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Secondary ossification center of transverse process: A bone-scan normal variant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the bone-scan appearance of significantly increased activity in a lumbar transverse process of a 15-year-old boy; we believe it represents a normal variant related to the secondary ossification center.

Richard M. Shore; G. Patrick Cain; Thomas V. Lloyd



Gene Expression and Distribution of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CCN2\\/CTGF) During Secondary Ossification Center Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

CCN2\\/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2\\/CTGF) is a critical signaling modulator of mesenchymal tissue development. This study investigated the localization and expression of CCN2\\/CTGF as a factor supporting angiogenesis and chondrogenesis during development of secondary ossification centers in the mouse tibial epiphysis. Formation of the secondary ossification center was initiated by cartilage canal formation and blood vessel invasion at 7 days

Morihiko Oka; Satoshi Kubota; Seiji Kondo; Takanori Eguchi; Chisa Kuroda; Kazumi Kawata; Shogo Minagi; Masaharu Takigawa



Auricular ossification.  


A patient with extensive bilateral auricular ossification presented with chondrodermatitis nodularis helicis on one side. The condition was otherwise asymptomatic. Ossification was detected on radiological and histological examination. Underlying medical conditions were not found. We believe this developed as a consequence of cold injury. Auricular ossification is an unusual cause of the so-called petrified external ear, in which the subcutaneous tissue is stony hard. It is more commonly caused by dystrophic calcification. Calcification and ossification are clinically identical and histological examination is required to definitively differentiate them. PMID:9838729

Yeatman, J M; Varigos, G A



Vascularization of primary and secondary ossification centres in the human growth plate  

PubMed Central

Background The switch from cartilage template to bone during endochondral ossification of the growth plate requires a dynamic and close interaction between cartilage and the developing vasculature. Vascular invasion of the primarily avascular hypertrophic chondrocyte zone brings chondroclasts, osteoblast- and endothelial precursor cells into future centres of ossification. Vascularization of human growth plates of polydactylic digits was studied by immunohistochemistry, confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy and RT-qPCR using markers specific for endothelial cells CD34 and CD31, smooth muscle cells ?-SMA, endothelial progenitor cells CD133, CXCR4, VEGFR-2 and mesenchymal progenitor cells CD90 and CD105. In addition, morphometric analysis was performed to quantify RUNX2+ and DLX5+ hypertrophic chondrocytes, RANK+ chondro- and osteoclasts, and CD133+ progenitors in different zones of the growth plate. Results New vessels in ossification centres were formed by sprouting of CD34+ endothelial cells that did not co-express the mature endothelial cell marker CD31. These immature vessels in the growth plate showed no abluminal coverage with ?-SMA+ smooth muscle cells, but in their close proximity single CD133+ precursor cells were found that did not express VEGFR-2, a marker for endothelial lineage commitment. In periosteum and in the perichondrial groove of Ranvier that harboured CD90+/CD105+ chondro-progenitors, in contrast, mature vessels were found stabilized by ?-SMA+ smooth muscle cells. Conclusion Vascularization of ossification centres of the growth plate was mediated by sprouting of capillaries coming from the bone collar or by intussusception rather than by de-novo vessel formation involving endothelial progenitor cells. Vascular invasion of the joint anlage was temporally delayed compared to the surrounding joint tissue. PMID:25164565



Dendriform Pulmonary Ossification.  


Dendriform pulmonary ossification is a rare condition often diagnosed by either surgery or postmortem examination. We report a 43-y-old man with a history of nonproductive cough for 1 y. His physical examination was unremarkable. Chest computed tomography showed multiple bilateral micronodules in both lower lobes; however, the patient's pulmonary function was normal. Flexible bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies revealed branching ossification. Pulmonary ossification is a chronic process characterized by progressive metaplastic ossification. We reviewed a total of 42 cases of dendriform pulmonary ossification reported in the medical literature: most of these cases were diagnosed by autopsy. Despite its rarity, dendriform pulmonary ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse lung disease. Bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies must be considered as a potential diagnostic procedure. PMID:25316886

Fernández-Bussy, Sebastián; Labarca, Gonzalo; Pires, Yumay; Díaz, Juan Carlos; Caviedes, Iván



Glucocerebrosidase deficiency in zebrafish affects primary bone ossification through increased oxidative stress and reduced Wnt/?-catenin signaling.  


Loss of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) function is responsible for several organ defects, including skeletal abnormalities in type 1 Gaucher disease (GD). Enhanced bone resorption by infiltrating macrophages has been proposed to lead to major bone defects. However, while more recent evidences support the hypothesis that osteoblastic bone formation is impaired, a clear pathogenetic mechanism has not been depicted yet. Here, by combining different molecular approaches, we show that Gba1 loss of function in zebrafish is associated with defective canonical Wnt signaling, impaired osteoblast differentiation and reduced bone mineralization. We also provide evidence that increased reactive oxygen species production precedes the Wnt signaling impairment, which can be reversed upon human GBA1 overexpression. Type 1 GD patient fibroblasts similarly exhibit reduced Wnt signaling activity, as a consequence of increased ?-catenin degradation. Our results support a novel model in which a primary defect in canonical Wnt signaling antecedes bone defects in type 1 GD. PMID:25326392

Zancan, Ilaria; Bellesso, Stefania; Costa, Roberto; Salvalaio, Marika; Stroppiano, Marina; Hammond, Chrissy; Argenton, Francesco; Filocamo, Mirella; Moro, Enrico



Primary cutaneous follicle-center lymphoma.  


We present a 64-year-old man with a three-year history of pruritic, pink papules and nodules of the face who was found to have a clonal lymphoproliferative B-cell disease that was characterized by a clonal IGH rearrangement. Although morphologic features present in the biopsy specimen were consistent with a reactive process, additional clinicopathologic correlation (anatomic presentation of lesions on the face, the absence of t(14:18) translocation, and bcl-2 and MUM1 expression) reinforced suspicion of a cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Systemic work-up with CT/PET and a bone marrow biopsy ultimately excluded systemic disease and primary cutaneous follicle-center lymphoma (PCFCL) was a strong diagnostic consideration. The patient was treated with systemic rituximab with a partial resolution of the facial lesions. The case demonstrates both clinical and pathologic challenges to the diagnosis of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (PCBCL). Furthermore, despite a newly refined classification system, the case also specifically highlights the persistent requirement for flexible clinical reasoning and pathologic correlation. Such reasoning is necessary to generate individualized strategies for diagnosis and treatment when cutaneous B-cell lymphoma is suspected. PMID:25526329

Ahearn, Ian M; Hu, Stephanie W; Meehan, Shane A; Latkowski, Jo-Ann



Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on diabetes induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification  

PubMed Central

Background: Delayed fetal skeletal ossification is one of the known complications of maternal diabetes. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ) on diabetes-induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg, intraperitonial) before mating. After confirmation of pregnancy, the pregnant rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, diabetic control group, and diabetic + CQ group. The diabetic + CQ group pregnant rats were treated with PECQ (500 mg/kg body weight) throughout their gestation period. Immediately after delivery, pups were collected from all three groups and processed for alizarin red S–alcian blue staining in order to examine the pattern of skeletal ossification. Results: Fewer ossification centers and decreased extent of ossification of forelimb and hindlimb bones were observed in the neonatal pups of diabetic control group as compared to those in the normal control group. PECQ pretreatment significantly restored the ossification centers and improved the extent of ossification of forelimb and hindlimb bones in the neonatal pups of diabetic + CQ group as compared to those in the diabetic control group. Conclusions: The results suggested that PECQ treatment is effective against diabetes-induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification. However, further studies on the isolation and characterization of active constituents of PECQ, which can cross the placental barrier and are responsible for the bone anabolic activity are warranted. PMID:24812472

Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Ranganath Pai, K. Sreedhara; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR



Dendriform pulmonary ossification: Report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Dendriform pulmonary ossification is a rare form of diffuse pulmonary ossification that is usually detected incidentally on chest radiographs or chest computed tomography (CT) imaging. In this article, we present two patients who were incidentally found to have dendriform pulmonary ossification on chest imaging. The article will present the history and imaging findings of these two cases and then review the clinical, histological, and radiographic manifestations of dendriform pulmonary ossification. PMID:23986613

Jamjoom, Lamia; Meziane, Moulay; Renapurkar, Rahul D



Efficacy of primary care in a nursing center.  


Nursing opportunities have expanded beyond the traditional bedside role. Nurses serve in a variety of roles such as administrators, teachers, or primary care givers in a variety of settings. The role of primary care giver is a more recent role; it involves relatively independent nursing practice with clients who have acute or chronic illnesses. Client groups may include the elderly in high rise buildings, mothers and children at schools, or homeless and low-income populations at homeless shelters. This care is often provided in a nursing center. Nursing centers are nurse-managed centers in which nurses are accountable and responsible for care of clients; they are the primary provider of care and the one most seen by clients. Case managers may be in a position to refer patients to nursing centers or to work directly with nurse practitioners in nursing centers. However, questions about the primary care provided in nursing centers must be addressed for healthcare providers, insurance companies, and patients to be confident in the efficacy of this delivery system. Is the primary care comprehensive? Is it of high quality? Is it cost effective? Is it satisfactory to clients? These and other questions about the primary care provided in nursing centers must be answered to effect political and other changes needed to fulfill the role of nursing centers envisioned by early leaders of the movement. This article addresses questions related to the efficacy of primary care provided in nursing centers by family nurse practitioners. After defining efficacy, the discussion focuses on the components identified and studied in one nursing center and includes information on opportunities for case managers to utilize nursing centers for referral and appropriate follow-up of their patients. PMID:10690109

Helvie, C O



Ossification of the femur and tibia of the post-hatching Japanese quail.  


The current study aimed to describe the histological changes of the femur and tibia of the post-hatching quail. Femur and tibia from 1-day- to 6-weeks post-hatching quail were processed for light microscopy. Histological examination revealed that endochondral ossification was a delayed process in the development of femur and tibia preceded by periosteal ossification. Femur and tibia of 1-day-post-hatching quail consisted of growth cartilage enclosed in a tube of periosteal bone collar. The collar extended toward the epiphysis dividing it into articular cartilage proper and lateral articular cartilage. Down to the articular cartilage, there was a physeal growth cartilage, in which the chondrocytes were organized into resting, proliferative and hypertrophic zones. Focal areas of hypertrophic chondrocytes were observed in the epiphysis of the tibia but not of the femur, which acted as a nidus for formation of the secondary ossification centre after in 2-week-posthathcing quail. Primary ossification centre was seen in both femur and tibia after 2 weeks and ossification continued replacing the cartilage until the 6th week when only permanent articular cartilage remained. Cartilage canals were present in both femur and tibia starting from the day 1, but chondrified and completely disappeared after the 6th week. The current study suggests that the periosteal ossification preceded the endochondral ossification and plays an important role in quail long bones development. PMID:24498839

Ahmed, Yasser A; Soliman, Soha A; Abdel-Hafez, Enas A



Heterotopic Ossification: An Unusual Presentation  

PubMed Central

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is usually seen after-trauma, following traumatic injuries, surgeries involving major joints, neurogenic injury, and burns; however, atraumatic cases have also been reported. HO tends to cause pain, swelling, and limitation of joint movements. HO has been reported in adults as well as in pediatric cases, however, our search in the English literature has not revealed a single case in the infratemporal region, especially in children of developing age, where HO tends to affect the development and growth of adjacent bones. We are reporting a case of HO in close proximity to TMJ affecting the development of mandible and maxilla. PMID:23346421

Patil, Satish G.; Siddiqua, Aaisha; Joshi, Udupi Krishna; Deshmukh, Pallavi K.; Patil, Bindu S.; Mangalgi, Anand



Endometrial ossification successfully treated by hysteroscopic resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Endometrial ossification is a rare condition. The common feature in most reported cases is a previous history of abortion and retention of fetal bones. Few cases of endometrial ossification can be explained by osseous metaplasia. Clinical presentation may include abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, dysmenorrhoea, pelvic pain, and secondary infertility. Hysterectomy or dilation and curettage have been the usual

Aureli Torné; Pere Jou; Rafael Pagano; Ignacio Sanchez; Jaume Ordi; Juan A. Vanrell



Minor surgery at primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  


This study was conducted to review the present situation with regard to training, facilities and performance of minor surgical procedures in primary care, and to look at the way doctors perceive various minor surgical procedures in primary care. Randomly selected primary care doctors working in Riyadh health centers completed a predesigned confidential questionnaire, which was then mailed to the researchers. The questionnaire of data on health centers, such as geographic location, size of catchment area population and number and gender of doctors working there. In addition, demographic data of doctors who completed the questionnaire, as well as their exposure to minor surgery training and performance, were recorded. The doctors were then asked about their perception of the necessity of performing various minor surgical procedures in primary care centers. The study was conducted from June through December of 1994. The completed questionnaires were entered into a personal computer for statistical analysis using the chi-squared test. Of the 231 doctors who participated in the present study, 74% performed some sort of minor surgery during their day-to-day work in the health center. Doctors living in remote areas performed more minor surgery (MS) compared to other areas and male doctors performed more MS than female doctors (P = 0.05). As doctors gained confidence in certain skills such as resuscitation, venous cut-down and handling of trauma and fractures, they performed more MS compared to those who were not confident. A room allocated for MS only was available to 27.7% of doctors, but instruments and equipment were available for over 76% of doctors. The doctor's perception of the necessity for MS was statisticaly higher among MS performers only in cases of removal of benign skin lesions, sebaceous cysts and treatment of burns, compared with non-MS performers. There is a great need for provision of facilities and organized training courses in minor surgical procedures for primary care doctors and nurses. PMID:17429237

Al-Shammari, S; Khoja, T



Primary Care Practice Development: A Relationship-Centered Approach  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Numerous primary care practice development efforts, many related to the patient-centered medical home (PCMH), are emerging across the United States with few guides available to inform them. This article presents a relationship-centered practice development approach to understand practice and to aid in fostering practice development to advance key attributes of primary care that include access to first-contact care, comprehensive care, coordination of care, and a personal relationship over time. METHODS Informed by complexity theory and relational theories of organizational learning, we built on discoveries from the American Academy of Family Physicians’ National Demonstration Project (NDP) and 15 years of research to understand and improve primary care practice. RESULTS Primary care practices can fruitfully be understood as complex adaptive systems consisting of a core (a practice’s key resources, organizational structure, and functional processes), adaptive reserve (practice features that enhance resilience, such as relationships), and attentiveness to the local environment. The effectiveness of these attributes represents the practice’s internal capability. With adequate motivation, healthy, thriving practices advance along a pathway of slow, continuous developmental change with occasional rapid periods of transformation as they evolve better fits with their environment. Practice development is enhanced through systematically using strategies that involve setting direction and boundaries, implementing sensing systems, focusing on creative tensions, and fostering learning conversations. CONCLUSIONS Successful practice development begins with changes that strengthen practices’ core, build adaptive reserve, and expand attentiveness to the local environment. Development progresses toward transformation through enhancing primary care attributes. PMID:20530396

Miller, William L.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Nutting, Paul A.; Stange, Kurt C.; Jaén, Carlos Roberto



[Chronology of the postnatal ossification of the shoulder and elbow joints in the Siamese cat (Felis catus L.)].  


A study was done by radiological techniques to show the chronology of ossification of the shoulder and cubit joints in the Siam cat, from birth up to the 25th week of postnatal development. For this experiment we used 40 little cats (19 males and 21 females) belonging to 11 litters subjected to different controls: pattern race, healthy, feeding, growing up and radioactivity. The time of the appearance and the evolution of the ossification centers is determined as well as the phenomenon of fusion during this time. The postnatal ossification from both joints of the Siam cat is compared with that of the common cat. PMID:8489045

Vazquez-Auton, J M; Villa Lopez, M I; Moreno, F; Gil, F; Latorre, R



Ossification sequence of the avian order anseriformes, with comparison to other precocial birds.  


Ossification sequences are poorly known for most amniotes, and yet they represent an important source of morphogenetic, phylogenetic, and life history information. Here, the author describes the ossification sequences of three ducks, the Common Eider Somateria mollissima dresseri, the Pekin Duck Anas platyrhynchos, and the Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata. Sequence differences exist both within and among these species, but are generally minor. The Common Eider has the most ossified skeleton prior to hatching, contrary to what is expected in a subarctic migrant species. This may be attributed to a tradeoff between growth rate and locomotory performance. Growth rate is higher in hatchlings with more cartilaginous skeletons, but this may compromise locomotion. No major ossification sequence differences were observed in the craniofacial skeleton when compared with Galliformes, which suggests that the influence of adult morphology on ossification sequence might be relatively minor in many taxa. Galliformes and Anseriformes, while both highly ossified at hatching, differ in the location of their late-stage ossification centers. In Anseriformes, these are most often located in the appendicular skeleton, whereas in Galliformes they are in the thoracic region and form the ventilatory apparatus. PMID:18496857

Maxwell, Erin E



FGF9 can induce endochondral ossification in cranial mesenchyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The flat bones of the skull (i.e., the frontal and parietal bones) normally form through intramembranous ossification. At these sites cranial mesenchymal cells directly differentiate into osteoblasts without the formation of a cartilage intermediate. This type of ossification is distinct from endochondral ossification, a process that involves initial formation of cartilage and later replacement by bone. RESULTS: We have

Venkatesh Govindarajan; Paul A Overbeek



Falx Cerebri Ossification: CT and MRI Evaluation.  


During the last three years, CT and MRI brain scans of 40 patients revealed falx cerebri partial ossification as an incidental finding. The patients had been admitted for brain CT and MRI for several reasons. In most cases, there was no problem in the differential diagnosis of falx cerebri ossification during interpretation of the cases. In a few cases, the lesion should be distinguished from calcified meningioma, small hematoma in the interhemispheric fissure and in one case there was also meningeal infiltration of breast cancer. In these cases both CT and MRI scans of the brain were evaluated and a definite diagnosis was made. PMID:24351265

Tsitouridis, I; Natsis, K; Goutsaridou, F; Tsitouridis, K; Tarazi, L; Chondromatidou, S; Papapostolou, P; Papastergiou, C; Emmanouilidou, M



Diffuse pulmonary ossification in permanent vegetative state.  


Diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) is a rare condition characterized by diffuse metaplastic bone formation in the lungs. Two patterns have been described: dendriform, with a coral-like network of bone spiculae along the alveolar septa; and nodular, with lobulated fragments in the alveolar spaces. Dendriform DPO is frequently associated with chronic pulmonary pathologies. We present here the first case of DPO associated with a long-lasting vegetative state. Micro-computed tomography (MicroCT) was applied to analyze the distribution of pulmonary ossification in volumes of lung samples. It showed a mean volume percentage of ossification of 0.79% and 3-D reconstructions permitted to reveal the branching pattern and internal cavities of some ossifications. The occurrence of DPO in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) may be favored by recurrent pulmonary infections, due to aspiration and immunological defects, and respiratory instability, due to brain damage and the fact of being bedridden. Fibrotic reactions probably represent a preliminary step in bone formation. Further studies could examine the incidence and clinical significance of DPO in subjects in PVS or patients who are bedridden for other reasons. MicroCT may facilitate analysis of more case histories, with greater sensitivity with respect to classic microscopic analyses. PMID:25406490

Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Da Broi, Ugo; Giraudo, Chiara; Miotto, Diego; Rodriguez, Daniele; Moreschi, Carlo; De Caro, Raffaele



Outcome Determinants of Stroke in a Brazilian Primary Stroke Center  

PubMed Central

Background. Stroke mortality in Brazil is one of the highest among Western countries. Nonetheless, stroke outcome determinants are still poorly known in this country. In this study we evaluate outcome determinants of stroke in a primary stroke center in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods. We evaluated demographic, clinical, and outcome data of patients with ischemic stroke (IS), transient ischemic attack (TIA), and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) admitted at “Hospital Paulistano,” São Paulo, Brazil. In-hospital mortality and functional outcome determinants were assessed. Univariate and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Results. Three hundred forty-one patients were included in the study, 52.2% being male with 66.8 ± 15.7 years. The stroke type distribution was IS: 59.2%, TIA: 29.6%, and ICH: 11.1%. ICH was associated with greater severity and poorer functional outcome. The determinants of poorer functional outcome were higher NIHSS, lower Glasgow score, and lower oxygen saturation level. The most important mortality determinant was the presence of visual symptoms. Conclusions. The stroke mortality and stroke outcome determinants found in the present study do not remarkably differ from studies carried out in developed countries. Stroke prognosis studies are crucial to better understand the high burden of stroke in Brazil.

Kuster, Gustavo W.; Dutra, Lívia A.; Brasil, Israel P.; Pacheco, Evelyn P.; Arruda, Márcio A. C.; Volcov, Cristiane; Domingues, Renan B.



Severe Heterotopic Ossification following Total Knee Replacement  

PubMed Central

Although the incidence of minor heterotopic ossification is probably higher than what is usually expected, severe heterotopic ossification (HO) is an extremely rare event following total knee replacement surgery. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman who initially had achieved an excellent range of motion following bilateral uncemented rotating platform total knee replacement, before presenting with pain and loss of range of motion at 2 months after surgery. Severe HO was diagnosed on X-rays. Treatment consisted of nonoperative measures only, including physiotherapy with hydrotherapy and anti-inflammatories. She eventually regained her range of motion when seen at 8 months after operation. This case illustrates that nonoperative treatment without the use of radiotherapy or surgery can be used to safely resolve stiffness caused by HO after total knee replacement. PMID:25431717

Dodds, Alexander L.; Keene, Gregory C. R.



A Treasure Chest of Primary Learning Center Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining a learning center as a classroom area containing several learning stations where students may work independently with materials which teach, reinforce, or enrich their skills, this guide presents a number of ideas for use in the visual motivation display area of such a center. Suggestions for displays for the various teaching stations are…

Kessler, Margaret; Kessler, John


The primary cilium as a complex signaling center.  


Respect for the primary cilium has undergone a remarkable renaissance over the past decade, and it is now thought to be an essential regulator of numerous signaling pathways. The primary cilium's functions range from the movement of cells and fluid, to sensory inputs involved with olfaction and photoreception. Disruption of cilia function is involved in multiple human syndromes collectively called 'ciliopathies'. The cilium's activities are mediated by targeting of receptors, channels, and their downstream effector proteins to the ciliary or basal body compartment. These combined properties of the cilium make it a critical organelle facilitating the interactions between the cell and its environment. Here, we review many of the recent advances contributing to the ascendancy of the primary cilium and how the extraordinary complexity of this organelle inevitably assures many more exciting future discoveries. PMID:19602418

Berbari, Nicolas F; O'Connor, Amber K; Haycraft, Courtney J; Yoder, Bradley K



Ossification sequence and genetic patterning in the mouse axial skeleton.  


We provide novel data on vertebral ontogeny in the mouse, the mammalian model-of-choice for developmental studies. Most previous studies on ossification sequences in mice have focused on pooled elements of the spine (cervicals, thoracics, lumbars, sacrals, and caudals). Here, we contribute data on ossification sequences in the neural arches and centra to provide a comparative basis upon which to evaluate mammalian diversity of the axial skeleton. In attempt to explain the ossification pattern observed, we compared our observations with the phenotype of Cdx over-expresser mice. We use high-resolution X-ray microtomography and clearing and staining techniques to quantify the precise sequential ossification pattern of the mouse spine. We show that micro-CT scans perform better in all cases whereas clearing and staining exhibit sensitivity to the presence of semi-opaque tissue. We observe that the centra of wild-type mice always ossify after neural arches and that the ossification of the neural arches proceeds from two loci. The ossification of the centra appears more complex, especially in the neck where ossification is delayed and does not just follow the order of the vertebrae along the anterior-posterior axis. Our findings also suggest that Cdx genes' expression levels may be involved in the delayed ossification in the neck centra. PMID:25110855

Hautier, Lionel; Charles, Cyril; Asher, Robert J; Gaunt, Stephen J



Quantitative Analyses of Pediatric Cervical Spine Ossification Patterns Using Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to quantify ossification processes of the human pediatric cervical spine. Computed tomography images were obtained from a high resolution scanner according to clinical protocols. Bone window images were used to identify the presence of the primary synchondroses of the atlas, axis, and C3 vertebrae in 101 children. Principles of logistic regression were used to determine probability distributions as a function of subject age for each synchondrosis for each vertebra. The mean and 95% upper and 95% lower confidence intervals are given for each dataset delineating probability curves. Posterior ossifications preceded bilateral anterior closures of the synchondroses in all vertebrae. However, ossifications occurred at different ages. Logistic regression results for closures of different synchondrosis indicated p-values of <0.001 for the atlas, ranging from 0.002 to <0.001 for the axis, and 0.021 to 0.005 for the C3 vertebra. Fifty percent probability of three, two, and one synchondroses occurred at 2.53, 6.97, and 7.57 years of age for the atlas; 3.59, 4.74, and 5.7 years of age for the axis; and 1.28, 2.22, and 3.17 years of age for the third cervical vertebrae, respectively. Ossifications occurring at different ages indicate non-uniform maturations of bone growth/strength. They provide an anatomical rationale to reexamine dummies, scaling processes, and injury metrics for improved understanding of pediatric neck injuries PMID:22105393

Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Lew, Sean M.; Rao, Raj D.; Rangarajan, Nagarajan



Dendriform pulmonary ossification in patient with rare earth pneumoconiosis  

PubMed Central

The case history is presented of a patient with pathologically proven dendriform pulmonary ossification and rare earth pneumoconiosis confirmed by analytical transmission electron microscopy. This is thought to be the first report of this association. PMID:16061714

Yoon, H; Moon, H; Park, S; Song, J; Lim, Y; Kohyama, N



Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma responsive to interferon alfa-2a.  


Follicular lymphoma is the most common type of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas with a predilection for the scalp, forehead, and trunk. Herein we report a case of primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma on the scalp of 72-year-old female. The diagnosis was made histopathologically, confirming the presence of centrocytes and centroblasts. Complete resolution was achieved following administration of subcutaneous interferon ?-2a at a dose of 4.5 × 10? IU three times weekly for 3 months. PMID:22016291

Kavala, Mukaddes; Zindanci, Ilkin; Sudogan, Sibel; Can, Burce; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kocaturk, Emek; Koc, Melek; Buyukbabani, Nesimi



Visual loss associated with pediatric uveitis in english primary and referral centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePediatric uveitis is rare and has been reported to cause increased rates of visual loss compared with adult patients. The reasons for this are unclear. Only one study has been population–based, so the effect of referral bias is not known. We examined the pattern of disease in primary and referral centers to establish the unique characteristics of uveitis in children.

Clive Edelsten; M. Ashwin Reddy; Miles R Stanford; Elizabeth M Graham



Academic medicine: a key partner in strengthening the primary care infrastructure via teaching health centers.  


In the United States, a worsening shortage of primary care physicians, along with structural deficiencies in their training, threaten the primary care system that is essential to ensuring access to high-quality, cost-effective health care. Community health centers (CHCs) are an underused resource that could facilitate rapid expansion of the primary care workforce and simultaneously prepare trainees for 21st-century practice. The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program, currently funded by the Affordable Care Act, uses CHCs as training sites for primary-care-focused graduate medical education (GME).The authors propose that the goals of the THCGME program could be amplified by fostering partnerships between CHCs and teaching hospitals (academic medical centers [AMCs]). AMCs would encourage their primary care residency programs to expand by establishing teaching health center (THC) tracks. Modifications to the current THCGME model, facilitated by formal CHC and academic medicine partnerships (CHAMPs), would address the primary care physician shortage, produce physicians prepared for 21st-century practice, expose trainees to interprofessional education in a multidisciplinary environment, and facilitate the rapid expansion of CHC capacity.To succeed, CHAMP THCs require a comprehensive consortium agreement designed to ensure equity between the community and academic partners; conforming with this agreement will provide the high-quality GME necessary to ensure residency accreditation. CHAMP THCs also require a federal mechanism to ensure stable, long-term funding. CHAMP THCs would develop in select CHCs that desire a partnership with AMCs and have capacity for providing a community-based setting for both GME and health services research. PMID:24128617

Rieselbach, Richard E; Crouse, Byron J; Neuhausen, Katherine; Nasca, Thomas J; Frohna, John G



Penile ossification: A traumatic event or evolutionary throwback? Case report and review of the literature.  


Penile ossification is very rare, with only a handful of histologically confirmed reported cases. The most common condition leading to penile ossification is Peyronie's disease. Other conditions, such as gout, end-stage renal disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism and local trauma, have also been associated with penile ossification. We report a unique case of near-complete penile ossification of the corporal bodies with histologic confirmation on pathologic review. Our report summarizes the literature regarding this rare entity. PMID:23671498

Yilmaz, Ibrahim Edhem; Barazani, Yagil; Tareen, Basir



Penile ossification: A traumatic event or evolutionary throwback? Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Penile ossification is very rare, with only a handful of histologically confirmed reported cases. The most common condition leading to penile ossification is Peyronie’s disease. Other conditions, such as gout, end-stage renal disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism and local trauma, have also been associated with penile ossification. We report a unique case of near-complete penile ossification of the corporal bodies with histologic confirmation on pathologic review. Our report summarizes the literature regarding this rare entity. PMID:23671498

Yilmaz, Ibrahim Edhem; Barazani, Yagil; Tareen, Basir



Progressive Relapse of Ligamentum Flavum Ossification Following Decompressive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (T-OLF) is a relatively rare spinal disorder that generally requires surgical intervention, due to its progressive nature and the poor response to conservative therapy. The prevalence of OLF has been reported at 3.8%-26%, which is similar to that of cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The progression of OPLL after cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of OPLL is often shown in long-term follow-up. However, there have been no reports on the progression of OLF following surgery. We report a case of thoracic myelopathy secondary to the progressive relapse of OLF following laminectomy.

Ando, Kei; Ito, Zenya; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Ukai, Junichi; Muramoto, Akio; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ishiguro, Naoki



Radiotherapy of primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma: case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma is an indolent primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma originating from the follicle center cells, composed of a combination of centrocytes (small and large cleaved cells) and centroblasts (large noncleaved cells) with a follicular, follicular/diffuse, or diffuse growth pattern. Lesions are mostly located on the head, neck and trunk. A case is presented of a 56-year-old male patient with primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma, with lesions involving the skin of the back, shoulders, presternal area and right forearm. As the patient presented a disseminated cutaneous form of the disease that involved several anatomical regions, complete work-up was followed by superficial fractionated radiotherapy of eight fields in VI expositions, with total irradiation dose of 1400 cGy upon the following fields: right and left pectoral region, left and right shoulders, right suprascapular region, and proximal third of the right forearm. Total irradiation dose applied upon each field for the lesions located on the left and right side of the back was 1500 cGy. This therapy resulted in significant reduction of visible tumor. The patient was regularly followed up on outpatient basis for 12 months of radiotherapy, being free from local recurrence and systemic spread of the disease. PMID:23786884



Radiotherapy of primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma: case report and review of literature.  


Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma is an indolent primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma originating from the follicle center cells, composed of a combination of centrocytes (small and large cleaved cells) and centroblasts (large noncleaved cells) with a follicular, follicular/diffuse, or diffuse growth pattern. Lesions are mostly located on the head, neck and trunk. A case is presented of a 56-year-old male patient with primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma, with lesions involving the skin of the back, shoulders, presternal area and right forearm. As the patient presented a disseminated cutaneous form of the disease that involved several anatomical regions, complete work-up was followed by superficial fractionated radiotherapy of eight fields in VI expositions, with total irradiation dose of 1400 cGy upon the following fields: right and left pectoral region, left and right shoulders, right suprascapular region, and proximal third of the right forearm. Total irradiation dose applied upon each field for the lesions located on the left and right side of the back was 1500 cGy. This therapy resulted in significant reduction of visible tumor. The patient was regularly followed up on outpatient basis for 12 months of radiotherapy, being free from local recurrence and systemic spread of the disease. PMID:23786884

Ceovic, Romana; Jovanovic, Ivana; Kostovic, Kresimir; Rados, Jaka; Dotlic, Snjezana; Radman, Ivo; Kulisic, Sandra Marinovic; Loncaric, Davorin



Prospects for rebuilding primary care using the patient-centered medical home.  


Existing research suggests that models of enhanced primary care lead to health care systems with better performance. What the research does not show is whether such an approach is feasible or likely to be effective within the U.S. health care system. Many commentators have adopted the model of the patient-centered medical home as policy shorthand to address the reinvention of primary care in the United States. We analyze potential barriers to implementing the medical home model for policy makers and practitioners. Among others, these include developing new payment models, as well as the need for up-front funding to assemble the personnel and infrastructure required by an enhanced non-visit-based primary care practice and methods to facilitate transformation of existing practices to functioning medical homes. PMID:20439868

Landon, Bruce E; Gill, James M; Antonelli, Richard C; Rich, Eugene C



Ontogeny of cranial epi-ossifications in Triceratops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the scarcity of non-adult Triceratops fossils collected from Upper Cretaceous sediments of North America limited our understanding and promoted controversy with regard to the morphology, and presence or absence of cranial epi-ossifications in this widely known horned dinosaur. The recent discovery of several exceptionally well preserved juvenile and subadult Triceratops skulls and numerous juvenile, subadult, and adult cranial elements,

John R. Horner; Mark B. Goodwin



Skeletal ossification and sequence heterochrony in xenarthran evolution.  


Previous analyses of how mammals vary in their ossification sequences have focused on monotremes, marsupials, and boreoeutherian placentals. Here, we focus on the sequence of cranial and postcranial ossification events during growth in the xenarthran skull and skeleton, including armadillos, anteaters, and sloths. We use two different methods to quantify sequence heterochrony: sequence analysis of variance (ANOVA) and event-paring/Parsimov. Our results indicate that Parsimov is conservative and does not detect clear heterochronic shifts between xenarthran and boreoeutherian placentals. Sequence-ANOVA performs better, but both methods exhibit sensitivity to the artifactual accumulation of ties. By controlling for ties and taking into account results that the methods have in common, our analysis suggests that xenarthrans significantly differ from other placentals by a late ossification of the sternum and an early ossification of the phalanges and pubis. We interpret these differences as showing that heterochrony plays a role in the skeletal development of xenarthrans, a change from previous studies that have emphasized the developmental homogeneity of the skeleton across placental mammals. PMID:23016907

Hautier, Lionel; Weisbecker, Vera; Goswami, Anjali; Knight, Frank; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J



Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat.  


A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat's locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats. PMID:23777582

Antila, Johanna M; Jeserevics, Janis; Rakauskas, Mindaugas; Anttila, Marjukka; Cizinauskas, Sigitas



Patterns of ossification in southern versus northern placental mammals.  


Consensus on placental mammal phylogeny is fairly recent compared to that for vertebrates as a whole. A stable phylogenetic hypothesis enables investigation into the possibility that placental clades differ from one another in terms of their development. Here, we focus on the sequence of skeletal ossification as a possible source of developmental distinctiveness in "northern" (Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires) versus "southern" (Afrotheria and Xenarthra) placental clades. We contribute data on cranial and postcranial ossification events during growth in Afrotheria, including elephants, hyraxes, golden moles, tenrecs, sengis, and aardvarks. We use three different techniques to quantify sequence heterochrony: continuous method, sequence-ANOVA (analysis of variance) and event-paring/Parsimov. We show that afrotherians significantly differ from other placentals by an early ossification of the orbitosphenoid and caudal vertebrae. Our analysis also suggests that both southern placental groups show a greater degree of developmental variability; however, they rarely seem to vary in the same direction, especially regarding the shifts that differ statistically. The latter observation is inconsistent with the Atlantogenata hypothesis in which afrotherians are considered as the sister clade of xenarthrans. Interestingly, ancestral nodes for Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires show very similar trends and our results suggest that developmental homogeneity in some ossification sequences may be restricted to northern placental mammals (Boreoeutheria). PMID:23815655

Hautier, Lionel; Bennett, Nigel C; Viljoen, Hermien; Howard, Lauren; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Tzika, Athanasia C; Goswami, Anjali; Asher, Robert J



FGFR3 mutation causes abnormal membranous ossification in achondroplasia.  


FGFR3 gain-of-function mutations lead to both chondrodysplasias and craniosynostoses. Achondroplasia (ACH), the most frequent dwarfism, is due to an FGFR3-activating mutation which results in impaired endochondral ossification. The effects of the mutation on membranous ossification are unknown. Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice mimicking ACH and craniofacial analysis of patients with ACH and FGFR3-related craniosynostoses provide an opportunity to address this issue. Studying the calvaria and skull base, we observed abnormal cartilage and premature fusion of the synchondroses leading to modifications of foramen magnum shape and size in Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice, ACH and FGFR3-related craniosynostoses patients. Partial premature fusion of the coronal sutures and non-ossified gaps in frontal bones were also present in Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice and ACH patients. Our data provide strong support that not only endochondral ossification but also membranous ossification is severely affected in ACH. Demonstration of the impact of FGFR3 mutations on craniofacial development should initiate novel pharmacological and surgical therapeutic approaches. PMID:24419316

Di Rocco, Federico; Biosse Duplan, Martin; Heuzé, Yann; Kaci, Nabil; Komla-Ebri, Davide; Munnich, Arnold; Mugniery, Emilie; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence



Notch signaling in chondrocytes modulates endochondral ossification and osteoarthritis development  

PubMed Central

Here we examined the involvement of Notch signaling in the endochondral ossification process, which is crucial for osteoarthritis (OA) development. Intracellular domains of Notch1 and -2 were translocated into the nucleus of chondrocytes with their differentiation in mouse limb cartilage and in mouse and human OA articular cartilage. A tissue-specific inactivation of the Notch transcriptional effector recombination signal binding protein for Ig kappa J (RBPj?) in chondroprogenitor cells of SRY-box containing gene 9 (Sox9)-Cre;Rbpjfl/fl mouse embryos caused an impaired terminal stage of endochondral ossification in the limb cartilage. The RBPj? inactivation in adult articular cartilage after normal skeletal growth using type II collagen (Col2a1)-CreERT;Rbpjfl/fl mice by tamoxifen injection caused resistance to OA development in the knee joint. Notch intracellular domain with the effector RBPj? stimulated endochondral ossification through induction of the target gene Hes1 in chondrocytes. Among the Notch ligands, Jagged1 was strongly induced during OA development. Finally, intraarticular injection of N-[N-(3,5-diflurophenylacetate)-l-alanyl]-(S)-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), a small compound Notch inhibitor, to the mouse knee joint prevented OA development. The RBPj?-dependent Notch signaling in chondrocytes modulates the terminal stage of endochondral ossification and OA development, representing an extracellular therapeutic target of OA. PMID:23319657

Hosaka, Yoko; Saito, Taku; Sugita, Shurei; Hikata, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Fukai, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Yuki; Hirata, Makoto; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Chung, Ung-il; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi



Pharmacists on a primary care team at a Veterans Affairs medical center.  


The role of pharmacists on a primary care team in the VA Chicago Health Care System--Lakeside Division is described. In 1990 the Veterans Affairs Lakeside Medical Center (now called the VA Chicago Health Care System--Lakeside Division) implemented the "Firm" system to improve the quality of patient care. This system split the original primary care clinics into three identical but smaller groups, or Firms. Each Firm provides three types of care: longitudinal care (ongoing care with a primary care physician), interim care (frequent care and close patient monitoring between primary physician visits), and un-scheduled care (acute care for complaints that may require immediate attention). Each Firm has a care team composed of physicians, a pharmacist, nurses, and other health care personnel. The pharmacist assists with interim care and, in conjunction with Firm physicians, is involved in follow-up and monitoring of drug therapy and identification of new problems. Originally it was expected that pharmacists would care for 30-40% of interim care patients, but Firm pharmacists have assisted in providing care to over 50% of these patients (plus 4% of un-scheduled care patients). The pharmacists have received high ratings from the internal medicine resident staff. Pharmacists on multidisciplinary care teams provided primary care to more than half of outpatient veterans in need of health care between regularly scheduled appointments. PMID:9179348

Chandler, C; Barriuso, P; Rozenberg-Ben-Dror, K; Schmitt, B



Integration of substance use disorder services with primary care: health center surveys and qualitative interviews  

PubMed Central

Background Each year, nearly 20 million Americans with alcohol or illicit drug dependence do not receive treatment. The Affordable Care Act and parity laws are expected to result in increased access to treatment through integration of substance use disorder (SUD) services with primary care. However, relatively little research exists on the integration of SUD services into primary care settings. Our goal was to assess SUD service integration in California primary care settings and to identify the practice and policy facilitators and barriers encountered by providers who have attempted to integrate these services. Methods Primary survey and qualitative interview data were collected from the population of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in five California counties known to be engaged in SUD integration efforts was surveyed. From among the organizations that responded to the survey (78% response rate), four were purposively sampled based on their level of integration. Interviews were conducted with management, staff, and patients (n?=?18) from these organizations to collect further qualitative information on the barriers and facilitators of integration. Results Compared to mental health services, there was a trend for SUD services to be less integrated with primary care, and SUD services were rated significantly less effective. The perceived difference in effectiveness appeared to be due to provider training. Policy suggestions included expanding the SUD workforce that can bill Medicaid, allowing same-day billing of two services, facilitating easier reimbursement for medications, developing the workforce, and increasing community SUD specialty care capacity. Conclusions Efforts to integrate SUD services with primary care face significant barriers, many of which arise at the policy level and are addressable. PMID:24679108



Skeletal development in the African elephant and ossification timing in placental mammals  

PubMed Central

We provide here unique data on elephant skeletal ontogeny. We focus on the sequence of cranial and post-cranial ossification events during growth in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Previous analyses on ossification sequences in mammals have focused on monotremes, marsupials, boreoeutherian and xenarthran placentals. Here, we add data on ossification sequences in an afrotherian. We use two different methods to quantify sequence heterochrony: the sequence method and event-paring/Parsimov. Compared with other placentals, elephants show late ossifications of the basicranium, manual and pedal phalanges, and early ossifications of the ischium and metacarpals. Moreover, ossification in elephants starts very early and progresses rapidly. Specifically, the elephant exhibits the same percentage of bones showing an ossification centre at the end of the first third of its gestation period as the mouse and hamster have close to birth. Elephants show a number of features of their ossification patterns that differ from those of other placental mammals. The pattern of the initiation of the ossification evident in the African elephant underscores a possible correlation between the timing of ossification onset and gestation time throughout mammals. PMID:22298853

Hautier, Lionel; Stansfield, Fiona J.; Allen, W. R. Twink; Asher, Robert J.



Primary immunodeficiency diseases: a 30-year patient registry from the referral center for primary immunodeficiencies in Greece.  


Primary Immunodeficiencies (PID) represent a group of heterogeneous immune diseases with important biological significance. We reviewed the records of children diagnosed with PID in the Referral Center for PID in our country in order to describe the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics of immunodeficient patients. During a 30-year period, 147 patients (101 males, 68.7 %), with a mean age of 6.5 years at the time of diagnosis, were diagnosed with PID. The most prevalent diagnoses of PID were: "Combined Immunodeficiency" in 46 (31.3 %) patients, "Well-defined immunodeficiency syndrome" in 35 (23.1 %) patients, "Predominantly antibody deficiency" in 30 (20.4 %) patients and "Congenital defect of phagocyte function or both" in 28 (19 %) patients. There was a higher prevalence of males with "Combined immunodeficiency" (p?

Michos, Athanasios; Raptaki, Maria; Tantou, Sofia; Tzanoudaki, Marianna; Spanou, Kleopatra; Liatsis, Manolis; Constantinidou, Nikki; Paschali, Evangelia; Varela, Ioanna; Moraloglou, Olga; Bakoula, Chryssa; Kanariou, Maria



Luxury Primary Care, Academic Medical Centers, and the Erosion of Science and Professional Ethics  

PubMed Central

Medical schools and teaching hospitals have been hit particularly hard by the financial crisis affecting health care in the United States. To compete financially, many academic medical centers have recruited wealthy foreign patients and established luxury primary care clinics. At these clinics, patients are offered tests supported by little evidence of their clinical and/or cost effectiveness, which erodes the scientific underpinnings of medical practice. Given widespread disparities in health, wealth, and access to care, as well as growing cynicism and dissatisfaction with medicine among trainees, the promotion by these institutions of an overt, two-tiered system of care, which exacerbates inequities and injustice, erodes professional ethics. Academic medical centers should divert their intellectual and financial resources away from luxury primary care and toward more equitable and just programs designed to promote individual, community, and global health. The public and its legislators should, in turn, provide adequate funds to enable this. Ways for academic medicine to facilitate this largesse are discussed. PMID:14748866

Donohoe, Martin



Foveal topography in the optic nerve and primary visual centers in Falconiforms.  


The topography of the retinal nasal and temporal foveal projections upon the optic nerve and primary visual centers was studied in diurnal bifoveate birds of prey by means of restricted tritiated proline intraocular injection. According to the degree of retinotopy, this study reveals that a single injection of tracer in the nasal or temporal fovea produces a well-defined and complementary pattern of projections in the following contralateral nuclei: lateral anterior thalamus, lateroventral geniculate nucleus (glv), superficial synencephalic (ss), tectal grey (gt), and optic tectum. In the thalamic nucleus dorsolateral anterior, the nasal foveal projections are seen mainly in the lateral and rostrolateral subdivision, while temporal projections are seen mainly in the magnocellular subdivision. In the external and ectomammillary nuclei there is some evidence of retinotopic innervation. Finally, a discrete field of projection from the nasal or temporal fovea is detected in lateral hypothalamus, ventrolateral thalamus, lateral geniculate intercalated nucleus, and pretectal optic area. The nasotemporal axis of the retina is ventrodorsally oriented in the optic nerve with ganglion cell axons of the temporal fovea more dorsally placed than the nasal ones. In the primary visual centers this retinal axis is mediolaterally represented in the nuclei glv, ss, and gt, and dorsoventrally oriented in the optic tectum. PMID:8465993

Inzunza, O; Bravo, H



Long-term evolution of an untreated primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma of the scalp.  


Among primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas, follicle center lymphomas represent, according to the World Health Organization-European Organisation For Research and Treatment of Cancer classification, a subgroup with a favorable prognosis. We describe the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with large infiltrated tumors and nodules coalescing into a wide ulcerated plaque of the scalp, extending from the frontal to the occipital region. At the vertex, 2 large ulcerations were present, reaching the subcutaneous tissues and the underlying bone structures with osseus infiltration and erosion and consequent meningeal exposure. A left retroauricular lymphadenopathy was also present. Histology and immunohystochemistry diagnosed a relapse of primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma with multilobated histomorphology and lymph node involvement. The histological picture was unchanged from the first sample of 1989. Due to a refusal to treatment, the lesion progressively grew until now. After 6 courses of chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, liposomal doxorubicin, prednisone-Rituximab), the tumor displayed an impressive complete regression with the persistence of a 4-cm occipital ulceration and underlying bone erosion. The adenopathy disappeared as well. This case gave us the opportunity to observe the natural development of the disease, leading to local mutilating and destroying lesions but with low tendency to systemic spread and an impressive response to chemotherapy. PMID:19915449

Fierro, Maria Teresa; Marenco, Federica; Novelli, Mauro; Fava, Paolo; Quaglino, Pietro; Bernengo, Maria Grazia



Clonal Evolution in a Primary Cutaneous Follicle Center B Cell Lymphoma Revealed by Single Cell Analysis in Sequential Biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

B cell neoplasias descending from germinal center cells harbor the hallmark of intraclonal diversity resulting from ongoing mutation in the variable parts of their immunoglobulin-encoding genes. To characterize a primary cutaneous follicle center B cell lymphoma in more detail, we analyzed the respective VH and VL genes in single cells mobilized from four sequential biopsies, three taken from the skin

Sven Golembowski; Sylke Gellrich; Malgorszata Von Zimmermann; Sascha Rutz; Steffen Lippert; Heike Audring; Pamela Lorenz; Wolfram Sterry; Sigbert Jahn



A single center multioperator initial experience of 4195 patients at a primary radial intervention program in a tertiary level center  

PubMed Central

Background There has been an increase the acceptability and the number of the procedures via the radial approach. We present our experience pertaining to the clinical characteristics, procedural details and post procedural outcome of patients undergoing radial artery access, coronary angiographies over a period of 4 years at a primary care tertiary level center. Materials and methods A retrospective analysis of all the coronary artery procedures during the last 4 years was done and the various parameters related to these procedures noted. Results In 4195 procedures performed, success in radial artery procedures was achieved in 3975 (94.8%) procedures. The average puncture time and total procedure time was 9.5 + 3 min (min) and 15 + 2.5 min in the initial 500 patients, whereas the times taken in the final 695 patients were just 1.5 + 0.5 min and 3.0 + 1.5 min respectively. The total fluoroscopy time was not significantly different among the groups, when performed by an operator with training in the femoral route for angiography. Cardiology fellows needed more fluoroscopy time when mastering the radial route. Crossover of access sites was seen in 220 patients (5.2%). Conclusions After 100 procedures, radial access coronary angiographies take less than 4.5 min, with first attempt radial artery access and negligible complication rates. Prior experience of coronary angiography helps in the reduction of fluoroscopy time during the learning curve. PMID:24814110

Gokhroo, Rajendra K.; Kaushik, Satish K.; Padmanabhan, Deepak; Bisht, Devendra; Gupta, Sajal



Slipped capital femoral epiphysis caused by neurogenic heterotopic ossification.  


Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is rare in nonambulatory patients, as mechanical factors play important roles in the development of the disease. We report a case of SCFE, which occurred in a 12-year-old girl with a nonambulatory status after cerebral infarction. SCFE occurred after she received passive range of motion exercise and extracorporeal shock wave treatment for neurogenic heterotopic ossification around the hip joint. The patient was successfully managed by a stepwise approach, with radiological and clinical improvements. PMID:23969564

Chang, Sam Yeol; Yoo, Won Joon; Park, Moon Seok; Chung, Chin Youb; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon



Pulsed electromagnetic field may accelerate in vitro endochondral ossification.  


Recapitulation of embryonic endochondral bone formation is a promising alternative approach to bone tissue engineering. However, the time-consuming process is one of the reasons the approach is unpractical. Here, we aimed at accelerating the in vitro endochondral ossification process of tissue engineering by using a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF). The rat bone marrow-derived stem cells were chondrogenic or hypertrophic differentiated in a three-dimensional pellet culture system, and treated with different intensities of PEMF (1, 2, and 5?mT with modulation frequency 750?Hz, carrier frequency 75?Hz and a duty ratio of 0.8, 3?h/day for 4 weeks). The effects of PEMF on hypertrophy and endochondral ossification were assessed by safranin O staining, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results suggest that PEMF at 1, 2, and 5?mT may inhibit the maintenance of the cartilaginous phenotype and increase cartilage-specific extracellular matrix degradation in the late stage of chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, among the three different intensities, only PEMF at 1?mT directed the differentiation of chondrogenic-induced stem cell pellets to the hypertrophic stage and promoted osteogenic differentiation. Our findings provide the feasibility to optimize the process of in vitro endochondral ossification with PEMF stimulation. Bioelectromagnetics. 35:35-44, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25358461

Wang, Jue; Tang, Na; Xiao, Qiang; Zhang, Li; Li, Yu; Li, Juan; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Zhihe; Tan, Lijun



Extensive heterotopic ossification in patient with tubercular meningitis.  


Tubercular meningitis is a severe form of central nervous system tuberculosis with high morbidity and mortality. Apart from neurological deficits, musculoskeletal involvement is also seen in very few cases in the form of heterotopic ossification around immobile joints. A 35-year-old male case of tubercular meningitis with left hemiparesis presented with multiple joint restriction of range of motion. On clinical examination, palpable firm masses around multiple joints with painful restriction of movements were seen. X-ray films of multiple joints revealed heterotopic ossification over left shoulder, hip and knee joint with bony ankylosis of left hip and soft tissue contractures. Very few reports have been published in the literature for association of heterotopic ossification with tubercular meningitis with such extensive joint involvement which compels us to report this clinical association of tubercular meningitis. This report is intended to create caution among physicians and other caregivers for this debilitating complication of tubercular meningitis and in face of high prevalence of tuberculosis and tubercular meningitis, employ methods to prevent and treat. PMID:25540549

Sharma, Vijai Prakash; Yadav, Ganesh; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Dileep



Extensive heterotopic ossification in patient with tubercular meningitis  

PubMed Central

Tubercular meningitis is a severe form of central nervous system tuberculosis with high morbidity and mortality. Apart from neurological deficits, musculoskeletal involvement is also seen in very few cases in the form of heterotopic ossification around immobile joints. A 35-year-old male case of tubercular meningitis with left hemiparesis presented with multiple joint restriction of range of motion. On clinical examination, palpable firm masses around multiple joints with painful restriction of movements were seen. X-ray films of multiple joints revealed heterotopic ossification over left shoulder, hip and knee joint with bony ankylosis of left hip and soft tissue contractures. Very few reports have been published in the literature for association of heterotopic ossification with tubercular meningitis with such extensive joint involvement which compels us to report this clinical association of tubercular meningitis. This report is intended to create caution among physicians and other caregivers for this debilitating complication of tubercular meningitis and in face of high prevalence of tuberculosis and tubercular meningitis, employ methods to prevent and treat.

Sharma, Vijai Prakash; Yadav, Ganesh; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Dileep



Quality of Antenatal Care in Primary Health Care Centers of Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Objective: To find out the quality of ANC in the Upazila Health Complexes (PHC centres) of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: This cross sectional study was done in purposively selected three upazilas among the clients receiving antenatal care (ANC). Data were collected with questionnaire cum checklist in the context of two aspects of quality issues, namely assessment of physical arrangements for ANC (input) and services rendered by the providers (process). Results: The mean age of respondents was 24.6±4.5 years. Majority of the respondents were with primary level education (60.3%). About half (52.8%) of the families had monthly income ranging from 3000-5000 taka (38-64 US$). Nearly half (48.9%) had no child, little more than one third (42.3%) were primigravida and 528 (57.7%) were multigravida. Out of 528 multigravid respondents 360 (68.2%) took ANC in their previous pregnancy whereas 168 (31.8%) did not take ANC Pregnancy outcome was found to be associated with receiving ANC (?2=73.599; p=0.000). Respondents receiving ANC had more good pregnancy outcome. The mean waiting time for receiving ANC was 0.77±.49 hours. Out of the 13 centers, only 3 (23.1%) have sufficient instruments to render ANC services. Findings showed that where the modes of ANC service delivery in the ANC centers are fairly satisfactory. Though some of the points of standard operation procedures (SOPs) on ANC are not covered by some ANC centers, those were not considered necessary. But, regarding the physical facilities available for rendering ANC services, it is seen that facilities are not quite satisfactory. Number of doctors and nurses are not very satisfactory. One of the centers under this study has no doctor, where ANC services are given by nurses. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ANC services at the primary health care level is not adequate in Bangladesh. To ensure further improvement of the quality of ANC services, instruments used in logistics and supplies should be enhanced.

Mansur, Ahmed M. S. A.; Rezaul, Karim M.; Mahmudul, Hoque. M.; S, Chowdhury



Evaluating efficiency of training: an application in primary health centers using multiple comparison techniques.  


The purpose of this research is to measure the efficiency of training in the general principles of vaccine applications, the cold chain, and the adverse effects after vaccination for 51 employees (31 midwives and 20 nurses) working at primary health centers in Tuzla Health Group Region via test and retest method. The data collected through measurement of test scores before and after training is analyzed via multiple comparison techniques such as general test scores, the scores of each training, the scores of previously trained subjects, and difference scores. Achievement scores after training were significantly high. Previous training did not reveal significant effects on the results. Having been trained before did not cause permanent influence. PMID:21678141

Tascio?ullari, Bahar; Kiyak, Mithat; Cicek, Isik



Geometry for the Primary Electron Donor and the Bacteriopheophytin Acceptor in Rhodopseudomonas viridis Photosynthetic Reaction Centers  

PubMed Central

The tetrapyrrole electron donors and acceptors (bacteriochlorophyll, BCh; bacteriopheophytin, BPh) within the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC) are arranged with a specific geometry that permits rapid (picosecond time scale) electron tunneling to occur between them. Here we have measured the angle between the molecular planes of the bacteriochlorophyll dimer (primary donor), B2, and the acceptor bacteriopheophytin, H, by analyzing the dichroism of the absorption change associated with H reduction, formed by photoselection with RCs of Rhodopseudomonas viridis. This angle between molecular planes is found to be 60° ± 2. This means that the ultrafast electron tunneling must occur between donors and acceptors that are fixed by the protein to have a noncoplanar alignment. Nearly perpendicular alignments have been determined for other electron tunneling complexes involving RCs. These geometries can be contrasted with models proposed for heme-heme electron transfer complexes, which have emphasized that mutually parallel orientations should permit the most kinetically facile transfers. PMID:19431588

Tiede, D. M.; Choquet, Y.; Breton, J.



A practice-centered intervention to increase screening for domestic violence in primary care practices  

PubMed Central

Background Interventions to change practice patterns among health care professionals have had mixed success. We tested the effectiveness of a practice centered intervention to increase screening for domestic violence in primary care practices. Methods A multifaceted intervention was conducted among primary care practice in North Carolina. All practices designated two individuals to serve as domestic violence resources persons, underwent initial training on screening for domestic violence, and participated in 3 lunch and learn sessions. Within this framework, practices selected the screening instrument, patient educational material, and content best suited for their environment. Effectiveness was evaluated using a pre/post cross-sectional telephone survey of a random selection of female patients from each practice. Results Seventeen practices were recruited and fifteen completed the study. Baseline screening for domestic violence was 16% with a range of 2% to 49%. An absolute increase in screening of 10% was achieved (range of increase 0 to 22%). After controlling for clustering by practice and other patient characteristics, female patients were 79% more likely to have been screened after the intervention (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.43–2.23). Conclusion An intervention that allowed practices to tailor certain aspects to fit their needs increased screening for domestic violence. Further studies testing this technique using other outcomes are needed. PMID:17064413

Bonds, Denise E; Ellis, Shellie D; Weeks, Erin; Palla, Shana L; Lichstein, Peter



Toward a strategy of patient-centered access to primary care.  


Patient-centered access (PCA) to primary care services is rapidly becoming an imperative for efficiently delivering high-quality health care to patients. To enhance their PCA-related efforts, some medical practices and health systems have begun to use various tactics, including team-based care, satellite clinics, same-day and group appointments, greater use of physician assistants and nurse practitioners, and remote access to health services. However, few organizations are addressing the PCA imperative comprehensively by integrating these various tactics to develop an overall PCA management strategy. Successful integration means taking into account the changing competitive and reimbursement landscape in primary care, conducting an evidence-based assessment of the barriers and benefits of PCA implementation, and attending to the particular needs of the institution engaged in this important effort. This article provides a blueprint for creating a multifaceted but coordinated PCA strategy-one aimed squarely at making patient access a centerpiece of how health care is delivered. The case of a Wisconsin-based health system is used as an illustrative example of how other institutions might begin to conceive their fledgling PCA strategies without proposing it as a one-size-fits-all model. PMID:25199953

Berry, Leonard L; Beckham, Dan; Dettman, Amy; Mead, Robert



Etiology of primary ovarian insufficiency in a series young girls presenting at a pediatric endocrinology center.  


The cause of the primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) remains unknown in the majority of cases. A retrospective study was carried out in 17 girls with POI and normal 46,XX karyotype evaluated before 20 years of age. The etiology of POI was determined in eight girls (group 1) and remained idiopathic in nine girls (group 2). In group 1, five patients had a medical history: cerebellar ataxia due to congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) 1 in three cases, mitochondrial disease in one case, and autoimmune deficiencies in one case. The diagnosis of POI was made on pubertal delay or primary amenorrhea in these five patients, whilst the others presented with clitoral hypertrophy at birth or short stature and pubertal delay in two cases with NR5A1 mutation or with short stature and learning difficulties in one case with mitochondrial disease. In group 2, associated diseases were arthrogryposis malformative, gut, and bladder malformations and kidney failure or parieto-occipital tumor. The genes tested (NR5A1, BMP15, GDF9, and NOBOX) showed no mutation. Conclusions: The frequency of defined etiologies (47 %) is high. This is probably because of the recruitment of the cases at the pediatric center, where other somatic anomalies can lead to the accurate determination of the etiology. PMID:25425520

Brauner, Raja; Pierrepont, Sophie; Bignon-Topalovic, Joelle; McElreavey, Ken; Bashamboo, Anu



Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma in the setting of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  


Primary cutaneous malignancies arising in association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are notable for their atypical clinical and histological presentation. We report a 69-year-old man with a 17-year history of CLL who presented for evaluation of a well-defined red to violaceous nodule with a central depressed scar on the left lower extremity. Microscopic examination of a punch biopsy revealed an infiltrate of predominantly small lymphocytes with scattered large, atypical epithelioid cells. Immunohistochemical stains revealed diffuse positive staining of the lesional cells with CD20+ and bcl-6+ and focal positive staining with bcl-2+ (negative CD10 and CD23), findings which, in conjunction with the histology, were most compatible with a diagnosis of primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL). A review of the clinical charts revealed several prior biopsies with varied diagnoses. In light of the most recent biopsy findings, all previous biopsies were re-reviewed and interpreted as PCFCL arising in the setting of CLL. Features contributing to the diagnostic conundrum in this case included an atypical clinical and histological presentation, lack of pertinent clinical history and multiple presentations at different institutions. PMID:21508570

Konda, S; Beckford, A; Demierre, M F; Mahalingam, M



Giant primary cutaneous spindle cell B-cell lymphoma of follicle center cell origin.  


Spindle cell B-cell lymphoma is a rare morphologic variant of B-cell lymphoma that is generally associated with follicle center cell origin. It is typically found on the skin and presents as single nodule or plaque with a diameter of several centimeters. It is also characterized by abnormal spindle cells with elongated or spindle-shaped nuclei, and usually stained positive for Bcl-6 and negative for multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM-1). In this report, we describe a giant primary cutaneous spindle cell B-cell lymphoma measured 20 cm × 25 cm, substantially larger than all the previously reported cases. Histologic examination revealed that the neoplasm was mainly located in the dermis and subcutaneous fat, and had infiltrated into striated muscles of the patient's back. The neoplasm cells contained elongated or spindle-shaped nuclei. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the neoplasm cells were stained positive for CD20, CD79, and Bcl-6, negative for Bcl-2 and MUM-1, and focally positive for CD5, CD10, CD31, and CD43. These results collectively indicated that the neoplasm was of follicle center cell origin. The neoplasm was excised and the patient was still alive without systemic involvement after 4 years of follow-up. PMID:20559117

Wang, Lei; Lv, Yajie; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wei, Kaijun; Zhang, Yanguo



Independent initiation of primary electron transfer in the two branches of the photosystem I reaction center  

PubMed Central

Photosystem I (PSI) is a large pigment-protein complex that unites a reaction center (RC) at the core with ?100 core antenna chlorophylls surrounding it. The RC is composed of two cofactor branches related by a pseudo-C2 symmetry axis. The ultimate electron donor, P700 (a pair of chlorophylls), and the tertiary acceptor, FX (a Fe4S4 cluster), are both located on this axis, while each of the two branches is made up of a pair of chlorophylls (ec2 and ec3) and a phylloquinone (PhQ). Based on the observed biphasic reduction of FX, it has been suggested that both branches in PSI are competent for electron transfer (ET), but the nature and rate of the initial electron transfer steps have not been established. We report an ultrafast transient absorption study of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants in which specific amino acids donating H-bonds to the 131-keto oxygen of either ec3A (PsaA-Tyr696) or ec3B (PsaB-Tyr676) are converted to Phe, thus breaking the H-bond to a specific ec3 cofactor. We find that the rate of primary charge separation (CS) is lowered in both mutants, providing direct evidence that the primary ET event can be initiated independently in each branch. Furthermore, the data provide further support for the previously published model in which the initial CS event occurs within an ec2/ec3 pair, generating a primary ec2+ec3- radical pair, followed by rapid reduction by P700 in the second ET step. A unique kinetic modeling approach allows estimation of the individual ET rates within the two cofactor branches. PMID:20142514

Müller, Marc G.; Slavov, Chavdar; Luthra, Rajiv; Redding, Kevin E.; Holzwarth, Alfred R.



Proton displacements coupled to primary electron transfer in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center.  


Using first-principles molecular dynamics (AIMD) and constrained density functional theory (CDFT) we identify the pathway of primary electron transfer in the R. Sphaeroides reaction center from the special pair excited state (P*) to the accessory bacteriochlorophyll (BA). Previous AIMD simulations on the special pair (PLPM) predicted a charge-transfer intermediate formation through the excited-state relaxation along a reaction coordinate characterized by the rotation of an axial histidine (HisM202). To account for the full electron transfer we extend the model to include the primary acceptor BA. In this extended model, the LUMO is primarily localized on the acceptor BA and extends over an interstitial water (water A) that is known to influence the rate of electron transfer (Potter et al. Biochemistry 2005 280, 27155-27164). A vibrational analysis of the dynamical trajectories gives a frequency of 30-35 cm(-1) for a molecular motion involving the hydrogen-bond network around water A, in good agreement with experimental findings (Yakovlev et al. Biochemistry, 2003, 68, 603-610). In its binding pocket water A can act as a switch by breaking and forming hydrogen bonds. With CDFT we calculate the energy required to the formation of the charge-separated state and find it to decrease along the predicted anisotropic reaction coordinate. Furthermore, we observe an increased coupling between the ground and charge-separated state. Water A adapts its hydrogen-bonding network along this reaction coordinate and weakens the hydrogen bond with HisM202. We also present AIMD simulations on the radical cation (P(•+)) showing a weakening of the hydrogen bond between HisL168 and the 3(1)-acetyl of PL. This work demonstrates how proton displacements are crucially coupled to the primary electron transfer and characterizes the reaction coordinate of the initial photoproduct formation. PMID:23627338

Eisenmayer, Thomas J; Lasave, Jorge A; Monti, Adriano; de Groot, Huub J M; Buda, Francesco



Radiation Therapy for Prevention of Heterotopic Ossification about the Elbow  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Purpose:\\u000a   To evaluate the radiologic and functional outcome after prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) for prevention of heterotopic\\u000a ossification (HO) about the elbow joint.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:\\u000a   20 patients with symptomatic HO were treated using perioperative single-dose RT of 7.0 Gy. 15 patients had excision of preexisting\\u000a functionally relevant HO, and received RT for prevention of a recurrence, and five patients

Reinhard Heyd; Thomas Buhleier; Nikolaos Zamboglou



Assessing the phylogenetic utility of sequence heterochrony: evolution of avian ossification sequences as a case study.  


The evolution of developmental sequences, or sequence heterochrony, is an emerging field of study that addresses the temporal interplay between evolution and development. Some phylogenetic signal has been found in developmental sequence data, but sampling has generally been limited to small numbers of taxa and few developmental events. Here we present the largest ossification sequence dataset to date. The sequences are composed of ossification events throughout the avian skeleton, and are used to address the evolutionary signal of ossification sequence data within this clade. The results indicate that ossification sequences are conserved in birds, and show a stronger phylogenetic signal than previous studies, perhaps due to the volume of data. Phylogenetic signal is not strong enough, however, to consider ossification sequence data to be any better at resolving phylogenetic hypotheses than other morphological data and just as prone to evolutionary convergence. There is no one-to-one correlation between ossification sequence and developmental stage. We discuss some methodological implications of our findings, as well as commonalities in avian ossification sequences such as early ossification of the long bones relative to the dermatocranium, and of the hindlimb over the forelimb. PMID:20116981

Maxwell, Erin E; Harrison, Luke B; Larsson, Hans C E



Homology of the palpebral and origin of supraorbital ossifications in ornithischian dinosaurs  

E-print Network

Homology of the palpebral and origin of supraorbital ossifications in ornithischian dinosaurs and origin of supraor- bital ossifications in ornithischian dinosaurs. Lethaia, 10.1111/j.1502 dinosaurs and its presence is considered a synapomorphy of the clade. By contrast, other ornithischians lack


Journey toward a Patient-Centered Medical Home: Readiness for Change in Primary Care Practices  

PubMed Central

Context: Information is limited regarding the readiness of primary care practices to make the transformational changes necessary to implement the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model. Using comparative, qualitative data, we provide practical guidelines for assessing and increasing readiness for PCMH implementation. Methods: We used a comparative case study design to assess primary care practices' readiness for PCMH implementation in sixteen practices from twelve different physician organizations in Michigan. Two major components of organizational readiness, motivation and capability, were assessed. We interviewed eight practice teams with higher PCMH scores and eight with lower PCMH scores, along with the leaders of the physician organizations of these practices, yielding sixty-six semistructured interviews. Findings: The respondents from the higher and lower PCMH scoring practices reported different motivations and capabilities for pursuing PCMH. Their motivations pertained to the perceived value of PCMH, financial incentives, understanding of specific PCMH requirements, and overall commitment to change. Capabilities that were discussed included the time demands of implementation, the difficulty of changing patients' behavior, and the challenges of adopting health information technology. Enhancing the implementation of PCMH within practices included taking an incremental approach, using data, building a team and defining roles of its members, and meeting regularly to discuss the implementation. The respondents valued external organizational support, regardless of its source. Conclusions: The respondents from the higher and lower PCMH scoring practices commented on similar aspects of readiness—motivation and capability—but offered very different views of them. Our findings suggest the importance of understanding practice perceptions of the motivations for PCMH and the capability to undertake change. While this study identified some initial approaches that physician organizations and practices have used to prepare for practice redesign, we need much more information about their effectiveness. PMID:21933274

Wise, Christopher G; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Green, Lee A; Cohen, Genna R; Koster, Christina R



Uniportal video assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy: primary experience from an Eastern center  

PubMed Central

Background Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is an emerging technique for the surgical resection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Besides its wide debates on safety and efficacy throughout the world, there were few report on uniportal VATS from the Eastern countries. In this article, we summarized our primary experience on uniportal VATS lobectomy in an Eastern center. Methods From October 2013 till February 2014, 54 consecutive uniportal VATS lobectomy were performed in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. Patients’ clinical features and operative details were recorded. Post-operatively, the morbidity and mortality were recorded to analyze the safety and efficacy of uniportal VATS lobectomy for NSCLCs. Results Among the 54 planned uniportal VATS lobectomy, there was one conversion to mini-thoracotomy due to lymph node sticking. Extra ports were required in two patients. The uniportal VATS lobectomy was achieved in 51 out of 54 patients (94.4%). The average operation duration was 122.2±37.5 min (90-160 min). The average volume of estimated blood loss during the operation was 88.8±47.1 mL (50-200 mL). The mean chest tube duration and hospital stay were 3.2±1.9 days and 4.6±2.0 days, respectively. There was no postoperative mortality in this study. Two patients suffered from prolonged air leakage (5 and 7 days), and one atrial fibrillation was observed in this cohort. Conclusions Based on our primary experience, uniportal VATS lobectomy is a safe and effective procedure for the surgical resection of NSCLCs. The surgical refinements and instrumental improvements would facilitate the technique. Further studies based on larger population are required to determine its benefits towards patients with NSCLCs. PMID:25589969

Feng, Mingxiang; Shen, Yaxing; Wang, Hao; Liu, Yi; Wang, Qun



Primary electron transfer kinetics in bacterial reaction centers with modified bacteriochlorophylls at the monomeric sites BA,B.  

PubMed Central

The primary electron transfer has been investigated by femtosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy in two chemically modified reaction centers (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, in which the monomeric bacteriochlorophylls BA and BB have both been exchanged by 13(2)-hydroxybacteriochlorophyll a or [3-vinyl]-13(2)-hydroxybacteriochlorophyll a. The kinetics of the primary electron transfer are not influenced by the 13(2)-hydroxy modification. In RCs containing [3-vinyl]-13(2)-hydroxybacteriochlorophyll a the primary rate is reduced by a factor of 10. PMID:1409661

Finkele, U; Lauterwasser, C; Struck, A; Scheer, H; Zinth, W



Risk of symptomatic heterotopic ossification following plate osteosynthesis in multiple trauma patients: an analysis in a level-1 trauma centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Symptomatic heterotopic ossification (HO) in multiple trauma patients may lead to follow up surgery, furthermore the long-term outcome can be restricted. Knowledge of the effect of surgical treatment on formation of symptomatic heterotopic ossification in polytrauma is sparse. Therefore, we test the effects of surgical treatment (plate osteosynthesis or intramedullary nailing) on the formation of heterotopic ossification in

Christian Zeckey; Frank Hildebrand; Philipp Mommsen; Julia Schumann; Michael Frink; Hans-Christoph Pape; Christian Krettek; Christian Probst



Maternal satisfaction about childhood immunization in primary health care center, Egypt  

PubMed Central

Introduction Childhood immunization is considered to be among the most effective preventive services, and is therefore critical to monitor and evaluate. One prior study reported an association between parental satisfactions with pediatric care and up-to-date immunization at 24 months independent of maternal age, race, and education. In addition to promoting appropriate utilization, satisfaction may increase engagement in the health care process. Health system factors included inconvenient clinic hours, dates or locations, waiting lines, and conflicting information. The inconvenience of clinic hours dates of immunization clinics, and locations of clinics were reported by 75% of the parents. Methods A cross section study was conducted on three hundred and thirty five mothers chosen from PHCC participating in the study by providing information on satisfaction about the program and their knowledge about vaccination Results Inappropriate knowledge was reported by most of mothers (84.8%). And 95.2% of mothers were satisfied with childhood immunization services in primary healthcare center, compared to 4.8% who were unsatisfied with them. Conclusion This study shows that there was no statistically significant relation between maternal satisfaction with childhood immunization services and knowledge score, while in most satisfaction surveys information giving was an important need and this represent that client needs are changing, and priorities from client's perspectives are also changing, so on- going monitoring of client satisfaction is the safeguard to improve quality of care. PMID:25419295

El Gammal, Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel Rahman



Primary central nervous system lymphoma in immunocompetent individuals: a single center experience  

PubMed Central

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is defined as the involvement of brain, leptomeninges, eyes or spinal cord by non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The role of various prognostic markers in predicting adverse outcome is debated. Objectives: To investigate the clinical and immunohistochemical findings of immunocompetent PCNSL cases (39 cases) diagnosed at the study center, and evaluate the influence of potential prognostic factors on overall survival (OS) of patients. Methods: Data regarding patient characteristics, neuroimaging, pathological and immunohistochemical features and follow-up were obtained from patient records. The influence of potential prognostic parameters on OS was investigated by log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. Results: Patients who received combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy had a significantly better OS when compared to chemotherapy alone. Other variables included in this study were not associated with a significant survival advantage. Conclusion: In this study, we failed to demonstrate a relationship between different clinicopathological variables and OS of patients. Prospective studies with large patient series are needed to investigate other potential prognostic factors. PMID:23696924

Aki, Hilal; Uzunaslan, Didem; Saygin, Caner; Batur, Sebnem; Tuzuner, Nukhet; Kafadar, Ali; Ongoren, Seniz; Oz, Buge



Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia.  


Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1-5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804

Darwish, Magdy A; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A



Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804

Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A.



Early Presentation of Heterotopic Ossification Mimicking Pyomyositis - Two Case Reports -  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis and treatment of heterotopic ossification (HO) is essential to the prevention of complications. It is difficult to diagnose HO in its initial phase because non-specific clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and imaging findings of immature HO may mimic other diseases such as cellulitis, osteomyelitis, thrombophlebitis, deep vein thrombosis and local infection with abscess. We experienced two cases of HO, which were misdiagnosed as pyomyositis at first by clinical signs and MRI findings indicating the deep infection; the extensive intramuscular ossification appeared later on. We observed an increase of C-reactive protein and creatine kinase followed by the elevation of alkaline phosphatase with abnormal triphasic bone scan. The trajectory of these biomarkers was analyzed to get more insight into the early stages of HO along with the imaging findings. Although our cases cannot be generalized as typical of immature HO, they clearly demonstrate that the change of specific biomarkers with a careful history taking and physical examination should be noted to detect HO as early as possible while avoiding confusion with other mimicking conditions. PMID:23185738

Choi, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Eun; Lim, Sung-Hoon



Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized. Total waste generation increased 9.8%, but it was possible to reduce the volume of non-recyclable materials (11%) and increase the volume of recyclable materials (4%). It was also possible to segregate organic waste (7%), which was forwarded for production of compost. The rate of infectious waste generation in critical areas decreased from 0.021 to 0.018 kg/procedure. Many improvements have been observed, and now the PHC complies with most of legal requirements, offers periodic training and better biosafety conditions to workers, has reduced the volume of waste sent to sanitary landfills, and has introduced indicators for monitoring its own performance. This evaluation method might subsidize the creation and evaluation of medical waste management plans in similar heath institutions.

Moreira, A.M.M., E-mail: [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil); Guenther, W.M.R. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil)



Ontogeny of the osteocranium in the African catfish,Clarias gariepinus Burchell (1822) (Siluriformes: Clariidae): Ossification sequence as a response to functional demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ontogeny of the bony skull of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, is studied from initial ossification until a complete skull is formed. The ossification sequence in C. gariepinus seems to be related to the func- tional demands that arise in a developing larva. Early ossification of the opercular bone coincides with the initiation of opercular skin movements. Early ossifications

Dominique Adriaens; Walter Verraes



Comparison of Performance Achievement Award Recognition With Primary Stroke Center Certification for Acute Ischemic Stroke Care  

PubMed Central

Background Hospital certification and recognition programs represent 2 independent but commonly used systems to distinguish hospitals, yet they have not been directly compared. This study assessed acute ischemic stroke quality of care measure conformity by hospitals receiving Primary Stroke Center (PSC) certification and those receiving the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines?Stroke (GWTG?Stroke) Performance Achievement Award (PAA) recognition. Methods and Results The patient and hospital characteristics as well as performance/quality measures for acute ischemic stroke from 1356 hospitals participating in the GWTG?Stroke Program 2010–2012 were compared. Hospitals were classified as PAA+/PSC+ (hospitals n=410, patients n=169 302), PAA+/PSC? (n=415, n=129 454), PAA?/PSC+ (n=88, n=26 386), and PAA?/PSC? (n=443, n=75 565). A comprehensive set of stroke measures were compared with adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics. Patient characteristics were similar by PAA and PSC status but PAA?/PSC? hospitals were more likely to be smaller and nonteaching. Measure conformity was highest for PAA+/PSC+ and PAA+/PSC? hospitals, intermediate for PAA?/PSC+ hospitals, and lowest for PAA?/PSC? hospitals (all?or?none care measure 91.2%, 91.2%, 84.3%, and 76.9%, respectively). After adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics, PAA+/PSC+, PAA+/PSC?, and PAA?/PSC+ hospitals had 3.15 (95% CIs 2.86 to 3.47); 3.23 (2.93 to 3.56) and 1.72 (1.47 to 2.00), higher odds for providing all indicated stroke performance measures to patients compared with PAA?/PSC? hospitals. Conclusions While both PSC certification and GWTG?Stroke PAA recognition identified hospitals providing higher conformity with care measures for patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke, PAA recognition was a more robust identifier of hospitals with better performance. PMID:24125846

Fonarow, Gregg C.; Liang, Li; Smith, Eric E.; Reeves, Mathew J.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Xian, Ying; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Peterson, Eric D.; Schwamm, Lee H.



Acquired heterotopic ossification in hips and knees following encephalitis: case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a rare and potentially detrimental complication of soft-tissue trauma, amputations, central nervous system injury (traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord lesions, tumors, encephalitis), vasculopathies, arthroplasties and burn injury, characterized by lamellar bone growth in non-osseous tissues such as the muscle and the joint capsule. Heterotopic ossification associated with encephalitis is rare and the occurrence of excessive, symptomatic heterotopic ossification around bilateral hips and bilateral knees is rarely described in the literature. Case presentation We present a 47-year-old man with heterotopic ossification in the bilateral hips and bilateral knees that prevented him from walking after being attacked by encephalitis as the case study. He developed severe pain and significantly impaired range of motion of bilateral hips and bilateral knees. Research so far revealed that the management of heterotopic ossification is controversial. After requiring revision surgery resection of heterotopic ossification, reconstruction of the medial collateral ligament and adjunctive pharmacotherapy of 200 mg Celecoxib for 8 weeks after operation, he regained mobility of his joints. On review of X-ray, there was no recurrence of HO and no loosening of rivets which were used in the reconstruction of medial collateral ligament. Conclusion Heterotopic ossification in the bilateral hip joints and bilateral knee joints associated with encephalitis have never been reported previously. Daily functions of heterotopic ossification patients can be hampered by pain, inflammation, reduced mobility, the loss of normal posture and other complications. Further studies of presumptive root causes, the early diagnosis, preventability and optimal therapeutic measures for heterotopic ossification following encephalitis are required. Different patient should be managed with different appropriated protocol based on the risk of individual patient and the institutional experience. PMID:25280472



Severe soft tissue ossification in a southern right whale Eubalaena australis  

PubMed Central

The carcass of a stranded southern right whale Eubalaena australis, discovered on the coast of Golfo Nuevo in Península Valdés, Argentina, exhibited extensive orthotopic and heterotopic ossification, osteochondroma-like lesions, and early degenerative joint disease. Extensive soft tissue ossification led to ankylosis of the axial skeleton in a pattern that, in many respects, appeared more similar to a disabling human genetic disorder, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), than to more common skeletal system diseases in cetaceans and other species. This is the first reported case of a FOP-like condition in a marine mammal and raises important questions about conserved mechanisms of orthotopic and heterotopic ossification in this clade. PMID:23269389

Sala, Luciano F. La; Pozzi, Luciana M.; McAloose, Denise; Kaplan, Frederick S.; Shore, Eileen M.; Kompanje, Erwin J. O.; Sidor, Inga F.; Musmeci, Luciana; Uhart, Marcela M.



Ossification in the cephalic attachment of the ligamentum flavum: an anatomical and CT study  

SciTech Connect

A review of 50 anatomical specimens and 100 routine CT scans of the chest and abdomen demonstrated that ossification in the cephalic attachment of the ligamentum flavum is a common anatomical finding, but not as common on CT. Examination of hospital charts and plain radiographs of 26 patients with such ossification suggests that it is probably a normal variant; there was no evidence that it is related to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or inflammatory arthropathy. Marked ossification may cause or contribute to neurological symptoms.

Williams, D.M.; Gabrielsen, T.O.; Latack, J.T.; Martel, W.; Knake, J.E.



Pulmonary Idiopathic Alveolar Ossification in a Raccoon (Procyon lotor)  

PubMed Central

Here we describe gross and histopathologic findings in a laboratory-confined adult male raccoon (Procyon lotor) with microscopic ossified areas in pulmonary alveoli. At the time of necropsy, gross lesions were present in the kidneys and in one thyroid gland. Noteworthy microscopic findings included multifocal foci of osseous tissue within the alveoli of the lungs, bilateral thyroid adenomas, pancreatic islet cell amyloidosis, cortical kidney infarcts, cystic adenomatous hyperplasia of urinary bladder, and mineralizations (psommama bodies) of small blood vessels of meninges and choroid plexus. Pulmonary ossification in raccoons has not been reported previously. The other histopathologic lesions have been documented to occur as incidental findings in raccoons and do not appear to have any apparent association with the formation of osseous foci in the lungs of the animal described. PMID:20858368

Hamir, Amir N; Rupprecht, Charles E



[Anconeus arthroplasty: a salvage procedure in recurrent heterotopic ossification].  


Anconeus interpositional arthroplasty has been used in the treatment of radiocapitellar and radioulnar joint problems occurring after trauma. We performed anconeus interposition arthroplasty in a 31-year-old male patient who developed heterotopic ossification (HTO) in the elbow following surgical treatment of an isolated radial neck fracture. Treatment with implant removal and excision of the radial head resulted in recurrent HTO and a stiff elbow. The patient underwent excision of the heterotrophic new bone and mobilization of the proximal radius. The anconeus muscle was mobilized and interposed between the proximal radius and ulna. Sixteen months after the operation, forearm rotation, elbow flexion and extension increased by 80 degrees , 45 degrees , and 60 degrees , respectively. Control X-rays showed maintenance of the radiohumeral gap without any signs of HTO. PMID:19293618

Seyahi, Aksel; Atalar, Ata Can; Demirhan, Mehmet



Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in São Paulo, Brazil.  


According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized. Total waste generation increased 9.8%, but it was possible to reduce the volume of non-recyclable materials (11%) and increase the volume of recyclable materials (4%). It was also possible to segregate organic waste (7%), which was forwarded for production of compost. The rate of infectious waste generation in critical areas decreased from 0.021 to 0.018 kg/procedure. Many improvements have been observed, and now the PHC complies with most of legal requirements, offers periodic training and better biosafety conditions to workers, has reduced the volume of waste sent to sanitary landfills, and has introduced indicators for monitoring its own performance. This evaluation method might subsidize the creation and evaluation of medical waste management plans in similar heath institutions. PMID:23122204

Moreira, A M M; Günther, W M R



Evidence-Based Practice in the Use of Antibiotics for Respiratory Tract Infections in Primary Health Centers in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of antibiotics in treating upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in primary health centers in Kuwait and investigate the extent to which antibiotic use follows international guidelines. SubjectsandMethods: A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample size of 615 patients selected by using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Of

Salem Ayyad; Abdullah Al-Owaisheer; Faisal Al-Banwan; Abdullah Al-Mejalli; Mumtaz Shukkur; Lukman Thalib



Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis with ossification of the ligamentum flavum in achondroplasia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder of bone growth. Congenital spinal stenosis is a well-known complication of this disease, but, to the best of our knowledge, no cases involving combined stenosis with congenital lumbar spinal stenosis and ossification of the ligamentum flavum in achondroplasia have been reported previously. In this report, we describe a case of a patient with congenital spinal stenosis with achondroplasia combined with ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the lumbar spine, which we treated with decompressive surgery. Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese woman with achondroplasia was unable to walk due to a neurological deficit of the lower extremities caused by congenital spinal stenosis that resulted from achondroplasia and ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the lumbar spine. Congenital spinal stenosis was observed from L1 to L5, and ossification of the ligamentum flavum was identified from L1/2 to L3/4. A decompressive laminectomy from L1 to L5 and removal of the ossification of the ligamentum flavum were performed. The patient’s neurological symptoms improved after surgery. She could walk with T-cane at the time of her four-year follow-up examination. Conclusion In this report, we describe what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first known published case of ossification of the ligamentum flavum in congenital spinal stenosis associated with achondroplasia at the lumbar spine. Although resection of the ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the congenital spinal stenosis at the lumbar spine was technically difficult because of congenital narrowing of the spinal canal, thickening of the lamina and adhesion of the ossified ligamentum flavum, a wide laminectomy and resection of the ossification of the ligamentum flavum resulted in acceptable improvement of the patient’s neurological symptoms. PMID:24597928



Histone Deacetylase 7 (Hdac7) Suppresses Chondrocyte Proliferation and ?-Catenin Activity during Endochondral Ossification.  


Histone deacetylases (Hdacs) regulate endochondral ossification by suppressing gene transcription and modulating cellular responses to growth factors and cytokines. We previously showed that Hdac7 suppresses Runx2 activity and osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we examined the role of Hdac7 in postnatal chondrocytes. Hdac7 was highly expressed in proliferating cells within the growth plate. Postnatal tissue-specific ablation of Hdac7 with a tamoxifen-inducible collagen type 2a1-driven Cre recombinase increased proliferation and ?-catenin levels in growth plate chondrocytes and expanded the proliferative zone. Similar results were obtained in primary chondrocyte cultures where Hdac7 was deleted with adenoviral-Cre. Hdac7 bound ?-catenin in proliferating chondrocytes, but stimulation of chondrocyte maturation promoted the translocation of Hdac7 to the cytoplasm where it was degraded by the proteasome. As a result, ?-catenin levels and transcription activity increased in the nucleus. These data demonstrate that Hdac7 suppresses proliferation and ?-catenin activity in chondrocytes. Reducing Hdac7 levels in early chondrocytes may promote the expansion and regeneration of cartilage tissues. PMID:25389289

Bradley, Elizabeth W; Carpio, Lomeli R; Olson, Eric N; Westendorf, Jennifer J



The ossification of the pectoral girdle and wing skeleton of the quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).  


The onset of ossification centres of the pectoral girdle and wing skeleton of the quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) has been studied in embryos and juvenile birds, which were sampled daily from the 4th day of incubation up to the 12th day after hatching. Specimens, which were cleared and were stained with Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S, were examined at the stereomicroscope. The furcula ossified with intramembranous ossification at the 7th day of incubation. The first centres of perichondral ossification in the scapula and the coracoid bones were observed at the 7th day of incubation. In the humerus, radius and ulna, perichondral ossification was observed at the 6th day of incubation. The carpal bones were ossified between the 8th and 10th day of the post-hatching period. The 2nd metacarpal bone began to ossify at the 6th day of the post-hatching period, whereas the 3rd and 4th metacarpal bones were ossified at the 7th day of incubation. At the 9th day of incubation, ossification was observed in the 1st phalanx of the alular digit and in the phalanges of the major digit. The 2nd phalanx of the alular digit began to ossify at the 12th, whereas the phalanx of the minor digit at the 14th day of incubation. The data presented here provide useful baseline information on the normal sequential pattern of ossification in the pectoral girdle and wing skeleton in this species. PMID:21392085

Pourlis, A F; Antonopoulos, J



Primary centers and secondary concentrations of tectonic activity through time in the western hemisphere of Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five main stages of radial and concentric structures formed around Tharsis from the Noachian through the Amazonian as determined by geologic mapping of 24,452 structures within the stratigraphic framework of Mars and by testing their radial and concentric orientations. Tectonic activity peaked in the Noachian (stage 1) around the largest center, Claritas, an elongate center extending more than 20?? in latitude and defined by about half of the total grabens which are concentrated in the Syria Planum, Thaumasia, and Tempe Terra regions. During the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian (stage 2), extensional structures formed along the length of present-day Valles Marineris and in Thaumasia (with a secondary concentration near Warrego Vallis) radial to a region just to the south of the central margin of Valles Marineris. Early Hesperian (stage 3) radial grabens in Pavonis, Syria, Ulysses, and Tempe Terra and somewhat concentric wrinkle ridges in Lunae and Solis Plana and in Thaumasia, Sirenum, Memnonia, and Amazonis are centered northwest of Syria with secondary centers at Thaumasia, Tempe Terra, Ulysses Fossae, and western Valles Marineris. Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian (stage 4) structures around Alba Patera, the northeast trending alignment of Tharsis Montes, and Olympus Mons appears centered on Alba Patera. Stage 5 structures (Middle-Late Amazonian) represent the last pulse of Tharsis-related activity and are found around the large shield volcanoes and are centered near Pavonis Mons. Tectonic activity around Tharsis began in the Noachian and generally decreased through geologic time to the Amazonian. Statistically significant radial distributions of structures formed during each stage, centered at different locations within the higher elevations of Tharsis. Secondary centers of radial structures during many of the stages appear related to previously identified local magmatic centers that formed at different times and locations throughout Tharsis. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Franklin, B.J.; Tanaka, K.L.; Lias, J.; Peer, B.



The primary cilium as a cellular signaling center: lessons from disease  

PubMed Central

Genetic diseases known as ciliopathies have recently entered the limelight, placing new importance on a previously mysterious organelle: the primary cilium. Mutations affecting the primary cilium in both humans and animal models can lead to a plethora of distinct phenotypes including retinal degeneration, kidney cysts, and brain malformations. New findings are quickly lending insight into the functions of this cellular extension that seems to be especially important in modulation of subcellular signaling cascades at various stages of development and adult homeostasis. PMID:19477114

Lancaster, Madeline A; Gleeson, Joseph G



An improvement in the appointment scheduling in primary health care centers using data mining.  


An optimal resource management in health care centers implies the use of an appropriate timetabling scheme to schedule appointments. Timetables of health centers are usually divided into time slots whose duration is equal to time required for clinical attendance. However doctors perform a series of tasks that are not always clinical in nature: issuing prescriptions or prescribing sick leave certificates. In this sense the time spent in attending a clinical or an administrative matter is different. This last required less time to attend the patient. This study is focused in the administrative task. A predictive model is generated to provide daily information on how many patients will go to the health center for an administrative issue. The accuracy of the model is less than 4,6 % absolute error and the improvement in scheduling appointments is a time saving of 21,73 %. PMID:24964781

Cubillas, Juan José; Ramos, M Isabel; Feito, Francisco R; Ureña, Tomás



IgM expression on paraffin sections distinguishes primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type from primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma.  


In the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008 classification 2 main types of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas (PCLBCLs) are distinguished: primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) and primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCBCL-LT). PCFCL has a 5-year overall survival rate of 95%, and PCBCL-LT of approximately 50%. Expression profiling studies have shown higher RNA expression of the IgM heavy chain in PCBCL-LT compared with PCFCL. To find out whether this difference could also be demonstrated at the protein level, we performed immunohistochemical staining for B-cell receptor heavy and light chains on skin biopsies from 53 patients with PCFCL and 40 patients with PCBCL-LT. All 40 cases of PCBCL-LT consistently showed cytoplasmic staining for IgM, in 18 of them with coexpression of IgD. In contrast, only 5 of the PCFCL cases showed cytoplasmic staining for IgM and/or IgD, including all 3 PCFCLs presenting on the leg. Hence, staining for IgM on paraffin-embedded sections seems to be an additional tool for differentiating between the 2 entities in clinical pathology practice. Analogous to other nodal and extranodal large B-cell lymphomas, expression of IgM in PCLBCL seems to be related to an activated B cell-like phenotype. Finally, the expression of IgM (and IgD) in this type of lymphoma might imply defective class switch recombination. PMID:20551823

Koens, Lianne; Vermeer, Maarten H; Willemze, Rein; Jansen, Patty M



Treatment of heterotopic ossification through remote ATP hydrolysis.  


Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the pathologic development of ectopic bone in soft tissues because of a local or systemic inflammatory insult, such as burn injury or trauma. In HO, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are inappropriately activated to undergo osteogenic differentiation. Through the correlation of in vitro assays and in vivo studies (dorsal scald burn with Achilles tenotomy), we have shown that burn injury enhances the osteogenic potential of MSCs and causes ectopic endochondral heterotopic bone formation and functional contractures through bone morphogenetic protein-mediated canonical SMAD signaling. We further demonstrated a prevention strategy for HO through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis at the burn site using apyrase. Burn site apyrase treatment decreased ATP, increased adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, and decreased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 in MSCs in vitro. This ATP hydrolysis also decreased HO formation and mitigated functional impairment in vivo. Similarly, selective inhibition of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation with LDN-193189 decreased HO formation and increased range of motion at the injury site in our burn model in vivo. Our results suggest that burn injury-exacerbated HO formation can be treated through therapeutics that target burn site ATP hydrolysis and modulation of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. PMID:25253675

Peterson, Jonathan R; De La Rosa, Sara; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Cilwa, Katherine E; Agarwal, Shailesh; Buchman, Steven R; Cederna, Paul S; Xi, Chuanwu; Morris, Michael D; Herndon, David N; Xiao, Wenzhong; Tompkins, Ronald G; Krebsbach, Paul H; Wang, Stewart C; Levi, Benjamin



Intramembranous ossification of scleral ossicles in Chelydra serpentina.  


Scleral ossicles are present in many reptiles, including turtles and birds. In both groups the sclerotic ring situated in the eye is composed of a number of imbricating scleral ossicles or plates. Despite this gross morphological similarity, Andrews (1996. An endochondral rather than a dermal origin for scleral ossicles in Cryptodiran turtles. J. Herpetol. 30, 257-260) reported that the scleral ossicles of turtles develop endochondrally unlike those in birds, which develop intramembranously after a complex epithelial-mesenchymal inductive event. This study re-explores one of the species examined by Andrews in order to determine the mode of ossification of scleral ossicles in turtles. A growth series of Chelydra serpentina embryos, including the stages examined by Andrews, were examined by staining separately for cartilage and bone. Results clearly contradict Andrews (1996) and show that the scleral ossicles of Chelydra serpentina develop similarly to those in birds. That is, they develop intramembranously without a cartilage precursor and are likely induced by transient scleral papillae. The sequence of scleral papillae development is broadly similar, but the papillae themselves are not as distinct as those seen in chicken embryos. This study has important consequences for understanding the homology of scleral ossicles among tetrapods. PMID:16377163

Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A



Prospective heterotopic ossification progenitors in adult human skeletal muscle.  


Skeletal muscle has strong regenerative capabilities. However, failed regeneration can lead to complications where aberrant tissue forms as is the case with heterotopic ossification (HO), in which chondrocytes, osteoblasts and white and brown adipocytes can arise following severe trauma. In humans, the various HO cell types likely originate from multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in skeletal muscle, which have not been identified in humans until now. In the present study, adherent cells from freshly digested skeletal muscle tissue were expanded in defined culture medium and were FACS-enriched for the CD73(+)CD105(+)CD90(-) population, which displayed robust multilineage potential. Clonal differentiation assays confirmed that all three lineages originated from a single multipotent progenitor. In addition to differentiating into typical HO lineages, human muscle resident MSCs (hmrMSCs) also differentiated into brown adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Characterizing this novel multipotent hmrMSC population with a brown adipocyte differentiation capacity has enhanced our understanding of the contribution of non-myogenic progenitor cells to regeneration and aberrant tissue formation in human skeletal muscle. PMID:25445454

Downey, Jennifer; Lauzier, Dominique; Kloen, Peter; Klarskov, Klaus; Richter, Martin; Hamdy, Reggie; Faucheux, Nathalie; Scimè, Anthony; Balg, Frédéric; Grenier, Guillaume



PIXE study of the kinetics of biomaterials ossification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomaterials are frequently implanted in bones. This implantation is followed by a phenomenon of ossification. The purpose of this work was to study the time evolution of the gradient of characteristic atomic element's concentrations in the bone, the implant and the bone-implant interface. We have studied two types of neutral biomaterials: pure synthetic hydroxyapatite and porite's asteroid coral. The animal implantations have been made on sheep of the same age and sex having received the same basic diet. The implantations have been made in the cortical femur. On both sides of the implant, at the same distance, two screws were placed to allow further determination of the position of the implant. The PIXE method is particularly suitable here because of the possibility to analyze directly the samples without any preparation and to choose easily the dimensions of beam used for the gradient study. The X-rays have been detected with an ultra LEGe instead of the usual Si(Li) device to avoid the Si escape peak associated with the K ? X-ray of calcium, the major constituent of bone. This peak is particularly disturbing here because its energy corresponds to the K ? line of phosphorus, an important constituent of bone. The results of these determinations are presented and discussed.

Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Braye, F.; Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.



Organizational Scope of Practice: Assessing the Primary Care and Public Health Activities of Health Centers and Health Departments in Iowa.  


Abstract The objective was to understand how Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) and local health departments (LHDs) address their shared mission of improving population health by determining the scope of primary care and public health activities each provides in their community. A brief mail survey was designed and fielded among executive directors at all 14 FQHCs in Iowa, and 13 LHDs in Iowa representing counties with and without an FQHC. This survey contained a mixture of questions adapted from previously validated primary care and public health survey instruments. Using survey responses, each FQHC and LHD was given 2 scores (each ranging from 0-100) measuring the extent of their primary care and public health activities, respectively. The overall response rate was 85.2%; the response rate was 78.6% within FQHCs and 91.7% within LHDs. Overall, FQHCs had higher scores (73.8%) compared to LHDs (27.3%) on total primary care services, while both LHDs (79.3%) and FQHCs (70.9%) performed particularly well on public health services. FQHCs and LHDs in Iowa address a variety of public health and primary care issues, including but not limited to screening for chronic diseases, nutrition counseling, immunizations, and behavioral health. However, FQHCs provide a higher amount of primary care services and nearly as many public health services when compared to LHDs. In a value-based health care delivery system, integrating to improve population health is a wise strategy to maximize efficiency, but this will require maximizing coordination and minimizing duplication of services across different types of safety net providers. (Population Health Management 20xx;xx:xxx-xxx). PMID:25187990

Wright, Brad; Ugwi, Patience; Nice, Andrew J



Spongiosa primary development: a biochemical hypothesis by Turing patterns formations.  


We propose a biochemical model describing the formation of primary spongiosa architecture through a bioregulatory model by metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It is assumed that MMP13 regulates cartilage degradation and the VEGF allows vascularization and advances in the ossification front through the presence of osteoblasts. The coupling of this set of molecules is represented by reaction-diffusion equations with parameters in the Turing space, creating a stable spatiotemporal pattern that leads to the formation of the trabeculae present in the spongy tissue. Experimental evidence has shown that the MMP13 regulates VEGF formation, and it is assumed that VEGF negatively regulates MMP13 formation. Thus, the patterns obtained by ossification may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. Moreover, for the numerical solution, we used the finite element method with the Newton-Raphson method to approximate partial differential nonlinear equations. Ossification patterns obtained may represent the primary spongiosa formation during endochondral ossification. PMID:23193429

López-Vaca, Oscar Rodrigo; Garzón-Alvarado, Diego Alexander



Electronic Health Records and Information Portability: A Pilot Study in a Rural Primary Healthcare Center in India  

PubMed Central

Clinical documentation and health information portability pose unique challenges in urban and rural areas of India. This article presents findings of a pilot study conducted in a primary health center in rural India. In this article, we focus on primary care in rural India and how a portable health record system could facilitate the availability of medical information at the point of care. We followed a geriatric cohort and a maternal cohort of 308 participants over a nine-month period. Physician encounters were entered into a web-based electronic health record. This information was made available to all study participants through a short messaging service (SMS). Additionally, 135 randomly selected participants from the cohort were issued a USB-based memory card that contained their detailed health records and could be viewed on most computers. The dual portability model implemented in the pilot study demonstrates the utility of the concept. PMID:25214819

Radhakrishna, Kedar; Goud, B. Ramakrishna; Kasthuri, Arvind; Waghmare, Abijeet; Raj, Tony



Spindle-cell variant of primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma spreading to the hepatobiliary tree, mimicking Klatskin tumor.  


Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (pcFCL) is an indolent type of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (pcBCL) rarely disseminating to other organs. PcBCL with spindle-cell morphology has been described as a rare variant of pcFCL but the prognosis data of this variant is sparse. We report a rare case of spindle-cell pcFCL with CD20(+), CD79a(+), CD3(+), Bcl-6(+), Mum-1(-) and CD10(-) tumor cells that infiltrated the hepatic hilum, mimicking a Klatskin tumor. On the basis of the sparse published data on spindle-cell morphology of pcBCL, this growth pattern should elicit awareness of an increased risk of systemic involvement in the otherwise indolent pcFCL. PMID:23167279

Rozati, Sima; Kerl, Katrin; Kempf, Werner; Tinguely, Marianne; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Dummer, Reinhard; Cozzio, Antonio



Trend Analysis of Primary Midwife-led Delivery Care at a Japanese Perinatal Center  

PubMed Central

Objective: To perform trend analysis of primary midwife-led delivery care for 'low risk' pregnant women at our hospital. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed to examine trends and outcomes of labor under primary midwife-led delivery care at the Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital between 2008 and 2012. Results: During the study period, the rate of deliveries initially considered 'low risk' decreased from 25 to 22% (p < 0.01). This change was associated with increased cases of previous Cesarean deliveries and preterm delivery. There were no significant changes in the neonatal outcomes; however, the rate of Cesarean delivery and incidence of severe perineal laceration in primary midwife-led delivery care were decreased from 2.1 and 3.3% to 0.3 (p = 0.02) and 1.1% (p = 0.04), respectively due to the close cooperation between midwives and obstetricians. Conclusion: The rate of deliveries initially considered 'low risk' decreased over the last 5-year period. Closer cooperation between midwives and obstetricians is important in primary midwife-led delivery care. PMID:24688310

Suzuki, Shunji



Figure Facts: Encouraging Undergraduates to Take a Data-Centered Approach to Reading Primary Literature  

PubMed Central

The ability to interpret experimental data is essential to understanding and participating in the process of scientific discovery. Reading primary research articles can be a frustrating experience for undergraduate biology students because they have very little experience interpreting data. To enhance their data interpretation skills, students used a template called “Figure Facts” to assist them with primary literature–based reading assignments in an advanced cellular neuroscience course. The Figure Facts template encourages students to adopt a data-centric approach, rather than a text-based approach, to understand research articles. Specifically, Figure Facts requires students to focus on the experimental data presented in each figure and identify specific conclusions that may be drawn from those results. Students who used Figure Facts for one semester increased the amount of time they spent examining figures in a primary research article, and regular exposure to primary literature was associated with improved student performance on a data interpretation skills test. Students reported decreased frustration associated with interpreting data figures, and their opinions of the Figure Facts template were overwhelmingly positive. In this paper, we present Figure Facts for others to adopt and adapt, with reflection on its implementation and effectiveness in improving undergraduate science education. PMID:23463227

Round, Jennifer E.; Campbell, A. Malcolm



Talking about the pain: A patient-centered study of low back pain in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite considerable research, low back pain (LBP) often proves resistant to treatment. This study was designed to increase the understanding of low back pain through access to patients' perceptions, beliefs, illness behaviors and lived experiences. The findings are based on focus groups, individual interviews and participant observation conducted in primary care practices and community settings in three regions in Israel.

Jeffrey Borkan; Shmuel Reis; Doron Hermoni; Aya Biderman



Figure Facts: Encouraging Undergraduates to Take a Data-Centered Approach to Reading Primary Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to interpret experimental data is essential to understanding and participating in the process of scientific discovery. Reading primary research articles can be a frustrating experience for undergraduate biology students because they have very little experience interpreting data. To enhance their data interpretation skills, students…

Round, Jennifer E.; Campbell, A. Malcolm



To Study the Incidence of Heterotopic Ossification After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Previous studies have enumerated the advantages of an arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction with the use of a Bone Patellar Tendon Bone (BPTB) graft. Complications are extremely rare in such surgeries and one such known complication, which is an extra-articular heterotophic ossification at the femoral tunnel site, is rarely seen only in few patients. Aim: To evaluate the incidence of heterotrophic ossifications at the femoral tunnel site and the efficacy of the preventive measures which were undertaken, in patients who had undergone ACL reconstructions with the use of bone patellar tendon bone grafts. Material and Methods: A total of 285 patients who had ACL tears within a duration of six years, were evaluated prospectively for the incidence of heterotrophic ossifications after they underwent arthroscopic reconstructions with the use of bone patellar tendon bone grafts by the double incision technique. The effect of the efficacy of various preventive measures on the incidence of the heterotophic ossifications post surgery was also studied. Results: The observed incidence of the heterotophic ossifications was 2.58% in patients whom preventive measures were not used. In contrast, an incidence of 1.54% of similar complications was recorded, after preventive measures were undertaken. Our results showed that heterotophic ossifications after arthroscopic reconstructions with the use of bone patellar tendon bone grafts were a rare complication and that their incidence could be further reduced if preventive measures were taken. Conclusion: The heterotophic ossification is a rare complication after an ACL reconstruction is done with the use of a bone patellar tendon bone graft by the double incision technique. Its incidence reduces significantly after preventive measures are undertaken. PMID:23814735

Bhandary, Bhaskara; Shetty, Sudeep; Bangera, Vinay V.; R., Yogaprakash; Kassim, Mohammed Shabir; Alva, Karan; Bhandary, Sudarshan



Eleven years of primary health care delivery in an academic nursing center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic community nursing centers (CNCs) emphasize partnership with the communities they serve to provide access to services that promote, restore, and maintain health. In this study, selected data from an 11-year clinical data set are presented to show the scope of academic CNC nursing practice, describe client services and expanded nursing roles, show the use of a computerized clinical documentation

Eugenie Hildebrandt; Mary Jo Baisch; Sally P Lundeen; Jean Bell-Calvin; Sheryl Kelber



Centralized care management support for "high utilizers" in primary care practices at an academic medical center.  


Although evidence of effectiveness is limited, care management based outside primary care practices or hospitals is receiving increased attention. The University of Michigan (UM) Complex Care Management Program (CCMP) provides care management for uninsured and underinsured, high-utilizing patients in multiple primary care practices. To inform development of optimal care management models, we describe the CCMP model and characteristics and health care utilization patterns of its patients. Of a consecutive series of 49 patients enrolled at CCMP in 2011, the mean (SD) age was 48 (+/- 14); 23 (47%) were women; and 29 (59%) were White. Twenty-eight (57%) had two or more chronic medical conditions, 39 (80%) had one or more psychiatric condition, 28 (57%) had a substance abuse disorder, and 11 (22%) were homeless. Through phone, e-mail, and face-to-face contact with patients and primary care providers (PCPs), care managers coordinated health and social services and facilitated access to medical and mental health care. Patients had a mean (SD) number of hospitalizations and emergency room (ER) visits in 6 months prior to enrollment of2.2 (2.5) and 4.2 (4.3), respectively, with a nonstatistically significant decrease in hospitalizations, hospital days, and emergency room visits in 6 months following enrollment in CCMP. Centralized care management support for primary care practices engages high-utilizing patients with complex medical and behavioral conditions in care management that would be difficult to provide through individual practices and may decrease health care utilization by these patients. PMID:24761538

Williams, Brent C; Paik, Jamie L; Haley, Laura L; Grammatico, Gina M



Etiology of anemia in primary hypothyroid subjects in a tertiary care center in Eastern India  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The association of anemia with primary hypothyroidism has been common knowledge for many years. However; its pathogenesis is far from clear in many cases. Often the causes of anemia are manifold. Aims and objectives: In this study, we evaluated the causes of anemia in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult nonpregnant untreated primary hypothyroid patients with anemia without any obvious cause were included. All patients were subjected to full medical history, clinical examination, biochemical and imaging studies. Serum iron profile, vitamin B12, folic acid, anti parietal cell antibody, anti TPO antibody, bone marrow study, and stool for occult blood, Coomb's test, HPLC for hemoglobinopathies and complete hemogram with reticulocyte count were done and analyzed. Results: Normocytic, normochromic anemia was present in 31 patients (51.6%) followed by microcytic anemia in 26 patients (43.3%). Six patients (10%) had megaloblastic anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency including 3 cases of pernicious anemia. Two patients had combined deficiency of iron and vitamin B12. Conclusion: Normocytic normochromic anemia with normal bone marrow was commonest type of anemia in this study, followed by iron deficiency anemia. PMID:23565429

Das, Chanchal; Sahana, Pranab K.; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Giri, Debasis; Roy, Mukut; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta



Solid Waste Processing Center Primary Opening Cells Systems, Equipment and Tools  

SciTech Connect

This document addresses the remote systems and design integration aspects of the development of the Solid Waste Processing Center (SWPC), a facility to remotely open, sort, size reduce, and repackage mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and transuranic (TRU)/TRU mixed waste that is either contact-handled (CH) waste in large containers or remote-handled (RH) waste in various-sized packages.

Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Mullen, O Dennis; Valdez, Patrick LJ



Cyclosporine A versus tacrolimus in combination with mycophenolate mofetil and steroids as primary immunosuppression after lung transplantation: One-year results of a 2-center prospective randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Cyclosporine (INN: ciclosporin) A or tacrolimus have been used mostly in combination with azathioprine as primary immunosuppression after lung transplantation. Benefit or risk deriving from the combination with mycophenolate mofetil are yet unknown.Methods: In a prospective, 2-center, open randomized trial, the combination of cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids was compared with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids as primary

Andreas Zuckermann; Hermann Reichenspurner; Tudor Birsan; Henrick Treede; Elena Deviatko; Bruno Reichart; Walter Klepetko



Chondrocyte-specific ablation of Osterix leads to impaired endochondral ossification  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional ablation of Osterix (Osx) in chondrocytes leads to skeletal defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osx regulates chondrocyte differentiation and bone growth in growth plate chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osx has an autonomous function in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. -- Abstract: Osterix (Osx) is an essential transcription factor required for osteoblast differentiation during both intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Endochondral ossification, a process in which bone formation initiates from a cartilage intermediate, is crucial for skeletal development and growth. Osx is expressed in differentiating chondrocytes as well as osteoblasts during mouse development, but its role in chondrocytes has not been well studied. Here, the in vivo function of Osx in chondrocytes was examined in a chondrocyte-specific Osx conditional knockout model using Col2a1-Cre. Chondrocyte-specific Osx deficiency resulted in a weak and bent skeleton which was evident in newborn by radiographic analysis and skeletal preparation. To further understand the skeletal deformity of the chondrocyte-specific Osx conditional knockout, histological analysis was performed on developing long bones during embryogenesis. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were expanded, the formation of bone trabeculae and marrow cavities was remarkably delayed, and subsequent skeletal growth was reduced. The expression of several chondrocyte differentiation markers was reduced, indicating the impairment of chondrocyte differentiation and endochondral ossification in the chondrocyte-specific Osx conditional knockout. Taken together, Osx regulates chondrocyte differentiation and bone growth in growth plate chondrocytes, suggesting an autonomous function of Osx in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification.

Oh, Jung-Hoon [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, BK21 Medical Education Program for Human Resources, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, BK21 Medical Education Program for Human Resources, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung-Yoon [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Crombrugghe, Benoit de [Department of Genetics, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (United States)] [Department of Genetics, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (United States); Kim, Jung-Eun, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, BK21 Medical Education Program for Human Resources, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, BK21 Medical Education Program for Human Resources, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)



Radiofrequency ablation of primary and metastatic lung tumors: preliminary experience with a single center device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study aimed to assess the feasibility and short-term results for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation in the treatment\\u000a of primary and secondary lung tumors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between May 2003 and July 2004, 15 patients (mean age, 64.9 years; range, 51–80 years) with 18 pulmonary lesions (9 primitive\\u000a non–small cell lung cancers and 9 metastases) underwent the ablation procedure. All the patients had absolute

D. Laganà; G. Carrafiello; M. Mangini; L. Boni; G. Dionigi; M. C. Fusi; L. Cinquepalmi; F. Rovera; S. Cuffari; C. Fugazzola



The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT {+-} indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: <18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and >30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT {+-} indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: <18.5, (0%) 0/6 patients; 18.5-24.9 (6%), 6 of 105 patients developed HO; 25-29.9 (19%), 22 of 117; >30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06-1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT {+-} indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

Mourad, Waleed Fouad, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY (United States); Packianathan, Satya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)



Heterotopic ossification after surgery for distal humeral fractures.  


We retrospectively reviewed 89 consecutive patients (45 men and 44 women) with a mean age at the time of injury of 58 years (18 to 97) who had undergone external fixation after sustaining a unilateral fracture of the distal humerus. Our objectives were to determine the incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO); identify risk factors associated with the development of HO; and characterise the location, severity and resultant functional impairment attributable to the presence of HO. HO was identified in 37 elbows (42%), mostly around the humerus and along the course of the medial collateral ligament. HO was hazy immature in five elbows (13.5%), mature discrete in 20 (54%), extensive mature in 10 (27%), and complete bone bridges were present in two elbows (5.5%). Mild functional impairment occurred in eight patients, moderate in 27 and severe in two. HO was associated with less extension (p = 0.032) and less overall flexion-to-extension movement (p = 0.022); the flexion-to-extension arc was < 100º in 21 elbows (57%) with HO compared with 18 elbows (35%) without HO (p = 0.03). HO was removed surgically in seven elbows. The development of HO was significantly associated with sustaining a head injury (p = 0.015), delayed internal fixation (p = 0.027), the method of fracture fixation (p = 0.039) and the use of bone graft or substitute (p = 0.02).HO continues to be a substantial complication after internal fixation for distal humerus fractures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1681-7. PMID:25452373

Foruria, A M; Lawrence, T M; Augustin, S; Morrey, B F; Sanchez-Sotelo, J



Access of primary and secondary literature by health personnel in an academic health center: implications for open access*  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The research sought to ascertain the types and quantity of research evidence accessed by health personnel through PubMed and UpToDate in a university medical center over the course of a year in order to better estimate the impact that increasing levels of open access to biomedical research can be expected to have on clinical practice in the years ahead. Methods: Web log data were gathered from the 5,042 health personnel working in the Stanford University Hospitals (SUH) during 2011. Data were analyzed for access to the primary literature (abstracts and full-text) through PubMed and UpToDate and to the secondary literature, represented by UpToDate (research summaries), to establish the frequency and nature of literature consulted. Results: In 2011, SUH health personnel accessed 81,851 primary literature articles and visited UpToDate 110,336 times. Almost a third of the articles (24,529) accessed were reviews. Twenty percent (16,187) of the articles viewed were published in 2011. Conclusion: When it is available, health personnel in a clinical care setting frequently access the primary literature. While further studies are needed, this preliminary finding speaks to the value of the National Institutes of Health public access policy and the need for medical librarians and educators to prepare health personnel for increasing public access to medical research. PMID:23930091

Steinberg, Ryan M.; Moorhead, Laura; O'Brien, Bridget; Willinsky, John



Kinetics, energetics, and electronic coupling of the primary electron transfer reactions in mutated reaction centers of Blastochloris viridis.  

PubMed Central

Femtosecond spectroscopy in combination with site-directed mutagenesis has been used to study the dynamics of primary electron transfer in native and 12 mutated reaction centers of Blastochloris (B) (formerly called Rhodopseudomonas) viridis. The decay times of the first excited state P* vary at room temperature between of 0.6 and 50 ps, and at low temperatures between 0.25 and 90 ps. These changes in time constants are discussed within the scope of nonadiabatic electron transfer theory using different models: 1) If the mutation is assumed to predominantly influence the energetics of the primary electron transfer intermediates, the analysis of the room temperature data for the first electron transfer step to the intermediate P(+)B(A)(-) yields a reorganization energy lambda = 600 +/- 200 cm(-1) and a free energy gap Delta G ranging from -600 cm(-1) to 800 cm(-1). However, this analysis fails to describe the temperature dependence of the reaction rates. 2) A more realistic description of the temperature dependence of the primary electron transfer requires different values for the energetics and specific variations of the electronic coupling upon mutation. Apparently the mutations also lead to pronounced changes in the electronic coupling, which may even dominate the change in the reaction rate. One main message of the paper is that a simple relationship between mutation and a change in one reaction parameter cannot be given and that at the very least the electronic coupling is changed upon mutation. PMID:12023243

Huppman, P; Arlt, T; Penzkofer, H; Schmidt, S; Bibikova, M; Dohse, B; Oesterhelt, D; Wachtveit, J; Zinth, W



Methodological Challenges of Measuring Primary Care Delivery to Pediatric Medicaid Beneficiaries Who Use Community Health Centers  

PubMed Central

Efforts to measure quality of care have focused on ambulatory care providers. We examined the performance of community health centers serving children on Medicaid in 3 states. Descriptive analysis showed considerable patient population heterogeneity, and regression analysis demonstrated that variation explained by the assigned provider was small (mean R2?=?4.3%) compared with the variation explained by patient demographic variables (mean R2?=?29.9%). The results reinforce the need for caution when one is attributing quality differences to provider performance. PMID:23237184

Tyo, Karen R.; Gurewich, Deborah



Anisotropic magnetic interactions in the primary radical ion-pair of photosynthetic reaction centers  

PubMed Central

The quantum yield of triplets formed by ion-pair recombination in quinone-depleted photosynthetic reaction centers is found to depend on their orientation in a magnetic field. This new effect is expected to be a general property of radical pair reactions in the solid state. For 0 < H < 1,000 G, the quantum yield anisotropy is caused by anisotropic electron dipole-electron dipole or nuclear hyperfine interactions, or both. For high fields it is dominated by the anisotropy of the difference g-tensor in the radical ion-pair. The magnitude and sign of the contribution of each interaction depend not only on the values of the principal components of each anisotropic tensor but also on the geometric relationship of the principal axes of each tensor to the transition dipole moment used to detect the yield. A detailed formalism is presented relating these quantities to the observed yield anisotropy. The expected magnitude of each anisotropic parameter is discussed. It is demonstrated that the field dependence of the yield anisotropy is consistent with these values for certain reaction center geometries. PMID:16578764

Boxer, Steven G.; Chidsey, Christopher E. D.; Roelofs, Mark G.



Eleven years of primary health care delivery in an academic nursing center.  


Academic community nursing centers (CNCs) emphasize partnership with the communities they serve to provide access to services that promote, restore, and maintain health. In this study, selected data from an 11-year clinical data set are presented to show the scope of academic CNC nursing practice, describe client services and expanded nursing roles, show the use of a computerized clinical documentation system in tracking nursing practice, and assess the usefulness of the Lundeen conceptual model. The study design was a retrospective review of computerized client record data. The setting was a CNC located in the neighborhood center of a large federally subsidized housing development. The sample was 25,495 client visits to the CNC. Visit data were coded and entered into a relational data management program to facilitate analysis. Findings show an expansion over time of nursing practice and client services that include strong case management and management of illness care. Findings also suggest that a computerized clinical documentation system that specifically tracks nursing practice is vital if nurses are to identify and eventually be reimbursed for client care specific to nursing practice. Finally, the Lundeen conceptual model was shown to be useful across the continuum of care provided at CNCs. PMID:14613067

Hildebrandt, Eugenie; Baisch, Mary Jo; Lundeen, Sally P; Bell-Calvin, Jean; Kelber, Sheryl



Does the epiphyseal cartilage of the long bones have one or two ossification fronts?  


Epiphyseal cartilage is hyaline cartilage tissue with a gelatinous texture, and it is responsible for the longitudinal growth of the long bones in birds and mammals. It is located between the epiphysis and the diaphysis. Epiphyseal cartilage also is called a growth plate or physis. It is protected by three bone components: the epiphysis, the bone bar of the perichondrial ring and the metaphysis. The epiphysis, which lies over the epiphyseal cartilage in the form a cupola, contains a juxtaposed bone plate that is near the epiphyseal cartilage and is in direct contact with the epiphyseal side of the epiphyseal cartilage. The germinal zone corresponds to a group of cells called chondrocytes. These chondrocytes belong to a group of chondral cells, which are distributed in rows and columns; this architecture is commonly known as a growth plate. The growth plate is responsible for endochondral bone growth. The aim of this study was to elucidate the causal relationship between the juxtaposed bone plate and epiphyseal cartilage in mammals. Our hypothesis is that cells from the germinal zone of the epiphyseal side of the epiphyseal cartilage are involved in forming a second ossification front that is responsible for the origin of the juxtaposed bone plate. We report the following: (a) The juxtaposed bone plate has a morphology and function that differs from that of the epiphyseal trabeculae; (b) on the epiphyseal edge of the epiphyseal cartilage, a new ossification front starts on the chondrocytes of the germinal area, which forms the juxtaposed bone plate. This ossification front is formed by chondrocytes from the germinal zone through a process of mineralisation and ossification, and (c) the process of mineralisation and ossification has a certain morphological analogy to the process of ossification in the metaphyseal cartilage of amphibians and differs from the endochondral ossification process in the metaphyseal side of the growth plate. The close relationship between the juxtaposed bone plate and the epiphyseal cartilage, in which the chondrocytes that migrate from the germinal area play an important role in the mineralisation and ossification process of the juxtaposed bone plate, supports the hypothesis of a new ossification front in the epiphyseal layer of the epiphyseal plate. This hypothesis has several implications: (a) epiphyseal cartilage is a morphological entity with two different ossification fronts and two different functions, (b) epiphyseal cartilage may be a morphological structure with three parts: perichondrial ring, metaphyseal ossification front or growth plate, and epiphyseal ossification front, (c) all disease (traumatic or dysplastic) that affects some of these parts can have an impact on the morphology of the epiphyseal region of the bone, (d) there is a certain analogy between metaphyseal cartilage in amphibians and mammalian epiphyseal cartilage, although the former is not responsible for bone growth, (e) comparative histological and anatomy studies are also warranted, to shed light on the phylogenetic study of epiphyseal cartilage throughout the changes that occur in the animal species. PMID:23953967

Delgado-Martos, María Jesús; Touza Fernández, Alberto; Canillas, Fernando; Quintana-Villamandos, Begoña; Santos del Riego, Sergio; Delgado-Martos, Emilio; Martos-Rodriguez, Antonia; Delgado-Baeza, Emilio



Bilateral ossification of the auricles: an unusual entity and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background True ossification of the auricle with cartilage replacement by bone, is a very rare clinical entity and can result in an entirely rigid auricle. Case presentation We present a rare case of bilateral ossification of the auricles in a 75-years old man with profound progressive rigidity of both auricles. His main complaint was a mild discomfort during resting making sleeping unpleasant without any other serious symptoms. His medical history was significant for predisposing factors for this condition such as, Addison's disease and diabetes mellitus. Excisional biopsy was performed confirming the ossified nature of the auricles. Further treatment deemed unnecessary in our case due to his mild clinical picture. Conclusion True auricular ossification is a quite rare clinical entity with unclear pathogenesis and one should have in mind that there is always the possibility of a serious co-existed disease like endocrinopathy. PMID:19796391

Mastronikolis, Nicholas S; Zampakis, Peter; Kalogeropoulou, Christina; Stathas, Theodoros; Siabi, Vassiliki; Geropoulou, Eleni; Goumas, Panos D



Sarcoidois: is it only a mimicker of primary rheumatic disease? A single center experience  

PubMed Central

Background: Sarcoidosis is known as a T helper 1 lymphocyte (Th1-Ly) mediated disease which can imitate or sometimes accompany many primary rheumatic diseases. The purpose of this study is to share the clinical, demographic and laboratory data of patients presenting with rheumatologic manifestations and diagnosed with sarcoidosis. Methods: A total of 42 patients (10 men) were included in the study. The patients were admitted to the rheumatology outpatient clinic for the first time with different rheumatic complaints between November 2011 and May 2013 and were diagnosed with sarcoidosis after relevant tests. Clinical, demographic, laboratory, radiological and histological data of these patients were collected during the 18-month follow-up period and then analyzed. Results Mean patient age was 45.2 years (20–70 years) and mean duration of disease was 3.5 years (1 month–25 years). Evaluation of system and organ involvement revealed that 20 (47.6%) patients had erythema nodosum, 3 (7.1%) had uveitis, 1 (2.3%) had myositis, 1 (2.3%) had neurosarcoidosis, 32 (76.2%) had arthritis and 40 (95.2%) had arthralgia. Of the 32 patients with arthritis, 28 (87.5%) had involvement of the ankle, 3 (9.4%) had involvement of the knee and 1 (3.2%) had involvement of the wrist. No patient had cardiac involvement. Thoracic computed tomography scan showed stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 sarcoidosis in 12 (28.5%), 22 (52.4%), 4 (9.5%) and 4 (9.5%) patients, respectively. Histopathology of sarcoidosis was verified by endobronchial ultrasound, mediastinoscopy and skin and axillary biopsy of lymphadenopathies, which revealed noncaseating granulomas. Laboratory tests showed elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme in 15 (35.7%) patients, elevated serum calcium level in 6 (14.2%) patients and elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in 2 (4.7%) patients. Serological tests showed antinuclear antibody positivity in 12 (28.5%) patients, rheumatoid factor positivity in 7 (16.6%) patients and anticyclic citrullinated antibody positivity in 2 (4.8%) patients. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis can imitate or accompany many primary rheumatic diseases. Sarcoidosis should be considered not simply as an imitator but as a primary rheumatic pathology mediated by Th1-Ly. New studies are warranted on this subject. PMID:24489610

Sever, Fidan; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin; Orman, Mehmet



Radiographic monitoring of the ossification of long bones in kori ( Ardeotis kori) and white-bellied ( Eupodotis senegalensis) bustards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serial radiographic study was conducted on eight kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) and four white-bellied bustard (Eupodotis senegalensis) chicks to determine the pattern of long bone development and to establish radiographic standards for assessing skeletal maturity. The ossification pattern, appearance of secondary ossification centres, and epiphyseal fusion of the long bones in kori and white-bellied bustards were similar to those

J. L. Naldo; J. H. Samour; T. A. Bailey



Changes in Basic Metabolic Elements Associated With the Degeneration and Ossification of Ligamenta Flava  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the association between levels of basic metabolic elements and degeneration and ossification of the ligamentum flavum (LF). Subjects: Fourteen consecutive patients with degenerative lumbar stenosis, 11 with ossification of the thoracic ligamenta flava, and 11 control subjects. Methods: The basic elements of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), and fluoride (F) in the specimens were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry, the phosphomolybdic blue method, and a fluoride-selected electrode. Results: Ca content and the ratio of Ca/Mg in the LF specimens increased significantly in the sequence of control, degeneration, and ossification groups. Compared with values for the control group, the Zn, Mn, and Mo contents in the ossification and degeneration groups were significantly lower (P < 0.01); in contrast, Cu content was significantly higher (P < 0.01). As to F, its content in the specimens of the ossification group was much higher than those in the degeneration and control groups (P < 0.01); the F content in the ligamenta flava and sera from patients with fluorosis was also significantly higher than in those from patients without fluorosis (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, there were no differences in the F content in serum from patients without fluorosis; however, the F content in ligamenta flava specimens from patients without fluorosis was significantly higher (P < 0.01). Conclusions: There are trends in the contents of basic metabolic elements in the degeneration and ossification of ligamenta flava. These basic metabolic elements may play an important role in this process. PMID:18795477

Wang, Zhe; Li, Xiang-Dong; Li, Ming-Quan; Wang, Quan-Ping



Ossification of the thoracic posterior longitudinal ligament in a fixed population. Radiological and neurological manifestations  

SciTech Connect

Reportedly, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) usually involves the cervical spine and often accompanies other ligamentous ossification such as diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). It is considered serious because it sometimes causes severe radiculomyelopathy; however, the present study, based on a fixed population sample, revealed that OPLL of the thoracic spine is nearly always asymptomatic. The prevalence of thoracic OPLL was 0.6%, with three times as many women as men being affected, compared with cervical OPLL which occurs predominantly among men. No marked radiculomyelopathy was observed, nor definite evidence of neurological involvement due to thoracic OPLL. DISH was rare, especially among women.

Ono, M.; Russell, W.J.; Kudo, S.; Kuroiwa, Y.; Takamori, M.; Motomura, S.; Murakami, J.



Ossification of the thoracic posterior longitudinal ligament in a fixed population: radiological and neurological manifestations  

SciTech Connect

Reportedly, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) usually involves the cervical spine and often accompanies other ligamentous ossification such as diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). It is considered serious because it sometimes causes severe radiculomyelopathy; however, the present study, based on a fixed population sample, revealed that OPLL of the thoracic spine is nearly always asymptomatic. The prevalence of thoracic OPLL was 0.6% with three times as many women as men being affected, compared with cervical OPLL which occurs predominantly among men. No marked radiculomyelopathy was observed, nor definite evidence or neurological involvement due to thoracic OPLL. DISH was rare, especially among women.

Ono, M.; Russell, W.J.; Kudo, S.; Kuroiwa, Y.; Takamori, M.; Motomura, S.; Murakami, J.



Heterotopic mineralization (ossification or calcification) in tendinopathy or following surgical tendon trauma  

PubMed Central

Heterotopic tendon mineralization (ossification or calcification), which may be a feature of tendinopathy or which may develop following surgical trauma (repair or graft harvest), has not received much attention. The purpose of this article is to review the prevalence, mechanisms and consequences of heterotopic tendon mineralization and to identify the gaps in our current understanding. We focus on endochondral heterotopic ossification and draw on knowledge of the mechanisms of this process in other tissues and conditions. Finally, we introduce a novel murine Achilles tendon needle injury model, which will enable us to further study the mechanisms and biomechanical consequences of tendon mineralization. PMID:22974213

O'Brien, Etienne J O; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Hart, David A



Focal rituximab-induced edematous reaction at primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma lesions: case report and literature review.  


Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) is the most common cutaneous B cell lymphoma. It is most often indolent and responds well to rituximab. We present a case of transient rituximab-induced edematous lesions located exclusively on tumor papules in a patient treated for PCFCL. Based on this observation and on a review of the literature, we discuss the mechanism of this edematous reaction which does not seem to be allergic. Indeed, this focal reaction observed solely during the first infusion of rituximab is more likely linked with local cytokine release induced by B cell lysis in the skin. This reaction is neither unusual nor severe and should not lead to an interruption of rituximab. PMID:21986026

Brunet-Possenti, F; Franck, N; Tamburini, J; Jacobelli, S; Avril, M-F; Dupin, N



Family Centered Approach in Primary Health Care: Experience from an Urban Area of Mangalore, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction. “Health for All” still eludes public health experts despite many approaches to prevent disease and promote health among urban poor. Several key illness factors lie beyond the conventional healthcare boundaries. Objective. To examine the effectiveness of family centered approach (FCA) in addressing health and related issues in an urban area of Mangalore, India. Method. A longitudinal study was conducted in Bengre, an outreach centre of Mangalore from June 2011 to November 2013. Family folders were created with pertinent details. Demand generation and health education activities were conducted through two female community health link workers. An FCA package was implemented by medical and nursing interns, under supervision, to address the priority issues. Effect was assessed by comparing their practices and service utilization before and after the study. Results. About 809 families participated in this study. Social, cultural, and religious factors were responsible for viciousness of malaria and maternal and child health issues. FCA improved their perceptions and practices towards health and related issues. Significant (P < 0.05) and sustained hike in service utilization was evident. Conclusion. FCA exposes key illness factors beyond the conventional care, eases need based healthcare implementation, and provides feasible and enduring solutions. Community involvement makes it more practicable.

Majra, J. P.; Akshaya, K. M.; Qadiri, Ghulam Jeelani



Reoperations for Persistent or Recurrent Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Results of a Retrospective Cohort Study at a Tertiary Referral Center  

PubMed Central

Background Parathyroid reoperations are challenging and achieving a cure requires multidisciplinary treatment team cooperation. The aims of this study were to summarize our experience in revision surgery for persistent (pHPT) or recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) and to explore factors underlying failure to cure at initial surgery. Material/Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent reoperations for pHPT or rHPT at a tertiary referral center. The database of parathyroid surgery was searched for eligible patients (treated in the years 2000–2012). The primary outcome was the cure rate. All the patients were followed-up for at least 12 months postoperatively. Factors underlying failure to cure at initial surgery were reviewed based on hospital records. Results The study group comprised 88 patients (69 women, 19 men) operated on for persistent (n=57) or recurrent disease (n=31), who underwent 98 reoperations, including 26 (2.4%) patients first operated on at our institution, and 72 (81.8%) patients operated on elsewhere, but referred for revision surgery. A long-term cure was achieved in 83/88 patients (94.3%). The mean post-reoperation follow-up was 91.7 (12–176) months. Missed hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland was found on reoperation in eutopic position in 49 (55.5%) patients, and in ectopic position in 39 (44.3%) patients, including 20 (22.7%) cases of cervical ectopy and 19 (21.6%) cases of mediastinal ectopy. Conclusions Multidisciplinary treatment team cooperation at a tertiary referral center, consisting of an accurate preoperative localization, expertise in parathyroid re-explorations, and correct use of intraoperative adjuncts, contribute to the high success rate of parathyroid reoperations. PMID:25201515

Nawrot, Ireneusz; Chudzi?ski, Witold; Ci??ka, Tomasz; Barczy?ski, Marcin; Szmidt, Jacek



Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma: a single-center experience in Korea  

PubMed Central

Background Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) is a distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which has no consensus for its ideal treatment or prognosis. Methods We reviewed the clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes of 25 PMBL cases diagnosed at a single institution between 1993 and 2009 and compared them with 588 cases of non-mediastinal, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, control group) diagnosed during the same period. Results Thirteen (52.0%) PMBL patients had Ann Arbor stage III or IV disease, and 10 (40.0%) had B symptoms. Thirteen (52%) PMBL patients were classified as high-intermediate/high-risk according to the International Prognostic Index. There was a significant prevalence of young (median: 31 years; range, 15-78 years; P<0.001), female (68%; P=0.014) patients in the PMBL group compared to the control group (median: 56 years; range, 15-85 years; 43.2% female). Bulky disease and elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were more frequent in the PMBL group (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively). Nineteen (76%) PBML patients achieved complete remission, and 18 were alive at the last follow-up (median: 43 months; range, 1-92 months). There was no difference in the 3-year, overall survival rate (72%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 54.0-83.0 versus 70.1%, 95% CI, 109.0-126.0; P=0.686) between PMBL and control patients, respectively. Conclusion Compared to patients with non-mediastinal DLBCL, Korean patients with PMBL are predominantly young women with bulky disease and high LDH levels but with no significant difference in survival. PMID:24724065

Ahn, Heui June; Yoon, Dok-Hyun; Kim, Shin; Lee, Kyoungmin; Kang, EunHee; Huh, Jooryung; Park, Chan-Sik



Assessment of general characteristics of patients with primary metastatic breast carcinoma: single center experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease. Several subgroups have been identified, according to the clinical presentation and radiographic, pathological, biological, and molecular characteristics of the tumor. Intrinsic genetic heterogeneity may be responsible for these differences. To date, little is known about the clinical features and outcome of patients with primary metastatic BC (PMBC) defined as those presenting with stage IV disease. Material and methods Between September 2007 and May 2011, BC patients who were admitted to a clinic were assessed. Patients with PMBC were included in this retrospective analysis. The patients’ demographic characteristics, treatment schedules, and survival data were recorded. Results Of 2478 BC patients, 102 (4.1%) with PMBC were included in the analysis. The median age of the patients was 50 (26–90) years. Only four patients (3.9%) had previously undergone mammography. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 30 and 66 months, respectively. The PFS and OS were unaffected by age, menopausal status, ECOG, histology, or tumor grade. Both PFS and OS were affected by HR status (log rank p = 0.006, log rank p = 0.04), HER2 status (p = 0.001, p = 0.005), site of metastasis (p = 0.01, p = 0.04), radiotherapy (p = 0.04, OS p = 0.03), and bisphosphonate treatment (p = 0.02, p = 0.006). PFS was greater in the hormone therapy group (43 months, p = 0.03) while OS was greater in the patients that received chemotherapy (76 months, p = 0.01). Conclusions Mammography should be given greater emphasis, considering its importance in the prevention of PMBC. As a treatment option for bone and soft tissue metastatic PMBC patients, hormone therapy should be effective as a first-line treatment. PMID:24596535

Budakoglu, Burcin; Turker, ?brahim; Helvaci, Kaan; Sonmez, Ozlem Uysal; Aktas, Gulali; Arslan, Ulku Yalcintas; Oksuzoglu, Omur Berna Cakmak



Overcoming Barriers in the Management of Hypertension: The Experience of the Cardiovascular Health Program in Chilean Primary Health Care Centers  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the blood pressure control and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in a population of hypertensive patients with access to care under a government-financed program, the Cardiovascular Health Program (CHP). Design. A cross-sectional and multicenter study. Setting. 52 primary care centers, metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile. Participants. 1,194 patients were selected by a systematic random sampling from a universe of 316,654 hypertensive patients. Key Measurements. Demographic information, blood pressure (BP) measurements, and CVRF were extracted from medical records of patients followed for a 12-month period. Results. 59.7% of patients reached target BP <140/90?mmHg. More women were captured in the sampling (2.1?:?1), achieving better BP control than men. Diabetic patients (26.4%) had worse BP control than nondiabetics. Antihypertensive medications were used in 91.5%, with multidrug therapy more frequent in patients with higher BP and more difficult control. Conclusions. The success in improving the BP control to values <140/90?mmHg from 45.3% to 59.7% underscores the contribution of this program in the Chilean primary care cardiovascular preventive strategies. However, fewer hypertensive men than women were captured by this program, and it is of concern the underperforming of BP control observed in diabetics. PMID:22701781

Sandoval, Daniela; Bravo, Miguel; Koch, Elard; Gatica, Sebastián; Ahlers, Ivonne; Henríquez, Oscar; Romero, Tomás



Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma with Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg-like cells: a new histopathologic variant.  


Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) is the most frequent cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a solitary indolent subcutaneous nodule for 3 years duration, without other abnormalities. Histological examination showed lymphoproliferation with a nodular growth pattern characterized by fibrous collagen bands surrounding nodules. The nodules were composed of medium-sized centrocytes admixed with many large multilobulated and lacunar cells without eosinophils or granulomatous aspect. Hodgkin-like cells were CD30+, CD15+, PAX5+, OCT2+, BOB1+, MUM1+, Ki67+, Bcl6+ and focally CD20+ and EMA-, CD79a-, Bcl2- and CD10-. The medium-sized cells were CD20+, CD79a+, Bcl2+, Bcl6+ and CD10+, enmeshed in a network of CD21-positive follicular dendritic cells. Epstein-Barr virus detection was negative. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization showed the absence of BCL2 or BCL6 rearrangement. In such a case, the presence of Hodgkin-like cells intermixed with the tumor population may result in a pitfall diagnosis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). Differential diagnoses to be ruled out are secondary or primary skin localization of rather CHL, or systemic follicular lymphoma. Several clinical, radiological, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular arguments indicated the diagnosis of PCFCL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PCFCL with Hodgkin-like cells. PMID:25099172

Marie, Dilly; Houda, Ben-Rejeb; Béatrice, Vergier; Matthieu, Feldis; Louis, Toty; Olivier, Nohra; Marie, Beylot-Barry; Audrey, Gros; Jean-Philippe, Merlio; Marie, Parrens



Evaluating factors affecting the implementation of evidence based medicine in primary healthcare centers in Dubai  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the current evidence based medicine (EBM) knowledge, attitude and perceptions of physicians at Dubai Primary Health Care Sector (PHCS). Further to evaluate barrier and facilitator factors toward implementing the EBM practice. Methodology A cross-sectional study, at Dubai PHCS, UAE between June and August 2010. The survey was composed of two phases. The first phase was a self administrated questionnaire employed for data collection and the second phase was qualitative method, which was in the form of individual interviews. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis. Results In total 48 participants responded to the survey questionnaire and 13 responded to individual interviews. The response rate was 70.0%. Mean age was 42.18 (SD 10.46). The majority were females (64.6%). The physicians who attended EBM courses reported 70.30% using EBM and showed statistical significance (p = 0.002) from those who did not attend the EBM courses. 65.0% believe that 50–75% of the patients are capable of participating in clinical decision while 71.8% disagreed that the concept of EBM is not applicable to their culture. In addition they showed significance (p = 0.03) between physician beliefs with regard to patient capacity to take decision. About 67.0% of the family physicians were knowledgeable and followed systematic review as the strongest evidence. They had no access to the EBM resources (37.0%) and had no time to practice the EBM (38.0%). Nearly 40.0% interviewees reported lack of encouragement to attend EBM courses. EBM activities (22.0%) and active audit (18.0%) were top rated facilitating factors. Conclusions EBM is not fully utilized by indefinite physicians in the Dubai PHC sector. Factors associated with non-utilization of EBM in the PHCS are lack of encouragement to attend EBM courses, senior physicians resist adoption of EBM, lack of time and insufficient dissemination process for implementing the clinical guideline. PMID:25061405

Albarrak, Ahmed I.; Ali Abbdulrahim, Suhair Aqil; Mohammed, Rafiuddin



Structure, spectroscopic, and redox properties of Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers bearing point mutations near the primary electron donor.  


Single mutations of three amino acid residues in the vicinity of the primary electron donor, P, in the reaction center (RC) from Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were constructed and characterized in order to study the effects of hydrogen-bonding on the physical properties of P. The mutations, Phe M197-->Tyr, Met L248-->Thr, and Ser L244-->Gly, represent single amino acid changes near P designed to introduce residues found in Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis and to, thus, probe the effects of nonconserved residues. The mutations were designed to change the nonconserved H-bonding interactions of P in Rb. sphaeroides, at the level of a C2 acetyl, a C9 keto, and a C10 ester carbonyl of P, respectively, to those present in Rps. viridis. The Fourier transform (pre)resonance Raman (FTRR) spectra of P, in its reduced and oxidized states, from reaction centers of these mutants were studied to determine modifications of H-bond interactions of the pi-conjugated C2 acetyl and C9 keto carbonyl groups and the C10 carbomethoxy ester carbonyl groups of P. The vibrational spectra of reduced P in the Met L248-->Thr and Ser L244-->Gly mutants reveal no evidence for changes in the H-bonding pattern of P; this suggests that for Rb. sphaeroides wild type, Ser L244 is not H-bonded to the C10 ester carbonyl of PL. The vibrational spectrum of reduced P from the Phe M197-->Tyr mutant compared to that of wild type can unambiguously be interpreted in terms of the formation of a new H-bond with an acetyl carbonyl of P, specifically PM. Correlating with the new H-bond, the Phe M197-->Tyr mutant exhibits an electronic absorption spectrum where the P absorption band is significantly perturbed. Intact cell and chromatophore photobleaching spectra of the same mutant indicate that the P absorption band has red-shifted by ca. 10 nm; no such behavior is observed for the other mutants. As well, the P-->BPheL electron transfer rate does not seem to strongly depend on the H-bonding of the C2 acetyl carbonyl of PM to a tyrosine residue. The EPR zero-field splitting parameters, E and D, of the primary donor triplet are only slightly modified in the mutant reaction centers, on the order of 1%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8251510

Wachtveitl, J; Farchaus, J W; Das, R; Lutz, M; Robert, B; Mattioli, T A



Ossification in the patellar tendon and patella alta following sports injuries in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients with sleeve fractures of the patella and tibial tuberosity respectively are described. Our two cases demonstrate that the diagnosis can be difficult; patella alta and ossification in the patellar tendon are complications of conservative treatment. Early diagnosis and operative reduction and fixation are mandatory.

J. D. Bruijn; R. J. Sanders; B. R. H. Jansen



Comparative patterns of postcranial ontogeny in therian mammals: an analysis of relative timing of ossification events.  


Data on the relative sequence of ossification of postcranial elements for eight therian mammals (Myotis lucifugus, Homo sapiens, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, Mesocricetus auratus, Cavia porcellus, Didelphis albiventris, and Sminthopsis macroura) and three outgroups (Chelydra serpentina, Alligator mississippiensis, and Lacerta vivipara) were taken from the literature. For each species, a matrix was constructed in which the relative timing of the onset of ossification in 24 elements was summarized. This resulted in 276 event pairs (characters) for each species. Thirty-three (33.3)% of the characters examined are uniform across all taxa, 16.3% are variable but uninformative in the phylogeny, and 50.4% potentially deliver diagnostic features for clades of two or more taxa. In all species examined, the clavicle is the first bone to appear. Placentalia is not unequivocally diagnosed by the state of any event pair, while Marsupialia has the largest amount of autapomorphies with 18. The acceleration in the timing of ossification of the scapula in relation to the hindlimb in marsupials is most probably causally correlated to movements after birth and during early phases of pre-weaning life. Marsupials are almost unique among amniotes in that the earliest onset of ossification of at least one element among carpals and among tarsals is simultaneous. Three parsimony analyses, each one with a different reptilian taxon as outgroup, were performed using event pairs as characters. In all cases, results were incongruent with the phylogeny of the studied taxa. PMID:12362432

SAnchez-Villagra, Marcelo R



Timing of ossification in duck, quail, and zebra finch: intraspecific variation, heterochronies, and life history evolution.  


Skeletogenic heterochronies have gained much attention in comparative developmental biology. The temporal appearance of mineralized individual bones in a species - the species ossification sequence - is an excellent marker in this kind of study. Several publications describe interspecific variation, but only very few detail intraspecific variation. In this study, we describe and analyze the temporal order of ossification of skeletal elements in the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, the Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica, and the White Pekin duck, a domestic race of the mallard Anas platyrhynchos, and explore patterns of intraspecific variation in these events. The overall sequences were found to be conserved. In the duck, variability is present in the relative timing of ossification in the occipital, the basisphenoid and the otic regions of the skull and the phalanges in the postcranium. This variation appears generally in close temporal proximity. Comparison with previously published data shows differences in ossification sequence in the skull, the feet, and the pelvis in the duck, and especially the pelvis in the quail. This clearly documents variability among different breeds. PMID:21728797

Mitgutsch, Christian; Wimmer, Corinne; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Hahnloser, Richard; Schneider, Richard A



The effect of pulsed irrigation on the incidence of heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a common complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Pulsed lavage is being used with increasing frequency for THA. A prospective randomized, double-blind trial was initiated to determine if pulsed lavage affected the incidence of HO. A total of 94 THAs in 91 patients were analyzed. No significant difference in the incidence of HO was found

R. J. S Sneath; F. D Bindi; J Davies; E. J Parnell



Elements of the patient-centered medical home associated with health outcomes among veterans: the role of primary care continuity, expanded access, and care coordination.  


Care continuity, access, and coordination are important features of the patient-centered medical home model and have been emphasized in the Veterans Health Administration patient-centered medical home implementation, called the Patient Aligned Care Team. Data from more than 4.3 million Veterans were used to assess the relationship between these attributes of Patient Aligned Care Team and Veterans Health Administration hospitalization and mortality. Controlling for demographics and comorbidity, we found that continuity with a primary care provider was associated with a lower likelihood of hospitalization and mortality among a large population of Veterans receiving VA primary care. PMID:25180648

Nelson, Karin; Sun, Haili; Dolan, Emily; Maynard, Charles; Beste, Laruen; Bryson, Christopher; Schectman, Gordon; Fihn, Stephan D



Bone marrow blood vessel ossification and "microvascular dead space" in rat and human long bone.  


Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4-6 month; n=8) and old (22-24 month; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner's Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via ?CT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from the rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and "normal" vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (p<0.05) in the old vs. young rats. Calcified and ossified vessel volumes per tissue volume and calcified vessel volume per patent vessel volume were augmented (p<0.05) 262%, 375% and 263%, respectively, in the old vs. young rats. Ossified and patent vessel number was higher (171%) and lower (40%), respectively, in the old vs. young rats. Finally, adipocyte volume per patent vessel volume was higher (86%) with age. This study is the first to report ossification of bone marrow blood vessels in rats and humans. Ossification presumably results in "microvascular dead space" in regard to loss of patency and vasomotor function as opposed to necrosis. Progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. PMID:24680721

Prisby, Rhonda D



Cyclin?dependent kinase inhibitor p21 does not impact embryonic endochondral ossification in mice.  


Endochondral ossification at the growth plate is regulated by a number of factors and hormones. The cyclin?dependent kinase inhibitor p21 has been identified as a cell cycle regulator and its expression has been reported to be essential for endochondral ossification in vitro. However, to the best of our knowledge, the function of p21 in endochondral ossification has not been evaluated in vivo. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the function of p21 in embryonic endochondral ossification in vivo. Wild?type (WT) and p21 knockout (KO) pregnant heterozygous mice were sacrificed on embryonic days E13.5, E15.5 and E18.5. Sagittal histological sections of the forearms of the embryos were collected and stained with Safranin O and 5?bromo?2'?deoxyuridine (BrdU). Additionally, the expression levels of cyclin D1, type II collagen, type X collagen, Sox9, and p16 were examined using immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of p27 were examined using immunofluorescence. Safranin O staining revealed no structural change between the cartilage tissues of the WT and p21KO mice at any time point. Type II collagen was expressed ubiquitously, while type X collagen was only expressed in the hypertrophic zone of the cartilage tissues. No differences in the levels of Sox9 expression were observed between the two groups at any time point. The levels of cyclin D1 expression and BrdU uptake were higher in the E13.5 cartilage tissue compared with those observed in the embryonic cartilage tissue at subsequent time points. Expression of p16 and p27 was ubiquitous throughout the tissue sections. These results indicate that p21 may not be essential for embryonic endochondral ossification in articular cartilage of mice and that other signaling networks may compensate for p21 deletion. PMID:25376471

Chinzei, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Shinya; Hashimoto, Shingo; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Iwasa, Kenjiro; Sakata, Shuhei; Kihara, Shinsuke; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro



Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in an elderly woman with a missed diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage.  


This is a case of idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in a 70 year old with long-standing diabetes and hypertension. Thirteen years prior to her demise, she was first noticed to have multiple calcific deposits in her lungs on a chest X-ray film. She had no risk factors for soft tissue calcification and ossification. Histology of tissue from autopsy showed intraparenchymal pulmonary calcification and ossification with marrow elements. Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification is rare. At autopsy, she was also found to have had bilateral subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), a diagnosis missed during clinical evaluation. We highlight the pertinent details in our patient's management that could have helped to prevent a missed diagnosis of SAH. Even though SAH occurs most commonly following head trauma, the more familiar medical use of SAH is for non-traumatic SAH occurring following a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This patient had notable risk factors for cerebral aneurysm formation but an aneurysm was not identified at autopsy. The location of the blood high on the cerebral convexities further suggests a traumatic origin rather than a ruptured aneurysm. Heterotopic calcification and ossification (HO) is known to occur in the setting of severe neurologic disorders such as traumatic brain injury but the fact that the lung calcification in our patient predated the brain injury by over 10 years makes it unlikely for the HO to have been due to the brain trauma. Other organ pathologies found at autopsy include chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, renal papillary necrosis, lymphocytic thyroiditis, and seborrheic keratosis. PMID:24391231

Odubanjo, M O; Abdulkareem, F B; Banjo, A; Ekwere, T E; Awelimobor, D I



Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 does not impact embryonic endochondral ossification in mice  

PubMed Central

Endochondral ossification at the growth plate is regulated by a number of factors and hormones. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 has been identified as a cell cycle regulator and its expression has been reported to be essential for endochondral ossification in vitro. However, to the best of our knowledge, the function of p21 in endochondral ossification has not been evaluated in vivo. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the function of p21 in embryonic endochondral ossification in vivo. Wild-type (WT) and p21 knockout (KO) pregnant heterozygous mice were sacrificed on embryonic days E13.5, E15.5 and E18.5. Sagittal histological sections of the forearms of the embryos were collected and stained with Safranin O and 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Additionally, the expression levels of cyclin D1, type II collagen, type X collagen, Sox9, and p16 were examined using immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of p27 were examined using immunofluorescence. Safranin O staining revealed no structural change between the cartilage tissues of the WT and p21KO mice at any time point. Type II collagen was expressed ubiquitously, while type X collagen was only expressed in the hypertrophic zone of the cartilage tissues. No differences in the levels of Sox9 expression were observed between the two groups at any time point. The levels of cyclin D1 expression and BrdU uptake were higher in the E13.5 cartilage tissue compared with those observed in the embryonic cartilage tissue at subsequent time points. Expression of p16 and p27 was ubiquitous throughout the tissue sections. These results indicate that p21 may not be essential for embryonic endochondral ossification in articular cartilage of mice and that other signaling networks may compensate for p21 deletion. PMID:25376471




National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) patient-centered medical home (PCMH) recognition is suboptimal even among innovative primary care practices.  


The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) has promoted patient-centered medical home (PCMH) recognition among primary care practices since 2008 as a standard indicator of which practices have transformed into medical homes. A 40% PCMH adoption rate among a large national cohort of identified practices with innovative staffing (n = 131) calls into question whether the NCQA recognition process is truly transformative and patient-centered or simply another certificate to hang on the wall. PMID:24808108

Hahn, Karissa A; Gonzalez, Martha M; Etz, Rebecca S; Crabtree, Benjamin F



Randomised primary health center based interventions to improve the diagnosis and treatment of undifferentiated fever and dengue in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Fever is a common reason for attending primary health facilities in Vietnam. Response of health care providers to patients with fever commonly consists of making a presumptive diagnosis and proposing corresponding treatment. In Vietnam, where malaria was brought under control, viral infections, notably dengue, are the main causes of undifferentiated fever but they are often misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated with antibiotics. This study investigate if educating primary health center (PHC) staff or introducing rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) improve diagnostic resolution and accuracy for acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) and reduce prescription of antibiotics and costs for patients. Methods In a PHC randomized intervention study in southern Vietnam, the presumptive diagnoses for AUF patients were recorded and confirmed by serology on paired (acute and convalescence) sera. After one year, PHCs were randomized to four intervention arms: training on infectious diseases (A), the provision of RDTs (B), the combination (AB) and control (C). The intervention lasted from 2002 until 2006. Results The frequency of the non-etiologic diagnosis "undifferentiated fever" decreased in group AB, and - with some delay- also in group B. The diagnosis "dengue" increased in group AB, but only temporarily, although dengue was the most common cause of fever. A correct diagnosis for dengue initially increased in groups AB and B but only for AB this was sustained. Antibiotics prescriptions increased in group C. During intervention it initially declined in AB with a tendency to increase afterwards; in B it gradually declined. There was a substantial increase of patients' costs in B. Conclusions The introduction of RDTs for infectious diseases such as dengue, through free market principles, does improve the quality of the diagnosis and decreases the prescription of antibiotics at the PHC level. However, the effect is more sustainable in combination with training; without it RDTs lead to an excess of costs. PMID:20858230



Radiology of postnatal skeletal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six manubriosternal composites from skeletally immature cadavers were examined morphologically and radiographically. Sternebral ossification followed certain patterns. The manubrium (first sternebra) usually had one primary ossification center and one or two smaller centers. These usually were caudad to the major center (longitudinally bifid). The second sternebra invariably had only one ossification center. The third and fourth sternebrae had latitudinal (right-left)

John A. Ogden; Gerald J. Conlogue; Mary L. Bronson; Pamela S. Jensen



Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing Primary Stroke Center Policy in the United States: Results From 4 Case Study States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We identified barriers and facilitators to the state-level implementation of primary stroke center (PSC) policies, which encourage the certification or designation of specialized stroke treatment facilities and may address concerns such as transportation bypass, telemedicine, and treatment protocols. Methods. We studied the experiences of 4 states (Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and New York) selected from the 18 states that had enacted PSC policies or were actively considering doing so. We conducted semistructured interviews during fieldwork in each case study state. Results. Our results showed that system fragmentation, gaps in human and financial resources, and complexity at the interorganizational and operational levels are common barriers and that policy champions, stakeholder support and communication, and operational adaptation are essential facilitators in the adoption and implementation of PSC policies. Conclusions. The identification of barriers and facilitators reveals the contextual elements that can help or hinder policy implementation and may be useful in informing policy formulation and implementation in other jurisdictions. Proactively identifying jurisdictional challenges and opportunities may help facilitate the policy process for PSC designation and allow jurisdictions to develop more effective stroke systems of care. PMID:21233430

Slade, Catherine P.; Brewer, Gene A.; Gase, Lauren N.



Free-energy dependence of the rate of electron transfer to the primary quinone in beta-type reaction centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction centers of the beta-type mutants, (M)L214H and (M)L214H/(L)E104V, which contain a bacteriochlorophyll (denoted ?) in place of the photoactive bacteriopheophytin, have been depleted of the native ubiquinone and reconstituted with a number of quinones. This system has allowed investigation of the rate versus free-energy relationship for electron transfer to the primary quinone in the activationless and inverted regions. The dependence of the rate on driving force is found to be much weaker in both mutants than in wild-type RCs. Analysis of the data using electron transfer theory shows that the essentially flat dependence of rate on free energy for the quinone-reconstituted beta-type mutants cannot be explained simply on the basis of increased driving force, but additionally requires a decrease in the reorganization energy. A decreased reorganization energy most likely derives from a change in the nature of the intermediary electron carrier in the mutants compared to wild-type RCs, in particular the involvement of the accessory bacteriochlorophyll molecule BChl L. The weak free-energy and temperature dependence of the electron transfer process are consistent with coupling to a range of high- to low-frequency vibrational modes of the cofactors and protein.

Laporte, Laurent; Kirmaier, Christine; Schenck, Craig C.; Holten, Dewey



Neural architecture of the primary gustatory center of Drosophila melanogaster visualized with GAL4 and LexA enhancer-trap systems.  


Gustatory information is essential for animals to select edible foods and avoid poisons. Whereas mammals detect tastants with their taste receptor cells, which convey gustatory signals to the brain indirectly via the taste sensory neurons, insect gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) send their axons directly to the primary gustatory center in the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG). In spite of this relatively simple architecture, the precise structure of the insect primary gustatory center has not been revealed in enough detail. To obtain comprehensive anatomical knowledge about this brain area, we screened the Drosophila melanogaster GAL4 enhancer-trap strains that visualize specific subsets of the gustatory neurons as well as putative mechanosensory neurons associated with the taste pegs. Terminals of these neurons form three branches in the SOG. To map the positions of their arborization areas precisely, we screened newly established LexA::VP16 enhancer-trap strains and obtained a driver line that labels a large subset of peripheral sensory neurons. By double-labeling specific and landmark neurons with GAL4 and LexA strains, we were able to distinguish 11 zones in the primary gustatory center, among which 5 zones were identified newly in this study. Arborization areas of various known GRNs on the labellum, oesophagus, and legs were also mapped in this framework. The putative mechanosensory neurons terminate exclusively in three zones of these areas, supporting the notion of segregated primary centers that are specialized for chemosensory and mechanosensory signals associated with gustatory sensation. PMID:20878781

Miyazaki, Takaaki; Ito, Kei



Evaluation and Comparison of Changes in Microhardness of Primary and Permanent Enamel on Exposure to Acidic Center-filled Chewing Gum: An in vitro Study  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives: The study is to evaluate changes in microhardness of enamel after exposure to acidic center filled chewing gum on primary and permanent teeth. Methods: Thirty primary and 30 permanent molar extracted teeth were painted with acid resistant varnish except a small window over buccal surface. Teeth were divided into four groups according to type of teeth and type of chewing gum (Center fresh and Bubbaloo) (D1, P1, D2 and P2); each tooth was exposed to whole chewing gum mashed with 5 ml of artificial saliva for five minutes at room temperature twice a day for 5 days. After the exposure, teeth were stored in deionized water and submitted for microhardness tests. Results: Paired t-test and independent sample t-test were used for statistical analysis. A significant reduction in microhardness was found between exposed and unexposed areas in all groups. There was no statistically significant difference in reduction of microhardness to chewing gums, and between primary and permanent enamel. Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in microhardness in all groups exposed to chewing gums. Both the chewing gums are equally erosive; both permanent and primary teeth were affected. How to cite this article: Mudumba VL, Muppa R, Srinivas NCH, Kumar DM. Evaluation and Comparison of Changes in Microhardness of Primary and Permanent Enamel on Exposure to Acidic Center-filled Chewing Gum: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):24-29. PMID:25206233

Muppa, Radhika; Srinivas, NCH; Kumar, Duddu Mahesh



Cancer risk estimates from radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. This study was conducted to calculate the radiation dose to organs-at-risk and estimate the probability of cancer induction from radiotherapy for HO prophylaxis.Methods: Hip irradiation for HO with a 6 MV photon beam was simulated with the aid of a Monte Carlo model. A realistic humanoid phantom representing an average adult patient was implemented in Monte Carlo environment for dosimetric calculations. The average out-of-field radiation dose to stomach, liver, lung, prostate, bladder, thyroid, breast, uterus, and ovary was calculated. The organ-equivalent-dose to colon, that was partly included within the treatment field, was also determined. Organ dose calculations were carried out using three different field sizes. The dependence of organ doses upon the block insertion into primary beam for shielding colon and prosthesis was investigated. The lifetime attributable risk for cancer development was estimated using organ, age, and gender-specific risk coefficients.Results: For a typical target dose of 7 Gy, organ doses varied from 1.0 to 741.1 mGy by the field dimensions and organ location relative to the field edge. Blocked field irradiations resulted in a dose range of 1.4–146.3 mGy. The most probable detriment from open field treatment of male patients was colon cancer with a high risk of 564.3 × 10{sup ?5} to 837.4 × 10{sup ?5} depending upon the organ dose magnitude and the patient's age. The corresponding colon cancer risk for female patients was (372.2–541.0) × 10{sup ?5}. The probability of bladder cancer development was more than 113.7 × 10{sup ?5} and 110.3 × 10{sup ?5} for males and females, respectively. The cancer risk range to other individual organs was reduced to (0.003–68.5) × 10{sup ?5}.Conclusions: The risk for cancer induction from radiation therapy for HO prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty varies considerably by the treatment parameters, organ site in respect to treatment volume and patient's gender and age. The presented risk estimates may be useful in the follow-up studies of irradiated patients.

Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theoharris; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Lyraraki, Efrossyni [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)



Radiographic monitoring of the ossification of long bones in kori (Ardeotis kori) and white-bellied (Eupodotis senegalensis) bustards.  


A serial radiographic study was conducted on eight kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) and four white-bellied bustard (Eupodotis senegalensis) chicks to determine the pattern of long bone development and to establish radiographic standards for assessing skeletal maturity. The ossification pattern, appearance of secondary ossification centres, and epiphyseal fusion of the long bones in kori and white-bellied bustards were similar to those in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii), rufous-crested bustards (Eupodotis ruficrista), domestic fowl (Gallus gallus), house wrens (Troglodytes aedon aedon), racing pigeons (Columba livia). and barn owls (Tyto alba). Secondary ossification centres were present at the proximal and distal tibiotarsus, proximal tarsometatarsus and proximal metacarpal III. The ossification of long bones occurred earlier in female kori bustards compared with males. PMID:9839896

Naldo, J L; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A



Efficacy and safety of rituximab treatment in early primary Sjögren's syndrome: a prospective, multi-center, follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder affecting exocrine glands; however, a subgroup of pSS patients experience systemic extra-glandular involvement leading to a worsening of disease prognosis. Current therapeutic options are mainly empiric and often translated by other autoimmune diseases. In the last few years growing evidence suggests that B-cell depletion by rituximab (RTX) is effective also in pSS. Patients with early active disease appear to be those who could benefit the most from RTX. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of RTX in comparison to disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in early active pSS patients. Methods Forty-one patients with early pSS and active disease (EULAR Sjogren’s syndrome disease activity index, ESSDAI???6) were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated with either RTX or DMARDs in two different Rheumatology centers and followed up for 120 weeks. Clinical assessment was performed by ESSDAI every 12 weeks up to week 120 and by self-reported global disease activity pain, sicca symptoms and fatigue on visual analogic scales, unstimulated saliva flow and Schirmer’s I test at week 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120. Laboratory assessment was performed every 12 weeks to week 120. Two labial minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsies were obtained from all patients at the time of inclusion in the study and at week 120. Results Our study demonstrated that RTX treatment results in a faster and more pronounced decrease of ESSDAI and other clinical parameters compared to DMARDs treatment. No adverse events were reported in the two groups. We also observed that RTX is able to reduce glandular infiltrate, interfere with B/T compartmentalization and consequently with the formation of ectopic lymphoid structures and germinal center-like structures in pSS-MSGs. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in a large cohort of early active pSS patients for a period of 120 weeks. We showed that RTX is a safe and effective agent to be employed in pSS patients with systemic, extra-glandular involvement. Furthermore, our data on pSS-MSGs provide additional biological basis to employ RTX in this disease. PMID:24286296



Embryogenesis and ossification of Emydura subglobosa (Testudines, Pleurodira, Chelidae) and patterns of turtle development.  


Using the Standard Event System (SES) to study patterns of vertebrate development, we describe a series of 17 embryos of the pleurodire turtle Emydura subglobosa. Based on a sequence heterochrony analysis including 23 tetrapod taxa, we identified autapomorphic developmental shifts that characterise Testudines, Cryptodira, and Pleurodira. The main results are that Testudines are characterised by an autapomorphic late neck development, whereas pleurodires and cryptodires show a different developmental timing of the mandibular process. Additionally, we described the ossification pattern of E. subglobosa and compared the data to those of five other turtles. Pleurodires show the epiplastron to ossify before or simultaneously with maxilla and dentary. In contrast, cryptodires show a later ossification of this bone. Because evolutionary developmental studies on turtles have previously focused only on "model organisms" that all belong to Cryptodira, we underline the necessity to include a pleurodire taxon for a more comprehensive, phylogenetically more informative approach. PMID:19842173

Werneburg, Ingmar; Hugi, Jasmina; Müller, Johannes; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R



Matrix metalloproteinase expression and localization in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) during the endochondral ossification process.  


Vertebrate long bones are formed by endochondral ossification, a process accompanied by changes in extracellular matrix synthesis and remodeling, performed mainly by the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). The temporal/spatial expression patterns of 5 members of the MMP family known to be important for endochondral ossification were studied, for the first time, in the turkey growth plate during embryonic and juvenile stages. The expression of MMP-2 was detected in the proliferative zone, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 in cells lining the blood vessels; MMP-13 was also detected in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The MMP-16 expression was detected in the reserve zone of the growth plate. These results present a detailed survey of turkey MMP, serving as a data source (atlas) for further studies in this subject. PMID:17296767

Simsa, S; Genina, O; Ornan, E Monsonego



Heterotopic mesenteric ossification after a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurism: case report with a review of literatures.  


Abstract Heterotopic mesenteric ossification (HMO) is a rare disease that results in intra-abdominal ossification of unknown origin. An 88-year-old man developed an intestinal obstruction 2 weeks after undergoing an operation for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, resulting in intestinal obstructions those did not improved concervatively. During relaparotomy performed 30 days after the first operation, hard adhesions of the small intestine and mesentery were found; these adhesions were difficult to separate without damaging the serosa of the small intestine. We removed 240cm of the small intestine and performed a jejuno-ileo anastomosis. Microscopically, trabecular bone tissue had increased irregularly in the fat tissue of the nodules with fibrosis, which were partially lined with osteoblasts. Accordingly, we histopathologically diagnosed the patient as having HMO. The patient was treated with NSAIDs and cimetidine to prevent the recurrence of HMO. No signs of recurrence have occurred as of one year after the second operation. PMID:25058788

Honjo, Hiroaki; Kumagai, Youichi; Ishiguro, Toru; Imaizumi, Hideko; Ono, Tomojiro; Suzuki, Okihide; Ito, Tetsuya; Haga, Norihiro; Kuwabara, Kohki; Sobajima, Jun; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Baba, Hiroyuki; Sato, Osamu; Ishida, Hideyuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki



Intra-Articular Giant Heterotopic Ossification following Total Knee Arthroplasty for Charcot Arthropathy  

PubMed Central

Although the Charcot arthropathy may be associated with serious complications, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the preferred choice of treatment by patients. This case report presents an 80-year-old man with intra-articular giant heterotopic ossification following loosening of femoral and tibial implants and femoral condylar fracture. He had undergone TKA because of Charcot neuropathy seven years ago and had been doing well since. Immediately after a left knee sprain, he became unable to walk. Because he had developed a skin ulcer on his left calf where methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected, we postponed revision surgery until the ulcer was completely healed. While waiting, intra-articular bony fragments grew larger and formed giant heterotopic ossified masses. Eventually, the patient underwent revision surgery, and two major ossified masses were carefully and successfully extirpated. It should be noted that intra-articular heterotopic giant ossification is a significant complication after TKA for neuropathic arthropathy. PMID:24151574

Tsuge, Shintaro; Aoki, Yasuchika; Sonobe, Masato; Shibata, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Yu; Nakagawa, Koichi



Primary Cutaneous Follicle Center Cell Lymphomas and Large B Cell Lymphomas of the Leg Descend from Germinal Center Cells. A Single Cell Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary cutaneous B cell lymphomas are defined as non-Hodgkin lymphomas that occur in the skin without extracutaneous involvement for 6 mo after diagnosis. They are characterized by a less aggressive course and better prognosis than their nodal counterparts. According to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer classification, the major subentities of primary cutaneous B cell lymphoma are

Sylke Gellrich; Sascha Rutz; Sven Golembowski; Claudia Jacobs; Malgorzata von Zimmermann; Pamela Lorenz; Heike Audring; Marcus Muche; Wolfram Sterry; Sigbert Jahn



Primary immunodeficiency diseases in different age groups: a report on 1,008 cases from a single Brazilian reference center.  


Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) represent a large group of diseases that affect all age groups. Although PIDs have been recognized as rare diseases, there is epidemiological evidence suggesting that their real prevalence has been underestimated. We performed an evaluation of a series of 1,008 infants, children, adolescents and adults with well-defined PIDs from a single Brazilian center, regarding age at diagnosis, gender and PID category according to the International Union of Immunological Societies classification. Antibody deficiencies were the most common category in the whole series (61 %) for all age groups, with the exception of <2-year-old patients (only 15 %). In the >30-year-old group, antibody deficiencies comprised 84 % of the diagnoses, mostly consisting of common variable immunodeficiency, IgA deficiency and IgM deficiency. Combined immunodeficiencies represented the most frequent category in <2-years-old patients. Most congenital defects of phagocytes were identified in patients <5 -years of age, as were the diseases of immune dysregulation, with the exception of APECED. DiGeorge syndrome and ataxia-telangiectasia were the most frequent entities in the category of well-defined syndromes, which were mostly identified in patients <10-years of age. Males represented three-quarters and two-thirds of <2 -years-old and 2-5-years -old patients, respectively, whereas females predominated among the >30-year-old patients. Our data indicated that some PIDs were only detected at early ages, likely because affected patients do not survive long. In addition, our data pointed out that different strategies should be used to search for PIDs in infants and young children as compared to older patients. PMID:23354909

Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda; Moraes-Vasconcelos, Dewton; Kokron, Cristina M; Jacob, Cristina M A; Toledo-Barros, Myrthes; Dorna, Mayra B; Watanabe, Letícia A; Marinho, Ana Karolina B B; Castro, Ana Paula Moschione; Pastorino, Antonio C; Silva, Clóvis Artur A; Ferreira, Maurício D; Rizzo, Luiz V; Kalil, Jorge E; Duarte, Alberto J S



Endochondral ossification in a case of progressive osseous heteroplasia in a young female child.  


Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) (OMIM 166350) is a rare autosomal dominant condition, characterized by heterotopic ossification of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and deep connective tissue. This condition is distinct from Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy or McCune Albright syndrome (OMIM 103580) and fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (OMIM 135100). We present an unusual presentation of POH in a 7-year-old female child. The clinical features included a painful swelling on the left foot, with mechanical complaints. There was no congenital hallux valgus. Family anamnesis was positive in the father. There were subcutaneous ossifications of his left upper arm, right-sided thorax, and lateral side of the right ankle. The father did not allow any radiographs or further examinations. Radiographic examination of the patient revealed ossified subcutaneous plaques on the left foot, lumbar spine, and left scapulae. Additional blood samples were analyzed, revealing no pseudohypoparathyroidism. Sequence analysis of the gene associated with POH, the GNAS1 gene, revealed the heterozygote mutation c.565_568del, previously found in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. Histopathological examination of the subcutaneous ossification showed presence of chondrocyte clusters, a feature usually found in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. The combination of the clinical features, the absence of pseudohypoparathyroidism, histology revealing chondrocyte clusters, and the specific GNAS mutation in this patient makes this a truly unusual presentation of POH. The findings in the described case might denote subdivisions of POH. The condition is associated with progressive superficial to deep ossification, progressive restriction of range of motion, and recurrence if excised. We hope to inform pediatricians and orthopedic surgeons to create more awareness of this disorder so that unnecessary treatments can be avoided and proper counseling offered. PMID:24626099

Schrander, Dirk E; Welting, Tim J; Caron, Marjolein M J; Schrander, Jaap J P; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W; Körver-Keularts, Inge; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T R M



Variation in mammalian proximal femoral development: comparative analysis of two distinct ossification patterns  

PubMed Central

The developmental anatomy of the proximal femur is complex. In some mammals, including humans, the femoral head and greater trochanter emerge as separate ossification centres within a common chondroepiphysis and remain separate throughout ontogeny. In other species, these secondary centres coalesce within the chondroepiphysis to form a single osseous epiphysis much like the proximal humerus. These differences in femoral ontogeny have not been previously addressed, yet are critical to an understanding of femoral mineralization and architecture across a wide range of mammals and may have key implications for understanding and treating hip abnormalities in humans. We evaluated femora from 70 mammalian species and categorized each according to the presence of a ‘separate’ or ‘coalesced’ proximal epiphysis based on visual assessment. We found that ossification type varies widely among mammals: taxa in the ‘coalesced’ group include marsupials, artiodactyls, perissodactyls, bats, carnivores and several primates, while the ‘separate’ group includes hominoids, many rodents, tree shrews and several marine species. There was no clear relationship to body size, phylogeny or locomotion, but qualitative and quantitative differences between the groups suggest that ossification type may be primarily an artefact of femoral shape and neck length. As some osseous abnormalities of the human hip appear to mimic the normal morphology of species with coalesced epiphyses, these results may provide insight into the aetiology and treatment of human hip disorders such as femoroacetabular impingement and early-onset osteoarthritis. PMID:17331175

Serrat, Maria A; Reno, Philip L; McCollum, Melanie A; Meindl, Richard S; Lovejoy, C Owen



The ossification diathesis in the Medici family: DISH and other features.  


The Medici family ruled Florence for most of the period from the 1430s to the 1730s, with the senior (primogenito) branch predominating until the line ended in the 1530s and the cadet (secondogenito) branch predominating thereafter. Recent studies have identified a familial syndrome consisting of cutaneous symptoms, peripheral arthropathy and spinal ankylosis in the primogenito branch of the family, and the presence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in two members of the secondogenito branch. These findings raise the question of whether DISH was also a component of the primogenito familial syndrome. The present study provides a further specification of the ossification diathesis in the familial syndrome of the primogenito branch of the Medici family. Recently discovered photographs of exhumed Medici skeletons from the primogenito line are examined, with a focus on spinal, sacro-iliac and peripheral ossifications. These observations are supplemented with published reports of radiological, histological and macroscopic studies of the skeletons. Our interpretations of the ossification data relating to the primogenito branch of the Medici family are supportive of a diagnosis of DISH. DISH was one component of the triple pathology identified as a syndrome in the fifteenth century primogenito Medici line. As a diagnosis of DISH has recently been proposed for two sixteenth century members of the secondogenito branch of the family, it appears that the same condition affected both branches of the Medici lineage, without excluding other forms of undifferentiated joint and spondylarthropathies. PMID:21240504

Weisz, George M; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Lippi, Donatella; Albury, William R



Expression of matrix metalloproteinases during vascularization and ossification of normal and impaired avian growth plate.  


Enzymes of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family regulate angiogenesis and are involved in the endochondral ossification process. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) and rickets are 2 disorders associated with impairments in this process, mainly in the vascularization of the avian growth plate. In this paper, we induced TD and rickets and studied the expression patterns of 4 members of the MMP family known to be important for endochondral ossification, MMP-2, 3, 9, and 13, in normal and impaired avian growth plates. The expression of MMP-3, 9, and 13 was reduced in the lesions and lined up parallel to the expulsion of blood vessels, which was extended up to the border of the lesion, but did not penetrate into it. Matrix metallopro-teinase-2 was not expressed in the TD lesion but was overexpressed in the rachitic lesion. We also studied the differentiation stage of the chondrocytes populating the lesions and found that the rachitic lesions were populated with proliferative chondrocytes, whereas the TD lesions were filled with chondrocytes that presented both proliferative and hypertrophic markers. These results suggest that MMP-3, 9, and 13 play a role in the vascularization and ossification processes, whereas MMP-2 is related to chondrocyte differentiation and may be involved in cartilage remodeling in the avian growth plate. PMID:18344292

Hasky-Negev, M; Simsa, S; Tong, A; Genina, O; Monsonego Ornan, E



A massive calcification and ossification of the transverse sinus and the neighbouring dura mimicking meningioma  

PubMed Central

Background Although small calcifications of the dura and the transverse sinus occur frequently, large, single intracranial calcifications originating from the transverse sinus and the neighbouring dura are rare. Case presentation A 47-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for a right occipital headache that had persisted for two weeks. There was no neurological deficit. Normal skull X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scans revealed an irregular, calcified, intracranial lesion of approximately 4.4?×?4.0?×?2.5 cm in volume in the right occipital region. Via surgery, a bone-hard, poorly vascularised, pink mass originating from the right transverse sinus and the convex dura of the right cerebellar hemisphere, as well as the cerebellar tentorium, was completely removed. Pathological examination yielded a diagnosis of fibrous connective tissue with hyaline degeneration, calcification and ossification with no indication of neoplasia or inflammation. Conclusions We report a rare case of massive calcification and ossification of the transverse sinus and the neighbouring dura mimicking meningioma. Degenerative calcification and ossification may serve as a rare differential diagnosis of diseases, such as meningiomas, in the transverse sinus and the neighbouring dura. PMID:24112395



Distal limb radiography, ossification, and growth plate closure in the juvenile Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).  


Eleven juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were evaluated radiographically to determine the relative times of growth plate closure and phalangeal ossification in the bones of the distal forelimb. Specifically, the first, second, and third phalanges of the third digit (D3) were evaluated, as well as the third phalanx of digits 1, 2, 4, and 5. All elephants were healthy at the time of examination. A retrospective evaluation of radiographs from six of the 11 juvenile elephants was also completed to augment the data set. This study reports the methods used to obtain high-quality radiographs of the distal juvenile elephant limb, ossification characteristics of the phalanges, relative times of growth plate closure within the proximal phalanges of D3, and a method for age estimation based on radiographic findings. This study will help clinicians in conducting elephant foot radiography, in evaluating foot radiographs in juvenile elephants, in recognizing normal versus pathologic change, and in estimating juvenile elephant age based on radiographic ossification characteristics and growth plate closure times. Consistent use of the proposed foot radiograph technique is recommended to facilitate foot disease recognition and as part of the annual examination of captive Asian elephants. PMID:18816993

Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Isaza, Ramiro; Johnson, Richard; Blaik, Margaret



Runx2 regulates endochondral ossification through control of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.  


Synthesis of cartilage by chondrocytes is an obligatory step for endochondral ossification. Global deletion of the Runx2 gene results in complete failure of the ossification process, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are not fully known. Here, we elucidated Runx2 regulatory control distinctive to chondrocyte and cartilage tissue by generating Runx2 exon 8 floxed mice. Deletion of Runx2 gene in chondrocytes caused failure of endochondral ossification and lethality at birth. The limbs of Runx2(?E8/?E8) mice were devoid of mature chondrocytes, vasculature, and marrow. We demonstrate that the C-terminus of Runx2 drives its biological activity. Importantly, nuclear import and DNA binding functions of Runx2 are insufficient for chondrogenesis. Molecular studies revealed that despite normal levels of Sox9 and PTHrP, chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage growth are disrupted in Runx2(?E8/?E8) mice. Loss of Runx2 in chondrocytes also impaired osteoprotegerin-receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (OPG-RANKL) signaling and chondroclast development. Dwarfism observed in Runx2 mutants was associated with the near absence of proliferative zone in the growth plates. Finally, we show Runx2 directly regulates a unique set of cell cycle genes, Gpr132, Sfn, c-Myb, and Cyclin A1, to control proliferative capacity of chondrocyte. Thus, Runx2 is obligatory for both proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:24862038

Chen, Haiyan; Ghori-Javed, Farah Y; Rashid, Harunur; Adhami, Mitra D; Serra, Rosa; Gutierrez, Soraya E; Javed, Amjad



Terminal phalangeal accessory ossification center of the thumb: an additional radiographic finding in Larsen syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larsen syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple joint dislocations, vertebral anomalies and dysmorphic facies. Both autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive forms of the disorder have been proposed. Individuals with autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome have characteristic “cylindrical-shape” thumbs caused by broad, shortened phalanges. Autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome results from heterozygosity for mutations in filamin B, a cytoskeletal protein involved in multicellular processes. We

Yasemin Alanay; Gulen Eda Utine; Ralph S. Lachman; Deborah Krakow; Ergul Tuncbilek



Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Zambia: implementing efficacious ARV regimens in primary health centers  

PubMed Central

Background Safety and effectiveness of efficacious antiretroviral (ARV) regimens beyond single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) have been demonstrated in well-controlled clinical studies or in secondary- and tertiary-level facilities in developing countries. This paper reports on implementation of and factors associated with efficacious ARV regimens among HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in primary health centers (PHCs) in Zambia. Methods Blood sample taken for CD4 cell count, availability of CD4 count results, type of ARV prophylaxis for mothers, and additional PMTCT service data were collected for HIV-positive pregnant women and newborns who attended 60 PHCs between April 2007 and March 2008. Results Of 14,815 HIV-positive pregnant women registered in the 60 PHCs, 2,528 (17.1%) had their CD4 cells counted; of those, 1,680 (66.5%) had CD4 count results available at PHCs; of those, 796 (47.4%) had CD4 count ? 350 cells/mm3 and thus were eligible for combination antiretroviral treatment (cART); and of those, 581 (73.0%) were initiated on cART. The proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women whose blood sample was collected for CD4 cell count was positively associated with (1) blood-draw for CD4 count occurring on the same day as determination of HIV-positive status; (2) CD4 results sent back to the health facilities within seven days; (3) facilities without providers trained to offer ART; and (4) urban location of PHC. Initiation of cART among HIV-positive pregnant women was associated with the PHC's capacity to provide care and antiretroviral treatment services. Overall, of the 14,815 HIV-positive pregnant women registered, 10,015 were initiated on any type of ARV regimen: 581 on cART, 3,041 on short course double ARV regimen, and 6,393 on sdNVP. Conclusion Efficacious ARV regimens beyond sdNVP can be implemented in resource-constrained PHCs. The majority (73.0%) of women identified eligible for ART were initiated on cART; however, a minority (11.3%) of HIV-positive pregnant women were assessed for CD4 count and had their test results available. Factors associated with implementation of more efficacious ARV regimens include timing of blood-draw for CD4 count and capacity to initiate cART onsite where PMTCT services were being offered. PMID:19712454



Mechanical sensitivity of the facial nerve fibers innervating the anterior palate of the puffer, Fugu pardalis , and their central projection to the primary taste center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.Mechanical and chemical sensitivity of the palatine nerve, ramus palatinus facialis, innervating the anterior palate of the puffer,Fugu pardalis, and their central projection to the primary taste center were investigated.2.Application of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to the central cut end of the palatine nerve resulted in retrogradely labeled neurons in the geniculate ganglion but no such neurons in the trigeminal

Sadao Kiyohara; Iwao Hidaka; Junzoh Kitoh; Satoru Yamashita



Primary Cutting Balloon Angioplasty for Treatment of Venous Stenoses in Native Hemodialysis Fistulas: Long-Term Results from Three Centers  

SciTech Connect

Aim. To evaluate the technical success and patency rates following primary cutting balloon angioplasty for venous stenoses in native dialysis fistulas. Methods. Forty-one patients (26 men, 15 women; age range 26-82 years, average age 59 years) underwent 50 (repeat procedures in 9 patients) primary cutting balloon (PCB) angioplasty procedures in three institutions by three primary operators. The indication was primary stenosis in 21 patients, recurrent lesions in 15, and immature fistulas in 5. A PCB was used alone in 17 cases, but was followed by a larger standard balloon in 33 cases. Follow-up included ultrasound, flow analysis and urea reduction ratio, and ranged from 2 to 30 months (mean 14 months). Results. The technical success rate was 98%. All procedures were relatively painless. Two PCBs burst and 4 leaked, but without causing any morbidity. Nineteen fistulas were still working at last follow-up. Primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 24 months using Kaplan-Meier analysis were 88%, 73%, and 34%, respectively, and the primary assisted patencies were 90%, 75%, and 50%, respectively. Conclusion. PCB angioplasty has high technical success and low complication rates. The long-term patency rates are favorable for PCB angioplasty and compare favorably with other series.

Bhat, Rajesh [Ninewells Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; McBride, Kieran [Queen Margaret Hospital (United Kingdom); Chakraverty, Sam; Vikram, Raghunandan; Severn, Alison [Ninewells Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology (United Kingdom)



Patterns of postcranial ossification and sequence heterochrony in bats: life histories and developmental trade-offs.  


The recently increased interest in studies on sequence heterochrony has uncovered developmental variation between species. However, how changes in developmental program are related to shifts in life-history parameters remains largely unsolved. Here we provide the most comprehensive data to date on postcranial ossification sequence of bats and compare them to various boreoeutherian mammals with different locomotive modes. Given that bats are equipped with an elongated manus, we expected to detect characteristic heterochronies particularly related to wing development. Although heterochronies related to wing development were confirmed as predicted, unexpected heterochronies regarding the pedal digits were also found. The timing of ossification onset of pedal phalanges is earlier than other mammals. Particularly, bats deviate from others in that pedal phalanges initiate ossification earlier than manual phalanges. It is known that the foot size of new born bats is close to that of adults, and that it takes several weeks to month until the wing is developed for flight. Given that the foot is required to be firm and stable enough at the time of birth to allow continued attachment to the mother and/or cave walls, we suggest that the accelerated development of the hind foot is linked to their unique life history. Since the forelimb is not mature enough for flight at birth and requires extended postnatal time to be large enough to be fully functional, we postulate that bats invest in earlier development of the hindlimb. We conclud that energy allocation trade-offs can play a significant role in shaping the evolution of development. PMID:24863050

Koyabu, Daisuke; Son, Nguyen Truong



Surgical strategies for ossified ligamentum flavum associated with dural ossification in thoracic spinal stenosis.  


We describe two surgical strategies for treating thoracic spinal stenosis (TSS) with ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) and dural ossification (DO), and discuss their postoperative efficacy. From January 2004 to June 2008, 147 patients underwent TSS surgery. Thirty three of those with intraoperative evidence of OLF and DO were included in the present study. Based on the different intraoperative treatment of the dura, these 33 patients were divided into two groups: Group A, 17 patients who had their dura slit and the ossification excised, and Group B, 16 patients treated by floating the ossified dura by thinning it with a drill. All patients underwent outpatient follow-up. Pre- and postoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores and recovery rates were evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 42months. The incidence of DO with OLF in TSS was 22%. At 1 year follow-up, the mean JOA score improved from 5.12±1.17 to 6.94±0.90 in Group A and from 5.25±1.34 to 7.13±1.41 in Group B. Additionally, the mean JOA score improved from 5.18±1.24 to 7.03±1.16 in TSS patients with DO and from 5.52±1.21 to 7.21±1.18 in TSS patients without DO. The increased cross-sectional area of the pre- and postoperative dural sac at the level of stenosis suggested that decompression was complete. Both decompression methods are feasible for curing TSS with OLF and DO. Moreover, slitting the dura for ossified dura and ligamentum flavum removal to relax the spinal cord is a safe and reliable method. Even though it increased the surgical difficulties and risks, DO did not affect postoperative neurological recovery. PMID:25012488

Sun, Jingcheng; Zhang, Chao; Ning, Guangzhi; Li, Yulin; Li, Yan; Wang, Pei; Feng, Shiqing



Diffuse pulmonary ossification as a rare cause of interstitial lung disease  

PubMed Central

Diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) is a rare form of interstitial lung disease. The present article describes a case of DPO in an elderly man who presented with progressive dyspnea on exertion and an isolated reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. DPO may occur as sequelae of mitral stenosis, left heart failure, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, recurrent aspiration pneumonia, solid organ transplant, adult respiratory distress syndrome or may arise idiopathically. In the absence of other findings of interstitial lung disease, a lung biopsy is unlikely to be helpful in the management of these patients. PMID:24046820

Burkett, Andrew; Coffey, Niamh; Voduc, Nha



The effect of pulsed irrigation on the incidence of heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty.  


Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a common complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Pulsed lavage is being used with increasing frequency for THA. A prospective randomized, double-blind trial was initiated to determine if pulsed lavage affected the incidence of HO. A total of 94 THAs in 91 patients were analyzed. No significant difference in the incidence of HO was found between the 2 groups. Hypertrophic osteoarthritis was found to be a significant risk factor for HO. The findings suggest that the osteogenic precursor cells thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of HO possibly are derived from within the local soft tissues in the proximity of the hip joint. PMID:11503112

Sneath, R J; Bindi, F D; Davies, J; Parnell, E J



Clients’ satisfaction with primary health care in Tehran: A cross-sectional study on Iranian Health Centers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Primary health care system is the basic core of public service provision in Iran. This study aimed to assess clients’ satisfaction with primary health care in Tehran, the capital of Iran, as a metropolitan. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study in 2009-10, four urban primary health care clinics were selected through stratified random sampling. Four hundred participants were interviewed in the selected clinics about their satisfaction with the primary health care services and setting. Six domains of satisfaction including accessibility to services, continuity of care, humaneness of staff, comprehensiveness of care, provision of health education and effectiveness of services were calculated from selected variables. The descriptive statistics, chi-square and t-tests were used when appropriate. RESULTS: The mean age of users of health services was 31.3 years (SD=9.6). Thirteen percent of participants were male. The most common reasons for asking health services reported as vaccination, family planning and children care. Overall, primary health care services were suitable for eighty percent of the participants. The mean and standard deviation for Access to services was 2.11 (SD=3.44), continuity of care was -0.35 (SD=3.49), humanness of staff was 3.93 (SD=5.70), comprehensiveness of care was -0.53 (SD=3.66), provision of health educational materials was -1.45 (SD=3.64) and effectiveness of services was 4.30 (SD=7.47). CONCLUSIONS: Primary health care is a comprehensive and suitable strategy to provide health services in public health. Package of services in primary health care may affect clients’ satisfaction. Using family doctors may improve the indices. PMID:22091304

Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza; Albalushi, Rima Mohammad



Palmitoyl Acyltransferase, Zdhhc13, Facilitates Bone Mass Acquisition by Regulating Postnatal Epiphyseal Development and Endochondral Ossification: A Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

ZDHHC13 is a member of DHHC-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) family of enzymes. It functions by post-translationally adding 16-carbon palmitate to proteins through a thioester linkage. We have previously shown that mice carrying a recessive Zdhhc13 nonsense mutation causing a Zdhcc13 deficiency develop alopecia, amyloidosis and osteoporosis. Our goal was to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of osteoporosis in the context of this mutation in mice. Body size, skeletal structure and trabecular bone were similar in Zdhhc13 WT and mutant mice at birth. Growth retardation and delayed secondary ossification center formation were first observed at day 10 and at 4 weeks of age, disorganization in growth plate structure and osteoporosis became evident in mutant mice. Serial microCT from 4-20 week-olds revealed that Zdhhc13 mutant mice had reduced bone mineral density. Through co-immunoprecipitation and acyl-biotin exchange, MT1-MMP was identified as a direct substrate of ZDHHC13. In cells, reduction of MT1-MMP palmitoylation affected its subcellular distribution and was associated with decreased VEGF and osteocalcin expression in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. In Zdhhc13 mutant mice epiphysis where MT1-MMP was under palmitoylated, VEGF in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocalcin at the cartilage-bone interface were reduced based on immunohistochemical analyses. Our results suggest that Zdhhc13 is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal development and bone mass acquisition. To our knowledge, these are the first data to suggest that ZDHHC13-mediated MT1-MMP palmitoylation is a key modulator of bone homeostasis. These data may provide novel insights into the role of palmitoylation in the pathogenesis of human osteoporosis. PMID:24637783

Song, I-Wen; Li, Wei-Ru; Chen, Li-Ying; Shen, Li-Fen; Liu, Kai-Ming; Yen, Jeffrey J. Y.; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yu-Ju; Kraus, Virginia Byers; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Lee, M. T. Michael; Chen, Yuan-Tsong



Endochondral ossification process of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) during embryonic and juvenile development.  


The long bones of the developing skeleton arise from the process of endochondral ossification, which begins during the embryonic stages and resumes later in the growth plates located at the extremities of the long bones. This process includes commitment of cells to the chondrocytic lineage and further differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes, which subsequently undergo apoptosis and are replaced by osteoblasts laying down the trabecular bone. In this study we characterize, for the first time, the endochondral bone development of the turkey during embryonic and juvenile stages. Turkey tibias were collected on embryonic d 11, 14, and 18; and at 3 and 7 d posthatching, alcian blue and Von Kossa staining, alkaline phosphatase activity, and in situ expression of collagen types II and X were studied in these samples. We showed that the principles of bone development in the turkey follow the known vertebrate pattern, and that the initiation of ossification is related to the perichondrium and compact bone. These results increase the knowledge about this process in the turkey, which is an important animal in the agricultural industries. PMID:17297170

Simsa, S; Ornan, E Monsonego



Foxp1/2/4 regulate endochondral ossification as a suppresser complex.  


Osteoblast induction and differentiation in developing long bones is dynamically controlled by the opposing action of transcriptional activators and repressors. In contrast to the long list of activators that have been discovered over past decades, the network of repressors is not well-defined. Here we identify the expression of Foxp1/2/4 proteins, comprised of Forkhead-box (Fox) transcription factors of the Foxp subfamily, in both perichondrial skeletal progenitors and proliferating chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Mice carrying loss-of-function and gain-of-function Foxp mutations had gross defects in appendicular skeleton formation. At the cellular level, over-expression of Foxp1/2/4 in chondroctyes abrogated osteoblast formation and chondrocyte hypertrophy. Conversely, single or compound deficiency of Foxp1/2/4 in skeletal progenitors or chondrocytes resulted in premature osteoblast differentiation in the perichondrium, coupled with impaired proliferation, survival, and hypertrophy of chondrocytes in the growth plate. Foxp1/2/4 and Runx2 proteins interacted in vitro and in vivo, and Foxp1/2/4 repressed Runx2 transactivation function in heterologous cells. This study establishes Foxp1/2/4 proteins as coordinators of osteogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in developing long bones and suggests that a novel transcriptional repressor network involving Foxp1/2/4 may regulate Runx2 during endochondral ossification. PMID:25527076

Zhao, Haixia; Zhou, Wenrong; Yao, Zhengju; Wan, Yong; Cao, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Zhao, Jianzhi; Li, Hanjun; Zhou, Rujiang; Li, Baojie; Wei, Gang; Zhang, Zhenlin; French, Catherine A; Dekker, Joseph D; Yang, Yingzi; Fisher, Simon E; Tucker, Haley O; Guo, Xizhi



A partnership model for implementing electronic health records in resource-limited primary care settings: experiences from two nurse-managed health centers  

PubMed Central

Objective To present a partnership-based and community-oriented approach designed to ease provider anxiety and facilitate the implementation of electronic health records (EHR) in resource-limited primary care settings. Materials and Methods The approach, referred to as partnership model, was developed and iteratively refined through the research team's previous work on implementing health information technology (HIT) in over 30 safety net practices. This paper uses two case studies to illustrate how the model was applied to help two nurse-managed health centers (NMHC), a particularly vulnerable primary care setting, implement EHR and get prepared to meet the meaningful use criteria. Results The strong focus of the model on continuous quality improvement led to eventual implementation success at both sites, despite difficulties encountered during the initial stages of the project. Discussion There has been a lack of research, particularly in resource-limited primary care settings, on strategies for abating provider anxiety and preparing them to manage complex changes associated with EHR uptake. The partnership model described in this paper may provide useful insights into the work shepherded by HIT regional extension centers dedicated to supporting resource-limited communities disproportionally affected by EHR adoption barriers. Conclusion NMHC, similar to other primary care settings, are often poorly resourced, understaffed, and lack the necessary expertise to deploy EHR and integrate its use into their day-to-day practice. This study demonstrates that implementation of EHR, a prerequisite to meaningful use, can be successfully achieved in this setting, and partnership efforts extending far beyond the initial software deployment stage may be the key. PMID:21828225

Dennehy, Patricia; White, Mary P; Hamilton, Andrew; Pohl, Joanne M; Tanner, Clare; Onifade, Tiffiani J



Comparative Effectiveness of Standard versus Patient-Centered Collaborative Care Interventions for Depression among African Americans in Primary Care Settings: The BRIDGE Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the effectiveness of standard and patient-centered, culturally tailored collaborative care (CC) interventions for African American patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) over 12 months of follow-up. Data Sources/Study Setting Twenty-seven primary care clinicians and 132 African American patients with MDD in urban community-based practices in Maryland and Delaware. Study Design Cluster randomized trial with patient-level, intent-to-treat analyses. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Patients completed screener and baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month interviews to assess depression severity, mental health functioning, health service utilization, and patient ratings of care. Principal Findings Patients in both interventions showed statistically significant improvements over 12 months. Compared with standard, patient-centered CC patients had similar reductions in depression symptom levels (?2.41 points; 95 percent confidence interval (CI), ?7.7, 2.9), improvement in mental health functioning scores (+3.0 points; 95 percent CI, ?2.2, 8.3), and odds of rating their clinician as participatory (OR, 1.48, 95 percent CI, 0.53, 4.17). Treatment rates increased among standard (OR = 1.8, 95 percent CI 1.0, 3.2), but not patient-centered (OR = 1.0, 95 percent CI 0.6, 1.8) CC patients. However, patient-centered CC patients rated their care manager as more helpful at identifying their concerns (OR, 3.00; 95 percent CI, 1.23, 7.30) and helping them adhere to treatment (OR, 2.60; 95 percent CI, 1.11, 6.08). Conclusions Patient-centered and standard CC approaches to depression care showed similar improvements in clinical outcomes for African Americans with depression; standard CC resulted in higher rates of treatment, and patient-centered CC resulted in better ratings of care. PMID:22716199

Cooper, Lisa A; Ghods Dinoso, Bri K; Ford, Daniel E; Roter, Debra L; Primm, Annelle B; Larson, Susan M; Gill, James M; Noronha, Gary J; Shaya, Elias K; Wang, Nae-Yuh



Treatment of primary testicular diffuse large B cell lymphoma without prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy: a single center experience  

PubMed Central

Background Primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare but aggressive extranodal lymphoma, and its relapse in the central nervous system (CNS) is a major concern during treatment. Despite this, the role of intrathecal prophylaxis in primary testicular DLBCL remains controversial. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 14 patients with primary testicular DLBCL diagnosed between November 2000 and June 2012, and analyzed the CNS relapse rate in patients treated without intrathecal prophylaxis. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The median age at diagnosis was 57 years (range, 41-79 years). Unilateral testicular involvement was observed in 13 patients. Nine patients had stage I, 1 had stage II, and 4 had stage IV disease. The international prognostic index was low or low-intermediate risk in 12 patients and high-intermediate risk in 2 patients. Thirteen patients underwent orchiectomy. All the patients received systemic chemotherapy without intrathecal prophylaxis, and prophylactic radiotherapy was administered to the contralateral testis in 12 patients. The median follow-up period of surviving patients was 39 months (range, 10-139 months). Median overall survival was not reached and the median progression-free survival was 3.8 years. Four patients experienced relapse, but CNS relapse was observed in only one patient (7.1%) with stage IV disease, 27 months after a complete response. Conclusion Even without intrathecal prophylaxis, the rate of relapse in the CNS was lower in the Korean patients with primary testicular DLBCL compared to prior reports. PMID:25325036

Kim, Jeongseok; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Park, Inkeun; Kim, Shin; Park, Jung Sun; Lee, Sang-Wook; Huh, Jooryung; Park, Chan-Sik



Direct Measurement of the Effective Rate Constant for Primary Charge Separation in Isolated Photosystem II Reaction Centers  

SciTech Connect

Transient absorption measurements of the pheophytin a anion band and Qx band bleach region using preferential excitation of P680 are performed on isolated photosystem II reaction centers to determine the effective rate constant for charge separtion. A novel analysis of the Qx band bleach region explicity takes the changing background into account in order to directly measure the rate of growth of the bleach. Both spectral regions reveal biphasic kinetics, with a ca. (8 ps)-1 rate constant for the faster component, and a ca. (50 ps)-1 rate constant for the slower component. We propose that the fster component corresponds to the effective rate constant for charge separation from within the equilibrated reaction center core and provides a lower limit for the intrinsic rate constant for charge separation. The slower component corresponds to charge separation that is limited by slow energy transfer from a long-wavelength accessory chlorophyll a.

Greenfield, S. R.; Seibert, M.; Govindjee; Wasielewski, M. R.



Population differences in the onset of cranial ossification in pumpkinseed ( Lepomis gibbosus ), a potential cost of rapid growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific comparisons suggest that a trade-off exists between development and somatic growth rate. We provide evidence for a trade-off between cranial ossification and growth rate within a single species, the pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus). We compare fish derived from two populations known to differ in their somatic growth rates. Fish were hatched from eggs and maintained under common conditions. Juveniles

Jeffrey D. Arendt; David S. Wilson



Complete absence of rib ossification, micrognathia and ear anomalies: extreme expression of cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome?  


We describe a newborn with complete absence of ossification of the ribs, extreme micrognathia, absence of external ear canals and the inner ears, and diminished mobility in the upper extremities. It is suggested that this represents an unusually severe expression of the cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome. Some developmental genes that may have played a role in the pathogenesis are briefly reviewed. PMID:9781016

Hennekam, R C; Goldschmeding, R



Diagnostic and Mutational Spectrum of Progressive Osseous Heteroplasia (POH) and Other Forms of GNAS-based Heterotopic Ossification  

PubMed Central

Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) is a rare, disabling disease of heterotopic ossification (HO) that progresses from skin and subcutaneous tissues into deep skeletal muscle. POH occurs in the absence of multiple developmental features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) or hormone resistance, clinical manifestations that are also associated with GNAS inactivation. However, occasional patients with AHO and pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a/c (PHP1a/c; AHO features plus hormone resistance) have also been described who have progressive HO. This study was undertaken to define the diagnostic and mutational spectrum of POH and progressive disorders of HO, and to distinguish them from related disorders in which HO remains confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissues. We reviewed the charts of 111 individuals who had cutaneous and subcutaneous ossification. All patients were assessed for eight characteristics: age of onset of HO, presence and location of HO, depth of HO, type of HO, progression of HO, features of AHO, PTH resistance, and GNAS mutation analysis. We found, based on clinical criteria that POH and progressive HO syndromes are at the severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of GNAS-inactivating conditions associated with extra-skeletal ossification. While most individuals with superficial or progressive ossification had mutations in GNAS, there were no specific genotype-phenotype correlations that distinguished the more progressive forms of HO (e.g., POH) from the non-progressive forms (osteoma cutis, AHO, and PHP1a/c). PMID:18553568

Adegbite, N. S.; Xu, M.; Kaplan, F. S.; Shore, E. M.; Pignolo, R. J.



Diagnostic and mutational spectrum of progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) and other forms of GNAS-based heterotopic ossification.  


Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) is a rare, disabling disease of heterotopic ossification (HO) that progresses from skin and subcutaneous tissues into deep skeletal muscle. POH occurs in the absence of multiple developmental features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) or hormone resistance, clinical manifestations that are also associated with GNAS inactivation. However, occasional patients with AHO and pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a/c (PHP1a/c; AHO features plus hormone resistance) have also been described who have progressive HO. This study was undertaken to define the diagnostic and mutational spectrum of POH and progressive disorders of HO, and to distinguish them from related disorders in which HO remains confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissues. We reviewed the charts of 111 individuals who had cutaneous and subcutaneous ossification. All patients were assessed for eight characteristics: age of onset of HO, presence and location of HO, depth of HO, type of HO, progression of HO, features of AHO, PTH resistance, and GNAS mutation analysis. We found, based on clinical criteria, that POH and progressive HO syndromes are at the severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of GNAS-inactivating conditions associated with extra-skeletal ossification. While most individuals with superficial or progressive ossification had mutations in GNAS, there were no specific genotype-phenotype correlations that distinguished the more progressive forms of HO (e.g., POH) from the non-progressive forms (osteoma cutis, AHO, and PHP1a/c). PMID:18553568

Adegbite, N S; Xu, M; Kaplan, F S; Shore, E M; Pignolo, R J



RISQy business (Relationships, Incentives, Supports, and Quality): evolution of the British Columbia Model of Primary Care (patient-centered medical home).  


In 2002, the British Columbia Ministry of Health and the British Columbia Medical Association (now Doctors of BC) came together to form the British Columbia General Practice Services Committee to bring about transformative change in primary care in British Columbia, Canada. This committee's approach to primary care was to respond to an operational problem--the decline of family practice in British Columbia--with an operational solution--assist general practitioners to provide better care by introducing new incentive fees into the fee-for-service payment schedule, and by providing additional training to general practitioners. This may be referred to as a "soft power" approach, which can be summarized in the abbreviation RISQ: focus on Relationships; provide Incentives for general practitioners to spend more time with their patients and provide guidelines-based care; Support general practitioners by developing learning modules to improve their practices; and, through the incentive payments and learning modules, provide better Quality care to patients and improved satisfaction to physicians. There are many similarities between the British Columbian approach to primary care and the US patient-centered medical home. PMID:24867550

MacCarthy, Dan; Hollander, Marcus J



RISQy Business (Relationships, Incentives, Supports, and Quality): Evolution of the British Columbia Model of Primary Care (Patient-Centered Medical Home)  

PubMed Central

In 2002, the British Columbia Ministry of Health and the British Columbia Medical Association (now Doctors of BC) came together to form the British Columbia General Practice Services Committee to bring about transformative change in primary care in British Columbia, Canada. This committee’s approach to primary care was to respond to an operational problem—the decline of family practice in British Columbia—with an operational solution—assist general practitioners to provide better care by introducing new incentive fees into the fee-for-service payment schedule, and by providing additional training to general practitioners. This may be referred to as a “soft power” approach, which can be summarized in the abbreviation RISQ: focus on Relationships; provide Incentives for general practitioners to spend more time with their patients and provide guidelines-based care; Support general practitioners by developing learning modules to improve their practices; and, through the incentive payments and learning modules, provide better Quality care to patients and improved satisfaction to physicians. There are many similarities between the British Columbian approach to primary care and the US patient-centered medical home. PMID:24867550

MacCarthy, Dan; Hollander, Marcus J



Orientation of chromophores in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Evidence for two absorption bands of the dimeric primary electron donor.  


Chromatophores from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides were oriented by allowing aqueous suspensions to dry on glass plates. Orientation of reaction center pigments was investigated by studying the linear dichroism of chromatophores in which the absorption by antenna bacteriochlorophyll had been attenuated through selective oxidation. Alternatively the light-induced absorbance changes, in the ranges 550-650 and 700-950nm, were studied in untreated chromatophores. The long wave transition moment of reaction center bacteriochlorophyll (P-870) was found to be nearly parallel to the plane of the membrane, whereas the long wave transition moments of bacteriopheophytin are polarized out of this plane. For light-induced changes the linear dichroic ratios, defined as deltaav/deltaah, are nearly the same for untreated and for oxidized chromatophores. Typical values are 1.60 at 870 nm, 0.80 at 810nm, 1.20 at 790 nm, 0.70 at 765 nm, 0.30 at 745 nm , and 0.50 at 600 nm. The different values for the absorbance decrease at 810 nm (0.80) and the increase at 790 nm (1.20) are incompatible with the hypothesis that these changes are due to the blue-shift of a single band. We propose that the decreases at 870 and 810 nm reflect bleaching of the two components of a bacteriochlorophyll dimer, the "special pair" that shares in the photochemical donation of a single electron. The increase at 790 nm then represents the appearance of a monomer band in place of the dimer spectrum, as a result of electron donation. This hypothesis is consistent with available data on circular dichroism. It is confirmed by the presence of a shoulder at 810 nm in the absorption spectrum of reaction centers at low temperature; this band disappears upon photooxidation of the reaction centers. For the changes near 760 nm, associated with bacteriopheophytin, the polarization and the shape of the "light-dark" difference spectrum (identical to the first derivative of the absorption spectrum) show that the 760 nm band undergoes a light-induced shift to greater wavelengths. PMID:1087160

Vermeglio, A; Clayton, R K



The impact of accreditation of primary healthcare centers: successes, challenges and policy implications as perceived by healthcare providers and directors in Lebanon  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009, the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) launched the Primary Healthcare (PHC) accreditation program to improve quality across the continuum of care. The MOPH, with the support of Accreditation Canada, conducted the accreditation survey in 25 PHC centers in 2012. This paper aims to gain a better understanding of the impact of accreditation on quality of care as perceived by PHC staff members and directors; how accreditation affected staff and patient satisfaction; key enablers, challenges and strategies to improve implementation of accreditation in PHC. Methods The study was conducted in 25 PHC centers using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach; all staff members were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire whereas semi-structured interviews were conducted with directors. Results The scales measuring Management and Leadership had the highest mean score followed by Accreditation Impact, Human Resource Utilization, and Customer Satisfaction. Regression analysis showed that Strategic Quality Planning, Customer Satisfaction and Staff Involvement were associated with a perception of higher Quality Results. Directors emphasized the benefits of accreditation with regards to documentation, reinforcement of quality standards, strengthened relationships between PHC centers and multiple stakeholders and improved staff and patient satisfaction. Challenges encountered included limited financial resources, poor infrastructure, and staff shortages. Conclusions To better respond to population health needs, accreditation is an important first step towards improving the quality of PHC delivery arrangement system. While there is a need to expand the implementation of accreditation to cover all PHC centers in Lebanon, considerations should be given to strengthening their financial arrangements as well. PMID:24568632



Cervical surgery for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: One spine surgeon's perspective  

PubMed Central

Background: The selection, neurodiagnostic evaluation, and surgical management of patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) remain controversial. Whether for prophylaxis or treatment, the decision to perform anterior vs. posterior vs. circumferential cervical OPLL surgery is complex. MR and CT Documentation of OPLL: Together, MR and CT cervical studies best document the full extent of OPLL. While MR provides the optimal soft-tissue overview (e.g. hyperintense signals reflecting edema/myelomalacia in the cord), CT's directly demonstrate the ossification of OPLL often “missed” by MR (e.g. documents the single or double layer signs of dural penetration. Patient Selection: Patients with mild myelopathy/cord compression rarely require surgery, while those with moderate/severe myelopathy/cord compression often warrant anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Operative Approaches: Anterior corpectomies/fusions, warranted in patients with OPLL and kyphosis/loss of lordosis, also increase the risks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (e.g. single/double layer sign), and vascular injuries (e.g. carotid, vertebral). Alternatively, with an adequate lordosis, posterior procedures (e.g. often with fusions), may provide adequate multilevel decompression while minimizing risk of anterior surgery. Occasionally, combined pathologies may warrant circumferential approaches. Anesthetic and Intraoperative Monitoring Protocols: The utility of awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation/awake positioning, intraoperative somatosensory/motor evoked potential, and electromyographic monitoring, and the requirement for total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) for OPLL surgery is also discussed. Conclusion: Anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery may be warranted to treat patients with cervical OPLL, and must be based on careful patient selection, and both MR and CT documentation of the full extent of OPLL. PMID:24843818

Epstein, Nancy E.



Changes of matrilin forms during endochondral ossification. Molecular basis of oligomeric assembly.  


To understand the molecular properties of matrilin-3, a newly discovered member of the novel extracellular matrix protein family, we cloned a MAT-3 cDNA from developing chicken sterna. Real time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction indicates that MAT-3 mRNA is mainly expressed in the proliferation zone of a growth plate. It is also expressed in the maturation zone, overlapping with that of the mature chondrocyte-abundant matrilin-1 mRNA. This suggests that matrilin-3 may self-assemble in the proliferation zone, in addition to its co-assembly with matrilin-1 during endochondral ossification. Transfection of a MAT-3 cDNA into COS-7 cells shows that MAT-3 predominantly forms a homotetramer but also a trimer and a dimer. Co-transfection of both MAT-3 and MAT-1 cDNAs results in three major matrilins as follows: (MAT-1)(3), (MAT-3)(4), and (MAT-1)(2)(MAT-3)(2). Thus matrilin-3 may assemble into both homotypic and heterotypic oligomers. Our analysis shows that the assembly of MAT-3 does not depend on the number of epidermal growth factor repeats within the molecule, but the presence of Cys(412) and Cys(414) within the coiled-coil domain, which form covalent disulfide linkage responsible for both homo-oligomerization of MAT-3 and hetero-oligomerization of MAT-3 and MAT-1. Our data suggest that the varying synthetic levels of matrilins in different zones of a growth plate may result in a change of matrilin oligomeric forms during endochondral ossification. PMID:10930403

Zhang, Y; Chen, Q



Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms and Resiliency among African American Women in a Community-Based Primary Health Care Center  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms and resiliency among 290 African American women (AAW) in a community-based primary health care center. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlation, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Findings indicate that depressive symptoms are experienced by 49% of the participants, while 10% indicated a history of suicidal ideation. Participants had moderately high resiliency scores that had a statistically significant inverse relationship with depressive symptoms. This suggests that resiliency is potentially a protective factor for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with participants’ diagnosis of at least one chronic disease. The strongest predictors of depressive symptoms were previous diagnoses of a mental health condition and unemployment. This study identifies risk and potential protective factors for depression among a clinic sample of AAW. PMID:24241263

Holden, Kisha B.; Bradford, L. Dianne; Hall, Stephanie P.; Belton, Allyson S.



The expression of IgM is helpful in the differentiation of primary cutaneous diffuse large B cell lymphoma and follicle center lymphoma.  


Diffuse large B-cell infiltration of the skin includes mainly primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) with diffuse architecture and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (PCDLBCL), leg type. Differentiation of these lymphomas on morphology may be troublesome. Immunohistochemistry panel, including CD20, CD79a, bcl-6, bcl-2, MUM-1, FOX-P1 is mandatory. However, in minority of cases, these markers would not suffice. In order to search the value of another marker, IgM, 30 cases of PCFCL and 10 cases of PCDLBCL, leg type were included in the study. As suggested in a recent literature, our study denoted that expression of IgM was useful as an additional tool for differentiation. PMID:21700336

Demirkesen, Cuyan; Tüzüner, Nükhet; Esen, Tu?çe; Lebe, Banu; Ozkal, Sermin



Morbidity Profile and Seasonal Variation of Diseases in a Primary Health Center in Kanpur District: A Tool for the Health Planners  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the morbidity profile of patients being treated at the Primary Health Center, their distribution according to gender, and the seasonal trend of diseases. Materials and Methods: The study was done retrospectively using secondary data, over a period of 1 year from June 2007 to July 2008, at the OPD of the Primary Health Center at Patara in Kanpur District, India. The study was aimed to study the pattern of diseases according to the classification provided by the Government of India. The data were collected from the OPD registers of the consultant medical officer, and the diagnosis was classified into communicable diseases, nutritional and metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, obstetric complications, and other diseases including injuries. Results: A total of 6838 patients had been treated at the OPD, which included 2707 males and 4131 females. It was observed that, while communicable diseases constituted about half of the total burden of the diseases with skin infections being the commonest; the non-communicable diseases constituted about one-fifth of the total disease burden. Significant gender differences were evident in the prevalence of certain diseases such as worm infestation, acute respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, reproductive tract infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastritis, arthritis/gout, falls/injuries/fractures, anemia, pyrexia of unknown origin, and snake bite. Most of the diseases were observed to have a seasonal variation, with the communicable and infectious diseases peaking in the monsoon months. Surprisingly, the non-communicable diseases such as gastritis and falls and injuries also showed a seasonal variation. Conclusion: Many diseases have a seasonal variation and the burden of these diseases could be reduced if we devise measures to detect the changes in their trend through the implementation of surveillance programs in this part of the world, as has been carried out in other countries. The knowledge of the burden of the diseases would also assist the health administrators in judicious allocation of the resources. PMID:24479013

Kumari, Ranjeeta; Nath, Bhola; Midha, Tanu; Vaswani, Narain D.; Lekhwani, Seema; Singh, Bhupendra



An unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, with advanced carpal and spinal end-plate ossification mimicking COMP-mutation-like multiple epiphyseal dysplasia.  


We present a child with irregular ossification of tubular bone epiphyses, short bones, and spine. The radiographic evolution of bones undergoing endochondral ossification was followed from the age of 1 year 9 months to 6 years. The unusual features demonstrated in this child made classification difficult: pseudoachondroplasia was excluded because no mutations of the COMP gene were found. Considering the evolution of the radiographic appearances, the most likely diagnosis would seem to be an unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, mimicking some aspects of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Endochondral ossification was diffusely altered with a mixture of epiphyseal ossification delay associated with acceleration and early fusion. This case was a unique presentation within the family, suggesting a mutation in the affected child. PMID:18338162

Pazzaglia, Ugo Ernesto; Beluffi, Giampiero; Zarattini, Guido



Chagas Disease among the Latin American Adult Population Attending in a Primary Care Center in Barcelona, Spain  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA), a commercial kit (rELISA) and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) (oELISA). Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6–4.12%). Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n?=?127) of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6–23.39%). All the infected patients were in a chronic phase of Chagas disease: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi–infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems. PMID:21572511

Roca, Carme; Pinazo, María Jesús; López-Chejade, Paolo; Bayó, Joan; Posada, Elizabeth; López-Solana, Jordi; Gállego, Montserrat; Portús, Montserrat; Gascón, Joaquim



Comparative ENDOR study at 34 GHz of the triplet state of the primary donor in bacterial reaction centers of Rb. sphaeroides and Bl. viridis.  


The primary electron donor (P) in the photosynthetic bacterial reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Blastochloris viridis consists of a dimer of bacteriochlorophyll a and b cofactors, respectively. Its photoexcited triplet state in frozen solution has been investigated by time resolved ENDOR spectroscopy at 34 GHz. The observed ENDOR spectra for (3)P865 and (3)P960 are essentially the same, indicating very similar spin density distributions. Exceptions are the ethylidene groups unique to the bacteriochlorophyll b dimer in (3)P960. Strikingly, the observed hyperfine coupling constants of the ethylidene groups are larger than in the monomer, which speaks for an asymmetrically delocalized wave function over both monomer halves in the dimer. The latter observation corroborates previous findings of the spin density in the radical cation states P 865 (•+) (Lendzian et al. in Biochim Biophys Acta 1183:139-160, 1993) and P 960 (•+) (Lendzian et al. in Chem Phys Lett 148:377-385, 1988). As compared to the bacteriochlorophyll monomer, the hyperfine coupling constants of the methyl groups 2(1) and 12(1) are reduced by at least a factor of two, and quantitative analysis of these couplings gives rise to a ratio of approximately 3:1 for the spin density on the halves PL:PM. Our findings are discussed in light of the large difference in photosynthetic activity of the two branches of cofactors present in the bacterial reaction center proteins. PMID:23184403

Marchanka, Aliaksandr; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Plato, Martin; van Gastel, Maurice



Socio-economic Status, Needs, and Utilization of Dental Services among Rural Adults in a Primary Health Center Area in Southern India  

PubMed Central

Background: The oral disease burden in India is showing a steady increase in the recent years. Utilization of dental care being the major factor affecting the oral health status of the population is used as an important tool in oral health policy decision-making and is measured in terms of the number of dental visits per annum. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional house to house questionnaire survey was conducted in three rural clusters which were randomly selected from a total of eight clusters served by a primary health center. Simple random sampling was used to select 100 houses from each cluster. Screening was done to examine the existing oral diseases. A total of 385 completed questionnaires were collected from 300 houses. Results: Of 385 study subjects, 183 have experienced previous dental problems. Major dental problem experienced by the study subjects was toothache (68.85%) and the treatment underwent was extraction (50.27%). Most preferred treatment centers by the study subjects were private dental hospital (68.25%) and reason identified was accessibility which constituted (45.24%) of all the reasons given. Negative attitude toward dental care is one of the important barriers; 50.8% of the non-utilizers felt dental treatment is not much important. Conclusion: Person’s attitude, lack of awareness, and affordability remain the barriers for utilization of dental services. Effective methods have to be exercised to breach such barriers.

Bommireddy, Vikram Simha; Pachava, Srinivas; Ravoori, Srinivas; Sanikommu, Suresh; Talluri, Devaki; Vinnakota, Narayana Rao



Ossification and increased bone mineral density with zoledronic acid in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Cases of ossification and increased bone mineral density (BMD) at sites of bone metastasis following zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment have not been reported. The current study presents the case of a 65-year-old patient with lung adenocarcinoma and bone metastases in the lumbar vertebrae and femurs. Ossification and an increase in BMD at the metastatic sites was achieved following treatment with ZA and irradiation of the bone metastatic sites. The patient was able to maintain a normal lifestyle for over two years, despite the bone metastases. Therefore, as treatment with ZA was demonstrated to improve patient quality of life, physicians should consider this treatment strategy, particularly for the treatment of metastasis in weight-bearing bones. PMID:25187837




A light and electron microscopic study of the limb long bones perichondral ossification in the quail embryo (Coturnix coturnix japonica).  


The perichondral ossification of the limb long bones in the quail embryo is investigated, in this study, by means of light and electron microscopy. Longitudinal sections of the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia and fibula stained with haematoxylin-eosin were examined by the light microscope. Ultrathin cross sections were selected for the electron microscope as well. Light microscopic analysis showed that the ossification began at the same time in the long bones of the wing and leg. At the embryonic day 6, all the cartilaginous rudiments consisted of three zones. The central zone composed of hypertrophic chondrocytes, a second zone on either side of the central zone, which consisted of flattened cells and a third zone, which represented the epiphyseal region. A thin sheath of osteoid and a bi-layered perichondrium-periosteum surrounded the central zone of the cartilaginous rudiments of the long bones. The perichondrium consisted of a layer of osteoblasts, in contact with the cartilage, and a layer of fibroblasts. At the embryonic day 7, the thickness of the calcified osteoid ring increased and a vasculature appeared between the layer of osteoblasts and the layer of fibroblasts. At the embryonic day 8, a second sheath of periosteal bone began to be formed. Concurrently, vascular and perivascular elements began to invade the cartilage. The ossification spread towards the distal ends of both the diaphysis. At the electron microscopic level, the osteoblasts of the perichondium showed cytoplasmatic characteristics of cells involved in protein synthesis. The perichondral ossification is the first hallmark of the osteogenesis in the long bones. The observations reported above, are in accordance with previous studies in the chick embryo. PMID:17312922

Pourlis, Aris F; Antonopoulos, John; Magras, Ioannis N



The function of proprioceptors in bone organization: a possible explanation for neurogenic heterotopic ossification in patients with neurological damage.  


Neurogenic heterotopic ossification is characterized by the formation of extra osseous bone in soft tissue surrounding peripheral joints in neurological patients. It occurs in 25% of spinal cord injury patients, and in 20% of these the pathologic process is severe enough to cause limitations in joint motion. Vascular and metabolic changes resulting from autonomic nervous system impairment may play a role in the etiology of heterotopic ossification. Repetitive vigorous passive manipulation of the joint to preserve range of motion, in the presence of reduced defense mechanisms, may also traumatize soft tissue, thereby initiating the pathological process. Nerve terminals within ligaments and capsules that allow for proprioception have a determinant role in triggering on and off muscle contraction, permitting acceleration and deceleration during gait. The Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals has treated over 20,000 patients with spinal cord and brain injury in the past 20 years. Based on the observation of heterotopic ossification development in some of these patients, and its tendency to relapse, this present article speculates whether, after an interruption in the neural pathways: (1) altered proprioception can forge a different relationship between tissues; and (2) chaotic new bone formation can occur. We postulate that heterotopic ossification in patients with injury to the central nervous system (CNS) may be related to a dysfunction of proprioception. With interruption of the neural tract of a given limb, ligaments lose control and coordination of their proprioceptive function and begin to react to direct stimulus in an independent, isolated and haphazard way. Free of CNS control and directly stimulated by such independent signals, mesenchymal osteoprogenitor cells located in soft tissues begin to occasion tissue maturation and differentiation into bone: heterotopic bone. PMID:16919892

da Paz, Aloysio Campos; Carod Artal, Francisco J; Kalil, Ricardo K



Site-directed mutations near the L-subunit D-helix of the purple bacterial reaction center: a partial model for the primary donor of photosystem II.  


We have engineered a photosynthetically competent mutant of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus which seeks to mimic the behavior of the primary electron donor (P) of the plant photosystem II (PS II) reaction center (RC). To construct this mutant (denoted D1-ILMH), four residues in the bacterial L subunit were mutagenized, such that an 11-residue segment was made identical to the analogous segment from the D1 subunit of PS II. The electronic properties of the bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) dimer which constitutes the primary donor are substantially altered by these modifications, to the degree that the dimer becomes functionally much more "monomeric". The changes include (1) an increase in the values of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters, as measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), for the spin-polarized triplet state, 3P, from /D/ = 185 x 10(-4) cm(-1) and /E/ = 31 x 10(-4) cm(-1) in wild-type (WT) chromatophore membranes to /D/ = 200 x 10(-4) cm(-1) and /E/ = 44 x 10(-4) cm(-1) in the mutant and (2) an increase in the EPR line width of the oxidized state, P+, from 0.97 mT in WT to 1.09 mT in D1-ILMH RCs. However, unlike the PS II primary donor (P680), the orientation of 3P in the D1-ILMH mutant is the same as in WT bacteria and does not display the unusual orientation found for PS II. And whereas the redox couple P/P+ has a very high midpoint potential in PS II, P/P+ in the D1-ILMH mutant has a lower midpoint (90 mV more negative) than in WT Rb. capsulatus. In addition, Raman measurements indicate that the hydrogen bond between HisL168 and the C2 acetyl carbonyl oxygen of the Bchl on the active electron transfer pathway (P(A)) is absent in the mutant, due to the fact that HisL168 in the WT sequence has been replaced by a leucine in D1-ILMH. However, the Raman data also reveal the presence of a new hydrogen bond in the D1-ILMH RCs, between the C9 keto carbonyl oxygen of P(A) and an unknown hydrogen-bond donor. Thus, although the protein environment around one of the Bchls of the special pair is significantly changed in D1-ILMH, the chimeric RC does not, as a result of these changes, have a primary donor that is oriented like the one in PS II. PMID:9047318

Coleman, W J; Mattioli, T A; Youvan, D C; Rutherford, A W



The WHO/PEPFAR collaboration to prepare an operations manual for HIV prevention, care, and treatment at primary health centers in high-prevalence, resource-constrained settings: defining laboratory services.  


The expansion of HIV/AIDS care and treatment in resource-constrained countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, has generally developed in a top-down manner. Further expansion will involve primary health centers where human and other resources are limited. This article describes the World Health Organization/President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief collaboration formed to help scale up HIV services in primary health centers in high-prevalence, resource-constrained settings. It reviews the contents of the Operations Manual developed, with emphasis on the Laboratory Services chapter, which discusses essential laboratory services, both at the center and the district hospital level, laboratory safety, laboratory testing, specimen transport, how to set up a laboratory, human resources, equipment maintenance, training materials, and references. The chapter provides specific information on essential tests and generic job aids for them. It also includes annexes containing a list of laboratory supplies for the health center and sample forms. PMID:19461098

Spira, Thomas; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Ferris, Robert; Habiyambere, Vincent; Ellerbrock, Tedd



Immature muscular tissue differentiation into bone-like tissue by bone morphogenetic proteins in vitro, with ossification potential in vivo.  


The objective of this study was to induce bone formation from immature muscular tissue (IMT) in vitro, using bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as a cytokine source and an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) scaffold. In addition, cultured IMTs were implanted subcutaneously into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to determine their in vivo ossification potential. BMPs, extracted from bovine cortical bones, were applied to embryonic SD rat IMT cultures, before 2 weeks culture on ePTFE scaffolds. Osteoblast-like cells and osteoid tissues were partially identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining 2 weeks after culture. Collagen type I (Col-I), osteopontin (OP), and osteocalcin (OC) were detected in the osteoid tissues by immunohistochemical staining. OC gene expression remained low, but OP and Col-I were upregulated during the culture period. In vivo implanted IMTs showed slight radiopacity 1 week after implantation and strong radiopacity 2 and 3 weeks after implantation. One week after implantation, migration of numerous capillaries was observed and ossification was detected after 2 weeks by histological observation. These results suggest that IMTs are able to differentiate into bone-like tissue in vitro, with an ossification potential after implantation in vivo. PMID:24115406

Hayashi, Tatsuhide; Kobayashi, Syuichiro; Asakura, Masaki; Kawase, Mayu; Ueno, Atsuko; Uematsu, Yasuaki; Kawai, Tatsushi



Effectiveness of adalimumab for ambulatory ulcerative colitis patients after failure of infliximab treatment: a first “real-life” experience in primary gastroenterology centers in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Adalimumab (ADA) is the key treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC) unresponsive or intolerant to standard treatments. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of ADA in treating ambulatory UC patients in primary gastroenterology centers. Methods Fifteen patients (6 male, median age 29.9 years, range 22.8-39.9 years) were enrolled. All were previously treated with infliximab (IFX). Clinical activity and endoscopic severity were scored according to the Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) score and Mayo subscore for endoscopy, respectively. Patients were clinically assessed at weeks 4, 8, and thereafter at weeks 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, and 54. Colonoscopy was performed before starting treatment, at weeks 24 and 54. The co-primary endpoints were clinical remission at 24 and 54 weeks. The secondary endpoints included: 1) sustained clinical remission; 2) steroid-sparing effect; 3) mucosal healing; 4) need for colectomy. Induction dose of ADA was 160 mg at week 0, and then 80 mg at week 2, while ADA maintenance treatment was 40 mg every two weeks. Results Clinical remission was obtained in 11 (73.3%) and 15 (100%) patients at weeks 24 and 54 respectively. Ten patients (66.7%) were able to discontinue steroids and were under corticosteroid-free remission at week 54. No patients underwent to colectomy. Eight patients (53.33%) at week 24 and 9 patients (60%) at week 54 achieved complete mucosal healing (Mayo endoscopic score 0). Side effects were reported in 2 of 15 patients (13.3%); none of those patients stopped treatment. Conclusion ADA seems to be effective and safe in UC outpatients affected by UC, and previously treated with IFX. PMID:25331091

Tursi, Antonio; Elisei, Walter; Picchio, Marcello; Penna, Antonio; Forti, Giacomo; Giorgetti, Gian Marco; Faggiani, Roberto; Zampaletta, Costantino; Pelecca, Giorgio; Brandimarte, Giovanni



Primary sacral non-germinal center type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with MYC translocation: a case report and a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

An 85-year-old man presented with pain and numbness in the left buttock, and physical examination revealed an approximately 7 cm mass extending from the first to the third sacral vertebrae; biopsy of the mass led to the diagnosis of CD10-negative, BCL6-weakly positive, MUM1-positive, non-germinal center (non-GC) type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Furthermore, serological testing showed negative results for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed a MYC translocation. Radiographs showed no remarkable osteolytic bone destruction, and the patient was staged with Stage IAE. After 8 cycles of rituximab therapy and 6 cycles of CHOP therapy, complete remission has been maintained until now, approximately 1 year after the treatment. Primary sacral lymphoma is very rare, with only 6 reported cases, including the present one. A review of the reported cases revealed that the disease predominantly affects elderly men, is usually non-GC-type DLBCL and stage IAE, measures approximately 2-7 cm in diameter in general, and does not show early recurrence after chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. There is no report in the literature yet of primary sacral DLBCL with MYC translocation, and this is the first case report. On the other hand, 35 cases of CD10-negative DLBCL with MYC translocation, including the present one, have been reported, and a review of the reported cases showed that the disease predominantly affects Asians, middle-aged or elderly men, shows positivity for either BCL6 or MUM1 and negativity for EBV, and has a high international prognostic index and poor prognosis. PMID:24040459

Shimada, Asami; Sugimoto, Kei-Ji; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Imai, Hidenori; Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Ota, Yasunori; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki



Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt.  


Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL(+) isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80) were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence. PMID:25523075

Abou Shady, Hala M; Bakr, Alaa Eldin A; Hashad, Mahmoud E; Alzohairy, Mohammad A



Spontaneous Cervical Intradural Disc Herniation Associated with Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament  

PubMed Central

Intradural herniation of a cervical disc is rare; less than 35 cases have been reported to date. A 52-year-old man with preexisting ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament developed severe neck pain with Lt hemiparesis while asleep. Neurological exam was consistent with Brown-Séquard syndrome. Magnetic resonance images showed a C5-6 herniated disc that was adjacent to the ossified ligament and indenting the cord. The mass was surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity margin, and caudally the ventral dura line appears divided into two, consistent with the “Y-sign” described by Sasaji et al. Cord edema were noted. Because of preexisting canal stenosis and spinal cord at risk, a laminoplasty was performed, followed by an anterior C6 corpectomy. Spot-weld type adhesions of the posterior longitudinal ligament to the dura was noted, along with a longitudinal tear in the dura. An intradural extra-arachnoid fragment of herniated disc was removed. Clinical exam at 6 months after surgery revealed normal muscle strength but persistent mild paresthesias. It is difficult to make a definite diagnosis of intradural herniation preoperatively; however, the clinical findings and radiographic signs mentioned above are suggestive and should alert the surgeon to look for an intradural fragment. PMID:25295205

Wang, Dachuan; Wang, Haifeng; Shen, Wun-Jer



[Spontaneous ossification of the cervical spine after subtotal surgery spondylotic myelopathy].  


Subtotal corporectomy without fusion (SCWF) is a misunderstood surgical procedure used in the treatment of spondylotic myelopathy. This clinical study was performed to evaluate the efficiency of the SCWF. Long term neurological status and cervical spine ossification were specially studied. Sixty-four patients, operated between 1990 and 2003, were evaluated. The average follow-up period was five years. To assess the severity of neurological symptoms, a functional seven-point classification scale was used. Discriminant analysis was applied as statistic. There was a significant correlation between outcome, functional preoperative score, age, duration of the compression and intramedullary lesion in NMR. After SCWF, no secondary cervical instability was observed. Conversely, we show, for the first time in the literature, that on the twenty-one patients who were the subject of late 3D CT scan, there exists a true rebuilding of the cervical bone with spontaneous fusion and respect of cervical cord decompression. We conclude that the SCWF is a safe and efficient treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. No fusion is required regardless of the number of levels, providing there is no preoperative instability. This surgical procedure which does not require any cervical immobilization considerably decreases surgical risks and costs imposed by the society. PMID:16465778

Born, J D



Activation of Hedgehog signaling by loss of GNAS causes heterotopic ossification  

PubMed Central

Bone formation is exquisitely controlled in space and time. Heterotopic ossification (HO), the pathologic formation of extra-skeletal bone, occurs as a common complication of trauma or in genetic disorders and can be disabling and lethal. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that G?s restricts bone formation to the skeleton by inhibiting Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in mesenchymal progenitor cells. In progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), a human disease caused by null mutations in GNAS that encodes G?s, HH signaling is upregulated in ectopic osteoblasts and progenitor cells. Ectopic Hh signaling is sufficient to induce HO, while Hh signaling inhibition blocks HO in animal models. As our previous work has shown that GNAS gain of function mutations upregulate WNT/?-Catenin signaling in fibrous dysplasia (FD), our findings identify G?s as a critical regulator of osteoblast differentiation by maintaining a balance between two key signaling pathways: Wnt/?-catenin and Hh. HH signaling inhibitors developed for cancer therapy may be repurposed to treat HO and other diseases caused by GNAS inactivation. PMID:24076664

Regard, Jean B.; Malhotra, Deepti; Gvozdenovic-Jeremic, Jelena; Josey, Michelle; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S.; Lu, Jianming; Shore, Eileen M.; Kaplan, Frederick S.; Yang, Yingzi



Hypomorphic mutation in mouse Nppc gene causes retarded bone growth due to impaired endochondral ossification  

SciTech Connect

Long bone abnormality (lbab/lbab) is a spontaneous mutant mouse characterized by dwarfism with shorter long bones. A missense mutation was reported in the Nppc gene, which encodes C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), but it has not been confirmed whether this mutation is responsible for the dwarf phenotype. To verify that the mutation causes the dwarfism of lbab/lbab mice, we first investigated the effect of CNP in lbab/lbab mice. By transgenic rescue with chondrocyte-specific expression of CNP, the dwarf phenotype in lbab/lbab mice was completely compensated. Next, we revealed that CNP derived from the lbab allele retained only slight activity to induce cGMP production through its receptor. Histological analysis showed that both proliferative and hypertrophic zones of chondrocytes in the growth plate of lbab/lbab mice were markedly reduced. Our results demonstrate that lbab/lbab mice have a hypomorphic mutation in the Nppc gene that is responsible for dwarfism caused by impaired endochondral ossification.

Tsuji, Takehito [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)], E-mail:; Kondo, Eri; Yasoda, Akihiro [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Inamoto, Masataka; Kiyosu, Chiyo [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Nakao, Kazuwa [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kunieda, Tetsuo [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)



Ossification defects detected in CT scans represent early osteochondrosis in the distal femur of piglets.  


The purpose of the current study was to validate the use of CT for selection against osteochondrosis in pigs by calculating positive predictive value and comparing it to the positive predictive value of macroscopic evaluation, using histological examination as the reference standard. Eighteen male, hereditarily osteochondrosis-predisposed piglets underwent terminal examination at biweekly intervals from the ages of 82-180 days old, including CT scanning, macroscopic, and histological evaluation of the left distal femur. Areas of ischemic chondronecrosis (osteochondrosis) were confirmed in histological sections from 44/56 macroscopically suspected lesions, resulting in a positive predictive value of 79% (95% CI: 67-84%). Suspected lesions, that is; focal, radiolucent defects in the ossification front in CT scans corresponded to areas of ischemic chondronecrosis in 36/36 histologically examined lesions, resulting in a positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 90-100%). CT was superior to macroscopic evaluation for diagnosis of early stages of osteochondrosis in the distal femur of piglets. The current histologically validated observations can potentially be extrapolated to diagnostic monitoring of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans in children, or to animal models of human juvenile articular cartilage injury and repair. PMID:24740876

Olstad, Kristin; Kongsro, Jørgen; Grindflek, Eli; Dolvik, Nils Ivar



Situation analysis of existing facilities for screening, treatment and prevention of cervical cancer in hospitals/primary health centers of Delhi-NCR region, India.  


Cervical cancer, the second most common malignancy all over the world, is associated with HPV infection. In a developing country like India, lack of early detection and treatment facilities is the main cause for its high burden. Therefore, through our study we e tried to present the current scenario of existing facilities for the detection and treatment of cervical cancer in hospitals and primary health centers (PHCs) of Delhi-NCR region. Data were collected from 312 healthcare facilities including public and private hospitals and PHCs of all nine districts from Delhi-NCR region. Healthcare providers including gynecologists, medical officers, women health care providers and paramedical staff were interviewed, using a questionnaire; the facilities for screening, diagnosing, and treating cervical cancer in each institution were recorded, using a previously designed checklist. Our study has shown that the basic facilities for the detection and treatment of cervical cancer are abhorrently lacking in Public hospitals and PHCs as compared to the Private hospitals in Delhi-NCR region. This study demonstrates that there is an urgent need for more investment in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer facilities in public and rural healthcare facilities of Delhi-NCR region. PMID:25041021

Chawla, P Cheena; Chawla, Anil Kumar; Shrivastava, Richa; Shrivastava, Anju; Chaudhary, Seema



Effectiveness of an intervention in groups of family caregivers of dependent patients for their application in primary health centers. Study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Although Primary Health Care (PHC) Teams are used to deal with prevention and treatment of sanitary problems in adults with chronic diseases, they usually have a lack of experience in development of psychotherapeutic interventions. However, these interventions are the ones that achieve better results to reduce symptomatology and improve emotional state of caregivers. The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention of psychotherapy in improving the mental health and Quality of life of caregivers. This intervention is based on theoretical approaches to care adjusted to cognitive theory, in order to be applied in primary health care centres. Methods/Design This is multicentre clinical trials study, randomized in two parallel groups, carry out in two PHC, Study population: 150 caregivers will be included by consecutive sampling and they will be randomized the half to experimental group and the other half to control group. They provide mostly all the assistance to care-dependent familiars receiving attention in PHC Centers. Measurements: Each caregiver will be evaluated on a personal interview. The caregivers' assessment protocol: 1) Assessment of different socio-demographic related to care, and caregiver's personal situation. 2)Care-dependent individuals will also be assessed by Barthel Index and Pfeiffer Questionnaire (SPMSQ). 3)Change in caregivers will be the principal measure: family function (Family APGAR Questionnaire), burden short questionnaire (Short Zarit Burden Interview), quality of life (Ruiz & Baca: 1993 Questionnaire), the Duke-UNK Functional Social Support Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire-12, and changes in Dysfunctional Thoughts about caring. 4) Intervention implementation measures will also be assessed. Intervention: A psychotherapeutic intervention will be 8 sessions of 90 minutes in groups. This intervention has been initially developed for family caregivers of patients with dementia. Discussion Psychotherapeutic interventions have been proved to obtain better results to reduce symptomatology and improve emotional state of caregivers. Moreover, this intervention has been proved to be effective in a different setting other than PHC, and was developed by professionals of Mental Health. If we found that this intervention is effective in PHC and with our professionals, it would be an important instrument to offer to caregivers of care-dependent patients. Trial Registration Identifier NCT01177696 PMID:20849630



Effects of aging on osteogenic response and heterotopic ossification following burn injury in mice.  


Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a common and debilitating complication of burns, traumatic brain injuries, and musculoskeletal trauma and surgery. Although the exact mechanism of ectopic bone formation is unknown, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) capable of osteogenic differentiation are known to play an essential role. Interestingly, the prevalence of HO in the elderly population is low despite the high overall occurrence of musculoskeletal injury and orthopedic procedures. We hypothesized that a lower osteogenicity of MSCs would be associated with blunted HO formation in old compared with young mice. In vitro osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived MSCs from old (18-20 months) and young (6-8 weeks) C57/BL6 mice was assessed, with or without preceding burn injury. In vivo studies were then performed using an Achilles tenotomy with concurrent burn injury HO model. HO formation was quantified using ?CT scans, Raman spectroscopy, and histology. MSCs from young mice had more in vitro bone formation, upregulation of bone formation pathways, and higher activation of Smad and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling following burn injury. This effect was absent or blunted in cells from old mice. In young mice, burn injury significantly increased HO formation, NF-?B activation, and osteoclast activity at the tenotomy site. This blunted, reactive osteogenic response in old mice follows trends seen clinically and may be related to differences in the ability to mount acute inflammatory responses. This unique characterization of HO and MSC osteogenic differentiation following inflammatory insult establishes differences between age populations and suggests potential pathways that could be targeted in the future with therapeutics. PMID:25122460

Peterson, Jonathan R; Eboda, Oluwatobi N; Brownley, R Cameron; Cilwa, Katherine E; Pratt, Lauren E; De La Rosa, Sara; Agarwal, Shailesh; Buchman, Steven R; Cederna, Paul S; Morris, Michael D; Wang, Stewart C; Levi, Benjamin



Ossification of the suprascapular ligament: A risk factor for suprascapular nerve compression?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve at the suprascapular notch may be due to an ossified suprascapular ligament. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the incidence of this anomaly and to analyze the resultant bony foramen (foramen scapula) for gross nerve compression. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 104 human scapulae from 52 adult skeletons for the presence of complete ossification of the suprascapular ligament. When an ossified suprascapular ligament was identified, the diameter of the resultant foramen was measured. Also, the suprascapular regions of 50 adult cadavers (100 sides) were dissected. When an ossified suprascapular ligament was identified, the spinati musculature was evaluated for gross atrophy and the diameters of the resultant foramen scapulae and the suprascapular nerve were measured. Immunohistochemical analysis of the nerve was also performed. Results: For dry scapular specimens, 5.7% were found to have an ossified suprascapular ligament. The mean diameter of these resultant foramina was 2.6 mm. For cadavers, an ossified suprascapular ligament was identified in 5% of sides. Sections of the suprascapular nerve at the foramen scapulae ranged from 2 to 2.8 mm in diameter. In all cadaveric samples, the suprascapular nerve was grossly compressed (~10-20%) at this site. All nerves demonstrated histologic signs of neural degeneration distal to the site of compression. The presence of these foramina in male cadavers and on right sides was statistically significant. Conclusions: Based on our study, even in the absence of symptoms, gross compression of the suprascapular nerve exists in cases of an ossified suprascapular ligament. Asymptomatic patients with an ossified suprascapular ligament may warrant additional testing such as electromyography. PMID:23858291

Tubbs, R. Shane; Nechtman, Carl; D’Antoni, Anthony V.; Shoja, Mohammadali M.; Mortazavi, Martin M.; Loukas, Marios; Rozzelle, Curtis J.; Spinner, Robert J.



Platinum-based Chemotherapy in Primary Advanced Seminoma—a Retrospective Analysis: Treatment Results at the Northern Israel Oncology Center (1989–2010)  

PubMed Central

Objective: Over the past 30 years, great strides have been made in the treatment of disseminated testicular tumors. Despite the low number of patients and the rarity of studies concerning primary advanced seminoma, the efficacy of chemotherapy is clear, mainly 3–4-cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Aiming to contribute to the understanding and implementation of proper chemotherapeutic management in advanced seminoma patients, we retrospectively summarized our experience with 26 patients who were referred for platinum-based chemotherapy, post-orchiectomy to the Northern Israel Oncology Center between 1989 and 2010. Response rate, side effects, and long-term outcome were investigated. Methods: Before chemotherapy, meticulous staging was done, including tumor markers (B-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-HCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)), and abdominal and pelvic computerized tomography (CT) scans were carried out. Results: All 26 treated patients achieved complete remission, clinically and symptomatically, with normalization of their CT scans. At a median follow-up of 120 months (range, 24–268 months) all patients are alive, without evidence of recurrent disease. One patient whose disease recurred twice achieved a third complete remission following salvage treatment with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. Another patient, who preferred surveillance, relapsed abdominally after 9 months but achieved long-standing complete remission with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Both these patients are alive with no evidence of disease. Three patients recovered uneventfully from bleomycin-induced pneumonitis. Conclusions: Advanced seminoma is a highly curable disease using platinum-based chemotherapy. Our study confirms the efficacy and safety of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced seminoma. PMID:24498512

Stein, Moshe E.; Drumea, Karen; Charas, Tomer; Gershuny, Anthony; Ben-Yosef, Rahamim



Dehydration affects the electronic structure of the primary electron donor in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers: evidence from visible-NIR and light-induced difference FTIR spectroscopy.  


The photosynthetic reaction center (RC) is a membrane pigment-protein complex that catalyzes the initial charge separation reactions of photosynthesis. Following photoexcitation, the RC undergoes conformational relaxations which stabilize the charge-separated state. Dehydration of the complex inhibits its conformational dynamics, providing a useful tool to gain insights into the relaxational processes. We analyzed the effects of dehydration on the electronic structure of the primary electron donor P, as probed by visible-NIR and light-induced FTIR difference spectroscopy, in RC films equilibrated at different relative humidities r. Previous FTIR and ENDOR spectroscopic studies revealed that P, an excitonically coupled dimer of bacteriochlorophylls, can be switched between two conformations, P866 and P850, which differ in the extent of delocalization of the unpaired electron between the two bacteriochlorophyll moieties (PL and PM) of the photo-oxidized radical P(+). We found that dehydration (at r = 11%) shifts the optical Qy band of P from 866 to 850-845 nm, a large part of the effect occurring already at r = 76%. Such a dehydration weakens light-induced difference FTIR marker bands, which probe the delocalization of charge distribution within the P(+) dimer (the electronic band of P(+) at 2700 cm(-1), and the associated phase-phonon vibrational modes at around 1300, 1480, and 1550 cm(-1)). From the analysis of the P(+) keto C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bands at 1703 and 1713-15 cm(-1), we inferred that dehydration induces a stronger localization of the unpaired electron on PL(+). The observed charge redistribution is discussed in relation to the dielectric relaxation of the photoexcited RC on a long (10(2) s) time scale. PMID:25188921

Malferrari, Marco; Turina, Paola; Francia, Francesco; Mezzetti, Alberto; Leibl, Winfried; Venturoli, Giovanni



The role of osteogenic index, octahedral shear stress and dilatational stress in the ossification of a fracture callus.  


The exact mechanism by which mechanical stimulus regulates the healing process of a bone fracture is not understood. This has led to the development of several hypotheses that predict the pattern of differentiation of tissue during healing that may arise from characteristic fields of stress or strain at the fracture. These have so far remained unproved because data on stress fields in actual fracture tissue have been unavailable until recently. Thus the present study examines the predictive performance of the hypothesis proposed in J Orthop Res 6 (1988) 736, against measured and calculated data reported in J Biomech 33 (2000) 415, using a 2D FEM of a clinical fracture. The hypothesis was used to predict the influence of stress fields present in the Gardner et al. tissues at four temporal stages during healing. These predictions were then correlated with callus-size, rate of endochondral ossification and ossification pattern subsequently observed by Gardner et al. in the clinical fracture. Results corroborate the hypothesis that high octahedral shear stresses may increase the size of the callus during the initial phase of healing, and they also suggest that this may be true during the later stages of the fracture fixation period. However, compressive dilatational stresses were not found to inhibit endochondral ossification, as suggested by the hypothesis. Although high shear stresses were found in regions indicative of fibrous tissue as postulated by the hypothesis, this was not found to be the case for high tensile dilatational stresses. Also, contour diagrams of Osteogenic index (I) indicated only limited correlation with callus maturation and the pattern of healing. Therefore, the hypothesis was not wholly successful in predicting healing pattern. PMID:15234685

Gardner, Trevor Noel; Mishra, Sanjay; Marks, Laurence



Heterotopic Ossification around the Knee after Internal Fixation of a Complex Tibial Plateau Fracture Combined with the Use of Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM): A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Demineralized bone matrix has been successfully commercialized as an alternative bone graft material that not only can function as filler but also as an osteoinductive graft. Numerous studies have confirmed its beneficial use in clinical practice. Heterotopic ossification after internal fixation combined with the use of demineralized bone matrix has not been widely reported. In this paper we describe a 39 year old male who sustained a complex articular fracture that developed clinically significant heterotopic ossification after internal fixation with added demineralized bone matrix. Although we cannot be sure that there is a cause-and-effect relation between demineralized bone matrix and the excessive heterotopic ossification seen in our patient, it seems that some caution in using demineralised bone matrix in similar cases is warranted. Also, given the known inter- and intraproduct variability, the risks and benefits of these products should be carefully weighed.

Nota, Sjoerd P.F.T.; Kloen, Peter



Latest Data Show Strong Fertility Center Offers Region's Best IVF Success Rates! The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART), the primary organization of  

E-print Network

Latest Data Show Strong Fertility Center Offers Region's Best IVF Success Rates! The Society Fertility Center surpasses the national average for IVF in women under 35 years of age. Over 51% of embryo transfers in women under age 35 resulted in live births. In fact, Strong Fertility Center's IVF success

Goldman, Steven A.


Incidence Density of Invasive Fungal Infections during Primary Antifungal Prophylaxis in Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients in a Tertiary Cancer Center, 2009 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Although primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) is routinely administered in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) during remission-induction and consolidation chemotherapy, the impact of PAP on the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is not well described. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of IFIs in 152 patients with AML who had been admitted to a tertiary cancer center between August 2009 and March 2011 and received PAP within 120 days after first remission-induction chemotherapy. We excluded patients who had undergone stem cell transplantation. Patients received a PAP drug with anti-Aspergillus activity during 72% (7,660/10,572) of prophylaxis-days. The incidence of documented IFIs (definite or probable according to revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] criteria) was 2.0/1,000 prophylaxis-days (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.04). IFIs due to molds were more common than IFIs due to yeasts (1.5/1,000 prophylaxis-days versus 0.4/1,000 prophylaxis-days; P = 0.01). Echinocandin-based PAP (8.6 and 7.1/1,000 prophylaxis-days, respectively) was associated with higher rates of documented IFIs than anti-Aspergillus azoles (voriconazole or posaconazole) (2.4 and 1.1/1,000 prophylaxis-days, respectively) at both 42 days (P = 0.03) and 120 days (P < 0.0001) after first remission-induction chemotherapy. The incidence of overall (documented and presumed) IFIs (P < 0.001), documented IFIs (P < 0.01), and empirical antifungal therapies (P < 0.0001) was higher during the first 42 days than after day 42. Despite the broad use of PAP with anti-Aspergillus activity, IFIs, especially molds, remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in AML patients, predominantly during the remission-induction phase. Patients receiving echinocandin-based PAP experienced higher rates of IFIs than did those receiving anti-Aspergillus azoles. PMID:24277033

Mulanovich, Victor E.; Jiang, Y.; Lewis, Russell E.



Total Delay in Treatment among Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Five Primary Health Centers, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The global burden of Tuberculosis (TB) remains enormous. Delay in TB diagnosis may lead to a higher infectious pool in the community and a more advanced disease state at presentation increasing the risk of mortality. This study is conducted to determine the total delay before treatment among smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Methods A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted in five primary health centers in southern Ethiopia from June to December 2012. A total of 328 smear positive PTB patients were enrolled in the study. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used. Median patient, diagnostic, and treatment delays were calculated to determine the total delay. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with total delay. Results The median patient, diagnostic, treatment and total delays measured in days were 30 (IQR 20.2, 60), 7 (IQR: 3, 14), 3 (IQR: 1, 4) and 45 (IQR: 34.5, 69.5) days respectively. Patients for whom treatment was not initiated within 45 days of onset of symptom(s) (total delay) constituted 49% of the study participants (59.5% among males and 39.2% among females; P<0.001). Total delay was found to be associated with: being female [AOR ?=?0.34, 95% CI: 0.18–0.62], having attended tertiary level education [AOR ?=?0.11, 95% CI: 0.02–0.55], perceived severity of stigma during the current TB disease course [AOR?=?2. 18, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.42] and living in houses with higher family size [AOR?=?0.26, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.61]. Conclusion Total delay in treatment of TB is still high in the study area. Patient's sex, perceived stigma, educational status and family size are significantly contributing for total delay. Therefore, a concerted effort should be taken in order to improve health seeking behavior of the community on TB and to reduce delays from seeking care after experiencing TB symptoms. PMID:25048601

Asefa, Anteneh; Teshome, Wondu



Phosphate is a specific signal for ATDC5 chondrocyte terminal differentiation and apoptosis-dependent mineralization: possible implication of apoptosis in the regulation of endochondral ossification.  

E-print Network

in mice leads to accelerated maturation of chondrocytes and shortening of long bones.5 The growth;18(8):1430-42 #12;2 Abstract During endochondral ossification, regulation of chondrocyte maturation governs in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate, on chondrocyte maturation has not yet been deciphered. Using

Boyer, Edmond


Development of heterotopic ossifications, blood markers and outcome after radiation therapy in spinal cord injured patients.  


Study Design:Retrospective study.Objectives:This study was implemented to detect risk factors for the developing of heterotopic ossifications (HOs) in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients.Setting:This study was conducted in Murnau, Germany.Methods:All patients from 2008-2012 with acute SCI were routinely examined by ultrasound of the hips every 2 weeks. The sub group of SCI patients suffering of HO of the hips were extracted and the incidence of developing an HO was calculated. Parameters like age, level of injury, ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), duration time of accident until diagnosis of HO, Brooker stage, localization of HO (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and symptoms like thrombosis, emboli, decrease of range of motion (ROM), dermal symptoms, swelling, increase in D-Dimere level, were evaluated. Also accompanying injuries of the brain, lung and extremities were recorded.Results:From January 2008 until January 2012, 575 patients with an acute and traumatic SCI were treated in our Department. During this period 32 HOs were detected in the muscles surrounding the hip. In 10 cases a single side and in 22 cases both sides were affected. A total of 26 patients were detected showing up a Brooker 0, two patients Brooker 1, and five patients a Brooker stage >2. The adductor muscles showed an edema in 19 cases and the quadriceps muscles were affected in 15 cases. 26% of all SCI patients showed AIS A status, but in patients who developed HO, 64% have had an AIS A status. 19% of patients with a HO were AIS B and 9.5% showed an AIS C and D. Regarding the level of injury the distribution of patients suffering of HO was comparable to the distribution of SCI patients without HO. In mean HO were detected 9 weeks after SCI and no new HO were found after the 22nd (n=1) week of injury. Clinical symptoms such as swelling, pain, redness or decrease in ROM or increase in D-Dimere levels were seen in 24 cases. Accompanying injuries like brain injury and lung contusions were found in 83% of patients developing HO. The incidence of thrombosis was comparable to SCI patients without HO. One patient with no accompanying injuries or clinical symptoms was detected by routinely performed ultrasound.Conclusions:The risk of developing HO in patients with traumatic SCI is 5.5% but increases when accompanying injuries of the brain and lung occur. Patients with a neurological status of AIS A must also be quoted as risk patients. When considering the described risk factors and clinical symptoms, 96% of all HO can be detected.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 25 November 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.186. PMID:25420497

Krauss, H; Maier, D; Bühren, V; Högel, F



Ontogeny of cranial ossification in the eastern newt, Notophthalmus viridescens (Caudata: Salamandridae), and its relationship to metamorphosis and neoteny.  


The ontogenetic sequence of cranial osteogenesis through adulthood is described in samples of newts from completely metamorphosing and partially neotenic populations. Cranial ossification proceeds in the same sequence in both samples. Seven stages of cranial development are described on the basis of conspicuous events that occur during ontogeny. These include four larval stages, metamorphs, efts, and adults. Neotenic adults have skulls that are metamorphosed completely and indistinguishable from the skulls of non-neotenic adults. Neoteny in these newts does not involve the skull and is limited to the postmetamorphic retention of some gill structures and, thus, is termed "limited neoteny." The evolution of limited neoteny in newts as a correlated response to the inhibition of land-drive behavior is discussed. PMID:3735436

Reilly, S M



Lentiviral-Mediated RNAi Knockdown of Cbfa1 Gene Inhibits Endochondral Ossification of Antler Stem Cells in Micromass Culture  

PubMed Central

Articular cartilage (AC) lacks ability to repair defects due to its avascular nature as healing process relies on cells being brought in by blood vessels. Multiple approaches have been taken to facilitate cartilage repair in clinics, to date there is no effective treatment available that can restores the AC lesion to a normally functioning level over extended periods. In this regard, antler cartilage is unique in being richly vascularised and hence can effectively repair and regenerate. Interestingly, antler stem cells, from which the vascularised cartilage is derived, can form avascular cartilage when taken away from their original niche, suggesting that the vascular or avascular state of antler cartilage is controlled by extrinsic factors. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this phenotype switch may help us to devise a way to trigger the effective intrinsic repair of AC. However, adoption of antler cartilage model for AC repair requires the demonstration that the cartilage specific signalling pathways also prevail in antler chondrogenesis. To achieve this, in the present study we silenced expression of Cbfa1, a key factor regulatingendochondral ossification, using RNAi, and showed that expression of the downstream genes type I collagen and osteocalcin were suppressed which, in turn, inhibited endochondral ossification process taking place in the antler stem cell-formed nodules. Therefore, we provided further evidence at molecular level that antler could be developed as novel model for the study of AC repair. The eventual identification of the extrinsic factors dictating the phenotype switch between the vascular and avascular state of antler cartilage will open up a new avenue for the cure of osteoarthritis. PMID:23056636

Sun, Hongmei; Yang, Fuhe; Chu, Wenhui; Zhao, Haiping; McMahon, Chris; Li, Chunyi



Ossification of ungular cartilages in front feet of cold-blooded trotters - a clinical radiographic evaluation of development over time.  


BackgroundIt has not yet been shown that ossification of ungular cartilages (OUC) is a pathological condition. Beside heredity, factors such as sex, age, repeated concussion, local trauma, hoof and body size have been suggested as contributing factors for OUC development. By comparing radiographs of front hooves from cold-blooded trotters with different age we wanted to evaluate when development of OUC in cold-blooded trotters occurs and if and when it stabilizes in relation to age and workload. Diagnosis and grading of OUC were based on radiological field examinations of 649 Swedish and Norwegian cold-blooded trotters¿ front hooves. A hundred and forty-seven of the horses were re-examined 3-13 years (mean age 9, median 8 years) after the first occasion. All radiographs were evaluated blind, using two different grading systems for OUC. Work load, in form of number of races completed, and body size score were collected from official data. Four statistical ordinal regression models were used, compared and evaluated.ResultsWe identified a breakpoint at 2.8¿±¿0.38 years of age when ossification ends and proposed a simpler grading system with more consistent results. There was no significant correlation between body size and grade of OUC. Comparison of different statistical methods for evaluation of ordinal data revealed a piecewise linear regression model as most suitable.ConclusionsIndividuals with OUC developed this condition during the stage of life when their hooves develop in size. Results from this study can assist equine practitioners when examining and for understanding this condition in their clinical work and is also beneficial for the Scandinavian equine industry when devising breeding programs. PMID:25359553

Hedenström, Ulf O; Olsson, Ulf; Holm, Arne W; Wattle, Ove S



What you need to know about ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament to optimize cervical spine surgery: A review  

PubMed Central

What are the risks, benefits, alternatives, and pitfalls for operating on cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)? To successfully diagnose OPLL, it is important to obtain Magnetic Resonance Images (MR). These studies, particularly the T2 weighted images, provide the best soft-tissue documentation of cord/root compression and intrinsic cord abnormalities (e.g. edema vs. myelomalacia) on sagittal, axial, and coronal views. Obtaining Computed Tomographic (CT) scans is also critical as they best demonstrate early OPLL, or hypertrophied posterior longitudinal ligament (HPLL: hypo-isodense with punctate ossification) or classic (frankly ossified) OPLL (hyperdense). Furthermore, CT scans reveal the “single layer” and “double layer” signs indicative of OPLL penetrating the dura. Documenting the full extent of OPLL with both MR and CT dictates whether anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery is warranted. An adequate cervical lordosis allows for posterior cervical approaches (e.g. lamionplasty, laminectomy/fusion), which may facilitate addressing multiple levels while avoiding the risks of anterior procedures. However, without lordosis and with significant kyphosis, anterior surgery may be indicated. Rarely, this requires single/multilevel anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF), as this approach typically fails to address retrovertebral OPLL; single or multilevel corpectomies are usually warranted. In short, successful OPLL surgery relies on careful patient selection (e.g. assess comorbidities), accurate MR/CT documentation of OPLL, and limiting the pros, cons, and complications of these complex procedures by choosing the optimal surgical approach. Performing OPLL surgery requires stringent anesthetic (awake intubation/positioning) and also the following intraoperative monitoring protocols: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electromyography (EMG). PMID:24843819

Epstein, Nancy E.



The Role of School-Based Health Centers in Increasing Universal and Targeted Delivery of Primary and Preventive Care among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School-based health centers (SBHC) can provide equitable and comprehensive care for adolescents; yet, few studies have described how patterns of health service utilization differ among groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in utilization and perceptions of SBHC care among adolescents. Methods: This study…

Parasuraman, Sarika R.; Shi, Leiyu



Increasing Participation by African Americans in NCI-Designated Cancer Center Colorectal Trials by Involving Primary Care Physicians |

An academic cancer center developed a partnership with a national organization of African-American physicians with the goal of engaging community physicians and encouraging them to refer patients to clinical trials. Although the program focused on colorectal cancer and related trials, the insights gained may be useful for engaging referring physicians for other types of trials as well.


Imaging features of primary Sarcomas of the great vessels in CT, MRI and PET/CT: a single-center experience  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the imaging features of primary sarcomas of the great vessels in CT, MRI and 18?F-FDG PET/CT. Methods Thirteen patients with a primary sarcoma of the great vessels were retrospectively evaluated. All available images studies including F-18 FDG PET(/CT) (n?=?4), MDCT (n?=?12) and MRI (n?=?6) were evaluated and indicative image features of this rare tumor entity were identified. Results The median interval between the first imaging study and the final diagnosis was 11 weeks (0–12 weeks). The most frequently observed imaging findings suggestive of malignant disease in patients with sarcomas of the pulmonary arteries were a large filling defect with vascular distension, unilaterality and a lack of improvement despite effective anticoagulation. In patients with aortic sarcomas we most frequently observed a pedunculated appearance and an atypical location of the filling defect. The F-18 FDG PET(/CT) examinations demonstrated an unequivocal hypermetabolism of the lesion in all cases (4/4). MRI proved lesion vascularization in 5/6 cases. Conclusion Intravascular unilateral or atypically located filling defects of the great vessels with vascular distension, a pedunculated shape and lack of improvement despite effective anticoagulation are suspicious for primary sarcoma on MDCT or MRI. MR perfusion techniques can add information on the nature of the lesion but the findings may be subtle and equivocal. F-18 FDG PET/CT may have a potential role in these patients and may be considered as part of the imaging workup. PMID:23924063



Primary Syphilis  


newsletter | contact Share | Primary Syphilis Information for adults A A A This image displays a painless ulcer with a red base, typical of primary syphilis. Overview Primary syphilis is a disease caused by ...


P2Y1 Transient Overexpression Induced Mineralization in Spinal Ligament Cells Derived from Patients with Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament of the Cervical Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL) is characterized by ectopic bone formation in the\\u000a spinal ligaments. We previously reported that P2 purinoceptor Y1 (P2Y1) expression is elevated in the spinal ligament cells\\u000a of OPLL patients, but the role of P2Y1 in the spinal ligament calcification process is unknown. To verify the hypothesis that\\u000a P2Y1 expression causes

Sunao Tanaka; Hitoshi Kudo; Toru Asari; Atsushi Ono; Shigeru Motomura; Satoshi Toh; Ken-Ichi Furukawa



Do intramedullary spinal cord changes in signal intensity on MRI affect surgical opportunity and approach for cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some controversy still exists over the optimal treatment time and the surgical approach for cervical myelopathy due to ossification\\u000a of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The aim of the current study was first to analyze the effect of intramedullary\\u000a spinal cord changes in signal intensity (hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging and hypointensity on T1-weighted imaging) on\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on

Qizhi SunHongwei; Hongwei Hu; Ying Zhang; Yang Li; Linwei Chen; Huajiang Chen; Wen Yuan


Hand development and sequence of ossification in the forelimb of the European shrew Crocidura russula (Soricidae) and comparisons across therian mammals  

PubMed Central

Hand development in the European shrew Crocidura russula is described, based on the examination of a cleared and double-stained ontogenetic series and histological sections of a c. 20-day-old embryo and a neonate. In the embryo all carpal elements are still mesenchymal condensations, and there are three more elements than in the adult stage: the ‘lunatum’, which fuses with the scaphoid around birth; a centrale, which either fuses with another carpal element or just disappears later in ontogeny; and the anlage of an element that later fuses with the radius. Carpal arrangement in the neonate and the adult is the same. In order to compare the relative timing of the onset of ossification in forelimb bones in C. russula with that of other therians, we built up two matrices of events based on two sets of data and used the event-pair method. In the first analysis, ossification of forelimb elements in general was examined, including that of the humerus, radius, ulna, the first carpal and metacarpal to ossify, and the phalanges of the third digit. The second analysis included each carpal, humerus, radius, ulna, the first metacarpal and the first phalanx to ossify. Some characters (= event–pairs) provide synapomorphies for some clades examined. There have been some shifts in the timing of ossification apparently not caused by ecological and/or environmental influences. In two species (Oryctolagus and Myotis), there is a tendency to start the ossification of the carpals relatively earlier than in all other species examined, the sauropsid outgroups included. PMID:15291793

Prochel, Jan; Vogel, Peter; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R



Immunohistochemistry of primary malignant neuroepithelial tumors of the kidney: a potential source of confusion? A study of 30 cases from the National Wilms Tumor Study Pathology Center.  


Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) is a rare primary tumor of the kidney with morphologic features similar to those of other primitive tumors. Previous studies have shown that these tumors frequently stain positively with immunostains against CD99 and FLI-1 and negatively with stains against WT-1, suggesting that these markers may be used for the distinction between Wilms tumor and pPNET. We present 30 cases of primary malignant neuroepithelial tumor with immunohistochemical profiles and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and show that immunophenotypic overlap exists between Wilms tumor and pPNET. A subset of 30 neuroepithelial tumors from the National Wilms Tumor Study originally categorized as putative pPNETs of the kidney was stained with FLI-1, WT-1, and thyroid transcription factor-1. Bicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were performed on 19 of the cases. Other data on these tumors were available from a previous study (Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:133). Of 7 primary tumors that had the EWS/FLI-1 fusion transcript by RT-PCR, 6 exhibited strong immunopositivity for FLI-1. Nine that were negative by RT-PCR stained positively with the FLI-1 stain. Five fusion-negative cases stained with both FLI-1 and WT-1. Three fusion-negative cases were negative for FLI-1 but positive for WT-1. Five fusion-negative cases were negative for both FLI-1 and WT-1. Of the 30 cases, 29 were positive for CD99. Seven cases that were negative for the EWS-FLI-1 fusion by RT-PCR were positive by fluorescence in situ hybridization. All cases were negative for thyroid transcription factor-1. Reliance upon immunohistochemistry as the sole means of ancillary diagnosis in renal pPNET can lead to confusing results. We recommend molecular fusion studies for clarification of primitive renal tumors with unexpected immunophenotypic results. PMID:17134738

Ellison, Dale A; Parham, David M; Bridge, Julia; Beckwith, J Bruce



Reliability of Schmeling's stages of ossification of medial clavicular epiphyses and its validity to assess 18 years of age in living subjects.  


Nowadays, due to the global increase in migration movements, forensic age estimation of living young adults has become an important focus of interest. Minors often have no identification documents providing their correct birth dates. Establishing the age of majority is therefore fundamental in order to determine whether juvenile penal systems or penal systems in force for adults are to be applied. Radiological examination of the clavicles is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics. In this retrospective study, a sample of chest radiographs of 274 subjects, aged between 12 and 25 years, was studied according to Schmeling's method in order to examine the ossification of both medial clavicular epiphyses. All stage classifications were evaluated by five examiners. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was analysed by Cohen's K statistic. Intra-examiner agreement was insufficient for two of the experts. Inter-examiner agreement, among the other three operators, was moderate (K?=?0.509). Study of reliability highlighted difficulties in interpretation, the need to select qualified personnel and choice of the best radiographic image in order to reduce any anatomic overlaps. Although ossification of the medial clavicular epiphyses is recommended to assess whether an individual has already reached the age of majority or not, these results suggested that it is very difficult to clearly identify the five stages of ossification by using conventional chest radiography. PMID:22968719

Cameriere, R; De Luca, S; De Angelis, D; Merelli, V; Giuliodori, A; Cingolani, M; Cattaneo, C; Ferrante, L



Effect of day of the week of primary total hip arthroplasty on length of stay at a university-based teaching medical center.  


Length of hospital stay (LHS) after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) constitutes a critical outcome measure, as prolonged LHS implies increased resource expenditure. Investigations have highlighted factors that affect LHS after THA. These factors include advanced age, medical comorbidities, obesity, intraoperative time, anesthesia technique, surgical site infection, and incision length. We retrospectively analyzed the effect of day of the week of primary THA on LHS. We reviewed the surgery and patient factors of 273 consecutive patients who underwent THA at our institution, a tertiary-care teaching hospital. There was a 15% increase in LHS for patients who underwent THA on Thursday versus Monday when controlling for other covariates that can affect LHS. Other statistically significant variables associated with increased LHS included American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, transfusion requirements, and postoperative complications. The day of the week of THA may be an independent variable affecting LHS. Institutions with reduced weekend resources may want to perform THA earlier in the week to try to reduce LHS. PMID:25490016

Rathi, Pranav; Coleman, Sheldon; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Giordani, Mauro; Pereira, Gavin; Di Cesare, Paul E



The ALX4 homeobox gene is mutated in patients with ossification defects of the skull (foramina parietalia permagna, OMIM 168500).  


Foramina parietalia permagna (FPP) (OMIM 168500) is caused by ossification defects in the parietal bones. Recently, it was shown that loss of function mutations in the MSX2 homeobox gene on chromosome 5 are responsible for the presence of these lesions in some FPP patients. However, the absence of MSX2 mutations in some of the FPP patients analysed and the presence of FPP associated with chromosome 11p deletions in DEFECT 11 (OMIM 601224) patients or associated with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome suggests genetic heterogeneity for this disorder. Starting from a BAC/P1/cosmid contig of the DEFECT 11 region on chromosome 11, we have now isolated the ALX4 gene, a previously unidentified member of the ALX homeobox gene family in humans. Mutation analysis of the ALX4 gene in three unrelated FPP families without the MSX2 mutation identified mutations in two families, indicating that mutations in ALX4 could be responsible for these skull defects and suggesting further genetic heterogeneity of FPP. PMID:11106354

Wuyts, W; Cleiren, E; Homfray, T; Rasore-Quartino, A; Vanhoenacker, F; Van Hul, W



A cluster randomized trial of standard quality improvement versus patient-centered interventions to enhance depression care for African Americans in the primary care setting: study protocol NCT00243425  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies document disparities in access to care and quality of care for depression for African Americans. Research suggests that patient attitudes and clinician communication behaviors may contribute to these disparities. Evidence links patient-centered care to improvements in mental health outcomes; therefore, quality improvement interventions that enhance this dimension of care are promising strategies to improve treatment and outcomes of depression among African Americans. This paper describes the design of the BRIDGE (Blacks Receiving Interventions for Depression and Gaining Empowerment) Study. The goal of the study is to compare the effectiveness of two interventions for African-American patients with depression--a standard quality improvement program and a patient-centered quality improvement program. The main hypothesis is that patients in the patient-centered group will have a greater reduction in their depression symptoms, higher rates of depression remission, and greater improvements in mental health functioning at six, twelve, and eighteen months than patients in the standard group. The study also examines patient ratings of care and receipt of guideline-concordant treatment for depression. Methods/Design A total of 36 primary care clinicians and 132 of their African-American patients with major depressive disorder were recruited into a cluster randomized trial. The study uses intent-to-treat analyses to compare the effectiveness of standard quality improvement interventions (academic detailing about depression guidelines for clinicians and disease-oriented care management for their patients) and patient-centered quality improvement interventions (communication skills training to enhance participatory decision-making for clinicians and care management focused on explanatory models, socio-cultural barriers, and treatment preferences for their patients) for improving outcomes over 12 months of follow-up. Discussion The BRIDGE Study includes clinicians and African-American patients in under-resourced community-based practices who have not been well-represented in clinical trials to improve depression care. The patient-centered and culturally targeted approach to depression care is a relatively new one that has not been tested in most previous studies. The study will provide evidence about whether patient-centered accommodations improve quality of care and outcomes to a greater extent than standard quality improvement strategies for African Americans with depression. Trial Registration NCT00243425 PMID:20178624



A study on knowledge, attitude, and practice towards premarital carrier screening among adults attending primary healthcare centers in a region in Oman  

PubMed Central

Background Despite that hereditary diseases are widespread among the Arab population due to high rates of consanguineous marriages, research regarding community awareness towards premarital carrier screening in some countries such as Oman, is extremely scarce. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and attitude towards premarital carrier screening (PMCS) in Oman. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to 400 Omani adults aged 20–35 who attended primary healthcare institutions at the South Batinah Governorate in Oman. Results The majority of the participants (84.5%) believed that PMCS was necessary, and about half of them (49.5%) supported the view of making PMCS compulsory. On the contrary, approximately one third (30.5%) of the participants reported that they were not in favor of taking the blood screening test. Overall, unwillingness to perform pre-marital testing was associated with female gender, younger age, being single, less education, and increased income. Conclusion Despite the relatively high level of knowledge, about one third of the participants were still reluctant to carry out premarital testing. Such attitude calls for immediate need for community-based campaigns to encourage the public to do premarital testing. PMID:24742222




PubMed Central

We evaluated the outcomes and associated prognostic factors in 233 patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for primary myelofibrosis (MF) using reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). Median age at HCT was 55 years. Donors were: matched sibling donor (MSD), 34%; HLA-well-matched unrelated donors (URD), 45%; and partially/mismatched URD, 21%. Risk stratification according to Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS): low, 12%; intermediate-1, 49%; intermediate-2, 37%; and high, 1%. The probability of survival at 5-years was 47% (95% CI 40–53). In a multivariate analysis, donor type was the only independent factor associated with survival. Adjusted probabilities of survival at 5-years for MSD, well matched URD and partially matched/mismatched URD were 56% (95% CI 44–67), 48% (95% CI 37–58), and 34% (95% CI 21–47), respectively (p=0.002). Relative risks (RR) for NRM for well-matched URD and partially matched/mismatched URD were 3.92 (p=0.006) and 9.37 (p<0.0001), respectively. A trend towards increased NRM (RR 1.7, p=0.07) and inferior survival (RR 1.37, p=0.10) was observed in DIPSS-intermediate-2/high-risk patients compared to DIPSS-low/intermediate-1 risk patients. RIC HCT is a potentially curative option for patients with MF, and donor type is the most important factor influencing survival in these patients. PMID:24161923

Gupta, Vikas; Malone, Adriana K.; Hari, Parameswaran N.; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Gale, Robert Peter; Ballen, Karen K.; Hamadani, Mehdi; Olavarria, Eduardo; Gerds, Aaron T.; Waller, Edmund K.; Costa, Luciano J.; Antin, Joseph H.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; van Besien, Koen M.; Savani, Bipin N.; Schouten, Harry C.; Szer, Jeffrey; Cahn, Jean-Yves; de Lima, Marcos J.; Wirk, Baldeep; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Popat, Uday; Bejanyan, Nelli; Litzow, Mark R.; Norkin, Maxim; Lewis, Ian D.; Hale, Gregory A.; Woolfrey, Ann E.; Miller, Alan M.; Ustun, Celalettin; Jagasia, Madan H.; Lill, Michael; Maziarz, Richard T.; Cortes, Jorge; Kalaycio, Matt E.; Saber, Wael



Primary Prevention of Hypertension  

E-print Network

supplementation 10 Fish oil supplementation 10 Herbal or botanical dietary supplements 10 PRIMARY PREVENTION and Medicine Tulane University Health Sciences Center New Orleans, LA COCHAIR Jiang He, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Medicine Department of Epidemiology Tulane University School of Public Health

Bandettini, Peter A.


The primary acceptor quinone Q A in reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 is hydrogen bonded to the N ?(1) -H of His M219. An electron spin echo study of Q A-•  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) study is performed on the reduced primary electron-accepting ubiquinone-10 (Q A-•) in Zn-substituted reaction centers of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26. The ESEEM spectra showed hyperfine and quadrupolar couplings of Q A-• to nitrogens in the protein matrix. Simulation of the spectra revealed the following 14N coupling parameters: hyperfine interaction: Aiso = 1.85 MHz, T11 = 0.32, ? = 0 0, ? = 45 0; nuclear quadrupole interaction: e2qQ/ h = 1.52 MHz, ? = 0.82. Comparison of the quadrupole values with data in the literature shows that Q A-• is coupled to the N ?(1) -H group of the M219 heterocycle, most probably through a hydrogen bond with the 4-C carbonyl group of the quinone.

Bosch, M. K.; Gast, P.; Hoff, A. J.; Spoyalov, A. P.; Tsvetkov, Yu. D.



The ASH1-RELATED3 SET-Domain Protein Controls Cell Division Competence of the Meristem and the Quiescent Center of the Arabidopsis Primary Root1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The stem cell niche of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) primary root apical meristem is composed of the quiescent (or organizing) center surrounded by stem (initial) cells for the different tissues. Initial cells generate a population of transit-amplifying cells that undergo a limited number of cell divisions before elongating and differentiating. It is unclear whether these divisions occur stochastically or in an orderly manner. Using the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine to monitor DNA replication of cells of Arabidopsis root meristems, we identified a pattern of two, four, and eight neighboring cells with synchronized replication along the cortical, epidermal, and endodermal cell files, suggested to be daughters, granddaughters, and great-granddaughters of the direct progeny of each stem cell. Markers of mitosis and cytokinesis were not present in the region closest to the transition zone where the cells start to elongate, suggesting that great-granddaughter cells switch synchronously from the mitotic cell cycle to endoreduplication. Mutations in the stem cell niche-expressed ASH1-RELATED3 (ASHR3) gene, encoding a SET-domain protein conferring histone H3 lysine-36 methylation, disrupted this pattern of coordinated DNA replication and cell division and increased the cell division rate in the quiescent center. E2Fa/E2Fb transcription factors controlling the G1-to-S-phase transition regulate ASHR3 expression and bind to the ASHR3 promoter, substantiating a role for ASHR3 in cell division control. The reduced length of the root apical meristem and primary root of the mutant ashr3-1 indicate that synchronization of replication and cell divisions is required for normal root growth and development. PMID:25034019

Kumpf, Robert; Thorstensen, Tage; Rahman, Mohummad Aminur; Heyman, Jefri; Nenseth, H. Zeynep; Lammens, Tim; Herrmann, Ullrich; Swarup, Ranjan; Veiseth, Silje Veie; Emberland, Gitika; Bennett, Malcolm J.; De Veylder, Lieven; Aalen, Reidunn B.



Chronic granulomatous disease: a 25-year patient registry based on a multistep diagnostic procedure, from the referral center for primary immunodeficiencies in Greece.  


Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is an uncommon primary immunodeficiency caused by the absence or dysfunction of one of NADPH oxidase subunits, with heterogeneous genetic aetiologies. The aim of this study was the CGD patient registry in Greece, the identification of the responsible genotype and the potential correlation with the patient's clinical phenotype. Medical charts of 24 CGD patients, investigated by NBT test or DHR for NADPH oxidase activity, Western blot analysis for NADPH oxidase component expression and DNA sequencing (pyro- and cycle sequencing) for mutation analysis, were reviewed. All patients, but one, were classified into the different types of CGD. Sixteen from 14 unrelated families had X-linked CGD (66.7 %), four patients had mutations in the NCF1 gene (16.7 %), and three, from two unrelated families, had mutations in NCF2 (12.5 %). Fifteen mutations were detected in the CYBB gene, including nonsense (53.8 %), splice site (30.8 %) and missense mutations (7.7 %), and deletions (7.7 %). Two novel mutations were identified; one in CYBB and one in NCF1. Carrier detection for X-CGD revealed that the de novo mutation rate was about 7 %. Prenatal diagnosis identified one affected male in three male fetuses tested. In both the X-linked and the autosomal recessive (AR-CGD) group, the gastrointestinal and respiratory manifestations were more common, followed by lympadenopathy in X-CGD and skin infections in the AR-CGD group. The patients with a mutation in CYBB had a wider variability of clinical manifestations and earlier diagnosis (4.6 years) compared to the AR-CGD group (12.9 years). The incidence of CGD in Greece is estimated at 0.90 (95 % CI 0.89-0.91) per 100,000 live births for the last decade. PMID:24081483

Raptaki, Maria; Varela, Ioanna; Spanou, Kleopatra; Tzanoudaki, Marianna; Tantou, Sofia; Liatsis, Manolis; Constantinidou, Nikki; Bakoula, Chryssa; Roos, Dirk; Kanariou, Maria



Changing spectrum of biopsy-proven primary glomerular diseases over the past 15 years: a single-center study in China.  


The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is reported to be 10.8-11.8% of the Chinese population. With economic development and longer life expectancy, the spectrum of CKD etiology has kept changing. Primary glomerular diseases (PGD) are still the most common renal diseases in China. To investigate the changing pattern of PGD in China, we retrospectively analyzed consecutive native renal biopsies performed in our hospital from 1997 to 2011. The patients were grouped according to a 3-year interval, 1997-1999 (period 1), 2000-2002 (period 2), 2003-2005 (period 3), 2006-2008 (period 4), 2009-2011 (period 5), and divided into three age groups (<20, 20-59, and ?60 years old). 8,909 qualified cases were enrolled in this study. Among 8,909 specimens, 6,337 (71.13%) were diagnosed as PGD, while this prevalence decreased significantly from 77.61% in 1997-1999 to 66.73% in 2006-2008. IgA nephropathy (IgAN) was the most common PGD (36.66%), without any significant difference in the 5 periods (p = 0.185). IgAN was the most common PGD both in patients between the 20- to 59-year-old group (45.58%) and <20-year-old group (19.29%) as well. Membranous nephropathy (MN) was the most frequently found PGD in patients at age ?60 years (39.64%). The frequency of MN was increased significantly from 6.48% in 1997-1999 to 22.79% in 2009-2011 (p < 0.001). The proportion of elderly patients increased significantly from 3.18% in 1997-1999 to 15.21% in 2009-2011 (p < 0.001). The prevalence of endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis (EnPGN) has decreased since 1997. PGD has remained the most common renal disease in China, although with a descending trend. The spectrum of PGD is different in different age groups. The frequency of EnPGN has decreased significantly, while that of MN has increased significantly. PMID:23689564

Pan, Xiaoxia; Xu, Jing; Ren, Hong; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Yaowen; Shen, Pingyan; Li, Xiao; Wang, Weiming; Chen, Xiaonong; Wu, Pei; Feng, Xiaobei; Hao, Cuilan; Chen, Nan



Low temperature pulsed EPR study at 34 GHz of the triplet states of the primary electron donor P865 and the carotenoid in native and mutant bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides†  

PubMed Central

The photosynthetic charge separation in bacterial reaction centers occurs predominantly along one of two nearly symmetric branches of cofactors. Low temperature EPR spectra of the triplet states of the chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments in the reaction center of Rb. sphaeroides R-26.1, 2.4.1 and two double mutants GD(M203)/AW(M260) and LH(M214)/AW(M260) have been recorded at 34 GHz to investigate the relative activities of the ‘A’ and ‘B’ branches. The triplet states are found to derive from radical pair and intersystem crossing mechanisms and the rates of formation are anisotropic. The former mechanism is operative for Rb. sphaeroides R-26.1, 2.4.1 and mutant GD(M203)/AW(M260) and indicates that A-branch charge separation proceeds at temperatures down to 10 K. The latter mechanism, derived from the spin polarization and operative for mutant LH(M214)/AW(M260) indicates that no long-lived radical pairs are formed upon direct excitation of the primary donor and that virtually no charge separation at the B-branch occurs at low temperatures. When the temperature is raised above 30 K, B-branch charge separation is observed, which is at most 1% of A-branch charge separation. B-branch radical pair formation can be induced at 10 K with low yield by direct excitation of the bacteriopheophytin of the B-branch at 590 nm. The formation of a carotenoid triplet state is observed. The rate of formation depends on the orientation of the reaction center in the magnetic field and is caused by a magnetic field dependence of the oscillation frequency by which the singlet and triplet radical pair precursor states interchange. Combination of these findings with literature data provides strong evidence that the thermally activated transfer step on the B-branch occurs between the primary donor, P865, and the accessory bacteriochlorophyll, whereas this step is barrierless down to 10 K along the A-branch. PMID:18052205

Marchanka, Aliaksandr; Paddock, Mark; Lubitz, Wolfgang; van Gastel, Maurice



Does Intramedullary Signal Intensity on MRI Affect the Surgical Outcomes of Patients with Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament?  

PubMed Central

Objectives Patients with cervical ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) are susceptible to cord injury, which often develops into myelopathic symptoms. However, little is known regarding the prognostic factors that are involved in minor trauma. We evaluated the relationship between minor trauma and neurological outcome of OPLL and investigated the prognostic factors with a focus on compressive factors and intramedullary signal intensity (SI). Methods A total of 74 patients with cervical myelopathy caused by OPLL at more than three-levels were treated with posterior decompression surgeries. We surveyed the space available for spinal cord (SAC), the severity of SI change on T2-weighted image, and diabetes mellitus (DM). The neurological outcome using Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scale was assessed at admission and at 12-month follow-up. Results Among the variables tested, preoperative JOA score, severity of intramedullary SI, SAC, and DM were significantly related to neurological outcome. The mean preoperative JOA were 11.3±1.9 for the 41 patients who did not have histories of trauma and 8.0±3.1 for the 33 patients who had suffered minor traumas (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the recovery ratios between those two groups. Conclusions Initial neurological status and high intramedullary SI in the preoperative phase were related to poorer postoperative outcomes. Moreover, the patients with no histories of DM and larger SACs exhibited better improvement than did the patients with DM and smaller SACs. Although the initial JOA scores were worse for the minor trauma patients than did those who had no trauma prior to surgery, minor trauma exerted no direct effects on the surgical outcomes. PMID:25328649

Choi, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Tae Hong; Shin, Hyung Shik; Hwang, Yong Soon; Park, Sang Keun



Tunica albuginea allograft: a new model of LaPeyronie's disease with penile curvature and subtunical ossification.  


The pathophysiology of LaPeyronie's disease (PD) is considered to be multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, trauma, inflammation and altered wound healing. However, these factors have not yet been validated using animal models. In this study, we have presented a new model obtained by tunica albuginea allograft. A total of 40, 16-week-old male rats were used. Of these, 8 rats served as controls and underwent a 10 × 2-mm-wide tunical excision with subsequent autografting, whereas the remaining 32 underwent the same excision with grafting of the defect with another rat's tunica. Morphological and functional testing was performed at 1, 3, 7 and 12 weeks after grafting. Intracavernous pressure, the degree of penile curvature and elastic fiber length were evaluated for comparison between the allograft and control groups. The tissues were obtained for histological examination. The penile curvature was significantly greater in the allografted rats as compared with the control rats. The erectile function was maintained in all rats, except in those assessed at 12 weeks. The elastin fiber length was decreased in the allografted tunica as compared to control. SMAD2 expression was detected in the inner part of the allograft, and both collagen-II- and osteocalcin-positive cells were also noted. Tunica albuginea (TA) allograft in rats is an excellent model of PD. The persistence of curvature beyond 12 weeks and the presence of ossification in the inner layer of the TA were similar to those observed in men with PD. Validation studies using this animal model would aid understanding of the PD pathophysiology for effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:24759578

Ferretti, Ludovic; Fandel, Thomas M; Qiu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Haiyang; Orabi, Hazem; Wu, Alex K; Banie, Lia; Wang, Guifang; Lin, Guiting; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Lue, Tom F



Clinical results and development of heterotopic ossification in total cervical disc replacement during a 4-year follow-up.  


Cervical total disc replacement (CTDR) aims to decrease the incidence of adjacent segment disease through motion preservation in the operated disc space. Ongoing data collection and increasing number of studies describing heterotopic ossification (HO) resulting in decreased mobility of implants, forced us to carefully evaluate our long-term clinical and morphological results of patients with CTDR. We present the first 54 consecutive patients treated with 65 ProdiscC prostheses during a 12-month period (2/2004-3/2005). All patients signed an informed consent and were included in prospective long-term study approved by hospital ethical committee. The 1- and 2-year follow-up analysis were available for all patients included and 4-year results for 50 patients (60 implants). Clinical (neck disability index-NDI, visual analog scale-VAS) and radiological follow-up was conducted at 1-, 2- and 4-years after the procedure. The Mehren/Suchomel modification of McAfee scale was used to classify the appearance of HO. Mean preoperative NDI was 34.5%, VAS for neck pain intensity 4.6 and VAS for arm pain intensity 5.0. At 1-, 2- and 4-year follow-up, the mean NDI was 30.7, 27.2, and 30.4, mean VAS for neck pain intensity 2.5, 2.1 and 2.9 and mean VAS for arm pain intensity pain 2.2, 1.9 and 2.3, respectively. Significant HO (grade III) was present in 45% of implants and segmental ankylosis (grade IV) in another 18% 4 years after intervention. This finding had no clinical consequences and 92% of patients would undergo the same surgery again. Our clinical results (NDI, VAS) are comparable with fusion techniques. Although, advanced non-fusion technology is used, a significant frequency of HO formation and spontaneous fusion in cervical disc replacement surgery must be anticipated during long-term follow-up. PMID:20035357

Suchomel, Petr; Jurák, Lubomír; Benes, Vladimír; Brabec, Radim; Bradác, Ondrej; Elgawhary, Shamel



Heterotopic Ossification after Cervical Arthroplasty with ProDisc-C: Time Course Radiographic Follow-up over 3 years  

PubMed Central

Objective Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a well-known complication after total hip replacement. But the occurrence rate by the time-course, clinical effect and risk factors of HO after total cervical disc replacement (TCDR) are not well described. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the occurrence rate by the time-course and risk factors for HO after TCDR with a ProDisc-C. Methods Thirty-two patients whom followed up more than one year after the TCDR are enrolled. Radiographic study was done at 12, 24 and 36 months after the TCDR and classified HO with McAfee classification. Segmental range of motion, preoperative existence of spondylosis, type of operation, disc space occupying ratio by artificial disc, surgical level are analyzed to identify the risk factors of HO. The visual analog scale and the neck disability index were evaluated preoperatively and at last follow-up time for clinical parameters. Results Eighteen patients (56%) showed HO at 12 months, 18 patients (86%) showed HO at 24 months and 6 patients (89%) showed HO at 36 months after the TCDR. Clinical significant HO(Grade 3 and 4) was shown in one patient (3%) at 12 months, 3 patients (14%) at 24 months and 5 patients (56%) at 36 months. Only post-operative follow-up period increases the risk of development clinical significant HO. All patients showed improvement of clinical parameters (p<0.005). Conclusion Incidence of HO is getting higher as time course progress. However, there are no relation between clinical outcome and radiologic change of ROM and the grade of HO. PMID:24757452

Cho, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Keun-Su



Tunica albuginea allograft: a new model of LaPeyronie's disease with penile curvature and subtunical ossification  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of LaPeyronie's disease (PD) is considered to be multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, trauma, inflammation and altered wound healing. However, these factors have not yet been validated using animal models. In this study, we have presented a new model obtained by tunica albuginea allograft. A total of 40, 16-week-old male rats were used. Of these, 8 rats served as controls and underwent a 10 × 2-mm-wide tunical excision with subsequent autografting, whereas the remaining 32 underwent the same excision with grafting of the defect with another rat's tunica. Morphological and functional testing was performed at 1, 3, 7 and 12 weeks after grafting. Intracavernous pressure, the degree of penile curvature and elastic fiber length were evaluated for comparison between the allograft and control groups. The tissues were obtained for histological examination. The penile curvature was significantly greater in the allografted rats as compared with the control rats. The erectile function was maintained in all rats, except in those assessed at 12 weeks. The elastin fiber length was decreased in the allografted tunica as compared to control. SMAD2 expression was detected in the inner part of the allograft, and both collagen-II- and osteocalcin-positive cells were also noted. Tunica albuginea (TA) allograft in rats is an excellent model of PD. The persistence of curvature beyond 12 weeks and the presence of ossification in the inner layer of the TA were similar to those observed in men with PD. Validation studies using this animal model would aid understanding of the PD pathophysiology for effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:24759578

Ferretti, Ludovic; Fandel, Thomas M; Qiu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Haiyang; Orabi, Hazem; Wu, Alex K; Banie, Lia; Wang, Guifang; Lin, Guiting; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Lue, Tom F



Corrective and reconstructive surgery in patients with postburn heterotopic ossification and bony ankylosis: an evidence-based approach.  


Articular heterotopic ossification (HO) and subsequent bony ankylosis (BA) are infrequent yet devastating complications of severe burn injuries. These conditions are diagnosed clinically and confirmed by imaging. Patients then begin active physical therapy until cleared for surgery, which remains the standard of care. This study critically reviews the existing literature on the diagnosis, treatment, and surgical outcomes of HO/BA in severely burned patients and provides an evidence-based treatment algorithm. A comprehensive search for all the studies addressing HO and BA after burn injury was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar from 1957 to 2013. Fifty-one studies on postburn HO/BA have been published, reporting incidences from 0.1 to 35.3%. Most patients suffered from third-degree, thermal burns, with a mean TBSA of 49 ± 14%. The mean time from burn until diagnosis was 7 ± 11 months. Seventy-nine percent of the affected joints were elbows and 84% had adjacent and/or overlying burns. Ninety-one percent of joints had solely extra-articular HO. Ninety percent of HO/BA cases were treated with anatomic excision, and all achieved appreciable increases in range of motion with infrequent recurrence. Perioperative radiotherapy was used infrequently. Surgical articular reconstruction is the standard of care for postburn HO/BA severe enough to limit joint movement and/or function. Early detection and initiation of physical therapy are paramount in preventing progression to complete BA. Increased awareness and more rapid means of detecting postburn articular changes may permit earlier discontinuation of passive range of motion exercises, thereby halting the initiation and progression of HO. PMID:25159555

Pontell, Matthew E; Sparber, Lauren S; Chamberlain, Ronald S



Cancer Centers Program - Cancer Centers

Cancer Centers Program - Cancer Centers Map of Cancer Centers Data Tables Benchmark Home > Cancer Centers Cancer Centers NCI-designated cancer centers are characterized by scientific excellence and the capability to integrate a diversity of


Syphilis - primary  


Primary syphilis; Secondary syphilis; Late syphilis; Tertiary syphilis ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted, infectious disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum . This bacterium causes infection ...


Identification and location of bone-forming cells within cartilage canals on their course into the secondary ossification centre.  


Osteoblasts and osteocytes derive from the same precursors, and osteocytes are terminally differentiated osteoblasts. These two cell types are distinguishable by their morphology, localization and levels of expression of various bone cell-specific markers. In the present study on the chicken femur we investigated the properties of the mesenchymal cells within cartilage canals on their course into the secondary ossification centre (SOC). We examined several developmental stages after hatching by means of light microscopy, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Cartilage canals appeared as extensions of the perichondrium into the developing distal epiphysis and they were arranged in a complex network. Within the epiphysis an SOC was formed and cartilage canals penetrated into it. In addition, they were successively incorporated into the SOC during its growth in the radial direction. Thus, the canals provided this centre with mesenchymal cells and vessels. It should be emphasized that regression of cartilage canals could never be observed in the growing bone. Outside the SOC the mesenchymal cells of the canals expressed type I collagen and periostin and thus these cells had the characteristics of preosteoblasts. Periostin was also expressed by numerous chondrocytes. Within the SOC the synthesis of periostin was down-regulated and the majority of osteoblasts were periostin negative. Furthermore, osteocytes did not secret this protein. Tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) staining was only detectable where matrix vesicles were present. These vesicles were found around the blind end of cartilage canals within the SOC where newly formed osteoid started to mineralize. The vesicles originated from osteoblasts as well as from late osteoblasts/preosteocytes and thus TNAP was only expressed by these cells. Our results provide evidence that the mesenchymal cells of cartilage canals express various bone cell-specific markers depending on their position. We suggest that these cells differentiate from preosteoblasts into osteocytes on their course into the SOC and consider that cartilage canals are essential for normal bone development within the epiphysis. Furthermore, we propose that the expression of periostin by preosteoblasts and several chondrocytes is required for adhesion of these cells to the extracellular matrix. PMID:16761972

Blumer, Michael J F; Schwarzer, Christoph; Pérez, Maria Teresa; Konakci, Kadriye Zeynep; Fritsch, Helga



Flexion Model Simulating Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality in Patients With Ossification of the Longitudinal Ligament: The Influence of Flexion Speed on the Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: It is suspected that the speed of the motion of the spinal cord under static compression may be the cause of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, little is known about the relationship between the speed of the motion of the spinal cord and its stress distributions. The objective was to carry out a biomechanical study of SCI in patients with ossification of the longitudinal ligament without radiologic evidence of injury. Methods: A 3-dimensional finite element spinal cord model was established. After the application of static compression, the model underwent anterior flexion to simulate SCI in ossification of the longitudinal ligament patients without radiologic abnormality. Flexion of the spine was assumed to occur at 1 motor segment. Flexion angle was 5°, and flexion speeds were 0.5°/s, 5°/s, and 50°/s. Stress distributions inside of the spinal cord were evaluated. Results: Stresses on the spinal cord increased slightly after the application of 5° of flexion at a speed of 0.5°/s. Stresses became much higher at a speed of 5°/s and increased further at 50°s. Conclusions: The stress distribution of the spinal cord under static compression increased with faster flexion speed of the spinal cord. High-speed motion of the spinal cord under static compression may be one of the causes of SCI in the absence of radiologic abnormality. PMID:20025151

Kato, Yoshihiko; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Imajo, Yasuaki; Ichinara, Kazuhiko; Kawano, Syunichi; Hamanama, Daiskue; Yaji, Kentaro; Taguchi, Toshihiko



Photochemically induced nuclear spin polarization in reaction centers of photosystem II observed by 13C-solid-state NMR reveals a strongly asymmetric electronic structure of the P680.+ primary donor chlorophyll  

PubMed Central

We report 13C magic angle spinning NMR observation of photochemically induced dynamic nuclear spin polarization (photo- CIDNP) in the reaction center (RC) of photosystem II (PS2). The light-enhanced NMR signals of the natural abundance 13C provide information on the electronic structure of the primary electron donor P680 (chlorophyll a molecules absorbing around 680 nm) and on the pz spin density pattern in its oxidized form, P680?. Most centerband signals can be attributed to a single chlorophyll a (Chl a) cofactor that has little interaction with other pigments. The chemical shift anisotropy of the most intense signals is characteristic for aromatic carbon atoms. The data reveal a pronounced asymmetry of the electronic spin density distribution within the P680?. PS2 shows only a single broad and intense emissive signal, which is assigned to both the C-10 and C-15 methine carbon atoms. The spin density appears shifted toward ring III. This shift is remarkable, because, for monomeric Chl a radical cations in solution, the region of highest spin density is around ring II. It leads to a first hypothesis as to how the planet can provide itself with the chemical potential to split water and generate an oxygen atmosphere using the Chl a macroaromatic cycle. A local electrostatic field close to ring III can polarize the electronic charge and associated spin density and increase the redox potential of P680 by stabilizing the highest occupied molecular orbital, without a major change of color. This field could be produced, e.g., by protonation of the keto group of ring V. Finally, the radical cation electronic structure in PS2 is different from that in the bacterial RC, which shows at least four emissive centerbands, indicating a symmetric spin density distribution over the entire bacteriochlorophyll macrocycle. PMID:10944191

Matysik, Jörg; Alia; Gast, Peter; van Gorkom, Hans J.; Hoff, Arnold J.; de Groot, Huub J. M.



In situ studies of the primary immune response to (4-hydroxy-3- nitrophenyl)acetyl. IV. Affinity-dependent, antigen-driven B cell apoptosis in germinal centers as a mechanism for maintaining self- tolerance  

PubMed Central

Germinal centers (GCs) are the sites of antigen-driven V(D)J gene hypermutation and selection necessary for the generation of high affinity memory B lymphocytes. Despite the antigen dependence of this reaction, injection of soluble antigen during an established primary immune response induces massive apoptotic death in GC B cells, but not in clonally related populations of nonfollicular B lymphoblasts and plasmacytes. Cell death in GCs occurs predominantly among light zone centrocytes, is antigen specific, and peaks within 4-8 h after injection. Antigen-induced programmed death does not involve cellular interactions mediated by CD40 ligand (CD40L) or Fas; disruption of GCs by antibody specific for CD40L was not driven by apoptosis and C57BL/6.lpr mice, though unable to express the Fas death trigger, remained fully susceptible to soluble antigen. Single injections of antigen did not significantly decrease GC numbers or average size, but repeated injections during an 18-h period resulted in fewer and substantially smaller GCs. As cell loss appeared most extensive in the light zone, decreased GC cellularity after prolonged exposure to soluble antigen implies that the Ig- centroblasts of the dark zone may require replenishment from light zone cells that have survived antigenic selection. GC cell death is avidity-dependent; oligovalent antigen induced relatively little apoptosis and GC B cells that survived long exposures to multivalent antigen expressed atypical VDJ rearrangements unlikely to encode high affinity antibody. Antigen- induced apoptotic death in GCs may represent a mechanism for the peripheral deletion of autoreactive B cell mutants much as the combinatorial repertoire of immature B lymphocytes is censored in the bone marrow. PMID:7500008



Primary aldosteronism.  


Approaching the fiftieth year since its original description, primary aldosteronism is now thought to be the commonest potentially curable and specifically treatable form of hypertension. Correct identification of patients with primary aldosteronism requires that the effects of time of day, posture, dietary sodium intake, potassium levels and medications on levels of aldosterone and renin be carefully considered. Accurate elucidation of the subtype is essential for optimal treatment, and adrenal venous sampling is the only reliable means of differentiating aldosterone-producing adenoma from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. With genetic testing already available for one inherited form, making more cumbersome biochemical testing for that subtype virtually obsolete and bringing about improvements in treatment approach, an intense search is underway for genetic mutations causing other, more common familial varieties of primary aldosteronism. PMID:14687591

Stowasser, Michael; Gordon, Richard D



Prevalence of neurogenic heterotopic ossification in traumatic head- and spinal-injured patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in australia.  


A study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) or traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) admitted to nonspecialized units. Methods consisted of a retrospective audit of patients, using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) coding system, admitted to The Townsville Hospital with TBI/TSCI between July 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012. Fifty-eight patients with length of stay of 60 days or longer were admitted to The Townsville Hospital with TBI/TSCI over this period with mean age of 60 years (range, 31-87 years); 55 were TBI and 3 were TSCI patients. Three thousand one hundred fourteen TBI/TSCI patients with length of stay of less than 60 days and mean age of 43 years (range, 18-93 years) were also identified (2903 were TBI and 211 were TSCI patients). Overall, none had a diagnosis of NHO; 6 patients, identified by the ICD-10-AM codes, with a diagnosis of heterotopic ossification did not have an associated TBI/TSCI. Findings of 0% of NHO prevalence in TSCI/TBI patients admitted to the large tertiary referral hospital suggest that NHO may have been missed, possibly because of the TSCI/TBI ICD-10-AM codes, not being specifically designed for documentation of the TBI/TSCI complications. If NHO remains undiagnosed in nonspecialized units because of the method of coding, it may increase functional limitation in already compromised individuals. PMID:25627855

Reznik, Jacqueline E; Biros, Erik; Milanese, Steve; Gordon, Susan; Lamont, Anthony C; Galea, Mary P



Matrix Gla Protein Is a Developmental Regulator of Chondrocyte Mineralization And, When Constitutively Expressed, Blocks Endochondral and Intramembranous Ossification in the Limb  

PubMed Central

Matrix GLA protein (MGP), a ?-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA)–rich, vitamin K–dependent and apatite-binding protein, is a regulator of hypertrophic cartilage mineralization during development. However, MGP is produced by both hypertrophic and immature chondrocytes, suggesting that MGP's role in mineralization is cell stage–dependent, and that MGP may have other roles in immature cells. It is also unclear whether MGP regulates the quantity of mineral or mineral nature and quality as well. To address these issues, we determined the effects of manipulations of MGP synthesis and expression in (a) immature and hypertrophic chondrocyte cultures and (b) the chick limb bud in vivo. The two chondrocyte cultures displayed comparable levels of MGP gene expression. Yet, treatment with warfarin, a ?-carboxylase inhibitor and vitamin K antagonist, triggered mineralization in hypertrophic but not immature cultures. Warfarin effects on mineralization were highly selective, were accompanied by no appreciable changes in MGP expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, or cell number, and were counteracted by vitamin K cotreatment. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that mineral forming in control and warfarin-treated hypertrophic cell cultures was similar and represented stoichiometric apatite. Virally driven MGP overexpression in cultured chondrocytes greatly decreased mineralization. Surprisingly, MGP overexpression in the developing limb not only inhibited cartilage mineralization, but also delayed chondrocyte maturation and blocked endochondral ossification and formation of a diaphyseal intramembranous bone collar. The results show that MGP is a powerful but developmentally regulated inhibitor of cartilage mineralization, controls mineral quantity but not type, and appears to have a previously unsuspected role in regulating chondrocyte maturation and ossification processes. PMID:10579728

Yagami, Kimitoshi; Suh, Jo-Young; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Koyama, Eiki; Abrams, William R.; Shapiro, Irving M.; Pacifici, Maurizio; Iwamoto, Masahiro



Primary neuroleptospirosis  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. It is uncommon for leptospirosis to present as a primary neurological disease. In this study of patients who presented with an acute neurological disease, and who were subsequently found to have leptospirosis, aseptic meningitis was the commonest manifestation. The other presentations were myeloradiculopathy, myelopathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome-like presentation, meningoencephalitis, intracerebral bleed, cerebellar dysfunction, iridocyclitis, and tremor/rigidity. Treatment consists of antibiotics, crystalline penicillin being the drug of choice, which reduces the course of illness if given early. The role of steroids is controversial. The prognosis after primary neuroleptospirosis is generally good but altered sensorium and seizures herald a worse prognosis.???Keywords: neuroleptospirosis; aseptic meningitis; Weil's disease PMID:11524519

Panicker, J; Mammachan, R; Jayakumar, R



A multi-center, randomized, clinical trial comparing adhesive polyurethane foam dressing and adhesive hydrocolloid dressing in patients with grade II pressure ulcers in primary care and nursing homes  

PubMed Central

Background Pressure ulcers (PrUs) are ischemic wounds in the skin and underlying tissues caused by long-standing pressure force over an external bone or cartilaginous surface. PrUs are an important challenge for the overall health system because can prolong patient hospitalization and reduce quality of life. Moreover, 95% of PrUs are avoidable, suggesting they are caused by poor quality care assistance. PrUs are also costly, increasing national costs. For example, they represent about 5% of overall annual health expenses in Spain. Stages I and II PrUs have a combined prevalence of 65%. According main clinical guidelines, stage II PrUs (PrU-IIs) are usually treated by applying special dressings (polyurethane or hydrocolloid). However, little scientific evidence regarding their efficacy has been identified in scientific literature. Our aim is to assess the comparative efficacy of adhesive polyurethane foam and hydrocolloid dressings in the treatment of PrU-IIs in terms of healed ulcer after 8 weeks of follow-up. Methods/design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a randomized clinical trial of two parallel treatment arms. A total of 820 patients with at least 1 PrU-II will be recruited from primary health care and home care centers. All patients will receive standardized healing procedures and preventive measures (e.g. positional changes and pressure-relieving support surfaces), following standardized procedures. The main outcome will be the percentage of wounds healed after 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes will include cost-effectiveness, as evaluated by cost per healed ulcer and cost per treated patient and safety evaluated by adverse events. Discussion This trial will address the hypothesis that hydrocolloid dressings will heal at least 10% more stage II PrUs and be more cost-effective than polyurethane foam dressings after 8 weeks. Trial registration This trial has been registered with controlled-trials number ISCRCTN57842461 and EudraCT 2012-003945-14. PMID:24359122



Internet Stroke Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"A web resource for information about stroke care and research," the Internet Stroke Center provides updated stroke information for patients and families, as well as health care professionals. A nonprofit, educational service, the Internet Stroke Center is a product of the Stroke Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University Medical Center, and the Cerebrovascular Diseases Section of the Department of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. Dedicated to advancing the understanding of stroke research and clinical care, the Center's Web site also provides links to primary acute stroke facilities in St. Louis and Missouri, and a stroke trails directory that offers a select registry of clinical trials. All information provided on the site is obtained from "published accounts, meeting presentations, Internet searches, and direct correspondence."



Cancer Centers

CANCER CENTERS Cancer Centers serves as a resource to bring together a highly trained group of scientists and physicians; patients and their families; and financial and other resources to combat cancer. Cancer centers allow scientists and physicians


User-centered security  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the term user-centered security to refer to security models, mechanisms, systems, and software that have usability as a primary motivation or goal. We discuss the history of usable secure systems, citing both past problems and present studies. We develop three categories for work in user-friendly security: applying usability testing and tech- niques to secure systems, developing security models

Mary Ellen Zurko; Richard T. Simon



A Learner Centered Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a learner-centered educational system, focusing on aspects that are intrinsically associated with the modern educational system, such as the curriculum, school community, parents, learners, and educational support personnel. It examines: primary level preparation (literacy, numeracy, and basic knowledge; examination and…

Ballard, Florence N.


Cancer Centers Program - Cancer Centers List

Cancer Centers Program - Cancer Centers List Map of Cancer Centers Center Addresses(text file) Cancer Center Profiles Benchmark Data Home > Cancer Centers > Cancer Centers List Cancer Centers List View By: Name | State | State Map


PrimaryCareWorkforce Champlain Valley AHEC  

E-print Network

The Vermont PrimaryCareWorkforce Washington Orange Caledonia Lamoille Orleans Essex Northeastern Vermont AHEC University of Vermont AHEC Program Southern Vermont AHEC · Vermont Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Network: Northeastern Vermont AHEC Champlain Valley AHEC Southern Vermont AHEC

Hayden, Nancy J.



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



76 FR 61103 - Medicare Program; Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Medicare Program; Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative AGENCY: Centers for Medicare...notice announces a solicitation for health care payer organizations to participate in the Comprehensive Primary Care initiative (CPC), a multipayer...



Simon Wiesenthal Center: Multimedia Learning Center Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Simon Wiesenthal Center has done the Web-browsing public a great service by placing this extremely comprehensive and authoritative multimedia archive online. Online since 1999, the Multimedia Learning Center provides access to some of the past virtual exhibits sponsored by the Center's Museum of Tolerance (including a fine one dedicated to Polish Jews), a host of teacher's resources, and a helpful frequently-asked-questions area. The FAQ area may be most helpful for students, as it contains an interactive glossary of the Holocaust, a timeline of the Holocaust, and answers to 36 commonly asked questions about the Holocaust. The special collections area of the site contains a number of relevant primary documents related to the Holocaust, though it should be noted that the majority of them are available only in German and Hebrew.


Primary Hyperoxaluria  

PubMed Central

Primary hyperoxalurias (PH) are inborn errors in the metabolism of glyoxylate and oxalate. PH type 1, the most common form, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the liver-specific enzyme alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) resulting in overproduction and excessive urinary excretion of oxalate. Recurrent urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis are the hallmarks of the disease. As glomerular filtration rate decreases due to progressive renal damage, oxalate accumulates leading to systemic oxalosis. Diagnosis is often delayed and is based on clinical and sonographic findings, urinary oxalate assessment, DNA analysis, and, if necessary, direct AGT activity measurement in liver biopsy tissue. Early initiation of conservative treatment, including high fluid intake, inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization, and pyridoxine in responsive cases, can help to maintain renal function in compliant subjects. In end-stage renal disease patients, the best outcomes have been achieved with combined liver-kidney transplantation which corrects the enzyme defect. PMID:21748001

Harambat, Jérôme; Fargue, Sonia; Bacchetta, Justine; Acquaviva, Cécile; Cochat, Pierre



The Vermont Primary Care Workforce 2013 SNAPSHOT  

E-print Network

The Vermont Primary Care Workforce 2013 SNAPSHOT wOrkfOrce cONTiNueS TO SHOw imPrOvemeNT buT SHOr Orleans Essex Franklin Chittenden Addison Grand Isle · Primary Care Practice Sites in Vermont AHEC Regions #12; About vermont AHec The Vermont Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program, in collaboration

Hayden, Nancy J.


Cancer Centers Program - Cancer Centers List

Cancer Centers Program - Cancer Centers List Map of Cancer Centers Center Addresses(text file) Cancer Center Profiles Benchmark Data Home > Cancer Centers > Region Map Cancer Centers List View By: Name | State | State


Triangle Centers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A listing, with description and illustration, of 20th-century triangle centers (including: Schiffler Point, Exeter Point, Parry Point, congruent isoscelizers point, Yff Center of Congruence, isoperimetric point and equal detour point, Ajima-Malfatti Points, Apollonius Point, Morley Centers, Hofstadter Points, and equal parallelians points) and some classical triangle centers (including: centroid, incenter, circumcenter, orthocenter, Fermat Point, nine-point center, symmedian (or Lemoine) point, Gergonne point, Nagel point, Mittenpunkt, Spieker center, Feuerbach point, isodynamic points, and Napoleon points), as well as other references (to print works) and a list of journals that frequently publish items of interest to triangle geometers.

Kimberling, Clark, 1942-



The effect of co-culturing costal chondrocytes and dental pulp stem cells combined with exogenous FGF9 protein on chondrogenesis and ossification in engineered cartilage.  


Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), which arise from cranial neural crest cells, are multipotent, making them a candidate for use in tissue engineering that may be especially useful for craniofacial tissues. Costal chondrocytes (CCs) can be easily obtained and demonstrate higher initial cell yields and expansion than articular chondrocytes. CCs have been found to retain chondrogenic capacity that can effectively repair articular defects. In this study, human CCs were co-cultured with human DPSCs, and the results showed that the CCs were able to supply a chondro-inductive niche that promoted the DPSCs to undergo chondrogenic differentiation and to enhance the formation of cartilage. Although CCs alone could not prevent the mineralization of chondro-differentiated DPSCs, CCs combined with exogenous FGF9 were able to simultaneously promote the chondrogenesis of DPSCs and partially inhibit their mineralization. Furthermore, FGF9 may activate this inhibition by binding to FGFR3 and enhancing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in DPSCs. Our results strongly suggest that the co-culture of CCs and DPSCs combined with exogenous FGF9 can simultaneously enhance chondrogenesis and partially inhibit ossification in engineered cartilage. PMID:22841919

Dai, Jiewen; Wang, Jia; Lu, Jingting; Zou, Duohong; Sun, Hao; Dong, Yuefu; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Tong; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Xudong; Shen, Guofang



Biomechanical analysis of cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: Effects of posterior decompression and kyphosis following decompression  

PubMed Central

Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) results in myelopathy. Conservative treatment is usually ineffective, thus, surgical treatment is required. One of the reasons for the poor surgical outcome following laminoplasty for cervical OPLL is kyphosis. In the present study, a 3-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM) was used to analyze the stress distribution in preoperative, posterior decompression and kyphosis models of OPLL. The 3D-FEM spinal cord model established in this study consisted of gray and white matter, as well as pia mater. For the preoperative model, 30% anterior static compression was applied to OPLL. For the posterior decompression model, the lamina was shifted backwards and for the kyphosis model, the spinal cord was studied at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50° kyphosis. In the preoperative model, high stress distributions were observed in the spinal cord. In the posterior decompression model, stresses were lower than those observed in the preoperative model. In the kyphosis model, an increase in the angle of kyphosis resulted in augmented stress on the spinal cord. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that posterior decompression was effective, but stress distribution increased with the progression of kyphosis. In cases where kyphosis progresses following surgery, detailed follow-ups are required in case the symptoms worsen. PMID:24940393




Involvement of MET/TWIST/APC combination or the potential role of ossification factors in pediatric high-grade osteosarcoma oncogenesis.  


Dysregulated cell growth or differentiation due to misexpression of developmental critical factors seems to be a decisive event in oncogenesis. As osteosarcomas are histologically defined by malignant osteoblasts producing an osteoid component, we prospected in pediatric osteosarcomas treated with OS94 protocol the genomic status of several genes implied in ossification processes. In 91 osteosarcoma cases, we focused on the analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) TWIST, APC, and MET by allelotyping, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, gene sequencing, and protein polymorphism study. Our study supports the frequent role of TWIST, APC, and MET as osteosarcoma markers (50%, 62%, and 50%, respectively). TWIST and MET were mainly found to be deleted, and no additional APC mutation was identified. Surprisingly, FGFRs are abnormal in only < 30%. Most of these factors and their abnormalities seem to be linked more or less to one clinical subgroup, but the most significant correlation is the link of MET, TWIST, and APC abnormalities to a worse outcome and their combination within abnormal tumors. A wider cohort is mandatory to define more robust molecular conclusions, but these results are to be considered as the beginning of a more accurate basis for diagnosis, in search of targeted therapies, and to further characterize prognostic markers. PMID:17786187

Entz-Werle, Natacha; Lavaux, Thomas; Metzger, Nadia; Stoetzel, Corinne; Lasthaus, Christelle; Marec, Perrine; Kalifa, Chantal; Brugieres, Laurence; Pacquement, Hélène; Schmitt, Claudine; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Lutz, Patrick; Babin, Annie; Oudet, Pierre; Gaub, Marie Pierre; Perrin-Schmitt, Fabienne



Early detection of heterotopic ossification using near-infrared optical imaging reveals dynamic turnover and progression of mineralization following Achilles tenotomy and burn injury.  


Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the abnormal formation of bone in soft tissue. Current diagnostics have low sensitivity or specificity to incremental progression of mineralization, especially at early time points. Without accurate and reliable early diagnosis and intervention, HO progression often results in incapacitating conditions of limited range of motion, nerve entrapment, and pain. We hypothesized that non-invasive near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging can detect HO at early time points and monitor heterotopic bone turnover longitudinally. C57BL6 mice received an Achilles tenotomy on their left hind limb in combination with a dorsal burn or sham procedure. A calcium-chelating tetracycline derivative (IRDye 680RD BoneTag) was injected bi-weekly and imaged via NIR to measure accumulative fluorescence for 11?wk and compared to in vivo microCT images. Percent retention of fluorescence was calculated longitudinally to assess temporal bone resorption. NIR detected HO as early as five days and revealed a temporal response in HO formation and turnover. MicroCT could not detect HO until 5?wk. Confocal microscopy confirmed fluorophore localization to areas of HO. These findings demonstrate the ability of a near-infrared optical imaging strategy to accurately and reliably detect and monitor HO in a murine model. PMID:25087685

Perosky, Joseph E; Peterson, Jonathan R; Eboda, Owulatobi N; Morris, Michael D; Wang, Stewart C; Levi, Benjamin; Kozloff, Kenneth M



Developing a quantitative measurement system for assessing heterotopic ossification and monitoring the bioelectric metrics from electrically induced osseointegration in the residual limb of service members.  


Poor prosthetic fit is often the result of heterotopic ossification (HO), a frequent problem following blast injuries for returning service members. Osseointegration technology offers an advantage for individuals with significant HO and poor socket tolerance by using direct skeletal attachment of a prosthesis to the distal residual limb, but remains limited due to prolonged post-operative rehabilitation regimens. Therefore, electrical stimulation has been proposed as a catalyst for expediting skeletal attachment and the bioelectric effects of HO were evaluated using finite element analysis in 11 servicemen with transfemoral amputations. Retrospective computed tomography (CT) scans provided accurate reconstructions, and volume conductor models demonstrated the variability in residual limb anatomy and necessity for patient-specific modeling to characterize electrical field variance if patients were to undergo a theoretical osseointegration of a prosthesis. In this investigation, the volume of HO was statistically significant when selecting the optimal potential difference for enhanced skeletal fixation, since higher HO volumes required increased voltages at the periprosthetic bone (p = 0.024, r = 0.670). Results from Spearman's rho correlations also indicated that the age of the subject and volume of HO were statistically significant and inversely proportional, in which younger service members had a higher frequency of HO (p = 0.041, r = -0.622). This study demonstrates that the volume of HO and age may affect the voltage threshold necessary to improve current osseointegration procedures. PMID:20458630

Isaacson, Brad M; Stinstra, Jeroen G; MacLeod, Rob S; Pasquina, Paul F; Bloebaum, Roy D



Vet Center  


... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans Volunteers Women Veterans Careers, Job Help & Training Find a Job with VA Health Care Jobs (VA Careers) Travel Nurses Get Job ...


Laboratory evaluation of primary immunodeficiencies  

PubMed Central

Primary immunodeficiencies are congenital disorders caused by defects in different elements of the immune system. Affected patients usually present clinically with recurrent infections, severe infections, or both, as well as autoimmune phenomena that are associated with many of these disorders. Early diagnosis is essential for referral to specialized care centers and the prompt initiation of appropriate therapy. In this article the authors describe a general approach for the investigation of the most common primary immunodeficiencies, outlining the typical clinical symptoms and most appropriate laboratory investigations. PMID:20042230

Oliveira, João B.; Fleisher, Thomas A.



Primary and Secondary Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to learn more about primary and secondary sources. 1. Explore the links below to learn about primary and secondary sources. When you have finished, you should be able to: Tell the difference between primary and secondary sources. Give at least three examples of primary sources and three examples of secondary sources. Explain why primary sources are important in research. Examples of Primary Sources Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources on the Same Topic Genres/Formats of Primary Sources 2. ...

Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates



Bibliographies from the Center for Multicultural Awareness: An Annotated Bibliography of Children's Folklore from Five U.S. Minority Cultures and A Preliminary Bibliography on Primary Prevention of Drug Abuse for Minority Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five minority cultures in the United States (Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, Mexican American, Native American, and Puerto Rican) have been targeted for special Federal drug abuse prevention programs and resources served by the Center for Multicultural Awareness. The folktales listed in the first bibliography represent a cross-section of the best…

Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.


Ames Research Center Telescience Support Center capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ames Research Center (ARC) Telescience Support Center (TSC) provides the necessary ground operations capability and infrastructure for achieving the mission objectives of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP). One of the primary operations objectives is to provide the Principal Investigator (PI) access to archived or real-time telemetry, image, video, and voice data. The remote PI is provided access to the Ames TSC capabilities utilizing Internet technologies. To control experiments in the SSBRP payloads, the PI will be able to originate commands either from a console Graphical User Interface (GUI) at ARC TSC or remotely request commands from his/her institution. The ARC TSC also provides the capability for other ground operations functions such as console operator training, mission simulation, payload planning, payload logistics, and ground specimen controls. This paper discusses the implementation strategy of the ARC TSC to achieve SSBRP science objectives. .

Adeni, Kaiser; Picinich, Lou



Energy efficient data centers  

SciTech Connect

Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed through extensive participation with data center professionals, examination of case study findings, and participation in data center industry meetings and workshops. Industry partners enthusiastically provided valuable insight into current practice, and helped to identify areas where additional public interest research could lead to significant efficiency improvement. This helped to define and prioritize the research agenda. The interaction involved industry representatives with expertise in all aspects of data center facilities, including specialized facility infrastructure systems and computing equipment. In addition to the input obtained through industry workshops, LBNL's participation in a three-day, comprehensive design ''charrette'' hosted by the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) yielded a number of innovative ideas for future research.

Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman



International Quilt Study Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world has many great textile traditions, and the art and practice of quilt-making is certainly one of them. The International Quilt Study Center (IQSC) was founded in 1997 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with the kind assistance of Ardis and Robert James, who donated 900 quilts. Since then, the Center has grown to include research symposia, a graduate program in textile history, and numerous online resources. Visitors may want to search the quilt collection online through their helpful search engine. Users can search by primary pattern, quilt title, quilt maker, country of origin, and predominant technique. One very interesting feature of the site is the âÂÂQuilt of the Monthâ area, where visitors can learn about some of the CenterâÂÂs most unique quilts, such as the Chicken Ribbons Quilt from 1913, which features blocks of blue, red, and white silver printed ribbons.


Fracture Healing via Periosteal Callus Formation Requires Macrophages for Both Initiation and Progression of Early Endochondral Ossification.  


The distribution, phenotype, and requirement of macrophages for fracture-associated inflammation and/or early anabolic progression during endochondral callus formation were investigated. A murine femoral fracture model [internally fixed using a flexible plate (MouseFix)] was used to facilitate reproducible fracture reduction. IHC demonstrated that inflammatory macrophages (F4/80(+)Mac-2(+)) were localized with initiating chondrification centers and persisted within granulation tissue at the expanding soft callus front. They were also associated with key events during soft-to-hard callus transition. Resident macrophages (F4/80(+)Mac-2(neg)), including osteal macrophages, predominated in the maturing hard callus. Macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis transgenic mice were used to induce macrophage depletion in vivo in the femoral fracture model. Callus formation was completely abolished when macrophage depletion was initiated at the time of surgery and was significantly reduced when depletion was delayed to coincide with initiation of early anabolic phase. Treatment initiating 5 days after fracture with the pro-macrophage cytokine colony stimulating factor-1 significantly enhanced soft callus formation. The data support that inflammatory macrophages were required for initiation of fracture repair, whereas both inflammatory and resident macrophages promoted anabolic mechanisms during endochondral callus formation. Overall, macrophages make substantive and prolonged contributions to fracture healing and can be targeted as a therapeutic approach for enhancing repair mechanisms. Thus, macrophages represent a viable target for the development of pro-anabolic fracture treatments with a potentially broad therapeutic window. PMID:25285719

Raggatt, Liza J; Wullschleger, Martin E; Alexander, Kylie A; Wu, Andy C K; Millard, Susan M; Kaur, Simranpreet; Maugham, Michelle L; Gregory, Laura S; Steck, Roland; Pettit, Allison R



Selected case from the Arkadi M. Rywlin international pathology slide series: diffuse dendriform pulmonary ossification: report of 2 cases with review of the literature.  


Two cases of diffuse dendriform pulmonary ossification (DPO) are presented, one of the secondary type and the other of the idiopathic type. Case 1 was an adult female patient who underwent thoracic surgery to remove a posterior mediastinal bronchogenic cyst, which was discovered on a computed tomography scan performed after an episode of pneumonia when traction bronchiectasis with interstitial lung disease/fibrosis was also suspected in the lungs. Histologic examination performed on the resected lung tissue revealed numerous scattered small osseous spicules on a background of intense interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, leading to further clinical and laboratory investigations and the final diagnosis of DPO secondary to lung involvement by scleroderma. Case 2 was an adult male patient who underwent thoracoscopic exploration after a computed tomography scan, which revealed traction bronchiectasis with linear thickening of the interstitial lung tissue. Histologic examination of the lung tissue specimen revealed numerous osseous spicules in the absence of interstitial septal inflammation. Noteworthy in this case were also some nodules of collagenized tissue similar to those seen in the lungs of patients affected by Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The absence of any clinical sign or symptoms related to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome attest to the nonspecificity of these pulmonary fibrous nodules. No case of DPO secondary to scleroderma has been reported in the literature so far, although around half of the patients with scleroderma manifest pulmonary diseases. Idiopathic DPO is even rarer, usually discovered postmortem, with only 20 cases diagnosed in life with lung biopsies taken by open surgery or through a thoracoscopic approach. DPO is often misdiagnosed radiologically as bronchiectasis and/or interstitial lung disease/fibrosis. PMID:25461781

Bisceglia, Michele; Chiaramonte, Antonio; Panniello, Gaetano; Tucci, Antonio; Orcioni, Giulio Fraternali; Colby, Thomas V



Whole exome sequencing implicates PTCH1 and COL17A1 genes in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine in Chinese patients.  


Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the cervical spine is a complex multifactorial disease. Patients with OPLL commonly present with symptoms in their 40s or 50s. The genetic basis of OPLL remains poorly understood. Exome capture combined with massively parallel DNA sequencing has been proposed as an efficient strategy to search for disease-causing genes of both monogenic and multigenic disorders. To identify candidate pathogenic genes associated with OPLL, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on two unrelated southern Chinese OPLL patients. The entire DNA coding region of the candidate genes was amplified by PCR and Sanger sequenced. The common single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed by association studies. WES revealed p.T265S/PTCH1, p.P1232L/PTCH1, and p.T902S/COL17A1 mutants in the two female cases with mixed OPLL. These were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. p.P1232L/PTCH1, p.N1374D/COL17A1 and p.T902S/COL17A1 were subsequently identified in three males with continuous OPLL and one female with mixed OPLL. The association studies indicated that the SNPs rs805698 and rs4918079 in COL17A1 were significantly associated with OPLL. This study suggests that WES may be a practical approach to revealing significant genetic involvement in OPLL. Variants of the PTCH1 and COL17A1 genes may contribute to the development of OPLL. PMID:24668667

Wei, W; He, H-L; Chen, C-Y; Zhao, Y; Jiang, H L; Liu, W-T; Du, Z F; Chen, X-L; Shi, S Y; Zhang, X N



Cancer Centers Program - Cancer Centers List

 Cancer Centers Program - Cancer Centers List Map of Cancer Centers Data Tables Benchmark Home > Cancer Centers > Region Map Cancer Centers List View By: Name | State | State Map | Region Map Click on geographical


National Centers for Career and Technical Education Annual Report, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Research Center for Career and Technical Education and the National Dissemination Center for Career and Technical Education were established at the University of Minnesota and The Ohio State University, respectively, in 1999. The centers operate as a consortium with primary and associate partners. Through the centers, the partners…

National Dissemination Center for Career and Technical Education, Columbus, OH.


The Vermont Primary Care Workforce 2012 SNAPSHOT  

E-print Network

The Vermont Primary Care Workforce 2012 SNAPSHOT wOrkfOrce SHOwS imPrOvemeNT buT SHOrTAge iN AdulT PrimArY cAre PerSiSTS #12;About vermont AHec The Vermont Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program for Vermont youth; support for and engagement of health professions students at the University of Vermont

Hayden, Nancy J.


Senior Centers  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... of games. [Narrator] Many senior centers also offer exercise programs. [Karen Albers] We offer aerobics, tai chi, ... chi, tap dancing, ballroom dancing, square dancing, chair exercise, arthritis classes, yoga, and lots of dancing. [Narrator] ...


Protein-Cofactor Interactions in Bacterial Reaction Centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26: I. Identification of the ENDOR Lines Associated with the Hydrogen Bonds to the Primary Quinone QA??  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen bonds are important in determining the structure and function of biomolecules. Of particular interest are hydrogen bonds to quinones, which play an important role in the bioenergetics of respiration and photosynthesis. In this work we investigated the hydrogen bonds to the two carbonyl oxygens of the semiquinone \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{Q}}_{{\\mathrm{A}}}^{{\\cdot}-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} in the well-characterized reaction center from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26. We used electron paramagnetic resonance and electron nuclear double resonance techniques at 35 GHz at a temperature of 80 K. The goal of this study was to identify and assign sets of 1H-ENDOR lines to protons hydrogen bonded to each of the two oxygens. This was accomplished by preferentially exchanging the hydrogen bond on one of the oxygens with deuterium while concomitantly monitoring the changes in the amplitudes of the 1H-ENDOR lines. The preferential deuteration of one of the oxygens was made possible by the different 1H ? 2H exchange times of the protons bonded to the two oxygens. The assignment of the 1H-ENDOR lines sets the stage for the determination of the geometries of the H-bonds by a detailed field selection ENDOR study to be presented in a future article. PMID:16473904

Flores, M.; Isaacson, R.; Abresch, E.; Calvo, R.; Lubitz, W.; Feher, G.



CERT Coordination Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The CERT Coordination Center is part of the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. Its primary function is to work with industry to identify and eliminate Internet security vulnerabilities. Additionally, the center analyzes business and personal software to find potentially dangerous flaws that could compromise the system, meaning that both corporate and home users can benefit from the information offered on the Web site. There are continual updates of security advisories, survivability guides, and fixes that can help prevent disasters or speed recovery from them. Step-by-step suggestions make finding and implementing an efficient security practice reasonably painless. A wide range of papers and presentations on Internet and computer security research are available for free download.



Predictions of the Space Environment Services Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The types of users of the Space Environment Services Center are identified. All the data collected by the Center are listed and a short description of each primary index or activity summary is given. Each type of regularly produced forecast is described, along with the methods used to produce each prediction.

Heckman, G. R.



Challenger Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Challenger Center uses students' natural enthusiasm for space to create innovative learning experiences for imaginative young minds." After learning about the Challenger 51-L crew, users can find information about visits to the Challenger Learning Center Networks' forty six sites located across the Unites States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Within the Teacher and Community Resources link, users can find student activities, professional development opportunities, community programs, and special events. Teachers can learn about Space Day 2004 on May 6th, where young students can take a journey to uncharted galaxies.


Southern Rural Development Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson declared war on rural poverty during their time in the White House, there has been an overriding concern with alleviating the persistently high levels of poverty in the American South. A number of organizations have developed to provide assistance to the region, and the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), located at Mississippi State University is one such entity. The center's mission statement reflects this sentiment, as it notes its primary directive is "to strengthen the capacity of the region's 29-land grant institutions to address critical contemporary development issues impacting the well-being of people and communities in the rural South." Visitors interested in these issues will find plenty to examine here, as they may elect to view a calendar of germane events (such as regional science conferences and the like), look over a list of their primary focus areas, learn about available funding opportunities, and download any number of policy publications and newsletters which date back to 1993.


Primary pulmonary meningioma.  


Primary pulmonary meningiomas are extremely rare. In this article we report one case with benign primary pulmonary meningioma. The literature is reviewed and the clinical manifestations, radiographic findings, and pathologic features are presented. PMID:3363477

Strimlan, C V; Golembiewski, R S; Celko, D A; Fino, G J



Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI)  


Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 January 2010. +Related Content Key Facts Young women with ... ovaries are not working normally. What is primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)? POI is when the ovaries are ...


77 FR 74381 - Medicaid Program; Payments for Services Furnished by Certain Primary Care Physicians and Charges...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Primary Care Physicians and Charges for Vaccine Administration Under the Vaccines for Children Program; Correction AGENCY: Centers...Certain Primary Care Physicians and Charges for Vaccine Administration under the Vaccines for...



Primary enzyme quantitation  


The disclosure relates to the quantitation of a primary enzyme concentration by utilizing a substrate for the primary enzyme labeled with a second enzyme which is an indicator enzyme. Enzyme catalysis of the substrate occurs and results in release of the indicator enzyme in an amount directly proportional to the amount of primary enzyme present. By quantifying the free indicator enzyme one determines the amount of primary enzyme present.

Saunders, G.C.



NCI Community Cancer Centers Program - Pilot Site Profile - St. Joseph Medical Center, Towson, Maryland

More than 40% of the medical center's patients come from outside the primary service area, defined as a 12-mile radius of the hospital. 78% of the Cancer Institute's patients are adults over 55, and 12% are African American.


Investigating Primary Source Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary source research requires students to acquire specialized research skills. This paper presents results from a user study testing the effectiveness of a Web guide designed to convey the concepts behind "primary source literacy". The study also evaluated students' strengths and weaknesses when conducting primary source research. (Contains 3…

Archer, Joanne; Hanlon, Ann M.; Levine, Jennie A.



Center for Beam Physics, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Beam Physics is a multi-disciplinary research and development unit in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. At the heart of the Center`s mission is the fundamental quest for mechanisms of acceleration, radiation and focusing of energy. Dedicated to exploring the frontiers of the physics of (and with) particle and photon beams, its primary mission is to promote the science and technology of the production, manipulation, storage and control systems of charged particles and photons. The Center serves this mission via conceptual studies, theoretical and experimental research, design and development, institutional project involvement, external collaborations, association with industry and technology transfer. This roster provides a glimpse at the scientists, engineers, technical support, students, and administrative staff that make up this team and a flavor of their multifaceted activities during 1993.

Not Available



Gross Primary Productivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's new Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) allows scientists to gauge our planet's metabolism on an almost daily basis. GPP, gross primary production, is the technical term for plant photosynthesis. This composite image over the continental United States, acquired during the period March 26-April 10, 2000, shows regions where plants were more or less productive-i.e., where they 'inhaled' carbon dioxide and then used the carbon from photosynthesis to build new plant structures. This false-color image provides a map of how much carbon was absorbed out of the atmosphere and fixed within land vegetation. Areas colored blue show where plants used as much as 60 grams of carbon per square meter. Areas colored green and yellow indicate a range of anywhere from 40 to 20 grams of carbon absorbed per square meter. Red pixels show an absorption of less than 10 grams of carbon per square meter and white pixels (often areas covered by snow or masked as urban) show little or no absorption. This is one of a number of new measurements that MODIS provides to help scientists understand how the Earth's landscapes are changing over time. Scientists' goal is use of these GPP measurements to refine computer models to simulate how the land biosphere influences the natural cycles of water, carbon, and energy throughout the Earth system. The GPP will be an integral part of global carbon cycle source and sink analysis, an important aspect of Kyoto Protocol assessments. This image is the first of its kind from the MODIS instrument, which launched in December 1999 aboard the Terra spacecraft. MODIS began acquiring scientific data on February 24, 2000, when it first opened its aperture door. The MODIS instrument and Terra spacecraft are both managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. Image courtesy Steven Running, MODIS Land Group Member, University of Montana



The Impact of Primary Care: A Focused Review  

PubMed Central

Primary care serves as the cornerstone in a strong healthcare system. However, it has long been overlooked in the United States (USA), and an imbalance between specialty and primary care exists. The objective of this focused review paper is to identify research evidence on the value of primary care both in the USA and internationally, focusing on the importance of effective primary care services in delivering quality healthcare, improving health outcomes, and reducing disparities. Literature searches were performed in PubMed as well as “snowballing” based on the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. The areas reviewed included primary care definitions, primary care measurement, primary care practice, primary care and health, primary care and quality, primary care and cost, primary care and equity, primary care and health centers, and primary care and healthcare reform. In both developed and developing countries, primary care has been demonstrated to be associated with enhanced access to healthcare services, better health outcomes, and a decrease in hospitalization and use of emergency department visits. Primary care can also help counteract the negative impact of poor economic conditions on health. PMID:24278694

Shi, Leiyu



Centered pyramids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quadtree-like pyramids have the advantage of re- sulting in a multiresolution representation where each pyramid node has four unambiguous parents. Such a centered topology guarantees a clearly defined up-projection of labels. This concept has been successfully and extensively used in applications of contour detection, object recognition and segmentation. Unfortu- nately, the quadtree-like type of pyramid has poor approximation powers because

Patrick Brigger; Frank Müller; Klaus Illgner; Michael Unser



Normocalcemic Primary Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Primary hyperparathyroidism, a common endocrine disorder, is traditionally defined by hypercalcemia and elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). A newer presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism has been described over the past decade, in which PTH is elevated but serum calcium is consistently normal, in the absence of secondary causes of hyperparathyroidism, such as renal disease or vitamin D deficiency. Recognition of this phenotype of primary hyperparathyroidism, normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism, supports a biphasic chronological time course in some individuals in which PTH levels are first elevated but serum calcium is normal, followed by the development of frank hypercalcemia. This review focuses on the available literature regarding this newly described phenotype of primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:23374739

Cusano, Natalie E.; Silverberg, Shonni J.; Bilezikian, John P.



Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Center of Excellence  

E-print Network

Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage William Tumas proprietary or confidential information #12;2 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Overview Project Start Date: FY Barriers Addressed #12;3 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center National

Carver, Jeffrey C.


Pennsylvania Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2013 Pennsylvania Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2013 1 #12;Introduction The Pennsylvania Water of the Pennsylvania State University, the primary land-grant University within Pennsylvania. The Center resides


Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure describes the mission, approach, and services of the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. The Center is the nation's primary resource center for assisting higher education institutions in the development, implementation, and evaluation of alcohol and drug violence prevention policies and programs that…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Newton, MA.


Measurement Centers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During a center-based activity, groups of students will rotate around the classroom practicing non-standard unit of measurement concepts. In addition, they will have the opportunity to familiarize themselves with measuring with rulers and will participate in a lesson about capacity. From this lesson, which is "a good culmination to a unit of measurement to review and practice concepts learned," students will organize items from longest to shortest, measure using paper clips, measure in inches and feet, and participate in a demonstration on capacity.

Kershaw, Amy



Development and Validation of the Tibetan Primary Care Assessment Tool  

PubMed Central

Objective. To develop a primary care assessment tool in Tibetan area and assess the primary care quality among different healthcare settings. Methods. Primary care assessment tool-Tibetan version (PCAT-T) was developed to measure seven primary care domains. Data from a cross-sectional survey of 1386 patients was used to conduct validity and reliability analysis of PCAT-T. Analysis of variance was used to conduct comparison of primary care quality among different healthcare settings. Results. A 28-item PCAT-T was constructed which included seven multi-item scales and two single-item scales. All of multi-item scales achieved good internal consistency and item-total correlations. Scaling assumptions tests were well satisfied. The full range of possible scores was observed for all scales, except first contact and continuity. Compared with prefecture hospital (77.42) and county hospital (82.01), township health center achieved highest primary care quality total score (86.64). Conclusions. PCAT-T is a valid and reliable tool to measure patients' experience of primary care in the Tibet Autonomous Region. Township health center has the best primary care performance compared with other healthcare settings, and township health center should play a key role in providing primary care in Tibet. PMID:24967349

Yin, Aitian; Lai, Youwen



An introduction to primary care and psychology.  


The health care system in the United States has been less effective and more expensive than it needs to be, but the organizational and political will to address these shortcomings is beginning to emerge. These changes are particularly noticeable in primary care, at the heart of an improved health care system. The value of primary care turns on its comprehensiveness, which means that behavioral health care-health behavior change, mental health care, management of psychological symptoms and psychosocial distress, and attention to substance abuse-must be woven into the fabric of primary care practice. This integration is beginning to happen as psychologists and other behavioral health clinicians are incorporated as essential team members in the patient-centered medical home and other emerging models of primary care. This article introduces psychologists to the fundamental changes taking place in primary care and to the various roles that psychologists can play in the new health care system. We describe the extensive breadth and diversity of primary care by age, sex, setting, and type of clinical problem and the implications of this variety for the psychologist's role. This description is not simply a clinical exercise: Transformation of the primary care system also has policy, educational, and research dimensions. We describe how psychologists are essential to these functions as well. PMID:24820682

McDaniel, Susan H; deGruy, Frank V



Composites technology for transport primary structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ACT contract activity being performed by the McDonnell Douglas Corporation is divided into two separate activities: one effort by Douglas Aircraft in Long Beach, California with a focus on Transport Primary Wing and Fuselage Structure, and the other effort by McDonnell Aircraft in St. Louis, Missouri with a focus on Advanced Combat Aircraft Center Wing-Fuselage Structure. This presentation is on the Douglas Aircraft Transport Structure portion of the ACT program called ICAPS - Innovative Composite Aircraft Primary Structure.

Chen, Victor; Hawley, Arthur; Klotzsche, Max; Markus, Alan; Palmer, Ray



Translational Research Overview Health Policy and Primary Care Research Center  

E-print Network

for effective dissemination and adoption of evidence-based guidelines, new technologies, practice redesign a substantial literature establishing the evidence base of effective clinical care, and a growing body of work, adoption and sustainability (in the real world of practice), on the effective implementation of evidence

Oliver, Douglas L.


Primary Photosynthetic Energy Conversion in Bacterial Reaction Centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of human societies is strongly influenced by the available energetic resources. In a period where the limitations of conventional fossil energy carriers become as evident as the often uncontrollable dangers of nuclear energy, one has to reconsider regenerative energy resources. Here photovoltaic or photochemical use of solar energy is an important approach. Since the early days of evolution some two billion years ago, the dominant energetic input into the life system on earth occurs via the conversion of solar energy performed in photosynthetic organisms. The fossil energy carriers that we use and waste today have been produced by photosynthesis over millions of years. In the race for an extended and versatile use of solar energy, semiconductorbased photovoltaic devices have been developed. However, even after decades of intense engineering they cannot serve as a competitive alternative to fossil energy. Under these circumstances new alternatives are required. One line of scientific development may use the operational principles of photosynthesis since photosynthesis is still our main energy source. In this respect, we will present results on the basic concepts of energy conversion in photosynthetic bacteria, which could be used as a guideline to alternative light energy conversion systems.

Zinth, Wolfgang; Wachtveitl, J.


Model Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A human is a complicated organism, and it is considered unethical to do many kinds of experiments on human subjects. For these reasons, biologists often use simpler 'model' organisms that are easy to keep and manipulate in the laboratory. Despite obvious differences, model organisms share with humans many key biochemical and physiological functions that have been conserved (maintained) by evolution. Each of the following model organisms has its advantages and disadvantages in different research applications. This tool allows you to examine the similarities between different systems by comparing the proteins they share and the proportion of DNA they have in common. Choose a gene from the drop-down menu and select the species you want to compare. Rolling over the images will give you a more detailed description of each model. Clicking on a geneâÃÂÃÂs name will take you to the National Center for Biological Information, where you can explore the latest relevant scientific literature.



Mid-America Earthquake Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding earthquakes is a complex process, and the Mid-Americ Earthquake Center is one of three national earthquake engineering research centers set up to work on a variety of approaches to a broad set of related scientific concerns. Based at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Center consists of a consortium of nine core institutions and is funded by the National Science Foundation. The Center's primary work is within four areas, including information technology and consequence-based risk management frameworks. Recognizing that they serve a broad range of visitors to their website, the Center has established a number of informative introductions on their homepage for the general public, potential industry partners, members of the press, and K-12 educators. While a number of visitors may be interested in their technical reports and software packages, most visitors will want to look over the graduate and undergraduate teaching modules, which will be of great use to educators in the engineering and geophysical sciences and their students. Additionally, the Center's site provides access to a number of informative webcasts, including presentations on seismic performances of bridges.


Education research Primary Science  

E-print Network

Education research Primary Science Survey Report December 2011 #12;Primary Science Survey Report, Wellcome Trust 1 Background In May 2009 Key Stage 2 science SATs (Standard Assessment Tests) were abolished fiasco might occur, where the results were delayed and their quality questioned. The loss of science SATs

Rambaut, Andrew



Located in the foothills of the Wasatch Mountains, Primary Children's Hospital is the children's hospital for Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, Nevada, and Montana. Our 289-bed hospital is equipped and staffed to care for children with complex illness and injury. Primary Children's is owned by Intermountain Healthcare and is the pediatric specialty teaching hospital for the University Of Utah School of Medicine.


Composite Crew Module: Primary Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center to design, build, and test a full-scale crew module primary structure, using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy based composite materials. The overall goal of the Composite Crew Module project was to develop a team from the NASA family with hands-on experience in composite design, manufacturing, and testing in anticipation of future space exploration systems being made of composite materials. The CCM project was planned to run concurrently with the Orion project's baseline metallic design within the Constellation Program so that features could be compared and discussed without inducing risk to the overall Program. This report discusses the project management aspects of the project including team organization, decision making, independent technical reviews, and cost and schedule management approach.

Kirsch, Michael T.



Transplant Center Search Form  


- A + A Transplant Center Search Form Welcome to the Blood & Marrow Transplant Information Network's Transplant Center Search Form. Here you will ... transplant centers for patients with a particular disease. Transplant Center login Username: * Password: * Request new password BMT ...


STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center  

E-print Network

STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center Women's Lifestyle Center The Women's Lifestyle with the improved lifestyle. Also, we work together with the Strong Fertility Center to coordinate your fertility fertility treatments. · A complete nutritional consultation with our registered dietician, Tracy Cherry, RD

Goldman, Steven A.


"Infotonics Technology Center"  

SciTech Connect

During this grant period July 15, 2002 thru September 30, 2004, the Infotonics Technology Center developed the critical infrastructure and technical expertise necessary to accelerate the development of sensors, alternative lighting and power sources, and other specific subtopics of interest to Department of Energy. Infotonics fosters collaboration among industry, universities and government and operates as a national center of excellence to drive photonics and microsystems development and commercialization. A main goal of the Center is to establish a unique, world-class research and development facility. A state-of-the-art microsystems prototype and pilot fabrication facility was established to enable rapid commercialization of new products of particular interest to DOE. The Center has three primary areas of photonics and microsystems competency: device research and engineering, packaging and assembly, and prototype and pilot-scale fabrication. Center activities focused on next generation optical communication networks, advanced imaging and information sensors and systems, micro-fluidic systems, assembly and packaging technologies, and biochemical sensors. With targeted research programs guided by the wealth of expertise of Infotonics���������������������������������������������������������������¢�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� business and scientific staff, the fabrication and packaging facility supports and accelerates innovative technology development of special interest to DOE in support of its mission and strategic defense, energy, and science goals.

Fritzemeier, L., Boysel, M.B., and Smith, D.R.



Federal Judicial Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by an act of Congress in 1967, the Federal Judicial Center has served as a clearinghouse of information about the federal court system for four decades. While the Center is physically based in Washington, DC, their website brings information about the court system, its history, and its judges to any interested parties with access to the Internet. From their homepage, visitors can go straight to one of the primary sections, which include "Federal Judicial History", "Publications & Videos", and "Educational Programs & Materials". In the "Publications & Videos" area, visitors can use the search engine to look for specific items of interest, or they can also browse the archive's contents by subject or by date of publication. Recent additions have included the updated second edition of the copyright law statutes to the proceedings of a roundtable discussion on the use of technology to facilitate appearances in bankruptcy proceedings. For most visitors, the "Federal Judicial History" will be of greatest interest, as it contains biographies of federal judges since 1789, the histories of individual courts, and summaries of landmark decisions.


Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard was originally founded in 1973 by Paul Doty, when its original gaol was to revive serious analysis of nuclear dangers and arms control. In 1997, the Center was re-endowed, and its primary mission became "to provide leadership in advancing policy-relevant knowledge about the international security and other critical issues where science, technology, and international affairs intersect." Within the Center, there are five main research programs, including international security, intrastate conflict, and Russia and the Caspian. From their home page, visitors can read opinion and editorials penned by people working at the Center, and find out about upcoming talks and conferences sponsored or hosted by the Center. Also, visitors can visit the Publications section of the site to read discussion papers and other scholarship written by scholars and fellows associated with the Center.


Primary Productivity: Marine Adaptation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to give students a better understanding of the concept of primary productivity and to have them use one or more methods to calculate primary productivity. Students will have also been introduced to the concepts of marine primary productivity, net productivity vs. gross productivity, and the importance of comparing dry weight versus wet weight. Marine primary producers are usually not plants as we typically think about them, but rather seaweeds or single cell algae. The classic example of a marine primary producer is a marine diatom. In this experiment students use marine diatoms to measure primary productivity. Real-time data from several sources may be used to increase understanding of this topic. Students will discover that although often ignored in the classroom, the marine environment produces 32 percent of the world's primary productivity on 71 percent of the Earth's surface area. Although this is far less than the 68 percent from the continental surfaces (29 percent of the Earth's surface area), this productivity is still very important.

Angela Morrow


Trafficking in and to the primary cilium  

PubMed Central

Polarized vesicle trafficking is mediated by small GTPase proteins, such as Rabs and Arls/Arfs. These proteins have essential roles in maintaining normal cellular function, in part, through regulating intracellular trafficking. Moreover, these families of proteins have recently been implicated in the formation and function of the primary cilium. The primary cilium, which is found on almost every cell type in vertebrates, is an organelle that protrudes from the surface of the cell and functions as a signaling center. Interestingly, it has recently been linked to a variety of human diseases, collectively referred to as ciliopathies. The primary cilium has an exceptionally high density of receptors on its membrane that are important for sensing and transducing extracellular stimuli. Moreover, the primary cilium serves as a separate cellular compartment from the cytosol, providing for unique spatial and temporal regulation of signaling molecules to initiate downstream events. Thus, functional primary cilia are essential for normal signal transduction. Rabs and Arls/Arfs play critical roles in early cilia formation but are also needed for maintenance of ciliary function through their coordination with intraflagellar transport (IFT), a specialized trafficking system in primary cilia. IFT in cilia is pivotal for the proper movement of proteins into and out of this highly regulated organelle. In this review article, we explore the involvement of polarized vesicular trafficking in cilia formation and function, and discuss how defects in these processes could subsequently lead to the abnormalities observed in ciliopathies. PMID:23351793



Primary chest wall tumors.  


The differential diagnosis of chest wall tumors is diverse, including both benign and malignant lesions (primary and malignant), local extension of adjacent disease, and local manifestations of infectious and inflammatory processes. Primary chest wall tumors are best classified by their primary component: soft tissue or bone. Work-up consists of a thorough history, physical examination and imaging to best assess location, size, composition, association with surrounding structures, and evidence of any soft tissue component. Biopsies are often required, especially for soft tissue masses. Treatment depends on histological subtype and location, but may include chemotherapy and radiotherapy in addition to surgical resection. PMID:20974433

Smith, Shona E; Keshavjee, Shaf



History of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases in Iran  

PubMed Central

Pediatric immunology came into sight in the second half of 20th century, when pediatricians and basic immunologists began to give attention to diagnosis and treatment of children with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Understanding the genetic and mechanistic basis of PIDs provides unique insight into the functioning of the immune system. By progress in basic and clinical immunology, many infrastructural organizations and academic centers have been established in many countries worldwide to focus on training and research on the immune system and related disorders. Along with progress in basic and clinical immunology in the world, pediatric immunology had a good progress in Iran during the last 33-year period. Now, patients with PIDs can benefit from multidisciplinary comprehensive care, which is provided by clinical immunologists in collaboration with other specialists. Patients with history of recurrent and/or chronic infections suggestive of PIDs are evaluated by standard and research-based testing and receive appropriate treatment. The progress in PIDs can be described in three periods. Development of training program for clinical fellowship in allergy and immunology, multidisciplinary and international collaborative projects, primary immunodeficiency diseases textbooks, meetings on immunodeficiency disorders, improvement in diagnosis and treatment, and construction of Iranian primary immunodeficiency association, Students' research group for immunodeficiencies, Iranian primary immunodeficiency registry, and the immunological societies and centers were the main activities on PIDs during these years. In this article, we review the growth of modern pediatric immunology and PIDs status in Iran. PMID:23056678

Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Moin, Mostafa; Rezaei, Nima



Primary infertility (image)  


Primary infertility is a term used to describe a couple that has never been able to conceive a pregnancy ... to do so through unprotected intercourse. Causes of infertility include a wide range of physical as well ...


Parenthood after Primary Infertility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature on the experience of parenting after primary infertility and describes construction and initial testing of an instrument for assessing characteristics of this understudied population. (Contains 52 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

Frances-Fischer, Jana E.; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.



Primary Containment for Biohazards  

E-print Network

Primary Containment for Biohazards: Selection, Installation and Use of Biological Safety Cabinets 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 SECTION III Biological Safety Cabinets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Certification of Biological Safety Cabinets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Development of Containment Standards

Oliver, Douglas L.


Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI)  


... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... used to be called “premature menopause” or “premature ovarian failure,” but those terms do not accurately describe ...


Primary renal angiosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Primary angiosarcoma of the kidney is a rare tumor with only a few case reports in the literature. Management is not standardized and the prognosis is poor. However, clinicians need to be aware of this uncommon entity. PMID:23956520

Sabharwal, Sagar; John, Nirmal Thampi; Kumar, Ramani M.; Kekre, Nitin S.



Primary Biliary Cirrhosis  


... the test or may develop bacterial cholangitis or pancreatitis—inflammation of the pancreas. Liver biopsy. A liver ... are unknown. Most research suggests it is an autoimmune disease. Primary biliary cirrhosis is more common in ...


Inside the Primary Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some of the findings of the ORACLE research program (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation), a detailed observational study of teacher-student interaction, teaching styles, and management methods within a sample of primary classrooms. (Editor/SJL)

Simon, Brian



Primary CNS Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) affects all age groups with a peak incidence in the fifth to seventh decades in non-AIDS patients.\\u000a A slight male predominance is observed. The disease represents 2.6% of all primary brain tumors and 2–3% of NHLs [1, 53].\\u000a After a threefold rise observed between 1970 and 1990, the incidence of PCNSL has increased only slightly in

Joachim M. Baehring; Uwe Schlegel; Fred H. Hochberg


Primary actinomycosis of hand  

PubMed Central

Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous suppurative disease having the propensity for extension to the contagious tissue with the formation of multiple discharging sinus tracts. Primary actinomycosis of extremity is a very uncommon clinical entity and is commonly considered as a soft-tissue infection. We report here, a case of primary actinomycosis of the upper extremity in a 24-year-old male who was treated successfully with surgical excision and extended period of antimicrobial treatment.

Padhi, Sanghamitra; Dash, Muktikesh; Turuk, Jyotirmayee; Sahu, Rani; Panda, Pritilata



Teaching primary care obstetrics  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To explore the experiences and recommendations for recruitment of family physicians who practise and teach primary care obstetrics. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting Six primary care obstetrics groups in Edmonton, Alta, that were involved in teaching family medicine residents in the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Alberta. Participants Twelve family physicians who practised obstetrics in groups. All participants were women, which was reasonably representative of primary care obstetrics providers in Edmonton. Methods Each participant underwent an in-depth interview. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The investigators independently reviewed the transcripts and then analyzed the transcripts together in an iterative and interpretive manner. Main findings Themes identified in this study include lack of confidence in teaching, challenges of having learners, benefits of having learners, and recommendations for recruiting learners to primary care obstetrics. While participants described insecurity and challenges related to teaching, they also identified positive aspects, and offered suggestions for recruiting learners to primary care obstetrics. Conclusion Despite describing poor confidence as teachers and having challenges with learners, the participants identified positive experiences that sustained their interest in teaching. Supporting these teachers and recruiting more such role models is important to encourage family medicine learners to enter careers such as primary care obstetrics. PMID:24627402

Koppula, Sudha; Brown, Judith B.; Jordan, John M.



Primary Care Providers' Perceptions of and Experiences with an Integrated Healthcare Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective and Participants: The authors examined the experiences of primary care providers participating in an integrated healthcare service between mental health and primary care in a university health center. In this program, behavioral health providers work collaboratively with primary care providers in the treatment of students. Participants…

Westheimer, Joshua M.; Steinley-Bumgarner, Michelle; Brownson, Chris



Primary aldosteronism and salt.  


For many years, primary aldosteronism was thought (and taught) to be a relatively rare (<1 %) and benign form of high blood pressure: now we know that neither is the case. Currently, the prevalence is considered to be 5-10 % of hypertensives, on the basis of more or less stringent cutoffs for the aldosterone/renin ratio and plasma aldosterone concentration: increasingly, evidence is mounting that the true prevalence of (relatively) autonomous aldosterone secretion may be ?30 % of hypertensives. There is, in addition, a consensus that the risk profile for patients with primary aldosteronism is substantially higher than in age-, sex-, and blood pressure-matched essential hypertensives; the cardiovascular/renal damage in primary aldosteronism is thus not a primary effect of raised blood pressure. The nexus between salt and primary aldosteronism is clear, as equivalently raised or even higher levels of plasma aldosterone in chronic sodium deficiency are homeostatic and do not cause cardiovascular damage, thus ruling out deleterious effects of aldosterone acting alone. In primary aldosteronism the normal homeostatic feedback loops between sodium status and aldosterone levels are disturbed, so that cardiovascular/renal damage reflects inappropriate aldosterone levels for sodium status. One possible actor in such a scenario is endogenous ouabain (or similar compounds), which is elevated in the sodium-loaded state and a vasoconstrictor, and thus potentially be able both to raise blood pressure and to cause cardiovascular/renal damage. A second consideration is that of the epidemiologic data linking a chronically high salt intake to a raised blood pressure. If autonomous aldosterone secretion is in fact present in ?30 % of hypertensives, this may be the group sensitive to the pressor effects of high salt, with the remainder much less affected. Finally, at a practical level given even the currently accepted prevalence of primary aldosteronism, a radical reconsideration of first-line antihypertensive therapy is proposed. PMID:25502114

Funder, John W



Creating a center for nursing excellence.  


A center for nursing excellence provides a structure for organizing professional nursing within an organization. It gives nursing leadership a method of explaining, demonstrating, and showcasing nursing. A center for nursing excellence provides a method of interpreting the primary and multiple roles of nursing, including patient care delivery, education, research, leadership, and management. A center for nursing excellence can be used as a base for the development of practice models, education and development programs, nurse recruitment strategies and retention, and leadership and management programs. PMID:15387434

Knos, Sally; Gharrity, Jan



Video Center Administrator Guide  

E-print Network

LifeSize® Video Center Administrator Guide March 2011 LifeSize Video Center 2200 #12;LifeSize Video Center Adminstrator Guide 2 Administering LifeSize Video Center LifeSize Video Center is a network server that stores and streams video sent by LifeSize video communications systems enabled for recording. It can also

Eisen, Michael


Assessing primary care in Croatia: could it be moved forward?  


It is well known that countries with strong primary care achieve better health outcomes at lower costs. Therefore, the effort of World Health Organization in promoting primary care as a basic principal of successful health care system is an ongoing process. Although Croatia was recognized as a country with primary care orientation due to the development of health centers and introduction of specialist training of general practitioners, it seems that many health care reforms aimed at better organization of health institutions and decreasing of health care costs did not result with higher primary care orientation. By application of the Primary Care Score instrument in 2014 (Croatia received 11.2 out of 20 possible points), and international comparison performed in 2002, it was concluded that among the eighteen OECD countries Croatia could be categorized as an "intermediate primary care country", obtaining the scores just a bit above the average. PMID:25643520

Keglevi?, Mladenka Vrci?; Kova?i?, Luka; Pavlekovi?, Gordana



Technology Transfer Center | Competitive Service Center

The Technology Transfer Center (TTC) is a designated Competitive Service Center (CSC) for technology transfer to other NIH Institutes and Centers (ICs). The CSC at TTC offers a range of services and works with each client IC to determine the IC's unique technology transfer needs.


Primary trauma care.  


The Primary Trauma Care programme is a course designed to train anaesthetists, surgeons and others in the systematic review and management of severe trauma victims at the District Hospital. Over the last 10 years, many individuals have been involved in training, empowering and supporting doctors and nurses in a number of countries. Local programmes and training courses are increasingly co-ordinated by regional offices in South America, India, China, Indonesia, the South Pacific and Africa. The Primary Trauma Care Foundation continues to support these regional offices in their need for qualified instructors, fund-raising, and for updating educational material. With anaesthetic support, the Primary Trauma Care Foundation will continue to empower anaesthetists worldwide as they work with their surgical colleagues to treat severely injured patients in areas where, previously, due to inadequate resources and training, comprehensive treatment was not available. PMID:17937716

Wilkinson, D; McDougall, R



Primary breast lymphoma.  


Primary breast lymphoma is a rare form of extranodal lymphoma, defined by the presence of a primary lesion within the breast with or without regional nodal involvement but no other extra-mammary sites of involvement. It comprises diverse histologic subtypes, but diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common. In this review, we describe in detail the clinical features, diagnosis and staging, pathogenesis, risk factors and therapy of primary breast diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We consider choice and number of cycles of chemotherapy, the indications for radiotherapy and discuss the need for central nervous system prophylaxis. We also provide a brief overview of the less commonly encountered histologic subtypes including marginal zone, follicular, Burkitt and breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We conclude with a suggested treatment approach and potential areas of future research. PMID:24953564

Cheah, Chan Y; Campbell, Belinda A; Seymour, John F



Choosing a Transplant Center  


... Email this page Print this page Choosing a transplant center We provide detailed information on U.S. transplant ... transplant center has treated. Questions to ask the transplant center Our patient services coordinators can answer your ...


The Watergate Learning Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Watergate Learning Center, recently opened by Sterling Learning Center in Washington, D. C., blueprints the plan established by Sterling and Marriott Hotels for a national chain of learning centers with much the same facilities. (EB)

Training in Business and Industry, 1971



Georgia Geriatric Education Center  

E-print Network

Georgia Geriatric Education Center © Photography courtesy of the U.S. Administration on Aging. Georgia Geriatric Education Center Latestresourcesandtrainingforbestpracticesingerontologyandgeriatrics. The Georgia Geriatric Education Center (GGEC) is a statewide effort designed to help you access the latest

Arnold, Jonathan


Computational Center for Studies of Plasma Microturbulence  

SciTech Connect

The Maryland Computational Center for Studies of Microturbulence (CCSM) was one component of a larger, multi-institutional Plasma Microturbulence Project, funded through what eventually became DOE's Scientific Discovery Through Advanced Computing Program. The primary focus of research in CCSM was to develop, deploy, maintain, and utilize kinetic simulation techniques, especially the gyrokinetic code called GS2.

William Dorland



Primary cutaneous leiomysarcoma.  


Primary cutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the skin is a rare soft tissue neoplasm, accounting for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. It arises between the ages of 50 and 70 years, and shows a greater predilection for the lower extremities. Clinically, it presents with solitary, well-circumscribed nodule and, microscopically, consists of fascicles of spindle-shaped cells with "cigar-shaped" nuclei. Local recurrence is known in this tumor. We document a case of primary cutaneous leiomyosarcoma in a 77-year-old man and discuss the histological features and immunohistochemical profile of this uncommon neoplasm. PMID:22345781

Agale, Shubhangi Vinayak; Grover, Sumit; Zode, Rahul; Hande, Shilpa



chp/pcor center for health policy/ center for primary care  

E-print Network

Owens, and Jeremy Goldhaber-Fiebert. #12;Fromthecenters'Leadership In 1998, health care expenditures in health spending growth over the past 10 years, American health expenditures have consistently grown more is grappling with ways to control health expenditure growth, while developing nations cope with the devastating

Ford, James


Investigating patient-centered care.  


This issue provides many articles reporting on research pertinent to patient-centered care, with great richness in the variety of methods and settings. Topics include disparities in the availability of care and the type of care provided (including a randomized trial), effecting elective hospitalizations on future patient satisfaction, the effect of the specific content of the after visit summary, 2 articles related to aspects of shared decision making, 2 articles considering the effects of practice culture, plus a report on divergent views on how to integrate behavioral and primary health care. Differences between academic and nonacademic family medicine practice are finally documented, with important dissimilarities in patient-centered care. Family physicians are highly involved with dementia care. An exciting report documents a high negative predictive value for a new genomic expression test for coronary artery disease in family medicine that uses combinations of gene expression instead of individual gene testing. PMID:24610178

Bowman, Marjorie A; Neale, Anne Victoria



Internet and the national nuclear data center  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) has been providing electronic access to the nuclear data bases it maintains since 1986. Originally the access was via modem and DecNet; primary access now is through the Internet. After the Internet became widely available to the scientific community, retrievals from the NNDC`s data bases have risen almost exponentially with an estimated 124,000 retrievals for 1996. Primary access is still through TELNET but there is substantial activity through the World Wide Web (W3). A current goal of the Center is to provide W3 access to all of its major data bases by the end of 1997. W3 access to the NNDC data bases will be demonstrated along with demonstrations of {open_quotes}work in progress.{close_quotes} The Center has also taken the initiative to develop and maintain new data bases covering the {open_quotes}frontiers{close_quotes} of nuclear science.

Burrows, T.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)



Primaries as Coordination Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the U.S. presidential primary system, we con- struct a model in which three candidates compete for the nomination and voters are uncertain about the candidates' valence. The disadvantage of simultaneous elections is that, if two of the candidates o er the same policy, then they split the voters with a policy preference for

Mattias Polborn; Helios Herreray



Primary Premier for Belfast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author talks about the Association for Science Education (ASE) Primary Science Committee's (PSC) March 2009 meeting which was held in Belfast as guests of ASE Northern Ireland. To mark the auspicious occasion of a body that usually meets four times a year in the Hatfield HQ crossing the Irish Sea to be hosted by its Celtic cousins, a Lord…

McAlister, Peter



Philosophy in Primary Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article is a critical discussion of the aims behind the teaching of philosophy in British primary schools. It begins by reviewing the recent Special Issue of the "Journal of Philosophy of Education" Vol 45 Issue 2 2011 on "Philosophy for Children in Transition", so as to see what light this might throw on the topic just mentioned. The result…

White, John



Primary Art Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: Primary Grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Art. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide begins with a list of topics for art expression. The main body of the guide contains 15 color-coded sections on the following subjects: 1) mobiles and folded paper; 2) collage and photo montage; 3) square paper and mosaics; 4) wax paper and…

Newton Unified School District 373, KS.


Primary flat cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed a primary cell for batteries having a sealed, flexible, non-conductive envelope for the active elements of a cell. A subassembly of a combination of the active elements comprises a pouch containing a fluid electrode mass and having a separator sheet included in one wall thereof adapted to be positioned in the envelope with the separator sheet between




Primary leiomyosarcoma of bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen cases of primary leiomyosarcoma of bone are described. The patients, 11 males and 5 females, ranged in age from 9 to 74 years. The annual incidence of this tumor in Sweden was calculated to be 0.09 cases per million. This figure was obtained by reviewing a Swedish series of spindle cell sarcomas of bone of which one quarter (11\\/44)

Lennart Angervall; Lars-Gunnar Kindblom; Isabelita C. Berlin; Bertil Stener



Primary Breast Leiomyosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare neoplasm. Only few cases have been reported in the literature. We report here a case of breast leiomyosarcoma in a 44-years-old female and we discuss the data of the existing literature. PMID:24455361

Amaadour, L.; Benbrahim, Z.; Moumna, K.; Boudahna, L.; Amarti, A.; Arifi, S.; Mellas, N.; El Mesbahi, O.



Primary CNS lymphoma.  


Primary CNS lymphoma, an uncommon form of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, has increased in incidence and occurs in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Primary CNS lymphoma in immunocompetent patients is associated with unique diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues and the management of this malignancy is different from other forms of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Characteristic imaging features should lead to suspicion of the diagnosis, avoidance of corticosteroids (if possible) and early neurosurgical consultation for stereotactic biopsy. Since primary CNS lymphoma may involve the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and eyes, diagnostic evaluation should include assessment of all of these regions as well as screening for the possibility of occult systemic disease. Resection provides no therapeutic benefit and should be reserved for the rare patient with neurological deterioration due to brain herniation. Whole-brain radiation therapy alone is insufficient for durable tumor control and is associated with a high risk of neurotoxicity in patients over 60 years of age. Neurotoxicity is typically associated with significant cognitive, motor and autonomic dysfunction and has a negative impact on quality of life. Chemotherapy and whole-brain radiation therapy together improve tumor response rates and survival compared with whole-brain radiation therapy alone. Methotrexate-based multiagent chemotherapy without whole-brain radiation therapy is associated with similar tumor response rates and survival compared with regimens that include whole-brain radiation therapy, although controlled trials have not been performed. The risk of neurotoxicity is lower in patients treated with chemotherapy alone. The incidence of HIV-related primary CNS lymphoma has decreased in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Patients with HIV-associated primary CNS lymphoma have a worse prognosis but may respond to highly active antiretroviral therapy, whole-brain radiation therapy or therapies directed against the Epstein-Barr virus. PMID:17492932

Gerstner, Elizabeth; Batchelor, Tracy



[Primary pulmonary sarcomas].  


Primary pulmonary sarcomas are rare diseases unlike lung carcinomas. The occurence of these sarcomas is between 0.013-0.40% of all malignant lung tumours. There are malignant mesenchymal tumours. They are flowing from the soft tissue of lung. The pulmonary sarcomas are heterogenic group with various biological behaviour. Their morfologic structure does not digger from the sarcomas of soft tissue. The primary pulmonary sarcomas occur more often in childhood and in young people unlike lung carcinomas. Radiation and some toxic substances are noted risk factors. Some gene mutations, infectious pathoghens and contraception have a possible impact on the origin of some types of the sarcomas. The current hypothesis is, that most of the sarcomas, if not all sarcomas, stem from primitive multipotent mesenchymal cell by malignant transformation in one or more lines. The diagnostic standard is biopsy from tumour with histologic and immunohistochemistry examination of a sample. The basic diagnostic problem is exclusion of a secondary origin of sarcomatic cells in the lung, because pulmonary metastasis of extrapulmonary sarcomas are more often than the primary pulmonary involvement.The optimal treatment is a resection of the tumour.The other therapeutic modalities are radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but results of these modalities are unsatisfactory. There are various chemotherapeutic regimes, monotherapy or combination regimes. The basic cytostatics are doxorubicine, iphosphamide, dacarbazine. Problems of the chemotherapy are high toxicity and relatively low curative effect about 20%.The first studies with biological treatment of the sarcomas of soft tissue have been published recently.This types of drugs could be a part of the complex management of these primary pulmonary tumours in the future. The primary pulmonary sarcomas have mostly aggresive course and often recur. Their prognosis is usually not very good. The survival median is 48 months and 5-years survival ranges between 38 and 48%. Prognostic factors are the size of tumour, histological type, grading, clinical stage and measure of a surgery major. PMID:19731876

Jakubcová, T; Jakubec, P



Center for Global Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of think-tanks and related organizations have sprung up in recent years with the intent of researching various development initiatives around the world. Founded in 2001, the Center for Global Development is just such an organization, and they are primarily concerned with offering âÂÂâ¦.practical, creative solutions to the challenges that global interdependence poses to the developing countries, starting with debt.â So far, they have assembled an impressive list of research fellows and partners, a fact that is apparent upon visiting their homepage. Visitors would do well to start by looking through their âÂÂInitiativesâ area, which offers brief introduction to their primary thematic areas of interest, which include debt relief and population dynamics. Along with this area, a nice complement is the section dedicated to providing access to their publications, which include working papers on infrastructure development in Africa and corruption and governance in public health care systems. Rounding out the site are areas where visitors can sign up to receive email updates and sections dedicated to their in-house blogs. [KMG


Alternate Learning Center. Abstracts of Inservice Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is a collection of abstracts describing the 18 programs offered at the Alternate Learning Center of the Rhode Island Teacher Center which has as its Primary function school based inservice training for local teachers and administrators. Each project is described in detail, including course goals, specific objectives, training…

Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Div. of Development and Operations.


Cross-Sector Collaboration: The Great Lakes Environmental Finance Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Great Lakes Environmental Finance Center is one of six university-based environmental finance centers established by the federal government. Its primary mission is to help state and local government and private-sector organizations devise effective financing strategies for environmental improvement projects. Cross-sector collaboration and…

Austrian, Ziona; Iannone, Donald



The Jefferson College Learning Center: A Multifaceted Approach to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This compilation of statistical tables, promotional materials, advisory letters and related materials for students, and other information provides an overview of the activities, staffing, goals, and objectives of the Jefferson College Learning Center. The primary mission of the Learning Center is to bring the full resources of the institution to…

Burke, Thomas


Interday Forecasting and Intraday Updating of Call Center Arrivals  

E-print Network

vector time series. We propose to first reduce the dimensionality by singular value decomposition decomposition, vector time series. 1. Introduction Call centers have become a primary contact point between, and in particular human resource costs (Gans et al. 2003). Effective management of a call center requires call

Huang, Jianhua


Barriers and Facilitators to Senior Centers Participating in Translational Research  

PubMed Central

Senior centers are ideal locations to deliver evidence-based health promotion programs to the rapidly-growing population of older Americans to help them remain healthy and independent in the community. However, little reported research is conducted in partnership with senior centers; thus, not much is known about barriers and facilitators for senior centers serving as research sites. To fill this gap and potentially accelerate research within senior centers to enhance translation of evidence-based interventions into practice, the present study examined barriers and facilitators of senior centers invited to participate in a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Primary barriers to participation related to staffing and perceived inability to recruit older adult participants meeting research criteria. The primary facilitator was a desire to offer programs that were of interest and beneficial to seniors. Senior centers are interested in participating in research that provides benefit to older adults but may need assistance from researchers to overcome participation barriers. PMID:25651599

Adams, Becky; Cornell, Carol E.; Fausett, Jennifer K.; Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith



Elder Abuse Forensic Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elder abuse forensic centers present a new model of multidisciplinary collaboration on elder abuse cases. The “clients” of a forensic center are Adult Protective Services (APS), law enforcement, and the Long-term Care Ombudsman. Centers take the basic multidisciplinary team model and add a geriatrician and a psychologist. Additionally, forensic center team members make home visits with APS and others for

Diana Cafaro Schneider; Laura Mosqueda; Erika Falk; George J. Huba



[Primary lung tumors].  


Pulmonary neoplasia in children is usually due to methastatic disease because primary lung tumors are very unfrequent. Due to its' rarity they are usually not included in the differential diagnosis of lung masses, so treatment is delayed and prognosis is worsened. Herein, we show our experience in the management of five primary tumors of the lung or the airway: one tracheal, three bronchial, and another intraparenchymatous. We study the clinical behaviour, diagnostic work-up, treatment, histology, and follow-up. Despite its rarity, a diagnosis of pulmonary tumor should be considered in any child with respiratory symptoms that does not improve with standard therapy. An early and accurate diagnosis and an adequate treatment are crutial in the prognosis of these patients. PMID:17352111

López Díaz, M; Antón-Pacheco Sánchez, J L; Tejedor Sánchez, R; Cuadros, J; Vivanco Martínez, J L; Cabezalí Barbancho, D; Hernández Bernal, I



Acupuncture in Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Acupuncture is an ancient traditional Chinese medical therapy that is used widely around the world. When practiced by a certified provider, it is safe and often perceived as calming and relaxing for patients. Animal and human studies have found a physiological basis for acupuncture needling in that it affects the complex central and peripheral neuro-hormonal network. Although it is unclear whether acupuncture is beneficial over sham/placebo acupuncture, acupuncture care yields clinically relevant short- and long-term benefits for low back pain, knee osteoarthritis, chronic neck pain, and headache. The integration of acupuncture into a primary care setting also appears to be cost-effective. Furthermore, the practice of acupuncture in primary care involves rigorous training, financial discipline, and art of communication. When it is done correctly, acupuncture proves to be beneficial for both patients and providers. PMID:20189001

Mao, Jun J.; Kapur, Rahul



Spirometry in primary care  

PubMed Central

Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) clinical guidelines for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) specify that spirometry should be used to diagnose these diseases. Given the burden of asthma and COPD, most people with these diseases will be diagnosed in the primary care setting. The present CTS position statement was developed to provide guidance on key factors affecting the quality of spirometry testing in the primary care setting. The present statement may also be used to inform and guide the accreditation process for spirometry in each province. Although many of the principles discussed are equally applicable to pulmonary function laboratories and interpretation of tests by respirologists, they are held to a higher standard and are outside the scope of the present statement. PMID:23457669

Coates, Allan L; Graham, Brian L; McFadden, Robin G; McParland, Colm; Moosa, Dilshad; Provencher, Steeve; Road, Jeremy



Primary immunodeficiencies: 2009 update  

PubMed Central

More than 50 years after Ogdeon Bruton’s discovery of congenital agammaglobulinemia, human primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) continue to unravel novel molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern development and function of the human immune system. This report provides the updated classification of PIDs, that has been compiled by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) Expert Committee of Primary Immunodeficiencies after its biannual meeting, in Dublin (Ireland) in June 2009. Since the appearance of the last classification in 2007, novel forms of PID have been discovered, and additional pathophysiology mechanisms that account for PID in humans have been unraveled. Careful analysis and prompt recognition of these disorders is essential to prompt effective forms of treatment and thus to improve survival and quality of life in patients affected with PIDs. PMID:20004777

Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Fischer, Alain; Geha, Raif. S.; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Chapel, Helen; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Etzioni, Amos; Hammartröm, Lennart; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Ochs, Hans D.; Puck, Jennifer; Roifman, Chaim; Seger, Reinhard; Wedgwood, Josiah



[Primary hyperaldosteronism in cats].  


Primary hyperaldosteronism is a clinical syndrome characterized by an elevated aldosterone secretion by the adrenals. The present case series describes 7 cats with primary hyperaldosteronism, which were presented between 2002 and 2011. Common clinical symptoms were weakness, anorexia, cervical ventroflexion and blindness. All cats showed hypokalemia. In 6 cats, blood pressure was determined: 5 cats showed hypertension, of which 4 animals exhibited retinal detachment and blindness. In the ultrasonographic examination, unilateral adrenomegaly was present in 6 cats whereas one animal showed normal adrenals. In 4 cats, the serum aldosterone concentration was above the reference range. Five cats underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, which was accomplished uneventfully and returned the electrolytes back to normal. Histopathological examination of the adrenals revealed 2 carcinomas and 4 adenomas; one cat with ultrasonographic normal adrenals exhibited bilateral nodular hyperplasia. PMID:23188765

Willi, B; Kook, P H; Quante, S; Boretti, F; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Grest, P; Scherrer, O; Riond, B; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Nussberger, J; Reusch, C E



Webster Pool Fitness Center  

E-print Network

Archbold/ Flanagan Webster Pool (Archbold) Women's Building Goldstein Fitness Center Marion Fitness Center Brockway Fitness Center Marshall Square Mall Fitness Center Tennity Ice Skating Pavilion Ernie Davis Hall Fitness Center 6:30am- 11:30pm 7:00- 9:30am, 11:30am- 2:30pm 5:00pm- 11:30pm 7:00am- 2:00am

Mather, Patrick T.


Albert Einstein Cancer Center

The Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Yeshiva University was founded in 1955. In 1971, the Albert Einstein Cancer Center (AECC) was established at the medical school and in 1972, AECC became an NCI-designated Cancer Center. AECC is located in the Chanin Research Institute. The Center’s imaging facility, new mouse facilities, and expanded research programs are housed in the newly opened Price Center for Genetic and Translational Medicine.


Primary Adrenal Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the adrenal gland is rare. We report the case of a 56-year-old patient suffering from B symptoms. The CT scan showed a bilateral adrenal mass without any lymph nodes. Scan-guided biopsies led to the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The medullar biopsy eliminated a secondary lymphoma. The patient was treated by immunochemotherapy with a complete response before autologous stem cell transplantation. PMID:25035679

Kacem, Karima; Zriba, Sami; Lakhal, Raihane Ben; Bouteraa, Walid; Aissaoui, Lamia; Amor, Ramzi Ben; Abdennebi, Yosr Ben; Ali, Zaher Belhadj; Abid, Hela Ben; Meddeb, Balkis



Primary Colors of Pigment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this laboratory activity, students create secondary colors by mixing primary colors. Food coloring, test tubes, and a test tube stand are used. The activity is composed of a student handout with directions and a data sheet. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.


Primary epiploic appendagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The clinical presentation of primary epiploic appendagitis can mimic diverticulitis or appendicitis. Review of the pathologically\\u000a confirmed cases in the English literature shows the majority of cases to arise from the sigmoid colon. Pathognomonic findings\\u000a by computed tomography impact patient management, and it is thus important to recognize these in patients imaged in the emergency\\u000a setting.

Elise Blinder; Stephen Ledbetter; Frank Rybicki



Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, Radiation Epidemiology Branch (REB) investigators led a collaborative effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S. The 500-page monograph utilized data from nine cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program from 1973 to 2000.


Prevention of infections during primary immunodeficiency.  


Because infectious diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the majority of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), the application of a prophylactic regimen is often necessary. However, because of the variety of PIDs and pathogens involved, and because evidence is scarce, practices are heterogeneous. To homogenize practices among centers, the French National Reference Center for PIDs aimed at elaborating recommendations for anti-infectious prophylaxis for the most common PIDs. We performed a literature review of infectious complications and prophylactic regimens associated with the most frequent PIDs. Then, a working group including different specialists systematically debated about chemoprophylaxis, immunotherapy, immunization, and recommendations for patients. Grading of prophylaxis was done using strength of recommendations (decreasing from A to D) and evidence level (decreasing from I to III). These might help infectious diseases specialists in the management of PIDs and improving the outcome of patients with PIDs. PMID:25124061

Aguilar, Claire; Malphettes, Marion; Donadieu, Jean; Chandesris, Olivia; Coignard-Biehler, Hélène; Catherinot, Emilie; Pellier, Isabelle; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Le Moing, Vincent; Barlogis, Vincent; Suarez, Felipe; Gérart, Stéphane; Lanternier, Fanny; Jaccard, Arnaud; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Moulin, Florence; Launay, Odile; Lecuit, Marc; Hermine, Olivier; Oksenhendler, Eric; Picard, Capucine; Blanche, Stéphane; Fischer, Alain; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Lortholary, Olivier



The Future of Patient Care at Academic Health Centers Karen Davis  

E-print Network

-Centered Medical Homes · Transitions in Care and Reducing Avoidable Rehospitalization · Accountable CareThe Future of Patient Care at Academic Health Centers Karen Davis President The Commonwealth Fund · Population-based care · A strong primary care foundation · Coordination of a continuum of care from primary

von der Heydt, Rüdiger


Neptune in Primary Colors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These two NASA Hubble Space Telescope images provide views of weather on opposite hemispheres of Neptune. Taken Aug. 13, 1996, with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, these composite images blend information from different wavelengths to bring out features of Neptune's blustery weather. The predominant blue color of the planet is a result of the absorption of red and infrared light by Neptune's methane atmosphere. Clouds elevated above most of the methane absorption appear white, while the very highest clouds tend to be yellow-red as seen in the bright feature at the top of the right-hand image. Neptune's powerful equatorial jet -- where winds blow at nearly 900 mph -- is centered on the dark blue belt just south of Neptune's equator. Farther south, the green belt indicates a region where the atmosphere absorbs blue light.

The images are part of a series of images made by Hubble during nine orbits spanning one 16.11-hour rotation of Neptune. The team making the observation was directed by Lawrence Sromovsky of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Space Science and Engineering Center.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL



Association between BMP-2 and COL6A1 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine in Korean patients and family members.  


COL6A1 and BMP-2 genes have been implicated in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) susceptibility in Japanese and Chinese Han populations. However, no study has yet investigated the DNA of unaffected family members of patients with OPLL. This study investigated differences in genetic polymorphisms of BMP-2 and COL6A1 between Korean patients with OPLL and their family members (with and without OPLL). A total of 321 subjects (110 patients with OPLL and 211 family members) were enrolled in the study. Associations between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the BMP-2 gene (Ser37Ala and Ser87Ser) and two SNPs of COL6A1 [promoter (-572) and intron 33 (+20)] with susceptibility to OPLL of the cervical spine were investigated between the two groups (OPLL+ and OPLL-). Of the 321 subjects, 162 had cervical OPLL (50.4%; 110 patients, 52 family members). There was a familial tendency of OPLL in 34 of the 110 families (30.9%). Allele and haplotype frequencies of the four SNPs in the BMP-2 and COL6A1 genes did not differ significantly between the OPLL+ and OPLL- groups, even when excluding participants over 50 years of age. This is the first report identifying SNPs of COL6A1 and BMP-2 in Korean patients and family members with OPLL. Although allele and haplotype frequencies were similar with those of a previous study in Japanese and Chinese patients, unaffected family members also showed similar rates of these SNPs in the present study. These results suggest that these SNPs may not directly influence the expression of OPLL. PMID:24737472

Kim, K H; Kuh, S U; Park, J Y; Lee, S J; Park, H S; Chin, D K; Kim, K S; Cho, Y E



MIT Center for Materials Science and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MIT Center for Materials Science and Engineering "is devoted to the design, creation, and fundamental understanding of materials that are capable of enhancing the human experience." Visitors to this site can peruse the eight primary sections here, which include Facilities, Research, Highlights, and Connecting to Industry. In the Research area, visitors can learn about the Center's ongoing research projects, including work on the design of nanomaterials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Journalists and others may find the Highlights area quite useful, as it contains updates on the Center's research accomplishments, such as the development of fibers that can detect and produce sound. The site is rounded out by a collection of related links which lead to other relevant research centers at MIT and the Lincoln Laboratory.


Deep-sea primary production at the Galapagos hydrothermal vents  

SciTech Connect

Dense animal populations surrounding recently discovered hydrothermal vents at the Galapagos Rift sea-floor spreading center, 2550 meters deep, are probably sustained by microbial primary production. Energy in the form of geothermically reduced sulfur compounds emitted from the vents is liberated during oxidation and used for the reduction of carbon dioxide to organic matter by chemosynthetic bacteria.

Karl, D.M. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu); Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W.



Primary hyperoxaluria in infants: Medical, ethical, and economic issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Survey on the current medical approach to and the economic issues affecting infants with primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Methods: Questionnaire to specialized centers worldwide. Results: Seventy-eight infants were identified: 44% were of Muslim origin and 56% were not. The consanguinity rate was 76% and 0%, respectively. Thirty-three percent were treated in developing countries (group 1) and 67% in developed

Pierre Cochat; Paulo C. Koch Nogueira; M. Ayman Mahmoud; Neville V. Jamieson; Jon I. Scheinman; Marie-Odile Rolland



Primary and Secondary Control for High Penetration Renewables  

E-print Network

control" (local, fast time-scale automatic feedback action) and "secondary control" (wider area, quasiPrimary and Secondary Control for High Penetration Renewables Future Grid Initiative White Paper Power Systems Engineering Research Center Empowering Minds to Engineer the Future Electric Energy System


Using Intelligent Synthetic Characters for Behavior Training in Primary Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces our on-going project whose aim is to apply synthetic characters to behavior training in primary schools. Project groups include research centers from UK, Portugal, and China. Research members include artificial intelligent group, graphical group, educational group and psychological group. 24 months co-operation work and 4 meetings exchanging idea proof plentiful and substantial results. A closer link between

Zhigeng Pan; Ruth Aylett; Jiejie Zhu; Caohui Zhu; Guilin Xu


School-Based Health Centers and the Patient-Centered Medical Home. Position Statement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is an innovative care delivery model designed to provide comprehensive primary care services to people of all ages by fostering partnerships between patients, families, health care providers and the community. National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) recommends practices and policies that…

National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2010



Primary Productivity: Grass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will use grass plants grown over a one week period in the classroom to calculate productivity rates using two methods of collection. At the end of this lab students will understand the concept of primary productivity and will have used one or more methods to calculate it. They will have also been introduced to the concepts of standing biomass, net productivity versus gross productivity, and the importance of comparing dry weight versus wet weight. This activity has an accompanying teacher site with hints and more information. There are also links to several other sites with more information on this topic.

Morrow, Angela


[Primary progressive aphasias.  


Primary progressive aphasias (PPA) is a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders related to focal degenerations of the brain which are characterized by continuous loss of speech. According to the Classification developed by the International body of experts, 3 main variants of PPA are singled out: agrammatic, logopenic and semantic. This stratification is based on the differences in clinical features of speech defect, neuroimaging and pathomorphological data. The search for treatment strategies is related with putative neurochemical deficit but the results of clinical trials on the efficacy of different drugs remain unequivocal. PMID:25042497

Vasenina, E E; Levin, O S



Operating and Managing a Backup Control Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the criticality of continuous mission operations, some control centers must plan for alternate locations in the event an emergency shuts down the primary control center. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas is the Mission Control Center (MCC) for the International Space Station (ISS). Due to Houston s proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, JSC is prone to threats from hurricanes which could cause flooding, wind damage, and electrical outages to the buildings supporting the MCC. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the capability to be the Backup Control Center for the ISS if the situation is needed. While the MSFC Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) does house the BCC, the prime customer and operator of the ISS is still the JSC flight operations team. To satisfy the customer and maintain continuous mission operations, the BCC has critical infrastructure that hosts ISS ground systems and flight operations equipment that mirrors the prime mission control facility. However, a complete duplicate of Mission Control Center in another remote location is very expensive to recreate. The HOSC has infrastructure and services that MCC utilized for its backup control center to reduce the costs of a somewhat redundant service. While labor talents are equivalent, experiences are not. Certain operations are maintained in a redundant mode, while others are simply maintained as single string with adequate sparing levels of equipment. Personnel at the BCC facility must be trained and certified to an adequate level on primary MCC systems. Negotiations with the customer were done to match requirements with existing capabilities, and to prioritize resources for appropriate level of service. Because some of these systems are shared, an activation of the backup control center will cause a suspension of scheduled HOSC activities that may share resources needed by the BCC. For example, the MCC is monitoring a hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico. As the threat to MCC increases, HOSC must begin a phased activation of the BCC, while working resource conflicts with normal HOSC activities. In a long duration outage to the MCC, this could cause serious impacts to the BCC host facility s primary mission support activities. This management of a BCC is worked based on customer expectations and negotiations done before emergencies occur. I.

Marsh, Angela L.; Pirani, Joseph L.; Bornas, Nicholas



Undergraduate studies in primary education,  

E-print Network

with Teaching Qualification #12;BSc (Hons) Environmental Stewardship Stewardship is the care and managementUndergraduate studies in primary education, environmental subjects and health & social policy Work west Scotland. It's a specialist campus for primary education, environmental studies and health

Guo, Zaoyang



E-print Network

biometrics and primary moult in Namibia ............ 55 Chapter 4 The Red-billed Quelea in southern Africa and Southern Masked Weavers in southern Africa species, migration. Ringers in southern Africa have been submitting primary moult data to SAFRING

de Villiers, Marienne


Genetics of primary aldosteronism.  


1. In 1991 we described a familial variety of primary hyperaldosteronism which was not glucocorticoid-suppressible and was associated with adenoma formation, and called it familial hyperaldosteronism type II (FH-II) in order to distinguish it from the glucocorticoid-suppressible variety described in 1966, familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH-I). 2. In 1992 the genetic basis of FH-I was clarified by description of a hybrid gene. 3. Primary aldosteronism due to bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia or to aldosterone-producing tumour can be part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I syndrome (MEN I), in which loss of heterozygosity has been described on chromosome 11q13. Loss of heterozygosity at the MEN I locus was found in five of 26 aldosterone-producing tumours from our series (by Japanese collaborators). These included two with adrenal cancer and two with FH-II. 4. We recently described an association of aldosterone responsiveness of aldosterone-producing adenomas with renin gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms, suggesting a possible role for renin genotype and intra-adrenal renin gene expression in the development and biochemical expression of some aldosterone-producing tumours. 5. We found abnormal karyotypes in 13 of 32 benign aldosterone-producing adenomas. PMID:7882585

Gordon, R D; Klemm, S A; Tunny, T J; Stowasser, M



Primary chest wall tumors.  


A retrospective study of 53 primary chest wall tumors, 26 benign and 27 malignant, was carried out to review their clinical radiological and pathological features. Forty-nine of the 53 lesions presented in the ribs and the remaining 4, in the sternum. The overall 5-year survival for patients with primary malignant neoplasms of the chest wall was 33.3%, and the 10-year survival was 18.5%. All of the deaths were disease related. All of the patients with benign tumors were treated by excision without recurrence or death. Distinction between benign and malignant chest wall tumors was not possible using radiographic criteria unless cortical destruction and involvement of soft tissues were visualized. On the basis of our analysis, we believe that all tumors of the chest wall should be considered malignant until proven otherwise and that wide excision should be carried out. This is necessary not only to obtain an adequate diagnosis but also to provide the best chance for cure in both benign and malignant lesions. PMID:3966836

Sabanathan, S; Salama, F D; Morgan, W E; Harvey, J A



Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

The clinical profile of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) as it is seen in the United States and most Western countries has evolved significantly over the past half century. The introduction of the multichannel serum autoanalyzer in the 1970s led to the recognition of a cohort of individuals with asymptomatic hypercalcemia, in whom evaluation led to the diagnosis of PHPT. The term “asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism” was introduced to describe patients who lack obvious signs and symptoms referable to either excess calcium or parathyroid hormone. Although it was expected that asymptomatic patients would eventually develop classical symptoms of PHPT, observational data suggest that most patients do not evolve over time to become overtly symptomatic. In most parts of the world, the asymptomatic phenotype of PHPT has replaced classical PHPT. This report is a selective review of data on asymptomatic PHPT: its demographic features, presentation and natural history, as well as biochemical, skeletal, neuromuscular, psychological, and cardiovascular manifestations. In addition, we will summarize available information on treatment indications and options for those with asymptomatic disease. PMID:23374736

Silverberg, Shonni J.; Walker, Marcella D.; Bilezikian, John P.



Primary cutaneous PEComa.  


A 48-year-old woman attended a physician because of a solitary cutaneous nodule on the left lower leg. Microscopic examination of the excisional specimen revealed a dermal tumor composed of nests of epithelioid cells exhibiting clear cytoplasm. They had centrally located vesicular nuclei with distinct nucleoli. A rich network of capillaries was present throughout. The tumor showed an infiltrative border. There was no epidermal involvement. Periodic acid-Shif (PAS) and PAS-Diastase stains demonstrated glycogen deposition within the cytoplasm of the clear cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that the tumor cells were positive for HMB-45 and microftalmia associated transcription factor (MITF). Focal desmin positivity was also seen. The tumor cells were negative for S-100 protein, alfa smooth muscle actin, HHF-35, and various cytokeratins. The case is one of a primary cutaneous pecoma. Pecomas are rare, recently described mesenchymal tumors composed of perivascular epithelioid cells. They constitute a spectrum of lesions in different organs including angiomyolipoma of the kidney and liver, sugar tumor of the lung, lymphangiomatosis, and lymphangiomyoma. Primary cutaneous PEComas are exceptionally rare and have only recently been recognized. To date, these are approximately 22 cases in the English literature. Follow-up data is limited but they appear to behave in a benign fashion. We report an additional case with the goal of alerting dermatopathologists to this distinctive unusual neoplasm. PMID:20139753

Chaplin, Anna; Conrad, David M; Tatlidil, Cuneyt; Jollimore, Jason; Walsh, Noreen; Covert, Alan; Pasternak, Sylvia



Center for Alternative Fuels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The success of the HEV programs under this grant prompted Macomb to launch this resource, the Center for Alternative Fuels. The center holds forums in which academic and industry experts discuss the technical and societal impact of alternative fuels.



UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center

Established in 1971, the University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center (UAB), received its NCI designation in the same year. The Center has grown to include a membership of more than 330 physicians and researchers.


Science Centers for All  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University professors suggest ways to bridge gaps among diverse learners--of different cultural, socioeconomic, physiological, and linguistic backgrounds--through the use of science centers in the classroom. Includes ideas for setting up science centers and celebrating diversity.

Christine Nucci



National Farm Medicine Center  


Farm Medicine, Rural Health & Safety National Farm Medicine Center Established in 1981 in response to occupational health problems seen in farm patients coming