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Sample records for primary systemic al

  1. Physician user satisfaction with an electronic medical records system in primary healthcare centres in Al Ain: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Al Alawi, Shamma; Al Dhaheri, Aysha; Al Baloushi, Durra; Al Dhaheri, Mouza; Prinsloo, Engela A M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore physician satisfaction with an electronic medical records (EMR) system, to identify and explore the main limitations of the system and finally to submit recommendations to address these limitations. Design A descriptive qualitative study that entailed three focus group interviews was performed among physicians using open-ended questions. The interviews were audiotaped, documented and transcribed verbatim. The themes were explored and analysed in different categories. Setting The study was conducted in primary healthcare centres (PHC) in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Participants A total of 23 physicians, all using the same EMR system, attended one of three focus groups held in PHC in Al Ain Medical District. Each focus group consisted of 7–9 physicians working in PHC as family medicine specialists, residents or general practitioners. Primary outcome measure Physician satisfaction with the EMR system. Results Key themes emerged and were categorised as physician-dependent, patient-related and system-related factors. In general, physicians were satisfied with the EMR system in spite of initial difficulties with implementation. Most participants identified that the long time required to do the documentation affected their practice and patient communication. Many physicians expressed satisfaction with the orders and results of laboratory and radiology functions and they emphasised that this was the strongest point in the EMR. They were also satisfied with the electronic prescription function, stating that it reduced errors and saved time. Conclusions Physicians are satisfied with the EMR and have a positive perception regarding the application of the system. Several themes emerged during this study that need to be considered to enhance the EMR system. Further studies need to be conducted among other healthcare practitioners and patients to explore their attitude and perception about the EMR. PMID:25377010

  2. Primary (AL) amyloidosis in plasma cell disorders.

    PubMed

    Müller, Antonia M S; Geibel, Annette; Neumann, Hartmut P H; Kühnemund, Alexander; Schmitt-Gräff, Annette; Böhm, Joachim; Engelhardt, Monika

    2006-01-01

    Primary (AL) amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloidosis. The morbidity arises from extracellular deposition of immunoglobulin light chain (LC) fibrils in major organs, such as the kidneys, heart, and bowel. Organ dysfunction contributes to a high mortality and poor prognosis, with a median survival time of 1-2 years from diagnosis. Here, we present a 46-year-old man with an exceptional clinical course of an LC multiple myeloma with generalized amyloidosis, causing renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, and complete intestinal necrosis. We have summarized recent knowledge on AL amyloidosis, its association with monoclonal gammopathies, clinical presentations, diagnostic tools, and treatment strategies. Our comprehensive overview of this rare and often fatal disease aims to increase the awareness of AL amyloidosis. This may facilitate earlier diagnosis, and thus allow initiation of prompt and specific therapies, which are indispensable in order to improve disease prognosis. PMID:16880241

  3. [Purpura: primary systemic amyloidosis manifestation].

    PubMed

    Lestre, Sara; Gonçalves, Andreia; João, Alexandre; Ferreira, Ana; Apetato, Margarida

    2009-01-01

    Primary Systemic Amyloidosis (AL) is the most frequent form of systemic amyloidosis and its morbilility is associated with immunoglobulin light chains deposition in vital organs. The mucocutaneous manifestations occur in about 30-40% of the cases and are important in diagnostic suspicion, once they appear in early stages of disease. We report a 71-years-old female patient, with disseminated purpura and cutaneous fragility with 6 months of evolution, accompanied by recent complaints of dysphagy. The first laboratory evaluation didn't show any alterations. The histological and immunohistochemical study of subcutaneous abdominal fat and skin biopsy showed lambda type amyloid protein. In the systemic work-up, we highlight a proteinúria > 1g/24h with Bence Jones proteins and the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain (lambda type) in serum immunoelectrophoresis. With the diagnosis of primary systemic amyloidosis, treatment with prednisolone and melphalan was started. PMID:19686633

  4. Independent Predictors of Survival in Primary Systemic (AL) Amyloidosis, Including Cardiac Biomarkers and Left Ventricular Strain Imaging: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bellavia, Diego; Pellikka, Patricia A.; Al-Zahrani, Ghormallah B.; Abraham, Theodore P.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Miyazaki, Chinami; Lacy, Martha; Scott, Christopher G.; Oh, Jae K.; Miller, Fletcher A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prognostic value of Doppler myocardial imaging, including myocardial velocity imaging, strain, and strain rate imaging, in patients with primary (AL) amyloidosis is uncertain. The aim of this longitudinal study was to identify independent predictors of survival, comparing clinical data, hematologic and cardiac biomarkers, and standard echocardiographic and Doppler myocardial imaging measures in a cohort of patients with AL amyloidosis. Methods A total of 249 consecutive patients with AL amyloidosis were prospectively enrolled. The primary end point was all-cause mortality, and during a median follow-up period of 18 months, 75 patients (30%) died. Clinical and electrocardiographic data, biomarkers (brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin T) and standard echocardiographic and longitudinal systolic and diastolic Doppler myocardial imaging measurements for 16 left ventricular segments were tested as potential independent predictors of survival. Results Age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; P = .03), New York Heart Association class III or IV (HR, 2.47; P = .01), the presence of pleural effusion (HR, 1.79; P = .08), brain natriuretic peptide level (HR, 1.29; P = .01), ejection time (HR, 0.99; P = .13), and peak longitudinal systolic strain of the basal anteroseptal segment (HR, 1.05; P = .02) were independent predictors in the final model. Conclusions Multivariate survival analysis identified independent predictors of clinical outcome in patients with AL amyloidosis: New York Heart Association class III or IV, presence of pleural effusion, brain natriuretic peptide level > 493 pg/mL, ejection time < 273 ms, and peak longitudinal systolic basal anteroseptal strain less negative than or equal to −7.5% defined a high-risk group of patients. PMID:20434879

  5. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  6. Viking orbiter system primary mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudy, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of Viking Orbiter (VO) system and subsystem performances during the primary mission (the time period from VO-1 launch on August 20, 1975, through November 15, 1976) is presented. Brief descriptions, key design requirements, pertinent historical information, unique applications or situations, and predicted versus actual performances are included for all VO-1 and VO-2 subsystems, both individually and as an integrated system.

  7. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP ‘patch’ dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption. PMID:27120994

  8. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP 'patch' dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption. PMID:27120994

  9. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP ‘patch’ dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption.

  10. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

  11. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

  12. [Primary central nervous system vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Schuster, S; Magnus, T

    2015-12-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare disorder. However, it is often considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular or inflammatory CNS diseases. Diagnosis is challenging, as specific biomarkers are lacking and the clinical presentation can be variable. A definitive diagnosis can only be established by biopsy of the inflammatory changes in the vascular wall. Alternatively, the diagnosis of PACNS can also be based on the synopsis of clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings. Different subtypes of PACNS have been described in recent years, depending on the size of the affected vessels or histopathological patterns. Based on selective literature research in the database PubMed on the subject of CNS vasculitis, this article reviews the diagnostic characteristics and differential diagnosis of the condition. We suggest a diagnostic algorithm customized to the size of the affected vessels. Lastly, therapeutic options and the outcome of PACNS are briefly outlined. PMID:26589203

  13. Oral purpura as the first manifestation of primary systemic amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Robert Stuart; Sloan, Philip; Farr, David; Carrozzo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Oral blood blisters and purpura are rare features of primary systemic amyloidosis (amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis). We report a case in which these unusual presentations led to a diagnosis of amyloidosis, which enabled effective treatment before organ failure. PMID:26708800

  14. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  15. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  16. Television Distribution System for Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Australia Education Dept., Adelaide.

    This report covers a 12-month study and actual trial of a video distribution system for a primary school. It consisted of a main aerial distribution into a distribution junction box which also took video cassette recorders. The whole system was designed to distribute both in RF and video frequencies. Some ways of using the system have also been…

  17. The ALS Storage Ring RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, B.; Lo, C.C.; Baptiste, K.; Guigli, J.; Julian, J.

    1993-05-01

    The ALS Storage Ring RF System is characterized by the use of the following features: (1) High power loading of two single cell cavities. (2) The use of a tubular ceramic input window employing aperture coupling. (3) The use of waveguide filters and matchers designed for HOM absorption. (4) A comprehensive HOM monitoring system. (5) The use of waveguide water-wedge loads for the magic tee and circulator loads. The results of cavity measurements and high power tests are reported together with the performance of the system during the commissioning and operation phases of the ALS project. Plans for future window development are discussed.

  18. Refinement of primary Si grains in Al-20%Si alloy slurry through serpentine channel pouring process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhi-kai; Mao, Wei-min; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, Dong; Yue, Rui

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a serpentine channel pouring process was used to prepare the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry and refine primary Si grains in the alloy. The effects of the pouring temperature, number of curves in the serpentine channel, and material of the serpentine channel on the size of primary Si grains in the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were investigated. The results showed that the pouring temperature, number of the curves, and material of the channel strongly affected the size and distribution of the primary Si grains. The pouring temperature exerted the strongest effect, followed by the number of the curves and then the material of the channel. Under experimental conditions of a four-curve copper channel and a pouring temperature of 701°C, primary Si grains in the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were refined to the greatest extent, and the lath-like grains were changed into granular grains. Moreover, the equivalent grain diameter and the average shape coefficient of primary Si grains in the satisfactory semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were 24.4 μm and 0.89, respectively. Finally, the refinement mechanism and distribution rule of primary Si grains in the slurry prepared through the serpentine channel pouring process were analyzed and discussed.

  19. 77 FR 6466 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; AL Amyloidosis (Primary Amyloidosis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... 22, 2010, VA published in the Federal Register (75 FR 65279) a proposed rule that would add AL... decision was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 21258, which amended 38 CFR 3.309(e) by adding AL... hemic and lymphatic systems to include AL amyloidosis. This regulatory action is necessary to add...

  20. Primary propulsion/large space system interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dergance, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Three generic types of structural concepts and nonstructural surface densities were selected and combined to represent potential LSS applications. The design characteristics of various classes of large space systems that are impacted by primary propulsion thrust required to effect orbit transfer were identified. The effects of propulsion system thrust-to-mass ratio, thrust transients, and performance on the mass, area, and orbit transfer characteristics of large space systems were determined.

  1. Mechanistic Selection and Growth of Twinned Bicrystalline Primary Si in Near Eutectic Al-Si Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Choonho Jung

    2006-12-12

    Morphological evolution and selection of angular primary silicon is investigated in near-eutectic Al-Si alloys. Angular silicon arrays are grown directionally in a Bridgman furnace at velocities in the regime of 10{sup -3} m/sec and with a temperature gradient of 7.5 x 10{sup 3} K/m. Under these conditions, the primary Si phase grows as an array of twinned bicrystalline dendrites, where the twinning gives rise to a characteristic 8-pointed star-shaped primary morphology. While this primary Si remains largely faceted at the growth front, a complex structure of coherent symmetric twin boundaries enables various adjustment mechanisms which operate to optimize the characteristic spacings within the primary array. In the work presented here, this primary silicon growth morphology is examined in detail. In particular, this thesis describes the investigation of: (1) morphological selection of the twinned bicrystalline primary starshape morphology; (2) primary array behavior, including the lateral propagation of the starshape grains and the associated evolution of a strong <100> texture; (3) the detailed structure of the 8-pointed star-shaped primary morphology, including the twin boundary configuration within the central core; (4) the mechanisms of lateral propagation and spacing adjustment during array evolution; and (5) the thermosolutal conditions (i.e. operating state) at the primary growth front, including composition and phase fraction in the vicinity of the primary tip.

  2. Separation Mechanism of Primary Silicon from Hypereutectic Al-Si Melts Under Alternating Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Haiyang; Lv, Guoqiang; Ma, Wenhui; Chen, Daotong; Yu, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) and hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with low silicon (silicon composition below 25 pct) can be successfully obtained by separation of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with high silicon (silicon composition above 30 pct) under an alternating electromagnetic field after post-processing. To explore the separation mechanism in detail, experiments were conducted in this study using a high-frequency induction furnace with different pulling conditions of the crucible which is loaded with Al-45 wt pct Si melt. Results demonstrate that the separation of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy is feasible through either a pull-up or drop-down process. The height of each separation interface between the compact and sparse parts of the primary silicon decrease as the pull-up distance rose. When the pulling rate is very low, resultant morphologies of compact primary silicon are rounded and polygonal, allowing for more effective separation of the primary silicon. A novel physical model is presented here based on the experimental results and simulation. The model can be used to effectively describe the separation mechanism of primary silicon from hypereutectic Al-Si melts under alternating electromagnetic fields.

  3. Project Design Concept Primary Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operation (TFRSO), Project W-3 14 was established to provide upgrades that would improve the reliability and extend the system life of portions of the waste transfer, electrical, ventilation, instrumentation and control systems for the Hanford Site Tank Farms. An assessment of the tank farm system was conducted and the results are documented in system assessment reports. Based on the deficiencies identified in the tank farm system assessment reports, and additional requirements analysis performed in support of the River Protection Project (RPP), an approved scope for the TFRSO effort was developed and documented in the Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), WHC-SD-W314-RPT-003, Rev. 4. The USSR establishes the need for the upgrades and identifies the specific equipment to be addressed by this project. This Project Design Concept (PDC) is in support of the Phase 2 upgrades and provides an overall description of the operations concept for the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems. Actual specifications, test requirements, and procedures are not included in this PDC. The PDC is a ''living'' document, which will be updated throughout the design development process to provide a progressively more detailed description of the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems design. The Phase 2 upgrades to the Primary Ventilation Systems shall ensure that the applicable current requirements are met for: Regulatory Compliance; Safety; Mission Requirements; Reliability; and Operational Requirements.

  4. Correlative characterization of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase in an Al–Zn–Mg based alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.H.; Wiessner, M.; Albu, M.; Wurster, S.; Sartory, B.; Hofer, F.; Schumacher, P.

    2015-04-15

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction, focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the structural information of primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, i.e. size, shape, element distribution and orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix. It was found that (i) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases have a cubic three-dimensional morphology, with a size of about 6–10 μm, (ii) most primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases are located within the α-Al matrix, and exhibit a cube to cube orientation relationship with the α-Al matrix, and (iii) a layer by layer growth was observed within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. Al, Cu, Si and Fe are enriched in the α-Al matrix between the layers of cellular eutectic Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase, while Sc, Ti and Zr are enriched in small Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. A peritectic reaction and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed to interpret the observed layer by layer growth. This paper demonstrates that the presence of impurities (Fe, Si, Cu, Ti) in the diffusion field surrounding the growing Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) particle enhances the heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases. - Highlights: • Most fine cubic primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phases were observed within the α-Al matrix. • A layer by layer growth within primary Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr) phase was observed. • A peritectic and subsequent eutectic reaction between Al{sub 3}Sc and Al was proposed. • Impurities in diffusion fields enhance heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}(Sc,Zr)

  5. Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

  6. Advanced Launch System (ALS): Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  7. Advanced Launch System (ALS): Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  8. Advanced launch system (ALS) - Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrrical power system and controls for all aviation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a sdpecific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military ans civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of comercial applications.

  9. Advanced Launch System (ALS) actuation and power systems impact operability and cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  10. Advanced launch system (ALS) actuation and power systems impact operability and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, G.R. . Lewis Research Center)

    1990-09-01

    To obtain the advanced launch system (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs ($300/lb earth to LEO) and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using electrical actuation integrated with a single vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. This paper reviews the ALS and its associated advanced development program to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the ALS goals (cryogenic fuel valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles and a multitude of commercial applications.

  11. Refinement of primary Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys by intensive melt shearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Li, H.-T.; Stone, I. C.; Fan, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Hypereutectic Al-Si based alloys are gaining popularity for applications where a combination of light weight and high wear resistance is required. The high wear resistance arising from the hard primary Si particles comes at the price of extremely poor machine tool life. To minimize machining problems while exploiting outstanding wear resistance, the primary Si particles must be controlled to a uniform small size and uniform spatial distribution. The current industrial means of refining primary Si chemically by the addition of phosphorous suffers from a number of problems. In the present paper an alternative, physical means of refining primary Si by intensive shearing of the melt prior to casting is investigated. Al-15wt%Si alloy has been solidified under varying casting conditions (cooling rate) and the resulting microstructures have been studied using microscopy and quantitative image analysis. Primary Si particles were finer, more compact in shape and more numerous with increasing cooling rate. Intensive melt shearing led to greater refinement and more enhanced nucleation of primary Si than was achieved by adding phosphorous. The mechanism of enhanced nucleation is discussed.

  12. Systemic malignancies presenting as primary osteolytic lesion.

    PubMed

    Sirelkhatim, A; Kaiserova, E; Kolenova, A; Puskacova, J; Subova, Z; Petrzalkova, D; Banikova, K; Suvada, J; Sejnova, D

    2009-01-01

    The tumor formation may be the earliest manifestation preceeding other symptoms, signs and bone marrow evidence of systemic malignancy - leukemia/lymphoma. Here we present three cases of systemic malignancy in which bone lesions were the first manifested signs of the disease. All three cases were thought to be orthopedic cases and had been treated as so without genuing improvement. We would like to draw an attention to children who present with multifocal musculoskeletal pain and the importance of whole-body scaning. We describe interesting cases of diffuse large cell lymphoma and leukemia that initially presented as primary osteolytic bone lesion and discuss the differential diagnosis, literature review of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arising in bone as the primary site (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 18). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:20017455

  13. Prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa , Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Wadaani, Fahd Abdullah; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Ayub; Khan, Atuar Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Some 12.8 million in the age group 5-15 years are visually impaired from uncorrected or inadequately corrected refractive errors. In Saudi Arabia, the size of this public health problem is not well defined especially among primary schoolchildren. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia.  A total of 2246 Saudi primary school children aged 6 to 14 years of both genders were selected using multistage sampling method form 30 primary schools located in the three different areas of Al Hassa. School children were interviewed to collect demographics and vision data using a special data collection form followed by screening for refractive errors by trained optometrists within the school premises using a standardized protocol. Assessment of visual acuity and ocular motility evaluation were carried out and cover-uncover test was performed. Children detected with defective vision were referred for further examination employing subjective refraction with auto refractometer and objective refraction using streak retinoscopy after 1% cyclopentolate. Of the screened school children (N=2002), the overall prevalence of refractive errors was 13.7% (n=274), higher among females (Odds ratio, OR=1.39, P=0.012) and significantly more among students of rural residence (OR=2.40, P=0.001). The prevalence of refractive errors was disproportionately more among those aged 12-14 years (OR=9.02, P=0.001). Only 9.4% of students with poor vision were wore spectacles for correction. Myopia was the most commonly encountered refractive error among both genders (65.7% of the total errors encountered). Uncorrected refractive errors affected a sizable portion of primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Primary schoolchildren especially females, rural and older children represents high risk group for refractive errors for which the included children were unaware. PMID:23283044

  14. Prevalence and Pattern of Refractive Errors among Primary School Children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Wadaani, Fahd Abdullah Al; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Ayub; Khan, Ataur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Some 12.8 million in the age group 5–15 years are visually impaired from uncorrected or inadequately corrected refractive errors. In Saudi Arabia, the size of this public health problem is not well defined especially among primary schoolchildren. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A total of 2246 Saudi primary school children aged 6 to 14 years of both genders were selected using multistage sampling method form 30 primary schools located in the three different areas of Al Hassa. School children were interviewed to collect demographics and vision data using a special data collection form followed by screening for refractive errors by trained optometrists within the school premises using a standardized protocol. Assessment of visual acuity and ocular motility evaluation were carried out and cover-uncover test was performed. Children detected with defective vision were referred for further examination employing subjective refraction with auto refractometer and objective refraction using streak retinoscopy after 1% cyclopentolate. Of the screened school children (N=2002), the overall prevalence of refractive errors was 13.7% (n=274), higher among females (Odds ratio, OR=1.39, P=0.012) and significantly more among students of rural residence (OR=2.40, P=0.001). The prevalence of refractive errors was disproportionately more among those aged 12-14 years (OR=9.02, P=0.001). Only 9.4% of students with poor vision were wore spectacles for correction. Myopia was the most commonly encountered refractive error among both genders (65.7% of the total errors encountered). Uncorrected refractive errors affected a sizable portion of primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Primary schoolchildren especially females, rural and older children represents high risk group for refractive errors for which the included children were unaware. PMID:23283044

  15. Evaluating Primary Dendrite Trunk Diameters in Directionally Solidified Al-Si Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The primary dendrite trunk diameters of Al-Si alloys that were directionally solidified over a range of processing conditions have been measured. These data are analyzed with a model based primarily on an assessment of secondary dendrite arm dissolution in the mushy zone. Good fit with the experimental data is seen and it is suggested that the primary dendrite trunk diameter is a useful metric that correlates well with the actual solidification processing parameters. These results are placed in context with the limited results from the aluminium - 7 wt. % silicon samples directionally solidified aboard the International Space Station as part of the MICAST project.

  16. Primary creep of Ni{sub 3}(Al, Ta) single crystals at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Uchic, M.D.; Nix, W.D.

    1997-12-31

    This study examines the time-dependent deformation of Ni{sub 3}(Al, Ta) at room temperature. Tension creep experiments have been performed on single crystals with one [111]<101> slip system active at the start of the test, where the applied stress ranged from 66.4 MPa (the measured 0.01% flow stress) to 143 MPa (which produced approximately 9% plastic strain). All creep curves displayed primary creep leading to eventual exhaustion, where the measured creep strain declined at a rate faster than predicted for logarithmic creep. However, no correlation between the applied stress and the form of the declining creep rate can be made at this time. Many creep curves can be obtained from one sample, as the creep curves from both virgin samples and samples with prior deformation history (at the same test stress) were indistinguishable. At the beginning of an incremental creep test, where the stress is increased by a small amount to reinitiate plastic flow in an exhausted sample, a significant retardation of the plastic response of the sample occurred when the stress increment was below 4 MPa. Preliminary TEM studies of a sample strained to 6% suggest that room temperature creep tests may not be ideal for examining the flow of Anti-Phase-Boundary (APB) dissociated dislocations.

  17. REPOSITORY SURFACE FACILITIES PRIMARY SYSTEM CRANE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    K. Schwartztrauber

    2005-03-14

    The purpose of this calculation is to compile crane design data for the mechanical primary structures, systems, and components (SSCs) required for the repository Waste Handling Building (WHB) and Carrier Preparation Building (CPB). The work presented in this document has been prepared in accordance with Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management approved program document AP-3.12Q, Calculations. This calculation has been developed to supplement information previously prepared using the development plan for ''WHB/WTB Space Program Analysis for Site Recommendation'' (Reference 5), which concentrates on the primary, primary support, facility support, and miscellaneous building support areas located in the WHB and Waste Treatment Building (WTB). The development plan was completed in accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning''. The work in this calculation is a continuance of the work described in the previous development plan; therefore, in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', a new Technical Work Plan is not required.

  18. Catastrophic primary central nervous system vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Salvarani, Carlo; Brown, Robert D; Morris, Jonathan M; Huston, John; Hunder, Gene G

    2014-01-01

    Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is an uncommon condition that affects the brain and the spinal cord. It is heterogeneous in presenting characteristics and outcomes. We report a patient with a catastrophic rapidly progressive course refractory to intensive treatment with pulses of methylprednisolone and iv cyclophosphamide. The condition rapidly deteriorated and the patient died 6 weeks after presentation. Rapidly progressive PCNSV represents the worst end of the clinical spectrum of PCNSV. These patients are characterised by bilateral, multiple, large cerebral vessel lesions on angiograms and multiple bilateral cerebral infarctions. PMID:24854370

  19. 75 FR 65279 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; AL Amyloidosis (Primary Amyloidosis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... INFORMATION: A final rule was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 21258 amending 38 CFR 3.309(e) by... the schedule of ratings for the hemic and lymphatic systems to include AL amyloidosis. This regulatory... period, comments are available online through the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) at...

  20. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients. PMID:26475775

  1. Primary helium heater for propellant pressurization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichmuth, D. M.; Nguyen, T. V.; Pieper, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary helium heater is a unique design that provides direct heating of pressurant gas for large pressure fed propulsion systems. It has been conceptually designed to supply a heated (800-1000 R) pressurization gas to both a liquid oxygen and an RP-1 propellant tank. This pressurization gas is generated within the heater by mixing super critical helium (40-300 R and 3000-1600 psi) with an appropriate amount of combustion products from a 4:1 throttling stoichiometric LO2/LH2 combustor. This simple, low cost and reliable mixer utilizes the large quantity of helium to provide stoichiometric combustor cooling, extend the throttling limits and enhance the combustion stability margin. Preliminary combustion, thermal, and CFD analyses confirm that this low-pressure-drop direct helium heater can provide the constant-temperature pressurant suitable for tank pressurization of both fuel and oxidizer tanks of large pressure fed vehicles.

  2. Primary reflector for solar energy collection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G. (Inventor); Stephens, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector is disclosed which has an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material. The device reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus of the reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well-known freeway paving machinery.

  3. Effect of ultrasonic melt treatment on the refinement of primary Al3Ti intermetallic in an Al-0.4Ti alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Eskin, Dmitry; Connolley, Thomas; Mi, Jiawei

    2016-02-01

    High intensity ultrasonic melt treatment was applied to an Al-0.4 wt% Ti alloy over three selected temperature ranges: 810 to 770 °C (above liquidus), 770 to 730 °C (across liquidus), and 730 to 690 °C (below liquidus). The size and morphology of the primary Al3Ti intermetallic particles were studied by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the primary Al3Ti intermetallics were refined as a result of ultrasonication over all three temperature ranges and their morphology changed from typical large dendritic plates to small compact tablets. Quenching experiments before and after the ultrasonication were also carried out to capture the high-temperature stage of intermetallic formation. Based on the size and morphology observations, the mechanisms for the refinement of primary Al3Ti intermetallics at different solidification stages are discussed.

  4. Bilateral kidney infarction due to primary Al amyloidosis: a first case report.

    PubMed

    Mihout, Fabrice; Joseph, Laure; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Leblond, Véronique; Varnous, Shaïda; Ronco, Pierre; Plaisier, Emmanuelle

    2015-05-01

    Primary Amyloid Light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare form of plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by tissue deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain. Kidney involvement is the most frequent manifestation, and patients usually present with glomerular disease.We report an exceptional case of bilateral kidney infarcts caused by AL amyloidosis. A 34-years-old man presented with progressive dyspnea, loin pain, recurrent macroscopic hematuria, and acute kidney injury. Computed tomography showed bilateral kidney infarcts.The diagnosis of AL amyloidosis was established on the kidney biopsy with the characterization of major vascular amyloid deposits that selectively stained with antilambda light chain antibody. An amyloid restrictive cardiomyopathy was also present, responsible for the life-threatening conduction disturbance, but without patent cardioembolic disease. The patient then underwent emergency heart transplantation, followed by a conventional chemotherapy with bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone. More than 3 years later, the patient has subnormal renal function, a well-functioning heart transplant, and a sustained hematologic response.In addition to the very uncommon presentation, this case illustrates the tremendous progress that has occurred in the management of severe forms of AL amyloidosis. PMID:25929920

  5. Sea Level Muon Spectrum Derived from the All Particle Primary Spectrum of GRIGOROV et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, D. P.

    The all particle primary spectrum of GRIGOROV et al. surveyed by HILLAS has been fitted by a power law fit of the formIall particle(>E) = 1.3 E-1.65 (cm2 s sr)-1where E is the energy in GeV/nucleus. Using our recently determined conversion factor for protonnuclei flux ratio of equal energies the primary proton spectrum has been calculated and the result agrees with the Goddard Space Flight Centre primary proton spectrum data satisfactorily. The primary nucleon spectrum has also been calculated and follows the formNnucleons(E) dE = 2.664 E-2.75 dE (cm2 s sr GeV/nucleon)-1.Using this primary nucleon spectrum as the source of hadrons and accelerator data for various inclusive reactions viz. used for the estimation of hadronic energy moments in the frame work of FEYNMAN-Scaling, the differential meson spectra have been estimated. The meson atmospheric diffusion equation after Bugaev et al. has been considered for the derivation of sea level muon spectrum. The magnetic spectrograph data of Allkofer et al., Ayre et al., Green et al., and MUTRON group are in accord with the calculated muon spectrum.Translated AbstractMüonenspektrum auf Meeresniveau, abgeleitet aus dem Primärspektrum aller Teilchen von GRIGOROV u.a.Das von GRIGOROV angegebene (und von HILLAS neuerdings überprüfte) Primärspektrum aller Teilchen wurde mit einem Potenzgesetz der Form Ialle Teilchen(>E) = 1,3 E-1,65 (cm2 s sr)-1 dargestellt, worin E die Energie in GeV/Kern bedeutet.Unter Benutzung des von uns kürzlich bestimmten Konversionsfaktors für das Proton-Nukleon Fluß-Verhältnis bei gleichen Energien wurde das primäre Protonspektrum berechnet; das Resultat stimmt zufriedenstellend überein mit den Daten des primären Protonspektrums vom Goddard Space Flight Centre.Das primäre Nukleon Spektrum wurde ebenfalls berechnet und läßt sich darstellen in der Form NNukleonen(E) = 2,664 E-2,75 dE (cm2 s sr GeV/nukleon)-1.

  6. Effect of a low axial magnetic field on the primary Al 2 Cu phase growth in a directionally solidified Al-Cu hypereutectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yu; Ren, Zhongming; Li, Xi; Ren, Weili; Xi, Yan

    2011-12-01

    Effect of a low axial magnetic field on the growth behavior of the primary Al 2Cu phase in the Al-40 wt% Cu hypereutectic alloy during directional solidification at a low growth speed has been investigated experimentally. The results show that the application of a low magnetic field (≤1 T) causes the primary Al 2Cu phase to become deformed and irregular opposed to the well developed strip-like primary phase in the absence of the field. The deformation of the primary phase is maximum when a 0.5 T magnetic field is applied. Moreover, it has been found that the magnetic field promotes a transition of the primary phase morphology from faceted growth to irregular cellular structure and makes the primary phase spacing decrease with the increase of the magnetic field intensity. From the macroscopic scale, the magnetic field causes the occurrence of a considerable radial macrosegregation. These experimental results may be attributed to the effects of thermoelectric magnetic force (TEMF) in the solid and thermoelectromagnetic convection (TEMC) in the liquid. Further, the model of these effects is presented and evaluated numerically. The results indicate that the numerical magnitude of the TEMF during directional solidification under a 0.5 T low axial magnetic field can be of the order of 10 3 N/m 3. The force causes TEMC at different scales to modify the distribution of solute at the interface and should be responsible for the deformation, fracture and deflection of the primary phase.

  7. 47 CFR 11.14 - Primary Entry Point (PEP) System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. 11.14 Section 11.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.14 Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. The PEP system is a nationwide network of...

  8. 47 CFR 11.14 - Primary Entry Point (PEP) System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. 11.14 Section 11.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.14 Primary Entry Point (PEP) System. The PEP system is a nationwide network of...

  9. A sustainable primary care system: lessons from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Faber, Marjan J; Burgers, Jako S; Westert, Gert P

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch primary care system has drawn international attention, because of its high performance at low cost. Primary care practices are easily accessible during office hours and collaborate in a unique out-of-hours system. After the reforms in 2006, there are no copayments for patients receiving care in the primary care practice in which they are registered. Financial incentives support the transfer of care from hospital specialists to primary care physicians, and task delegation from primary care physicians to practice nurses. Regional collaborative care groups of primary care practices offer disease management programs. The quality assessment system and the electronic medical record system are predominantly driven by health care professionals. Bottom-up and top-down activities contributed to a successful Dutch primary care system. PMID:22668606

  10. Primary Dendrite Arm Spacings in Al-7Si Alloy Directionally Solidified on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angart, Samuel; Lauer, Mark; Poirier, David; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, Ravi; Grugel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Samples from directionally solidified Al- 7 wt. % Si have been analyzed for primary dendrite arm spacing (lambda) and radial macrosegregation. The alloy was directionally solidified (DS) aboard the ISS to determine the effect of mitigating convection on lambda and macrosegregation. Samples from terrestrial DS-experiments thermal histories are discussed for comparison. In some experiments, lambda was measured in microstructures that developed during the transition from one speed to another. To represent DS in the presence of no convection, the Hunt-Lu model was used to represent diffusion controlled growth under steady-state conditions. By sectioning cross-sections throughout the entire length of a solidified sample, lambda was measured and calculated using the model. During steady-state, there was reasonable agreement between the measured and calculated lambda's in the space-grown samples. In terrestrial samples, the differences between measured and calculated lambda's indicated that the dendritic growth was influenced by convection.

  11. Teachers' Performance Motivation System in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasathang, Sarojn; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sataphonwong, Pattananusron

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to: 1) study the present conditions and desirable condition of the motivation systems as well as how to find methods for motivating the performance of teachers in primary schools, 2) develop a motivation system for the performance of teachers in primary schools, 3) study the effects of using the motivation system for compliance…

  12. Pediatric Primary Care as a Component of Systems of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Systems of care should be defined in a manner that includes primary care. The current definition of systems of care shares several attributes with the definition of primary care: both are defined as community-based services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally competent, and family focused. However, systems of…

  13. Thermal Properties in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Dr. Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Compositional effects on the thermal diffusivity in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 system were studied. The lowest thermal diffusivity, 0.0258 +/-5% cm/s, was measured between 79.8 and 83.9 wt% Al2O3 quenched from various temperatures between 1500 and 1700C. All of the chemistries in this range extend past the solvus, but still form a singe super-saturated spinel solid solution, regardless of quenching tempeature. A super-saturated metastable solid solution region was observed at 1500, 1600, and 1700C extending to 83.9, 85.2, and 87.1 wt% Al2O3, respectively. Beyond 83.9% Al2O3 a significant increase in thermal diffusivity, 11.7%, was observed and its attributed to precipiation of Al2O3 through spinodal decomposition.

  14. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi's 3-Step Magnitude System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, Ihsan; Stephenson, F. Richard; Orchiston, Wayne

    'Abd al-Rahmān al-ūfī's Book of the Fixed Stars dates from around AD 964 and is one of the most important medieval Arabic treatises on astronomy. In this paper we begin with a very brief introduction to the Book of the Fixed Stars. This book contains an extensive star catalogue that lists star coordinates and magnitude estimates for all of the Ptolemaic stars. However, in his book al-hūfī utilized three distinct intermediate magnitude values whereas Ptolemy only mentioned two. We believe that al-hūfī used what we have termed a '3-step intermediate magnitude system,' which is more accurate than Ptolemy's 2-step intermediate system. In this paper we examine in detail the accuracy of this unique 3-step system in comparison with Ptolemy's and modern magnitude values.

  15. Morphologies of Primary Silicon in Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys: Phase-Field Simulation Supported by Key Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Wei, Ming; Zhang, Lijun; Du, Yong

    2016-04-01

    We realized a three-dimensional visualization of the morphology evolution and the growth behavior of the octahedral primary silicon in hypereutectic Al-20wtpctSi alloy during solidification in a real length scale by utilizing the phase-field simulation coupled with CALPHAD databases, and supported by key experiments. Moreover, through two-dimensional cut of the octahedral primary silicon at random angles, different morphologies observed in experiments, including triangle, square, trapezoid, rhombic, pentagon, and hexagon, were well reproduced.

  16. The primary glomerulonephritides: a systems biology approach

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Song; Chuang, Peter Y.; Liu, Zhi-Hong; He, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of most primary glomerular diseases, including IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, is limited. Advances in molecular technology now permit genome-wide, high-throughput characterization of genes and gene products from biological samples. Comprehensive examinations of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome (collectively known as omics analyses), have been applied to the study of IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in both animal models and human patients. However, most omics studies of primary glomerular diseases, with the exception of large genomic studies, have been limited by inadequate sample sizes and the lack of kidney-specific data sets derived from kidney biopsy samples. Collaborative efforts to develop a standardized approach for prospective recruitment of patients, scheduled monitoring of clinical outcomes, and protocols for sampling of kidney tissues will be instrumental in uncovering the mechanisms that drive these diseases. Integration of molecular data sets with the results of clinical and histopathological studies will ultimately enable these diseases to be characterized in a comprehensive and systematic manner, and is expected to improve the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. PMID:23856995

  17. School Management Information Systems in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Kamile

    2006-01-01

    Developments in information technologies have been impacting upon educational organizations. Principals have been using management information systems to improve the efficiency of administrative services. The aim of this research is to explore principals' perceptions about management information systems and how school management information…

  18. Phase competition in ternary Ti-Ni-Al system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzba, Bartek

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the reactive diffusion in Ti-Ni-Al system is discussed at 1173 K. The calculation method based on the binary approach is presented. The key kinetic parameter is Wagner integral diffusion coefficient. The experimental and simulation results of reactive diffusion between pure Ti and β-NiAl are compared at 1173 K after 100 h.

  19. Primary care training and the evolving healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Peccoralo, Lauren A; Callahan, Kathryn; Stark, Rachel; DeCherrie, Linda V

    2012-01-01

    With growing numbers of patient-centered medical homes and accountable care organizations, and the potential implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the provision of primary care in the United States is expanding and changing. Therefore, there is an urgent need to create more primary-care physicians and to train physicians to practice in this environment. In this article, we review the impact that the changing US healthcare system has on trainees, strategies to recruit and retain medical students and residents into primary-care internal medicine, and the preparation of trainees to work in the changing healthcare system. Recruitment methods for medical students include early preclinical exposure to patients in the primary-care setting, enhanced longitudinal patient experiences in clinical clerkships, and primary-care tracks. Recruitment methods for residents include enhanced ambulatory-care training and primary-care programs. Financial-incentive programs such as loan forgiveness may encourage trainees to enter primary care. Retaining residents in primary-care careers may be encouraged via focused postgraduate fellowships or continuing medical education to prepare primary-care physicians as both teachers and practitioners in the changing environment. Finally, to prepare primary-care trainees to effectively and efficiently practice within the changing system, educators should consider shifting ambulatory training to community-based practices, encouraging resident participation in team-based care, providing interprofessional educational experiences, and involving trainees in quality-improvement initiatives. Medical educators in primary care must think innovatively and collaboratively to effectively recruit and train the future generation of primary-care physicians. PMID:22786734

  20. Application of Total Quality Management System in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prueangphitchayathon, Setthiya; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn

    2015-01-01

    The present study seeks to develop a total quality management (TQM) system that can be applied to primary schools. The approach focuses on customer orientation, total involvement of all constituencies and continuous improvement. TQM principles were studied and synthesized according to case studies of the best practices in 3 primary schools (small,…

  1. Heterogeneous nucleation of the primary phase in the rapid solidification of Al-4.5wt%Cu alloy droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitre, A.; Bogno, A.-A.; Bedel, M.; Reinhart, G.; Henein, H.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on rapid solidification of Al-Cu alloys. A heterogeneous nucleation/growth model coupled with a thermal model of a falling droplet through a stagnant gas was developed. The primary undercooling as well as the number of nucleation points was compared with Al-Cu alloy droplets produced by Impulse Atomization (IA). Based on experimental results from Neutron Diffraction, secondary (eutectic) phases were obtained. Then, primary and secondary undercoolings were estimated using the metastable extensions of solidus and liquidus lines calculated by Thermo-Calc. Moreover, Synchrotron X-ray microtomography has been performed on Al-4.5wt%Cu droplets. The undercoolings are in good agreement. Results also evidence the presence of one nucleation point and are in agreement with the experimental observations.

  2. Primary Health Care in Canada: Systems in Motion

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Brian; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Strumpf, Erin; Coyle, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Context: During the 1980s and 1990s, innovations in the organization, funding, and delivery of primary health care in Canada were at the periphery of the system rather than at its core. In the early 2000s, a new policy environment emerged. Methods: This policy analysis examines primary health care reform efforts in Canada during the last decade, drawing on descriptive information from published and gray literature and from a series of semistructured interviews with informed observers of primary health care in Canada. Findings: Primary health care in Canada has entered a period of potentially transformative change. Key initiatives include support for interprofessional primary health care teams, group practices and networks, patient enrollment with a primary care provider, financial incentives and blended-payment schemes, development of primary health care governance mechanisms, expansion of the primary health care provider pool, implementation of electronic medical records, and quality improvement training and support. Conclusions: Canada's experience suggests that primary health care transformation can be achieved voluntarily in a pluralistic system of private health care delivery, given strong government and professional leadership working in concert. PMID:21676023

  3. Interdiffusion in the Mg-Al system and Intrinsic Diffusion in (Al3Mg2) Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2011-01-01

    Increasing use and development of lightweight Mg-alloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As a strengthening component, Al is one of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. In this study, solid-to-solid diffusion couple techniques were employed to examine the interdiffusion between pure Mg and Al. Diffusion anneals were carried out at 300 , 350 , and 400 C for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were employed to observe the formation of the intermetallics -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2, but not -phase. Concentration profiles were determined using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). The growth constants and activation energies were determined for each intermetallic phase.

  4. Molar Volume Modeling of Ti-Al-Nb and Ti-Al-Mo Ternary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Chuan; Cao, Weisheng; Chen, Shuanglin; Zhang, Fan; Park, Joon Sik; Yi, Seonghoon

    2015-08-01

    Molar volume modeling was performed for both Ti-Al-Nb and Ti-Al-Mo ternary systems based on the thermodynamic modeling of these two systems. Comparison between the calculated phase equilibria and the experimental data proved the accuracy of thermodynamic modeling. With the calculated density contour curves superimposed on the equilibrium phase diagram, it provides a map for alloy developers to identify the promising alloy compositions that satisfy both the phase stability and density requirements and rule out those that fail to meet the requirements.

  5. Glass formability and the Al-Au system

    SciTech Connect

    Egami, Takeshi; Ojha, Madhusudan; Nicholson, Donald M.; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri; Chen, Na; Inoue, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aluminum-gold system exhibits various features that suggest high glass formability, such as a deep eutectic, formation of icosahedral clusters in the intermetallic compound near the eutectic minimum and a strongly negative heat of mixing. However, it is very difficult to form a glass with this system. Various issues related to glass formability are discussed using the Al-Au system as a negative test-case. In particular, the atomic level pressure was calculated from first principles for the first time for Al{sub 2}Au, AlAu{sub 2} and AlAu{sub 4} intermetallic compounds. The atomic level pressure is very high in these compounds, suggesting frustrated electronic states which destabilize both crystalline and glassy phases.

  6. Effect of silicon alloying additions on growth temperature and primary spacing of Al{sub 3}Fe in Al-8wt%Fe alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, D.; Jones, H.; Gilgien, P.

    1995-05-15

    Alloys of Al-8.4Fe-1.7Si, Al-8.5Fe-3.4Si and Al-8.5Fe-5.6Si (wt%) designated A, B and C, respectively, were prepared from high purity (99.99%) aluminum, Japanese electrolytic iron (99.9%) and superpure silicon (99.99%). Melting was carried out in a recrystallized alumina crucible by using a Radyne induction furnace and was followed by chill casting under flowing argon into steel molds of cavity dimension 15 mm thick, 50 mm wide and 150 mm high. Rods 3 mm in diameter were fabricated directly from the ingots. Lengths of the rods, which were contained in 3 mm bore tubular alumina crucibles, were melted in a Bridgman growth facility. After maintaining the melt at 100K above the liquidus temperatures liquidus: 1,118, 1,108 and 1,092 K for 1.7, 3.4 and 5.6 wt%Si, respectively, for about 10 minutes, crucibles containing the melt were withdrawn at a speed of 0.34 mm/s into a water bath. The following conclusions can be drawn from analysis of the specimens. Addition of silicon to Al-8wt%Fe alloy results in an increase in growth undercooling and primary spacing of Al{sub 3}Fe dendrites Bridgman grown at 0.34 mm/s and 10K/mm. This increase in growth undercooling, relative to predicted local liquidus temperatures which have been corrected for observed macrosegregation of Fe, is in good accord with the predictions of the Kurz-Giovanola-Trivedi model for needle-like dendrite growth. The silicon content of the Al{sub 3}Fe dendrites obtained is consistent with previously reported measurements for a range of cast Al-Fe-Si alloys.

  7. Microstructure of the Al-La-Ni-Fe system

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil’ev, A. L.; Ivanova, A. G.; Bakhteeva, N. D.; Kolobylina, N. N.; Orekhov, A. S.; Presnyakov, M. Yu.; Todorova, E. V.

    2015-01-15

    The microstructure of alloys based on the Al-La-Ni-Fe system, which are characterized by a unique ability to form metal glasses and nanoscale composites in a wide range of compositions, has been investigated. Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 7}Fe{sub 4}La{sub 4} and Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 9}Fe{sub 2}La{sub 4} alloys have been analyzed by electron microscopy (including high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, electron diffraction (ED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that, along with fcc Al and Al{sub 4}La (Al{sub 11}La{sub 3}) particles, these alloys contain a ternary phase Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (sp. gr. Pnma) isostructural to the Al{sub 3}Ni phase and a quaternary phase Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La isostructural to the Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2}Eu phase (sp. gr. Pbam). The unit-cell parameters of the Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} and Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La compounds, determined by ED and refined by XRD, are a = 0.664(1) nm, b = 0.734(1) nm, and c = 0.490(1) nm for Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} and a = 1.258(3) nm, b = 1.448(3) nm, and c = 0.405(8) nm for Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La. In both cases Ni and Fe atoms are statistically arranged, and no ordering is found. Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La particles contain inclusions in the form of Al{sub 3}Fe δ layers.

  8. Dynamics and Seismic Issues in primary and secondary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karim-Panahi, K. ); Derkivreghian, A. )

    1986-01-01

    his book contains the papers presented at the conference held in Pittsburgh, on the subject of pressure vessels and piping systems. Topics discussed were: dynamics of MDF secondary systems; impacting effects of seismic loading in feeder pipes of PHWR plants; random vibration methods for the seismic qualification of secondary systems; interaction in primary-secondary systems; and system response through novel applications of transfer function.

  9. Seismic Response and Sensitivity of Primary-Secondary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Changdian

    Seismic performance of light secondary systems anchored or attached to primary structures is crucial to their integrity and serviceability under severe earthquakes. Damage to secondary systems could be just as disastrous as damage to the primary structure itself. The goals of this study are to better understand the dynamic characteristics of secondary systems mounted on the elastic and inelastic primary structure in a seismic environment, and to provide practical considerations of secondary system seismic design based on the selection of optimum structural parameters. Sensitivity analysis is one of the important tools which provides engineers with methods for investigating or minimizing the effects of parameter deviations. This investigation starts with introduction of a stochastic response sensitivity measure to primary-secondary systems in the time domain, and decoupling methods are proposed to deal with the high dimensionality associated with moment equations by partitioning them into several sub-equations. It is shown that this sensitivity measure can be used for a quantitative assessment of secondary system response in the elastic and inelastic primary structure. Under severe earthquakes, most structures are designed to yield, while many secondary systems are designed to remain essentially linear to ensure functionality during earthquakes. Based on this consideration, the stochastic response and reliability of a single-degree-of-freedom secondary system attached to single- or multi-degree-of -freedom yielding primary structures are considered by using equivalent linearization and digital simulation. A detailed analysis which includes mean-square response, coefficient of excess, reliability, response probability density and nonlinear modes of the secondary system is carried out under white and filtered white noise excitations. Some useful results are presented, and application of these results to design is commented upon.

  10. Viking 75 project: Viking lander system primary mission performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Viking Lander hardware performance during launch, interplanetary cruise, Mars orbit insertion, preseparation, separation through landing, and the primary landed mission, with primary emphasis on Lander engineering and science hardware operations, the as-flown mission are described with respect to Lander system performance and anomalies during the various mission phases. The extended mission and predicted Lander performance is discussed along with a summary of Viking goals, mission plans, and description of the Lander, and its subsystem definitions.

  11. Quantification of Primary Dendritic and Secondary Eutectic Nucleation Undercoolings in Rapidly Solidified Hypo-Eutectic Al-Cu Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogno, A.-A.; Khatibi, P. Delshad; Henein, H.; Gandin, Ch.-A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on the quantification of primary dendritic and secondary eutectic nucleation undercoolings during rapid solidification of impulse atomized hypo-eutectic Al-Cu droplets. The procedure consists in determining the eutectic fraction of each investigated droplet from the fraction of intermetallic Al2Cu obtained by Rietveld refinement analysis of neutrons scattering data. The corresponding eutectic nucleation undercooling is then deduced from the metastable phase diagram of the alloy. The primary dendritic nucleation undercooling is subsequently determined using semi-empirical coarsening models of secondary dendrite arms. The two nucleation undercoolings are finally used as input variables to run a microsegregation model for binary alloys. The fractions of eutectic computed by the microsegregation model compare very favorably with the experimental results.

  12. Quantification of Primary Dendritic and Secondary Eutectic Nucleation Undercoolings in Rapidly Solidified Hypo-Eutectic Al-Cu Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogno, A.-A.; Khatibi, P. Delshad; Henein, H.; Gandin, Ch.-A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on the quantification of primary dendritic and secondary eutectic nucleation undercoolings during rapid solidification of impulse atomized hypo-eutectic Al-Cu droplets. The procedure consists in determining the eutectic fraction of each investigated droplet from the fraction of intermetallic Al2Cu obtained by Rietveld refinement analysis of neutrons scattering data. The corresponding eutectic nucleation undercooling is then deduced from the metastable phase diagram of the alloy. The primary dendritic nucleation undercooling is subsequently determined using semi-empirical coarsening models of secondary dendrite arms. The two nucleation undercoolings are finally used as input variables to run a microsegregation model for binary alloys. The fractions of eutectic computed by the microsegregation model compare very favorably with the experimental results.

  13. Phase correlations in the CuAlSe2-CuAlTe2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzun, B. V.; Fadzeyeva, A. A.; Bente, K.; Schmitz, W.; Kommichau, G.

    2005-07-01

    Alloys in the CuAlSe2-CuAlTe2 system were synthesized in BN-crucibles in silica tubes under vacuum to obtain the corresponding phase equilibria. X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analytic data of the T-x phase diagram revealed a complete solid solutions series in the subsolidus region. Within the CuAlSe2xTe2(1-x) system the refined lattice parameters a and c approximately obey the Vegard rule and also the cell volume and the heat of fusion confirm linear correlations with the composition of the mixed crystals. The anion position parameter calculated after S. C. Abrahams & J. L. Bernstein (uAB) and J. E Jaffe & A. Zunger (uJZ) is greater than 0.25 and reveals a linear dependence on composition. The liquidus part of the CuAlSe2xTe2(1-x) system with x < 0.35 exhibits vertical section behaviour with a ternary peritectic followed up by a ternary monotectic whereas the region with x > 0.35 shows quasibinary equilibria.

  14. Evidence of heterogeneous substructure development during primary creep of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.W.; Rhodes, C.; London, B.

    1995-03-15

    Preliminary creep tests conducted on the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo show that both primary creep strain and the minimum strain rate decreases with decreasing volumes of primary alpha phase in the microstructure. This is in agreement with well established trends. The authors have suggested a relationship between the initial dislocation source density and the primary creep behavior and have pointed toward some microstructural variables which may give rise to a high initial dislocation source density. Measurements of anelastic backflow and the characterization of the kinetics of the backflow process indicates that the Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo exhibits very similar behavior to that of pure FCC aluminum, copper and lead. It is suggested that the anelastic backflow provides direct evidence of a heterogeneous substructure and a nonuniform distribution of stresses within the material which drives the backflow process. The backflow process is discussed along the lines of what has been discussed regarding time dependent anelastic backflow in high purity FCC Metals. Finally, the apparent creep activation energy estimated from creep tests at two temperatures at constant initial applied stress indicates that creep under the present experimental conditions is diffusion controlled. At present no specific mechanism can be defined. More definitive and extensive work is planned in order to better address the issues regarding primary creep in titanium alloys.

  15. Solidification Behavior of gamma'-Ni3Al Containing Alloys in the Ni-Al-O System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2007-01-01

    The chemical activities of Al and Ni in gamma(prime)-Ni3Al-containing systems were measured using the multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry technique (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K. From these measurements a better understanding of the equilibrium solidification behaviour of gamma(prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys in the Ni-Al-O system was established. Specifically, these measurements revealed that (1) gamma(prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod reaction, gamma + Beta (+ A12O3) = gamma (prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K, (2) the {gamma + Beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 through 1640 K, and (3) equilibrium solidification occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). When projected onto the Ni-Al binary, this behaviour is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(prime)-Ni3Al phase field.

  16. THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PHYSICIAN ASSISTANTS IN PRIMARY CARE SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Roderick S.; Everett, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Shortages of primary care doctors are occurring globally; one means of meeting this demand has been the use of physician assistants (PAs). Introduced in the United States in the late 1960s to address doctor shortages, the PA movement has grown to over 75,000 providers in 2011 and spread to Australia, Canada, Great Britain, The Netherlands, Germany, Ghana, and South Africa. A purposeful literature review was undertaken to assess the contribution of PAs to primary care systems. Contemporary studies suggest that PAs can contribute to the successful attainment of primary care functions, particularly the provision of comprehensive care, accessibility, and accountability. Employing PAs seems a reasonable strategy for providing primary care for diverse populations. PMID:21851446

  17. The 747 primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The major operational characteristics of the 747 Primary Flight Control Systems (PFCS) are described. Results of reliability analysis for separate control functions are presented. The analysis makes use of a NASA computer program which calculates reliability of redundant systems. Costs for maintaining the 747 PFCS in airline service are assessed. The reliabilities and cost will provide a baseline for use in trade studies of future flight control system design.

  18. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System (ALS) programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1989-08-01

    The joint Department of Defense (DOD)/NASA Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) program is described. The ALS is cost rather than performance optimized. It will use advanced technology and innovative management and design approaches to achieve a congressionally mandated cost goal of $300 per pound to low-earth orbit by the year 2005. The space system acquisition approach is described. The influence of acquisition and technological innovations on other U.S. space transportation, programs such as commercial programs and the National Aero-Space Plane, is discussed. Diagrams of possible launch configurations are presented.

  19. 78 FR 28896 - Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... COMMISSION Design Limits and Loading Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components... Combinations for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System Components,'' in which there are no substantive... loading combinations for metal primary reactor containment system components. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  20. Neuroarthropathy of the foot revealing primary systemic amyloidosis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Irina Adriana; Kuntzer, Thierry; Lobrinus, Johannes Alexander; Jaccard, Arnaud; Zufferey, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this review were to describe the case of a patient with debilitating neuroarthropathy of the ankles and feet and reveal a primary systemic (amyloid light chain, AL) amyloidosis and to review the relevant literature concerning the peripheral neuropathy and neuroarthropathy due to amyloidosis. We will emphasize the diagnostic pitfalls and discuss prognosis and treatments of both the peripheral neuropathy and the arthropathy related to AL amyloidosis. This is a descriptive case report of a patient with neuroarthropathy of the lower limbs due to AL amyloidosis. A review and discussion of relevant literature were conducted, based on a PubMed search from 1973 to December 2013. A 51-year-old female was diagnosed with AL amyloidosis after 20 months of investigation of small painful deformities of the feet. Chronic peripheral neuropathy occurs as a manifestation of AL amyloidosis in 25 % of cases. It may exceptionally be complicated by neuroarthropathy. In this case, the paucity of clinical and electrophysiological signs of the neuropathy delayed the diagnosis, leading to a severe arthropathy. The massive destruction of the joints dominated the clinical and the poor functional outcome. Diagnosis of AL amyloidosis should be considered in the presence of a mild peripheral neuropathy and a distal destructive and painless arthropathy. The two key diagnostic procedures are serum protein electrophoresis and nerve biopsy. Delay in treatment worsens the prognosis. PMID:25227773

  1. Peroneal nerve involvement as initial manifestation of primary systemic vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Ripellino, Paolo; Varrasi, Claudia; Maldi, Elena; Cantello, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of two patients with foot drop due to peroneal nerve infarct as early sign of two different forms of primary systemic vasculitides: a predominantly small-vessel p-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis (microscopic polyangiitis) and a predominantly medium-vessel vasculitis (polyarteritis nodosa). PMID:24686810

  2. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  3. Faceted growth of primary Al{sub 2}Cu crystals during directional solidification in high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chuanjun; Ren, Zhongming; Shen, Yu; Wang, Qiuliang; Dai, Yinming; Wang, Hui

    2013-10-21

    The high magnetic field is widely used to modify the crystal morphology. In this work, the effect of the magnetic field on growing behavior of faceted crystals in the Al-40 wt. %Cu alloy was investigated using directional solidification technique. It was found that the faceted growth of primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase was degraded and the primary spacing was reduced upon applying the magnetic field. Additionally, the length of the mushy zone first decreased and then increased with increase of the magnetic field intensity. The quantitative analysis reveals that the shear stress induced by the fluid motion is insufficient to break the atom bonds at the solid-liquid interface. However, both of the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC) and the thermoelectric magnetic force (TEMF) cause dendrites to fracture and reduce the primary spacing. The two effects also weaken the faceting growth. Moreover, the instability of the solid-liquid interface is generated by the TEMF, which further leads to degrade the faceted growth. The length of mushy zone was changed by the TEMC and reached the minimum in the magnetic field of 0.5 T, which is in good agreement with the predicted value (0.83 T)

  4. An Exploratory Study on How Primary Pupils Approach Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Marja-Ilona; de Vries, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of systems thinking among 27 primary pupils (8-10 years old) and their teacher. The study included a pre-test for the teacher and the pupils, lesson planning, the actual lesson and a post-test for the pupils. The research focused on finding an answer to three questions: (1) do pupils see a system as a structure…

  5. Targetable genetic features of primary testicular and primary central nervous system lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Chapuy, Bjoern; Roemer, Margaretha G M; Stewart, Chip; Tan, Yuxiang; Abo, Ryan P; Zhang, Liye; Dunford, Andrew J; Meredith, David M; Thorner, Aaron R; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; Liu, Gang; Feuerhake, Friedrich; Ducar, Matthew D; Illerhaus, Gerald; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Linden, Erica A; Sun, Heather H; Homer, Heather; Aono, Miyuki; Pinkus, Geraldine S; Ligon, Azra H; Ligon, Keith L; Ferry, Judith A; Freeman, Gordon J; van Hummelen, Paul; Golub, Todd R; Getz, Gad; Rodig, Scott J; de Jong, Daphne; Monti, Stefano; Shipp, Margaret A

    2016-02-18

    Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and primary testicular lymphomas (PTLs) are extranodal large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs) with inferior responses to current empiric treatment regimens. To identify targetable genetic features of PCNSL and PTL, we characterized their recurrent somatic mutations, chromosomal rearrangements, copy number alterations (CNAs), and associated driver genes, and compared these comprehensive genetic signatures to those of diffuse LBCL and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). These studies identify unique combinations of genetic alterations in discrete LBCL subtypes and subtype-selective bases for targeted therapy. PCNSLs and PTLs frequently exhibit genomic instability, and near-uniform, often biallelic, CDKN2A loss with rare TP53 mutations. PCNSLs and PTLs also use multiple genetic mechanisms to target key genes and pathways and exhibit near-uniform oncogenic Toll-like receptor signaling as a result of MYD88 mutation and/or NFKBIZ amplification, frequent concurrent B-cell receptor pathway activation, and deregulation of BCL6. Of great interest, PCNSLs and PTLs also have frequent 9p24.1/PD-L1/PD-L2 CNAs and additional translocations of these loci, structural bases of immune evasion that are shared with PMBL. PMID:26702065

  6. Interdiffusion and intrinsic diffusion in the NiAl /delta/ phase of the Al-Ni system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, S.; Seigle, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Interdiffusion coefficients at 950 to 1150 C and the ratio of intrinsic diffusion coefficients at 1100 C were measured as functions of composition in the NiAl (delta) phase of the Al-Ni system, using a vapor-solid technique. Diffusivity values were also obtained for the Ni3Al (epsilon) and Ni (Al) solid solution (zeta) phases from 950 to 1150 C. The interdiffusion coefficient in NiAl (delta) varies several orders of magnitude over the delta phase field with a deep minimum in the diffusivity-composition curve at 48 to 49 at% Al. The ratio of intrinsic diffusion coefficients DNi/DAl, in the delta phase also varies with composition from a value of 3 to 3.5 below 50 at% Al to 0.1 or less above 50 at% Al.

  7. Kinetic Analyses of the Growth and Dissolution Phenomena of Primary Si and α-Al in Partially Molten Al-Si (-Cu-Mg) Alloy Particles Using In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswara Moorthy, Santhana K.; Howe, James M.

    2011-06-01

    The growth and dissolution behavior of primary Si and α-Al in partially molten hypereutectic Al-Si-based alloy particles was investigated using in situ TEM to reveal the dynamic and instantaneous processes occurring during these phenomena. Direct evidence for the preferential growth of Si {113} facets compared with {111} facets resulting in prominent {111} facets bounding the Si crystals was obtained. The nucleation of primary Si was found to occur heterogeneously on the encapsulating alumina shell, whereas the α-Al phase nucleated homogeneously from the liquid Al-Si phase. The morphology of primary Si during growth was found to be highly faceted during growth but smoothly curved during dissolution, revealing fundamental mechanistic differences during these processes. We provide a ledge-based interpretation to explain the difference in growth and dissolution behavior. The α-Al phase displayed smoothly curved growth and dissolution morphologies, which are characteristic of an isotropic interfacial energy and a continuous growth mechanism.

  8. Influence of a high magnetic field on the precipitation behavior of the primary Al 3Fe phase during the solidification of a hypereutectic Al-3.31 wt% Fe alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Yudong; Esling, Claude; Jiang, Huixue; Zhao, Zhihao; Zuo, Yubo; Cui, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    Influences of high magnetic fields on the precipitation behavior of the primary Al 3Fe phase during the solidification of a hypereutectic Al-3.31 wt% Fe are investigated. Under the uniform field the primary crystals tend to be distributed homogeneously, whereas under the positive gradient field they move upward in the specimen. Under both cases, they tend to align with [100] parallel to the field direction. The field also induces axial bifurcation of the primary crystals, gives rise to the formation of transverse cracks in the primary crystals and increases the number of nuclei. The homogeneous distribution of the primary crystals in the uniform field and the upward movement in the gradient field are attributed to the respective magnetic viscosity resistance force and the magnetization force. The alignment results from the magnetic torque due to the magnetic anisotropy of the primary crystals. The bifurcation and the cracks are related to the thermoelectric magnetic force and the linear shrinkage coefficient difference between the Al solid solution and the primary Al 3Fe phase. The increased number of nuclei arises from the detachment of the primary crystals and the suppression of the descent of the original primary crystals in the initial material and the Fe solute diffusion by the field.

  9. Design of the ALS transverse coupled-bunch feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, W.; Byrd, J.M.; Corlett, J.N.; Hinkson, J.; Johnson, J.; Lambertson, G.R.; Fox, J.D.

    1993-05-01

    Calculations of transverse coupled bunch growth rates in the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring for producing synchrotron radiation, indicate the need for damping via a transverse feedback (TFB) system. We present the design of such a system. The maximum bunch frequency is 500 MHz, requiring that the FB system have a broadband response of at least 250 MHz. We described, in detail, the choice of broadband components such as kickers, pickups, power amplifiers, and electronics.

  10. Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma: A Report from an International Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Collaborative Group Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, James L.; Coupland, Sarah E.; Davis, Janet L.; Harbour, J. William; Johnston, Patrick B.; Cassoux, Nathalie; Touitou, Valerie; Smith, Justine R.; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Pulido, Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL), also known as primary intraocular lymphoma, is a rare malignancy typically classified as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and most frequently develops in elderly populations. PVRL commonly masquerades as posterior uveitis and has a unique tropism for the retina and central nervous system (CNS). Over 15% of primary CNS lymphoma patients develop intraocular lymphoma, usually occurring in the retina and/or vitreous. Conversely, 65%–90% of PVRL patients develop CNS lymphoma. Consequently, PVRL is often fatal because of ultimate CNS association. Current PVRL animal models are limited and require further development. Typical clinical findings include vitreous cellular infiltration (lymphoma and inflammatory cells) and subretinal tumor infiltration as determined using dilated fundoscopy, fluorescent angiography, and optical coherent tomography. Currently, PVRL is most often diagnosed using both histology to identify lymphoma cells in the vitreous or retina and immunohistochemistry to indicate monoclonality. Additional adjuncts in diagnosing PVRL exist, including elevation of interleukin-10 levels in ocular fluids and detection of IgH or T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in malignant cells. The optimal therapy for PVRL is not defined and requires the combined effort of oncologists and ophthalmologists. PVRL is sensitive to radiation therapy and exhibits high responsiveness to intravitreal methotrexate or rituximab. Although systemic chemotherapy alone can result in high response rates in patients with PVRL, there is a high relapse rate. Because of the disease rarity, international, multicenter, collaborative efforts are required to better understand the biology and pathogenesis of PVRL as well as to define both diagnostic markers and optimal therapies. PMID:22045784

  11. System seismic analysis of an innovative primary system for a large pool type LMFBR plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.C.; Wu, T.S.; Cha, B.K.; Burelbach, J.; Seidensticker, R.

    1984-01-01

    The system seismic analysis of an innovative primary system for a large pool type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) plant is presented. In this primary system, the reactor core is supported in a way which differs significantly from that used in previous designs. The analytical model developed for this study is a three-dimensional finite element model including one-half of the primary system cut along the plane of symmetry. The model includes the deck and deck mounted components,the reactor vessel, the core support structure, the core barrel, the radial neutron shield, the redan, and the conical support skirt. The sodium contained in the primary system is treated as a lumped mass appropriately distributed among various components. The significant seismic behavior as well as the advantages of this primary system design are discussed in detail.

  12. An Assessment of the Al- Fe- N System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillert, Mats; Jonsson, Stefan

    1992-11-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the Al-Fe-N system are assessed, taking various types of information into account. For solid AIN, a description very similar to that given by JANAF is found to yield reasonable predictions for the solubility of A1N in face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe and in liquid Fe. An ionic two-sublattice model is applied to the liquid phase, containing two N species, N-3 and N0 The melting point of A1N is taken as 3068 K, and a required gas pressure of 9.75 bar is predicted. A sublimation point of 2690 K at 1 bar is also predicted. A plot of the liquidus surfaces in the Fe-rich end of the Al-Fe-N system is presented.

  13. Primary systemic amyloidosis: A rare cause for pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    George, Sunny; Ravindran, M; Anandan, P T; Kiran, V N

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusion is a common problem dealt by most of the practicing clinicians. Some causes for pleural effusion are less often considered as a differential diagnosis owing to its rarity. Here we report a case of renal amyloidosis on alternate day haemodialysis for about two months time presenting with left sided pleural effusion. On evaluation this turned out to be a case of amyloidosis on thoracoscopic pleural biopsy suggesting the possibility of Primary systemic amyloidosis. PMID:26029558

  14. Non-self-sufficiency as a primary outcome measure in ALS trials.

    PubMed

    Marin, Benoît; Bianchi, Elisa; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Lunetta, Christian; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Chiò, Adriano; Preux, Pierre Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to assess non-self-sufficiency (NSS) in ALS as an outcome measure in therapeutic trials. Using data from the control arm of two randomized trials and an observational study, associations between NSS (score ≤2 in the ALSFRS-R items for swallowing, cutting food and handling utensils, or walking) and the total ALSFRS-R score, forced vital capacity (FVC), and survival at selected time-points until death or 48 weeks, were assessed. These measures were used as surrogates of relevant functional impairment. Of 82 self-sufficient (SS) patients at baseline, 32 (39.0%) became NSS at four weeks and increased to 72 (87.8%) at the end of follow-up. A significant association was found between NSS, ALSFRS-R score and FVC at 24, 36 and 48 weeks. Thirty-four subjects died (41.5%). Compared to SS patients (median survival, 27.9 months), individuals becoming NSS at four weeks were at increased risk to die (median survival, 23.6 months, p = 0.02). NSS status at four weeks predicted survival even after adjustment for ALSFRS-R total score, age, gender, site of onset, disease duration, BMI, and FVC. 'Walking' was the only predictor of survival when adjusting for all covariates. In conclusion, NSS status is a possible endpoint to investigate short-term efficacy of treatments of ALS. PMID:26470831

  15. Advising potential recipients on the use of organs from donors with primary central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Warrens, Anthony N; Birch, Rhiannon; Collett, David; Daraktchiev, Maren; Dark, John H; Galea, George; Gronow, Katie; Neuberger, James; Hilton, David; Whittle, Ian R; Watson, Christopher J E

    2012-02-27

    Deciding to use an organ from a donor with a primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor necessitates offsetting the risk of tumor transmission with the chances of survival if the patient waits for another offer of a transplant. Published data vary in the quoted risk of tumor transmission. We used data obtained by reviewing 246 UK recipients of organs taken from donors with CNS tumors and found no evidence of a difference in overall patient mortality for recipients of a kidney, liver, or cardiothoracic organ, compared with recipients of organs from donors without a CNS tumor. Recent publication of the UK experience of transplanting organs from CNS tumor donors found no transmission in 448 recipients of organs from 177 donors with a primary CNS tumor (Watson et al., Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 1437). This 0% transmission rate is associated with an upper 95% confidence interval limit of 1.5%. Using a series of assumptions of risk, we compared the risks of dying as a result of the transmission of a primary brain tumor with the risks of dying if not transplanted. On this basis, the use of kidneys from a donor with a primary CNS tumor provides a further 8 years of life over someone who waited for a donor who did not have a primary CNS tumor, in addition to the life years gained by the transplant itself. The benefits for the recipients of livers and cardiothoracic organs were less, but there was no disadvantage in the impact on life expectancy. PMID:22258288

  16. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  17. RELAP5 MODEL OF THE DIVERTOR PRIMARY HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Emilian L; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the RELAP5 model that has been developed for the divertor primary heat transfer system (PHTS). The model is intended to be used to examine the transient performance of the divertor PHTS and evaluate control schemes necessary to maintain parameters within acceptable limits during transients. Some preliminary results are presented to show the maturity of the model and examine general divertor PHTS transient behavior. The model can be used as a starting point for developing transient modeling capability, including control system modeling, safety evaluations, etc., and is not intended to represent the final divertor PHTS design. Preliminary calculations using the models indicate that during normal pulsed operation, present pressurizer controls may not be sufficient to keep system pressures within their desired range. Additional divertor PHTS and control system design efforts may be required to ensure system pressure fluctuation during normal operation remains within specified limits.

  18. Primary Transformation Kinetics in Zr-Al-Ni-Cu-Pd Bulk Metallic Glass Correlated with Relaxation State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saida, Junji; Setyawan, Albertus D.

    2013-05-01

    The primary transformation kinetics of nanoicosahedral quasicrystalline (QC) phase formation were investigated in Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu12.5Pd5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) in various relaxation states. A less relaxed (unrelaxed) BMG exhibited higher activation energy for atomic diffusion in the glassy structure than that of a relaxed one, which represents a change in the nucleation and grain growth kinetics of the primary phase with the relaxation state. Actually, the grain growth rate of a QC particle near the crystallization temperature was approximately 1 × 10-9 m/s in the less relaxed BMGs, which was less than half of that in the relaxed BMGs. In contrast, the calculated homogeneous nucleation rate significantly increased in the less relaxed samples. It increased with the volume fraction transformed in the early stage. It is concluded that the relaxation state of glassy alloys markedly affects the primary transformation kinetics. The current study also indicates a necessity of development of the relaxation state for structure controlling in industrial applications of BMGs.

  19. Use of Fuzzy Logic Systems for Assessment of Primary Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Ivica; Jozsa, Lajos; Baus, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    In electric power systems, grid elements are often subjected to very complex and demanding disturbances or dangerous operating conditions. Determining initial fault or cause of those states is a difficult task. When fault occurs, often it is an imperative to disconnect affected grid element from the grid. This paper contains an overview of possibilities for using fuzzy logic in an assessment of primary faults in the transmission grid. The tool for this task is SCADA system, which is based on information of currents, voltages, events of protection devices and status of circuit breakers in the grid. The function model described with the membership function and fuzzy logic systems will be presented in the paper. For input data, diagnostics system uses information of protection devices tripping, states of circuit breakers and measurements of currents and voltages before and after faults.

  20. Apollo experience report guidance and control systems: Primary guidance, navigation, and control system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, M. D.; Swingle, W. L.; Bachman, S. L.; Leblanc, C. J.; Howard, H. T.; Biggs, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    The primary guidance, navigation, and control systems for both the lunar module and the command module are described. Development of the Apollo primary guidance systems is traced from adaptation of the Polaris Mark II system through evolution from Block I to Block II configurations; the discussion includes design concepts used, test and qualification programs performed, and major problems encountered. The major subsystems (inertial, computer, and optical) are covered. Separate sections on the inertial components (gyroscopes and accelerometers) are presented because these components represent a major contribution to the success of the primary guidance, navigation, and control system.

  1. LSST primary/tertiary mirror thermal control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Douglas R.

    2010-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) primary/tertiary monolithic mirror will be fabricated as a single cast borosilicate substrate that requires an extensive thermal control system. The relatively large coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of borosilicate glass requires the thermal system maintain differences throughout the mirror to below 0.1C. The thermal control system is also required to take full advantage of the relatively thin glass sections for good tracking of ambient temperatures. A modified version of the thermal control system utilized on the Magellan telescope primary mirror will provide adequate cooling. This type of system supplies coolant to multiple on-board blowers in the mirror cell. Each blower contains a fan and a heat exchanger supplying conditioned and mildly pressurized air to the mirror cell. The mirror cell then acts as an air plenum which distributes the air through individual nozzles to each honeycomb cell of the mirror. Unlike previous systems, each LSST blower assembly will incorporate individual air temperature and air flow control systems. Since air can be more accurately heated than cooled, the air will be initially slightly overcooled and then reheated electrically to match the ambient air temperature. Based on thermal sensors in the mirror, the optimum cooling air flow rate to balance mirror thermal distortion and mirror seeing will be determined and enforced by the variable speed fans on the blower assemblies. To further equalize the cooling throughout the mirror, the coolant flow system has also been designed to provide inherently equal coolant flow to each blower assembly.

  2. Near misdiagnosis of glioblastoma as primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; Shrestha, Rajesh; Shonka, Nicole; Bociek, R Gregory

    2014-08-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, most frequently a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, is a rare aggressive lymphoma confined to the CNS, thus requiring differentiation from other brain malignancies such as glioblastoma. Although stereotactic biopsy can confirm the diagnosis, this is invasive, not always feasible and can be inconclusive after steroid use. Hence, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast and cerebrospinal fluid analysis are frequently used to make a prompt diagnosis. We report a case of a woman with two brain masses who presented unique diagnostic challenge. PMID:24883157

  3. Near Misdiagnosis of Glioblastoma as Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; Shrestha, Rajesh; Shonka, Nicole; Bociek, R. Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, most frequently a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, is a rare aggressive lymphoma confined to the CNS, thus requiring differentiation from other brain malignancies such as glioblastoma. Although stereotactic biopsy can confirm the diagnosis, this is invasive, not always feasible and can be inconclusive after steroid use. Hence, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast and cerebrospinal fluid analysis are frequently used to make a prompt diagnosis. We report a case of a woman with two brain masses who presented unique diagnostic challenge. PMID:24883157

  4. Klystron 'efficiency loop' for the ALS storage ring RF system

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Julian, Jim; Baptiste, Kenneth

    2002-05-20

    The recent energy crisis in California has led us to investigate the high power RF systems at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in order to decrease the energy consumption and power costs. We found the Storage Ring Klystron Power Amplifier system operating as designed but with significant power waste. A simple proportional-integrator (PI) analog loop, which controls the klystron collector beam current, as a function of the output RF power, has been designed and installed. The design considerations, besides efficiency improvement, were to interface to the existing system without major expense. They were to also avoid the klystron cathode power supply filter's resonance in the loop's dynamics, and prevent a conflict with the existing Cavity RF Amplitude Loop dynamics. This efficiency loop will allow us to save up to 700 MW-hours of electrical energy per year and increase the lifetime of the klystron.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE TEMPORARY TENT COVER TRUSS SYSTEM AP PRIMARY VENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    HAQ MA

    2009-12-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate a temporary ten cover truss system. This system will be used to provide weather protection to the workers during replacement of the filter for the Primary Ventilation System in AP Tank Farm. The truss system has been fabricated utilizing tubes and couplers, which are normally used for scaffoldings.

  6. Kinetics and mechanisms of primary and steady state creep in B- and Al-containing alpha silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert F.; Carter, Calvin H., Jr.

    1989-07-01

    The steady state creep behavior of a number of high temperature structural ceramics has been measured and the results analyzed to determine the controlling mechanism. Pure polycrystalline silicon carbide, devoid of sintering aids, creeps by dislocation motion and climb. Silicon carbide containing B- and Al- sintering aids, creeps by grain boundary sliding controlled by diffusion mechanisms (grain boundary diffusion - Coble creep - below 1920 K; lattice diffusion - Nabarro-Herring creep-above 1920 K). The difference in behavior is attributed to the high concentration of vacancies accompanying impurity substitution in the sintered silicon carbide. Experimental measurements of grain boundary sliding offsets on polycrystalline silicon carbide have shown that the primary, transient, creep stage in this material is primarily due to plastic strain within the grains, and that the secondary, steady state, creep stage is primarily due to grain boundary sliding between the grains. The creep of a single crystal and polycrystalline niobium carbide in the 1570 to 1850 K range is controlled by dislocation glide and climb. The creep of hot pressed silicon nitrate and mullite in the 1470 to 1800 K range is controlled by grain boundary sliding due to the amorphous phase present as a consequence of Y2O3 and Al2O3 sintering aids.

  7. Metastability in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wilkerson, Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Hemrick, James G.

    2014-07-22

    Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( γ-Al2O3) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between MgAl2O4 and α-Al2O3. The solvus line between MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 has been defined at 79.6 wt% Al2O3 at 1500°C, 83.0 wt% Al2O3 at 1600°C, and 86.5 wt% Al2O3 at 1700°C. A metastable region has been defined at temperatures up to 1700°C which could have significant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on final chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an infinite solid solution with Al2O3 at elevatedmore » temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975°C and a chemistry of 96 wt% Al2O3 rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidification.« less

  8. Primary propulsion/large space system interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyner, J. V.; Dergance, R. H.; Robertson, R. I.; Wiggins, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    An interaction study was conducted between propulsion systems and large space structures to determine the effect of low thrust primary propulsion system characteristics on the mass, area, and orbit transfer characteristics of large space systems (LSS). The LSS which were considered would be deployed from the space shuttle orbiter bay in low Earth orbit, then transferred to geosynchronous equatorial orbit by their own propulsion systems. The types of structures studied were the expandable box truss, hoop and column, and wrap radial rib each with various surface mesh densities. The impact of the acceleration forces on system sizing was determined and the effects of single point, multipoint, and transient thrust applications were examined. Orbit transfer strategies were analyzed to determine the required velocity increment, burn time, trip time, and payload capability over a range of final acceleration levels. Variables considered were number of perigee burns, delivered specific impulse, and constant thrust and constant acceleration modes of propulsion. Propulsion stages were sized for four propellant combinations; oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, oxygen/kerosene, and nitrogen tetroxide/monomethylhydrazine, for pump fed and pressure fed engine systems. Two types of tankage configurations were evaluated, minimum length to maximize available payload volume and maximum performance to maximize available payload mass.

  9. Fiber optic signal collection system for primary flight control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Sandy L.

    1994-10-01

    The FOPMN is a fiber-optic signal collection system for primary flight control applications. An avionics bay protected electro-optic interface unit transmits light down fiber optic cable to an optical sensor housed in the harsh environment of a hydraulic actuator. The interface unit also receives the sensor's reflected pattern and calculates independent positions from the multiplexed signals. This paper discusses the FOPMN method for fiber-optically sensing and multiplexing two channels of position of a TEF actuator's main ram cylinder. Currently installed in NASA Dryden's SRA F/A-18, the FOPMN has accumulated approximately 15 hours of flight time. A performance comparison is made between the FOPMN positions and the flight control computer's feedback mechanism (the actuator LVDTs). Included is a discussion of some of the lessons learned as a result of testing the FOPMN in the lab and in flight. The FOPMN is well on its way to proving itself as a robust fiber optic system with the ability to multiplex numerous optical sensors for primary flight control. The success of the FOPMN leads to the second phase of the project--optical loop closure. Our goal for this phase is to have four FOPMN sensor channels on the main ram and/or the main control valve of the actuator to serve as the quad redundant feedback mechanism for flight control.

  10. Fission Product Migration in Primary System and Containment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-04-01

    Version 00 ART MOD2 aims at a comprehensive analysis for the FP behaviour in primary system and in containment during severe accidents and therefore the code considers the removal of radio-nuclides of up to 60 materials including chemical compounds by natural deposition and by the engineered safety features (ESF) such as spray systems. As for the natural deposition of radio-nuclides, the code can consider the phenomena such as gravitational settling, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, Brownian diffusion, diffusionmore » under laminar or turbulent flows, resuspension, condensation, chemisorption and revaporization. The code also models the aerosol growth by agglomeration of aerosols and condensation/evaporation of volatile material at the aerosol surface. Recently, the models for iodine chemistry in containment sump water was incorporated into ART MOD2 ART MOD2 was modified in January 2015 to correct coding errors and improve the vibration of the calculation result of water (H2O) vapor.« less

  11. Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis With Optic Nerve Involvement.

    PubMed

    Benson, Christy E; Knezevic, Alexander; Lynch, Shannon C

    2016-06-01

    A 20-year-old woman presented with headache, decreased vision, eye pain, and urinary retention. During her clinical course, visual acuity declined to 20/800, right eye, and 20/50, left eye, associated with bilateral optic disc edema. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed enhancement of the leptomeninges, right optic nerve, and right side of the optic chiasm. Extensive evaluation of the central nervous system (CNS) for an infectious cause was negative. Brain biopsy showed a pattern consistent with vasculitis. The patient was treated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide, resulting in improvement of her vision and systemic symptoms. Primary CNS vasculitis is a rare condition that may affect the anterior visual pathways. PMID:26693942

  12. Fission Product Migration in Primary System and Containment

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-01

    Version 00 ART MOD2 aims at a comprehensive analysis for the FP behaviour in primary system and in containment during severe accidents and therefore the code considers the removal of radio-nuclides of up to 60 materials including chemical compounds by natural deposition and by the engineered safety features (ESF) such as spray systems. As for the natural deposition of radio-nuclides, the code can consider the phenomena such as gravitational settling, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, Brownian diffusion, diffusion under laminar or turbulent flows, resuspension, condensation, chemisorption and revaporization. The code also models the aerosol growth by agglomeration of aerosols and condensation/evaporation of volatile material at the aerosol surface. Recently, the models for iodine chemistry in containment sump water was incorporated into ART MOD2 ART MOD2 was modified in January 2015 to correct coding errors and improve the vibration of the calculation result of water (H2O) vapor.

  13. Surface Tension of the System NaF -AlF3-Al2O3 and Surface Adsorption of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharík, Marián; Vasiljev, Roman

    2006-08-01

    Part of the molten system NaF-AlF3-Al2O3 was studied by surface tension measurements, which were performed at cryolite ratios (CR) between 1.5 and 3 [CR = n(NaF)/n(AlF3)]. The maximal bubble pressure method was applied. The surface adsorption of alumina (Al2O3) was also calculated. The obtained results were discussed in terms of the anionic composition of the melt. The addition of AlF3 to melt with CR= 3 decreases the surface tension, as AlF3 is surface-active in molten Na3AlF6. The concentration dependence of the surface tension and the surface adsorption of alumina in the title system are influenced by the formation of surface-active oxofluoroaluminates. An increase of the difference between the surface tension of NaF-AlF3 mixtures and the surface tension of pure alumina was observed with decreasing cryolite ratio.

  14. Optimized Battery-Type Reactor Primary System Design Utilizing Lead

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yong H.; Son, Hyoung M.; Lee, Il S.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    A number of small and medium size reactors are being developed worldwide as well as large electricity generation reactors for co-generation, district heating or desalination. The Seoul National University has started to develop 23 MWth BORIS (Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System) as a multi-purpose reactor. BORIS is an integral-type optimized fast reactor with an ultra long life core. BORIS is being designed to meet the Generation IV nuclear energy system goals of sustainability, safety, reliability and economics. Major features of BORIS include 20 consecutive years of operation without refueling; elimination of an intermediate heat transport loop and main coolant pump; open core without individual subassemblies; inherent negative reactivity feedback; and inherent load following capability. Its one mission is to provide incremental electricity generation to match the needs of developing nations and especially remote communities without major electrical grid connections. BORIS consists of a reactor module, heat exchanger, coolant module, guard vessel, reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS), secondary system, containment and the seismic isolation. BORIS is designed to generate 10 MWe with the resulting thermal efficiency of 45 %. BORIS uses lead as the primary system coolant because of the inherent safety of the material. BORIS is coupled with a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle as the secondary system to gain a high cycle efficiency in the range of 45 %. The reference core consists of 757 fuel rods without assembly with an active core height of 0.8 m. The BORIS core consists of single enrichment zone composed of a Pu-MA (minor actinides)-U-N fuel and a ferritic-martensitic stainless steel clad. This study is intended to set up appropriate reactor vessel geometry by performing thermal hydraulic analysis on RVACS using computational fluid dynamics codes; to examine the liquid metal coolant behavior along the subchannels; to find out whether the

  15. Composition and solidification microstructure selection in the interdendritic matrix between primary Al{sub 3}Fe dendrites in hypereutectic Al-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, D.; Korgul, P.; Jones, H.

    1996-07-01

    The composition and constitution of matrix microstructure between plate-like Al{sub 3}Fe dendrites in Bridgman-grown hypereutectic Al-Fe alloys has been determined as a function of alloy concentration C{sub 0} and growth velocity V in the ranges 2.5 < C{sub 0} < 28.1 wt%Fe and 0.01 < V < 5.0 mm/s. The transition at V = 0.1 mm/s from a fully eutectic matrix at C{sub 0} = 3.5 wt%Fe to one containing {alpha}Al dendrites at C{sub 0} {ge} 4.7 wt%Fe is attributed to growth temperatures of {alpha}Al dendrites that are higher than those of eutectic in a matrix of lower iron-content, which results from these conditions. The matrix eutectic changes from irregular {alpha}-Al-Al{sub 3}Fe to regular {alpha}Al-Al{sub x}Fe with increasing V, the transition velocity increasing from 0.1 to 0.2 mm/s for C{sub 0} values of 9.5 and 14 wt%Fe up to 0.35--1.0 mm/s for C{sub 0} values of 18.7--28.1 wt%Fe. This increased transition velocity, compared with that for {alpha}-Al-Al{sub 3}Fe to {alpha}Al-Al{sub 6}Fe at lower concentration, is indicative of a lower formation temperature for the {alpha}Al-Al{sub x}Fe than the {alpha}Al-Al{sub 6}Fe eutectic.

  16. Cryptanalysis and improvement of Yan et al.'s biometric-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Dheerendra; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Chaturvedi, Ankita; Kumari, Saru; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2014-06-01

    Remote user authentication is desirable for a Telecare Medicine Information System (TMIS) for the safety, security and integrity of transmitted data over the public channel. In 2013, Tan presented a biometric based remote user authentication scheme and claimed that his scheme is secure. Recently, Yan et al. demonstrated some drawbacks in Tan's scheme and proposed an improved scheme to erase the drawbacks of Tan's scheme. We analyze Yan et al.'s scheme and identify that their scheme is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack, and does not protect anonymity. Moreover, in their scheme, login and password change phases are inefficient to identify the correctness of input where inefficiency in password change phase can cause denial of service attack. Further, we design an improved scheme for TMIS with the aim to eliminate the drawbacks of Yan et al.'s scheme. PMID:24880932

  17. Measured Activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni) and gamma'-(Ni)3Al in the Ni-Al-Pt System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2007-01-01

    Adding Pt to Ni-Al coatings is critical to achieving the required oxidation protection of Ni-based superalloys, but the nature of the Pt effect remains unresolved. This research provides a fundamental part of the answer by measuring the influence of Pt on the activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni), gamma prime-(Ni)3Al and liquid in the Ni-Al-Pt system. Measurements have been made at 25 compositions in the Ni-rich corner over the temperature range, T = 1400-1750 K, by the vapor pressure technique with a multiple effusion-cell mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). These measurements clearly show adding Pt (for X(sub Pt) less than 0.25) decreases a(Al) while increasing a(Ni). This solution behavior supports the idea that Pt increases Al transport to an alloy / Al2O3 interface and also limits the interaction between the coating and substrate alloys in the gamma-(Ni) + gamma prime-(Ni)3Al region. This presentation will review the progress of this study.

  18. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  19. Biology and Treatment of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Algazi, Alain P.; Kadoch, Cigall; Rubenstein, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare variant of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is restricted in distribution to the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord and intraocular compartments. While PCNSL shares overlapping features of systemic lymphoma, recent studies also reveal a unique pattern of gene and protein expression in PCNSL. These findings have yielded new insights into the pathophysiology of the disease as well as the identification of novel prognostic biomarkers. Immune system compromise such as that seen in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome is the best established known risk factor for PCNSL. Like other lesions of the brain, meninges, and eye, the presenting symptoms associated with PCNSL typically include focal neurological deficits related to the site of disease or more global consequences of increased intracranial pressure. Diagnosis of PCNSL typically includes gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and pathological tissue analysis as well as additional studies aimed at excluding concurrent systemic disease. PCNSL is typically associated with a worse overall prognosis than systemic lymphoma. High dose chemotherapy, particularly with methotrexate-based regimens, is the backbone of therapy for most patients and chemotherapy is associated with much lower rates of treatment-related morbidity and mortality than whole brain irradiation. Autologous stem cell transplantation is an emerging treatment modality, particularly in younger patients with relapsed disease, but high rates of treatment related mortality are observed in older patients. Immunotherapy, including treatment with intrathecal rituximab, is another area of active research that may have promise in refractory or relapsed disease. Treatment options for intraocular lymphoma parallel those for PCNSL elsewhere in the brain and they included systemic chemotherapy, radiation, and local delivery of cytotoxic and immunologically-active agents such as anti-CD20

  20. Phase and structural behaviour of the PrAlO3-LaAlO3 pseudo-binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basyuk, T.; Vasylechko, L.; Fadeev, S.; Syvorotka, I. I.; Trots, D.; Niewa, R.

    2009-10-01

    High-resolution in situ X-ray powder diffraction applying synchrotron radiation has been used to examine the occurring crystal structures and the thermal behaviour of the solid solution Pr1-xLaxAlO3 in a wide temperature range 12-1173 K. At room temperature all studied samples in the whole composition range of the pseudo-binary system PrAlO3-LaAlO3 adopt a rhombohedral perovskite structure. The phases Pr1-xLaxAlO3 with x=0.56 and 0.66 undergo a sequence of three phase transitions I2/m↔Imma↔R3¯c↔Pm3¯m. For the sample with x=0.24 a series of four (I4/mcm↔I2/m↔Imma↔R3¯c↔Pm3¯m) phase transitions has been observed and for x=0.86 two transformations were apparent (I2/m↔R3¯c↔Pm3¯m). Crystal structure parameters for all studied compositions Pr1-xLaxAlO3 have been determined. Based on in situ powder diffraction and DTA/DSC data, the phase diagram of the pseudo-binary system PrAlO3-LaAlO3 has been constructed.

  1. Chemotherapy in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Sadraei, Nooshin; Peereboom, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) accounts for only 3% of brain tumors. It can involve the brain parenchyma, leptomeninges, eyes and the spinal cord. Unlike systemic lymphoma, durable remissions remain uncommon. Although phase III trials in this rare disease are difficult to perform, many phase II trials have attempted to define standards of care. Treatment modalities for patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL include radiation and/or chemotherapy. While the role of radiation therapy for initial management of PCNSL is controversial, clinical trials will attempt to improve the therapeutic index of this modality. Routes of chemotherapy administration include intravenous, intraocular, intraventricular or intra-arterial. Multiple trials have outlined different methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens and have used local techniques to improve drug delivery. A major challenge in the management of patients with PCNSL remains the delivery of aggressive treatment with preservation of neurocognitive function. Because PCNSL is rare, it is important to perform multicenter clinical trials and to incorporate detailed measurements of long-term toxicities. In this review we focus on different chemotherapeutic approaches for immunocompetent patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL and discuss the role of local drug delivery in addition to systemic therapy. We also address the neurocognitive toxicity of treatment. PMID:21789140

  2. Combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composite materials - The TiC-Al2O3-Al system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, H. J.; Moore, John J.; Wirth, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion synthesis was applied for producing ceramic-metal composites with reduced levels of porosity, by allowing an excess amount of liquid metal, generated by the exothermic reaction during synthesis, to infiltrate the pores. It is shown that this method, when applied to TiC-Al2O3 system, led to a decreased level of porosity in the resulting TiC-Al2O3-Al product, as compared with that of TiC-Al2O3 system. This in situ procedure is more efficient than the two-stage conventional processes (i.e., sintering followed by liquid metal infiltration), although there are limitations with respect to total penetration of the liquid metal and maintaining a stable propagation of the combustion reaction.

  3. The Australian experiment: how primary health care organizations supported the evolution of a primary health care system.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Caroline; Jackson, Claire L; Marley, John E; Wells, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Primary health care in Australia has undergone 2 decades of change. Starting with a vision for a national health strategy with general practice at its core, Australia established local meso-level primary health care organizations--Divisions of General Practice--moving from focus on individual practitioners to a professional collective local voice. The article identifies how these meso-level organizations have helped the Australian primary health care system evolve by supporting the roll-out of initiatives including national practice accreditation, a focus on quality improvement, expansion of multidisciplinary teams into general practice, regional integration, information technology adoption, and improved access to care. Nevertheless, there are still challenges to ensuring equitable access and the supply and distribution of a primary care workforce, addressing the increasing rates of chronic disease and obesity, and overcoming the fragmentation of funding and accountability in the Australian system. PMID:22403246

  4. Thermodynamic Assessment of the Aluminum Corner of the Al-Fe-Mn-Si System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, Jacques; Eleno, Luiz; Sundman, Bo

    2010-09-01

    A new assessment of the aluminum corner of the quaternary Al-Fe-Mn-Si system has been made that extends beyond the COST-507 database. This assessment makes use of a recent, improved description of the ternary Al-Fe-Si system. In the present work, modeling of the Al-rich corner of the quaternary Al-Fe-Mn-Si system has been carried out by introducing Fe solubility into the so-called alpha-AlMnSi and beta-AlMnSi phases of the Al-Mn-Si system. A critical review of the data available on the quaternary system is presented and used for the extension of the description of these ternary phases into the quaternary Al-Fe-Mn-Si.

  5. NiAl-based Polyphase in situ Composites in the NiAl-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Polyphase in situ composites were generated by directional solidification of ternary eutectics. This work was performed to discover if a balance of properties could be produced by combining the NiAl-Laves phase and the NiAl-refractory metal phase eutectics. The systems investigated were the Ni-Al-Ta-X (X = Cr, Mo, or V) alloys. Ternary eutectics were found in each of these systems and the eutectic composition, temperature, and morphology were determined. The ternary eutectic systems examined were the NiAl-NiAlTa-(Mo, Ta), NiAl-(Cr, Al) NiTa-Cr, and the NiAl-NiAlTa-V systems. Each eutectic consists of NiAl, a C14 Laves phase, and a refractory metal phase. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques in a levitation zone refiner to minimize alloy contamination. Room temperature fracture toughness of these materials was determined by a four-point bend test. Preliminary creep behavior was determined by compression tests at elevated temperatures, 1100-l400 K. Of the ternary eutectics, the one in the NiAl-Ta-Cr system was found to be the most promising. The fracture toughness of the NiAl-(Cr, Al)NiTa-Cr eutectic was intermediate between the values of the NiAl-NiAlTa eutectic and the NiAl-Cr eutectic. The creep strength of this ternary eutectic was similar to or greater than that of the NiAl-Cr eutectic.

  6. [Primary central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders].

    PubMed

    Honda, Masaya; Koga, Michiaki; Kanda, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    The post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a heterogeneous disease entity of lymphoid and plasmacytic proliferations that can occur after solid organ and bone marrow/stem cell transplantation. PTLD sometimes involves the central nervous system (CNS), but primary occurrence in central nervous system (PCNS-PTLD) is rare. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a causative role, and up to 90% of the tumors are associated with this virus. Diagnosing PCNS-PTLD is often challenging based solely on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and physical findings; therefore, direct biopsy of the lesion is usually necessary to make a definitive diagnosis. The optimal therapy for PCNS-PTLD remains unknown. Dose reduction or discontinuation of immunosuppressive agents is effective for approximately half of PTLD patients, but not for most patients with PCNS-PTLD. It has been noted that CNS involvement is a poor prognostic factor, but early diagnosis and initiation of chemotherapy or radiotherapy seem critical for maximizing the likelihood of a favorable outcome. PMID:25082316

  7. Genomic characterization of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Fukumura, Kazutaka; Kawazu, Masahito; Kojima, Shinya; Ueno, Toshihide; Sai, Eirin; Soda, Manabu; Ueda, Hiroki; Yasuda, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Lee, Jeunghun; Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Sasaki, Atsushi; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Ichimura, Koichi; Mukasa, Akitake; Narita, Yoshitaka; Saito, Nobuhito; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Nishikawa, Ryo; Nagane, Motoo; Mano, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare malignancy confined to the central nervous system (CNS), and majority of PCNSL is pathologically classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We have now performed whole-exome sequencing for 41 tumor tissues of DLBCL-type PCNSL and paired normal specimens and also RNA-sequencing for 30 tumors, revealing a very high frequency of nonsynonymous somatic mutations in PIM1 (100 %), BTG2 (92.7 %), and MYD88 (85.4 %). Many genes in the NF-κB pathway are concurrently mutated within the same tumors. Further, focal deletion or somatic mutations in the HLA genes are associated with poor prognosis. Copy number amplification and overexpression of genes at chromosome 7q35 were both found to predict short progression-free survival as well. Oncogenic mutations in GRB2 were also detected, the effects of which in cultured cells were attenuated by inhibitors of the downstream kinases MAP2K1 and MAP2K2. Individuals with tumors positive for MYD88 mutations also harbored the same mutations at a low frequency in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting that MYD88 mutation-positive precancerous cells originate outside of the CNS and develop into lymphoma after additional genetic hits that confer adaptation to the CNS environment. PMID:26757737

  8. Lattice crossover and phase transitions in NdAlO3-GdAlO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylechko, L.; Shmanko, H.; Ohon, N.; Prots, Yu.; Hoffmann, S.; Ubizskii, S.

    2013-02-01

    Phase and structural behaviour in the (1-x)NdAlO3-xGdAlO3 system in a whole concentration range has been studied by means of in situ high-resolution X-ray synchrotron powder diffraction technique and differential thermal analysis. Two kinds of solid solutions Nd1-xGdxAlO3 have been found at room temperature: one with rhombohedral (x<0.15) and one with orthorhombic (x≥0.20) symmetry. A morphotropic phase transition occurs at x≈0.15, where the co-existence of both phases was observed. Peculiarity of the orthorhombic solid solution is the lattice parameter crossover at the compositions with x=0.33, 0.49 and 0.62. First-order structural transition Pbnm↔R3¯с has been detected both from in situ powder diffraction and thermal analysis data. Continuous phase transformation R3¯с↔Pm3¯m above 2140 K has been predicted for Nd-rich sample Nd0.85Gd0.15AlO3 from the extrapolation of high-temperature behaviour of the lattice parameter ratio of the rhombohedral phase. Based on the experimental data, the phase diagram of the pseudo-binary system NdAlO3-GdAlO3 has been constructed.

  9. Interdiffusion and Intrinsic Diffusion in the Mg-Al System

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Sohn, Yong Ho; Kulkarni, Nagraj S

    2012-01-01

    Solid-to-solid diffusion couples were assembled and annealed to examine the diffusion between pure Mg (99.96%) and Al (99.999%). Diffusion anneals were carried out at 300 , 350 , and 400 C for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were utilized to identify the formation of the intermetallic phases, -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2 and absence of the -phase in the diffusion couples. Thicknesses of the -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2 phases were measured and the parabolic growth constants were calculated to determine the activation energies for the growth, 165 and 86 KJ/mole, respectively. Concentration profiles were determined with electron microprobe analysis using pure elemental standards. Composition-dependent interdiffusion coefficients in Mg-solid solution, -Al12Mg17 and - Al3Mg2 and Al-solid solutions were calculated based on the Boltzmann-Matano analysis. Average effective interdiffusion coefficients for each phase were also calculated, and the magnitude was the highest for the -Al3Mg2 phase, followed by -Al12Mg17, Al-solid solution and Mg-solid solution. Intrinsic diffusion coefficients based on Huemann s analysis (e.g., marker plane) were determined for the ~38 at.% Mg in the -Al3Mg2 phase. Activation energies and the pre-exponential factors for the inter- and intrinsic diffusion coefficients were calculated for the temperature range examined. The -Al3Mg2 phase was found to have the lowest activation energies for growth and interdiffusion among all four phases studied. At the marker location in the -Al3Mg2 phase, the intrinsic diffusion of Al was found to be faster than that of Mg. Extrapolations of the impurity diffusion coefficients in the terminal solid solutions were made and compared to the available self- and impurity diffusion data from literature. Thermodynamic factor, tracer diffusion coefficients and atomic mobilities at the marker plane composition were approximated using available literature values of Mg activity in the -Al

  10. Leptomeningeal metastasis of primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Herbert H; Corsten, Luke A

    2005-01-01

    Leptomeningeal dissemination of primary CNS tumors varies widely by histologic subtype. In certain tumors including medulloblastoma, ependymoma, germ cell tumors, and primary CNS lymphoma, seeding of the cerebrospinal fluid space is a critical factor in determining stage, prognosis and appropriate therapy. Other tumor types, such as glioma, may have radiographic evidence of leptomeningeal metastases without clear impact on prognosis or therapy. PMID:16211884

  11. New approaches in primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Eleanor; Gruenberg, Katherine; Rubenstein, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has long been associated with an inferior prognosis compared to other aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHLs). However, during the past 10 years an accumulation of clinical experience has demonstrated that long-term progression-free survival (PFS) can be attained in a major proportion of PCNSL patients who receive dose-intensive consolidation chemotherapy and avoid whole brain radiotherapy. One recent approach that has reproducibly demonstrated efficacy for newly diagnosed PCNSL patients is an immunochemotherapy combination regimen used during induction that consists of methotrexate, temozolomide, and rituximab followed by consolidative infusional etoposide plus high-dose cytarabine (EA), administered in first complete remission (CR). Other high-dose chemotherapy-based consolidative regimens have shown efficacy as well. Our goal in this review is to update principles of diagnosis and management as well as data regarding the molecular pathogenesis of PCNSL, information that may constitute a basis for development of more effective therapies required to make additional advances in this phenotype of aggressive NHL. PMID:25841718

  12. Clinical epidemiology for childhood primary central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Bauchet, Luc; Rigau, Valérie; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Palenzuela, Gilles; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Moritz, Jorge; Puget, Stéphanie; Bauchet, Fabienne; Pallusseau, Lorelei; Duffau, Hugues; Coubes, Philippe; Trétarre, Brigitte; Labrousse, François; Dhellemmes, Patrick

    2009-03-01

    This work was conducted by the French Brain Tumor Data Bank (FBTDB) and aims to prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumors (PCNST), in France, for which histological diagnosis is available. Results concerning children are presented. This study analyzes the childhood cases (0-19 years) of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST (during the years 2004-2006) which have been recorded by the FBTDB. All French neuropathology and neurosurgery departments participated in this program. Neurosurgeons and neuropathologists completed a data file containing socio-demographic, clinical, radiologic and anatomopathologic information. The Tumor Registry from Herault was authorized to compile the data files with personal identifiers. About 1,017 cases (533 boys and 484 girls) of newly diagnosed childhood PCNST have been recorded (gliomas: 52%, all other neuroepithelial tumors: 31%, craniopharyngioma: 5%, germ cell tumors, meningioma and neurinoma: approximately 3% each, all histological subtypes have been detailed). Tumor resections were performed in 83.3%, and biopsies in 16.7%. The distributions by histology, cryopreservation of the samples, age, sex, tumor site and surgery have been detailed. To our knowledge, this work is the first databank in Europe dedicated to PCNST that includes the collection of clinical, radiological and histological data (including cryopreservation of the specimen). The long term goals of the FBTDB are to create a national registry and a network to perform epidemiological studies, to implement clinical and basic research protocols, and to evaluate and harmonize the healthcare of children and adult patients affected by PCNST. PMID:19020806

  13. Radiation Therapy for Primary Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Biliary System

    PubMed Central

    Flickinger, John C.; Epstein, Alan H.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Carr, Brian I.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    From 1976 to 1988, 63 patients received radiation therapy for primary cancers of the extrahepatic biliary system (eight gallbladder and 55 extrahepatic biliary duct). Twelve patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. Chemotherapy was administered to 13 patients. Three patients underwent intraluminal brachytherapy alone (range, 28 to 55 Gy). Sixty patients received megavoltage external-beam radiation therapy (range, 5.4 to 61.6 Gy; median, 45 Gy), of whom nine received additional intraluminal brachytherapy (range, 14 to 45 Gy; median, 30 Gy). The median survival of all patients was 7 months. Sixty patients died, all within 39 months of radiation therapy. One patient is alive 11 months after irradiation without surgical resection, and two are alive 50 months after liver transplantation and irradiation. Symptomatic duodenal ulcers developed after radiation therapy in seven patients but were not significantly related to any clinical variable tested. Extrahepatic biliary duct cancers, the absence of metastases, increasing calendar year of treatment, and liver transplantation with postoperative radiation therapy were factors significantly associated with improved survival. PMID:2070327

  14. Primary immunodeficiency diseases: dissectors of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Rebecca H

    2002-07-01

    The past 50 years have seen enormous progress in this field. An unknown concept until 1952, there are now more than 100 different primary immunodeficiency syndromes in the world's literature. Each novel syndrome has shed new insight into the workings of the immune system, dissecting its multiple parts into unique functioning components. This has been especially true over the past decade, as the molecular bases of approximately 40 of these diseases have been identified in rapid succession. Advances in the treatment of these diseases have also been impressive. Antibody replacement has been improved greatly by the development of human immunoglobulin preparations that can be safely administered by the intravenous route, and cytokine and humanized anticytokine therapies are now possible through recombinant technologies. The ability to achieve life-saving immune reconstitution of patients with lethal severe combined immunodeficiency by administering rigorously T-cell-depleted allogeneic related haploidentical bone marrow stem cells has extended this option to virtually all such infants, if diagnosed before untreatable infections develop. Finally, the past 3 years have witnessed the first truly successful gene therapy. The impressive results in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency offer hope that this approach can be extended to many more diseases in the future. PMID:12190932

  15. Reversible Ammonia Sorption for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of regenerable trace-contaminant (TC) sorbent for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). Since ammonia is the most important TC to be captured, data presented in this paper are limited to ammonia sorption, with results relevant to other TCs to be reported at a later time. The currently available TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal. The sorbent is non-regenerable, and its use is associated with appreciable pressure drop, i.e. power consumption. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using vacuum-regenerable sorbents for PLSS application. In this study, several carbon sorbent monoliths were fabricated and tested. Multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, as well as carbon surface conditioning that enhances ammonia sorption without impairing sorbent regeneration. Depending on sorbent monolith geometry, the reduction in pressure drop with respect to granular sorbent was found to be between 50% and two orders of magnitude. Resistive heating of the carbon sorbent monolith was demonstrated by applying voltage to the opposite ends of the monolith.

  16. Crystalline Al1 - x Ti x phases in the hydrogen cycled NaAlH4 + 0.02TiCl3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, M. P.; Vullum, P. E.; Sørby, M. H.; Emerich, H.; Paskevicius, M.; Buckley, C. E.; Gray, E. MacA.; Walmsley, J. C.; Holmestad, R.; Hauback, B. C.

    2013-03-01

    The hydrogen (H) cycled planetary milled (PM) NaAlH4 + 0.02TiCl3 system has been studied by high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy during the first 10 H cycles. After the first H absorption, we observe the formation of four nanoscopic crystalline (c-) Ti-containing phases embedded on the NaAlH4 surface, i.e. Al2Ti, Al3Ti, Al82Ti18 and Al89Ti11, with 100% of the originally added Ti atoms accounted for. Al2Ti and Al3Ti are observed morphologically as a mechanical couple on the NaAlH4 surface, with a moderately strained interface. Electron diffraction shows that the Al82Ti18 phase retains some ordering from the L12 structure type, with the observation of forbidden (100) ordering reflections in the fcc Al82Ti18 lattice. After 2 H cycles the NaAlH4 + 0.02TiCl3 system displays only two crystalline Ti-containing phases, Al3Ti and Al89Ti11. After 10 H cycles, the Al89Ti11 is completely converted to Al85Ti15. Al89Ti11, Al85Ti15 and Al3Ti do not display any ordering reflections, and they are modeled in the A1 structure type. Quantitative phase analysis indicates that the Al3Ti proportion continues to increase with further H cycles. The formation of Ti-poor Al1 - x Ti x (x < 0.25) phases in later H cycles is detrimental to hydrogenation kinetics, compared to the starting Ti-richer near-surface Al2Ti/NaAlH4 interface present during the first absorption of hydrogen.

  17. ALS - The cost cutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Frank

    1987-10-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) development program will avail itself of existing technologies in the short term in order to produce an interim 'core' vehicle that may be operational by 1993; the full, booster-incorporating system objective will then be achieved in 1998. This programmatic 'decoupling' of booster and core vehicle development efforts will separate their funding peaks. The ALS program will cut costs by colocating manufacturing and launch facilities, using Al-Li alloys in booster primary structures, and aggressively applying 'paperless' CIM. The ALS launch vehicle configuration will be primarily determined by both payload requirements and flight frequency.

  18. Comment on 'The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity - Use of a new data compilation to test satellite algorithms' by William Balch et al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1993-01-01

    Various conclusions by Balch et al. (1992) about the current state of modeling primary production in the sea (lack of improvement in primary production models, since 1957, utility of analytical models, and merits or weaknesses of complex models) are commented on. It is argued that since they are based on a false premise, these conclusions are not robust, and that the approach used by Balch et al. (the model of Platt and Sathyendranath, 1988) was inadequate for the question they set out to address. The present criticism is based mainly on the issue of whether implementation was correct with respect to parameter selection. It is concluded that the findings of Balch et al. with respect to the model of Platt and Sathyendranath is unreliable. Balch replies that satellite-derived estimates of primary production should be compared directly to that measured in situ in as many regions as possible. This will provide a first-order estimate of the magnitude of the error involved in estimating primary production from space.

  19. Discharge properties of Mg-Al-Mn-Ca and Mg-Al-Mn alloys as anode materials for primary magnesium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Motohiro; Huang, Xinsheng; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Mabuchi, Mamoru; Chino, Yasumasa

    2015-11-01

    The discharge behaviors of rolled Mg-6 mass%Al-0.3 mass%Mn-2 mass%Ca (AMX602) and Mg-6 mass%Al-0.3 mass%Mn (AM60) alloys used as anodes for Magnesium-air batteries were investigated. The AMX602 alloy exhibited superior discharge properties compared to the AM60 alloy, especially at low current density. The discharge products of the AMX602 alloy were dense and thin, and many cracks were observed at all current densities. In addition, the discharge products were detached at some sites. These sites often corresponded to the positions of Al2Ca particles. The comparison of the discharge and corrosion tests indicated that the dense and thin discharge products of AMX602 were easily cracked by dissolution of the Mg matrix around Al2Ca particles, and the cracks promoted the penetration of the electrolyte into the discharge products, retaining the discharge activity. In contrast, concerning the AM60 alloy, thick discharge products were formed on the surface during discharge, and cracking of the discharge products hardly occurred, degrading the discharge properties. Localized and deeply corroded pits that could result from the detachment of metal pieces from the anode during discharge were partly observed in the AM60 alloy. It is suggested that these detached metal pieces are another reason for the low discharge properties of the AM60 alloy.

  20. Development of Effective Academic Affairs Administration System in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thongnoi, Niratchakorn; Srisa-ard, Boonchom; Sri-ampai, Anan

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) study current situations and problems of academic affairs administration system in Primary Schools. 2) develop an effective academic affairs administration system, and 3) evaluate the implementation of the developed system in the primary school, Thailand. Research and Development (R&D) was employed which consisted of…

  1. Vapor Pressures in the Al(I)+Al2O3(s) System: Reconsidering Al2O3(s) Condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2005-01-01

    The vaporization behavior of the A1-O system has been studied on numerous occasions but significant uncertainties remain. The origin of this uncertainty must be understood before A1-O vaporization behavior can be accurately determined. The condensation of A12O3 and clogging of the effusion orifice is a difficult problem for the Knudsen effusion technique that influences the measured vaporization behavior but has only received limited attention. This study reconsiders this behavior in detail. A new theory for A12O3 condensation is proposed together with procedures that will improve the measured thermodynamic properties of A1-O vaporization.

  2. Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: A Structural and Strategic Family Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Teresa B.

    2000-01-01

    Exploration of the literature regarding primary nocturnal enuresis suggests there are various causes including genetic, biological, physiological, and psychological explanations. Treatments typically consist of medication and behavioral intervention. However, it was believed that this enuretic case was caused by psychological trauma. A series of…

  3. Primary systemic amyloidosis as a real diagnostic challenge – case study

    PubMed Central

    Jerzykowska, Sonia; Gil, Lidia A.; Balcerzak, Andrzej; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Komarnicki, Mieczysław A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary amyloidosis (AL) is a rare variety of plasma cell dyscrasia, the diagnosis of which is often difficult to establish. Pathogenesis of amyloidosis involves extracellular deposition of insoluble protein fibrils in tissues, leading to insufficiency of affected organs. According to various sources, mean survival rate of patients with primary amyloidosis ranges from 12 to 24 months, making primary amyloidosis a disease with a very poor prognosis. Survival rate is significantly lowered in case of cardiac manifestation of amyloidosis (about 6 months survival in untreated patients). In recent years a considerable progress in AL treatment has been observed. Nowadays we are able not only to delay progression of amyloidosis, but also to improve the function of the affected organs. Unfortunately as first signs and symptoms of AL are usually nonspecific, the diagnosis of AL is often delayed, resulting in late introduction of optimal therapy. There are many diagnostic tests which can be used in diagnostic process of amyloidosis, i.e. electrophoresis, serum and urine immunofixation or affected organs and bone marrow biopsy. On establishing the diagnosis in a patient with suspected amyloidosis it should be remembered that particular diagnostic methods vary considerably in sensitivity. The aim of this paper is to present a case report of a 27-year-old patient with primary amyloidosis focusing on diagnostic aspect of this condition. On the basis of this case, the authors would like to emphasize the value of precise diagnostic process, with immunological techniques playing undoubtedly a crucial role. PMID:26155101

  4. Iraqi primary care system in Kurdistan region: providers’ perspectives on problems and opportunities for improvement

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As part of a comprehensive study on the primary health care system in Iraq, we sought to explore primary care providers’ perspectives about the main problems influencing the provision of primary care services and opportunities to improve the system. Methods A qualitative study based on four focus groups involving 40 primary care providers from 12 primary health care centres was conducted in Erbil governorate in the Iraqi Kurdistan region between July and October 2010. A topic guide was used to lead discussions and covered questions on positive aspects of and current problems with the primary care system in addition to the priority needs for its improvement. The discussions were fully transcribed and the qualitative data was analyzed by content analysis, followed by a thematic analysis. Results Problems facing the primary care system included inappropriate health service delivery (irrational use of health services, irrational treatment, poor referral system, poor infrastructure and poor hygiene), health workforce challenges (high number of specialists, uneven distribution of the health workforce, rapid turnover, lack of training and educational opportunities and discrepancies in the salary system), shortage in resources (shortage and low quality of medical supplies and shortage in financing), poor information technology and poor leadership/governance. The greatest emphasis was placed on poor organization of health services delivery, particularly the irrational use of health services and the related overcrowding and overload on primary care providers and health facilities. Suggestions for improving the system included application of a family medicine approach and ensuring effective planning and monitoring. Conclusions This study has provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that negatively affect the primary care system in Iraq’s Kurdistan region from the perspective of primary care providers. From their experience, primary care providers

  5. Modelacio de sedimentadors en plantes de tractament d'aigues residuals. Aplicacio al proces de fermentacio - elutracio de fangs primaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribes Bertomeu, Josep

    the development and validation of a general settling model that allows simulating the main settling operations taking place in a WWTP, considering both primary and secondary settlers and thickeners. It consists in a one-dimensional model based on the flux theory of Kynch and the double-exponential settling function of Takacs that takes into account flocculation, hindered settling and compression processes. The model has been applied to simulation of settlers and thickeners by means of splitting the system into several horizontal layers, all of them considered as completely mixed reactors which are interconnected by mass flux obtained from the settling model. In order to simulate the conversion processes taking place during sedimentation, the general quality model BNRM1 has been added, and it has been proposed an iterative procedure for solving the equations for each layer in which the settler has been divided. The settling flux model validation, along with the quality model, has been carried out by applying them to a simulation of primary sludge fermentation - elutriation process. This process has been studied on a pilot plant located in the Carraixet WWTP in Alboraia (Valencia). In order to simulate the observed decrease in solids separation efficiency in the studied fermentation - elutriation process, the quality model has been modified with the addition of a new process called "disintegration of complex particulate material". This process influences the settleability of the sludge because it is considered that the disintegrated solids become non-settleable solids. This modification implies the addition of two new kinetic parameters (the specific disintegration velocity for volatile particulate material and the specific disintegration velocity for non volatile particulate material). However, the settling parameter that represents the non-settleable fraction of total suspended solids is eliminated from the model and it has been transformed into an experimental

  6. Distributed information system architecture for Primary Health Care.

    PubMed

    Grammatikou, M; Stamatelopoulos, F; Maglaris, B

    2000-01-01

    We present a distributed architectural framework for Primary Health Care (PHC) Centres. Distribution is handled through the introduction of the Roaming Electronic Health Care Record (R-EHCR) and the use of local caching and incremental update of a global index. The proposed architecture is designed to accommodate a specific PHC workflow model. Finally, we discuss a pilot implementation in progress, which is based on CORBA and web-based user interfaces. However, the conceptual architecture is generic and open to other middleware approaches like the DHE or HL7. PMID:11187702

  7. Design and analysis of large spaceborne light-weighted primary mirror and its support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong; Jin, Guang; Yang, Hong-bo

    2007-12-01

    With the development of the resolution of spaceborne remote sensor, the diameter of the primary mirror of spaceborne telescope becomes larger and larger. The distortion of primary mirror which is influenced by the mirror material, structure, self-weight, support system and temperature environment affects optical image quality finally. In this paper, an on-axis TMA high-resolution Cassegrain optical payload with a primary mirror whose diameter is φ 650mm was designed and the effects of the influence factors of the distortion acts on the on-axis TMA optical system primary mirror had been analyzed by means of Finite Element Analysis. During work, the technology of the primary mirror design had been summarized and general consideration of the primary mirror design technology also had been described at the same time. Considering the telescope manufacture and work station, a reasonable and optimal structure of the primary mirror sub-assembly is taken finally. In the end, the distortion of the primary mirror during its fabrication station and work station had been analyzed by integrated Finite Element Analysis Method. The results implicated the synthesis profile error (P-V value) for the primary mirror is less than λ/10 and all the indexes of the primary mirror satisfy the requirements of the optical system.

  8. A finite element model of the effects of primary creep in an Al-SiC metal matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Steven L.; Gibeling, Jeffery C.

    1995-12-01

    A two dimensional axisymmetric finite element model has been developed to study the creep behavior of a high-temperature aluminum alloy matrix (alloy 8009) reinforced with 11 vol pct silicon carbide paniculate. Because primary creep represents a significant portion of the total creep strain for this matrix alloy, the emphasis of the present investigation is on the influence of primary creep on the high-temperature behavior of the composite. The base alloy and composite are prepared by rapid solidification processing, resulting in a very fine grain size and the absence of precipitates that may complicate modeling of the composite. Because the matrix microstructure is unaffected by the presence of the SiC paniculate, this material is particularly well suited to continuum finite element modeling. Stress contours, strain contours, and creep curves are presented for the model. While the final distribution of stresses and strains is unaffected by the inclusion of primary creep, the overall creep response of the model reveals a significant primary strain transient. The effects of true primary creep are more significant than the primary-like transient introduced by the redistribution of stresses after loading. Examination of the stress contours indicates that the matrix axial and shear components become less uniform while the effective stress becomes more homogeneous as creep progresses and that the distribution of stresses do not change significantly with time after the strain rate reaches a steady state. These results also confirm that load transfer from the matrix to reinforcement occurs primarily through the shear stress. It is concluded that inclusion of matrix primary creep is essential to obtaining accurate representations of the creep response of metal matrix composites.

  9. The W. M. Keck Telescope segmented primary mirror active control system

    SciTech Connect

    Jared, R.C.; Arthur, A.A.; Andreae, S.; Biocca, A.; Cohen, R.W.; Fuertes, J.M.; Franck, J.; Gabor, G.; Llacer, J.; Mast, T.; Meng, J.; Merrick, T.; Minor, R.; Nelson, J.; Orayani, M.; Salz, P.; Schaefer, B.; Witebsky, C.

    1989-07-01

    The ten meter diameter primary mirror of the W. M. Keck Telescope is a mosaic of thirty-six hexagonal mirrors. An active control system stabilizes the primary mirror. The active control system uses 168 measurements of the relative positions of adjacent mirror segments and 3 measurements of the primary mirror position in the telescope structure to control the 108 degrees of freedom needed to stabilize the figure and position of the primary mirror. The components of the active control system are relative position sensors, electronics, computers, actuators that position the mirrors, and software. The software algorithms control the primary mirror, perform star image stacking, emulate the segments, store and fit calibration data, and locate hardware defects. We give an overview of the active control system, its functional requirements and test measurements. 12 refs.

  10. Description of the primary flight display and flight guidance system logic in the NASA B-737 transport systems research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A primary flight display format was integrated with the flight guidance and control system logic in support of various flight tests conducted with the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle B-737-100 airplane. The functional operation of the flight guidance mode control panel and the corresponding primary flight display formats are presented.

  11. Contribution of polymers to classical primary insulation of distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Shwehdi, M.H.; Al-Rawi, A.

    1996-12-31

    Insulation composites used on present distribution lines frequently consist of several types of materials such as wood, porcelain, polymers and fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) connected in series. A study included the laboratory determination of the critical flashover voltage (CFO) of 17 single component and 90 combinations of two components were conducted. The acquired data were used to develop methods of predicting CFO levels of various multiple series electrical insulations. This paper illustrates the results and analyses of the classical primary insulation (porcelain), and of the modern-day insulation of polymers. It also presents the result of whether polymers may add or supplement insulation strength to the two dielectric combination using statistical methods. The paper also presents advantages and guidelines for the use of polymers to either replace or complement porcelain. This may help optimize the choice of dielectrics on distribution lines.

  12. Control System Modeling for the Thirty Meter Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacMynowski, Douglas G.; Thompson, Peter M.; Shelton, J. Chris; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Colavita, M. Mark; Sirota, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope primary mirror is composed of 492 segments that are controlled to high precision in the presence of wind and vibration disturbances, despite the interaction with structural dynamics. The higher bandwidth and larger number of segments compared with the Keck telescopes requires greater attention to modeling to ensure success. We focus here on the development and validation of a suite of quasi-static and dynamic modeling tools required to support the design process, including robustness verification, performance estimation, and requirements flowdown. Models are used to predict the dynamic response due to wind and vibration disturbances, estimate achievable bandwidth in the presence of control-structure-interaction (CSI) and uncertainty in the interaction matrix, and simulate and analyze control algorithms and strategies, e.g. for control of focus-mode, and sensor calibration. Representative results illustrate TMT performance scaling with parameters, but the emphasis is on the modeling framework itself.

  13. The SWRL Audio Laboratory System (ALS): An Integrated Configuration for Psychomusicology Research. Technical Report 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David Brian; Hoskin, Richard K.

    This report describes features of the Audio Laboratory System (ALS), a device which supports research activities of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's Music Program. The ALS is used primarily to generate recorded audio tapes for psychomusicology research related to children's perception and learning of music concepts such as pitch, loudness,…

  14. [Differences and similarities of primary care in the German and Spanish health care systems].

    PubMed

    Salvador Comino, María Rosa; Krane, Sibylla; Schelling, Jörg; Regife García, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    An efficient primary care is of particular importance for any countries' health care system. Many differences exist on how distinctive countries try to obtain the goal of an efficient, cost-effective primary care for its population. In this article we conducted a selective literature review, which includes both scientific and socio-political publications. The findings are complemented with the experience of a Spanish physician from Seville in her last year of training in family medicine, who completed a four months long rotation in the German health care system. We highlighted different features by comparing both countries, including their health care expenditure, the relation between primary and secondary care, the organization in the academic field and the training of future primary care physicians. It is clear that primary care in both countries plays a central role, have to deal with shortcomings, and in some points one system can learn from the other. PMID:26363955

  15. Power Systems for Future Missions: Appendices A-L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Selection of power system technology for space applications is typically based on mass, readiness of a particular technology to meet specific mission requirements, and life cycle costs (LCC). The LCC is typically used as a discriminator between competing technologies for a single mission application. All other future applications for a given technology are usually ignored. As a result, development cost of a technology becomes a dominant factor in the LCC comparison. Therefore, it is common for technologies such as DIPS and LMR-CBC to be potentially applicable to a wide range of missions and still lose out in the initial LCC comparison due to high development costs. This collection of appendices (A through L) contains the following power systems technology plans: CBC DIPS Technology Roadmap; PEM PFC Technology Roadmap; NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; PV/RFC Power System Technology Roadmap; PV/NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; Thermionic Reactor Power System Technology Roadmap; SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Dynamic SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Near-Term Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Stirling Cycle Dynamic Isotope Power System Technology Roadmap; and the ESPPRS (Evolutionary Space Power and Propulsion Requirements System) User's Guide.

  16. Power systems for future missions. Appendices A-L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-12-01

    Selection of power system technology for space applications is typically based on mass, readiness of a particular technology to meet specific mission requirements, and life cycle costs (LCC). The LCC is typically used as a discriminator between competing technologies for a single mission application. All other future applications for a given technology are usually ignored. As a result, development cost of a technology becomes a dominant factor in the LCC comparison. Therefore, it is common for technologies such as DIPS and LMR-CBC to be potentially applicable to a wide range of missions and still lose out in the initial LCC comparison due to high development costs. This collection of appendices (A through L) contains the following power systems technology plans: CBC DIPS Technology Roadmap; PEM PFC Technology Roadmap; NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; PV/RFC Power System Technology Roadmap; PV/NAS Battery Technology Roadmap; Thermionic Reactor Power System Technology Roadmap; SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Dynamic SP-100 Power System Technology Roadmap; Near-Term Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Solar Dynamic Power System Technology Roadmap; Advanced Stirling Cycle Dynamic Isotope Power System Technology Roadmap; and the ESPPRS (Evolutionary Space Power and Propulsion Requirements System) User's Guide.

  17. Phase diagram of the Al-Er-Mo ternary system at 873 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yanfang; Yang, Wenchao; Tang, Chenghuang; Lan, Yanni; Zhan, Yong Zhong

    2015-11-01

    The phase relationship in the Al-Er-Mo ternary system at 873 K has been investigated based on the equilibrated method mainly by means of X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The existence of 10 binary compounds and two ternary compounds has been confirmed. The results present that the isothermal section at 873 K is governed by 15 single-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 15 three-phase regions. By using the phase-disappearing method, Al8Mo3 has a narrow homogeneity range (from 72 to 73 at% Al), while the homogeneity range of AlMo3 is from 21% to 28.5% at% Al. Also, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at%.

  18. Current Management of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Bovi, Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Primary central nervous cell lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon neoplasm of the brain, leptomeninges, and rarely the spinal cord. Initially thought to be characteristically associated with congenital, iatrogenic, or acquired immunosuppression, PCNSL is now recognized with increasing frequency in immunocompetent individuals. The role of surgery is limited to establishing diagnosis, as PCNSL is often multifocal with a propensity to involve the subarachnoid space. A whole-brain radiation volume has empirically been used to adequately address the multifocal tumor frequently encountered at the time of PCNSL diagnosis. Despite high rates of response after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), rapid recurrence is common and long-term survival is the exception. Chemotherapy alone or in combination with WBRT has more recently become the treatment of choice. Most effective regimens contain high-dose methotrexate and or other agents that are capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. High response rates and improved survival with the use of chemotherapy has led to treatment strategies that defer or eliminate WBRT in hopes of lessening the risk of neurotoxicity attributed to WBRT. Unfortunately, elimination of WBRT is also associated with a higher rate of relapse. Combined chemotherapy and WBRT regimens are now being explored that use lower total doses of radiation and altered fractionation schedules with the aim of maintaining high rates of tumor control while minimizing neurotoxicity. Pretreatment, multifactor prognostic indices have recently been described that may allow selection of treatment regimens that strike an appropriate balance of risk and benefit for the individual PCNSL patient.

  19. Reproductive health in India's primary health care system.

    PubMed

    Rao, M

    1997-01-01

    India's family planning program having reached a dead end, the government of India appointed an expert group to develop a new population policy for the country. While the group's report, submitted in May 1994, proclaimed a new orientation described as pro-poor, pro-nature, and pro-women, the recommendations of the report were criticized as not being serious about gender equity. The government of India, describing a new reproductive health care approach, envisions a paradigm shift in the family planning program strategy. Reproductive health is defined as a state in which people can reproduce and regulate their fertility, women are able to go through pregnancy and childbirth safely, the outcome of pregnancy is successful with regard to maternal and infant survival and well-being, and couples are able to have sexual relations free of the fear of pregnancy and of contracting disease. To further the discussion on the newly initiated reproductive health care approach, the faculty of the Center of Social Medicine and Community Health, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, organized a workshop for November 4-5, 1996, on the place of reproductive health in India's primary health care. The workshop brought together public health persons, clinicians, and health and women's rights activists. The author outlines the content of papers presented at the workshop. PMID:9230606

  20. Solid state phase equilibria and intermetallic compounds of the Al-Cr-Ho system

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Mingjun; Zhan, Yongzhong; Du, Yong

    2013-02-15

    The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C were experimentally investigated. The phase relations at 500 Degree-Sign C are governed by 14 three-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 15 single-phase regions. The existences of 10 binary compounds and 2 ternary phases have been confirmed. Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 2}, Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 17}Ho{sub 2} were not found at 500 Degree-Sign C. Crystal structures of Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho were determined by the Rietveld X-ray powder data refinement. Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} was found to exhibit cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m (no. 217) and lattice parameters a=0.9107(5) nm. Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} structure type with space group I4/mmm (no. 139) and lattice parameters a=0.8909(4) nm, c=0.5120(5) nm. It is concluded that the obtained Al{sub 4}Cr phase in this work should be {mu}-Al{sub 4}Cr by comparing with XRD pattern of the hexagonal {mu}-Al{sub 4}Mn compound. - Graphical abstract: The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Cr-Ho system has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} has cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} type with space group I4/mmm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 4}Cr phase is {mu}-type at 500 Degree-Sign C.

  1. Effect of Electromagnetic Vibration on the Agglomeration Behavior of Primary Silicon in Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yecong; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei; He, Yanjie

    2012-05-01

    An experimental apparatus that enables the simultaneous application of an alternating electric field and a stationary magnetic field was developed. Electromagnetic vibration was induced in a hypereutectic Al-Si alloy melt during solidification at a constant cooling rate. The results showed that the silicon particles collide with each other and agglomerate into clusters with the application of an electromagnetic vibration. With the increase of the electromagnetic force F, the sizes of the silicon clusters decrease and the clusters become more compact.

  2. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Primary Care Approach to Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nguyet-Cam Vu; Ghetu, Maria V; Bieniek, Marzena L

    2016-08-15

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that affects many systems, including the skin, musculoskeletal, renal, neuropsychiatric, hematologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and reproductive systems. Family physicians should be familiar with the manifestations of lupus to aid in early diagnosis, monitoring patients with mild disease, recognizing warning signs that require referral to a rheumatologist, and helping to monitor disease activity and treatment in patients with moderate to severe disease. The American College of Rheumatology has 11 classification criteria for lupus. If a patient meets at least four criteria, lupus can be diagnosed with 95% specificity and 85% sensitivity. All patients with lupus should receive education, counseling, and support. Hydroxychloroquine is the cornerstone of treatment because it reduces disease flares and other constitutional symptoms. Low-dose glucocorticoids can be used to treat most manifestations of lupus. The use of immunosuppressive and cytotoxic agents depends on the body systems affected. Patients with mild disease that does not involve major organ systems can be monitored by their family physician. Patients with increased disease activity, complications, or adverse effects from treatment should be referred to a rheumatologist. To optimize treatment, it is important that a rheumatologist coordinate closely with the patient's family physician to improve chronic care as well as preventive health services. PMID:27548593

  3. Innate immune cells in the pathogenesis of primary systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Agarwal, Vikas

    2016-02-01

    Innate immune system forms the first line of defense against foreign substances. Neutrophils, eosinophils, erythrocytes, platelets, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, γδ T cells, natural killer and natural killer T cells comprise the innate immune system. Genetic polymorphisms influencing the activation of innate immune cells predispose to development of vasculitis and influence its severity. Abnormally activated innate immune cells cross-talk with other cells of the innate immune system, present antigens more efficiently and activate T and B lymphocytes and cause tissue destruction via cell-mediated cytotoxicity and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These secreted cytokines further recruit other cells to the sites of vascular injury. They are involved in both the initiation as well as the perpetuation of vasculitis. Evidences suggest reversal of aberrant activation of immune cells in response to therapy. Understanding the role of innate immune cells in vasculitis helps understand the potential of therapeutic modulation of their activation to treat vasculitis. PMID:26403285

  4. Assessing & Developing Primary Care for Children: Reforms in Health Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grason, Holly Allen, Ed.; Guyer, Bernard, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of papers presented at an April 1994 workshop sponsored by the National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health and the Bureau-funded Johns Hopkins Child and Adolescent Health Policy Center (CAHPC). The papers are as follows: (1) "Defining the Issues and Planning for Change: Health Care Systems, Primary…

  5. 26Al in the Early Solar System: Not So Unusual after All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jura, M.; Xu, S.; Young, E. D.

    2013-10-01

    Recently acquired evidence shows that extrasolar asteroids exhibit over a factor of 100 variation in the iron to aluminum abundance ratio. This large range likely is a consequence of igneous differentiation that resulted from heating produced by radioactive decay of 26Al with an abundance comparable to that in the solar system's protoplanetary disk at birth. If so, the conventional view that our solar system began with an unusually high amount of 26Al should be discarded.

  6. {sup 26}Al IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM: NOT SO UNUSUAL AFTER ALL

    SciTech Connect

    Jura, M.; Xu, S.; Young, E. D. E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-10-01

    Recently acquired evidence shows that extrasolar asteroids exhibit over a factor of 100 variation in the iron to aluminum abundance ratio. This large range likely is a consequence of igneous differentiation that resulted from heating produced by radioactive decay of {sup 26}Al with an abundance comparable to that in the solar system's protoplanetary disk at birth. If so, the conventional view that our solar system began with an unusually high amount of {sup 26}Al should be discarded.

  7. Measuring primary care practice performance within an integrated delivery system: a case study.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Louis J; Greisler, David

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the use of an integrated performance measurement system to plan and control primary care service delivery within an integrated delivery system. We review a growing body of literature that focuses on the development and implementation of management reporting systems among healthcare providers. Our study extends the existing literature by examining the use of performance information generated by an integrated performance measurement system within a healthcare organization. We conduct our examination through a case study of the WMG Primary Care Medicine Group, the primary care medical group practice of WellSpan Health System. WellSpan Health System is an integrated delivery system that serves south central Pennsylvania and northern Maryland. Our study examines the linkage between WellSpan Health's strategic objectives and its primary care medicine group's integrated performance measurement system. The conceptual design of this integrated performance measurement system combines financial metrics with practice management and clinical operating metrics to provide a more complete picture of medical group performance. Our findings demonstrate that WellSpan Health was able to achieve superior financial results despite a weak linkage between its integrated performance measurement system and its strategic objectives. WellSpan Health achieved this objective for its primary care medicine group by linking clinical performance information to physician compensation and reporting practice management performance through the use of statistical process charts. They found that the combined mechanisms of integrated performance measurement and statistical process control charts improved organizational learning and communications between organizational stakeholders. PMID:12221746

  8. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In...

  9. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In...

  10. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In...

  11. The development process for the space shuttle primary avionics software system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    Primary avionics software system; software development approach; user support and problem diagnosis; software releases and configuration; quality/productivity programs; and software development/production facilities are addressed. Also examined are the external evaluations of the IBM process.

  12. AlGaInN laser diode technology and systems for defence and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, Stephen P.; Perlin, Piotr; Suski, Tadek; Marona, Lucja; Boćkowski, Mike; Leszczyński, Mike; Wisniewski, Przemek; Czernecki, Robert; Kucharski, Robert; Targowski, Grzegorz; Watson, Scott; Kelly, Antony E.

    2015-05-01

    The latest developments in AlGaInN laser diode technology are reviewed for defence and security applications such as underwater communications. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., ~380nm, to the visible ~530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well. Thus AlGaInN laser diode technology is a key enabler for the development of new disruptive system level applications in displays, telecom, defence and other industries.

  13. An illustrative case of primary angiitis of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Zagami, Alessandro S

    2014-01-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare idiopathic vasculitis affecting small- and medium-sized vessels, isolated to the brain, leptomeninges and spinal cord. We report a case of biopsy-proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system, displaying some atypical features. This case highlights several key diagnostic and management issues of the disorder as well as its potential heterogeneity. PMID:27489666

  14. Component Activity Measurements in the Ti-Al-O System by Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Titanium-aluminides (containing (alpha)2-Ti3Al and gamma-TiAl intermetallic phases) have received continued research focus due to their potential as low-density materials for structural applications at intermediate temperatures. However their application above about 850C is hindered by poor oxidation resistance, characterized by the formation of a non-protective TiO2+Al2O3 scale and an oxygen-enriched subsurface zone. Consistent with this are measured titanium and aluminum activities in "oxygen-free" titanium-aluminides, which indicate Al2O3 is only stable for aluminum concentrations greater then 54 atom percent at 1373 K. However, the inability to form a protective Al2O3 scale is in apparent conflict with phase diagram studies, as experimental isothermal sections of the Ti-Al-O system show gamma-TiAl + alpha2-Ti3Al structures are in equilibrium only with Al2O3. The apparent resolution to this conflict lies in the inclusion of oxygen effects in the thermodynamic measurements

  15. Transient liquid-phase bonding in the Ni-Al-B system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. E.; Boettinger, W. J.

    2000-11-01

    Transient liquid-phase (TLP) bonding experiments were performed using a Ni-10.3 at. pct Al alloy and a Ni-10 at. pct B filler material, and the results were compared to simulations performed using the finite-difference diffusion code, DICTRA. For the simulations, a thermodynamic assessment of the Ni-Al-B system was used to define the phase diagram and the thermodynamic factors of the diffusion coefficients. Composition-dependent diffusion mobilities were assessed for the ternary system. Predicted liquid widths as functions of time were in good agreement with the experiments. The calculated and experimental Al composition profiles agree in the matrix but not in the liquid. The simulations qualitatively predicted the observed precipitation and later dissolution of the intermetallic τ phase (Ni20Al3B6) in the base material. This research demonstrated the potential for modeling the formation of spurious phases during TLP bonding of practical superalloy systems.

  16. Phase diagram of the Co-Al-W system. structure and phase transformations near the Co3(Al, W) intermetallic composition range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, N. V.; Demakov, S. L.; Yurovskikh, A. S.; Stepanova, N. N.; Vinogradova, N. I.; Davydov, D. I.; Lepikhin, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Low-temperature portion of the polythermal section for the Co-Al-W system in the vicinity of the Co3(Al, W) intermetallic composition has been studied experimentally using electron microscopy and hightemperature X-ray diffraction analysis. Low-temperature structural phase transformations and temperature ranges of the existence of phases have been determined. The morphology of Co3(Al, W) intermetallic particles was studied as a function of the tungsten content in alloys.

  17. Effects of Al2O3 and CaO/SiO2 Ratio on Phase Equilbria in the ZnO-"FeO"-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2 System in Equilibrium with Metallic Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Baojun; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2011-02-01

    The phase equilibria and liquidus temperatures in the ZnO-"FeO"-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2 system in equilibrium with metallic iron have been determined experimentally in the temperature range 1383 K to 1573 K (1150 °C to 1300 °C). The experimental conditions were selected to characterize lead blast furnace and imperial smelting furnace slags. The results are presented in a form of pseudoternary sections ZnO-"FeO"-(Al2O3 + CaO + SiO2) with fixed CaO/SiO2 and (CaO + SiO2)/Al2O3 ratios. It was found that wustite and spinel are the major primary phases in the composition range investigated. Effects of Al2O3 concentration as well as the CaO/SiO2 ratio on the primary phase field, the liquidus temperature, and the partitioning of ZnO between liquid and solid phases have been discussed for zinc-containing slags.

  18. Evaluation of primary stability of innovated orthodontic miniscrew system (STS): An ex-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Stability is determined as one of the requirements in use of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TAD) in orthodontics. Miniscrew has been a widely used Bone Anchor. Compared with mini-implant that necessitates osseointegration; mechanical retention is a determining factor for primary stability of miniscrew. Studies investigated various ways to increase primary stability. The aim of this study is to introduce a new configuration of miniscrew system which is believed to obtain more primary stability. Material and Methods Freshly ovine mandibles were cut in blocks. Twenty-seven miniscrews (diameter 1.6 × 8 mm; G2, Dual Top Anchor System, Jeil Medical, Seoul, Korea) were inserted in the blocks and divided in 2 experimental groups: single miniscrew and the innovated design “Seifi Twin Screw (STS)”. Primary stability was evaluated by Periotest “M”® device. Results Independent t-test showed a significant difference between 2 experimental groups in periotest evaluation (p< 0.05). STS demonstrated higher primary stability due to its mechanical configuration and design. Conclusions The STS provides higher primary stability and was found to be effective in increased success rate of miniscrew systems from the standpoint of primary stability. Key words:Anchorage procedures, anchorage techniques, orthodontic anchorage procedures, miniscrews, temporary anchorage device. PMID:27398174

  19. Reliability model of fault-tolerant data processing system with primary and backup nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, P. A.; Bobkova, E. Yu

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the fault-tolerant data processing systems, which are widely used in modern world of information technologies and have acceptable overhead expenses in hardware implementation. A simplified reliability model for duplex systems and the offered by authors advanced model for data processing systems with primary and backup nodes based on a three-state model of recoverable elements, which takes into consideration different failure rates of passive and active nodes and finite time of node activation, are also given. A calculation formula for the availability factor of the dual-node data processing system with primary and backup nodes and calculation examples are also provided.

  20. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Quality and Reliability Date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl

    2010-01-01

    Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software system on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle systems which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the system's development. The reliability of the system is also compared to predicted reliability.

  1. Phase Equilibria Study of the ZnO-"FeO"-SiO2-Al2O3 System at Po2 10-8 atm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongquan; Cui, Zhixiang; Chen, Mao; Zhao, Baojun

    2016-04-01

    Phase equilibria studies on ZnO-"FeO"-SiO2-Al2O3 system have been carried out in the temperature range between 1523 K and 1573 K (1250 °C and 1300 °C) at Po2 10-8 atm. Experimental techniques applied in the present study include high temperature equilibration, quenching, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The compositions of the phases present in the quenched samples were measured by EPMA and used to construct phase diagrams of the pseudo-ternary sections at fixed Al2O3 content. The experimental results show that, spinel, SiO2, and willemite are the major primary phase fields in the composition range investigated. With 2 wt pct Al2O3 content in the liquid phase, the liquidus temperature can be increased by 35 K in the spinel primary phase in comparison with Al2O3-free system. The partitioning of ZnO and Al2O3 between the spinel and liquid phases is also discussed in the paper.

  2. Crystallization paths in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO system as a genotype of silicate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsyk, V. I.; Zelenaya, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The phases trajectories in the fields of primary crystallization of cristobalite (SiO2cr), tridymite (SiO2tr), mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and in a field of liquid immiscibility are analyzed on a basis of computer model for T-x-y diagram of SiO2-Al2O3-CaO system. The concentration fields with unique set of microconstituents and the fields without individual crystallization schemes and microconstituents are revealed.

  3. Systems integration and demonstration of advanced reusable structure for ALS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbins, Martin N.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the potential of advanced material to achieve life cycle cost (LCC) benefits for reusable structure on the advanced launch system. Three structural elements were investigated - all components of an Advanced Launch System reusable propulsion/avionics module. Leading aeroshell configurations included sandwich structure using titanium, graphite/polyimide (Gr/PI), or high-temperature aluminum (HTA) face sheets. Thrust structure truss concepts used titanium, graphite/epoxy, or silicon carbide/aluminum struts. Leading aft bulkhead concepts employed graphite epoxy and aluminum. The technical effort focused on the aeroshell because the greatest benefits were expected there. Thermal analyses show the structural temperature profiles during operation. Finite element analyses show stresses during splash-down. Weight statements and manufacturing cost estimates were prepared for calculation of LCC for each design. The Gr/PI aeroshell showed the lowest potential LCC, but the HTA aeroshell was judged to be lower risk. A technology development plan was prepared to validate the applicable structural technology.

  4. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  5. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  6. 40 CFR 141.544 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.544 Section 141.544 Protection of Environment... Benchmark § 141.544 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection your system...

  7. Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3-Al2O3 system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku

    2008-12-01

    We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO(3)-Al(2)O(3) system by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh(2)O(3)(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving Al(2)O(3) tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO(3) but the effect is not significant ( approximately -0.2 GPa/mol% Al(2)O(3)); (ii) Al(2)O(3) produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (approximately 1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (x(Al2O3) approximately 6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D'' seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (approximately 4 GPa) for the basaltic Al-rich composition (x(Al2O3) approximately 20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh(2)O(3)(II) with increasing the Al concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations. PMID:19036928

  8. Ion implantation and diffusion of Al in a {SiO 2}/{Si} system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ferla, A.; Galvagno, G.; Rinaudo, S.; Raineri, V.; Franco, G.; Camalleri, M.; Gasparotto, A.; Carnera, A.; Rimini, E.

    1996-08-01

    The diffusion and segregation of ion implanted Al in SiO 2 and Si layers were studied for several experimental conditions. Al ions were implanted into SiO 2, Si and through a SiO 2 layer into Si substrates at several energies (80, 300, 650 and 6000 keV) and doses (3.4 × 10 14-1 × 10 15 cm -2). The Al diffusion coefficient in SiO 2 was measured at 1200°C for times up to 5 days, and it results five orders of magnitude lower than in Si. The experiments show that the Al atoms implanted into Si do not out-diffuse during thermal treatments from the SiO 2 capping layer, but segregate at the {SiO 2}/{Si} interface. The high segregation coefficient gives rise to a trapping of Al into the oxide layer comparable to the out-diffusion of Al from uncapped Si substrates. The determined parameters for Al diffusion and segregation in the {SiO 2}/{Si} system were introduced in a simulation code to calculate the Al diffusion profiles which result in agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Development of a biocompatible nanodelivery system for tuberculosis drugs based on isoniazid-Mg/Al layered double hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Saifullah, Bullo; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin M; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2014-01-01

    The primary challenge in finding a treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is patient non-compliance to treatment due to long treatment duration, high dosing frequency, and adverse effects of anti-TB drugs. This study reports on the development of a nanodelivery system that intercalates the anti-TB drug isoniazid into Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Isoniazid was found to be released in a sustained manner from the novel nanodelivery system in humans in simulated phosphate buffer solutions at pH 4.8 and pH 7.4. The nanodelivery formulation was highly biocompatible compared to free isoniazid against human normal lung and 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. The formulation was active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. Thus results show significant promise for the further study of these nanocomposites for the treatment of TB. PMID:25336952

  10. Solid Solution Effects on the MgAl2O4 System

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, Kelley; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Phase relations between the binaries MgAl2O4-ZnAl2O4 and MgAl2O4-MgGa2O4 were studied. Stoichiometric MgAl2O4 spinel can be formed in the laboratory through a coprecipitation method. Complete solid solution formation in the MgAl2O4-MgGa2O4 system was confirmed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. XRD analysis of the MgAl2O4-ZnAl2O4 system did not confirm solid solution due to the similar lattice parameters of the two end points, however, previous studies have shown that complete solid solution does form. Thermal conductivity data is pending and will be included in the presentation. Based on previous experimentation and open literature, it is suspected that thermal conductivity will be decreased with the addition of solid solution. With increased amounts of disruption to the lattice from solid solution it is also theorized that the temperature at which the mean free path still impacts thermal conductivity could be increased.

  11. Evidence for integrating eye health into primary health care in Africa: a health systems strengthening approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of unmet eye care needs in sub-Saharan Africa is compounded by barriers to accessing eye care, limited engagement with communities, a shortage of appropriately skilled health personnel, and inadequate support from health systems. The renewed focus on primary health care has led to support for greater integration of eye health into national health systems. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate available evidence of integration of eye health into primary health care in sub-Saharan Africa from a health systems strengthening perspective. Methods A scoping review method was used to gather and assess information from published literature, reviews, WHO policy documents and examples of eye and health care interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Findings were compiled using a health systems strengthening framework. Results Limited information is available about eye health from a health systems strengthening approach. Particular components of the health systems framework lacking evidence are service delivery, equipment and supplies, financing, leadership and governance. There is some information to support interventions to strengthen human resources at all levels, partnerships and community participation; but little evidence showing their successful application to improve quality of care and access to comprehensive eye health services at the primary health level, and referral to other levels for specialist eye care. Conclusion Evidence of integration of eye health into primary health care is currently weak, particularly when applying a health systems framework. A realignment of eye health in the primary health care agenda will require context specific planning and a holistic approach, with careful attention to each of the health system components and to the public health system as a whole. Documentation and evaluation of existing projects are required, as are pilot projects of systematic approaches to interventions and application of best practices

  12. Optimal gamut volume design for three primary and multiprimary display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pardo, Carlos Eduardo; Sharma, Gaurav; Feng, Xiao-Fan; Speigle, Jon; Sezan, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Primary selection plays a fundamental role in display design. Primaries affect not only the gamut of colors the systems is able to reproduce, but also, they have an impact on the power consumption and other cost related variables. Using more than the traditional three primaries has been shown to be a versatile way of extending the color gamut, widening the angle view of LCD screens and improving power consumption of displays systems. Adequate selection of primaries requires a trade-off between the multiple benefits the system offers, the costs and the complexity it implies, among other design parameters. The purpose of this work is to present a methodology for optimal design for three primary and multiprimary display systems. We consider the gamut in perceptual spaces, which offer the advantage of an evaluation that correlates with human perception, and determine a design that maximize the gamut volume, constrained to a certain power budget, and analyze the benefits of increasing number of primaries, and their effect on other variables of performance like gamut coverage.

  13. Direct Metal Deposition by Laser in TiNi-Al System for Graded Structure Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkovsky, I.; Kakovkina, N.; Missemer, F.

    2016-07-01

    Intermetallic phase formation was studied in powdered TiNi-Al system under layerwise laser cladding with the aim of forming a gradient of properties due to a change in the concentration relation of Al in the NiTi powder mixture from one layer to another. The relationship between the laser cladding parameters and the intermetallic phase structures in consecutively cladded layers were determined. The structure of intermetallic compounds formed by laser synthesis was studied by optical microscopy, measurement of microhardness, SEM with EDX analysis. Microhardness doubling from 500 HV to 1000 HV was achieved due to nitinol matrix enrichment by Al, which is promising for aerospace applications.

  14. Neurocognitive Features Distinguishing Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma from Other Possible Causes of Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Mariel B.; Mendez, Mario F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Define the neurocognitive features of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) presenting with dementia, and compare with other causes of rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Background PCNSL can present as an RPD. Differentiating PCNSL from other RPDs is critical because lymphomatous dementia may be reversible, and untreated PCNSL is fatal. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of case reports of dementia from PCNSL (between 1950 and 2013); 20 patients (14 with lymphomatosis cerebri) met our criteria. We compared these patients to a case series of patients with RPD from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other non-PCNSL etiologies (Sala et al, 2012. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 26:267–271). Results Median age was 66 (range 41–81); 70% were men. Time from symptom onset to evaluation was < 6 months in 65%. No patients had seizures; 5% had headaches; 45% had non-aphasic speech difficulty. There was significantly more memory impairment in patients with PCNSL than other RPDs and significantly less myoclonus and parkinsonism. Behavioral changes and cerebellar signs were not significantly different. Significantly more patients with PCNSL than other RPDs had white matter changes; significantly fewer had atrophy. Elevated CSF protein and pleocytosis were more frequent in PCNSL; patients with other RPDs tended to have normal CSF ± 14-3-3 protein. Conclusions Unlike patients with RPD from other causes, those with PCNSL commonly present with impaired memory, apathy, and abnormal speech and gait, without headache, seizure, or myoclonus. White-matter changes and CSF abnormalities predominate. Improved clinical awareness of PCNSL can prompt earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25812125

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of surface segregation, diffusion and reaction phenomena in equiatomic Ni-Al systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evteev, A. V.; Levchenko, E. V.; Belova, I. V.; Murch, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    The molecular dynamics method is used to provide fundamental insights into surface segregation, bulk diffusion and alloying reaction phenomena in equiatomic Ni-Al systems. This knowledge can serve as a guide for the search and development of economic routes for controlling microstructure and properties of the intermetallic compound NiAl. This paper gives an overview of recent molecular dynamics simulations in the area along with other theoretical calculations and experimental measurements.

  16. The Al-Rich Part of the System CaO-Al 2O 3-MgO . Part I. Phase Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göbbels, M.; Woermann, E.; Jung, J.

    1995-12-01

    In the Al-rich part of the ternary system CaO-Al 2O 3MgO two new ternary phases Ca 2Mg 2Al 28O 46 (CAM-I) and CaMg 2Al 16O 27 (CAM-II) with limited solid solution ranges were found. Due to the fact that the compositions of the Mg-rich end members of these solid solutions lie on the join between hibonite (CaAl 12O 19) and spinel (MgAl 2O 4), the model of the crystal structures of these phases can be constructed by a suitable combination of hibonite and spinel units. Both phases, CAM-I and CAM-II, exhibit solid solution ranges described by a substitution mechanism also found in the binary spinel phase, MgAl 2O 4: 3 Mg 2+ = 2 Al 3+ + □. Thus the ternary phases can be expressed by the chemical formulas. Ca 2Mg 2-3 xAl 28+2 x□ xO 46 for CAM-I with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.30 and CaMg 2-3 yAl 16+2 y□ yO 27 for CAM-II with 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.2.

  17. Vacuum system for the LBL Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.; Henderson, T.; Meneghetti, J. )

    1989-03-01

    A 1.5 to 1.9 GeV synchrotron light source is being built at LBL. The vacuum system is designed to permit most synchrotron photons to escape the electron channel and be absorbed in an antechamber. The gas generated by the photons hitting the absorbers in the antechambers will be pumped by titanium sublimation pumps located directly under the absorbers. The electron channel and the antechamber are connected by a 10-mm-high slot that offers good electrodynamic isolation of the two chambers of frequencies affecting the store electron orbit. Twelve 10-meter-long vessels constitute the vacuum chambers for all the lattice magnets. Each chamber will be machined from two thick plates of 5083-H321 aluminum and welded at the perimeter. Machining both the inside and outside of the vacuum chamber permits the use of complex and accurate surfaces. The use of thick plates allows flanges to be machined directly into the wall of each chamber, thus avoiding much welding. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  18. Vacuum system for the LBL advanced light source (ALS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.

    1988-05-01

    A 1.5 to 1.9 GeV synchrotron light source is being built at LBL. The vacuum system is designed to permit all synchrotron photons on the median plane to escape the electron channel and go into an antechamber through a 10 mm high slot. This slot offers effective RF isolation between the electron duct and the antechamber. All unused synchrotron photons within a few mrad of the median plane will be stopped by 96 nearly horizontal absorbers located in the antechamber. The gas, generated by the photons hitting the absorbers, will be directed down to reactive titanium surfaces. Twelve 10 meter long vessels constitute the vacuum chambers for all the lattice magnets. Each chamber will be machined from two thick plates of 5083-H321 aluminum and welded at the perimeter. The nominal wall thickness of the vacuum chamber is 40 mm, which makes it possible to machine a flange into the chamber without the use of welding. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  19. ALS control system IP I/O module upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Jonah M.; Chin, Michael

    2004-04-23

    The Control System for the Advanced Light Source uses in-house designed IndustryPack (IP) I/O Modules in compact PCI (cPCI) chassis to control instrumentation. Each module consists of digital I/O ports and 16-bit analog I/O interfaced to instrumentation via a cPCI rear I/O card. During the past few years of installed operation, several factors have prompted investigation into the design of a new IP I/O Module. The ADC channels have significant offset drift over periods of days of initial installed operation. An in-situ calibration procedure was developed to address this problem, but it lacks speed and is inconvenient to perform. Digital I/O port limitations have led to increasing amounts of wasted I/O. Fast orbit feedback requires faster ADC sampling and better filtering than the current IP module offers. This paper discusses the issues related to the current IP I/O Module and the design of a new Double-size IP I/O Module.

  20. The Place of Creativity in Pakistani Primary Education System: An Investigation into the Factors Enhancing and Inhibiting Primary School Children's Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaheen, Robina

    2011-01-01

    The study presented in this book provides a baseline analysis of the extent to which the primary education system in Pakistan is capable of enhancing or inhibiting children's creativity. It involved 1008 primary schools who participated in a survey, 154 children who took the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, and classroom observation in 16…

  1. Group D Adenoviruses Infect Primary Central Nervous System Cells More Efficiently than Those from Group C

    PubMed Central

    Chillon, Miguel; Bosch, Assumpció; Zabner, Joseph; Law, Lane; Armentano, Donna; Welsh, Michael J.; Davidson, Beverly L.

    1999-01-01

    Group C adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to central nervous system cells is inefficient. We found that wild-type group D viruses, or recombinant adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) (group C) modified to contain Ad17 (group D) fiber, were more efficient in infecting primary cultures of neurons. Together with studies on primary vascular endothelial cells and tissue culture cell lines, our results indicate that there is not a universally applicable adenovirus serotype for use as a gene transfer vector. PMID:9971839

  2. Preparation of gaseous CRMs from the primary system for (222)Rn activity measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, B J; Kim, B C; Lee, K B; Lee, J M; Park, T S

    2016-03-01

    For disseminating the gaseous radon standard traceable to the KRISS primary system based on the defined solid angle counting method, two kinds of radon CRM (a glass ampule type and a stainless steel cylinder type) were developed. The activity of the CRM was certified by subtracting a residual activity from the measured activity by the primary system. After certification, the ampule CRM was used to calibrate a radon-monitoring instrument and the cylinder CRM to calibrate an HPGe system. We also improved the measurement procedure of the radon primary system. In a typical radon energy spectrum, the radon peak overlaps with the polonium peak. For more reliable and accurate measurement of radon activity, a fitting method was adopted for the evaluation of radon area in the alpha energy spectrum. The result of radon activity evaluated by using the fitting method is in good agreement with that by the previous integration method. PMID:26778761

  3. Primary Mirror Figure Maintenance of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope using the Segment Alignment Maintenance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Hall, Drew; Howard, Ricky; Ly, William; Weir, John; Montgomery, Edward; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Segment Alignment Maintenance System (SAMs) was installed on McDonald Observatory's Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in August 2001. The SAMs became fully operational in October 2001. The SAMs uses a system of 480 inductive edge sensors to correct misalignments of the HET's 91 primary mirror segments when the segments are perturbed from their aligned reference positions. A special observer estimated and corrects for the global radius of curvature (GroC) mode, a mode unobservable by the edge sensors. The SAMs edge sensor system and (GroC) estimator are able to maintain HET's primary figure for much longer durations than previously had been observed. Telescope image quality has improved, and the amount of overhead time required from primary mirror alignment has been reduced. This paper gives a functional description of the SAMs control system and presents performance verification data. This paper also describes how the SAMs has improved the operational efficiency of the HET.

  4. Speciation in the AlCl3/SO2Cl2 catholyte system.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ingersoll, David T.; Tallant, David Robert; Andrews, Nicholas L.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Alam, Todd Michael

    2005-02-01

    The fundamental chemical behavior of the AlCl{sub 3}/SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} catholyte system was investigated using {sup 27}Al NMR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Three major Al-containing species were found to be present in this catholyte system, where the ratio of each was dependent upon aging time, concentration, and/or storage temperature. The first species was identified as [Cl{sub 2}Al({mu}-Cl)]{sub 2} in equilibrium with AlCl{sub 3}. The second species results from the decomposition of SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} which forms Cl{sub 2}(g) and SO{sub 2}(g). The SO{sub 2}(g) is readily consumed in the presence of AlCl{sub 3} to form the crystallographically characterized species [Cl{sub 2}Al({mu}-O{sub 2}SCl)]{sub 2} (1). For 1, each Al is tetrahedrally (T{sub d}) bound by two terminal Cl and two {mu}-O ligands whereas, the S is three-coordinated by two {mu}-O ligands and one terminal Cl. The third molecular species also has T{sub d}-coordinated Al metal centers but with increased oxygen coordination. Over time it was noted that a precipitate formed from the catholyte solutions. Raman spectroscopic studies show that this gel or precipitate has a component that was consistent with thionyl chloride. We have proposed a polymerization scheme that accounts for the precipitate formation. Further NMR studies indicate that the precipitate is in equilibrium with the solution.

  5. Circulation within the primary system at TMI-2 with lowered coolant level and at atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Baston, V.F.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Malinauskas, A.P.

    1985-06-01

    Experiments were performed with the Three Mile Island reactor coolant system open to the atmosphere and the coolant lowered to a level above the fuel (a condition required for defueling) to ascertain the extent of coolant mixing. A principal concern for coolant decontamination during defueling is the radionuclides released and their distribution within the primary system. Analyses of radionuclide, temperature, and dissolved oxygen data taken during these experiments confirm mixing in the primary system under forced coolant flow conditions with only minimal mixing occurring during static periods.

  6. HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTION OF {sup 26}Al AT THE BIRTH OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Yang, Le; Hellebrand, Eric; Gaidos, Eric

    2011-06-01

    It is believed that {sup 26}Al, a short-lived (t{sub 1/2} = 0.73 Ma) and now extinct radionuclide, was uniformly distributed in the nascent solar system (SS) with the initial {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio of {approx}5.2 x 10{sup -5}, suggesting an external, stellar origin rather than local, solar source. However, the stellar source of {sup 26}Al and the manner in which it was injected into the SS remain controversial: the {sup 26}Al could have been produced by an asymptotic giant branch star, a supernova, or a Wolf-Rayet star and injected either into the protosolar molecular cloud, protosolar cloud core, or protoplanetary disk. Corundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is predicted to be the first condensate from a cooling gas of solar composition. Here we show that micron-sized corundum condensates from {sup 16}O-rich ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -25 per mille ) gas of solar composition recorded heterogeneous distribution of {sup 26}Al at the birth of the SS: the inferred initial {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio ranges from {approx}6.5x10{sup -5} to <2x10{sup -6}; 52% of corundum grains measured are {sup 26}Al-poor. Abundant {sup 26}Al-poor, {sup 16}O-rich refractory objects include grossite- and hibonite-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CH (high metal abundance and high iron concentration) chondrites, platy hibonite crystals in CM (Mighei-like) chondrites, and CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects CAIs chondrites. Considering the apparently early and short duration (<0.3 Ma) of condensation of refractory {sup 16}O-rich solids in the SS, we infer that {sup 26}Al was injected into the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud and later homogenized in the protoplanetary disk. The apparent lack of correlation between {sup 26}Al abundance and O-isotope composition of corundum grains constrains the stellar source of {sup 26}Al in the SS.

  7. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the... machine may be operated for the remainder of its tour of duty with the use of a secondary braking system or by coupling to another machine, if such operations may be done safely. (b) If the total...

  8. Relationships between Digestive, Circulatory, and Urinary Systems in Portuguese Primary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Graça S.; Clèment, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 63 Portuguese primary schoolbooks (1920-2005) were analyzed. The analysis focused on text information (reference to blood absorption and association of the digestive system to other human systems) and on information from images (presence or absence of image "confusion" (when the sequence of the digestive tract is not…

  9. Gender Differences in the Primary Representational System according to Neurolinguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassiere, M. F.; And Others

    Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) is a currently popular therapeutic modality in which individuals organize information through three basic sensory systems, one of which is the Primary Representational System (PRS). This study was designed to investigate gender differences in PRS according to the predicate preference method. It was expected that…

  10. Timing and extent of Mg and Al isotopic homogenization in the early inner Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Chaussidon, Marc

    2014-03-01

    The first million years of the Solar System is a key period when the first solids were formed from the nebula gas. The chronology of the different processes at the origin of these solids is still largely unknown and relies strongly on the assumption made of homogeneous distribution for short-lived radioactive nuclides such as 26Al. This assumption is questioned. In this study, in situ 26Al-26Mg isotope systematics was studied with high precision in 12 calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) (1 type A, 2 type B, 5 type C, and 4 fine grained spinel-rich), 2 amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and 2 Al-rich chondrules from Efremovka and Vigarano. The (26Al/27Al)i in these early Solar System solids (the subscript ‘i’ stands for the initial isotope ratio obtained from the mineral 26Al isochron) range from ∼6.5×10-5 to 0.2×10-5 with δMgi*26 from -0.08 to +0.37‰. The (26Al/27Al)i and δMgi*26 of CAIs and chondrules can be explained by formation of their precursors from a homogeneous reservoir (Solar System Initial, noted hereafter SSI) with initial magnesium isotopic composition of δMgSSI*26=-0.052±0.013‰ and initial (26Al/27Al)SSI abundance of (5.62±0.42)×10-5. The high precision magnesium isotope data obtained in the present study and literature data allows identifying a few epochs of formation/reprocessing of CAIs. The time periods of these epochs correspond well with the median life times of the pre-main sequence evolution of stars of Solar mass if we anchor the (Al26/Al27)SSI=(5.62±0.42)×10-5 to the beginning of class I phase. This provides a natural explanation to the range of (26Al/27Al)i - (∼6 to 0.02) × 10-5 seen in corundum grains, FUN (Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear Effects) CAIs, ultrarefractory CAIs, normal CAIs, and chondrules, and suggests a possible relationship between the astrophysical conditions and the formation of these early solids. Corundum grains, FUN CAIs, ultrarefractory CAIs would have formed during the class 0 of

  11. Primary central nervous system lymphomas and related diseases: Pathological characteristics and discussion of the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Muta, Hiroko; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Tsukamoto, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Although primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS are designated as primary CNS lymphomas according to the WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue in 2008, a variety of other lymphomas (Burkitt lymphomas, EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly) and related diseases (lymphomatoid granulomatosis) that are also found in the CNS have been spotlighted in recent years. The histopathology of primary CNS Burkitt lymphomas mimics that of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS after steroid administration. Therefore, for correct diagnosis of the involved lymphoma, comprehensive fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis for c-MYC and BCL2 is recommended in all primary CNS lymphoma cases with aggressive clinical course, multifocal involvement of the CNS, and a high proliferation index. The pathological characteristics of primary CNS EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly have similarities with those of the latency phenotype III, EBV lymphoproliferative disorders that arise in the setting of immunodeficiency. These age-related lymphomas usually occur in elderly immunocompetent patients, and the incidence of this disease was estimated to range from 4.0% to 13.6% of all primary CNS lymphomas. Shorter overall survival has been reported for patients with this disease. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a systemic, EBV-driven, angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disorder. Primary LYG that shows distinct clinicopathological features compared with systemic LYG was recently reported. Finally, this review focuses on the relationship between primary CNS lymphomas and demyelinating diseases, and the concomitant use of intraoperative cytology and frozen sections that are helpful in rapid intraoperative diagnosis. PMID:26607855

  12. Operation and performance of the PEP-II prototype longitudinal damping system at ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.

    1995-05-01

    A modular programmable longitudinal feedback system has been developed as a component of the PEP-II R+D program. This system is based on a family of VME and VXI packaged signal processing functions which implement a general purpose digital feedback controller for accelerators with bunch spacings of 2 ns. A complete PEP-II prototype system has been configured and installed for use at the LBL Advanced Light Source. The system configuration used for tests at the ALS is described and results are presented showing the action of the feedback system. Open and closed loop results showing the detection and calculation of feedback signals from bunch motion are presented and the system is shown to damp coupled-bunch instabilities in the ALS. Use of the system for accelerator diagnostics is illustrated via measurement of grow-damp transients which quantify growth rates without feedback, damping rates with feedback, and identify unstable modes.

  13. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    PubMed

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems. PMID:23474336

  14. Systemic AL amyloidosis due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: an unusual clinicopathologic association.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A D; Zhou, P; Xiao, Q; Fleisher, M; Kalakonda, N; Akhurst, T; Chitale, D A; Moscowitz, C; Dhodapkar, M V; Teruya-Feldstein, J; Filippa, D; Comenzo, R L

    2004-02-01

    Systemic AL amyloidosis (AL) is a disorder in which light chains form fibrillar deposits, leading to organ dysfunction and death. Rarely, AL has been associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), although this association has not been well characterized. We report a series of six patients with AL associated with NHL, primarily lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Organ involvement was variable, with frequent bulky lymphadenopathy and visceral cavity deposits, but no cardiac involvement. Positron emission tomography scans were negative. Bone marrow and lymph node biopsies showed a mixed population of CD20+ lymphoid and CD138+ plasma cells. Serum free light chains were elevated, and correlated with response to therapy. Immunoglobulin light chain variable region (Ig VL) germline gene use was typical for AL, reflecting previously observed correlations between germline gene use and organ tropism. Five patients received rituximab-based therapies with two responses. Two patients underwent autologous stem cell transplantation with one complete haematological response. Four patients survive at 10-132 months from diagnosis. AL with NHL has distinctive clinical features but employs the same Ig VL gene repertoire as AL with clonal plasma cell dyscrasias. Serial serum free light chain levels are useful for tracking response to therapy. Treatments aimed at both lymphoid and plasma cell components appear warranted. PMID:14717777

  15. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  16. The role of a reaction-diffusion system in the initiation of primary hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Nagorcka, B N; Mooney, J R

    1985-05-21

    A mechanism based on a reaction-diffusion system is proposed for the initiation of hair follicles in the epidermis during fetal development. It is demonstrated that initiation of primary follicles in a series of waves, within the proposed mechanism, is a consequence of the size and shape dependent properties of the reaction-diffusion system without the need for the propagation of signals through the skin. The observed trio grouping of follicles and variation of primary follicle density per unit skin area during development are also correctly predicted. An explanation, based on the reaction-diffusion system and the variation of its characteristic spatial wavelength with time during development, is suggested for the termination of both primary and secondary follicle initiation as well as follicle neogenesis. The proposed initiation mechanism is basically the same as that used to explain various spatial patterns observed in hair fibre formation (Nagorcka & Mooney, 1982). PMID:4033155

  17. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  18. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  19. 40 CFR 141.535 - What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? 141.535 Section 141.535 Protection of Environment... § 141.535 What if my system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection? If your system uses chloramines, ozone, or chlorine dioxide for primary disinfection, you must...

  20. A primary culture system of mouse thick ascending limb cells with preserved function and uromodulin processing.

    PubMed

    Glaudemans, Bob; Terryn, Sara; Gölz, Nadine; Brunati, Martina; Cattaneo, Angela; Bachi, Angela; Al-Qusairi, Lama; Ziegler, Urs; Staub, Olivier; Rampoldi, Luca; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    The epithelial cells lining the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the loop of Henle perform essential transport processes and secrete uromodulin, the most abundant protein in normal urine. The lack of differentiated cell culture systems has hampered studies of TAL functions. Here, we report a method to generate differentiated primary cultures of TAL cells, developed from microdissected tubules obtained in mouse kidneys. The TAL tubules cultured on permeable filters formed polarized confluent monolayers in ∼12 days. The TAL cells remain differentiated and express functional markers such as uromodulin, NKCC2, and ROMK at the apical membrane. Electrophysiological measurements on primary TAL monolayers showed a lumen-positive transepithelial potential (+9.4 ± 0.8 mV/cm(2)) and transepithelial resistance similar to that recorded in vivo. The transepithelial potential is abolished by apical bumetanide and in primary cultures obtained from ROMK knockout mice. The processing, maturation and apical secretion of uromodulin by primary TAL cells is identical to that observed in vivo. The primary TAL cells respond appropriately to hypoxia, hypertonicity, and stimulation by desmopressin, and they can be transfected. The establishment of this primary culture system will allow the investigation of TAL cells obtained from genetically modified mouse models, providing a critical tool for understanding the role of that segment in health and disease. PMID:23887378

  1. Process for preparing high-transition-temperature superconductors in the Nb-Al-Ge system

    DOEpatents

    Giorgi, A.L.; Szklarz, E.G.

    1973-01-30

    The patent describes a process for preparing superconducting materials in the Nb-Al-Ge system having transition temperatures in excess of 19K. The process comprises premixing powdered constituents, pressing them into a plug, heating the plug to 1,450-1,800C for 30 minutes to an hour under vacuum or an inert atmosphere, and annealing at moderate temperatures for reasonably long times (approximately 50 hours). High transition-temperature superconductors, including those in the Nb3(Al,Ge) system, prepared in accordance with this process exhibit little degradation in the superconducting transition temperature on being ground to -200 mesh powder. (GRA)

  2. Primary Systemic Amyloidosis with Unusual Dermatological Manifestations: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Kapil; Morgaonkar, Manjaree; Gupta, Savera; Jain, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by pathological deposition of proteinaceous substance extracellularly in various tissues. The clinical presentation depends on the site of amyloid deposition, with predominant involvement of mesenchymal elements and cutaneous findings in 30–40% of patients in case of primary systemic amyloidosis. We present a case of idiopathic primary systemic amyloidosis presenting with an unusual finding of nodulo-ulcerative lesion over tongue along with multiple skin-colored nodules, mimicking squamous cell carcinoma of tongue with secondary cutaneous metastasis, as well as lacking the classical presentation of purpura, macroglossia, waxy papules, and plaques. PMID:27057028

  3. Primary Systemic Amyloidosis and High Levels of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Praena-Segovia, J.; Sanchez-Gastaldo, A.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Ocete-Pérez, R.; Ávila-Polo, R.; Martino, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Infiltrative heart diseases are caused by a heterogeneous group of disorders; amyloidosis and sarcoidosis are two frequent causes of myocardial infiltration, which differ in clinical and biological outcome and treatment issues. The presence of high levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in a patient with infiltrative heart disease may increase suspicion of sarcoidosis. Nevertheless, no mention about increased ACE levels in extracerebral primary systemic amyloidosis is available. We present two cases of primary systemic amyloidosis, which are cardiac involvement and elevated ACE levels. PMID:24826302

  4. Comparison of Carbon and Hi-Z Primary Collimators for the LHC Phase II Collimation System

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Lewis; Markiewicz, Thomas; Smith, Jeffrey; Assmann, Ralph; Bracco, Chiara; Weiler, Thomas; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.

    2011-10-31

    A current issue with the LHC collimation system is single-diffractive, off-energy protons from the primary collimators that pass completely through the secondary collimation system and are absorbed immediately downbeam in the cold magnets of the dispersion suppressor section. Simulations suggest that the high impact rate could result in quenching of these magnets. We have studied replacing the 60 cm primary graphite collimators, which remove halo mainly by inelastic strong interactions, with 5.25 mm tungsten, which remove halo mainly by multiple coulomb scattering and thereby reduce the rate of single-diffractive interactions that cause losses in the dispersion suppressor.

  5. A new Li-Al-N-H system for reversible hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sohn, Hong Yong

    2006-07-27

    Complex metal hydrides are considered as a class of candidate materials for hydrogen storage. Lithium-based complex hydrides including lithium alanates (LiAlH(4) and Li(3)AlH(6)) are among the most promising materials owing to its high hydrogen content. In the present work, we investigated dehydrogenation/rehydrogenation reactions of a combined system of Li(3)AlH(6) and LiNH(2). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of Li(3)AlH(6)/3LiNH(2)/4 wt % TiCl(3)-(1)/(3)AlCl(3) mixtures indicated that a large amount of hydrogen (approximately 7.1 wt %) can be released between 150 degrees C and 300 degrees C under a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min in two dehydrogenation reaction steps. The results also show that the dehydrogenation reaction of the new material system is nearly 100% reversible under 2000 psi pressure hydrogen at 300 degrees C. Further, a short-cycle experiment has demonstrated that the new combined material system of alanates and amides can maintain its hydrogen storage capacity upon cycling of the dehydrogenation/rehydrogenation reactions. PMID:16854126

  6. AlGaInN laser diode technology and systems for defence and security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, Stephen P.; Perlin, Piotr; Suski, Tadek; Marona, Lujca; Boćkowski, Mike; Leszczyński, Mike; Wisniewski, Przemek; Czernecki, Robert; Kucharski, Robert; Targowski, Grzegorz; Watson, Scott; Kelly, Antony E.

    2015-10-01

    AlGaInN laser diodes is an emerging technology for defence and security applications such as underwater communications and sensing, atomic clocks and quantum information. The AlGaInN material system allows for laser diodes to be fabricated over a very wide range of wavelengths from u.v., ~380nm, to the visible ~530nm, by tuning the indium content of the laser GaInN quantum well. Thus AlGaInN laser diode technology is a key enabler for the development of new disruptive system level applications in displays, telecom, defence and other industries. Ridge waveguide laser diodes are fabricated to achieve single mode operation with optical powers up to 100mW with the 400-440nm wavelength range with high reliability. Visible free-space and underwater communication at frequencies up to 2.5GHz is reported using a directly modulated 422nm GaN laser diode. Low defectivity and highly uniform GaN substrates allow arrays and bars to be fabricated. High power operation operation of AlGaInN laser bars with up to 20 emitters have been demonstrated at optical powers up to 4W in a CS package with common contact configuration. An alternative package configuration for AlGaInN laser arrays allows for each individual laser to be individually addressable allowing complex free-space or optical fibre system integration with a very small form-factor.

  7. Phase formation in Au-Al and Cu-Al thin-film systems under ion beam bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.T.; Campisano, S.U.; Cannavo, S.; Rimini, E.

    1984-05-01

    Au-Al and Cu-Al thin film bilayers were bombarded at 80 K with Kr/sup +/ ions of 60--240 keV energy. The Au/sub 2/Al+AuAl/sub 2/ and Al/sub 4/Cu/sub 9/ phases formed during bombardment and they were investigated by backscattering and x-ray diffraction techniques. In all the cases the growth kinetics is linear with the parameter (fluence x interfacial deposited energy density)/sup 1//sup ///sup 2/ suggesting a correlation with a diffusion-like process. Comparison with calculations of diffusion enhanced within the collision cascade gives good agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Gaps In Primary Care And Health System Performance In Six Latin American And Caribbean Countries.

    PubMed

    Macinko, James; Guanais, Frederico C; Mullachery, Pricila; Jimenez, Geronimo

    2016-08-01

    The rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions occurring in Latin America and the Caribbean have led to high levels of noncommunicable diseases in the region. In addition to reduced risk factors for chronic conditions, a strong health system for managing chronic conditions is vital. This study assessed the extent to which populations in six Latin American and Caribbean countries receive high-quality primary care, and it examined the relationship between experiences with care and perceptions of health system performance. We applied a validated survey on access, use, and satisfaction with health care services to nationally representative samples of the populations of Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Panama. Respondents reported considerable gaps in the ways in which primary care is organized, financed, and delivered. Nearly half reported using the emergency department for a condition they considered treatable in a primary care setting. Reports of more primary care problems were associated with worse perceptions of health system performance and quality and less receipt of preventive care. Urgent attention to primary care performance is required as the region's population continues to age at an unprecedented rate. PMID:27503978

  9. Homogeneous distribution of 26Al in the solar system from the Mg isotopic composition of chondrules.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Johan; Chaussidon, Marc; Libourel, Guy

    2009-08-21

    The timing of the formation of the first solids in the solar system remains poorly constrained. Micrometer-scale, high-precision magnesium (Mg) isotopic analyses demonstrate that Earth, refractory inclusions, and chondrules from primitive meteorites formed from a reservoir in which short-lived aluminum-26 (26Al) and Mg isotopes were homogeneously distributed at +/-10%. This level of homogeneity validates the use of 26Al as a precise chronometer for early solar system events. High-precision chondrule 26Al isochrons show that several distinct chondrule melting events took place from approximately 1.2 million years (My) to approximately 4 My after the first solids condensed from the solar nebula, with peaks between approximately 1.5 and approximately 3 My, and that chondrule precursors formed as early as 0.87(-0.16)(+0.19) My after. PMID:19696348

  10. Ultrasonics in the two-dimensional dimer spin system YbAl3C3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Y.; Shichinomiya, F.; Koseki, M.; Koseki, G.; Kashiwazaki, R.; Deto, K.; Nakamura, M.; Yoshizawa, M.; Kosaka, M.

    2012-12-01

    We report on results of ultrasonic investigations of the two-dimensional dimer spin system YbAl3C3 in magnetic fields (H) up to 10 T and for temperatures (T) down to 0.5 K A magnetic field induces a pronounced minimum in the elastic constants far below the transition temperature of 80 K The minimum disappears immediately on increasing T and becomes undetectable above around 2 K We propose the two-dimensional dimer spin model with the energy difference of Δ=15 K between the singlet ground state and the triplet excited one. We discuss the mechanism how to form the two-dimensional dimer spin system in YbAl3C3 where Yb ions have a high degree of geometrical frustration. Our observations show an important role of an exchange striction coupling in YbAl3C3 in the ordered state below 80 K.

  11. Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Training: Systematic Development and Implementation in a Large Medical System.

    PubMed

    Dobmeyer, Anne C; Hunter, Christopher L; Corso, Meghan L; Nielsen, Matthew K; Corso, Kent A; Polizzi, Nicholas C; Earles, Jay E

    2016-09-01

    The expansion of integrated, collaborative, behavioral health services in primary care requires a trained behavioral health workforce with specific competencies to deliver effective, evidence-informed, team-based care. Most behavioral health providers do not have training or experience working as primary care behavioral health consultants (BHCs), and require structured training to function effectively in this role. This article discusses one such training program developed to meet the needs of a large healthcare system initiating widespread implementation of the primary care behavioral health model of service delivery. It details the Department of Defense's experience in developing its extensive BHC training program, including challenges of addressing personnel selection and hiring issues, selecting a model for training, developing and implementing a phased training curriculum, and improving the training over time to address identified gaps. Future directions for training improvements and lessons learned in a large healthcare system are discussed. PMID:27484777

  12. Dimensions and equilibrium structures of the primary component of the nonsynchronous binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathania, A.; Medupe, T.

    2014-01-01

    Rotating stars and stars in the synchronous binaries have been extensively studied in literature. However, there are only few studies that have investigated the problems of the nonsynchronous binaries. In the present paper, we have made an attempt to study the various dimensions and equilibrium structures of the primary component of the nonsynchronous binaries. We have used the first approximation theory of Limber (1963) along with the methodology as that proposed by Mohan and Saxena (1983) for the present study. The objective of this paper is to check the effect of nonsynchronism on the various dimensions and equilibrium structures of the primary components of the binary systems. The results of the present study shows that there is change in the dimensions and equilibrium structures of the primary component of the binary systems due to nonsynchronism, and this change is more appreciable when the difference between the angular velocities of rotation and revolution is large.

  13. Phase equilibria in the Ti-Al-O system at 945 C and analysis of Ti/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, G.P.; Carim, A.H.

    1995-03-01

    Phase relations in the Ti-Al-O system were evaluated experimentally at 945 C. The tie lines were established using equilibrated samples with phase compositions determined by electron probe microanalysis. The phase relations were in agreement with previous estimates but the phase fields of {alpha}-Ti[O,Al] and Ti{sub 3}Al[O] were significantly different. The Ti{sub 3}Al[O] phase has a maximum solubility of 22 at.% O, corresponding to a nominal stoichiometry of Ti{sub 3}AlO, whereas the {alpha}-Ti[O,Al] phase, at a maximum O solubility of 33.33 at.%, has a negligible amount of Al in solution. The disagreement between these results and previous studies was attributed to the differences in experimental techniques for sample preparation and analysis. The reported layer sequences at the Ti/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface were evaluated based on the ternary section and the corresponding O activity diagram. The layered interfaces were found to be stable, with the evolution of the reaction products governed by the thickness of the initial Ti layer and the partial pressure in the ambient.

  14. Vapor/Mist Used to Lubricate Gears After Loss of Primary Lubrication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2001-01-01

    Loss of lubrication in rotorcraft drive systems is a demanding requirement placed on drive system manufacturers. The drive system must operate for at least 30 minutes once the primary lubrication system has failed. This test is a military requirement that must be passed prior to certification of the aircraft. As new aircraft engines, operating at higher speeds, are fielded, the requirements for the drive system become increasingly more difficult. Also, the drive system must be lightweight, which minimizes the opportunity to use the gear bodies to absorb the tremendous amount of heating that takes place. In many cases, the amount of heat generated because of the high speed and load requires an emergency lubrication system that negatively impacts the aircraft's weight, complexity, and cost. A single mesh spur gear test rig is being used at the NASA Glenn Research Center to investigate possible emergency lubrication system improvements that will minimize the impact of having these systems onboard rotorcraft. A technique currently being investigated uses a vapor/mist system to lubricate the contacting surfaces after the primary lubrication system has been shut down. A number of tests were conducted in which the vapor/mist used the same lubricant as the primary system, but at a greatly reduced flow rate. Each test was initiated with the primary lubrication system operational and at steady-state conditions for a given speed and load. Then the primary lubrication system was shut down, and the vapor/mist lubrication system was initiated. An example of the tests conducted is shown in the figures. These preliminary tests have uncovered a mechanism that provides a lubricious, carbonaceous solid on the surface that actually reduces the surface temperature of the meshing gear teeth during operation. Surface analysis of the carbonaceous solid revealed it was graphitic. This mechanism is the synthetic lubricant "coking" on the active profile of the gears, which reduces the

  15. Mammaglobin-A immunohistochemistry in primary central nervous system neoplasms and intracranial metastatic breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Patrick J; Perrin, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    Metastases represent the most common type of intracranial neoplasm. In women, 30% of such tumors derive from breast carcinoma. In neurosurgical cases with ambiguous cellular morphology and/or limited biopsy material, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often performed to distinguish metastases from primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. IHC for mammaglobin-A (MGA), a protein expressed in a majority of breast carcinomas, is commonly applied in this setting, but its utility for distinguishing primary CNS neoplasms from metastatic breast carcinoma is unknown; the reactivity of MGA in primary and metastatic CNS neoplasms has never been described. Here, we describe the frequency and patterns of IHC reactivity for MGA in metastatic and primary CNS neoplasms from patients with well-documented histories of breast carcinoma. Following a published protocol previously applied to non-CNS neoplasms, MGA staining of moderate to strong intensity within 5% or more of a neoplasm was considered positive. On the basis of these criteria, 3 of 12 (25.0%) glioblastomas, 1 of 10 (10.0%) meningiomas, and 47 of 95 (49.5%) metastases were positive. Importantly, the cytoarchitectural staining characteristics among all 4 MGA-positive primary CNS neoplasms (cytoplasmic and nuclear) differed from those of the metastases (cytoplasmic and membranous). These findings suggest that MGA IHC staining intensity and distribution can distinguish metastases from primary CNS neoplasms (P=0.0086) in women with a history of breast carcinoma but also indicate that cytologic staining patterns must be interpreted for more accurate tumor classification. PMID:23958549

  16. Primary healthcare in transition – a qualitative study of how managers perceived a system change

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary healthcare in Sweden has undergone widespread reforms in recent years, including freedom of choice regarding provider, freedom of establishment and increased privatisation. The key aims of the reforms were to strengthen the role of the patient and improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The aim of this study was to explore how managers at publicly owned primary healthcare centres perceived the transition of the primary healthcare system and the impact it has had on their work. Methods In this qualitative study, 24 managers of publicly owned primary healthcare centres in the metropolitan region of Gothenburg were recruited. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analysed using content analysis inspired by Silverman. Results The analysis revealed two core themes: The transition is perceived as a rapid change, enforced mainly through financial incentives and Prioritisation conflicts arise between patient groups with different needs, demands and levels of empowerment. The transition has produced powerful and rapid effects that were considered to be both positive and negative. While the new financial incentives were seen as a driving force and a tool for change, they also became a stress factor due to uncertainty, competition with other primary healthcare centres and negative feelings associated with staff cutbacks. The shift in power towards the patient improved access and service but also led to more patients with unreasonable demands. Managers found it difficult to prioritise correctly between patient groups with different needs, demands and levels of empowerment and they were concerned about potentially negative effects on less empowered patients, e.g. multi-morbid patients. Managers also experienced shortcomings in their change management skills. Conclusions This qualitative study shows the complexity of the system change and describes the different effects and perceptions of the transition from a manager

  17. Critical Assessment and Thermodynamic Modeling of the Al-Fe-O System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishin, Denis; Prostakova, Viktoria; Jak, Evgueni; Decterov, Sergei A.

    2016-02-01

    A complete literature review, critical evaluation, and thermodynamic modeling of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of phases in the Al-Fe-O system at 1 atm total pressure are presented. Optimized model equations for the thermodynamic properties of all phases are obtained, which reproduce all available thermodynamic and phase-equilibrium data within experimental error limits from 298.15 K (25 °C) to above the liquidus temperatures at all compositions and oxygen partial pressures from metal saturation to 1 atm. The complex phase relationships in the system have been elucidated, and discrepancies among the data have been resolved. The database of the model parameters can be used along with software for Gibbs-energy minimization in order to calculate all thermodynamic properties and any type of phase diagram section. The modified quasichemical model was used for the liquid oxide phase. A sublattice model, based upon the Compound Energy Formalism, was developed for spinel, which expands from magnetite, Fe3O4, to hercynite, FeAl2O4. The distribution of cations between octahedral and tetrahedral sites and oxygen nonstoichiometry in spinel are taken into account. The model for metallic liquid assumes random mixing of associates: Fe, Al, O, AlO, and Al2O. It describes well the minimum that is observed on the solubility of oxygen in liquid iron as a function of the Al content. The solid solution between hematite and corundum exhibiting a miscibility gap, as well as a small solubility of Al2O3 in wüstite are quantitatively described by a simple Bragg-Williams model.

  18. Kr implantation into heavy ion irradiated monolithic U-Mo/Al systems: SIMS and SEM investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweifel, T.; Valle, N.; Grygiel, C.; Monnet, I.; Beck, L.; Petry, W.

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, high performance research and material test reactors are aiming to convert their fuel from high enriched uranium towards low enriched ones. High density U-Mo/Al based nuclear fuels are considered as a promising candidate for this conversion. However, during in-pile test irradiations, the formation of an interdiffusion layer (IDL) between the U-Mo and the Al matrix is observed, caused by irradiation enhanced U-Al interdiffusion processes. This IDL accumulates fission gases at the IDL/matrix interfaces. Together, these two effects strongly reduce the performance of this new fuel type. Recently, the out-of-pile technique of heavy ion irradiation (127I) on U-Mo/Al layer systems proved to be an alternative to time-consuming in-pile test irradiations for certain fuel behaviour aspects. Here we present SIMS and SEM investigations of non-conventional 82Kr implantation into previously heavy ion irradiated U-Mo/Al layer systems. It is shown that Kr accumulates inside μm large porosities at the IDL/matrix interfaces. This critical accumulation of μm-sized large gas bubbles is directly related to the presence of the irradiation induced IDL. Without IDL no critical accumulation of fission gas bubbles occurs.

  19. Early accretion of protoplanets inferred from a reduced inner solar system 26Al inventory

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Martin; Connelly, James N.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10–1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (26Al→26Mg; t1/2 = 0.73 Ma), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its subsequent cooling history. Currently, precise knowledge about the initial 26Al abundance [(26Al/27Al)0] exists only for the oldest known solids, calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) – the so-called canonical value. We have determined the 26Al/27Al of three angrite meteorites, D’Orbigny, Sahara 99555 and NWA 1670, at their time of crystallization, which corresponds to (3.98 ± 0.15)×10−7, (3.64 ± 0.18)×10−7, and (5.92 ± 0.59)×10−7, respectively. Combined with a newly determined absolute U-corrected Pb–Pb age for NWA 1670 of 4564.39 ± 0.24 Ma and published U-corrected Pb–Pb ages for the other two angrites, this allows us to calculate an initial (26Al/27Al)0 of (1.33−0.18+0.21)×10−5 for the angrite parent body (APB) precursor material at the time of CAI formation, a value four times lower than the accepted canonical value of 5.25 × 10−5. Based on their similar 54Cr/52Cr ratios, most inner solar system materials likely accreted from material containing a similar 26Al/27Al ratio as the APB precursor at the time of CAI formation. To satisfy the abundant evidence for widespread planetesimal differentiation, the subcanonical 26Al budget requires that differentiated planetesimals, and hence protoplanets, accreted rapidly within 0.25 ± 0.15 Ma of the formation of canonical CAIs. PMID:27429474

  20. 78 FR 53457 - Phoebe Putney Health System, Inc., et al.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Phoebe Putney Health System, Inc., et al.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid... practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the... following Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes the terms of the consent agreement, and the...

  1. Fission product plateout and liftoff in the MHTGR primary system: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Wichner, R.P. )

    1991-04-01

    A review is presented of the technical basis for predicting radioactivity release resulting from depressurization of an MHTGR primary system. Consideration is restricted to so called dry events with no involvement of the steam system. The various types of deposition mechanisms effective for iodine, cesium, strontium, and silver are discussed in terms of their chemical characteristics and the nature of the materials in the primary system. Emphasis is given to iodine behavior, including means for estimating the quantity available for release, the types of plateout locations in the primary system, and the effect of dust on distribution and release. The behavior of fission products cesium, strontium, and silver in such accidents is presented qualitatively. A major part of the review deals with expected dust levels, types, and transport. Available information on the level and nature of dust in the HTGR primary system is reviewed. A summary is presented of dust deposition and liftoff mechanisms. It was concluded that recent approaches to dust liftoff modeling, based on turbulent burst concepts for removal from surfaces, probably offer advantages over the current shear ratio approach. This study concludes that iodine releases from dry depressurization events are likely to be extremely low, on the order of millicuries, due to a predictably low degree of chemical desorption, a low degree of dust liftoff, and a low involvement of iodine with dust. It was also concluded that deposition mechanisms controlling the distribution of fission product material in the primary system, and hence also controlling the degree of liftoff, depend strongly on the chemical nature of the individual elements. Therefore contrary to the current practice, both plateout and liftoff models should reflect those unique chemical and physical properties. 56 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Job Realities of Primary School Principals in Greece: Similarities and Variations in a Highly Centralized System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimopoulos, Kostas; Dalkavouki, Katerina; Koulaidis, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at investigating primary school principals' work on a daily basis in order to understand the ways in which the centralized educational system affects their practices. Four typical cases of principals were selected and asked to keep daily records for a period of four months. Data from logs were complemented with data collected…

  3. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and primary packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis and selection of food items and primary packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food system design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.

  4. Development of Quality Assurance System in Culture and Nation Character Education in Primary Education in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susilana, Rudi; Asra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of national education is to develop skills and build dignified national character and civilization in educating nation life (Act No. 20, 2003). The paper describes a system of quality assurance in culture and character education in primary education. This study employs the six sigma model which consists of the formula DMAIC (Define,…

  5. Office Systems and Their Influence on Mammography Use in Rural and Urban Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelman, Kimberly K.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Perpich, Denise; Nazir, Niaman; McCarter, Kevin; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer screening rates are lower in rural communities. Although studies have addressed barriers to mammography for rural residents, physician practice barriers have received less attention. Purpose: Controlled clinical trials have shown that the use of office reminder systems in primary care practices is related to increased clinical care…

  6. Using a Learning Management System to Personalise Learning for Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Bronwyn; Hartnett, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on one aspect of a descriptive multiple-case study which set out to explore the role of a learning management system (LMS) in personalising learning for students from the perspective of three teachers in one primary school in New Zealand. The intention was to provide insight into the role the LMS could play in classrooms when…

  7. Investigating Nigerian Primary School Teachers' Preparedness to Adopt Personal Response System in ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which computer literacy dimensions (computer general knowledge, documents and documentations, communication and surfing as well as data inquiry), computer use and academic qualification as independent variables predicted primary school teachers' attitude towards the integration of Personal Response System in…

  8. Assessment of Primary Representational Systems with Neurolinguistic Programming: Examination of Preliminary Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Fred J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the inconsistent findings of studies on neurolinguistic programing and recommends some areas that should be examined to verify various claims. Discusses methods of assessing client's primary representational systems, including predicate usage and eye movements, and suggests that more reliable methods of assessing PRS must be found. (JAC)

  9. Assessing Primary Representational System (PRS) Preference for Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) Using Three Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Fred J.

    1983-01-01

    Considered three methods of identifying Primary Representational System (PRS)--an interview, a word list, and a self-report--in a study of 120 college students. Results suggested the three methods offer little to counselors either collectively or individually. Results did not validate the PRS construct, suggesting the need for further research.…

  10. Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma mimicking meningoencephalomyelitis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Guil-Luna, Silvia; Carrasco, Librado; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Hilbe, Monika; Mínguez, Juan J.; Köhler, Kernt; de las Mulas, Juana Martín

    2013-01-01

    A cat was presented with right head tilt and circling. The lack of expression of virus antigens did not support the postmortem diagnosis of encephalomyelitis pointing to a diffuse primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma on the basis of CD3 and CD45R co-expression with absence of CD79α staining. PMID:24155454