DNA damage response 2 (REDD2) is an IRF-1-interacting protein. REDD2 is a highly conserved mammalian regulatory protein of the TSC2/mTOR pathway. It is structurally similar to REDD1 but has a distinct loop region. Cellular IRF-1 and REDD2 complex is present in the cytoplasm of BMCs as distinct speckles in punctate pattern. In vitro interaction of recombinant IRF-1 and REDD2 shows their physical interaction. Taken together, our results suggest that IRF-1 physically interacts with REDD2 in the large cytoplasmic protein complex, which may function as cellular signaling proteins for 'cross-talk' of mTOR and cytokine pathways during regulation of cell growth/proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy of mammalian bone marrow cells during health and disease. PMID:24412152

Gupta, Manish; Rath, Pramod C

2014-04-01

267

Evaluation of the Effects of Green Tea Extracts on Bone Homeostasis in the Ts65Dn Down Syndrome Mouse Model  

E-print Network

Evaluation of the Effects of Green Tea Extracts on Bone Homeostasis in the Ts65Dn Down Syndrome- Central Indiana Down Syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder that affects ~1 in 700 live births, caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21), and results in cognitive impairment, craniofacial abnormalities

Zhou, Yaoqi

268

KINETICS OF IN VIVO SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE INDUCTION IN MOUSE BONE MARROW CELLS BY ALKYLATING AGENTS: CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Administration of cyclophosphamide (5, 10, 20 and 25 mg/kg body weight) to male CD-1 mice 2 hours after subcutaneous implantation of a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pellet (55 mg) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in bone marrow cells. Tre...

269

Arsenite Selectively Inhibits Mouse Bone Marrow Lymphoid Progenitor Cell Development In Vivo and In Vitro and Suppresses Humoral Immunity In Vivo  

PubMed Central

It is known that exposure to As+3 via drinking water causes a disruption of the immune system and significantly compromises the immune response to infection. The purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of As+3 on bone marrow progenitor cell colony formation and the humoral immune response to a T-dependent antigen response (TDAR) in vivo. In a 30 day drinking water study, mice were exposed to 19, 75, or 300 ppb As+3. There was a decrease in bone marrow cell recovery, but not spleen cell recovery at 300 ppb As+3. In the bone marrow, As+3 altered neither the expression of CD34+ and CD38+ cells, markers of early hematopoietic stem cells, nor CD45?/CD105+, markers of mesenchymal stem cells. Spleen cell surface marker CD45 expression on B cells (CD19+), T cells (CD3+), T helper cells (CD4+) and cytotoxic T cells (CD8+), natural killer (NK+), and macrophages (Mac 1+) were not altered by the 30 day in vivo As+3 exposure. Functional assays of CFU-B colony formation showed significant selective suppression (p<0.05) by 300 ppb As+3 exposure, whereas CFU-GM formation was not altered. The TDAR of the spleen cells was significantly suppressed at 75 and 300 ppb As+3. In vitro studies of the bone marrow revealed a selective suppression of CFU-B by 50 nM As+3 in the absence of apparent cytotoxicity. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA+3) demonstrated a dose-dependent and selective suppression of CFU-B beginning at 5 nM (p<0.05). MMA+3 suppressed CFU-GM formation at 500 nM, a concentration that proved to be nonspecifically cytotoxic. As+5 did not suppress CFU-B and/or CFU-GM in vitro at concentrations up to 500 nM. Collectively, these results demonstrate that As+3 and likely its metabolite (MMA+3) target lymphoid progenitor cells in mouse bone marrow and mature B and T cell activity in the spleen. PMID:24714590

Ezeh, Peace C.; Lauer, Fredine T.; MacKenzie, Debra; McClain, Shea; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Burchiel, Scott W.

2014-01-01

270

Arsenite selectively inhibits mouse bone marrow lymphoid progenitor cell development in vivo and in vitro and suppresses humoral immunity in vivo.  

PubMed

It is known that exposure to As(+3) via drinking water causes a disruption of the immune system and significantly compromises the immune response to infection. The purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of As(+3) on bone marrow progenitor cell colony formation and the humoral immune response to a T-dependent antigen response (TDAR) in vivo. In a 30 day drinking water study, mice were exposed to 19, 75, or 300 ppb As(+3). There was a decrease in bone marrow cell recovery, but not spleen cell recovery at 300 ppb As(+3). In the bone marrow, As(+3) altered neither the expression of CD34+ and CD38+ cells, markers of early hematopoietic stem cells, nor CD45-/CD105+, markers of mesenchymal stem cells. Spleen cell surface marker CD45 expression on B cells (CD19+), T cells (CD3+), T helper cells (CD4+) and cytotoxic T cells (CD8+), natural killer (NK+), and macrophages (Mac 1+) were not altered by the 30 day in vivo As(+3) exposure. Functional assays of CFU-B colony formation showed significant selective suppression (p<0.05) by 300 ppb As(+3) exposure, whereas CFU-GM formation was not altered. The TDAR of the spleen cells was significantly suppressed at 75 and 300 ppb As(+3). In vitro studies of the bone marrow revealed a selective suppression of CFU-B by 50 nM As(+3) in the absence of apparent cytotoxicity. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(+3)) demonstrated a dose-dependent and selective suppression of CFU-B beginning at 5 nM (p<0.05). MMA(+3) suppressed CFU-GM formation at 500 nM, a concentration that proved to be nonspecifically cytotoxic. As(+5) did not suppress CFU-B and/or CFU-GM in vitro at concentrations up to 500 nM. Collectively, these results demonstrate that As(+3) and likely its metabolite (MMA(+3)) target lymphoid progenitor cells in mouse bone marrow and mature B and T cell activity in the spleen. PMID:24714590

Ezeh, Peace C; Lauer, Fredine T; MacKenzie, Debra; McClain, Shea; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G; Gandolfi, A Jay; Burchiel, Scott W

2014-01-01

271

Primary cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease: a B-cell lymphoma of the bone marrow distinct from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Primary chronic cold agglutinin disease is a rare hemolytic disease mediated by monoclonal IGHV4-34-encoded cold agglutinins with a predominant specificity for the blood group antigen I. Bone marrow from 54 patients was studied to type the underlying lymphoproliferative disorder better. Bone marrow biopsies showed circumscribed intra-parenchymatous nodules with small monotonous monoclonal B cells in 40/54 patients (median infiltration: 10% of marrow cells) with a CD20+, IgMs+, IgDs+, CD27+, CD5?/+, CD11c?, CD23?, CD38? immunophenotype. Neither plasmacytoid cytological features nor expression of plasma cell differentiation-associated transcription factors MUM1, XBP1 and BLIMP1 were noted in these B cells. However, a limited number of mature monoclonal IgM+, IgD? plasma cells were present outside the lymphoid nodules and were diffusely scattered throughout the marrow. Of interest, the MYD88 L265P mutation, typical of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, was not detected (17/17 cases). Somatically mutated monoclonal IGHV4-34 gene rearrangement was demonstrated in eight patients with frozen samples (mean sequence homology 95.4%). However, mutations of BCL6 intron 1 were not demonstrated, except in one patient, suggesting that the lymphoma cells had not matured in the germinal center. In conclusion, cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease displays homogeneous histological and immunophenotypic features. The absence of plasmacytoid cells, the presence of plasma cells predominantly outside the nodular lymphoid infiltrates, IGHV4-34 restriction and absence of MYD88 L265P mutation strongly suggest that cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease is a distinct entity that is different from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. PMID:24143001

Randen, Ulla; Tr?en, Gunhild; Tierens, Anne; Steen, Chloe; Warsame, Abdirashid; Beiske, Klaus; Tj?nnfjord, Geir E.; Berentsen, Sigbj?rn; Delabie, Jan

2014-01-01

272

Primary cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease: a B-cell lymphoma of the bone marrow distinct from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.  

PubMed

Primary chronic cold agglutinin disease is a rare hemolytic disease mediated by monoclonal IGHV4-34-encoded cold agglutinins with a predominant specificity for the blood group antigen I. Bone marrow from 54 patients was studied to type the underlying lymphoproliferative disorder better. Bone marrow biopsies showed circumscribed intra-parenchymatous nodules with small monotonous monoclonal B cells in 40/54 patients (median infiltration: 10% of marrow cells) with a CD20(+), IgMs(+), IgDs(+), CD27(+), CD5(-/+), CD11c(-), CD23(-), CD38(-) immunophenotype. Neither plasmacytoid cytological features nor expression of plasma cell differentiation-associated transcription factors MUM1, XBP1 and BLIMP1 were noted in these B cells. However, a limited number of mature monoclonal IgM(+), IgD(-) plasma cells were present outside the lymphoid nodules and were diffusely scattered throughout the marrow. Of interest, the MYD88 L265P mutation, typical of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, was not detected (17/17 cases). Somatically mutated monoclonal IGHV4-34 gene rearrangement was demonstrated in eight patients with frozen samples (mean sequence homology 95.4%). However, mutations of BCL6 intron 1 were not demonstrated, except in one patient, suggesting that the lymphoma cells had not matured in the germinal center. In conclusion, cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease displays homogeneous histological and immunophenotypic features. The absence of plasmacytoid cells, the presence of plasma cells predominantly outside the nodular lymphoid infiltrates, IGHV4-34 restriction and absence of MYD88 L265P mutation strongly suggest that cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease is a distinct entity that is different from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. PMID:24143001

Randen, Ulla; Trøen, Gunhild; Tierens, Anne; Steen, Chloé; Warsame, Abdirashid; Beiske, Klaus; Tjønnfjord, Geir E; Berentsen, Sigbjørn; Delabie, Jan

2014-03-01

273

Induction of delta opioid receptor function by up-regulation of membrane receptors in mouse primary afferent neurons.  

PubMed

It is not clear whether primary afferent neurons express functional cell-surface opioid receptors. We examined delta receptor coupling to Ca2+ channels in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons under basal conditions and after receptor up-regulation. [D-Ala2,Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin (DADLE), trans-(+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-[1-pyrrolidinyl]cyclohexyl) benzene-acetamide methanesulfonate (U-50,488H; 1 microM), and baclofen (50 microM) inhibited Ca2+ currents, whereas the -selective ligands [D-Pen2,Pen5]-enkephalin (DPDPE) and deltorphin II (1 microM) did not. The effect of DADLE (1 microM) was blocked by the mu-antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP; 300 nM) but not by the -antagonist Tyr-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-Phe-Phe-OH (300 nM), implicating mu receptors. Despite a lack of functional delta receptors, flow cytometry revealed cell-surface receptors. We used this approach to identify conditions that up-regulate receptors, including mu receptor gene deletion in dorsal root ganglion neurons of mu-/- mice and 18-h incubation of mu+/+ neurons with CTAP followed by brief (10-min) DPDPE exposure. Under these conditions, the expression of cell-surface delta receptors was up-regulated to 149 +/- 9 and 139 +/- 5%, respectively; furthermore, DPDPE and deltorphin II (1 microM) inhibited Ca2+ currents in both cases. Viral replacement of mu receptors in mu-/- neurons reduced delta receptor expression to mu+/+ levels, restored the inhibition of Ca2+ currents by DAMGO, and abolished receptor coupling. Our observations suggest that receptor-Ca2+ channel coupling in primary afferent fibers may have little functional significance under basal conditions in which mu receptors predominate. However, up-regulation of cell-surface delta receptors induces their coupling to Ca2+ channels. Pharmacological approaches that increase functional delta receptor expression may reveal a novel target for analgesic therapy. PMID:16135785

Walwyn, Wendy; Maidment, Nigel T; Sanders, Matthew; Evans, Christopher J; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Hales, Tim G

2005-12-01

274

Palmitoyl Acyltransferase, Zdhhc13, Facilitates Bone Mass Acquisition by Regulating Postnatal Epiphyseal Development and Endochondral Ossification: A Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

ZDHHC13 is a member of DHHC-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) family of enzymes. It functions by post-translationally adding 16-carbon palmitate to proteins through a thioester linkage. We have previously shown that mice carrying a recessive Zdhhc13 nonsense mutation causing a Zdhcc13 deficiency develop alopecia, amyloidosis and osteoporosis. Our goal was to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of osteoporosis in the context of this mutation in mice. Body size, skeletal structure and trabecular bone were similar in Zdhhc13 WT and mutant mice at birth. Growth retardation and delayed secondary ossification center formation were first observed at day 10 and at 4 weeks of age, disorganization in growth plate structure and osteoporosis became evident in mutant mice. Serial microCT from 4-20 week-olds revealed that Zdhhc13 mutant mice had reduced bone mineral density. Through co-immunoprecipitation and acyl-biotin exchange, MT1-MMP was identified as a direct substrate of ZDHHC13. In cells, reduction of MT1-MMP palmitoylation affected its subcellular distribution and was associated with decreased VEGF and osteocalcin expression in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. In Zdhhc13 mutant mice epiphysis where MT1-MMP was under palmitoylated, VEGF in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocalcin at the cartilage-bone interface were reduced based on immunohistochemical analyses. Our results suggest that Zdhhc13 is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal development and bone mass acquisition. To our knowledge, these are the first data to suggest that ZDHHC13-mediated MT1-MMP palmitoylation is a key modulator of bone homeostasis. These data may provide novel insights into the role of palmitoylation in the pathogenesis of human osteoporosis. PMID:24637783

Song, I-Wen; Li, Wei-Ru; Chen, Li-Ying; Shen, Li-Fen; Liu, Kai-Ming; Yen, Jeffrey J. Y.; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yu-Ju; Kraus, Virginia Byers; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Lee, M. T. Michael; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

2014-01-01

275

Osteoblastic ?-Aminobutyric Acid, Type B Receptors Negatively Regulate Osteoblastogenesis toward Disturbance of Osteoclastogenesis Mediated by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor ?B Ligand in Mouse Bone*  

PubMed Central

The prevailing view is that signaling machineries for the neurotransmitter GABA are also expressed by cells outside the CNS. In cultured murine calvarial osteoblasts, mRNA was constitutively expressed for both subunits 1 and 2 of metabotropic GABAB receptor (GABABR), along with inhibition by the GABABR agonist baclofen of cAMP formation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and Ca2+ accumulation. Moreover, baclofen significantly inhibited the transactivation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) gene in a manner sensitive to a GABABR antagonist, in addition to decreasing mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), osteocalcin, and osterix. In osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells stably transfected with GABABR1 subunit, significant reductions were seen in ALP activity and Ca2+ accumulation, as well as mRNA expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and osterix. In cultured calvarial osteoblasts from GABABR1-null mice exhibiting low bone mineral density in tibia and femur, by contrast, both ALP activity and Ca2+ accumulation were significantly increased together with promoted expression of both mRNA and proteins for BMP2 and osterix. No significant change was seen in the number of multinucleated cells stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase during the culture of osteoclasts prepared from GABABR1-null mice, whereas a significant increase was seen in the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells in co-culture of osteoclasts with osteoblasts isolated from GABABR1-null mice. These results suggest that GABABR is predominantly expressed by osteoblasts to negatively regulate osteoblastogenesis through down-regulation of BMP2 expression toward disturbance of osteoclastogenesis after down-regulation of RANKL expression in mouse bone. PMID:21828041

Takahata, Yoshifumi; Takarada, Takeshi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Nakamura, Yukari; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Yoneda, Yukio

2011-01-01

276

Effect of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on high-potential hepatocellular carcinoma in mouse models: an intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background There are two completely contradictory views regarding the impact of human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hMSC engraftment on HCC tissues in nude mouse models, and assess the effect on metastatic potential of HCC. Methods hMSCs were engrafted into the nude mouse models of high metastatic HCC via the tail vein. The mice in the experimental group were engrafted with hMSCs (5 × 105 cells per mouse) via the tail vein 15 days after inoculation of tumor cells, twice a week, while the animals in the control group were injected with hMSC culture medium (0.2 mL per mouse) via the tail vein. The subcutaneous tumor size was measured using an electronic digital caliper once every 4 days after hMSC engraftment. After 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks of tumor cell inoculation, the mice were killed and the tumors were collected in their entirety. The tumor weights and body weights of mice were measured, and the tumor inhibition rate was calculated. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the expression of metastasis-related genes including osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and integrin ?5 subunit (?-V) in the mouse models of high-metastatic HCC, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes including B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and caspase 3 in tumor samples. Results The tumor weight inhibition rate was 26.62% at 2 weeks, 52.00% at 3 weeks, 38.20% at 4 weeks, 31.98% at 5 weeks, and 30.23% at 6 weeks. Tumor tissue weight comparison results were significantly lower in the hMSC engraftment groups than in the control group at the second and third weeks. The expression of metastasis-related factors OPN, BSP and ?-V gene was downregulated with time. The expression of antiapoptotic gene Bcl2 exhibited an obvious declining tendency, while the expression of apoptotic genes Bax and caspase 3 showed an obvious rising tendency. The expression of ?-V and BSP significantly correlated positively with the expression of Bcl2, and negatively correlated with the expression of Bax and caspase 3. The tumor inhibition rate was not significantly correlated with the expression of antiapoptotic and apoptotic factors, and ?-V and BSP factors, though it exhibited a significantly negative correlation with the expression of OPN. Conclusions The highest tumor inhibition rate was observed 3 weeks after hMSCs engraftment, and the tumor inhibition rate gradually reduced with the progression of time. The metastatic potential of tumor cells was downregulated after hMSC engraftment and hMSCs induce further tumor cells apoptosis. The decrease in the proliferation ability of tumor cells may induce a decline in metastatic potential in tumor cells. PMID:24079479

2013-01-01

277

Identification of renin progenitors in the mouse bone marrow that give rise to B-cell leukaemia  

PubMed Central

The cell of origin and triggering events for leukaemia are mostly unknown. Here we show that the bone marrow contains a progenitor that expresses renin throughout development and possesses a B-lymphocyte pedigree. This cell requires RBP-J to differentiate. Deletion of RBP-J in these renin-expressing progenitors enriches the precursor B-cell gene programme and constrains lymphocyte differentiation, facilitated by H3K4me3 activating marks in genes that control the pre-B stage. Mutant cells undergo neoplastic transformation, and mice develop a highly penetrant B-cell leukaemia with multi-organ infiltration and early death. These renin-expressing cells appear uniquely vulnerable as other conditional models of RBP-J deletion do not result in leukaemia. The discovery of these unique renin progenitors in the bone marrow and the model of leukaemia described herein may enhance our understanding of normal and neoplastic haematopoiesis. PMID:24549417

Belyea, Brian C.; Xu, Fang; Pentz, Ellen S.; Medrano, Silvia; Li, Minghong; Hu, Yan; Turner, Stephen; Legallo, Robin; Jones, Craig A.; Tario, Joseph D.; Liang, Ping; Gross, Kenneth W.; Sequeira-Lopez, Maria Luisa S.; Gomez, R. Ariel

2014-01-01

278

Functional linkage of H+/peptide transporter PEPT2 and Na+/H+ exchanger in primary cultures of astrocytes from mouse cerebral cortex.  

PubMed

In our previous studies, we demonstrated that the high-affinity type peptide transporter PEPT2 is expressed in rat cerebral cortex using synaptosomal membrane study and that the uptake of dipeptide [14C]glycylsarcosine into synaptosomes was stimulated by an inwardly directed H+ gradient (Fujita et al., Brain Res. 972, 52-61, 2004). However, there is no information available for the driving force of PEPT2 function in the nervous system. In the present study, we investigated functional characteristics of PEPT2 mediated transport of Gly-Sar in primary cultured astrocytes from mouse cerebral cortex and examined the effects of Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) inhibitor on Gly-Sar uptake in mouse astrocytes. In mouse astrocytes, extracellular H+ influenced only the maximal velocity (Vmax) of Gly-Sar uptake without affecting the apparent affinity (Kt). Interestingly, removal of Na+ from uptake buffer significantly reduced Gly-Sar uptake and Gly-Sar uptake was modulated by NHE inhibitors. The treatment of EIPA, an NHE inhibitor, altered the Vmax value of Gly-Sar uptake but had no effect on its Kt value. RT-PCR revealed that NHE1 and NHE2 mRNA are expressed in mouse cerebrocortical astrocytes. These results demonstrated that NHE activity is required to allow optimal uptake of dipeptides mediated by PEPT2 into the astrocytes. This study represents the first description of the functional co-operation of PEPT2 and NHE1 and/or NHE2 in cerebrocortical astrocytes. PMID:15862787

Wada, Miyuki; Miyakawa, Sakiko; Shimada, Ayumi; Okada, Naoki; Yamamoto, Akira; Fujita, Takuya

2005-05-17

279

The citrus flavonone hesperetin prevents letrozole-induced bone loss in a mouse model of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Aromatase is a key enzyme in estrogen synthesis, and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been developed for treating estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Because of its nondiscriminatory inhibition of estrogen synthesis, patients treated with AIs also contract diseases typically associated with estrogen deficiency, such as bone deterioration. Our laboratory found that the citrus flavonone hesperetin could inhibit aromatase, and the selective estrogen receptor modulator nature of flavonoid might counteract the undesirable effect of AIs. In the present study, we employed an established postmenopausal model for breast carcinogenesis to examine the drug interaction between hesperetin and letrozole, one of the AIs. Athymic mice were ovariectomized and transplanted with aromatase-overexpressing MCF-7 cells (MCF-7aro). Hesperetin was administered in the diet at 5000 ppm, and letrozole was injected sc at different doses. Results showed that either hesperetin or letrozole could reduce plasma estrogen level and inhibit tumor growth. Most importantly, the letrozole-induced bone loss measured as bone volume fraction was reversed by hesperetin without compromising on the deterrence of MCF-7aro tumor growth. Taken together, the present study suggested that hesperetin could be a potential cotherapeutic agent to AI. PMID:23238426

Li, Fengjuan; Chow, Simon; Cheung, Wing-hoi; Chan, Franky L; Chen, Shiuan; Leung, Lai K

2013-06-01

280

Biodistribution and in vivo efficacy of genetically modified human mesenchymal stem cells systemically transplanted into a mouse bone fracture model.  

PubMed

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in clinical application due to their ability to undergo multi-lineage differentiation. Recently, ex vivo genetic modification of hMSCs was attempted to increase their differentiation potential. The present study was conducted to evaluate the biodistribution and in vivo efficacy of genetically modified hMSCs. To accomplish this, Runx2, which is a key transcription factor associated with osteoblast differentiation, was transduced into hMSCs using lentiviral vectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase. Here, we developed an experimental fracture in mice femur to investigate the effects of Runx2-transduced hMSCs on bone healing and migration into injury site. We conducted bio-luminescence imaging (BLI) using luciferase-tagged vector and quantitative real-time PCR using GFP probe to investigate the biodistribution of Runx2-transduced hMSCs in the fracture model. The biodistribution of hMSC cells in the fractured femur was observed at 14 days post-transplantation upon both BLI imaging and real-time PCR. Moreover, the fractured mice transplanted with Runx2-transduced hMSCs showed superior bone healing when compared to mock-transduced hMSC and MRC5 fibroblasts which were used as control. These data suggested that transplanted genetically modified hMSCs systemically migrate to the fractured femur, where they contribute to bone formation in vivo. PMID:23615814

Kang, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Dae; Choi, Youngju; Baek, Dae Hyun; Cho, Wan-Seob; Choi, Mina; Park, Jae Hyun; Choi, Kyoung Suk; Kim, Hyung Soo; Yoo, Tae Moo

2013-08-01

281

Bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells attenuate inflammation in obliterative airway disease in mouse tracheal allografts.  

PubMed

Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) remains the most significant cause of death in long-term survival of lung transplantation. Using an established murine heterotopic tracheal allograft model, the effects of different routes of administration of bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) on the development of OB were evaluated. Tracheas from BALB/c mice were implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of major histocompatibility complex- (MHC-) disparate C57BL/6 mice. At the time of transplant, bone marrow-derived MSCs were administered either systemically or locally or via a combination of the two routes. The allografts were explanted at various time points after transplantation and were evaluated for epithelial integrity, inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis, and luminal obliteration. We found that the most effective route of bone marrow-derived MSC administration is the combination of systemic and local delivery. Treatment of recipient mice with MSCs suppressed neutrophil, macrophage, and T-cell infiltration and reduced fibrosis. These beneficial effects were observed despite lack of significant MSC epithelial engraftment or new epithelial cell generation. Our study suggests that optimal combination of systemic and local delivery of MSCs may ameliorate the development of obliterative airway disease through modulation of immune response. PMID:25295064

Casey, Alicia; Dirks, Fabian; Liang, Olin D; Harrach, Hakima; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Leeman, Kristen; Kim, Carla F; Gerard, Craig; Subramaniam, Meera

2014-01-01

282

Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells Attenuate Inflammation in Obliterative Airway Disease in Mouse Tracheal Allografts  

PubMed Central

Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) remains the most significant cause of death in long-term survival of lung transplantation. Using an established murine heterotopic tracheal allograft model, the effects of different routes of administration of bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) on the development of OB were evaluated. Tracheas from BALB/c mice were implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of major histocompatibility complex- (MHC-) disparate C57BL/6 mice. At the time of transplant, bone marrow-derived MSCs were administered either systemically or locally or via a combination of the two routes. The allografts were explanted at various time points after transplantation and were evaluated for epithelial integrity, inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis, and luminal obliteration. We found that the most effective route of bone marrow-derived MSC administration is the combination of systemic and local delivery. Treatment of recipient mice with MSCs suppressed neutrophil, macrophage, and T-cell infiltration and reduced fibrosis. These beneficial effects were observed despite lack of significant MSC epithelial engraftment or new epithelial cell generation. Our study suggests that optimal combination of systemic and local delivery of MSCs may ameliorate the development of obliterative airway disease through modulation of immune response. PMID:25295064

Liang, Olin D.; Leeman, Kristen; Kim, Carla F.; Gerard, Craig

2014-01-01

283

High colony forming capacity of primary cultured hepatocytes as a dominant trait in hepatocarcinogenesis-susceptible and resistant mouse strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

When hepatocytes isolated from mouse liver are cultivated in vitro, a small fraction of cells can survive, forming colonies, while most cells die within a few weeks. We compared the colony forming capacity of hepatocytes in three mouse strains; two strains susceptible for hepato- carcinogenesis, C3H\\/HeJ (C3) and DBA\\/2J mice (D2), and one resistant strain, C57BL\\/6J mice (B6). The colony

Masumi Yoshie; Hiroyuki Nishimori; Gang-Hong Lee; Katsuhiro Ogawa

1998-01-01

284

Ca 2+ signaling induced by sphingosine 1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid in mouse B cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysophospholipids (LPLs) such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are chemotactic for lymphocytes,\\u000a and increases of in cytosolic [Ca2+] signal the regulation of lymphocyte activation and migration. Here, the authors investigated the effects of LPA and S1P\\u000a on [Ca2+]c in mouse B cell lines (WEHI-231 and Bal-17) and primary B cells isolated from mouse spleen and bone marrow,

Joo Hyun Nam; Dong Hun Shin; Jung Eun Min; Sang-Kyu Ye; Ju-Hong Jeon; Sung Joon Kim

2010-01-01

285

Isolation and Characterization of a Metastatic Hybrid Cell Line Generated by ER Negative and ER Positive Breast Cancer Cells in Mouse Bone Marrow  

PubMed Central

Background The origin and the contribution of breast tumor heterogeneity to its progression are not clear. We investigated the effect of a growing orthotopic tumor formed by an aggressive estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cell line on the metastatic potential of a less aggressive ER-positive breast cancer cell line for the elucidation of how the presence of heterogeneous cancer cells might affect each other's metastatic behavior. Methods ER positive ZR-75-1/GFP/puro cells, resistant to puromycin and non-tumorigenic/non-metastatic without exogenous estrogen supplementation, were injected intracardiacally into mice bearing growing orthotopic tumors, formed by ER negative MDA-MB-231/GFP/Neo cells resistant to G418. A variant cell line B6, containing both estrogen-dependent and -independent cells, were isolated from GFP expressing cells in the bone marrow and re-inoculated in nude mice to generate an estrogen-independent cell line B6TC. Results The presence of ER negative orthotopic tumors resulted in bone metastasis of ZR-75-1 without estrogen supplementation. The newly established B6TC cell line was tumorigenic without estrogen supplementation and resistant to both puromycin and G418 suggesting its origin from the fusion of MDA-MB-231/GFP/Neo and ZR-75-1/GFP/puro in the mouse bone marrow. Compared to parental cells, B6TC cells were more metastatic to lung and bone after intracardiac inoculation. More significantly, B6TC mice also developed brain metastasis, which was not observed in the MDA-MB-231/GFP/Neo cell-inoculated mice. Low expression of ER? and CD24, and high expression of EMT-related markers such as Vimentin, CXCR4, and Integrin-?1 along with high CD44 and ALDH expression indicated stem cell-like characteristics of B6TC. Gene microarray analysis demonstrated a significantly different gene expression profile of B6TC in comparison to those of parental cell lines. Conclusions Spontaneous generation of the novel hybrid cell line B6TC, in a metastatic site with stem cell-like properties and propensity to metastasize to brain, suggest that cell fusion can contribute to tumor heterogeneity. PMID:21673810

Mukhopadhyay, Keya De; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Chang, Ting-Tung A.; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Cornell, John E.; Yang, Junhua; Goins, Beth A.; Yeh, I-Tien; Sun, Lu-Zhe

2011-01-01

286

Role of bone-marrow- and non-bone-marrow-derived receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) in a mouse model of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products) is expressed on multiple cell types implicated in the progression of atherosclerosis and plays a role in DAA (diabetes-associated atherosclerosis). The aim of the present study was to determine the relative role of either BM (bone marrow)- or non-BM-derived RAGE in the pathogenesis of STZ (streptozotocin)-induced DAA. Male ApoE (apolipoprotein E)-null (ApoE-/-:RAGE+/+) and ApoE:RAGE-null (ApoE-/-:RAGE-/-) mice at 7 weeks of age were rendered diabetic with STZ. At 8 weeks of age, ApoE-/- and ApoE-/-:RAGE-/- control and diabetic mice received BM from either RAGE-null or RAGE-bearing mice, generating various chimaeras. After 10 and 20 weeks of diabetes, mice were killed and gene expression and atherosclerotic lesion formation were evaluated respectively. Deletion of RAGE in either the BM cells or non-BM cells both resulted in a significant attenuation in DAA, which was associated with reduced VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) expression and translated into reduced adhesion in vitro. In conclusion, the results of the present study highlight the importance of both BM- and non-BM-derived RAGE in attenuating the development of DAA. PMID:24724734

Koulis, Christine; Kanellakis, Peter; Pickering, Raelene J; Tsorotes, Despina; Murphy, Andrew J; Gray, Stephen P; Thomas, Merlin C; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin A M; Cooper, Mark E; Allen, Terri J

2014-10-01

287

Inefficient Type I Interferon-Mediated Antiviral Protection of Primary Mouse Neurons Is Associated with the Lack of Apolipoprotein L9 Expression  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We examined the antiviral response promoted by type I interferons (IFN) in primary mouse neurons. IFN treatment of neuron cultures strongly upregulated the transcription of IFN-stimulated genes but conferred a surprisingly low resistance to infection by neurotropic viruses such as Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Response of primary mouse neurons to IFN treatment was heterogeneous, as many neurons failed to express the typical IFN response marker Mx1 after IFN treatment. This heterogeneous response of primary neurons correlated with a low level of basal expression of IFN-stimulated genes, such as Stat1, that are involved in signal transduction of the IFN response. In addition, transcriptomic analysis identified 15 IFN-responsive genes whose expression was low in IFN-treated primary neurons compared to that of primary fibroblasts derived from the same mice (Dhx58, Gvin1, Sp100, Ifi203 isoforms 1 and 2, Irgm2, Lgals3bp, Ifi205, Apol9b, Ifi204, Ifi202b, Tor3a, Slfn2, Ifi35, Lgals9). Among these genes, the gene coding for apolipoprotein L9b (Apol9b) displayed antiviral activity against Theiler's virus when overexpressed in L929 cells or in primary neurons. Accordingly, knocking down Apol9b expression in L929 cells increased viral replication. Therefore, we identified a new antiviral protein induced by interferon, ApoL9b, whose lack of expression in primary neurons likely contributes to the high sensitivity of these cells to viral infection. IMPORTANCE The type I interferon (IFN) response is an innate immune defense mechanism that is critical to contain viral infection in the host until an adaptive immune response can be mounted. Neurons are a paradigm for postmitotic, highly differentiated cells. Our data show that primary mouse neurons that are exposed to type I interferon remain surprisingly susceptible to viral infection. On one hand, the low level of basal expression of some factors in neurons might prevent a rapid response of these cells. On the other hand, some genes that are typically activated by type I interferon in other cell types are expressed at much lower levels in neurons. Among these genes is the gene encoding apolipoprotein L9, a protein that proved to have antiviral activity against the neurotropic Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. Our data suggest important functional differences in the IFN response mounted by specific cell populations. PMID:24453359

Kreit, Marguerite; Paul, Sophie; Knoops, Laurent; De Cock, Aurelie; Sorgeloos, Frederic

2014-01-01

288

The effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain®) on gene expression profiles of human primary alveolar bone cells.  

PubMed

Emdogain® is frequently used in regenerative periodontal treatment. Understanding its effect on gene expression of bone cells would enable new products and pathways promoting bone formation to be established. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of Emdogain® on expression profiles of human-derived bone cells with the help of the micro-array, and subsequent validation. Bone was harvested from non-smoking patients during dental implant surgery. After outgrowth, cells were cultured until subconfluence, treated for 24?h with either Emdogain® (100?µg/ml) or control medium, and subsequently RNA was isolated and micro-array was performed. The most important genes demonstrated by micro-array data were confirmed by qPCR and ELISA tests. Emdogain tipped the balance between genes expressed for bone formation and bone resorption towards a more anabolic effect, by interaction of the PGE2 pathway and inhibition of IL-7 production. In addition the results of the present study indicate that Emdogain possibly has an effect on gene expression for extracellular matrix formation of human bone cells, in particular on bone matrix formation and on proliferation and differentiation. With the micro-array and the subsequent validation, the genes possibly involved in Emdogain action on bone cells were identified. These results can contribute to establishing new products and pathways promoting bone formation. PMID:22689476

Yan, X Z; Rathe, F; Gilissen, C; van der Zande, M; Veltman, J; Junker, R; Yang, F; Jansen, J A; Walboomers, X F

2014-06-01

289

Topical Ocular Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate Rescues Glaucoma in a Myocilin Mouse Model of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Mutations in the myocilin gene (MYOC) are the most common known genetic cause of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The purpose of this study was to determine whether topical ocular sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) treatment rescues glaucoma phenotypes in a mouse model of myocilin-associated glaucoma (Tg-MYOCY437H mice). Methods. Tg-MYOCY437H mice were treated with PBA eye drops (n = 10) or sterile PBS (n = 8) twice daily for 5 months. Long-term safety and effectiveness of topical PBA (0.2%) on glaucoma phenotypes were examined by measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) and pattern ERG (PERG), performing slit lamp evaluation of the anterior chamber, analyzing histologic sections of the anterior segment, and comparing myocilin levels in the aqueous humor and trabecular meshwork of Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Results. Tg-MYOCY437H mice developed elevated IOP at 3 months of age when compared with wild-type (WT) littermates (n = 24; P < 0.0001). Topical PBA did not alter IOP in WT mice. However, it significantly reduced elevated IOP in Tg-MYOCY437H mice to the level of WT mice. Topical PBA-treated Tg-MYOCY437H mice also preserved PERG amplitudes compared with vehicle-treated Tg-MYOCY437H mice. No structural abnormalities were observed in the anterior chamber of PBA-treated WT and Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Analysis of the myocilin in the aqueous humor and TM revealed that PBA significantly improved the secretion of myocilin and reduced myocilin accumulation as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the TM of Tg-MYOCY437H mice. Furthermore, topical PBA reduced IOP elevated by induction of ER stress via tunicamycin injections in WT mice. Conclusions. Topical ocular PBA reduces glaucomatous phenotypes in Tg-MYOCY437H mice, most likely by reducing myocilin accumulation and ER stress in the TM. Topical ocular PBA could become a novel treatment for POAG patients with myocilin mutations. PMID:22328638

Zode, Gulab S.; Bugge, Kevin E.; Mohan, Kabhilan; Grozdanic, Sinisa D.; Peters, Joseph C.; Koehn, Demelza R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Kardon, Randy H.; Stone, Edwin M.

2012-01-01

290

TGFbeta induces apoptosis and EMT in primary mouse hepatocytes independently of p53, p21Cip1 or Rb status  

PubMed Central

Background TGF? has pleiotropic effects that range from regulation of proliferation and apoptosis to morphological changes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Some evidence suggests that these effects may be interconnected. We have recently reported that P53, P21Cip1 and pRB, three critical regulators of the G1/S transition are variably involved in TGF?-induced cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes. As these proteins are also involved in the regulation of apoptosis in many circumstances, we investigated their contribution to other relevant TGF?-induced effects, namely apoptosis and EMT, and examined how the various processes were interrelated. Methods Primary mouse hepatocytes deficient in p53, p21 and/or Rb, singly or in combination were treated with TGF? for 24 to 96 hours. Apoptosis was quantified according to morphology and by immunostaining for cleaved-capsase 3. Epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was studied using immunocytochemistry and real time PCR. Results We found that TGF? similarly induced morphological changes regardless of genotype and independently of proliferation index or sensitivity to inhibition of proliferation by TGF?. Morphological changes were accompanied by decrease in E-cadherin and increased Snail expression but the mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, SMA? and Vimentin) studied remained unchanged. TGF? induced high levels of apoptosis in p53-/-, Rb-/-, p21cip1-/- and control hepatocytes although with slight differences in kinetics. This was unrelated to proliferation or changes in morphology and loss of cell-cell adhesion. However, hepatocytes deficient in both p53 and p21cip1were less sensitive to TGF?-induced apoptosis. Conclusion Although p53, p21Cip1 and pRb are well known regulators of both proliferation and apoptosis in response to a multitude of stresses, we conclude that they are critical for TGF?-driven inhibition of hepatocytes proliferation, but only slightly modulate TGF?-induced apoptosis. This effect may depend on other parameters such as proliferation and the presence of other regulatory proteins as suggested by the consequences of p53, p21Cip1 double deficiency. Similarly, p53, p21Cip1 and pRB deficiency had no effect on the morphological changes and loss of cell adhesion which is thought to be critical for metastasis. This indicates that possible association of these genes with metastasis potential would be unlikely to involve TGF?-induced EMT. PMID:18611248

Sheahan, Sharon; Bellamy, Christopher O; Harland, Stephen N; Harrison, David J; Prost, Sandrine

2008-01-01

291

Primary thrombocythemia  

MedlinePLUS

Primary thrombocythemia is when the bone marrow is making too many platelets without a known cause. Platelets ... Primary thrombocythemia is caused by too much growth of a type of cell that is used to ...

292

Alterations in Fc[epsilon]RI induced by protoporphyrin plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells  

SciTech Connect

As previously reported, protoporphyrin plus long-wavelength UV light (PP/UVA) inhibits IgE-mediated degranulation of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells, as assessed by measurement of the release of [beta]-hexosaminidase. This inhibitory effect was seen with cells sensitized with IgE either before or after PP/UVA treatment (57.8 and 55.35 inhibition, respectively). PP/UVA did not dissociate IgE already bound to cells as assessed either by measure of release of bound [sup 125]I-IgE or by flow cytometric analysis. Results from immunoadsorption followed by SDS-PAGE analysis suggested that PP/UVA treatment may cause stable conjugation of IgE to its receptor. In unsensitized cells, PP/UVA did not cause conjugation of the unoccupied Fc[epsilon]RI to other proteins in the plasma membrane. Nevertheless, Scatchard analysis revealed that PP/UVA decreased the number of Fc[epsilon]Ri per cell by 37% (0.95 [times] 10[sup 5] vs 1.51 [times] 10[sup 5] cell), whereas affinity of the receptor for IgE was comparable between PP/UVA-treated and untreated cells (3.40 nM vs 3.27 nM). Flow cytometric analysis also confirmed the decrease in Fc[epsilon]RI number in PP/UVA-treated unsensitized mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Although 84% of PP/UVA-treated and 82% of untreated cells expressed positive fluorescence when stained with FITC-conjugated IgE, fluorescence intensity was reduced by 40% after PP/UVA treatment. The authors conclude that PP/UVA alters the conformational structure and/or number of Fc[epsilon]RI expressed on the mast cell surface. This effect could potentially explain the ability of PP/UVA to inhibit mast cell secretory function and may be related to an ability of PP/UVA to alter the properties of the plasma membrane. 29 refs., 8 figs.

Yen, A.; Barrett, K.E.; Gigli, I. (Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)); Liu, F.T. (Scripps Research Institutes, La Jolla, CA (United States))

1993-07-15

293

Effects of GSM-modulated 900?MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on the hematopoietic potential of mouse bone marrow cells.  

PubMed

Studies describing the influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on bone marrow cells (BMC) often lack functional data. We examined the effects of in vivo exposure to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modulated 900?MHz RF fields on BMC using two transplantation models. X-irradiated syngeneic mice were injected with BMC from either RF-field-exposed, sham-exposed or cage control mice. Twelve weeks after transplantation, no differences in thymocyte number, frequency of subpopulations and cell proliferation were found in mice receiving BMC from either group. Also, in the spleen cell number, percentages of B/T cells, B/T-cell proliferation, and interferon ? (IFN-?) production were similar in all groups. In parallel, a mixture of BMC from congenic sham- and RF-exposed mice were co-transplanted into lymphopenic Rag2 deficient mice. BMC from RF-exposed and sham-exposed mice displayed no advantage or disadvantage when competing for the replenishment of lymphatic organs with mature lymphocytes in Rag2 deficient mice. This model revealed that BMC from sham-exposed and RF-exposed mice were less efficient than BMC from cage control mice in repopulating the thymus, an effect likely due to restraint stress. In conclusion, our results showed no effects of in vivo exposure to GSM-modulated RF-fields on the ability of bone marrow (BM) precursors to long-term reconstitute peripheral T and B cell compartments. Bioelectromagnetics 35:559-567, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25256206

Rosado, Maria Manuela; Nasta, Francesca; Prisco, Maria Grazia; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

2014-12-01

294

Effect of low dose rate on recovery of hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells in gamma-irradiated mouse bone marrow  

SciTech Connect

Long-term recovery of mouse hemopoietic stem cells (CFU-S and CFU-S per colony), granulocyte-macrophage precursor cells (GM-CFC), and stromal colony-forming units (CFU-F) after doses up to 12.5 Gy was almost complete by 1 year when the dose rate was reduced to 0.0005 Gy/min compared to incomplete recovery after doses up to only 6.5 Gy given at greater than 0.7 Gy/min. This sparing effect of dose rate on long-term hemopoietic recovery is in contrast to the generally reported lack of dependence on dose rate for acute survival of hemopoietic progenitors after doses up to 5 Gy. The present results are compatible with the hypothesis that good recovery of the stroma should be reflected in the long-term recovery of hemopoiesis.

Gallini, R.; Hendry, J.H.; Molineux, G.; Testa, N.G.

1988-09-01

295

Mouse Mandible Contains Distinctive Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although human orofacial bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells showed differentiation traits distinctly different from those of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from long bone marrow (BMMSCs), mouse MSCs derived from orofacial bone have not been isolated due to technical difficulties, which in turn precludes the use of mouse models to study and cure orofacial diseases. In this study, we developed techniques

T. Yamaza; G. Ren; K. Akiyama; C. Chen; Y. Shi; S. Shi

2011-01-01

296

A New Tumorsphere Culture Condition Restores Potentials of Self-Renewal and Metastasis of Primary Neuroblastoma in a Mouse Neuroblastoma Model  

PubMed Central

Tumorsphere culture enriches and expands tumor cells, thus providing important resources for cancer studies. However, as compared with metastatic tissues, primary tumors in the nervous system rarely give rise to long-surviving tumorspheres, thereby seriously limiting studies on these cancers. This might be due to the limited self-renewal capability of tumor cells and/or to inappropriate culture conditions. The growth and maintenance of tumor cells may depend on microenvironments and/or cell origins (e.g., primary or metastatic; stem cell-like or progenitor-like). Here, we attempted to establish a tumorsphere culture condition for primary neuroblastoma (NB). Primary tumors in MYCN transgenic mice, a NB model, could be serially transplanted, suggesting that these tumors contain cells with a high self-renewal potential. However, primary tumors did not give rise to tumorspheres under a serum-free neurosphere culture condition. The newly established culture condition (named PrimNeuS) contained two critical ingredients: fetal bovine serum and ?-mercaptoethanol were essential for tumorsphere formation as well as indefinite passages. The spheres could be passaged more than 20 times without exhaustion under this condition, exhibited a property of differentiation and formed tumors in vivo. Unexpectedly, PrimNeuS revealed that the MYCN transgenic mice had bone marrow metastasis. Furthermore, subcutaneous tumors derived from tumorspheres of primary tumors showed bone marrow metastasis. Taken together, PrimNeuS provides resources for the study of NB and can be used as a powerful tool for the detection of minimal residual disease and for in vitro evaluation prior to personalized therapy. PMID:24466252

Cao, Dongliang; Kishida, Satoshi; Huang, Peng; Mu, Ping; Tsubota, Shoma; Mizuno, Masaaki; Kadomatsu, Kenji

2014-01-01

297

A new tumorsphere culture condition restores potentials of self-renewal and metastasis of primary neuroblastoma in a mouse neuroblastoma model.  

PubMed

Tumorsphere culture enriches and expands tumor cells, thus providing important resources for cancer studies. However, as compared with metastatic tissues, primary tumors in the nervous system rarely give rise to long-surviving tumorspheres, thereby seriously limiting studies on these cancers. This might be due to the limited self-renewal capability of tumor cells and/or to inappropriate culture conditions. The growth and maintenance of tumor cells may depend on microenvironments and/or cell origins (e.g., primary or metastatic; stem cell-like or progenitor-like). Here, we attempted to establish a tumorsphere culture condition for primary neuroblastoma (NB). Primary tumors in MYCN transgenic mice, a NB model, could be serially transplanted, suggesting that these tumors contain cells with a high self-renewal potential. However, primary tumors did not give rise to tumorspheres under a serum-free neurosphere culture condition. The newly established culture condition (named PrimNeuS) contained two critical ingredients: fetal bovine serum and ?-mercaptoethanol were essential for tumorsphere formation as well as indefinite passages. The spheres could be passaged more than 20 times without exhaustion under this condition, exhibited a property of differentiation and formed tumors in vivo. Unexpectedly, PrimNeuS revealed that the MYCN transgenic mice had bone marrow metastasis. Furthermore, subcutaneous tumors derived from tumorspheres of primary tumors showed bone marrow metastasis. Taken together, PrimNeuS provides resources for the study of NB and can be used as a powerful tool for the detection of minimal residual disease and for in vitro evaluation prior to personalized therapy. PMID:24466252

Cao, Dongliang; Kishida, Satoshi; Huang, Peng; Mu, Ping; Tsubota, Shoma; Mizuno, Masaaki; Kadomatsu, Kenji

2014-01-01

298

Expression of genetically determined diabetes and insulitis in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse at the level of bone marrow-derived cells. Transfer of diabetes and insulitis to nondiabetic (NOD X B10) F1 mice with bone marrow cells from NOD mice  

SciTech Connect

The development of autoimmune diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is controlled by at least three recessive loci, including one linked to the MHC. To determine whether any of these genetic loci exert their effects via the immune system, radiation bone marrow chimeras were constructed in which (NOD X B10)F1-irradiated recipients were reconstituted with NOD bone marrow cells. Unmanipulated (NOD X B10)F1 mice, or irradiated F1 mice reconstituted with F1 or B10 bone marrow, did not display insulitis or diabetes. In contrast, insulitis was observed in a majority of the NOD----F1 chimeras and diabetes developed in 21% of the mice. These data demonstrate that expression of the diabetic phenotype in the NOD mouse is dependent on NOD-derived hematopoietic stem cells. Diabetogenic genes in the NOD mouse do not appear to function at the level of the insulin-producing beta cells since NOD----F1 chimeras not only developed insulitis and diabetes but also rejected beta cells within pancreas transplants from newborn B10 mice. These data suggest that the beta cells of the NOD mouse do not express a unique antigenic determinant that is the target of the autoimmune response.

Wicker, L.S.; Miller, B.J.; Chai, A.; Terada, M.; Mullen, Y.

1988-06-01

299

Intrathecal botulinum neurotoxin B : effects on spinal primary afferent neurotransmitter release, inflammatory Nociception and Neuropathic Pain in the Mouse  

E-print Network

rat studies, intraplantar formalin was delivered to the hind paw.rat and mouse studies, intraplantar formalin (5%, 20?L) was given in the left hind paw.rat (Kitamura et al, 2009). Intraplantar injection of BoNT-A in the hind paw

Huang, Polly Pu

2010-01-01

300

Acetylcorynoline Impairs the Maturation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells via Suppression of I?B Kinase and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activities  

PubMed Central

Background Dendritic cells (DCs) are major modulators in the immune system. One active field of research is the manipulation of DCs as pharmacological targets to screen novel biological modifiers for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Acetylcorynoline is the major alkaloid component derived from Corydalis bungeana herbs. We assessed the capability of acetylcorynoline to regulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated activation of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs. Methodology/Principal Findings Our experimental data showed that treatment with up to 20 µM acetylcorynoline does not cause cytotoxicity in cells. Acetylcorynoline significantly inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12p70 by LPS-stimulated DCs. The expression of LPS-induced major histocompatibility complex class II, CD40, and CD86 on DCs was also decreased by acetylcorynoline, and the endocytic capacity of LPS-stimulated DCs was restored by acetylcorynoline. In addition, LPS-stimulated DC-elicited allogeneic T-cell proliferation was blocked by acetylcorynoline, and the migratory ability of LPS-stimulated DCs was reduced by acetylcorynoline. Moreover, acetylcorynoline significantly inhibits LPS-induced activation of I?B kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Importantly, administration of acetylcorynoline significantly attenuates 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity. Conclusions/Significance Acetylcorynoline may be one of the potent immunosuppressive agents through the blockage of DC maturation and function. PMID:23472193

Fu, Ru-Huei; Wang, Yu-Chi; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chu, Ching-Liang; Tsai, Rong-Tzong; Ho, Yu-Chen; Chang, Wen-Lin; Chiu, Shao-Chih; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

2013-01-01

301

Interactive Local Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Whole-Body MRI Mouse Data: A Pilot Study with Applications to Bone and Kidney Metastases  

PubMed Central

In small animal imaging studies, when the locations of the micro-structures of interest are unknown a priori, there is a simultaneous need for full-body coverage and high resolution. In MRI, additional requirements to image contrast and acquisition time will often make it impossible to acquire such images directly. Recently, a resolution enhancing post-processing technique called super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) has been demonstrated to improve visualization and localization of micro-structures in small animal MRI by combining multiple low-resolution acquisitions. However, when the field-of-view is large relative to the desired voxel size, solving the SRR problem becomes very expensive, in terms of both memory requirements and computation time. In this paper we introduce a novel local approach to SRR that aims to overcome the computational problems and allow researchers to efficiently explore both global and local characteristics in whole-body small animal MRI. The method integrates state-of-the-art image processing techniques from the areas of articulated atlas-based segmentation, planar reformation, and SRR. A proof-of-concept is provided with two case studies involving CT, BLI, and MRI data of bone and kidney tumors in a mouse model. We show that local SRR-MRI is a computationally efficient complementary imaging modality for the precise characterization of tumor metastases, and that the method provides a feasible high-resolution alternative to conventional MRI. PMID:25265510

Snoeks, Thomas J. A.; Poot, Dirk H. J.; Lowik, Clemens W. G. M.; Botha, Charl P.; Niessen, Wiro J.; van der Weerd, Louise; Meijering, Erik; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.

2014-01-01

302

Interactive local super-resolution reconstruction of whole-body MRI mouse data: a pilot study with applications to bone and kidney metastases.  

PubMed

In small animal imaging studies, when the locations of the micro-structures of interest are unknown a priori, there is a simultaneous need for full-body coverage and high resolution. In MRI, additional requirements to image contrast and acquisition time will often make it impossible to acquire such images directly. Recently, a resolution enhancing post-processing technique called super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) has been demonstrated to improve visualization and localization of micro-structures in small animal MRI by combining multiple low-resolution acquisitions. However, when the field-of-view is large relative to the desired voxel size, solving the SRR problem becomes very expensive, in terms of both memory requirements and computation time. In this paper we introduce a novel local approach to SRR that aims to overcome the computational problems and allow researchers to efficiently explore both global and local characteristics in whole-body small animal MRI. The method integrates state-of-the-art image processing techniques from the areas of articulated atlas-based segmentation, planar reformation, and SRR. A proof-of-concept is provided with two case studies involving CT, BLI, and MRI data of bone and kidney tumors in a mouse model. We show that local SRR-MRI is a computationally efficient complementary imaging modality for the precise characterization of tumor metastases, and that the method provides a feasible high-resolution alternative to conventional MRI. PMID:25265510

Dzyubachyk, Oleh; Khmelinskii, Artem; Plenge, Esben; Kok, Peter; Snoeks, Thomas J A; Poot, Dirk H J; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Botha, Charl P; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Weerd, Louise; Meijering, Erik; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

2014-01-01

303

Aquaporin 4-Dependent expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and tenascin-C in activated astrocytes in stab wound mouse brain and in primary culture.  

PubMed

We previously reported that aquaporin 4 (AQP4) has a neuroimmunological function via astrocytes and microglial cells involving osteopontin. AQP4 is a water channel localized in the endofoot of astrocytes in the brain, and its expression is upregulated after a stab wound to the mouse brain or the injection of methylmercury in common marmosets. In this study, the correlation between the expression of AQP4 and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or tenascin-C (TN-C) in reactive astrocytes was examined in primary cultures and brain tissues of AQP4-deficient mice (AQP4/KO). In the absence of a stab wound to the brain or of any stimulation of the cells, the expressions of both GFAP and TN-C were lower in astrocytes from AQP4/KO mice than in those from wild-type (WT) mice. High levels of GFAP and TN-C expression were observed in activated astrocytes after a stab wound to the brain in WT mice; however, the expressions of GFAP and TN-C were insignificant in AQP4/KO mice. Furthermore, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation activated primary culture of astrocytes and upregulated GFAP and TN-C expression in cells from WT mice, whereas the expressions of GFAP and TN-C were slightly upregulated in cells from AQP4/KO mice. Moreover, the stimulation of primary culture of astrocytes with LPS also upregulated inflammatory cytokines in cells from WT mice, whereas modest increases were observed in cells from AQP4/KO mice. These results suggest that AQP4 expression accelerates GFAP and TN-C expression in activated astrocytes induced by a stab wound in the mouse brain and LPS-stimulated primary culture of astrocytes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25174305

Ikeshima-Kataoka, Hiroko; Abe, Yoichiro; Yasui, Masato

2015-01-01

304

Single Cell Gene Profiling Revealed Heterogeneity of Paracrine Effects of Bone Marrow Cells in Mouse Infarcted Hearts  

PubMed Central

It is now recognized that transplantation of bone marrow cells (BMCs) into infarcted hearts has the capacity to improve the cardiac function through paracrine effects. However, detailed expression levels of paracrine factors in BMCs in infarcted hearts are poorly described. By use of laser capture microdissection combined with real-time PCR, we depicted the expression profiles of paracrine factors in infarcted hearts versus normal hearts. Consistent with the in vivo observation, a similar expression pattern was evidenced in cultured BMCs. Furthermore, BMCs displayed heterogeneity of paracrine effects in infarcted hearts as analyzed at the single cell level using single cell PCR. Interestingly, the CD45+ subpopulation showed higher expression levels of angiogenic factors compared to other subpopulations. Finally, most angiogenic factors were induced under the microenvironment of infarction. Our study demonstrated the heterogeneity of paracrine effects in BMCs at single cell level in infarcted hearts, highlighting preferential expression of angiogenic factors in the CD45+ subpopulation. These findings broaden our understanding of paracrine effects of BMCs in vivo, and offer new insights into BMCs therapy in myocardial infarction (MI). PMID:23861876

Zhu, Mei; Gao, Lei; Wang, Yu

2013-01-01

305

Neurotrophic and growth factor gene expression profiling of mouse bone marrow stromal cells induced by ischemic brain extracts  

PubMed Central

Treatment of rodents after stroke with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) improves functional outcome. However, the mechanisms underlying this benefit have not been ascertained. This study focused on the contribution of neurotrophic and growth factors produced by BMSCs to therapeutic benefit. Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and the ischemic brain extract supernatant was collected to prepare the conditioned medium. The counterpart normal brain extract from non-ischemic rats was employed as the experimental control. Using microarray assay, we measured the changes of the neurotrophin associated gene expression profile in BMSCs cultured in different media. Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR and fluorescent immunocytochemistry were utilized to validate the gene changes. The morphology of BMSCs, cultured in the ischemic brain-conditioned medium for 12 h, was dramatically altered from a polygonal and flat appearance to a fibroblast-like long and thin cell appearance, compared to those in the normal brain-conditioned medium and the serum replacement medium. Forty-four neurotrophin-associated genes in BMSCs were identified by microarray assay under all three culture media. Twelve out of the 44 genes (7 neurotrophic and growth factor genes, 5 receptor genes) increased in BMSCs cultured in the ischemic brain-conditioned medium compared to the normal brain-conditioned medium. Real time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry validated that the ischemic brain-conditioned medium significantly increased 6/7 neurotrophic and growth factor genes, compared with the normal brain-conditioned medium. These six genes consisted of fibroblast growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor 1, vascular endothelial growth factor A, nerve growth factor beta, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and epidermal growth factor. Our results indicate that transplanted BMSCs may work as ‘small molecular factories’ by secreting neurotrophins, growth factors and other supportive substances after stroke, which may produce therapeutic benefits in the ischemic brain. PMID:17899689

Qu, Runjiang; Li, Yi; Gao, Qi; Shen, Lihong; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Zhongwu; Chen, Xiaoguang; Chopp, Michael

2008-01-01

306

The relative population sizes of megakaryocytic cells in mouse bone marrow as determined by mpl ligand responsiveness.  

PubMed

The relative population sizes of mpl ligand-responsive megakaryocytic cells were investigated, and all megakaryocytes grown in culture were assessed. Three groups were analyzed: 1) immature cells with the ability to form single mature megakaryocytes; 2) cells with the ability to divide once before forming megakaryocytes (doublets); and 3) progenitor cells with the ability to form colonies, i.e., to undergo both cytokinesis and maturation. Immature cells forming single megakaryocytes proved most sensitive to the mpl ligand. Committed megakaryocyte progenitors required approximately 30 times more mpl ligand to achieve maximum growth than did the immature megakaryocyte population. Similar numbers of committed megakaryocyte progenitors responded to interleukin (IL)-3 and to mpl ligand. The amplification potential of these progenitor cells responding to each growth factor was assessed by measuring the number of megakaryocytes per colony. In response to mpl ligand progenitor, cells generated smaller colonies, with most cell divisions completed at a signifcantly earlier time point compared with progenitor cells responding to IL-3. The growth of more primitive megakaryocyte progenitors was best achieved in combination with other growth factors, notably IL-3; mpl ligand alone was ineffective in this regard. A novel finding was the significant number of megakaryocytes that grew in culture as closely coupled pairs (doublets). Data reported indicate that doublet formation may be a result of detection and stimulation of immature megakaryocytes rather than the diminished mpl ligand responsiveness of a proportion of megakaryocyte progenitors. By combining the number of mpl ligand-responsive cells forming single megakaryocytes with those forming megakaryocyte doublets, it is estimated that the size of the immature megakaryocyte pool greatly exceeds previous calculations. Thus we conclude that the immature megakaryocyte population is significantly larger than previously estimated and that these cells are the most sensitive to mpl ligand. Accordingly, these cells are potentially crucial in bone marrow responsiveness to mpl ligand that results from acute thrombocytopenia, being capable not only of endomitosis and maturation but perhaps of cell division as well. PMID:9357966

Mintern, J; Williams, N; Jackson, H

1997-11-01

307

Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells and mast cell lines constitutively produce B cell growth and differentiation activities.  

PubMed

The present report describes a novel function of mast cells that consists of a B cell growth activity. The B cell response occurred without any stimulation or preactivation of mast cells. A small number of mast cells was required, since mast cell/B cell ratios as low as 1/100 to 1/10,000 lead to effective B cell activation. Mast cell-dependent B cell activation resulted, within 48 h of incubation, in blast formation, proliferation, and IgM production. Both low and high density B cells were responsive to mast cells. Supernatants from unstimulated mast cells could also activate B cells, suggesting that a B cell-stimulating activity (MC-BSA) is mediated by a soluble factor(s). The addition of anti-IL-4 or anti-IL-6 mAbs or even proteases to the mast cell-derived supernatants did not alter B cell activation. However, treatment of mast cells with mitomycin C or actinomycin D, or paraformaldehyde fixation totally abrogated MC-BSA. Fractionation of mast cell supernatant by gel filtration chromatography resulted in four peaks, ranging from > 200 to 15 kDa, all of which were biologically active on B cells. Because mast cells are known to continuously release proteoglycans, MC-BSA was subjected to chondroitinase and heparinase treatment, but no significant inhibition of B cell activation was obtained. This direct T cell-independent stimulatory effect of mast cells on B cells could account for a mechanism by which plasma cells are continuously produced in lymphoid organs and particularly in bone marrow. PMID:8759761

Tkaczyk, C; Frandji, P; Botros, H G; Poncet, P; Lapeyre, J; Peronet, R; David, B; Mécheri, S

1996-08-15

308

Stimulation of host bone marrow stromal cells by sympathetic nerves promotes breast cancer bone metastasis in mice.  

PubMed

Bone and lung metastases are responsible for the majority of deaths in patients with breast cancer. Following treatment of the primary cancer, emotional and psychosocial factors within this population precipitate time to recurrence and death, however the underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear. Using a mouse model of bone metastasis, we provide experimental evidence that activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is one of many pathophysiological consequences of severe stress and depression, promotes MDA-231 breast cancer cell colonization of bone via a neurohormonal effect on the host bone marrow stroma. We demonstrate that induction of RANKL expression in bone marrow osteoblasts, following ?2AR stimulation, increases the migration of metastatic MDA-231 cells in vitro, independently of SDF1-CXCR4 signaling. We also show that the stimulatory effect of endogenous (chronic stress) or pharmacologic sympathetic activation on breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo can be blocked with the ?-blocker propranolol, and by knockdown of RANK expression in MDA-231 cells. These findings indicate that RANKL promotes breast cancer cell metastasis to bone via its pro-migratory effect on breast cancer cells, independently of its effect on bone turnover. The emerging clinical implication, supported by recent epidemiological studies, is that ?AR-blockers and drugs interfering with RANKL signaling, such as Denosumab, could increase patient survival if used as adjuvant therapy to inhibit both the early colonization of bone by metastatic breast cancer cells and the initiation of the "vicious cycle" of bone destruction induced by these cells. PMID:22815651

Campbell, J Preston; Karolak, Matthew R; Ma, Yun; Perrien, Daniel S; Masood-Campbell, S Kathryn; Penner, Niki L; Munoz, Steve A; Zijlstra, Andries; Yang, Xiangli; Sterling, Julie A; Elefteriou, Florent

2012-07-01

309

Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2, 4, and related components of the BMP signaling pathway in the mouse uterus during the estrous cycle*  

PubMed Central

The objective was to investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family members in the mouse uterus during the estrous cycle by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Uterine samples from Swiss ICR mice were collected and dissected free of surrounding tissue. One uterine horn was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after collection and stored at ?80 °C for RNA extraction, and the other was fixed in 40 mg/ml paraformaldehyde at room temperature for immunolocalization of BMP2 protein. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression level of Bmp2 was significantly higher at proestrus than at estrus and metestrus (P<0.05). The relative abundance of Bmp4 exhibited significant fluctuations, but there were no statistically significant differences between the expression levels of Bmp2 and Bmp4 (P>0.05). The expression levels of Bmpr1a and Bmpr2 remained unchanged during estrous cycles. However, the level of Bmpr1b mRNA decreased significantly at estrus (P<0.05), increasing subsequently at metestrus. Furthermore, the level of Bmpr1b mRNA was significantly lower than those of Bmpr1a and Bmpr2 mRNA at the corresponding stages (P<0.05). All three receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) detected were differentially expressed in the mouse uterus and the expression levels of Smad1 and Smad5 were significantly higher than that of Smad8 (P<0.05). In addition, the expression level of Smad4 did not change substantially throughout the estrous cycle. Immunohistochemical experiments revealed that BMP2 protein was differentially expressed and localized mainly in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelial cells throughout the estrous cycle. In conclusion, our results provide information about the variation in the mRNA levels of Bmp2 and Bmp4 and related components of the BMP signaling pathway. The data provide quantitative and useful information about the roles of endometrial BMP proposed and demonstrated by others, such as the degradation and remodeling of the endometrium. PMID:25001220

Li, Yan; Wei, Quan-wei; Feng, Jian-gang; Xu, Mu-lin; Huang, Rui-hua; Shi, Fang-xiong

2014-01-01

310

Cooperation by Fibroblasts and Bone Marrow-Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Improve Pancreatic Rat-to-Mouse Islet Xenotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Experimental and clinical experiences highlight the need to review some aspects of islet transplantation, especially with regard to site of grafting and control of the immune response. The subcutaneous space could be a good alternative to liver but its sparse vasculature is its main limitation. Induction of graft tolerance by using cells with immunoregulatory properties is a promising approach to avoid graft rejection. Both Fibroblasts and Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have shown pro-angiogenic and immunomodulatory properties. Transplantation of islets into the subcutaneous space using plasma as scaffold and supplemented with fibroblasts and/or Bone Marrow-MSCs could be a promising strategy to achieve a functional extra-hepatic islet graft, without using immunosuppressive drugs. Xenogenic rat islets, autologous fibroblasts and/or allogenic BM-MSCs, were mixed with plasma, and coagulation was induced to constitute a Plasma-based Scaffold containing Islets (PSI), which was transplanted subcutaneously both in immunodeficient and immunocompetent diabetic mice. In immunodeficient diabetic mice, PSI itself allowed hyperglycemia reversion temporarily, but the presence of pro-angiogenic cells (fibroblasts or BM-MSCs) within PSI was necessary to improve graft re-vascularization and, thus, consistently maintain normoglycemia. In immunocompetent diabetic mice, only PSI containing BM-MSCs, but not those containing fibroblasts, normalized glycemia lasting up to one week after transplantation. Interestingly, when PSI contained both fibroblasts and BM-MSCs, the normoglycemia period showed an increase of 4-times with a physiological-like response in functional tests. Histology of immunocompetent mice showed an attenuation of the immune response in those grafts with BM-MSCs, which was improved by co-transplantation with fibroblasts, since they increased BM-MSC survival. In summary, fibroblasts and BM-MSCs showed similar pro-angiogenic properties in this model of islet xenotransplantation, whereas only BM-MSCs exerted an immunomodulatory effect, which was improved by the presence of fibroblasts. These results suggest that cooperation of different cell types with islets will be required to achieve a long-term functional graft. PMID:24009755

Meana, Alvaro; Otero, Jesus; Esteban, Manuel M.

2013-01-01

311

Chemotaxis of bone marrow-derived eosinophils in vivo: A novel method to explore receptor-dependent trafficking in the mouse  

PubMed Central

Summary Here we describe a novel method via which ex vivo cultured mouse bone marrow-derived eosinophils (bmEos) can be adoptively transferred into recipient mice in order to study receptor-dependent recruitment to lung tissue in vivo. Intratracheal instillation of recombinant hCCL24 prior to introduction of bmEos via tail vein injection resulted in a ~four-fold increase in Siglec Fpos/CD11cneg eosinophils in the lungs of eosinophil-deficient ?dblGATA recipient mice compared with controls. As anticipated, bmEos generated from CCR3-gene-deleted mice did not migrate to the lung in response to hCCL24 in this model, indicating specific receptor dependence. BmEos generated from GFPpos Balb/c mice responded similarly hCCL24 in vitro and were detected in lung tissue of BALB/c wild-type as well as BALB/c ?dblGATA eosinophil-deficient recipient mice, at ~four-fold (at 5 h post-instillation) and ~three-fold (at 24 h post-instillation) over baseline respectively. Comparable results were obtained with GFPpos C57BL/6 bmEos responding to intratracheal hCCL24 in C57BL/6 ?dblGATA recipient mice. The use of ex vivo cultured bmEos via one or more of these methods offers the possibility of manipulating bmEos prior to transfer into a wild-type or gene-deleted recipient host. Thus, this chemotaxis model represents a novel and robust tool for pharmacological studies in vivo. PMID:23670593

Sturm, Eva M.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Percopo, Caroline M.; Heinemann, Akos; Rosenberg, Helene F.

2013-01-01

312

A negative correlation between expression profiles of runt-related transcription factor-2 and cystine/glutamate antiporter xCT subunit in ovariectomized mouse bone.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that glutamate (Glu) suppresses cellular proliferation toward self-renewal through a mechanism associated with the depletion of intracellular GSH after promoting the retrograde operation of the bidirectional cystine/Glu antiporter in undifferentiated osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of the xCT subunit of the antiporter as well as the master regulator of osteoblastogenesis runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) in ovariectomized mouse bone. In spinal columns isolated 28 days after ovariectomy, a marked reduction was seen with the intensity of Von Kossa staining used as an index of ossification. In femurs of these ovariectomized mice, a significant decrease was seen in mRNA and protein levels of Runx2 along with increased expression of both mRNA and the corresponding protein for the xCT subunit. To evaluate the possible role of the antiporter in osteoblastogenesis, stable transfectants were established with the xCT subunit toward the culture with osteoblastic differentiation inducers in MC3T3-E1 cells. In stable xCT transfectants cultured under differentiation conditions, marked decreases were seen in nodule formation, Ca(2+) accumulation, and osteoblastic marker gene expression, in addition to downregulation of both mRNA and the corresponding protein for Runx2. Runx2 promoter activity was markedly stimulated in MC3T3-E1 cells transfected with a responsive promoter plasmid after the culture under differentiation conditions, while transient and stable transfection with xCT expression vector invariably prevented the stimulation through an activator protein-1 site. These results suggest that Runx2 expression would be negatively regulated by the cystine/glutamate antiporter expressed by osteoblastic cells at the level of gene transactivation. PMID:21325781

Uno, Kyosuke; Takarada, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yukari; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Hinoi, Eiichi; Yoneda, Yukio

2011-01-01

313

IL-4 mRNA transcription is induced in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells through an MHC class II-dependent signaling pathway.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) can process and present immunogenic peptides to CD4 T cells. Here, we report on a T cell-dependent MHC class II-mediated mast cell activation resulting in IL-4 transcription and protein release. Presentation of optimal doses of ovalbumin peptide 323-339 resulted in IL-2 production by a specific T cell hybridoma and increase in IL-4 mRNA transcription in mast cells. IL-4 mRNA transcription increased by 200-fold in mast cells treated in IL-3/IL-4/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (high presenters) whereas only a tenfold increase or no increase were obtained with IL-3/IL-4/IFN-gamma- or IL-3-treated mast cells (low presenters), respectively. Induction of IL-4 mRNA transcription in purified mast cells by direct ligation of MHC class II molecules, using anti-I-A and anti-I-E-coated beads, indicates that MHC class II molecules are critical in this signaling pathway. However, when compared to T cells, anti-MHC class II-coated beads were less efficient, indicating a potential role of accessory molecules in this mast cell activation process. IgE-independent IL-4 production by mast cells as a result of cognate interaction with CD4 T cells could be critical for the development of type 2 responses. This novel mechanism may contribute to the induction and/or amplification of specific IgE-mediated allergic responses. PMID:9541579

Frandji, P; Mourad, W; Tkaczyk, C; Singer, M; David, B; Colle, J H; Mécheri, S

1998-03-01

314

Topographical and Biological Evidence Revealed FTY720-Mediated Anergy-Polarization of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Abnormal inflammations are central therapeutic targets in numerous infectious and autoimmune diseases. Dendritic cells (DCs) are involved in these inflammations, serving as both antigen presenters and proinflammatory cytokine providers. As an immuno-suppressor applied to the therapies of multiple sclerosis and allograft transplantation, fingolimod (FTY720) was shown to affect DC migration and its crosstalk with T cells. We posit FTY720 can induce an anergy-polarized phenotype switch on DCs in vitro, especially upon endotoxic activation. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC) activation model was employed to test FTY720-induced phenotypic changes on immature and mature DCs. Specifically, methods for morphology, nanostructure, cytokine production, phagocytosis, endocytosis and specific antigen presentation studies were used. FTY720 induced significant alterations of surface markers, as well as decline of shape indices, cell volume, surface roughness in LPS-activated mature BMDCs. These phenotypic, morphological and topographical changes were accompanied by FTY720-mediated down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-?, IL-12 and MCP-1. Together with suppressed nitric oxide (NO) production and CCR7 transcription in FTY720-treated BMDCs with or without LPS activation, an inhibitory mechanism of NO and cytokine reciprocal activation was suggested. This implication was supported by the impaired phagocytotic, endocytotic and specific antigen presentation abilities observed in the FTY720-treated BMDCs. In conclusion, we demonstrated FTY720 can induce anergy-polarization in both immature and LPS-activated mature BMDCs. A possible mechanism is FTY720-mediated reciprocal suppression on the intrinsic activation pathway and cytokine production with endpoint exhibitions on phagocytosis, endocytosis, antigen presentation as well as cellular morphology and topography. PMID:22693544

Zhu, Cairong; Xing, Xiaobo; Ye, Yanxia; Lai, Xinqiang; Song, Bing; Zeng, Yaoying

2012-01-01

315

Correlation between primary stability and bone healing of surface treated titanium implants in the femoral epiphyses of rabbits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyse the stability and osseointegration of surface treated titanium implants in rabbit femurs. The implants were either grit-blasted and acid-etched (BE Group), calcium phosphate (CaP) coated by using the electrodeposition technique, or had bioactive molecules incorporated into the CaP coatings: either cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or dexamethasone (Dex). Twenty four cylindrical titanium implants (n = 6/group) were inserted bilaterally into the femoral epiphyses of New Zealand White, female, adult rabbits for 4 weeks. Implant stability was measured by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) the day of implantation and 4 weeks later, and correlated to histomorphometric parameters, bone implant contact (BIC) and bone growth around the implants (BS/TS 0.5 mm). The BIC values for the four groups were not significantly different. That said, histology indicated that the CaP coatings improved bone growth around the implants. The incorporation of bioactive molecules (cAMP and Dex) into the CaP coatings did not improve bone growth compared to the BE group. Implant stability quotients (ISQ) increased in each group after 4 weeks of healing but were not significantly different between the groups. A good correlation was observed between ISQ and BS/TS 0.5 mm indicating that RFA is a non-invasive method that can be used to assess the osseointegration of implants. In conclusion, the CaP coating enhanced bone formation around the implants, which was correlated to stability measured by resonance frequency analysis. Furthers studies need to be conducted in order to explore the benefits of incorporating bioactive molecules into the coatings for peri-implant bone healing. PMID:24818874

Rozé, Julie; Hoornaert, Alain; Layrolle, Pierre

2014-08-01

316

The Influence of Bone Cement Implantation in Primary Hip Arthroplasty on S100B Protein Serum Concentration and Patients’ Cognitive Functions as Markers of Brain Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective:\\u000a   The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of the bone cement used during primary hip arthroplasty on brain\\u000a functions assessed at the biochemical and clinical levels. The S100B protein is a biochemical marker of brain damage. Its\\u000a plasma concentration was compared with the results of neuropsychological tests, conducted during the perioperative period.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:

Dariusz Tomaszewski; Zbigniew Rybicki; Marcin Mo?a?ski

2010-01-01

317

Comparative Analysis of Osteogenic/Chondrogenic Differentiation Potential in Primary Limb Bud-Derived and C3H10T1/2 Cell Line-Based Mouse Micromass Cultures  

PubMed Central

Murine micromass models have been extensively applied to study chondrogenesis and osteogenesis to elucidate pathways of endochondral bone formation. Here we provide a detailed comparative analysis of the differentiation potential of micromass cultures established from either BMP-2 overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells or mouse embryonic limb bud-derived chondroprogenitor cells, using micromass cultures from untransfected C3H10T1/2 cells as controls. Although the BMP-2 overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells failed to form chondrogenic nodules, cells of both models expressed mRNA transcripts for major cartilage-specific marker genes including Sox9, Acan, Col2a1, Snorc, and Hapln1 at similar temporal sequence, while notable lubricin expression was only detected in primary cultures. Furthermore, mRNA transcripts for markers of osteogenic differentiation including Runx2, Osterix, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin were detected in both models, along with matrix calcification. Although the adipogenic lineage-specific marker gene FABP4 was also expressed in micromass cultures, Oil Red O-positive cells along with PPAR?2 transcripts were only detected in C3H10T1/2-derived micromass cultures. Apart from lineage-specific marker genes, pluripotency factors (Nanog and Sox2) were also expressed in these models, reflecting on the presence of various mesenchymal lineages as well as undifferentiated cells. This cellular heterogeneity has to be taken into consideration for the interpretation of data obtained by using these models. PMID:23921684

Takacs, Roland; Matta, Csaba; Somogyi, Csilla; Juhasz, Tamas; Zakany, Roza

2013-01-01

318

Optimization of a Widefield Structured Illumination Microscope for Non-Destructive Assessment and Quantification of Nuclear Features in Tumor Margins of a Primary Mouse Model of Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Cancer is associated with specific cellular morphological changes, such as increased nuclear size and crowding from rapidly proliferating cells. In situ tissue imaging using fluorescent stains may be useful for intraoperative detection of residual cancer in surgical tumor margins. We developed a widefield fluorescence structured illumination microscope (SIM) system with a single-shot FOV of 2.1×1.6 mm (3.4 mm2) and sub-cellular resolution (4.4 µm). The objectives of this work were to measure the relationship between illumination pattern frequency and optical sectioning strength and signal-to-noise ratio in turbid (i.e. thick) samples for selection of the optimum frequency, and to determine feasibility for detecting residual cancer on tumor resection margins, using a genetically engineered primary mouse model of sarcoma. The SIM system was tested in tissue mimicking solid phantoms with various scattering levels to determine impact of both turbidity and illumination frequency on two SIM metrics, optical section thickness and modulation depth. To demonstrate preclinical feasibility, ex vivo 50 µm frozen sections and fresh intact thick tissue samples excised from a primary mouse model of sarcoma were stained with acridine orange, which stains cell nuclei, skeletal muscle, and collagenous stroma. The cell nuclei were segmented using a high-pass filter algorithm, which allowed quantification of nuclear density. The results showed that the optimal illumination frequency was 31.7 µm?1 used in conjunction with a 4×0.1 NA objective (?=?0.165). This yielded an optical section thickness of 128 µm and an 8.9×contrast enhancement over uniform illumination. We successfully demonstrated the ability to resolve cell nuclei in situ achieved via SIM, which allowed segmentation of nuclei from heterogeneous tissues in the presence of considerable background fluorescence. Specifically, we demonstrate that optical sectioning of fresh intact thick tissues performed equivalently in regards to nuclear density quantification, to physical frozen sectioning and standard microscopy. PMID:23894357

Fu, Henry L.; Mueller, Jenna L.; Javid, Melodi P.; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Kirsch, David G.; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Brown, J. Quincy

2013-01-01

319

Abnormal metal levels in the primary visual pathway of the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine metal ion levels in central visual system structures of the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and calcium (Ca) in the retina and retinal projection of 5-month (pre-glaucomatous) and 10-month (glaucomatous) old DBA/2J mice and age-matched C57BL/6J controls. We used microbeam X-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) spectrometry to determine the spatial distribution of Fe, Zn, and Cu in the superior colliculus (SC), which is the major retinal target in rodents and one of the earliest sites of pathology in the DBA/2J mouse. Our ICP-MS experiments showed that glaucomatous DBA/2J had lower retinal Fe concentrations than pre-glaucomatous DBA/2J and age-matched C57BL/6J mice. Pre-glaucomatous DBA/2J retina had greater Mg, Ca, and Zn concentrations than glaucomatous DBA/2J and greater Mg and Ca than age-matched controls. Retinal Mn levels were significantly deficient in glaucomatous DBA/2J mice compared to aged-matched C57BL/6J and pre-glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. Regardless of age, the SC of C57BL/6J mice contained greater Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentrations than the SC of DBA/2J mice. Greater Fe concentrations were measured by ?-XRF in both the superficial and deep SC of C57BL/6J mice than in DBA/2J mice. For the first time, we show direct measurement of metal concentrations in central visual system structures affected in glaucoma and present evidence for strain-related differences in metal content that may be specific to glaucomatous pathology. PMID:25190614

DeToma, Alaina S; Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Deb, Aniruddha; Braymer, Joseph J; Penner-Hahn, James E; van der Schyf, Cornelis J; Lim, Mi Hee; Crish, Samuel D

2014-12-01

320

Activities of Azithromycin and Amphotericin B against Naegleria fowleri In Vitro and in a Mouse Model of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naegleria fowleri is responsible for producing a rapidly fatal central nervous system infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). To date, amphotericin B, an antifungal agent, is the only agent with established clinical efficacy in the treatment of PAM. However, amphotericin B is not always successful in treating PAM and is associated with severe adverse effects. We previously found azithromycin

Shannon M. Goswick; George M. Brenner

2007-01-01

321

Effects of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell-conditioned Medium on Primary Cultures of Peripheral Nerve Tissues and Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implantation of bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) produces an improved functional outcome of peripheral nerve repair. In this\\u000a study, rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants, rat DRG neurons, and rat Schwann cells (SCs) were treated with monkey MSC-conditioned\\u000a medium, respectively, and then subjected to MTT assay, Bromodeoxyuridine\\/Hoechst 33342 double staining, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry,\\u000a real-time quantitative PCR, and Western blot analysis,

Jiajiong Yang; Hong Wu; Nan Hu; Xiaosong Gu; Fei Ding

2009-01-01

322

Myelosuppressive Conditioning Using Busulfan Enables Bone Marrow Cell Accumulation in the Spinal Cord of a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Myeloablative preconditioning using irradiation is the most commonly used technique to generate rodents having chimeric bone marrow, employed for the study of bone marrow-derived cell accumulation in the healthy and diseased central nervous system. However, irradiation has been shown to alter the blood-brain barrier, potentially creating confounding artefacts. To better study the potential of bone marrow-derived cells to function as treatment vehicles for neurodegenerative diseases alternative preconditioning regimens must be developed. We treated transgenic mice that over-express human mutant superoxide dismutase 1, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with busulfan to determine whether this commonly used chemotherapeutic leads to stable chimerism and promotes the entry of bone marrow-derived cells into spinal cord. Intraperitoneal treatment with busulfan at 60 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg followed by intravenous injection of green fluorescent protein-expressing bone marrow resulted in sustained levels of chimerism (?80%). Bone marrow-derived cells accumulated in the lumbar spinal cord of diseased mice at advanced stages of pathology at both doses, with limited numbers of bone marrow derived cells observed in the spinal cords of similarly treated, age-matched controls; the majority of bone marrow-derived cells in spinal cord immunolabelled for macrophage antigens. Comparatively, significantly greater numbers of bone marrow-derived cells were observed in lumbar spinal cord following irradiative myeloablation. These results demonstrate bone marrow-derived cell accumulation in diseased spinal cord is possible without irradiative preconditioning. PMID:23593276

Lewis, Coral-Ann B.; Manning, John; Barr, Christine; Peake, Kyle; Humphries, R. Keith; Rossi, Fabio; Krieger, Charles

2013-01-01

323

Role of Nonmuscle Myosin IIB and N-RAP in Cell Spreading and Myofibril Assembly in Primary Mouse Cardiomyocytes  

PubMed Central

We investigated the role of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (NMHC) IIB in cultured embryonic mouse cardiomyocytes by specific knockdown using RNA interference. NMHC IIB protein levels decreased 90% compared with mock-transfected cells by 3 days post transfection. NMHC IIB knockdown resulted in a slow decrease in N-RAP protein levels over 6 days with no change in N-RAP transcript levels. N-RAP is a scaffold for ?-actinin and actin assembly during myofibrillogenesis, and we quantitated myofibril accumulation by morphometric analysis of ?-actinin organization. Between 3 and 6 days, NMHC IIB knockdown was accompanied by the abolishment of cardiomyocyte spreading. During this period the rate of myofibril accumulation steadily decreased, correlating with the slowly decreasing levels of N-RAP. Between 6 and 8 days NMHC IIB and N-RAP protein levels recovered, and cardiomyocyte spreading and myofibril accumulation resumed. Inhibition of proteasome function using MG132 led to accumulation of excess N-RAP, and the secondary decrease in N-RAP that otherwise accompanied NMHC IIB knockdown was abolished. The results show that NMHC IIB knockdown led to decreased N-RAP levels through proteasome-mediated degradation. Furthermore, these proteins have distinct functional roles, with NMHC IIB playing a role in cardiomyocyte spreading and N-RAP functioning in myofibril assembly. PMID:18615632

Lu, Shajia; Horowits, Robert

2008-01-01

324

Two regions of simian virus 40 large T-antigen independently extend the life span of primary C57BL/6 mouse embryo fibroblasts and cooperate in immortalization.  

PubMed

Expression of the SV40 large T-antigen allows primary cells to escape senescence and thereby become immortalized. Immortalization occurs in two steps, extension of life span and acquisition of unlimited cell division potential. By following the increase in expression of a senescence-associated marker with increased cell passage, we show that C57Bl/6 mouse embryo fibroblast (B6MEF) cultures senesce by passage 4. Thus, the development of colonies from cultures transfected with T-antigen expressing constructs indicates extension of life span. Two T-antigen regions independently extended the life span of B6MEF. Expression of either a T-antigen consisting of amino acids 1-147 (T1-147) or a T-antigen consisting of amino acids 251-708 (T251-708) resulted in colony development. However, the colonies expressing these truncated T-antigens could not be expanded into cell lines efficiently. In contrast, coexpression of T1-147 and T251-708 produced colonies that could be expanded into cell lines as efficiently as could colonies expressing full-length T-antigen. Thus, the two regions of T-antigen contain analogous activities that are sufficient to extend cell life span; they cooperate to immortalize primary B6MEF; and they act in trans, indicating that the functions involved are independent. PMID:9568030

Tevethia, M J; Lacko, H A; Conn, A

1998-04-10

325

PKC?/? and CYLD Are Antagonistic Partners in the NF?B and NFAT Transactivation Pathways in Primary Mouse CD3+ T Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

In T cells PKC? mediates the activation of critical signals downstream of TCR/CD28 stimulation. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which PKC? regulates NF?B transactivation by examining PKC?/? single and double knockout mice and observed a redundant involvement of PKC? and PKC? in this signaling pathway. Mechanistically, we define a PKC?-CYLD protein complex and an interaction between the positive PKC?/? and the negative CYLD signaling pathways that both converge at the level of TAK1/IKK/I-?B?/NF?B and NFAT transactivation. In Jurkat leukemic T cells, CYLD is endoproteolytically processed in the initial minutes of stimulation by the paracaspase MALT1 in a PKC-dependent fashion, which is required for robust IL-2 transcription. However, in primary T cells, CYLD processing occurs with different kinetics and an altered dependence on PKC. The formation of a direct PKC?/CYLD complex appears to regulate the short-term spatial distribution of CYLD, subsequently affecting NF?B and NFAT repressional activity of CYLD prior to its MALT1-dependent inactivation. Taken together, our study establishes CYLD as a new and critical PKC? interactor in T cells and reveals that antagonistic PKC?/?-CYLD crosstalk is crucial for the adjustment of immune thresholds in primary mouse CD3+ T cells. PMID:23335970

Thuille, Nikolaus; Wachowicz, Katarzyna; Hermann-Kleiter, Natascha; Kaminski, Sandra; Fresser, Friedrich; Lutz-Nicoladoni, Christina; Leitges, Michael; Thome, Margot; Massoumi, Ramin; Baier, Gottfried

2013-01-01

326

136. Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus 2-Mediated Ectopic Expression of ?4?1 Integrin in Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhances Repopulation to Bone upon Syngeneic Transplantation in an Immunocompetent Mouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ex-vivo therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is a novel approach for the treatment of genetic, age-related or segmental defects to increase bone mass. Recent identification that MSC differentiate into lineages that form bone, cartilage, adipose tissue, fibroblasts, neurons and cardiac tissues under controlled conditions offers unique advantage for potentially utilizing them in cell therapy or gene therapy. The pluripotent

Sanjay Kumar; Selvarangan Ponnazhagan

2005-01-01

327

Genetics Home Reference: Juvenile primary osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... caused by a shortage of calcium and other minerals in bones (decreased bone mineral density), which makes the bones brittle and prone ... protein is involved in the regulation of bone mineral density. LRP5 gene mutations that cause juvenile primary ...

328

T cells induce pre-metastatic osteolytic disease and help bone metastases establishment in a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer.  

PubMed

Bone metastases, present in 70% of patients with metastatic breast cancer, lead to skeletal disease, fractures and intense pain, which are all believed to be mediated by tumor cells. Engraftment of tumor cells is supposed to be preceded by changes in the target tissue to create a permissive microenvironment, the pre-metastatic niche, for the establishment of the metastatic foci. In bone metastatic niche, metastatic cells stimulate bone consumption resulting in the release of growth factors that feed the tumor, establishing a vicious cycle between the bone remodeling system and the tumor itself. Yet, how the pre-metastatic niches arise in the bone tissue remains unclear. Here we show that tumor-specific T cells induce osteolytic bone disease before bone colonization. T cells pro-metastatic activity correlate with a pro-osteoclastogenic cytokine profile, including RANKL, a master regulator of osteoclastogenesis. In vivo inhibition of RANKL from tumor-specific T cells completely blocks bone loss and metastasis. Our results unveil an unexpected role for RANKL-derived from T cells in setting the pre-metastatic niche and promoting tumor spread. We believe this information can bring new possibilities for the development of prognostic and therapeutic tools based on modulation of T cell activity for prevention and treatment of bone metastasis. PMID:23935856

Monteiro, Ana Carolina; Leal, Ana Carolina; Gonçalves-Silva, Triciana; Mercadante, Ana Carolina T; Kestelman, Fabiola; Chaves, Sacha Braun; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Monteiro, João P; Bonomo, Adriana

2013-01-01

329

Selective distribution of GABA(A) receptor subtypes in mouse spinal dorsal horn neurons and primary afferents.  

PubMed

In the spinal cord dorsal horn, presynaptic GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) in the terminals of nociceptors as well as postsynaptic receptors in spinal neurons regulate the transmission of nociceptive and somatosensory signals from the periphery. GABA(A)Rs are heterogeneous and distinguished functionally and pharmacologically by the type of ? subunit variant they contain. This heterogeneity raises the possibility that GABA(A)R subtypes differentially regulate specific pain modalities. Here, we characterized the subcellular distribution of GABA(A)R subtypes in nociceptive circuits by using immunohistochemistry with subunit-specific antibodies combined with markers of primary afferents and dorsal horn neurons. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis revealed a distinct, partially overlapping laminar distribution of ?1-3 and ?5 subunit immunoreactivity in laminae I-V. Likewise, a layer-specific pattern was evident for their distribution among glutamatergic, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic, and glycinergic neurons (detected in transgenic mice expressing vesicular glutamate transporter 2-enhanced green fluorescent protein [vGluT2-eGFP], glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD]67-eGFP, and glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2)-eGFP, respectively). Finally, all four subunits could be detected within primary afferent terminals. C-fibers predominantly contained either ?2 or ?3 subunit immunoreactivity; terminals from myelinated (A?/A?) fibers were colabeled in roughly equal proportion with each subunit. The presence of axoaxonic GABAergic synapses was determined by costaining with gephyrin and vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter to label GABAergic postsynaptic densities and terminals, respectively. Colocalization of the ?2 or ?3 subunit with these markers was observed in a subset of C-fiber synapses. Furthermore, gephyrin mRNA and protein expression was detected in dorsal root ganglia. Collectively, these results show that differential GABA(A)R distribution in primary afferent terminals and dorsal horn neurons allows for multiple, circuit-specific modes of regulation of nociceptive circuits. PMID:22522945

Paul, Jolly; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Fritschy, Jean-Marc

2012-12-01

330

Cancer Therapies and Bone Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer patients are at risk for adverse events involving bone. Metastasis of cancer to bone and primary bone tumors can compromise\\u000a the integrity of bone. Various cancer therapies cause long-term skeletal disorders, particularly bone loss, osteomalacia,\\u000a and avascular necrosis. Cancer therapies that include chemotherapy, glucocorticoids, hormonal agents, and newer targeted therapies\\u000a can affect bone in several ways. With the improved

Mimi I. Hu; Huifang Lu; Robert F. Gagel

2010-01-01

331

The difficult-to-cultivate coxsackieviruses A can productively multiply in primary culture of mouse skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Coxsackieviruses A (CVA) are associated with several clinical manifestations such as aseptic meningitis and paralytic syndromes in humans. Most CVA are difficult-to-cultivate, which impedes their propagation and isolation from clinical material. Here, we tested the ability of cultivable (CVA-13, CVA-14), and difficult-to-cultivate (CVA-6, CVA-22) strains to infect primary cultures of skeletal muscle cells established from newborn mice. We found that such cultures sustained the multiplication of these CVA, as evidenced by the development of a cytopathic effect, already in the initial preparation or after passaging once. Cultures established for no more than 24h were sensitive to infection whereas older preparations were resistant. Using confocal microscopy after double-immunolabeling of the VP1 capsid protein and the muscle cell marker myosin, we demonstrated that only the myoblasts were infected, resulting in VP1 expression throughout their cytoplasm. Inoculation of infected cultures to suckling mice resulted in paralysis indicating that infection was productive. The nature of candidate receptors for virus entry in such cultures and the influence of cell culture conditions on the expression of these putative receptors are discussed. This work suggests that primary cultures of skeletal muscle cells could be used to propagate and isolate any CVA strain. PMID:16956688

Nsaibia, Siwar; Wagner, Stéphanie; Rondé, Philippe; Warter, Jean-Marie; Poindron, Philippe; Aouni, Mahjoub; Dorchies, Olivier M

2007-01-01

332

Plasma elevation of vascular endothelial growth factor leads to the reduction of mouse hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in the bone marrow.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is reported to exhibit potent hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization activity. However, the detailed mechanisms of HSPC mobilization by VEGF have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the effect of VEGF on bone marrow (BM) cell and the BM environment by intravenous injection of VEGF-expressing adenovirus vector (Ad-VEGF) into mice. A colony assay using peripheral blood cells revealed that plasma elevation of VEGF leads to the mobilization of HSPCs into the circulation. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is known to mobilize HSPCs by decreasing CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) levels in the BM. However, we found almost no changes in the CXCL12 levels in the BM after Ad-VEGF injection, suggesting that VEGF can alter the BM microenvironment by different mechanisms from G-CSF. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis and colony forming unit-fibroblast assay showed a reduction in the number of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs), which have been reported to serve as niche cells to support HSPCs, in the BM of Ad-VEGF-injected mice. Adhesion of donor cells to the recipient BM after transplantation was also impaired in mice injected with Ad-VEGF, suggesting a decrease in the niche cell number. We also observed a dose-dependent chemoattractive effect of VEGF on primary BM stromal cells in vitro. These data suggest that VEGF alters the distribution of MPCs in the BM and can also mobilize MPCs to peripheral tissues. Taken together, our results imply that VEGF-elicited egress of HSPCs would be mediated, in part, by changing the number of MPCs in the BM. PMID:24344904

Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Nonaka, Aki; Hirata, Nobue; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kawabata, Kenji

2014-09-15

333

Retinoic acid induces mouse bone marrow-derived CD15?, Oct4? and CXCR4? stem cells into male germ-like cells in a two-dimensional cell culture system.  

PubMed

We have examined the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on differentiation of bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells into male germ cells. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated from the femur of 3-4-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) system was used to sort CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells. RT-PCR was used to follow the expression of pluripotency markers. Sorted CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells were cultured in an undifferentiated condition on a feeder layer of mitomycin C-inactivated C2C12. The embryoid-like bodies were differentiated into male germ cells by retinoic acid. To identify the expression of male germ specific markers, differentiated cells were analysed by means of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence staining. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence show that bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells express pluripotency markers, Oct4, Nanog, Rex-1, SOX-2 and AP. The purified CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) formed structures like embryoid bodies when plated over a feeder layer; these bodies were alkaline phosphatase positive. When cells were induced by RA, bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) were positive for Mvh, Dazl, Piwil2, Dppa3 and Stra8, that known molecular markers of male germ cells. Thus RA can induce differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived CD15(+) , Oct4(+) and CXCR4(+) cells into male germ cells in vitro. Negative results for the gene expression analysis of female germ cells markers, GDF9 and ZP3, confirmed this conclusion. PMID:24677291

Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Soleimani, Masoud; Abdolvahabi, Mir Abbas; Nayernia, Karim; Shirazi, Reza

2014-06-01

334

Enhancing effect of radioresistant spleen cells on the primary immune response against sheep RBC by mouse spleen cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Irradiated spleen cells cultured for 3 days, caused a stimulation of the primary in vitro immune response by normal spleen cells. These irradiated spleen cells were fractionated by velocity sedimentation and the fractions were tested for their stimulating activity. Only the macrophage enriched fractions were found to cause stimulation. The macrophages in these fractions were stuffed with erythrocytes and dead cells. The fractions enriched in thymus derived cells, had no effect on the immune response. Irradiated spleen cells cultured for 24 hours caused inhibition. It has not yet been determined whether this inhibition was due to some transient change in the macrophage population during incubation. The stimulating effect by the irradiated spleen cells from SPF mice was strongly reduced, which at least partly could be ascribed to the naturally occurring low number of macrophages in the spleens of these mice. PMID:1266673

Lubbe, F H; Zaalberg, O B

1976-01-01

335

Lactones from Ficus auriculata and their effects on the proliferation function of primary mouse osteoblasts in vitro.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the petroleum ether, chloroform and EtOAc extracts of the stems of Ficus auriculata led to the isolation of five new 12-membered lactones (3R,4R)-4-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (1), 6-oxolasiodiplodin (2) and ficusines A-C (3-5), together with three known related analogues (6-8). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 3 and 8 were established by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 3-5 represent the first 12-membered lactones with a quinone ring unit. Compounds 6 and 7 exhibited significant proliferation function of primary osteoblasts (OBs) in vitro. Especially, the promotion rate of 6 reached 151.55±1.34% (P<0.001) at the concentration of 100 ?M. PMID:25008455

Shao, Tai-Ming; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Han, Chang-Ri; Chen, Guang-Ying; Dai, Chun-Yan; Song, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Jin-Chao; Chen, Wen-Hao

2014-08-15

336

Immortalization and characterization of osteoblast cell lines generated from wild-type and Nmp4-null mouse bone marrow stromal cells using murine telomerase reverse transcriptase (mTERT)  

PubMed Central

Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) adds new bone to the osteoporotic skeleton; the transcription factor Nmp4/CIZ represses PTH-induced bone formation in mice and as a consequence is a potential drug target for improving hormone clinical efficacy. To explore the impact of Nmp4/CIZ on osteoblast phenotype, we immortalized bone marrow stromal cells from wildtype (WT) and Nmp4-knockout (KO) mice using murine telomerase reverse transcriptase. Clonal lines were initially chosen based on their positive staining for alkaline phosphatase and capacity for mineralization. Disabling Nmp4/CIZ had no gross impact on osteoblast phenotype development. WT and KO clones exhibited identical sustained growth, reduced population doubling times, extended maintenance of the mature osteoblast phenotype, and competency for differentiating toward the osteoblast and adipocyte lineages. Additional screening of the immortalized cells for PTH-responsiveness permitted further studies with single WT and KO clones. We recently demonstrated that PTH-induced c-fos femoral mRNA expression is enhanced in Nmp4-KO mice and in the present study we observed that hormone stimulated either an equivalent or modestly enhanced increase in c-fos mRNA expression in both primary null and KO clone cells depending on PTH concentration. The null primary osteoblasts and KO clone cells exhibited a transiently enhanced response to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). The clones exhibited lower and higher expressions of the PTH receptor (Pthr1) and the BMP2 receptor (Bmpr1a, ALK3), respectively, as compared to primary cells. These immortalized cell lines will provide a valuable tool for disentangling the complex functional roles underlying Nmp4/CIZ regulation of bone anabolism. PMID:21732358

Alvarez, Marta B; Childress, Paul; Philip, Binu K; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita; Hanlon, Michael; Herbert, Brittney-Shea; Robling, Alexander G; Pavalko, Fredrick M; Bidwell, Joseph P.

2011-01-01

337

Primary splenic histiocytic sarcoma complicated with prolonged idiopathic thrombocytopenia and secondary bone marrow involvement: a unique surgical case presenting with splenomegaly but non-nodular lesions  

PubMed Central

Abstract A 67-year-old Japanese female was followed up due to prolonged idiopathic thrombocytopenia with non-response to steroid therapy for 4?years, but recent progressive pancytopenia, hypo-albuminemia, and hypo-?-globulinemia were presented. An abdominal CT scan revealed heterogeneously enhanced splenomegaly without any nodular lesions. A splenectomy was performed, and gross examination showed markedly hyperemic red pulp, weighing 760?g, accompanied by multiple foci of peripheral anemic infarction. Surprisingly, microscopic findings exhibited a diffuse proliferation of medium-sized to large tumor cells having pleomorphic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, predominantly within the sinuses and cords of the red pulp, which occasionally displayed conspicuous hemophagocytosis and vascular permeation. In immunohistochemistry, these atypical cells were specifically positive for CD68 (KP-1), CD163, and lysozyme, which was consistent with histiocytic sarcoma (HS) of the spleen. Subsequently, section from the aspiration of bone marrow showed infiltration of the neoplastic cells associated with erythrophagocytosis 2?months after the operation, but never before it. Therefore, primary splenic HS presenting with secondary bone marrow involvement was conclusively diagnosed. Since early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for the HS patients with poor outcomes, splenic HS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases with chronic thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1009474924812827 PMID:23075171

2012-01-01

338

Micrometastatic Breast Cancer Cells in Bone Marrow at Primary Surgery: Prognostic Value in Comparison With Nodal Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Approximately 30% of the patients with primary breast cancer who have no axillary lymph node in- volvement (i.e., lymph node negative) at the time of surgery will relapse within 10 years; 10% -20% of the patients with distant metastases will be lymph node negative at surgery. Axillary lymph node dissection, as a surgical procedure, is associated with frequent complications.

Ingo J. Diel; Manfred Kaufmann; Serban D. Costa; Erich F. Solomayer; Sepp Kaul; Gunther Bastert

339

The Mesenchymal Stem Cell Marker CD248 (Endosialin) Is a Negative Regulator of Bone Formation in Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective CD248 (tumor endothelial marker 1/endosialin) is found on stromal cells and is highly expressed during malignancy and inflammation. Studies have shown a reduction in inflammatory arthritis in CD248-knockout (CD248?/?) mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional effect of genetic deletion of CD248 on bone mass. Methods Western blotting, polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence were used to investigate the expression of CD248 in humans and mice. Micro-computed tomography and the 3-point bending test were used to measure bone parameters and mechanical properties of the tibiae of 10-week-old wild-type (WT) or CD248?/? mice. Human and mouse primary osteoblasts were cultured in medium containing 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate and 50 ?g/ml ascorbic acid to induce mineralization, and then treated with platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB). The mineral apposition rate in vivo was calculated by identifying newly formed bone via calcein labeling. Results Expression of CD248 was seen in human and mouse osteoblasts, but not osteoclasts. CD248?/? mouse tibiae had higher bone mass and superior mechanical properties (increased load required to cause fracture) compared to WT mice. Primary osteoblasts from CD248?/? mice induced increased mineralization in vitro and produced increased bone over 7 days in vivo. There was no decrease in bone mineralization and no increase in proliferation of osteoblasts in response to stimulation with PDGF-BB, which could be attributed to a defect in PDGF signal transduction in the CD248?/? mice. Conclusion There is an unmet clinical need to address rheumatoid arthritis–associated bone loss. Genetic deletion of CD248 in mice results in high bone mass due to increased osteoblast-mediated bone formation, suggesting that targeting CD248 in rheumatoid arthritis may have the effect of increasing bone mass in addition to the previously reported effect of reducing inflammation. PMID:22674221

Naylor, Amy J.; Azzam, Eman; Smith, Stuart; Croft, Adam; Poyser, Callum; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Huso, David L.; Gay, Steffen; Ospelt, Caroline; Cooper, Mark S.; Isacke, Clare; Goodyear, Simon R.; Rogers, Michael J.; Buckley, Christopher D.

2014-01-01

340

Dual expression of Epstein-Barr virus, latent membrane protein-1 and human papillomavirus-16 E6 transform primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts through NF-?B signaling  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infections in patients with oral cancer in Okinawa, southwest islands of Japan, has led to the hypothesis that carcinogenesis is related to EBV and HPV co-infection. To explore the mechanisms of transformation induced by EBV and HPV co-infection, we analyzed the transformation of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) expressing EBV and HPV-16 genes, alone or in combination. Expression of EBV latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) alone or in combination with HPV-16 E6 increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis, whereas single expression of EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1), or HPV-16 E6 did not. Co-expression of LMP-1 and E6 induced anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in nude mice, whereas expression of LMP-1 alone did not. Although the singular expression of these viral genes showed increased DNA damage and DNA damage response (DDR), co-expression of LMP-1 and E6 did not induce DDR, which is frequently seen in cancer cells. Furthermore, co-expression of LMP-1 with E6 increased NF-?B signaling, and the knockdown of LMP-1 or E6 in co-expressing cells decreased cell proliferation, anchorage independent growth, and NF-?B activation. These data suggested that expression of individual viral genes is insufficient for inducing transformation and that co-expression of LMP-1 and E6, which is associated with suppression of DDR and increased NF-?B activity, lead to transformation. Our findings demonstrate the synergistic effect by the interaction of oncogenes from different viruses on the transformation of primary MEFs. PMID:24966902

Shimabuku, Tetsuya; Tamanaha, Ayumi; Kitamura, Bunta; Tanabe, Yasuka; Tawata, Natsumi; Ikehara, Fukino; Arakaki, Kazunari; Kinjo, Takao

2014-01-01

341

Coordinate Regulation of DNA Damage and Type I Interferon Responses Imposes an Antiviral State That Attenuates Mouse Gammaherpesvirus Type 68 Replication in Primary Macrophages  

PubMed Central

DNA damage response (DDR) is a sophisticated cellular network that detects and repairs DNA breaks. Viruses are known to activate the DDR and usurp certain DDR components to facilitate replication. Intriguingly, viruses also inhibit several DDR proteins, suggesting that this cellular network has both proviral and antiviral features, with the nature of the latter still poorly understood. In this study we show that irradiation of primary murine macrophages was associated with enhanced expression of several antiviral interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). ISG induction in irradiated macrophages was dependent on type I IFN signaling, a functional DNA damage sensor complex, and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase. Furthermore, IFN regulatory factor 1 was also required for the optimal expression of antiviral ISGs in irradiated macrophages. Importantly, DDR-mediated activation of type I IFN signaling contributed to increased resistance to mouse gammaherpesvirus 68 replication, suggesting that the coordinate regulation of DDR and type I IFN signaling may have evolved as a component of the innate immune response to virus infections. PMID:22496235

Mboko, Wadzanai P.; Mounce, Bryan C.; Wood, Brittani M.; Kulinski, Joseph M.; Corbett, John A.

2012-01-01

342

Jimpy mutant mouse: a 74-base deletion in the mRNA for myelin proteolipid protein and evidence for a primary defect in RNA splicing.  

PubMed Central

The mouse mutant jimpy carries an X chromosome-linked recessive gene defect that affects the formation of myelin in the central nervous system. To understand the molecular basis of the jimpy mutation, we have examined the expression of mRNAs encoding myelin proteolipid protein (PLP). PLP mRNAs were detectable in jimpy brain RNA at 21 days after birth but were severely reduced in abundance compared to wild-type littermates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNA clones for PLP mRNA, isolated from a cDNA library of jimpy brain poly(A)+ RNA, revealed that the PLP mRNA expressed in jimpy contained a deletion of 74 nucleotides with respect to the wild-type sequence. This deletion causes a frameshift in the open reading frame resulting in an altered carboxyl terminus for jimpy PLP. Probes specific for the deleted sequence, however, hybridize with equal efficiency to genomic DNA from jimpy and wild-type littermates, suggesting that the defect in the jimpy PLP mRNA is generated by aberrant RNA processing rather than by deletion of genomic sequences. We conclude that a mutation in the gene for PLP that leads to an incorrectly spliced RNA transcript is the primary defect of this genetic disorder. Images PMID:3466187

Nave, K A; Lai, C; Bloom, F E; Milner, R J

1986-01-01

343

A feedforward inhibitory circuit mediates lateral refinement of sensory representation in upper layer 2/3 of mouse primary auditory cortex.  

PubMed

Sensory information undergoes ordered and coordinated processing across cortical layers. Whereas cortical layer (L) 4 faithfully acquires thalamic information, the superficial layers appear well staged for more refined processing of L4-relayed signals to generate corticocortical outputs. However, the specific role of superficial layer processing and how it is specified by local synaptic circuits remains not well understood. Here, in the mouse primary auditory cortex, we showed that upper L2/3 circuits play a crucial role in refining functional selectivity of excitatory neurons by sharpening auditory tonal receptive fields and enhancing contrast of frequency representation. This refinement is mediated by synaptic inhibition being more broadly recruited than excitation, with the inhibition predominantly originating from interneurons in the same cortical layer. By comparing the onsets of synaptic inputs as well as of spiking responses of different types of neuron, we found that the broadly tuned, fast responding inhibition observed in excitatory cells can be primarily attributed to feedforward inhibition originating from parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons, whereas somatostatin (SOM)-positive interneurons respond much later compared with the onset of inhibitory inputs to excitatory neurons. We propose that the feedforward circuit-mediated inhibition from PV neurons, which has an analogous function to lateral inhibition, enables upper L2/3 excitatory neurons to rapidly refine auditory representation. PMID:25297094

Li, Ling-Yun; Ji, Xu-Ying; Liang, Feixue; Li, Ya-Tang; Xiao, Zhongju; Tao, Huizhong W; Zhang, Li I

2014-10-01

344

Differentiation defects in primary motoneurons from a SMARD1 mouse model that are insensitive to treatment with low dose PEGylated IGF1  

PubMed Central

Muscle atrophy and diaphragmatic palsy are the clinical characteristics of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1), and are well represented in the neuromuscular degeneration (Nmd2J) mouse, modeling the juvenile form of SMARD1. Both in humans and mice mutations in the IGHMBP2 gene lead to motoneuron degeneration. We could previously demonstrate that treatment with a polyethylene glycol-coupled variant of IGF1 (PEG-IGF1) improves motor functions accompanied by reduced fiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius muscle and the diaphragm, but has no beneficial effect on motoneuron survival. These data raised the question which cell autonomous disease mechanisms contribute to dysfunction and loss of Ighmbp2-deficient motoneurons. An analysis of primary Ighmbp2-deficient motoneurons exhibited differentiation deficits such as reduced spontaneous Ca2+ transients and altered axon elongation, which was not compensated by PEG-IGF1. This points to an IGF1 independent mechanism of motoneuron degeneration that deserves treatment approaches in addition to IGF1. PMID:25083343

Krieger, Frank; Metzger, Friedrich; Jablonka, Sibylle

2014-01-01

345

Different AhR binding sites of diterpenoid ligands from Andrographis paniculata caused differential CYP1A1 induction in primary culture in mouse hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Andrographis paniculata has been employed as a folklore remedy. Andrographolide (Andro), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DHA), andrographiside (AS), and neoandrographolide (Neo), are major diterpenoids isolated from this plant. In the present study, influence of the four diterpenoids on CYP1A1 mRNA expression was investigated in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Additionally, binding of these compounds to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) was examined using molecular docking analysis to clarify mechanism of CYP1A1 induction. Andro and DHA induced CYP1A1 expression by itself, and co-treatment with a CYP1A1 inducer (BNF, beta-naphthoflavone) showed a synergistic increase of CYP1A1 expression. Andro demonstrated higher enhancing activity than DHA at every similar concentration. On the other hand, Neo suppressed BNF-induced CYP1A1 expression, but AS did not modify the induction. Results from molecular docking analysis of BNF and four diterpenoids on ligand binding domain of AhR were consistent with levels of CYP1A1 mRNA expressions. Furthermore, difference of binding sites of BNF in the presence of diterpenoids might affect the synergism or inhibition of CYP1A1 expression. These results suggest that use of A. paniculata as a health supplement should be concerned in term of herb-drugs interactions or risk of carcinogenesis, according to its ability to influence CYP1A1 expression. PMID:21963808

Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Remsungnen, Tawun; Nemoto, Nobuo; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

2011-12-01

346

ABCC5 supports osteoclast formation and promotes breast cancer metastasis to bone  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bone is the most common site of breast cancer metastasis, and complications associated with bone metastases can lead to a significantly decreased patient quality of life. Thus, it is essential to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of breast cancer skeletal metastases. Methods To search for novel molecular mediators that influence breast cancer bone metastasis, we generated gene-expression profiles from laser-capture microdissected trephine biopsies of both breast cancer bone metastases and independent primary breast tumors that metastasized to bone. Bioinformatics analysis identified genes that are differentially expressed in breast cancer bone metastases compared with primary, bone-metastatic breast tumors. Results ABCC5, an ATP-dependent transporter, was found to be overexpressed in breast cancer osseous metastases relative to primary breast tumors. In addition, ABCC5 was significantly upregulated in human and mouse breast cancer cell lines with high bone-metastatic potential. Stable knockdown of ABCC5 substantially reduced bone metastatic burden and osteolytic bone destruction in mice. The decrease in osteolysis was further associated with diminished osteoclast numbers in vivo. Finally, conditioned media from breast cancer cells with reduced ABCC5 expression failed to induce in vitro osteoclastogenesis to the same extent as conditioned media from breast cancer cells expressing ABCC5. Conclusions Our data suggest that ABCC5 functions as a mediator of breast cancer skeletal metastasis. ABCC5 expression in breast cancer cells is important for efficient osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Hence, ABCC5 may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer bone metastasis. PMID:23174366

2012-01-01

347

21 CFR 892.1180 - Bone sonometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sonometer. (a) Identification . A bone sonometer is a device that transmits ultrasound energy into the human body to measure acoustic properties of bone that indicate overall bone health and fracture risk. The primary components of the device are a...

2010-04-01

348

21 CFR 892.1180 - Bone sonometer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sonometer. (a) Identification . A bone sonometer is a device that transmits ultrasound energy into the human body to measure acoustic properties of bone that indicate overall bone health and fracture risk. The primary components of the device are a...

2012-04-01

349

Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 expresses in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and stimulates their proliferation  

SciTech Connect

The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) have been widely used in cell transplant therapy, and the proliferative ability of bmMSCs is one of the determinants of the therapy efficiency. Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) as a transmembrane protein is responsible for binding, internalizing and degrading oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). It has been identified that LOX-1 is expressed in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and monocytes. In these cells, low concentration of ox-LDL (<40 ?g/mL) stimulates their proliferation via LOX-1 activation. However, it is poor understood that whether LOX-1 is expressed in bmMSCs and which role it plays. In this study, we investigated the status of LOX-1 expression in bmMSCs and its function on bmMSC proliferation. Our results showed that primary bmMSCs exhibiting a typical fibroblast-like morphology are positive for CD44 and CD90, but negative for CD34 and CD45. LOX-1 in both mRNA and protein levels is highly expressed in bmMSCs. Meanwhile, bmMSCs exhibit a strong potential to take up ox-LDL. Moreover, LOX-1 expression in bmMSCs is upregulated by ox-LDL with a dose- and time-dependent manner. Presence of ox-LDL also enhances the proliferation of bmMSCs. Knockdown of LOX-1 expression significantly inhibits ox-LDL-induced bmMSC proliferation. These findings indicate that LOX-1 plays a role in bmMSC proliferation. - Highlights: ? LOX-1 expresses in bmMSCs and mediates uptake of ox-LDL. ? Ox-LDL stimulates upregulation of LOX-1 in bmMSCs. ? Ox-LDL promotes bmMSC proliferation and expression of Mdm2, phosphor-Akt, phosphor-ERK1/2 and phosphor-NF-?B. ? LOX-1 siRNA inhibits ox-LDL-induced bmMSC proliferation and expression cell survival signals.

Zhang, Fenxi [Department of Anatomy, Sanquan College, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Stem Cell and Biotheraphy Technology Research Center, College of Lifescience and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Wang, Congrui [Stem Cell and Biotheraphy Technology Research Center, College of Lifescience and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Jing, Suhua [ICU Center, The Third Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Ren, Tongming [Department of Anatomy, Sanquan College, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Li, Yonghai; Cao, Yulin [Stem Cell and Biotheraphy Technology Research Center, College of Lifescience and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Lin, Juntang, E-mail: juntang.lin@googlemail.com [Stem Cell and Biotheraphy Technology Research Center, College of Lifescience and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China)

2013-04-15

350

Maneb-induced dopaminergic neuronal death is not affected by loss of mitochondrial complex I activity: results from primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons cultured from individual Ndufs4+/+ and Ndufs4-/- mouse embryos.  

PubMed

Primary cultures from embryonic mouse ventral mesencephalon are widely used for investigating the mechanisms of dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease models. Specifically, single mouse or embryo cultures from littermates can be very useful for comparative studies involving transgenic mice when the neuron cultures are to be prepared before genotyping. However, preparing single mouse embryo culture is technically challenging because of the small number of cells present in the mesencephalon of each embryo (150?000-300?000), of which only 0.5-5% are tyrosine hydroxylase-positive, dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we optimized the procedure for preparing primary mesencephalic neuron cultures from individual mouse embryos. Mesencephalic neurons were dissociated delicately, plated on Aclar film coverslips, and incubated in DMEM supplemented with fetal bovine serum for 5 days and then N2 supplement was added for 1 day, which resulted in the best survival of dopaminergic neurons from each embryo. Using this optimized method, we prepared mesencephalic neuron cultures from single Ndufs4 or Ndufs4 embryos and investigated the role of mitochondrial complex I in maneb-induced dopamine neuron death. Our results suggest that maneb toxicity to dopamine neurons is not affected by the loss of mitochondrial complex I activity in Ndufs4 cultures. PMID:25275677

Choi, Won-Seok; Xia, Zhengui

2014-12-01

351

Early-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Impairs Skeletal Acquisition in the Male TALLYHO/JngJ Mouse.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence in adolescents is rising and may interfere with peak bone mass acquisition. We tested the effects of early-onset T2D on bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength in the TALLYHO/JngJ mouse, which develops T2D by 8 weeks of age. We assessed metabolism and skeletal acquisition in male TALLYHO/JngJ and SWR/J controls (n = 8-10/group) from 4 weeks to 8 and 17 weeks of age. Tallyho mice were obese; had an approximately 2-fold higher leptin and percentage body fat; and had lower bone mineral density vs SWR at all time points (P < .03 for all). Tallyho had severe deficits in distal femur trabecular bone volume fraction (-54%), trabecular number (-27%), and connectivity density (-82%) (P < .01 for all). Bone formation was higher in Tallyho mice at 8 weeks but lower by 17 weeks of age vs SWR despite similar numbers of osteoblasts. Bone marrow adiposity was 7- to 50-fold higher in Tallyho vs SWR. In vitro, primary bone marrow stromal cell differentiation into osteoblast and adipocyte lineages was similar in SWR and Tallyho, suggesting skeletal deficits were not due to intrinsic defects in Tallyho bone-forming cells. These data suggest the Tallyho mouse might be a useful model to study the skeletal effects of adolescent T2D. PMID:25051433

Devlin, M J; Van Vliet, M; Motyl, K; Karim, L; Brooks, D J; Louis, L; Conlon, C; Rosen, C J; Bouxsein, M L

2014-10-01

352

Hepatitis B virus X protein increases expression of p21 Cip-1\\/WAF1\\/MDA6 and p27 Kip1 in primary mouse hepatocytes, leading to reduced cell cycle progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we have linked prolonged intense mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase; MAPK) signaling in hepatocytes to increased expression of p21Cip-1\\/WAF1\\/MDA6 (p21) and p16INK4a (p16), that leads to a p21-dependent growth arrest. In this study, we investigated the impact of hepatitis B virus X protein (pX) expression on MAPK-modulated cell cycle progression in primary mouse hepatocytes. In hepatocytes, expression of pX

Liang Qiao; Kevin Leach; Robert McKinstry; Donna Gilfor; Adly Yacoub; Jong Sung Park; Steven Grant; Philip B. Hylemon; Paul B. Fisher; Paul Dent

2001-01-01

353

Autoinflammatory bone disorders.  

PubMed

Autoinflammatory bone disorders are characterized by chronic non-infectious osteomyelitis and inflammation-induced bone resorption and result from aberrant activation of the innate immune system. Sporadic chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) is the most common disease subtype. The clinical picture is highly variable and the exact underlying pathophysiology remains to be determined. Recently, novel insights in the pathophysiology of sterile bone inflammation have been gathered by analyzing patients with rare, monogenic inflammatory diseases. In this overview CNO and Majeed syndrome, cherubism, hypophosphatasia and primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy will be discussed. For the latter four disorders, a genetic cause affecting bone metabolism and leading to chronic bone inflammation has been described. The exact pathophysiology of CNO remains to be determined. Insights from monogenic autoinflammatory bone diseases and the identification of distinct inflammatory pathways may help to understand the pathogenesis of bone inflammation and inflammation-induced bone resorption in more common diseases. PMID:23369460

Morbach, Henner; Hedrich, Christian M; Beer, Meinrad; Girschick, Hermann J

2013-06-01

354

THE ORIGIN OF ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES IN MOUSE RADIATION CHIMERAS  

PubMed Central

This investigation attempted to determine whether the primary source of alveolar macrophages is pulmonary or hematopoietic. We have utilized an antigenic marker to identify cells of hematopoietic origin. Mouse chimeras were produced by irradiating C57B6/AF1 mice (900 R) and then injecting them intravenously with B10D2/AF1 bone marrow. The donor animal has an antigenic specificity on the H-2 locus, not shared by the recipient. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by repeated lung washings with physiologic saline at 37°C. Cytotoxic tests were done on bone marrow and alveolar macrophages using anti-31 mouse antibody, absorbed rabbit serum as complement, and trypan blue exclusion as a test for viability. Animals were studied at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35–50 days and 4, 5, 8, and 11 months after irradiation and bone marrow replacement. By 21 days after irradiation, 90% of the animals had greater than 80% replacement of marrow with donor tissue; and white blood cell and alveolar macrophage counts approached normal. At this time and at later intervals the per cent of donor cells in the lung free cell population was not significantly different from the per cent of donor cells in the bone marrow. Similarly, after aerosol particulate exposure, the percentage of marrow cells and alveolar macrophages of donor origin were not significantly different. This immunologic approach suggests that alveolar macrophages in radiation chimeras are entirely of hematopoietic origin. PMID:4559194

Godleski, John J.; Brain, Joseph D.

1972-01-01

355

HIV Protease Inhibitors Modulate Ca2+ Homeostasis and Potentiate Alcoholic Stress and Injury in Mice and Primary Mouse and Human Hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

A portion of HIV-infected patients under therapy with protease inhibitors (HIV PIs) concomitantly consume or abuse alcohol leading to hepatic injury. The underling mechanisms are not known. We hypothesize that HIV PI aggravates alcohol-induced liver injury through an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mechanism. To address this, we treated mice and primary mouse and human hepatocytes (PMH and PHH respectively) with alcohol and the two HIV PIs: ritonavir and lopinavir. In mice, ritonavir and lopinavir (15 mg/kg body weight each) induced mild ER stress and inhibition of Sarco/ER Calcium-ATPase (SERCA) without significant increase in serum ALT levels. However, a single dose of alcohol by gavage (5g/kg body weight) plus the two HIV PIs caused a greater than 5-fold increase in serum ALT, a synergistic increase in alcohol-induced liver lipid accumulation and ER stress response, and a decrease of SERCA. Mice treated with chronic HIV PIs and alcohol developed moderate liver fibrosis. In PMH, the HIV drugs plus alcohol also inhibited SERCA expression and increased expression of GRP78, CHOP, SREBP1c and phosphorylated JNK2, which were accompanied by a synergistic increase in cell death compared to alcohol or the HIV drugs alone. In PHH, ritonavir and lopinavir or alcohol alone treatment increased mRNA of spliced Xbp1 and decreased SERCA, which were accompanied by reduced levels of intracellular calcium. Alcohol combined with the HIV drugs significantly reduced intracellular calcium levels and potentiated cell death, which was comparable to the cell death caused by the SERCA inhibitor-thapsigargin. Our findings suggest the possibility that HIV PIs potentiate alcohol-induced ER stress and injury through modulation of SERCA and maintaining calcium homeostasis should be a therapeutic aim for a better care of HIV patients. PMID:22407670

Kao, Eddy; Shinohara, Masao; Feng, Min; Lau, Mo Yin; Ji, Cheng

2012-01-01

356

Cytocidal Activities of Topoisomerase 1 Inhibitors and 5-Azacytidine against Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma Cells in Primary Human Tumor Cultures and Mouse Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

There is currently no effective treatment for metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. A deficiency in current chemotherapy regimens is that the metastases usually grow very slowly. Drugs that target dividing tumor cells have therefore had limited success. To improve treatment, new strategies and valid experimental models are required for pre-clinical testing. However, development of models has itself been hampered by the absence of human pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma cell lines for cultures or xenografts. Topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitors are drugs that interfere with mechanisms that maintain DNA integrity during transcription in both quiescent and dividing cells. We used primary cultures of representative human tumors to establish the cytotoxicity of camptothecin, a prototypical TOP1 inhibitor, against non-dividing pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma cells, and then employed a mouse pheochromocytoma model (MPC) to show that efficacy of low concentrations of camptothecin and other TOP1 inhibitors is increased by intermittent coadministration of sub-toxic concentrations of 5-azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor that modulates transcription. We then tested the same drugs against a clonal MPC derivative that expresses CMV reporter-driven luciferase and GFP, intended for in vivo drug testing. Unexpectedly, luciferase expression, bioluminescence and GFP expression were paradoxically increased by both camptothecin and SN38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, thereby masking cell death. Expression of chromogranin A, a marker for neuroendocrine secretory granules, was not increased, indicating that the drug effects on levels of luciferase and GFP are specific to the GFP-luciferase construct rather than generalized cellular responses. Our findings provide proof of principle for use of TOP1 inhibitors against pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and suggest novel strategies for enhancing efficacy and reducing toxicity by optimizing the combination and timing of their use in conjunction with other drugs. The paradoxical effects of TOP1 inhibitors on luciferase and GFP dictate a need for caution in the use of CMV promoter-regulated constructs for cancer-related imaging studies. PMID:24516563

Powers, James F.; Korgaonkar, Parimal G.; Fliedner, Stephanie; Giubellino, Alessio; Sahagian, Karel Pacak, G. Gary.; Tischler, Arthur S.

2014-01-01

357

Oligodendroglial and astroglial heterogeneity in mouse primary central nervous system culture as demonstrated by differences in GABA and D-aspartate transport and immunocytochemistry.  

PubMed

Using simultaneous autoradiography and immunofluorescence we have investigated the functional heterogeneity amongst oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in primary mouse central nervous system (CNS) culture as expressed by differences in their ability to accumulate gamma-[3H]aminobutyric acid [( 3H]GABA) and D-[3H]aspartate. We have used a range of specific antibodies that identify oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, from precursor to fully mature cells, to address the question of whether all neuroglial cells are capable of expressing this function. Our results showing that A2B5-, 03-, and galactocerebroside-positive cells became heavily labelled with these two neuroactive amino acids, whereas cells expressing the myelin proteins 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase (CNP) and myelin basic protein (MBP) did not, demonstrate that this capacity is already present in oligodendrocytes at early developmental stages but may not extend to fully mature cells. Astrocytes in culture exhibited a large degree of variability with respect to their ability to transport GABA and D-aspartate. When grown in either serum-containing or serum-free hormone supplemented culture medium two morphologically distinct of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocyte were identified, process-bearing and epithelioid. Process-bearing cells became heavily labelled with the amino acids under both growth conditions, whereas, data showed that although epithelioid astrocytes were not, or only lightly, labelled with either amino acid in serum-containing cultures, when grown in serum-free culture medium they became more heavily labelled. Thus the expression, in culture, by epithelioid astrocytes, of one of the functions attributed to these cells is largely dependent on growth conditions. PMID:3315124

Reynolds, R; Herschkowitz, N

1987-11-01

358

Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Contribute to Podocyte Regeneration and Amelioration of Renal Disease in a Mouse Model of Alport Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a model of autosomally recessive Alport syndrome, mice that lack the 3 chain of collagen IV (Col43\\/) develop progressive glomerular damage leading to renal failure. The proposed mechanism is that podocytes fail to synthesize normal glomerular basement membrane, so the collagen IV network is unstable and easily degraded. We used this model to study whether bone marrow (BM) transplantation

Evangelia I. Prodromidi; Richard Poulsom; Rosemary Jeffery; Candice A. Roufosse; Patrick J. Pollard; Charles D. Pusey; H. Terence Cook

2006-01-01

359

Flat-Panel Detector-Based Volume Computed Tomography: A Novel 3D Imaging Technique to Monitor Osteolytic Bone Lesions in a Mouse Tumor Metastasis Model1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skeletal metastasis is an important cause of mortality in patients with breast cancer. Hence, animal mod- els, in combination with various imaging techniques, are in high demand for preclinical assessment of novel therapies. We evaluated the applicability of flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT) to noninvasive detection of osteolytic bone metastases that develop in severe immunodeficient mice after intracardial in- jection

Jeannine Missbach-Guentner; Christian Dullin; Marta Zientkowska; Melanie Domeyer-Missbach; Sarah Kimmina; Silvia Obenauer; Fritz Kauerb; Walter Stuhmer; Eckhardt Grabbe; Wolfgang F. Vogel; Frauke Alves

360

Effects of the activin A-myostatin-follistatin system on aging bone and muscle progenitor cells.  

PubMed

The activin A-myostatin-follistatin system is thought to play an important role in the regulation of muscle and bone mass throughout growth, development, and aging; however, the effects of these ligands on progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in muscle and bone are not well understood. In addition, age-associated changes in the relative expression of these factors in musculoskeletal tissues have not been described. We therefore examined changes in protein levels of activin A, follistatin, and myostatin (GDF-8) in both muscle and bone with age in C57BL6 mice using ELISA. We then investigated the effects of activin A, myostatin and follistatin on the proliferation and differentiation of primary myoblasts and mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro. Myostatin levels and the myostatin:follistatin ratio increased with age in the primarily slow-twitch mouse soleus muscle, whereas the pattern was reversed with age in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle. Myostatin levels and the myostatin:follistatin ratio increased significantly (+75%) in mouse bone marrow with age, as did activin A levels (+17%). Follistatin increased the proliferation of primary myoblasts from both young and aged mice, whereas myostatin increased proliferation of younger myoblasts but decreased proliferation of older myoblasts. Myostatin reduced proliferation of both young and aged BMSCs in a dose-dependent fashion, and activin A increased mineralization in both young and aged BMSCs. Together these data suggest that aging in mice is accompanied by changes in the expression of activin A and myostatin, as well as changes in the response of bone and muscle progenitor cells to these factors. Myostatin appears to play a particularly important role in the impaired proliferative capacity of muscle and bone progenitor cells from aged mice. PMID:23178301

Bowser, Matthew; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Shi, Xingming; Fulzele, Sadanand; Hill, William D; Isales, Carlos M; Hamrick, Mark W

2013-02-01