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Sample records for primate foveal confluence

  1. Disruption of Foveal Space Impairs Discrimination of Peripheral Objects

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, Kimberly B.; Rich, Anina N.; Woolgar, Alexandra; Williams, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Visual space is retinotopically mapped such that peripheral objects are processed in a cortical region outside the region that represents central vision. Despite this well-known fact, neuroimaging studies have found information about peripheral objects in the foveal confluence, the cortical region representing the fovea. Further, this information is behaviorally relevant: disrupting the foveal confluence using transcranial magnetic stimulation impairs discrimination of peripheral objects at time-points consistent with a disruption of feedback. If the foveal confluence receives feedback of information about peripheral objects to boost vision, there should be behavioral consequences of this phenomenon. Here, we tested the effect of foveal distractors at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) on discrimination of peripheral targets. Participants performed a discrimination task on target objects presented in the periphery while fixating centrally. A visual distractor presented at the fovea ~100 ms after presentation of the targets disrupted performance more than a central distractor presented at other SOAs. This was specific to a central distractor; a peripheral distractor at the same time point did not have the same effect. These results are consistent with the claim that foveal retinotopic cortex is recruited for extra-foveal perception. This study describes a new paradigm for investigating the nature of the foveal feedback phenomenon and demonstrates the importance of this feedback in peripheral vision. PMID:27242612

  2. Synthetic Foveal Imaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael; Monacos, Steve; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic Foveal imaging Technology (SyFT) is an emerging discipline of image capture and image-data processing that offers the prospect of greatly increased capabilities for real-time processing of large, high-resolution images (including mosaic images) for such purposes as automated recognition and tracking of moving objects of interest. SyFT offers a solution to the image-data processing problem arising from the proposed development of gigapixel mosaic focal-plane image-detector assemblies for very wide field-of-view imaging with high resolution for detecting and tracking sparse objects or events within narrow subfields of view. In order to identify and track the objects or events without the means of dynamic adaptation to be afforded by SyFT, it would be necessary to post-process data from an image-data space consisting of terabytes of data. Such post-processing would be time-consuming and, as a consequence, could result in missing significant events that could not be observed at all due to the time evolution of such events or could not be observed at required levels of fidelity without such real-time adaptations as adjusting focal-plane operating conditions or aiming of the focal plane in different directions to track such events. The basic concept of foveal imaging is straightforward: In imitation of a natural eye, a foveal-vision image sensor is designed to offer higher resolution in a small region of interest (ROI) within its field of view. Foveal vision reduces the amount of unwanted information that must be transferred from the image sensor to external image-data-processing circuitry. The aforementioned basic concept is not new in itself: indeed, image sensors based on these concepts have been described in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Active-pixel integrated-circuit image sensors that can be programmed in real time to effect foveal artificial vision on demand are one such example. What is new in SyFT is a synergistic combination of recent

  3. Relationship between the Foveal Avascular Zone and Foveal Pit Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Dubis, Adam M.; Hansen, Benjamin R.; Cooper, Robert F.; Beringer, Joseph; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the relationship between foveal pit morphology and size of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Methods. Forty-two subjects were recruited. Volumetric images of the macula were obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Images of the FAZ were obtained using either a modified fundus camera or an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope. Foveal pit metrics (depth, diameter, slope, volume, and area) were automatically extracted from retinal thickness data, whereas the FAZ was manually segmented by two observers to extract estimates of FAZ diameter and area. Results. Consistent with previous reports, the authors observed significant variation in foveal pit morphology. The average foveal pit volume was 0.081 mm3 (range, 0.022 to 0.190 mm3). The size of the FAZ was also highly variable between persons, with FAZ area ranging from 0.05 to 1.05 mm2 and FAZ diameter ranging from 0.20 to 1.08 mm. FAZ area was significantly correlated with foveal pit area, depth, and volume; deeper and broader foveal pits were associated with larger FAZs. Conclusions. Although these results are consistent with predictions from existing models of foveal development, more work is needed to confirm the developmental link between the size of the FAZ and the degree of foveal pit excavation. In addition, more work is needed to understand the relationship between these and other anatomic features of the human foveal region, including peak cone density, rod-free zone diameter, and Henle fiber layer. PMID:22323466

  4. Synthetic Foveal Imaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Apparatuses and methods are disclosed that create a synthetic fovea in order to identify and highlight interesting portions of an image for further processing and rapid response. Synthetic foveal imaging implements a parallel processing architecture that uses reprogrammable logic to implement embedded, distributed, real-time foveal image processing from different sensor types while simultaneously allowing for lossless storage and retrieval of raw image data. Real-time, distributed, adaptive processing of multi-tap image sensors with coordinated processing hardware used for each output tap is enabled. In mosaic focal planes, a parallel-processing network can be implemented that treats the mosaic focal plane as a single ensemble rather than a set of isolated sensors. Various applications are enabled for imaging and robotic vision where processing and responding to enormous amounts of data quickly and efficiently is important.

  5. CMOS foveal image sensor chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Cesar (Inventor); Scott, Peter (Inventor); Sridhar, Ramalingam (Inventor); Xia, Shu (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A foveal image sensor integrated circuit comprising a plurality of CMOS active pixel sensors arranged both within and about a central fovea region of the chip. The pixels in the central fovea region have a smaller size than the pixels arranged in peripheral rings about the central region. A new photocharge normalization scheme and associated circuitry normalizes the output signals from the different size pixels in the array. The pixels are assembled into a multi-resolution rectilinear foveal image sensor chip using a novel access scheme to reduce the number of analog RAM cells needed. Localized spatial resolution declines monotonically with offset from the imager's optical axis, analogous to biological foveal vision.

  6. Imaging Light Responses of Foveal Ganglion Cells in the Living Macaque Eye

    PubMed Central

    Masella, Benjamin; Dalkara, Deniz; Zhang, Jie; Flannery, John. G.; Schaffer, David V.; Williams, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The fovea dominates primate vision, and its anatomy and perceptual abilities are well studied, but its physiology has been little explored because of limitations of current physiological methods. In this study, we adapted a novel in vivo imaging method, originally developed in mouse retina, to explore foveal physiology in the macaque, which permits the repeated imaging of the functional response of many retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) simultaneously. A genetically encoded calcium indicator, G-CaMP5, was inserted into foveal RGCs, followed by calcium imaging of the displacement of foveal RGCs from their receptive fields, and their intensity-response functions. The spatial offset of foveal RGCs from their cone inputs makes this method especially appropriate for fovea by permitting imaging of RGC responses without excessive light adaptation of cones. This new method will permit the tracking of visual development, progression of retinal disease, or therapeutic interventions, such as insertion of visual prostheses. PMID:24806684

  7. Imaging light responses of foveal ganglion cells in the living macaque eye.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lu; Masella, Benjamin; Dalkara, Deniz; Zhang, Jie; Flannery, John G; Schaffer, David V; Williams, David R; Merigan, William H

    2014-05-01

    The fovea dominates primate vision, and its anatomy and perceptual abilities are well studied, but its physiology has been little explored because of limitations of current physiological methods. In this study, we adapted a novel in vivo imaging method, originally developed in mouse retina, to explore foveal physiology in the macaque, which permits the repeated imaging of the functional response of many retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) simultaneously. A genetically encoded calcium indicator, G-CaMP5, was inserted into foveal RGCs, followed by calcium imaging of the displacement of foveal RGCs from their receptive fields, and their intensity-response functions. The spatial offset of foveal RGCs from their cone inputs makes this method especially appropriate for fovea by permitting imaging of RGC responses without excessive light adaptation of cones. This new method will permit the tracking of visual development, progression of retinal disease, or therapeutic interventions, such as insertion of visual prostheses. PMID:24806684

  8. Clinical Insights Into Foveal Morphology in Albinism

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, Brandon K.; Wilk, Melissa A.; McAllister, John T.; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Dubis, Adam M.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Anderson, Jennifer L; Carroll, Joseph; Summers, C. Gail

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A hallmark of albinism is foveal hypoplasia. However, literature suggests variable foveal development. This study evaluates the association between ocular phenotype and foveal morphology to demonstrate the broad structural and functional spectrum. Methods Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), nystagmus, angle kappa, stereoacuity, iris transillumination, macular melanin presence, foveal avascular zone, and annular reflex were recorded in 14 patients with albinism. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography provided macular images. Results The clinical phenotype was broad, with BCVA varying from 20/20 to 20/100. Better BCVA was associated with a preserved foveal avascular zone, annular macular reflex, stereoacuity, and macular melanin. Imaging demonstrated a continuum of foveal development correlating with BCVA. Individuals with a rudimentary pit had normal inner and outer segment lengthening and better BCVA. Conclusions The spectrum of ocular structure and visual function in albinism is broad, suggesting a possible diagnosis of albinism in a patient with an even more normal clinical presentation. PMID:26053207

  9. Megascours: the morphodynamics of large river confluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Simon; Sambrook Smith, Greg; Nicholas, Andrew; Best, Jim; Bull, Jon; Vardy, Mark; Goodbred, Steve; Haque Sarker, Maminul

    2015-04-01

    River confluences are wildly acknowledged as crucial controlling influences upon upstream and downstream morphology and thus landscape evolution. Despite their importance very little is known about their evolution and morphodynamics, and there is a consensus in the literature that confluences represent fixed, nodal points in the fluvial network. Confluences have been shown to generate substantial bed scours around five times greater than mean depth. Previous research on the Ganges-Jamuna junction has shown large river confluences can be highly mobile, potentially 'combing' bed scours across a large area, although the extent to which this is representative of large confluences in general is unknown. Understanding the migration of confluences and associated scours is important for multiple applications including: designing civil engineering infrastructure (e.g. bridges, laying cable, pipelines, etc.), sequence stratigraphic interpretation for reconstruction of past environmental and sea level change, and in the hydrocarbon industry where it is crucial to discriminate autocyclic confluence scours from widespread allocyclic surfaces. Here we present a wide-ranging global review of large river confluence planforms based on analysis of Landsat imagery from 1972 through to 2014. This demonstrates there is an array of confluence morphodynamic types: from freely migrating confluences such as the Ganges-Jamuna, through confluences migrating on decadal timescales and fixed confluences. Along with data from recent geophysical field studies in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin we propose a conceptual model of large river confluence types and hypothesise how these influence morphodynamics and preservation of 'megascours' in the rock record. This conceptual model has implications for sequence stratigraphic models and the correct identification of surfaces related to past sea level change. We quantify the abundance of mobile confluence types by classifying all large confluences

  10. Effects of Foveal Ablation on Emmetropization and Form-Deprivation Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Earl L.; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Hung, Li-Fang; Huang, Juan; Kee, Chea-su; Coats, David; Paysse, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Because of the prominence of central vision in primates, it has generally been assumed that signals from the fovea dominate refractive development. To test this assumption, the authors determined whether an intact fovea was essential for either normal emmetropization or the vision-induced myopic errors produced by form deprivation. Methods In 13 rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age, the fovea and most of the perifovea in one eye were ablated by laser photocoagulation. Five of these animals were subsequently allowed unrestricted vision. For the other eight monkeys with foveal ablations, a diffuser lens was secured in front of the treated eyes to produce form deprivation. Refractive development was assessed along the pupillary axis by retinoscopy, keratometry, and A-scan ultrasonography. Control data were obtained from 21 normal monkeys and three infants reared with plano lenses in front of both eyes. Results Foveal ablations had no apparent effect on emmetropization. Refractive errors for both eyes of the treated infants allowed unrestricted vision were within the control range throughout the observation period, and there were no systematic interocular differences in refractive error or axial length. In addition, foveal ablation did not prevent form deprivation myopia; six of the eight infants that experienced monocular form deprivation developed myopic axial anisometropias outside the control range. Conclusions Visual signals from the fovea are not essential for normal refractive development or the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth produced by form deprivation. Conversely, the peripheral retina, in isolation, can regulate emmetropizing responses and produce anomalous refractive errors in response to abnormal visual experience. These results indicate that peripheral vision should be considered when assessing the effects of visual experience on refractive development. PMID:17724167

  11. Foveal Thickness Alterations in Patients with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Cankaya, Cem; Tecellioglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the alterations in foveal retinal thickness (FT) values in patients with migraine and to reveal the correlations between FT and clinical characteristics of migraine disease. Methods: This study included sixty-eight eyes of 34 migraine patients [twenty-eight eyes of 14 patients with aura (group 1), and forty eyes of 20 patients without aura (group 2)] and forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteer who served as the control group (group 3). FT values were measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in each group. Results: Mean age of patients in group 1, 2, and 3 was 34.0± 6.82, 35.2±10.12, and 35.1± 6.85 years, respectively (p=0.84). Mean FT was 211.07±7.36, 220.0±12.01, and 221.85±12.27 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was statistically significance among the group 1-2 and 1-3 (p=0.002 and p< 0.001). There was no statistically significance between group 2-3 (p=0.88). Conclusion: This study suggests that in particular migraine with aura may lead to a reduction in FT values. This finding can be explained by the blood flow decrease theory in migraine; however larger studies seem mandatory. PMID:27147787

  12. Relationship Between Foveal Cone Specialization and Pit Morphology in Albinism

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Melissa A.; McAllister, John T.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Patitucci, Teresa N.; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Costakos, Deborah M.; Connor, Thomas B.; Wirostko, William J.; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Dubra, Alfredo; Curcio, Christine A.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Summers, C. Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Albinism is associated with disrupted foveal development, though intersubject variability is becoming appreciated. We sought to quantify this variability, and examine the relationship between foveal cone specialization and pit morphology in patients with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. Methods. We recruited 32 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of albinism. DNA was obtained from 25 subjects, and known albinism genes were analyzed for mutations. Relative inner and outer segment (IS and OS) lengthening (fovea-to-perifovea ratio) was determined from manually segmented spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) B-scans. Foveal pit morphology was quantified for eight subjects from macular SD-OCT volumes. Ten subjects underwent imaging with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), and cone density was measured. Results. We found mutations in 22 of 25 subjects, including five novel mutations. All subjects lacked complete excavation of inner retinal layers at the fovea, though four subjects had foveal pits with normal diameter and/or volume. Peak cone density and OS lengthening were variable and overlapped with that observed in normal controls. A fifth hyper-reflective band was observed in the outer retina on SD-OCT in the majority of the subjects with albinism. Conclusions. Foveal cone specialization and pit morphology vary greatly in albinism. Normal cone packing was observed in the absence of a foveal pit, suggesting a pit is not required for packing to occur. The degree to which retinal anatomy correlates with genotype or visual function remains unclear, and future examination of larger patient groups will provide important insight on this issue. PMID:24845642

  13. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    PubMed Central

    Marfil, Rebeca; Palomino, Antonio J.; Bandera, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, artificial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. On human vision, it is also well established that these units of attention are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects). This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. While the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG), which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention) surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multi-resolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP). Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such as color and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed. PMID:25177289

  14. Arthroscopic Foveal Repair of the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex

    PubMed Central

    Atzei, Andrea; Luchetti, Riccardo; Braidotti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Background Foveal disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is associated with distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. TFCC fixation onto the fovea is the suitable treatment, which is not achieved by conventional arthroscopic techniques. We describe an all-inside arthroscopic technique that uses a suture anchor through distal DRUJ arthroscopy for foveal repair of the TFCC. Materials and Methods Forty-eight patients with TFCC foveal tear and DRUJ instability were selected according to the Atzei–European Wrist Arthroscopy Society (EWAS) algorithm of treatment. Retrospective evaluation included pain, DRUJ instability, range of motion (ROM), grip strength, Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Score. Description of Technique DRUJ arthroscopy was performed to débride the TFCC and the foveal area. Under arthroscopic guidance, a suture anchor was inserted via the distal foveal portal to repair the TFCC onto the fovea. Sutures were tied on the radiocarpal surface of the TFCC. Postoperative immobilization of forearm rotation was maintained for 4 weeks. Heavy tasks were allowed after 3 months. Results After a mean follow-up of 33 months, pain improved significantly but remained moderate in four patients, severe in one. DRUJ instability resolved in 44 patients. Wrist ROM increased. Grip strength, MMWS, and DASH score improved significantly. Excellent and good MMWS equaled 83.3%. Forty-one patients (85.5%) resumed previous work and sport activities. As a postoperative complication, five patients experienced neuroapraxia of the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve (DSBUN) with full spontaneous recovery. Conclusions With appropriate indications and patient selection, arthroscopic foveal repair of the TFCC may restore DRUJ stability and provide satisfactory results without significant complications. PMID:25709875

  15. Optical coherence tomography findings of bilateral foveal leukemic infiltration.

    PubMed

    Le, John Q; Braich, Puneet S; Brar, Vikram S

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 59-year-old man with a history of atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia who presented with a several-week history of decreased vision in both eyes. His clinical examination revealed bilateral foveal infiltration, which was also demonstrated on optical coherence tomography. After a failed induction with imatinib (Gleevec(®)), he was treated with omacetaxine (Synribo(®)) with an appropriate hematologic response. As his leukemia improved with chemotherapy, his retinal lesions regressed as demonstrated by serial optical coherence tomography and fundus photographs, with near complete restoration of foveal architecture. PMID:27540313

  16. Optical coherence tomography findings of bilateral foveal leukemic infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Le, John Q; Braich, Puneet S; Brar, Vikram S

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 59-year-old man with a history of atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia who presented with a several-week history of decreased vision in both eyes. His clinical examination revealed bilateral foveal infiltration, which was also demonstrated on optical coherence tomography. After a failed induction with imatinib (Gleevec®), he was treated with omacetaxine (Synribo®) with an appropriate hematologic response. As his leukemia improved with chemotherapy, his retinal lesions regressed as demonstrated by serial optical coherence tomography and fundus photographs, with near complete restoration of foveal architecture. PMID:27540313

  17. Similarity issues of confluence of fuzzy relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, Tomas; Vychodil, Vilem

    2012-04-01

    We study similarity issues of confluence and related properties of fuzzy relations. The ordinary notions of divergence, convergence, convertibility, and confluence are essential properties of relations which appear in abstract rewriting systems. In a graded setting, we can introduce analogous notions related to the idea of approximate rewriting. This paper is a continuation of our previous paper (Belohlavek et al. 2010), where we have introduced such notions using residuated structures of truth degrees, leaving the ordinary notions a particular case when the underlying structure of truth degrees is the two-valued Boolean algebra. In this paper, we focus on similarity issues of confluence and present formulas which provide approximations of degrees of confluence and related properties based on similarity of the original fuzzy relations.

  18. Visual Memory for Objects Following Foveal Vision Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hofmüller, Wolfram; Hoffmann, Michael B.; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Allocation of visual attention is crucial for encoding items into visual long-term memory. In free vision, attention is closely linked to the center of gaze, raising the question whether foveal vision loss entails suboptimal deployment of attention and subsequent impairment of object encoding. To investigate this question, we examined visual…

  19. The Primates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about primates, including definitions and examples. Includes the activities "Thumbless Relay" and "Face It," which relate attributes of primates. Includes a story about chimpanzees along with discussion questions about the story. Reproducible worksheets and a quiz are also provided. (TW)

  20. Arrested Development: High-Resolution Imaging of Foveal Morphology in Albinism

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, John T.; Dubis, Adam M.; Tait, Diane M.; Ostler, Shawn; Rha, Jungtae; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Summers, C. Gail; Carroll, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Albinism, an inherited disorder of melanin biosynthesis, disrupts normal retinal development, with foveal hypoplasia as one of the more commonly associated ocular phenotypes. However the cellular integrity of the fovea in albinism is not well understood – there likely exist important anatomical differences that underlie phenotypic variability within the disease and that also may affect responsiveness to therapeutic intervention. Here, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging, we obtained high-resolution images of the foveal region in six individuals with albinism. We provide a quantitative analysis of cone density and outer segment elongation demonstrating that foveal cone specialization is variable in albinism. In addition, our data reveal a continuum of foveal pit morphology, roughly aligning with schematics of normal foveal development based on post-mortem analyses. Different albinism subtypes, genetic mutations, and constitutional pigment background likely play a role in determining the degree of foveal maturation. PMID:20149815

  1. Out of the Corner of My Eye: Foveal Semantic Load Modulates Parafoveal Processing in Reading.

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Payne, Brennan R.; Stites, Mallory C.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2016-07-18

    In two experiments, we examined the impact of foveal semantic expectancy and congruity on parafoveal word processing during reading. Experiment 1 utilized an eye-tracking gaze contingent display change paradigm, and Experiment 2 measured event-related brain potentials (ERP) in a modified RSVP paradigm to track the time-course of foveal semantic influences on convert attentional allocation to parafoveal word processing. Furthermore, eye-tracking and ERP data converged to reveal graded effects of semantic foveal load on parafoveal processing.

  2. 2. CONFLUENCE POOL, DETAIL OF TUNNEL PORTAL WITH WATER ENTERING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONFLUENCE POOL, DETAIL OF TUNNEL PORTAL WITH WATER ENTERING FROM SANTA ANA RIVER. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. 1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, AND FROM SANTA ANA RIVER THROUGH TUNNEL #0 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. Oculomotor Remapping of Visual Information to Foveal Retinotopic Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Knapen, Tomas; Swisher, Jascha D.; Tong, Frank; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Our eyes continually jump around the visual scene to bring the high-resolution, central part of our vision onto objects of interest. We are oblivious to these abrupt shifts, perceiving the visual world to appear reassuringly stable. A process called remapping has been proposed to mediate this perceptual stability for attended objects by shifting their retinotopic representation to compensate for the effects of the upcoming eye movement. In everyday vision, observers make goal-directed eye movements towards items of interest bringing them to the fovea and, for these items, the remapped activity should impinge on foveal regions of the retinotopic maps in visual cortex. Previous research has focused instead on remapping for targets that were not saccade goals, where activity is remapped to a new peripheral location rather than to the foveal representation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a phase-encoding design to investigate remapping of spatial patterns of activity towards the fovea/parafovea for saccade targets that were removed prior to completion of the eye movement. We found strong evidence of foveal remapping in retinotopic visual areas, which failed to occur when observers merely attended to the same peripheral target without making eye movements towards it. Significantly, the spatial profile of the remapped response matched the orientation and size of the saccade target, and was appropriately scaled to reflect the retinal extent of the stimulus had it been foveated. We conclude that this remapping of spatially structured information to the fovea may serve as an important mechanism to support our world-centered sense of location across goal-directed eye movements under natural viewing conditions. PMID:27445715

  5. Oculomotor Remapping of Visual Information to Foveal Retinotopic Cortex.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Tomas; Swisher, Jascha D; Tong, Frank; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Our eyes continually jump around the visual scene to bring the high-resolution, central part of our vision onto objects of interest. We are oblivious to these abrupt shifts, perceiving the visual world to appear reassuringly stable. A process called remapping has been proposed to mediate this perceptual stability for attended objects by shifting their retinotopic representation to compensate for the effects of the upcoming eye movement. In everyday vision, observers make goal-directed eye movements towards items of interest bringing them to the fovea and, for these items, the remapped activity should impinge on foveal regions of the retinotopic maps in visual cortex. Previous research has focused instead on remapping for targets that were not saccade goals, where activity is remapped to a new peripheral location rather than to the foveal representation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a phase-encoding design to investigate remapping of spatial patterns of activity towards the fovea/parafovea for saccade targets that were removed prior to completion of the eye movement. We found strong evidence of foveal remapping in retinotopic visual areas, which failed to occur when observers merely attended to the same peripheral target without making eye movements towards it. Significantly, the spatial profile of the remapped response matched the orientation and size of the saccade target, and was appropriately scaled to reflect the retinal extent of the stimulus had it been foveated. We conclude that this remapping of spatially structured information to the fovea may serve as an important mechanism to support our world-centered sense of location across goal-directed eye movements under natural viewing conditions. PMID:27445715

  6. Iliocaval Confluence Stenting for Chronic Venous Obstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Graaf, Rick de; Wolf, Mark de; Sailer, Anna M.; Laanen, Jorinde van Wittens, Cees; Jalaie, Houman

    2015-10-15

    PurposeDifferent techniques have been described for stenting of venous obstructions. We report our experience with two different confluence stenting techniques to treat chronic bi-iliocaval obstructions.Materials and MethodsBetween 11/2009 and 08/2014 we treated 40 patients for chronic total bi-iliocaval obstructions. Pre-operative magnetic resonance venography showed bilateral extensive post-thrombotic scarring in common and external iliac veins as well as obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Stenting of the IVC was performed with large self-expandable stents down to the level of the iliocaval confluence. To bridge the confluence, either self-expandable stents were placed inside the IVC stent (24 patients, SECS group) or high radial force balloon-expandable stents were placed at the same level (16 patients, BECS group). In both cases, bilateral iliac extensions were performed using nitinol stents.ResultsRecanalization was achieved for all patients. In 15 (38 %) patients, a hybrid procedure with endophlebectomy and arteriovenous fistula creation needed to be performed because of significant involvement of inflow vessels below the inguinal ligament. Mean follow-up was 443 ± 438 days (range 7–1683 days). For all patients, primary, assisted-primary, and secondary patency rate at 36 months were 70, 73, and 78 %, respectively. Twelve-month patency rates in the SECS group were 85, 85, and 95 % for primary, assisted-primary, and secondary patency. In the BECS group, primary patency was 100 % during a mean follow-up period of 134 ± 118 (range 29–337) days.ConclusionStenting of chronic bi-iliocaval obstruction shows relatively high patency rates at medium follow-up. Short-term patency seems to favor confluence stenting with balloon-expandable stents.

  7. Coarse bedload routing and dispersion through tributary confluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, Kurt S.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2016-07-01

    Sediment routing fundamentally influences channel morphology and the propagation of disturbances such as debris flows. The transport and storage of bedload particles across headwater channel confluences, which may be significant nodes of the channel network in terms of sediment routing, morphology, and habitat, are poorly understood, however. We investigated patterns and processes of sediment routing through headwater confluences by comparing them to published results from lower-gradient confluences and by comparing the dispersive behavior of coarse bedload particles between headwater confluence and non-confluence reaches. We addressed these questions with a field tracer experiment using passive-integrated transponder and radio-frequency identification technology in the East Fork Bitterroot River basin, Montana, USA. Within the confluence zone, tracers tended to be deposited towards scour-hole and channel margins, suggesting narrow, efficient transport corridors that mirror those observed in prior studies, many of which are from finer-grained systems. Coarse particles in some confluence reaches experienced reduced depositional probabilities within the confluence relative to upstream and downstream of the confluence. Analysis of particle transport data suggests that variation in the spatial distribution of coarse-sediment particles may be enhanced by passing through confluences, though further study is needed to evaluate confluence effects on dispersive regimes and sediment routing on broader spatial and temporal scales.

  8. Foveal-Sparing Scotomas in Advanced Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunness, Janet S.; Rubin, Gary S.; Zuckerbrod, Abraham; Applegate, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Foveal-sparing scotomas are common in advanced dry macular degeneration (geographic atrophy). Foveal preservation may be present for a number of years. Despite good visual acuity, these patients have reduced reading rates. Magnification may not be effective if the text becomes too large to "fit" within the central spared area. (Contains 2 tables…

  9. The Mechanisms Underlying the Interhemispheric Integration of Information in Foveal Word Recognition: Evidence for Transcortical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Words are processed as units. This is not as evident as it seems, given the division of the human cerebral cortex in two hemispheres and the partial decussation of the optic tract. In two experiments, we investigated what underlies the unity of foveally presented words: A bilateral projection of visual input in foveal vision, or interhemispheric…

  10. Foveal vs. Parafoveal Processing in Anxiety: Broadened Spatial Attention for Threat Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Aida; Calvo, Manuel G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the processing of threat-related, positive, and neutral words in parafoveal and in foveal vision as a function of individual differences in trait anxiety. In a lexical-decision task, word primes were presented for 150 ms either parafoveally (2.2[degrees] away from fixation; Experiment 1) or foveally (at fixation; Experiment 3)…

  11. Mixing zone hydrodynamics in a large confluence: a case study of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehata, M. M.; Petrie, J.

    2015-12-01

    Confluences are a basic component in all fluvial systems, which are often characterized by complex flow and sediment transport patterns. Addressing confluences, however, started only recently in parallel with new advances of flow measurement tools and computational techniques. A limited number of field studies exist investigating flow hydrodynamics through confluences, particularly for large confluences with central zone widths of 100 m or greater. Previous studies have indicated that the size of the confluent rivers and the post-confluence zone may impact flow and sediment transport processes in the confluence zone, which consequently could impact the biodiversity within the river network. This study presents the results of a field study conducted at the confluence of the Snake and the Clearwater rivers near the towns of Clarkston, WA and Lewiston, ID (average width of 700 m at the confluence center). This confluence supports many different and, sometimes, conflicting purposes including commercial navigation, recreation, and fish and wildlife conservation. The confluence properties are affected by dredging operations carried out periodically to maintain the minimum water depth required for safe flow conveyance and navigation purposes. Also, a levee system was constructed on the confluence banks as an extra flood control measure. In the recent field work, an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler was used to measure water velocity profiles at cross sections in the confluence region. Fixed and moving vessel measurements were taken at selected locations to evaluate both the spatial and temporal variation in velocity throughout the confluence. The confluence bathymetry was surveyed with a multi-beam sonar to investigate existent bed morphological elements. The results identify the velocity pattern in the mixing zone between the two rivers. The present findings are compared to previous studies on small confluences to demonstrate the influence of scale on flow processes.

  12. Visual memory for objects following foveal vision loss.

    PubMed

    Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hofmüller, Wolfram; Hoffmann, Michael B; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Allocation of visual attention is crucial for encoding items into visual long-term memory. In free vision, attention is closely linked to the center of gaze, raising the question whether foveal vision loss entails suboptimal deployment of attention and subsequent impairment of object encoding. To investigate this question, we examined visual long-term memory for objects in patients suffering from foveal vision loss due to age-related macular degeneration. We measured patients' change detection sensitivity after a period of free scene exploration monocularly with their worse eye when possible, and under binocular vision, comparing sensitivity and eye movements to matched normal-sighted controls. A highly salient cue was used to capture attention to a nontarget location before a target change occurred in half of the trials, ensuring that change detection relied on memory. Patients' monocular and binocular sensitivity to object change was comparable to controls, even after more than 4 intervening fixations, and not significantly correlated with visual impairment. We conclude that extrafoveal vision suffices for efficient encoding into visual long-term memory. PMID:25893842

  13. Visually complex foveal words increase the amount of parafoveal information acquired.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the effect of foveal load (i.e., processing difficulty of currently fixated words) on parafoveal information processing. Contrary to the commonly accepted view that high foveal load leads to reduced parafoveal processing efficiency, results of the present study showed that increasing foveal visual (but not linguistic) processing load actually increased the amount of parafoveal information acquired, presumably due to the fact that longer fixation duration on the pretarget word provided more time for parafoveal processing of the target word. It is therefore proposed in the present study that foveal linguistic processing load is not the only factor that determines parafoveal processing; preview time (afforded by foveal word visual processing load) may jointly influence parafoveal processing. PMID:25911574

  14. Transient visual effects of prolonged small spot foveal laser exposure. Report for January-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Zwick, H.; Robins, D.O.; Magsood, N.

    1989-03-01

    In recent experiments, the authors evaluated the effects of acute, threshold damage levels of small-spot foveal laser exposure. These experiments revealed transient changes in acuity and contrast sensitivity lasting from 10 to 15 minutes postexposure. Following recovery from such effects, normal acuity and contrast sensitivity are not necessarily degraded, although continuous exposure at these levels does result in parafoveal compensation for foveal damage and eventual deficit in fine visual acuity. Development of a test of foveal function during and after small-spot foveal exposure was the primary objective of this investigation. This objective was accomplished. At retinal damage levels, only a small focal foveal lesion was observed indicating the ability to utilize the fovea during such exposure. Post-exposure recovery effects analyzed for target size and contrast conditions suggest retinal and possibly cortical saturation processes.

  15. Confluence, synnovation, and depauperons in plant diversification.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Michael J; Sanderson, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    We review the empirical phylogenetic literature on plant diversification, highlighting challenges in separating the effects of speciation and extinction, in specifying diversification mechanisms, and in making convincing arguments. In recent discussions of context dependence, key opportunities and landscapes, and indirect effects and lag times, we see a distinct shift away from single-point/single-cause 'key innovation' hypotheses toward more nuanced explanations involving multiple interacting causal agents assembled step-wise through a tree. To help crystalize this emerging perspective we introduce the term 'synnovation' (a hybrid of 'synergy' and 'innovation') for an interacting combination of traits with a particular consequence ('key synnovation' in the case of increased diversification rate), and the term 'confluence' for the sequential coming together of a set of traits (innovations and synnovations), environmental changes, and geographic movements along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. We illustrate these concepts using the radiation of Bromeliaceae. We also highlight the generality of these ideas by considering how rate heterogeneity associated with a confluence relates to the existence of particularly species-poor lineages, or 'depauperons.' Many challenges are posed by this re-purposed research framework, including difficulties associated with partial taxon sampling, uncertainty in divergence time estimation, and extinction. PMID:25778694

  16. Bedload transport in a river confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Vide, J. P.; Plana-Casado, A.; Sambola, A.; Capapé, S.

    2015-12-01

    The confluence of the regulated Toltén River and its tributary the unregulated Allipén (south of Chile) has proved dynamic in the last decade. Daily bedload measurements with a Helley-Smith sampler, bed surveys, and grain-size distributions of the two rivers are obtained from a field campaign that lasts 3 months in high-flow season. The goals are to quantify total bedload and to understand the balance between tributary and main river and the bedload distribution in space and texture. The bedload transport varies 200-fold, with a maximum of 5000 t/day. The discharge varies five-fold, with a maximum of 900 m3/s. Two-thirds of the total bedload volume are transported through the deeper area of the cross section and gravel is predominant (64%). Average bedload volumes in the confluence seem unbalanced in favour of the tributary. Main river bedload transport is predominantly at below-capacity conditions, while the tributary bedload transport is at-capacity conditions. This is deemed the main reason of inaccuracy of the bedload predictors. The roles of entrainment into suspension, helical flow, partial transport, and mobile armour are discussed.

  17. Foveal input is not required for perception of crowd facial expression

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Benjamin A.; Kosovicheva, Anna A.; Leib, Allison Yamanashi; Wood, Katherine; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    The visual system extracts average features from groups of objects (Ariely, 2001; Dakin & Watt, 1997; Watamaniuk & Sekuler, 1992), including high-level stimuli such as faces (Haberman & Whitney, 2007, 2009). This phenomenon, known as ensemble perception, implies a covert process, which would not require fixation of individual stimulus elements. However, some evidence suggests that ensemble perception may instead be a process of averaging foveal input across sequential fixations (Ji, Chen, & Fu, 2013; Jung, Bulthoff, Thornton, Lee, & Armann, 2013). To test directly whether foveating objects is necessary, we measured observers' sensitivity to average facial emotion in the absence of foveal input. Subjects viewed arrays of 24 faces, either in the presence or absence of a gaze-contingent foveal occluder, and adjusted a test face to match the average expression of the array. We found no difference in accuracy between the occluded and non-occluded conditions, demonstrating that foveal input is not required for ensemble perception. Unsurprisingly, without foveal input, subjects spent significantly less time directly fixating faces, but this did not translate into any difference in sensitivity to ensemble expression. Next, we varied the number of faces visible from the set to test whether subjects average multiple faces from the crowd. In both conditions, subjects' performance improved as more faces were presented, indicating that subjects integrated information from multiple faces in the display regardless of whether they had access to foveal information. Our results demonstrate that ensemble perception can be a covert process, not requiring access to direct foveal information. PMID:26360155

  18. Foveal input is not required for perception of crowd facial expression.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Benjamin A; Kosovicheva, Anna A; Leib, Allison Yamanashi; Wood, Katherine; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    The visual system extracts average features from groups of objects (Ariely, 2001; Dakin & Watt, 1997; Watamaniuk & Sekuler, 1992), including high-level stimuli such as faces (Haberman & Whitney, 2007, 2009). This phenomenon, known as ensemble perception, implies a covert process, which would not require fixation of individual stimulus elements. However, some evidence suggests that ensemble perception may instead be a process of averaging foveal input across sequential fixations (Ji, Chen, & Fu, 2013; Jung, Bulthoff, Thornton, Lee, & Armann, 2013). To test directly whether foveating objects is necessary, we measured observers' sensitivity to average facial emotion in the absence of foveal input. Subjects viewed arrays of 24 faces, either in the presence or absence of a gaze-contingent foveal occluder, and adjusted a test face to match the average expression of the array. We found no difference in accuracy between the occluded and non-occluded conditions, demonstrating that foveal input is not required for ensemble perception. Unsurprisingly, without foveal input, subjects spent significantly less time directly fixating faces, but this did not translate into any difference in sensitivity to ensemble expression. Next, we varied the number of faces visible from the set to test whether subjects average multiple faces from the crowd. In both conditions, subjects' performance improved as more faces were presented, indicating that subjects integrated information from multiple faces in the display regardless of whether they had access to foveal information. Our results demonstrate that ensemble perception can be a covert process, not requiring access to direct foveal information. PMID:26360155

  19. Coarse bedload routing and dispersion through tributary confluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, K. S.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment routing fundamentally influences channel morphology and propagation of disturbances. However, the transport and storage of bedload particles in headwater channel confluences, which may be significant nodes of the channel network in terms of sediment routing, morphology, and habitat, is poorly understood. To characterize routing processes through confluences of headwater channels, we investigate how sediment routing patterns through headwater confluences compare to those described in low-gradient gravel bed river systems, and how confluences affect the dispersive behavior of coarse bedload particles compared to non-confluence reaches. We address these questions with a field tracer experiment using passive-integrated transponder and radio-frequency identification technology in the East Fork Bitterroot River basin, Montana, USA. Within the confluence zone, transport occurs along scour hole margins in narrow, efficient transport corridors that mirror those observed in finer-grained experiments and field studies. Coarse particles entering confluences experience reduced depositional probabilities, in contrast to the size-selective transport observed in a control reach. Stochastic transport modeling, tail analysis, and use of a dimensionless impulse (I*) suggest that transport distance and variance growth are enhanced through confluences for a given flow strength. We suggest that confluences absent of disturbances enhance sediment transport and dispersive growth through headwater networks.

  20. Isolated foveal hypoplasia: report of a new case and detailed genetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Ahmed A; Hellani, Ali; Abu-Amero, Khaled K

    2011-04-01

    To carry out an ophthalmological and detailed genetic investigation on a 7-year-old boy with isolated foveal hypoplasia. A full ophthalmological examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed. We also performed a full genome screen for chromosomal abnormalities, and searched for mutations in two genes (GPR143 and OCA2) known to be associated with ocular albinism and PAX6 gene known to be associated with aniridia. His eye examination was normal with no iris transillumination. A fundus examination, however, showed classic signs of foveal hypoplasia. A molecular genetic investigation showed no mutation(s) in all genes screened and no chromosomal deletion(s) and/or duplication(s) were detected. We report a case of isolated foveal hypoplasia where the underlying genetic cause could not be established. We could not rule out other genetic or epigenetic factors contributing to the pathogenesis of isolated foveal hypoplasia. PMID:21264491

  1. Analysis of foveal characteristics and their asymmetries in the normal population.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Patrick; Zocher, Maria Teresa; Francke, Mike; Rauscher, Franziska Georgia

    2016-07-01

    The advance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables a detailed examination of the human retina in-vivo for clinical routine and experimental eye research. Only few investigations to date captured human foveal morphology in a large subject group on the basis of a detailed analysis employing mathematical models. However, even for important foveal characteristics unified terminology and clear definitions were not implemented so far. This might be a reason, why to this day the human fovea is considered to be a mostly symmetric and round structure. Therefore, the most important finding of this work is the detailed analysis of the asymmetric structure of the human fovea. We employed five clinically highly relevant foveal characteristics, which are derived from a previously published fovea model. For each, an accurate mathematical description is given. The presented properties include (1) mean retinal thickness inside a defined radius, (2) foveal bowl area, (3) a new, exact definition of foveal radius, (4) maximum foveal slope, and (5) the maximum height of the foveal rim. Furthermore, minimum retinal thickness was derived and analyzed. 220 strictly controlled healthy Caucasian subjects of European decent with an even distribution of age and gender were imaged with an Heidelberg Spectralis OCT. Detailed analysis demonstrated the following general results: (1) significant gender difference regarding the central foveal subfield thickness (CFST) but no significant differences for the minimum central retinal thickness, (2) a strong correlation between right and left eye of the same subject, and, as essential finding, (3) strong structural differences of the fovea form in the different anatomical directions (nasal, temporal, inferior and superior). In the analysis of the foveal asymmetry, it will be demonstrated that the foveal radius is larger in nasal and temporal direction compared to inferior and superior position. Furthermore, it will be shown that the circular

  2. Birth Order and Intelligence: Further Tests of the Confluence Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retherford, Robert D.; Sewell, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Confluence theory was developed to explain the negative effects of birth order on intelligence. Using aggregate, between-family, within-family, and paired-sibling data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, tests the mathematical form of confluence theory and finds no support for it. Suggests that statistical methods used to fit the model to the…

  3. The Nature of Creativity: Cognitive and Confluence Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megalakaki, Olga; Craft, Anna; Cremin, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    In the present psychology-informed literature review we address some aspects of the nature of creativity from cognitive and confluence perspectives. The authors begin by discussing models of creativity offered by cognitive and confluence approaches, focusing on the transition from univariate to multivariate models. The article explores what these…

  4. Segmentation of the foveal microvasculature using deep learning networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentašić, Pavle; Heisler, Morgan; Mammo, Zaid; Lee, Sieun; Merkur, Andrew; Navajas, Eduardo; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Šarunić, Marinko; Lončarić, Sven

    2016-07-01

    Accurate segmentation of the retinal microvasculature is a critical step in the quantitative analysis of the retinal circulation, which can be an important marker in evaluating the severity of retinal diseases. As manual segmentation remains the gold standard for segmentation of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) images, we present a method for automating the segmentation of OCT-A images using deep neural networks (DNNs). Eighty OCT-A images of the foveal region in 12 eyes from 6 healthy volunteers were acquired using a prototype OCT-A system and subsequently manually segmented. The automated segmentation of the blood vessels in the OCT-A images was then performed by classifying each pixel into vessel or nonvessel class using deep convolutional neural networks. When the automated results were compared against the manual segmentation results, a maximum mean accuracy of 0.83 was obtained. When the automated results were compared with inter and intrarater accuracies, the automated results were shown to be comparable to the human raters suggesting that segmentation using DNNs is comparable to a second manual rater. As manually segmenting the retinal microvasculature is a tedious task, having a reliable automated output such as automated segmentation by DNNs, is an important step in creating an automated output.

  5. Interhemispheric transfer and the processing of foveally presented stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brysbaert, M

    1994-10-20

    Two arguments are commonly given in favor of a nasotemporal overlap along the vertical meridian of the visual field: anatomical findings and the existence of macular sparing in hemianopia. A review of the literature, however, points to the weakness of the evidence. The anatomical indications are exclusively based on horseradish peroxidase studies, which can not give an unequivocal answer to the amount of overlap in central vision, and which were not supported by a recent study that made use of the more direct [14C]2-deoxy-D-glucose technique. The argument of macular sparing in hemianopia appears to be derived evidence that depends on the validity of the anatomical findings. In addition, behavioral studies consistently failed to find functional confirmation of the overlap. To further test the possibility of bilateral representation in central vision, a new paradigm is proposed. It is argued that if interhemispheric transfer is needed for the processing of foveally presented stimuli, the word-beginning superiority effect should be larger for subjects with left hemisphere dominance than for subjects with right hemisphere dominance. Results are in line with the hypothesis and point to the fact that interhemispheric transfer of visual information may be involved in more processing than usually accepted. It is also noted that transfer time seems to depend on the amount of information that must be transferred, and is significantly shorter than the estimates obtained in visual half field studies. PMID:7840882

  6. The Confluence of Exascale and Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosanjh, Sudip

    2014-04-01

    Exascale computing has rightly received considerable attention within the high performance computing community. In many fields, scientific progress requires a thousand-fold increase in supercomputing performance over the next decade. Science needs include performing single simulations that span a large portion of an exascale system, as well high throughput computing. The big data problem has also received considerable attention, but is sometimes viewed as being orthogonal to exascale computing. This talk focuses on the confluence of exascale and big data. Exascale and big data face many similar technical challenges including increasing power/energy constraints, the growing mismatch between computing and data movement speeds, an explosion in concurrency and the reduced reliability of large computing systems. Even though exascale and data intensive systems might have different system-level architectures, the fundamental building blocks will be similar. Analyzing all the information produced by exascale simulations will also generate a big data problem. And finally, many experimental facilities are being inundated with large quantities of data as sensors and sequencers improve at rates that surpass Moore's Law. It is becoming increasingly difficult to analyze all of the data from a single experiment and it is often impossible to make comparisons across data sets. It will only be possible to accelerate scientific discovery if we bring together the high performance computing and big data communities.

  7. 1. FIRST SECTION OF PIPELINE BETWEEN CONFLUENCE POOL AND FISH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FIRST SECTION OF PIPELINE BETWEEN CONFLUENCE POOL AND FISH SCREEN. NOTE RETAINING WALL BESIDE PIPE. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Pipeline to Fish Screen, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Trans-saccadic integration of peripheral and foveal feature information is close to optimal.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Christian; Schütz, Alexander C

    2015-01-01

    Due to the inhomogenous visual representation across the visual field, humans use peripheral vision to select objects of interest and foveate them by saccadic eye movements for further scrutiny. Thus, there is usually peripheral information available before and foveal information after a saccade. In this study we investigated the integration of information across saccades. We measured reliabilities--i.e., the inverse of variance-separately in a presaccadic peripheral and a postsaccadic foveal orientation--discrimination task. From this, we predicted trans-saccadic performance and compared it to observed values. We show that the integration of incongruent peripheral and foveal information is biased according to their relative reliabilities and that the reliability of the trans-saccadic information equals the sum of the peripheral and foveal reliabilities. Both results are consistent with and indistinguishable from statistically optimal integration according to the maximum-likelihood principle. Additionally, we tracked the gathering of information around the time of the saccade with high temporal precision by using a reverse correlation method. Information gathering starts to decline between 100 and 50 ms before saccade onset and recovers immediately after saccade offset. Altogether, these findings show that the human visual system can effectively use peripheral and foveal information about object features and that visual perception does not simply correspond to disconnected snapshots during each fixation. PMID:26624936

  9. The effect of foveal and parafoveal masks on the eye movements of older and younger readers.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Keith; Yang, Jinmian; Schuett, Susanne; Slattery, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, we examined foveal and parafoveal processing in older compared with younger readers by using gaze-contingent paradigms with 4 conditions. Older and younger readers read sentences in which the text was either a) presented normally, b) the foveal word was masked as soon as it was fixated, c) all of the words to the left of the fixated word were masked, or d) all of the words to the right of the fixated word were masked. Although older and younger readers both found reading when the fixated word was masked quite difficult, the foveal mask increased sentence reading time more than 3-fold (3.4) for the older readers (in comparison with the control condition in which the sentence was presented normally) compared with the younger readers who took 1.3 times longer to read sentences in the foveal mask condition (in comparison with the control condition). The left and right parafoveal masks did not disrupt reading as severely as the foveal mask, though the right mask was more disruptive than the left mask. Also, there was some indication that the younger readers found the right mask condition relatively more disruptive than the left mask condition. PMID:24730466

  10. FOVEA: a new program to standardize the measurement of foveal pit morphology.

    PubMed

    Moore, Bret A; Yoo, Innfarn; Tyrrell, Luke P; Benes, Bedrich; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The fovea is one of the most studied retinal specializations in vertebrates, which consists of an invagination of the retinal tissue with high packing of cone photoreceptors, leading to high visual resolution. Between species, foveae differ morphologically in the depth and width of the foveal pit and the steepness of the foveal walls, which could influence visual perception. However, there is no standardized methodology to measure the contour of the foveal pit across species. We present here FOVEA, a program for the quantification of foveal parameters (width, depth, slope of foveal pit) using images from histological cross-sections or optical coherence tomography (OCT). FOVEA is based on a new algorithm to detect the inner retina contour based on the color variation of the image. We evaluated FOVEA by comparing the fovea morphology of two Passerine birds based on histological cross-sections and its performance with data from previously published OCT images. FOVEA detected differences between species and its output was not significantly different from previous estimates using OCT software. FOVEA can be used for comparative studies to better understand the evolution of the fovea morphology in vertebrates as well as for diagnostic purposes in veterinary pathology. FOVEA is freely available for academic use and can be downloaded at: http://estebanfj.bio.purdue.edu/fovea. PMID:27076997

  11. Protan-like spectral sensitivity of foveal Y ganglion cells of the retina of macaque monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    de Monasterio, F M; Schein, S J

    1980-01-01

    1. The spectral sensitivity of two varieties of macaque Y ganglion cells with a centre-surround organization, type III (non-colour opponent) and type IV (broad-band colour opponent), was examined with test stimuli of different size, shape and wave-length. 2. The spectral sensitivity of type III cells to large stimuli decreased at the long wave-lengths with decreasing retinal eccentricity; this change was due to a lower sensitivity of green-sensitive than of red-sensitive cone input to the surround of foveal cells, which resulted in stronger surround antagonism at the long than at the short wave-lengths leading to a rudimentary form of colour opponency. 3. The spectral properties of foveal type III cells were intermediate between those of perifoveal type III cells, whose surrounds receive a rather similar input from both cone types, and of the predominantly foveal type IV cells, whose surrounds appeared to lack input from green-sensitive cones. 4. The results indicate that both cell types represent varieties within a continuum of a single macaque Y-cell system which has a reduced long-wave-length sensitivity in the foveal region. The fact that a similar reduction of long-wave-length sensitivity can be observed in (foveal) macaque photopic luminosity functions measured with different techniques by different authors suggest that both types of Y cell have an important role in the processing of luminance information. PMID:6770078

  12. FOVEA: a new program to standardize the measurement of foveal pit morphology

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Bret A.; Yoo, Innfarn; Tyrrell, Luke P.; Benes, Bedrich

    2016-01-01

    The fovea is one of the most studied retinal specializations in vertebrates, which consists of an invagination of the retinal tissue with high packing of cone photoreceptors, leading to high visual resolution. Between species, foveae differ morphologically in the depth and width of the foveal pit and the steepness of the foveal walls, which could influence visual perception. However, there is no standardized methodology to measure the contour of the foveal pit across species. We present here FOVEA, a program for the quantification of foveal parameters (width, depth, slope of foveal pit) using images from histological cross-sections or optical coherence tomography (OCT). FOVEA is based on a new algorithm to detect the inner retina contour based on the color variation of the image. We evaluated FOVEA by comparing the fovea morphology of two Passerine birds based on histological cross-sections and its performance with data from previously published OCT images. FOVEA detected differences between species and its output was not significantly different from previous estimates using OCT software. FOVEA can be used for comparative studies to better understand the evolution of the fovea morphology in vertebrates as well as for diagnostic purposes in veterinary pathology. FOVEA is freely available for academic use and can be downloaded at: http://estebanfj.bio.purdue.edu/fovea. PMID:27076997

  13. A word-superiority effect in the presence of foveal load.

    PubMed

    Salvemini, A V; Stewart, A L; Purcell, D G; Pinkham, R S

    1998-06-01

    Foveal stimuli have been shown to disrupt visual information processing in the parafovea and periphery by their mere presence. In the present study, 6 subjects were presented letter triads 3.58 degrees to the right or left of the point of fixation. At the same time, a single letter was presented at the point of fixation that was either the same as the middle letter in the triad or different from any of the triad letters. On other trials, no letter was presented at the point of fixation. Analysis indicated a word superiority effect when a foveal letter was presented that was the same as the letter in the triad. Performance between words and nonwords did not differ significantly when the foveal letter was different or absent. It was concluded that the mere presence of foveal load alone is not disruptive to performance. Depending on the visual context of the target to be reported, the presence of a foveal stimulus may improve performance. PMID:9700807

  14. Measurement of dark adapted foveal contrast sensitivity: effect of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Yossi; Belkin, Michael; Yehezkel, Oren; Rosner, Mordechai; Polat, Uri

    2005-04-01

    sensitive to the higher spatial frequencies and the fact that the test was performed only after 3 minutes of adaptation, support our assumption that we are measuring a foveal function. The simplicity, duration and personal computer compatibility make the procedure practical and readily available for use in clinical settings.

  15. An Experimental Study to Control Scour at River Confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuppukondur, A.; Chandra, V.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of present study is finding a method to control sediment erosion at river confluence. The confluences are mixture of two different flows and are common occurrences along the river. River confluences are sites of natural scour phenomenon and also influence reservoir sedimentation. The river confluence is associated with a separation zone, stagnation zone and a mixing layer along which the scour hole is observed. The eroded sediment creates potential problems by depositing at unwanted downstream locations such as barrages, weirs, check dams, reservoirs etc. As per the literature, the storage capacity of major reservoirs in India is going to be reduced nearly half of the storage capacity by 2020. Hence, an experimental study has been conducted on mobile bed (d50=0.28 mm) with a confluence angle of 90o for a discharge ratio (Qr) of 0.5, where, Qr is defined as the ratio between lateral flow discharge (Ql) and main flow discharge (Qm). Circular shape pile models of same diameter are arranged in a systematic manner with constant spacing (5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm) to change the flow pattern for reducing scour at the confluence. Two types of pile models (8 mm ϕ and 12 mm ϕ) are used to conduct the experiments. The experimental results show that maximum scour depth at confluence is reduced by 60%. In addition, the bed profile modifications are also reported. Keywords: Reservoir sedimentation, River confluence, Mobile bed, Scour, Vanes. References:1. Borghei, S. M., and Sahebari, A. J. (2010). "Local Scour at Open-Channel Junctions", Journal of Hydraulic Research, 48(4), 37 - 41. 2. Kothyari, U. C. (1996). "Methods for Estimation Sediment Yield from Catchments", Proc., Int. Sem. On Civil Engg. Practices in Twenty First Century, Roorkee, India, 1071-1086. 3. Mosley, M. P. (1976) "An Experimental Study of Channel Confluences". The Journal of Geology, 84(55), 532-562. 4. Ouyang, H. T. (2009). "Investigation on the dimensions and shape of a submerged vane for sediment

  16. Foveal tracking cells in the superior temporal sulcus of the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Erickson, R G; Dow, B M

    1989-01-01

    Visual responses were recorded from neurons in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) of awake, behaving cynomolgus monkeys trained to fixate a small spot of light. Visual receptive fields, directionality, and responses during visual tracking were examined quantitatively for 50 cells in the foveal portion of the middle temporal (MT) visual area and surrounding cortex. Directionality indices and preferred directions for tracked and nontracked stimuli were compared. Eighteen cells (18/50 = 36%) were found to respond preferentially during tracking (tracking cells), 7 within MT, 9 in area FST on the floor of the STS, and 2 in unidentified areas. Three distinctly different tracking response profiles (VTS, VTO, and T) were observed. VTS and VTO cells had foveal receptive fields and gave directionally selective visual responses. VTS cells (3 in foveal MT, 6 in FST, 1 in an unidentified area) had a preferred visual direction that coincided with the preferred tracking direction, and began responding 50-100 ms before the onset of tracking. VTO cells (4 in foveal MT, 0 in FST, 1 in an unidentified area) had a preferred visual direction opposite to the preferred tracking direction, and began responding 0-100 ms after the onset of tracking. T cells (0 in MT, 3 in FST) had no visual responses and began responding simultaneously with the onset of tracking. It is suggested that this region of the brain could be the primary location for converting direction-specific visual responses into signals specifying at least the direction of an intended pursuit movement. PMID:2591507

  17. Fabrication of anatomically tapered foveal pits for retinal phantoms for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gary C. F.; Smith, Gennifer T.; Agrawal, Monica; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2015-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has become a standard tool for diagnosing retinal disease in many ophthalmology clinics. Nonetheless, the technical and clinical research communities still lack a standardized phantom that could aid in evaluating and normalizing the various scan protocols and OCT machines employed at different institutions. Existing retinal phantoms designed for OCT imaging mimic some important features of the retina, such as the thickness and scattering properties of its many layers. However, the morphology of the foveal pit and the visible tapering of the retinal layers underlying the surface surrounding the pit remains a challenge to replicate in current phantoms. Recent attempts at creating a realistic foveal pit include molding, ablation and laser etching but have not proved sufficient to replicate this particular anatomical feature. In this work, we demonstrate a new fabrication procedure that is capable of replicating the tapered appearance of the retinal layers near the foveal pit using a combination of spin-coating and replica molding. The ability to create an anatomically correct foveal pit will allow for a new phantom better suited for intra- and inter-system evaluation and for improved testing of retinal segmentation algorithms.

  18. Arthroscopic-assisted repair of triangular fibrocartilage complex foveal avulsion in distal radioulnar joint injury

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sung Jong; Jegal, Midum; Park, Min Jong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) foveal insertion can lead to distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability accompanied by ulnar-sided pain, weakness, snapping, and limited forearm rotation. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with TFCC foveal tears treated with arthroscopic-assisted repair. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients underwent foveal repair of avulsed TFCC with the assistance of arthroscopy between 2011 and 2013. These patients were followed up for an average of 19 months (range 14–25 months). The avulsed TFCC were reattached to the fovea using a transosseous pull-out suture or a knotless suture anchor. At the final followup, the range of motion, grip strength and DRUJ stability were measured as objective outcomes. Subjective outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH score) and return to work. Results: Based on the DRUJ stress test, 5 patients had normal stability and 7 patients showed mild laxity as compared with the contralateral side. Postoperatively, the mean range of pronation supination increased from 141° to 166°, and the mean VAS score for pain decreased from 5.3 to 1.7 significantly. The PRWE and DASH questionnaires also showed significant functional improvement. All patients were able to return to their jobs. However, two patients complained of persistent pain. Conclusions: Arthroscopically assisted repair of TFCC foveal injury can provide significant pain relief, functional improvement and restoration of DRUJ stability. PMID:27293286

  19. Confluence of the Amazon and Topajos Rivers, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the confluence of the Amazon and the Topajos Rivers at Santarem, Brazil (2.0S, 55.0W). The Am,azon flows from lower left to upper right of the photo. Below the river juncture of the Amazon and Tapajos, there is considerable deforestation activity along the Trans-Amazon Highway.

  20. Henry Hudson Bridge over Harlem River Shipping Canal at confluence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Bridge over Harlem River Shipping Canal at confluence with Hudson River, from Isham Park, view northeast. Inwood Hill Park on left, Spuyten Duyvil Shorefront Park on right, Palisades Interstate Park in background. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  1. Property in Nonhuman Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2011-01-01

    Property is rare in most nonhuman primates, most likely because their lifestyles are not conducive to it. Nonetheless, just because these species do not frequently maintain property does not mean that they lack the propensity to do so. Primates show respect for possession, as well as behaviors related to property, such as irrational decision…

  2. Dyslexia and fluency: parafoveal and foveal influences on rapid automatized naming.

    PubMed

    Jones, Manon W; Ashby, Jane; Branigan, Holly P

    2013-04-01

    The ability to coordinate serial processing of multiple items is crucial for fluent reading but is known to be impaired in dyslexia. To investigate this impairment, we manipulated the orthographic and phonological similarity of adjacent letters online as dyslexic and nondyslexic readers named letters in a serial naming (RAN) task. Eye movements and voice onsets were recorded. Letter arrays contained target item pairs in which the second letter was orthographically or phonologically similar to the first letter when viewed either parafoveally (Experiment 1a) or foveally (Experiment 1b). Relative to normal readers, dyslexic readers were more affected by orthographic confusability in Experiment 1a and phonological confusability in Experiment 1b. Normal readers were slower to process orthographically similar letters in Experiment 1b. Findings indicate that the phonological and orthographic processing problems of dyslexic readers manifest differently during parafoveal and foveal processing, with each contributing to slower RAN performance and impaired reading fluency. PMID:22924951

  3. Neural correlates of foveal splitting in reading: evidence from an ERP study of Chinese character recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-wen; Shillcock, Richard; Lee, Chia-ying

    2007-01-01

    Recent research on foveal structure and reading suggests that the two halves of a centrally fixated word seem to be initially projected to, and processed in, different hemispheres. In the current study, we utilize two contrasting structures in Chinese orthography, “SP” (the semantic radical on the left and the phonetic radical on the right) and “PS” characters (the opposite structure), to examine foveal splitting effects in Event Related Potential (ERP) recordings. We showed that when participants silently named centrally presented characters, there was a significant interaction between character type and hemisphere in N1 amplitude: SP characters elicited larger N1 compared with PS characters in the left hemisphere, whereas the right hemisphere had the opposite pattern. This effect is consistent with the split fovea claim, suggesting that the two halves of a character may be initially projected to and processed in different hemispheres. There was no such interaction observed in an earlier component P1. Also, there was an interaction between character type and sex of the reader in N350 amplitude. This result is consistent with Hsiao and Shillcock’s (2005b) behavioural study, which showed a similar interaction in naming response time. They argued that this effect was due to a more left-lateralized network for phonological processing in the male brain compared with the female brain. The results hence showed that foveal splitting effects in visual word recognition were observed in N1 the earliest, and could extend far enough to interact with the sex of the reader as revealed in N350. Neural correlates of foveal splitting in reading: evidence from an ERP study of Chinese character pronunciation PMID:17098263

  4. Assessment of Perfused Foveal Microvascular Density and Identification of Nonperfused Capillaries in Healthy and Vasculopathic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pinhas, Alexander; Razeen, Moataz; Dubow, Michael; Gan, Alexander; Chui, Toco Y.; Shah, Nishit; Mehta, Mitul; Gentile, Ronald C.; Weitz, Rishard; Walsh, Joseph B.; Sulai, Yusufu N.; Carroll, Joseph; Dubra, Alfredo; Rosen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the foveal microvasculature of young healthy eyes and older vasculopathic eyes, imaged using in vivo adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography (AOSLO FA). Methods. AOSLO FA imaging of the superficial retinal microvasculature within an 800-μm radius from the foveal center was performed using simultaneous confocal infrared (IR) reflectance (790 nm) and fluorescence (488 nm) channels. Corresponding IR structural and FA perfusion maps were compared with each other to identify nonperfused capillaries adjacent to the foveal avascular zone. Microvascular densities were calculated from skeletonized FA perfusion maps. Results. Sixteen healthy adults (26 eyes; mean age 25 years, range, 21–29) and six patients with a retinal vasculopathy (six eyes; mean age 55 years, range, 44–70) were imaged. At least one nonperfused capillary was observed in five of the 16 healthy nonfellow eyes and in four of the six vasculopathic eyes. Compared with healthy eyes, capillary nonperfusion in the vasculopathic eyes was more extensive. Microvascular density of the 16 healthy nonfellow eyes was 42.0 ± 4.2 mm−1 (range, 33–50 mm−1). All six vasculopathic eyes had decreased microvascular densities. Conclusions. AOSLO FA provides an in vivo method for estimating foveal microvascular density and reveals occult nonperfused retinal capillaries. Nonperfused capillaries in healthy young adults may represent a normal variation and/or an early sign of pathology. Although limited, the normative data presented here is a step toward developing clinically useful microvascular parameters for ocular and/or systemic diseases. PMID:25414179

  5. 10. WHITNEY'S FLUME AND VIEW OF THE CONFLUENCE OF TONTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. WHITNEY'S FLUME AND VIEW OF THE CONFLUENCE OF TONTO CREEK AND THE SALT RIVER. AREA SHOWN IS PRESENTLY UNDER WATER. TONTO CREEK FLOWS FROM BACKGROUND CENTER TO LEFT, AND THE SALT RIVER FLOWS FROM RIGHT TO LEFT IN THE PHOTO. DAM IS LOCATED OFF THE PHOTO TO THE LEFT Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, March 3, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  6. Primate molecular divergence dates.

    PubMed

    Steiper, Michael E; Young, Nathan M

    2006-11-01

    With genomic data, alignments can be assembled that greatly increase the number of informative sites for analysis of molecular divergence dates. Here, we present an estimate of the molecular divergence dates for all of the major primate groups. These date estimates are based on a Bayesian analysis of approximately 59.8 kbp of genomic data from 13 primates and 6 mammalian outgroups, using a range of paleontologically supported calibration estimates. Results support a Cretaceous last common ancestor of extant primates (approximately 77 mya), an Eocene divergence between platyrrhine and catarrhine primates (approximately 43 mya), an Oligocene origin of apes and Old World monkeys (approximately 31 mya), and an early Miocene (approximately 18 mya) divergence of Asian and African great apes. These dates are examined in the context of other molecular clock studies. PMID:16815047

  7. Characterization of confluences in free meandering rivers of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Ronald R.; Abad, Jorge D.; Choi, Marianne; Montoro, Hugo

    2014-09-01

    Past studies on river confluence dynamics are mostly based on a limited number of experimental and field data that mainly represent the morphodynamic, hydrodynamic, and sedimentary processes of alluvial river channels with limited planform activity and concentrated solely around the confluence region. The present contribution is novel and focuses on the study of the planimetric configuration of confluences in tropical free meandering rivers located in the upper Amazon catchment. Confluences are environmental controls that impose convective instabilities in all the associated channels, namely the main stretch channel upstream of the confluence (M), the tributary (T), and the main post-confluent channel (MT). By performing a wavelet analysis on channels' curvature, we quantify the extent of the transitional region. Our results indicate that the strength of these transitional instabilities are in some degree dependent on the confluence width ratio (β); such that for β > 0.45, marked instabilities are developed. These instabilities induce the following general changes and in the planimetric configurations of the aforementioned channels: [i] the arc-wavelength in the confluent (M and T) and post-confluence channels increase in the transitional region, and [ii] the peaks on the curvature of MT channel decrease with respect to the M channel, thus resembling a constructive effect in the superposition of the meander trains. Although most of the confluence angles are acute, regardless the width-ratio, some instances of obtuse angles of confluence are observed. They are associated with β ≥ 0.80, where possibly the confluence is forced to become accordant. Our results show that no evident cause-effect relationship is found between the angle of confluence and the length of the transitional region; however, some degree of dependence is seen between the confluence angle and the arc-wavelength of the post-confluence channel (i.e., higher values of the arc

  8. Iatrogenic bile duct injury with loss of confluence

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Miguel-Angel; Vilatoba, Mario; Contreras, Alan; Leal-Leyte, Pilar; Cervantes-Alvarez, Eduardo; Arriola, Juan-Carlos; Gonzalez, Bruno-Adonai

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe our experience concerning the surgical treatment of Strasberg E-4 (Bismuth IV) bile duct injuries. METHODS: In an 18-year period, among 603 patients referred to our hospital for surgical treatment of complex bile duct injuries, 53 presented involvement of the hilar confluence classified as Strasberg E4 injuries. Imagenological studies, mainly magnetic resonance imaging showed a loss of confluence. The files of these patients were analyzed and general data were recorded, including type of operation and postoperative outcome with emphasis on postoperative cholangitis, liver function test and quality of life. The mean time of follow-up was of 55.9 ± 52.9 mo (median = 38.5, minimum = 2, maximum = 181.2). All other patients with Strasberg A, B, C, D, E1, E2, E3, or E5 biliary injuries were excluded from this study. RESULTS: Patients were divided in three groups: G1 (n = 21): Construction of neoconfluence + Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy. G2 (n = 26): Roux-en-Y portoenterostomy. G3 (n = 6): Double (right and left) Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy. Cholangitis was recorded in two patients in group 1, in 14 patients in group 2, and in one patient in group 3. All of them required transhepatic instrumentation of the anastomosis and six patients needed live transplantation. CONCLUSION: Loss of confluence represents a surgical challenge. There are several treatment options at different stages. Roux-en-Y bilioenteric anastomosis (neoconfluence, double-barrel anastomosis, portoenterostomy) is the treatment of choice, and when it is technically possible, building of a neoconfluence has better outcomes. When liver cirrhosis is shown, liver transplantation is the best choice. PMID:26527428

  9. Primate taxonomy: species and conservation.

    PubMed

    Rylands, Anthony B; Mittermeier, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Primatology as a discrete branch of science involving the study of primate behavior and ecology took off in the 1960s after discovery of the importance of primates as models for biomedical research and the realization that primates provide insights into the evolutionary history of humans. Osman Hill's unfortunately incomplete monograph series on the comparative anatomy and taxonomy of the primates(1) and the Napiers' 1967 A Handbook of Living Primates(2) recorded the world's view of primate diversity at this time. This taxonomy remained the baseline for nearly three decades, with the diversity of each genus being represented by some species, but extensively as subspecies. PMID:24591133

  10. The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision.

    PubMed

    Cicerone, C M; Hayhoe, M M; MacLeod, D I

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the spread of bleaching adaptation for human cone vision in the central fovea and at an eccentricity of 5 deg in the nasal retina. Cone thresholds measured after adaptation to a grating bleach were compared to those measured after a uniform bleach. We conclude that the foveal and parafoveal cone systems show excellent localization of the effects of adaptation. For areas 2.5-5 min removed from the bleach, our measurement show only small sensitivity losses amounting to between 0.10 and 0.25 log unit elevation in threshold, after taking account of optical scatter. PMID:2288078

  11. Parafoveal-on-foveal effects of emotional word semantics in reading Chinese sentences: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Sommer, Werner

    2015-07-01

    Despite the well-known influence of emotional meaning on cognition, relatively less is known about its effects on reading behavior. We investigated whether fixation behavior during the reading of Chinese sentences is influenced by emotional word meaning in the parafovea. Two-character target words embedded into the same sentence frames provided emotionally positive, negative, or neutral contents. Fixation durations on neutral pretarget words were prolonged for positive parafoveal words and for highly frequent negative parafoveal words. In addition, fixation durations on foveal emotional words were shorter than those on neutral words. We also found that the role of emotional words varied as a function of their valence during foveal and parafoveal processing. These findings suggest a processing advantage for emotional words relative to emotionally neutral stimuli in foveal and parafoveal vision. We discuss implications for the notion of attention attraction due to emotional content. PMID:25581226

  12. Relationship Between Foveal Cone Structure and Clinical Measures of Visual Function in Patients With Inherited Retinal Degenerations

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, Kavitha; Carroll, Joseph; Porco, Travis C.; Duncan, Jacque L.; Roorda, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To study the relationship between cone spacing and density and clinical measures of visual function near the fovea. Methods. High-resolution images of the photoreceptor mosaic were obtained with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy from 26 patients with inherited retinal degenerations. Cone spacing measures were made close to or at the foveal center (mean [SD] eccentricity, 0.02 [0.03] degree; maximum eccentricity, 0.13 degree) and were converted to Z-scores, fraction of cones, and percentage-of-cones-below-average compared with normal values for each location (based on 37 age-similar visually normal eyes). Z-scores and percentage of cones below average were compared with best-corrected visual acuity (VA) and foveal sensitivity. Results. Visual acuity was significantly correlated with cone spacing (Spearman rank correlation ρ = −0.60, P = 0.003) and was preserved (≥80 letters), despite cone density measures that were 52% below normal. Foveal sensitivity showed significant correlation with cone spacing (ρ = −0.47, P = 0.017) and remained normal (≥35 decibels), despite density measures that were approximately 52% to 62% below normal. Conclusions. Cone density was reduced by up to 62% below normal at or near the fovea in eyes with VA and sensitivity that remained within normal limits. Despite a significant correlation with foveal cone spacing, VA and sensitivity are insensitive indicators of the integrity of the foveal cone mosaic. Direct, objective measures of cone structure may be more sensitive indicators of disease severity than VA or foveal sensitivity in eyes with inherited retinal degenerations. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00254605.) PMID:23908179

  13. Sediment routing through channel confluences: RFID tracer experiments from a gravel-bed river headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, K.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Tributary confluences may significantly impact large-scale patterns of sediment transport because of their role in connecting individual streams in a network. These unique locations feature complex flow structures and geomorphic features, and may represent ecological hotspots. Sediment transport across confluences is poorly understood, however. We present research on coarse sediment transport and dispersion through confluences using sediment tracers in the East Fork Bitterroot River, Montana, USA. We tagged a range of gravel (>40 mm) and cobble particles with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags and painted smaller (10-40 mm) gravels, and then we traced them through confluences in a montane river's headwaters. We measured the effects of confluences on dispersion, path length, and depositional location and compare properties of sediment routing with a non-confluence control reach. We also measured topographic change through repeat bed surveys and combined topography, hydraulics, and tracer measurements to calculate basal shear and critical Shields stresses for different grain sizes. Field observations suggest that tagged particles in confluences routed along flanks of scour holes in confluences, with sediment depositing further downstream along bank-lateral bars than within the channel thalweg. Travel distances of RFID-tagged particles ranged up to 35 meters from original seeding points, with initial recovery rates of RFID-tagged tracers ranging between 84-89%. In both confluence and control reaches only partial mobility was observed within the entire tracer population, suggesting a hiding effect imposed by the roughness of the bed. Particles seeded in the channel thalweg experienced further travel distances than those seeded towards the banks and on bars. Differences in dispersion between confluence and control reaches are implied by field observation. This study quantified patterns of sediment routing within confluences and provided insight to the importance

  14. Use of an Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex) in a Case with Accidental Foveal Photocoagulation by Alexandrite Laser.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Muhammed Nurullah; Çallı, Ümit; Göktaş, Eren; Bulut, Kezban; Kandemir, Baran; Özertürk, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Alexandrite laser is one of the most common methods of hair removal. Its utilization is gradually increasing due to easy accessibility and high effectiveness. However, the disuse of protective goggles during the application of this laser is a serious problem. In this case report, we presented a 35-year-old male patient who had foveal injury by alexandrite laser. The inflammatory process secondary to the foveal injury and subsequent macular edema were treated with Ozurdex because of its potent antiedematous effect. PMID:27293415

  15. Use of an Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex) in a Case with Accidental Foveal Photocoagulation by Alexandrite Laser

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Muhammed Nurullah; Çallı, Ümit; Göktaş, Eren; Bulut, Kezban; Kandemir, Baran; Özertürk, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Alexandrite laser is one of the most common methods of hair removal. Its utilization is gradually increasing due to easy accessibility and high effectiveness. However, the disuse of protective goggles during the application of this laser is a serious problem. In this case report, we presented a 35-year-old male patient who had foveal injury by alexandrite laser. The inflammatory process secondary to the foveal injury and subsequent macular edema were treated with Ozurdex because of its potent antiedematous effect. PMID:27293415

  16. Hands of early primates.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  17. Determination of the foveal cone spacing by ocular speckle interferometry: limiting factors and acuity predictions.

    PubMed

    Marcos, S; Navarro, R

    1997-04-01

    We have developed a high-resolution imaging technique, based on speckle interferometry, for the objective determination of the cone spacing in the living human fovea. The spatial resolution attained with this technique is theoretically diffraction limited by the pupil size. However, the highest frequency that we measure varies greatly among subjects, especially for fully dilated pupils. We have conducted several experiments (determination of the cutoff frequency of ocular speckle interferometry, the double-pass modulation transfer function, and the Stiles-Crawford effect) that indicate that, as expected, the resolution is not limited by the incoherent modulation transfer function. We found, though, a high correlation between the cutoff frequency and the width of the eye's Stiles-Crawford function. This implies that the resolution depends on the structural properties of the cone mosaic itself. In addition, we have compared the Nyquist frequency of the cone mosaic, determined objectively by our technique, with the grating visual acuity measured in the same eyes at the same foveal eccentricities. For our subjects, visual resolution nearly matches the Nyquist frequency within the fovea, except at the foveal center, where the optical transfer function of the eye attenuates the contrast of frequencies close to the Nyquist limit to a value below threshold. PMID:9088086

  18. Retinotopic maps and foveal suppression in the visual cortex of amblyopic adults

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Ian P; Odom, J Vernon; Schwartz, Terry L; Mendola, Janine D

    2007-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental visual disorder associated with loss of monocular acuity and sensitivity as well as profound alterations in binocular integration. Abnormal connections in visual cortex are known to underlie this loss, but the extent to which these abnormalities are regionally or retinotopically specific has not been fully determined. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study compared the retinotopic maps in visual cortex produced by each individual eye in 19 adults (7 esotropic strabismics, 6 anisometropes and 6 controls). In our standard viewing condition, the non-tested eye viewed a dichoptic homogeneous mid-level grey stimulus, thereby permitting some degree of binocular interaction. Regions-of-interest analysis was performed for extrafoveal V1, extrafoveal V2 and the foveal representation at the occipital pole. In general, the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was reduced for the amblyopic eye. At the occipital pole, population receptive fields were shifted to represent more parafoveal locations for the amblyopic eye, compared with the fellow eye, in some subjects. Interestingly, occluding the fellow eye caused an expanded foveal representation for the amblyopic eye in one early–onset strabismic subject with binocular suppression, indicating real-time cortical remapping. In addition, a few subjects actually showed increased activity in parietal and temporal cortex when viewing with the amblyopic eye. We conclude that, even in a heterogeneous population, abnormal early visual experience commonly leads to regionally specific cortical adaptations. PMID:17627994

  19. Reconstruction of Chronic Foveal TFCC Tears with an Autologous Tendon Graft

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Gregory I.; Eng, Kevin; Lee, Yu Chao; Mcguire, Duncan; Zumstein, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background A triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury can produce distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. If the foveal attachment is avulsed, it translates distally. The footprint is separated from its origin and will become covered in synovitis, preventing healing. The authors describe a surgical technique for the treatment of instability of the DRUJ due to chronic foveal detachment of the TFCC. Technique The procedure utilizes a loop of autologous palmaris longus tendon graft passed through the ulnar aspect of the TFCC and through an osseous tunnel in the distal ulna to reconstruct the fovel attachment. Patients and Methods We report on nine patients with a mean age of 42. Median follow-up was 13 months. Results The median pain scores measured were reduced from 8 to 3 postoperatively, and all had a stable DRUJ. Conclusions This technique provides stability of the distal ulna to the radius and carpus, with potential for biologic healing through osseous integration. It is a robust, anatomically based reconstruction of the TFCC to the fovea that stabilizes the DRUJ and the ulnar-carpal sag. PMID:25709873

  20. What Is a Primate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of hands-on experiments that engage students in hypothesis testing and promotes active learning of the concepts of evolution and adaptation. Laboratory exercises demonstrate how features of the hands and eyes distinguish primates from other mammals. (SOE)

  1. Nonhuman Primate Ocular Biometry

    PubMed Central

    Augusteyn, Robert C.; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine ocular growth in nonhuman primates (NHPs) from measurements on ex vivo eyes. Methods We obtained NHP eyes from animals that had been killed as part of other studies or because of health-related issues. Digital calipers were used to measure the horizontal, vertical, and anteroposterior globe diameters as well as corneal horizontal and vertical diameters of excised globes from 98 hamadryas baboons, 551 cynomolgus monkeys, and 112 rhesus monkeys, at ages ranging from 23 to 360 months. Isolated lens sagittal thickness and equatorial diameter were measured by shadowphotogrammetry. Wet and fixed dry weights were obtained for lenses. Results Nonhuman primate globe growth continues throughout life, slowing toward an asymptotic maximum. The final globe size scales with negative allometry to adult body size. Corneal growth ceases at around 20 months. Lens diameter increases but thickness decreases with increasing age. Nonhuman primate lens wet and dry weight accumulation is monophasic, continuing throughout life toward asymptotic maxima. The dry/wet weight ratio reaches a maximum of 0.33. Conclusions Nonhuman primate ocular globe and lens growth differ in several respects from those in humans. Although age-related losses of lens power and accommodative amplitude are similar, lens growth and properties are different indicating care should be taken in extrapolating NHP observations to the study of human accommodation. PMID:26780314

  2. Isolated foveal hypoplasia with secondary nystagmus and low vision is associated with a homozygous SLC38A8 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Yonatan; Gradstein, Libe; Flusser, Hagit; Markus, Barak; Cohen, Idan; Langer, Yshaia; Marcus, Mira; Lifshitz, Tova; Kadir, Rotem; Birk, Ohad S

    2014-01-01

    Foveal hypoplasia, always accompanied by nystagmus, is found as part of the clinical spectrum of various eye disorders such as aniridia, albinism and achromatopsia. However, the molecular basis of isolated autosomal recessive foveal hypoplasia is yet unknown. Individuals of apparently unrelated non consanguineous Israeli families of Jewish Indian (Mumbai) ancestry presented with isolated foveal hypoplasia associated with congenital nystagmus and reduced visual acuity. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping followed by fine mapping defined a 830 Kb disease-associated locus (LOD score 3.5). Whole-exome sequencing identified a single missense mutation in the homozygosity region: c.95T>G, p.(Ile32Ser), in a conserved amino acid within the first predicted transmembrane domain of SLC38A8. The mutation fully segregated with the disease-associated phenotype, demonstrating an ∼10% carrier rate in Mumbai Jews. SLC38A8 encodes a putative sodium-dependent amino-acid/proton antiporter, which we showed to be expressed solely in the eye. Thus, a homozygous SLC38A8 mutation likely underlies isolated foveal hypoplasia. PMID:24045842

  3. Radiographic and Arthroscopic Assessment of DRUJ Instability Due to Foveal Avulsion of the Radioulnar Ligament in Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Takuji; Matsumura, Noboru; Sato, Kazuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Background As the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) anchors the distal radius to the ulna via the radioulnar ligament (RUL), a severely displaced distal fragment of the radius may be associated with a foveal avulsion of the TFCC. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess, radiographically and arthroscopically, the relationship between displacement of the radius, the ulnar styloid, and avulsion of the RUL resulting in distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine wrists of 29 patients with intra- and extra-articular distal radius fractures/malunion who underwent reduction or a corrective osteotomy of the displaced/malunited fracture, and/or wrist arthroscopy, were assessed radiographically and arthroscopically. Radial translation, radial inclination, radial shortening, volar or dorsal tilt, and the presence of an ulnar styloid fracture with more than 4 mm of displacement were measured from the initial films. Radiocarpal arthroscopy was used to assess peripheral lesions of the TFCC, while DRUJ arthroscopy was used to assess the foveal attachment. The relationship between displacement of the distal radius or the ulnar styloid fracture and the TFCC injury, including avulsion of the RUL, was recorded. Results Univariate analysis revealed that increased radial translation, decreased radial inclination, increased radial shortening, and an ulnar styloid fragment radially displaced by more than 4 mm were significant predictors of RUL avulsion at the fovea. Volar or dorsal tilt of the radius and ulnar variance did not correlate with RUL avulsion or TFCC injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that radial translation was an independent risk factor of foveal avulsion of the RUL. Conclusions Increased radial translation and radial shortening and decreased radial inclination of the distal fragment can be associated with a foveal avulsion of the RUL. Radial translation can be an independent risk

  4. Radiographic and Arthroscopic Assessment of DRUJ Instability Due to Foveal Avulsion of the Radioulnar Ligament in Distal Radius Fractures.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Takuji; Matsumura, Noboru; Sato, Kazuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2014-02-01

    Background As the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) anchors the distal radius to the ulna via the radioulnar ligament (RUL), a severely displaced distal fragment of the radius may be associated with a foveal avulsion of the TFCC. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess, radiographically and arthroscopically, the relationship between displacement of the radius, the ulnar styloid, and avulsion of the RUL resulting in distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine wrists of 29 patients with intra- and extra-articular distal radius fractures/malunion who underwent reduction or a corrective osteotomy of the displaced/malunited fracture, and/or wrist arthroscopy, were assessed radiographically and arthroscopically. Radial translation, radial inclination, radial shortening, volar or dorsal tilt, and the presence of an ulnar styloid fracture with more than 4 mm of displacement were measured from the initial films. Radiocarpal arthroscopy was used to assess peripheral lesions of the TFCC, while DRUJ arthroscopy was used to assess the foveal attachment. The relationship between displacement of the distal radius or the ulnar styloid fracture and the TFCC injury, including avulsion of the RUL, was recorded. Results Univariate analysis revealed that increased radial translation, decreased radial inclination, increased radial shortening, and an ulnar styloid fragment radially displaced by more than 4 mm were significant predictors of RUL avulsion at the fovea. Volar or dorsal tilt of the radius and ulnar variance did not correlate with RUL avulsion or TFCC injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that radial translation was an independent risk factor of foveal avulsion of the RUL. Conclusions Increased radial translation and radial shortening and decreased radial inclination of the distal fragment can be associated with a foveal avulsion of the RUL. Radial translation can be an independent risk

  5. Copula-Based Flood Frequency Analysis at Ungauged Basin Confluences: Nashville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Many cities are located at or near the confluence of streams where availability of water resources may be enhanced to sustain user needs while also posing an increased flooding risk from multiple tributaries. An accurate flood frequency estimator that models the joint flood potential at a basin confluence is needed. Given that long-term flow observations are often unavailable, estimating flood frequency at ungaged basin confluences proves challenging. Through the use of copulas, this case study demonstrates how an improved flood frequency analysis can be performed for stream confluences at Nashville, TN. The approach involves four major steps including initial data quality control, fitting of marginal distributions of tributary peak flows, construction of a suitable dependence structure, and identification of flood frequency at the confluence point based on synthesized peak flows. This case study may help researchers and practitioners develop a better understanding of joint flood frequency with consideration of upstream dam regulation among several contributing watersheds.

  6. Effect of timolol on sub-foveal choroidal blood flow using laser Doppler flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, Nithiyanantham; Rovati, Luigi; Cellini, Mauro; Gizzi, Corrado; Strobbe, Ernesto; Campos, Emilio; Riva, Charles E.

    2011-03-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a technique used to measure relative average velocity, number and flux (number times velocity) of red blood cells in vessels or capillaries. In this study, the effect of topical timolol on the choroidal circulation was investigated in 12 healthy subjects. Maximum velocity of red blood cells and volumetric blood flow rate in sub-foveal choroids are determined in each eye just before instillation of drops and then every 30 min upto 2 hours. Average intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased significantly in the timolol-treated eyes compared to that of placebo-treated eyes. Nevertheless no significant differences in choroidal blood hemodynamic between timolol and placebo-treated eyes were observed.

  7. Modeling and minimizing interference from corneal birefringence in retinal birefringence scanning for foveal fixation detection

    PubMed Central

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the measured corneal birefringence from a data set of 150 eyes of 75 human subjects, an algorithm and related computer program, based on Müller-Stokes matrix calculus, were developed in MATLAB for assessing the influence of corneal birefringence on retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) and for converging upon an optical/mechanical design using wave plates (“wave-plate-enhanced RBS”) that allows foveal fixation detection essentially independently of corneal birefringence. The RBS computer model, and in particular the optimization algorithm, were verified with experimental human data using an available monocular RBS-based eye fixation monitor. Fixation detection using wave-plate-enhanced RBS is adaptable to less cooperative subjects, including young children at risk for developing amblyopia. PMID:21750772

  8. Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Confluence: Effects on Cell Characteristics and Methods of Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiaqiang; Wang, Huan; Tran, Katherine; Civini, Sara; Jin, Ping; Castiello, Luciano; Feng, Ji; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Robey, Pamela G.; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aims Ex vivo expansion and serial passage of human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) is required to obtain sufficient quantities for clinical therapy. The BMSC confluence criteria used to determine passage and harvest timing vary widely and the impact of confluence on BMSC properties remains controversial. The effects of confluence on BMSC properties were studied and confluence-associated markers were identified. Methods BMSC characteristics were analyzed as they grew from 50% to 100% confluence including viability, population doubling time (PDT), apoptosis, colony formation, immunosuppression, surface marker expression, global gene expression and microRNA expression. In addition, culture supernatant protein, glucose, lactate and pH levels were analyzed Results Confluence-dependent changes were detected in the expression of several cell surface markers, 39 culture supernatant proteins, 26 microRNAs and 2078 genes. Many of these surface markers, proteins, microRNAs and genes have been reported to be important in BMSC function. The PEDF/VEGF ratio increased with confluence, but 80% and 100% confluent BMSCs demonstrated a similar level of immunosuppression of mixed lymphocyte reactions. In addition, changes in lactate and glucose levels correlated with BMSC density. Discussion BMSC characteristics change as confluence increases. 100% confluent BMSCs may have compromised pro-angiogenesis properties, but may retain their immunomodulatory properties. Supernatant lactate and glucose levels can be used to estimate confluence and ensure consistency in passage and harvest timing. Flow cytometry or microRNA expression can be used to confirm that the BMSCs have been harvested at the appropriate confluence. PMID:25882666

  9. Hydraulic and Morphodynamic Characteristics of Submarine Channel Confluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, H.; Viparelli, E.; Ezz, H.; Imran, J.

    2013-12-01

    Submarine channel systems are receiving increased attention recently for their potential in transporting and depositing hydrocarbons via turbidity currents into the deep ocean. In order to better predict the locations of hydrocarbon reserves, a more complete understanding of the hydraulic behavior of flows within the channels is necessary. Past field observations have shown that submarine channels have straight and meandering reaches, along with junctions in channel systems; flows in the submarine environment (i.e. density currents) may propagate as a single pulse or as a sustained flow over a prolonged period. This work aims to further the understanding of submarine channel systems by focusing on the hydraulic behavior of submarine channel confluences due to both sudden release (i.e. pulse events) and sustained flows. The associated morphodynamic consequences at and near the confluence are also assessed as they relate to the observed hydraulic conditions. Observational goals include comparisons to heavily studied characteristics of subaerial river channel confluences. These include flow separation zones, helical flow cells, existence of vertical shear layers, avalanche faces upstream of the junction, and deep central scours in the junction. For this investigation, a physical model was built to simulate a 45 degree submarine channel junction with an erodible bed in which two fully conservative density currents are released in each upstream reach and allowed to collide before creating a single combined current in the downstream reach. The pulse events focused on the head of the density currents and were simulated using a lock-exchange mechanism in which a fixed volume of salt water was locked in each upstream reach of the flume before being suddenly released into the ambient water downstream. HD images were used to obtain 1D velocity both up- and down-stream of the junction, and bathymetry measurements were obtained using an ultrasonic probe after each experiment

  10. The primate seahorse rhythm.

    PubMed

    Campos, L M G; Cruz-Rizzolo, Roelf J; Pinato, L

    2015-07-10

    The main Zeitgeber, the day-night cycle, synchronizes the central oscillator which determines behaviors rhythms as sleep-wake behavior, body temperature, the regulation of hormone secretion, and the acquisition and processing of memory. Thus, actions such as acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval performed in the hippocampus are modulated by the circadian system and show a varied dependence on light and dark. To investigate changes in the hippocampus' cellular mechanism invoked by the day and night in a diurnal primate, this study analyzed the expression of PER2 and the calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin in the hippocampus of Sapajus apella, a diurnal primate, at two different time points, one during the day and one during the dark phase. The PER2 protein expression peaked at night in the antiphase described for the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the same primate, indicating that hippocampal cells can present independent rhythmicity. This hippocampal rhythm was similar to that presented by diurnal but not nocturnal rodents. The CaBPs immunoreactivity also showed day/night variations in the cell number and in the cell morphology. Our findings provide evidence for the claim that the circadian regulation in the hippocampus may involve rhythms of PER2 and CaBPs expression that may contribute to the adaptation of this species in events and activities relevant to the respective periods. PMID:25862571

  11. On measuring cell confluence in phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, K. P.; Richardson, J. B.; Lam, K. P.

    2014-03-01

    A principal focus highlighting recent advances in cell based therapies concerns the development of effective treatments for osteoarthritis. Earlier clinicaltrials have shown that 80% of patients receiving mesenchymal stem cell(MSC) based treatment have improved their quality of life by alleviating pain whilst extending the life of their natural joints. The current challenge facing researchers is to identify the biological differences between the treatments that have worked and those which have shown little improvement. One possible candidate for the difference in treatment prognosis is an examination of the proliferation of the ( type) cells as they grow. To further understanding of the proliferation and differentiation of MSC, non-invasive live cell imaging techniques have been developed which capture important cell events and dynamics in cell divisions over an extended period of time. An automated image analysis procedure capable of tracking cell confluence over time has also been implemented, providing an objective and realistic estimation of cell growth within continuous live cell cultures. The proposed algorithm accounts for the halo artefacts that occur in phase microscopy. In addition to a favourable run-time performance, the method was also validated using continuous live MSC cultures, with consistent and meaningful results.

  12. ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AMONG MIGRANT AND RESIDENT SEABIRDS OF THE SCOTIA-WEDDELL CONFLUENCE REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Report quantitatively assesses seasonal changes in community structure and habitat selection among seabirds in the Scotia-Weddell Confluence region, Antarctica. iscussed are biological and physical factors underlying the patterns. ata were derived from strip-transects on closely-...

  13. Suspended Solids Mixing in Large River Confluences: A Remote Sensing Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mixing processes control spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in large rivers. Studies of mixing at river confluences have mainly been limited either to laboratory junctions or to field investigations at small confluences. Detailed studies of mixing downstream from confluences in large rivers are difficult due to the expense and effort required to conduct such studies. The objectives of this research are: 1) to develop an empirically based model, based on spectral reflectance information, for predicting total suspended solids concentrations (SSCs) at and downstream of confluences, and 2) to use the predicted values of SSCs to better understand the dynamics of mixing downstream from confluences. The study site for our research is the Mississippi River at and downstream of its confluence with the Missouri River. Data consist of SSCs measured by the USGS in the Mississippi River between 1988 and 2003 and atmospherically corrected imagery obtained by Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites during the same period. Data on spectral reflectance for pixels with measured sediment concentrations are used in a RandomForest regression tree analysis to develop a predictive model relating spectral reflectance to SSCs. This model is used to estimate SSCs downstream of the confluence for different dates of imagery. Cross-channel patterns of SSCs illustrate the degree of transverse mixing at various distances downstream from the confluence and are useful for ascertaining how changes in channel characteristics influence rates of transverse mixing. Preliminary results indicate that the magnitude of differences in SSCs between the two rivers, the momentum flux ratio between the rivers, and changes in channel width are important factors controlling rates of transverse mixing. These results advance our understanding of mixing in large rivers and help inform water quality management practices for such rivers.

  14. Morphological Evolution and Sediment Partitioning Through a Large Confluence-Diffluence Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, C. R.; Darby, S. E.; Parsons, D. R.; Leyland, J.; Best, J.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Confluence-diffluence units are key nodes in fluvial systems, controlling local bed morphology, the routing of sediment and water and ultimately defining channel stability and the larger-scale, planform dynamics. The Chaktomuk Junction on the Mekong River is the site of the confluence of the Tonlé Sap and Mekong rivers, as well as the diffluence of the Mekong and Bassac rivers. This junction defines the upstream apex of the Mekong delta. As such, the morphological evolution of this confluence-diffluence over single flood events, and larger temporal scales, determines the partitioning of water and sediment as it enters the Mekong delta, as well as to the critically important ecosystem that is the Tonlé Sap Lake. Here, we present data from a series of high spatial resolution topographic (Multibeam Echo Sounder), flow (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) and sub-bottom profiling (Parametric Echo Sounder) surveys undertaken on the Chaktomuk Junction, which reveal the temporal and spatial evolution of this critically important confluence-diffluence unit. We show spatial patterns of morphological change across a range of monsoonal flow stages and at various temporal scales, as well as sub-bottom profiling across the large bars present at the confluence. We also identify the response in the partitioning of the suspended and bedload portions of sediment transport through the confluence-diffluence, and elucidate the implications of this partitioning for the evolution of the downstream channel.

  15. Neural network system for purposeful behavior based on foveal visual preprocessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovan, Alexander V.; Shevtsova, Natalia A.; Klepatch, Arkadi A.

    1996-10-01

    Biologically plausible model of the system with an adaptive behavior in a priori environment and resistant to impairment has been developed. The system consists of input, learning, and output subsystems. The first subsystems classifies input patterns presented as n-dimensional vectors in accordance with some associative rule. The second one being a neural network determines adaptive responses of the system to input patterns. Arranged neural groups coding possible input patterns and appropriate output responses are formed during learning by means of negative reinforcement. Output subsystem maps a neural network activity into the system behavior in the environment. The system developed has been studied by computer simulation imitating a collision-free motion of a mobile robot. After some learning period the system 'moves' along a road without collisions. It is shown that in spite of impairment of some neural network elements the system functions reliably after relearning. Foveal visual preprocessor model developed earlier has been tested to form a kind of visual input to the system.

  16. Spatial neural modulation transfer function of human foveal visual system for equiluminous chromatic gratings.

    PubMed

    Rovamo, J M; Kankaanpää, M I; Hallikainen, J

    2001-06-01

    To determine the spatial modulation transfer function (MTF) of the human foveal visual system for equiluminous chromatic gratings we measured contrast sensitivity as a function of retinal illuminance for spatial frequencies of 0.125-4 c/deg with equiluminous red-green and blue-yellow gratings. Contrast sensitivity for chromatic gratings first increased with luminance, obeying the Rose-DeVries law, but then the increase saturated and contrast sensitivity became independent of light level, obeying Weber's law. Critical retinal illuminance (I(c)) marking the transition point between the laws was found to be independent of spatial frequency at 165 phot. td. According to our detection model of human spatial vision the MTF of the retina and subsequent neural visual pathways (P(c)) is directly proportional to radicalI(c). Hence, P(c) is independent of spatial frequency, reflecting the lack of precortical lateral inhibition for equiluminous chromatic stimuli in spatiochromatically opponent retinal ganglion cells and dLGN neurons. PMID:11348648

  17. Parafoveal and foveal processing of abbreviations during eye fixations in reading: Making a case for case

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Timothy J.; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Berry, Raymond W.; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The processing of abbreviations in reading was examined with an eye movement experiment. Abbreviations were of two distinct types: Acronyms (abbreviations that can be read with the normal grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules, such as NASA) and initialisms (abbreviations in which the grapheme-phoneme correspondences are letter names, such as NCAA). Parafoveal and foveal processing of these abbreviations was assessed with the use of the boundary change paradigm (Rayner, 1975). Using this paradigm, previews of the abbreviations were either identical to the abbreviation (NASA or NCAA), orthographically legal (NUSO or NOBA), or illegal (NRSB or NRBA). The abbreviations were presented as capital letter strings within normal, predominantly lowercase sentences and also sentences in all capital letters such that the abbreviations would not be visually distinct. The results indicate that acronyms and initialisms undergo different processing during reading, and that readers can modulate their processing based on low-level visual cues (distinct capitalization) in parafoveal vision. In particular, readers may be biased to process capitalized letter strings as initialisms in parafoveal vision when the rest of the sentence is normal, lower case letters. PMID:21480754

  18. Detection in fixed and random noise in foveal and parafoveal vision explained by template learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, B. L.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Foveal and parafoveal contrast detection thresholds for Gabor and checkerboard targets were measured in white noise by means of a two-interval forced-choice paradigm. Two white-noise conditions were used: fixed and twin. In the fixed noise condition a single noise sample was presented in both intervals of all the trials. In the twin noise condition the same noise sample was used in the two intervals of a trial, but a new sample was generated for each trial. Fixed noise conditions usually resulted in lower thresholds than twin noise. Template learning models are presented that attribute this advantage of fixed over twin noise either to fixed memory templates' reducing uncertainty by incorporation of the noise or to the introduction, by the learning process itself, of more variability in the twin noise condition. Quantitative predictions of the template learning process show that it contributes to the accelerating nonlinear increase in performance with signal amplitude at low signal-to-noise ratios.

  19. The Relationship of Central Foveal Thickness to Urinary Iodine Concentration in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients with or without Cystoid Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Michael A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Harper, Shyana; Weigel-DiFranco, Carol; Hart, Lois; Rosner, Bernard; Berson, Eliot L.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Current treatments for cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa are not always effective, may lead to adverse side effects, and may not restore loss of visual acuity. The present research lays the rationale for evaluating whether an iodine supplement could reduce cystoid macular edema in retinitis pigmentosa. Objective To determine whether central foveal thickness in the presence of cystoid macular edema is related to dietary iodine intake inferred from urinary iodine concentration in non-smoking adults with retinitis pigmentosa. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Institutional referral center. Participants Non-smoking adult patients with retinitis pigmentosa (n = 212, ages 18 to 69 years) with a visual acuity ≥ 20/200 in at least one eye. Main outcome measure The relationship of log central foveal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography to urinary iodine concentration measured from multiple spot samples and represented as a 3-level classification variable (< 100 μg/L, 100 μg/L - 199 μg/L, and ≥ 200 μg/L), assigning greater weight to patients with more reliable urinary iodine concentration estimates. Results Analyses were limited to 199 patients after excluding 11 patients who failed to return urine samples for measuring urinary iodine concentration and 2 outliers for urinary iodine concentration. Thirty-six percent of these patients had cystoid macular edema in one or both eyes. Although log central foveal thickness was inversely related to urinary iodine concentration based on all patients (p = 0.02), regression of log central foveal thickness on urinary iodine concentration separately for patients with and without cystoid macular edema showed a strong inverse significant relationship for the former group (p < 0.001) and no significant relationship for the latter group as tested (p = 0.66). In contrast, we found no significant association between cystoid macular edema prevalence and urinary iodine concentration based on the

  20. Foveal Morphology Affects Self-Perceived Visual Function and Treatment Response in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Subhi, Yousif; Henningsen, Gitte Ø.; Larsen, Charlotte T.; Sørensen, Mette S.; Sørensen, Torben L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between foveal morphology and self-perceived visual function in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and whether foveal characteristics are associated with Ranibizumab treatment response on the self-perceived visual function. Methods This prospective cohort study included patients with newly diagnosed neovascular AMD found eligible for treatment with Ranibizumab. Foveal morphology of both eyes was assessed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and all patients were interviewed using the 39-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ). Patients were re-interviewed 3 and 12 months after initiation of treatment with Ranibizumab. We evaluated foveal morphology at baseline in relation to VFQ scores at baseline and clinically meaningful changes in VFQ after 3 and 12 months. Results VFQ scores correlated with central foveal thickness, central foveal thickness of neuroretina (CFN), foveal RPE elevation, foveal integrity of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction (IS/OS), and external limiting membrane. In a multiple linear regression model, only best-corrected visual acuity of the better eye (p<0.001) and the IS/OS status in the better eye (p = 0.012) remained significant (Adjusted R2 = 0.418). Lower baseline VFQ and a baseline CFN within 170–270 µm in the better eye were both associated with a clinically meaningful increase in the VFQ scores after 3 and 12 months. An absent foveal IS/OS band in the better eye was associated with a clinically meaningful decrease in the VFQ scores at 12 months. Conclusions Foveal morphology in the better eye influences the self-perceived visual function in patients with neovascular AMD and possesses a predictive value for change in the self-perceived visual function at 3 and 12 months after initiation of treatment. These findings may help clinicians provide patients more individualized information of their disease

  1. Fronts and Thermohaline Structure of the Brazil Current Confluence System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severov, Dimitri

    and Thermohaline Structure of the Brazil Current Confluence System (BCCS) are stud-ied from climatic data, "Marathon Exp. Leg.8, 1984"data, and two Sea surface temperature (SST) data bases: "Meteor satellite"(1989-1994) and "ds277-Reynolds" (1981-2000).The South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is divided in two main types: tropical (TW) and subtropical water (ST). Water masses, fronts, inter-frontal and frontal zones are analysed and classified: a) the water masses: Tropical Low-Salinity Water, Tropical Surface Water, Tropical Tropospheric Water, Subtropical Low-Salinity Water, Subtropical Surface Water, Subtropical Tropospheric Water. T,S characteristics of intermediate, deep and bottom water defined by different authors are confirmed and completed; b) the Inter-frontal Zones: Tropical/Brazil Current Zone, Sub-tropical Zone and Subantarctic Zone; c) the Frontal Zones: Subtropical, Subantarctic and Polar, and d) the Fronts: Subtropical Front of the Brazil Current, Principal Subtropical Front, North Subtropical Front, Subtropical Surface Front, South Subtropical Front, Subantarctic Surface Front, Subantarctic Front and Polar Front. Several stable T-S relationships are found below the friction layer and at the Fronts. The maximum gradient of the oceanographic characteris-tics occurs at the Brazil Current Front, which can be any of the subtropical fronts, depending on season. Minimum mean depth of the pycnocline coincides with the fronts of the BCCS, indicating the paths of low-salinity shelf waters into the open ocean. D. N. Severov (a) , V. Pshennikov (b) and A.V. Remeslo (c) a -Sección Oceanologé Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de la Republica, Igué 4225, 11400 ıa, a Montevideo, Uruguay. Tel. (598-2) 525-8618, Fax (598-2) 525-8617, mail: dima@fcien.edu.uy b -Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igué 4225, 11400 Mon-a tevideo, Uruguay, mail: seva@fisica.edu.uy c -Atlantic Research Inst. For Fisheries Oceanology (Atlant

  2. Brains, Genes and Primates

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Callaway, Edward M.; Churchland, Patricia; Caddick, Sarah J.; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E.; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A.; Miller, Cory T.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R.; Movshon, J. Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H.; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Silva, Afonso C.; Strick, Peter L.; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  3. Ethics of primate use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    This article provides an overview of the ethical issues raised by the use of non-human primates (NHPs) in research involving scientific procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. It is not an exhaustive review of the literature and views on this subject, and it does not present any conclusions about the moral acceptability or otherwise of NHP research. Rather the aim has been to identify the ethical issues involved and to provide guidance on how these might be addressed, in particular by carefully examining the scientific rationale for NHP use, implementing fully the 3Rs principle of Russell and Burch (1959) and applying a robust "harm-benefit assessment" to research proposals involving NHPs.

  4. Enhancing the natural removal of As in a reactive fluvial confluence receiving acid drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarca, M. I.; Arce, G.; Montecinos, M.; Guerra, P. A.; Pasten, P.

    2014-12-01

    Fluvial confluences are natural reactors that can determine the fate of contaminants in watersheds receiving acid drainage. Hydrological, hydrodynamic and chemical factors determine distinct conditions for the formation of suspended particles of iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides. The chemical and physical properties of these particle assemblages (e.g. particle size, chemical composition) can vary according to inflow mixing ratios, hydrodynamic velocity profiles, and chemical composition of the flows mixing at the confluence. Due to their capacity to sorb metals, it is important to identify the optimal conditions for removing metals from the aqueous phase, particularly arsenic, a contaminant frequently found in acid drainage. We studied a river confluence in the Lluta watershed, located in the arid Chilean Altiplano. We performed field measurements and laboratory studies to find optimal mixing ratio for arsenic sorption onto oxyhydroxide particles at the confluence between the Azufre (pH=2, As=2 mg/L) and the Caracarani river (pH=8, As<0.1 mg/L). As the contribution of the acidic stream increased, the concentration of Fe and Al in the solid phase reached a peak at different pHs. Although the optimal pH for As sorption was ~3, the overall maximum removal of As at the confluence, ocurred for pH~4. This is produced because optimal As sorption does not occur necessarily for the highest concentrations of particles being formed. We propose that fluvial confluences could be engineered to enhance the natural attenuation of contaminants. An analogy between confluences and coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation drinking water plants could be used to engineer such intervention.Acknowledgements: Proyecto Fondecyt 1130936 and Proyecto CONICYT FONDAP 15110020

  5. Primate models in organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Douglas J; Kirk, Allan D

    2013-09-01

    Large animal models have long served as the proving grounds for advances in transplantation, bridging the gap between inbred mouse experimentation and human clinical trials. Although a variety of species have been and continue to be used, the emergence of highly targeted biologic- and antibody-based therapies has required models to have a high degree of homology with humans. Thus, the nonhuman primate has become the model of choice in many settings. This article will provide an overview of nonhuman primate models of transplantation. Issues of primate genetics and care will be introduced, and a brief overview of technical aspects for various transplant models will be discussed. Finally, several prominent immunosuppressive and tolerance strategies used in primates will be reviewed. PMID:24003248

  6. On the predictive control of foveal eye tracking and slow phases of optokinetic and vestibular nystagmus.

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, S; Young, L R

    1984-01-01

    Smooth pursuit and saccadic components of foveal visual tracking as well as more involuntary ocular movements of optokinetic (o.k.n.) and vestibular nystagmus slow phase components were investigated in man, with particular attention given to their possible input-adaptive or predictive behaviour. Each component in question was isolated from the eye movement records through a computer-aided procedure. The frequency response method was used with sinusoidal (predictable) and pseudo-random (unpredictable) stimuli. When the target motion was pseudo-random, the frequency response of pursuit eye movements revealed a large phase lead (up to about 90 degrees) at low stimulus frequencies. It is possible to interpret this result as a predictive effect, even though the stimulation was pseudo-random and thus 'unpredictable'. The pseudo-random-input frequency response intrinsic to the saccadic system was estimated in an indirect way from the pursuit and composite (pursuit + saccade) frequency response data. The result was fitted well by a servo-mechanism model, which has a simple anticipatory mechanism to compensate for the inherent neuromuscular saccadic delay by utilizing the retinal slip velocity signal. The o.k.n. slow phase also exhibited a predictive effect with sinusoidal inputs; however, pseudo-random stimuli did not produce such phase lead as found in the pursuit case. The vestibular nystagmus slow phase showed no noticeable sign of prediction in the frequency range examined (0 approximately 0.7 Hz), in contrast to the results of the visually driven eye movements (i.e. saccade, pursuit and o.k.n. slow phase) at comparable stimulus frequencies. PMID:6707954

  7. On the Differentiation of Foveal and Peripheral Early Visual Evoked Potentials.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bruce C; Haun, Andrew M; Johnson, Aaron P; Ellemberg, Dave

    2016-07-01

    The C1 is one of the earliest visual evoked potentials observed following the onset of a patterned stimulus. The polarity of its peak is dependent on whether stimuli are presented in the upper or lower regions of the peripheral visual field, but has been argued to be negative for stimuli presented to the fovea. However, there has yet to be a systematic investigation into the extent to which the peripheral C1 (pC1) and foveal C1 (fC1) can be differentiated on the basis of response characteristics to different stimuli. The current study employed checkerboard patterns (Exp 1) and sinusoidal gratings of different spatial frequency (Exp 2) presented to the fovea or within one of the four quadrants of the peripheral visual field. The checkerboard stimuli yielded a sizable difference in peak component latency, with the fC1 peaking ~32 ms after the pC1. Further, the pC1 showed a band-pass response magnitude profile that peaked at 4 cycles per degree (cpd), whereas the fC1 was high-pass for spatial frequency, with a cut-off around 4 cpd. Finally, the scalp topographies of the pC1 and fC1 in both experiments differed greatly, with the fC1 being more posterior than the pC1. The results reported here call into question recent attempts to characterize general C1 processes without regard to whether stimuli are placed in the fovea or in the periphery. PMID:26868004

  8. Canine Retina Has a Primate Fovea-Like Bouquet of Cone Photoreceptors Which Is Affected by Inherited Macular Degenerations

    PubMed Central

    Guziewicz, Karina E.; Iwabe, Simone; Swider, Malgorzata; Scott, Erin M.; Savina, Svetlana V.; Ruthel, Gordon; Stefano, Frank; Zhang, Lingli; Zorger, Richard; Sumaroka, Alexander; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2014-01-01

    Retinal areas of specialization confer vertebrates with the ability to scrutinize corresponding regions of their visual field with greater resolution. A highly specialized area found in haplorhine primates (including humans) is the fovea centralis which is defined by a high density of cone photoreceptors connected individually to interneurons, and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that are offset to form a pit lacking retinal capillaries and inner retinal neurons at its center. In dogs, a local increase in RGC density is found in a topographically comparable retinal area defined as the area centralis. While the canine retina is devoid of a foveal pit, no detailed examination of the photoreceptors within the area centralis has been reported. Using both in vivo and ex vivo imaging, we identified a retinal region with a primate fovea-like cone photoreceptor density but without the excavation of the inner retina. Similar anatomical structure observed in rare human subjects has been named fovea-plana. In addition, dogs with mutations in two different genes, that cause macular degeneration in humans, developed earliest disease at the newly-identified canine fovea-like area. Our results challenge the dogma that within the phylogenetic tree of mammals, haplorhine primates with a fovea are the sole lineage in which the retina has a central bouquet of cones. Furthermore, a predilection for naturally-occurring retinal degenerations to alter this cone-enriched area fills the void for a clinically-relevant animal model of human macular degenerations. PMID:24599007

  9. Leopard predation and primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Zuberbühler, Klaus; Jenny, David

    2002-12-01

    Although predation is an important driving force of natural selection its effects on primate evolution are still not well understood, mainly because little is known about the hunting behaviour of the primates' various predators. Here, we present data on the hunting behaviour of the leopard (Panthera pardus), a major primate predator in the Tai; forest of Ivory Coast and elsewhere. Radio-tracking data showed that forest leopards primarily hunt for monkeys on the ground during the day. Faecal analyses confirmed that primates accounted for a large proportion of the leopards' diet and revealed in detail the predation pressure exerted on the eight different monkey and one chimpanzee species. We related the species-specific predation rates to various morphological, behavioural and demographic traits that are usually considered adaptations to predation (body size, group size, group composition, reproductive behaviour, and use of forest strata). Leopard predation was most reliably associated with density, suggesting that leopards hunt primates according to abundance. Contrary to predictions, leopard predation rates were not negatively, but positively, related to body size, group size and the number of males per group, suggesting that predation by leopards did not drive the evolution of these traits in the predicted way. We discuss these findings in light of some recent experimental data and suggest that the principal effect of leopard predation has been on primates' cognitive evolution. PMID:12473487

  10. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Jonathan B; Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A; Travis, Dominic A; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E; Johnson, Timothy J; Knights, Dan

    2016-09-13

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  11. DOES ALCOHOL CONTRIBUTE TO THE CONFLUENCE MODEL OF SEXUAL ASSAULT PERPETRATION?

    PubMed Central

    PARKHILL, MICHELE R.; ABBEY, ANTONIA

    2015-01-01

    The confluence model of sexual assault provides a useful theoretical integration of factors that influence men’s likelihood of committing sexual assault (Malamuth, Sockloskie, Koss, & Tanaka, 1991). This study replicates and extends the confluence model by including alcohol at multiple levels. Participants’ usual alcohol consumption and alcohol consumption in sexual situations were included as predictor variables. The number of sexually aggressive acts that participants committed after consuming alcohol and the number of sexually aggressive acts participants committed when sober were separately calculated so that the predictors of each could be distinguished. Participants were 356 men who completed a survey that included measures that assessed the key components of the confluence model. Results of path analyses indicated that the expanded model fit the data well, with both general and situational measures of alcohol use predicting frequency of sexual assault when drinking alcohol. These findings highlight the importance of developing universal and targeted prevention programs for young men. PMID:26405374

  12. Integrating attachment and depression in the confluence model of sexual assault perpetration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, David; Parkhill, Michele R

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to extend the confluence model of sexual assault perpetration by examining attachment insecurity and depression as additional predictors of sexual aggression. Male college students (N = 193) completed an online questionnaire assessing confluence model constructs in addition to attachment and history of depression. Overall, the model fit the data well, χ(2)(11, 193) = 19.43, p = ns; root mean square error of approximation = .063; comparative fit index = .94. Attachment and depression demonstrated both direct and indirect relationships with perpetration severity. The results contribute to elucidating the process by which certain men become susceptible to perpetrating sexual assault. Implications are discussed. PMID:25125490

  13. Changes in the foveal microstructure after intravitreal bevacizumab application in patients with retinal vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Feucht, Nikolaus; Schönbach, Etienne Michael; Lanzl, Ines; Kotliar, Konstantin; Lohmann, Chris Patrick; Maier, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in the area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in patients with retinal vascular disease. Patients and methods This retrospective, consecutive study examined 53 eyes of 53 patients with macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion in 25 patients (47.2%) and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy in 28 patients (52.8%). The macular edema was treated with an intravitreal injection of 0.05 mL equal to 1.25 mg bevacizumab. Before and 6–8 weeks after the injection, best corrected visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy of the anterior segment and fundus, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography were conducted. The FAZ was manually circumscribed on early-phase angiography images and the area of the FAZ was measured. Results The preoperative overall mean FAZ area was 0.327 ± 0.126 mm2 (median 0.310 mm2). At the control consultation, the overall mean area was significantly larger (0.422 ± 0.259 mm2; median 0.380 mm2; P < 0.001). In the nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy subpopulation, the mean area was 0.361 ± 0.129 mm2 (median 0.330 mm2) before bevacizumab application and 0.434 mm2 at the follow-up visit (mean increase 0.071 mm2/19.7%). In the branch retinal vein occlusion group, the baseline FAZ area was 0.290 ± 0.115 mm2 and 0.407 ± 0.350 mm2 at follow-up (median 0.330 mm2; mean increase 0.117 mm2/40.3%). No cases of severe operation-associated complications were observed. Conclusion The results confirm the safety of intravitreal bevacizumab injection in patients with macular edema due to nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion. The enlargement of the FAZ could be equivalent to an increase in retinal ischemia. These results may be transient; a potential vascular risk, however, when applying antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy in eyes with preexistent vascular disease must be considered. PMID:23355773

  14. A Molecular Phylogeny of Living Primates

    PubMed Central

    Perelman, Polina; Johnson, Warren E.; Roos, Christian; Seuánez, Hector N.; Horvath, Julie E.; Moreira, Miguel A. M.; Kessing, Bailey; Pontius, Joan; Roelke, Melody; Rumpler, Yves; Schneider, Maria Paula C.; Silva, Artur; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (∼8 Mb) from 186 primates representing 61 (∼90%) of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate evolution, ancient relic lineages, unequal rates of evolution, and disparate distributions of insertions/deletions among the reconstructed primate lineages are uncovered. Our resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species. PMID:21436896

  15. Visual Search in the Real World: Color Vision Deficiency Affects Peripheral Guidance, but Leaves Foveal Verification Largely Unaffected

    PubMed Central

    Kugler, Günter; 't Hart, Bernard M.; Kohlbecher, Stefan; Bartl, Klaus; Schumann, Frank; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Schneider, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with color vision deficiencies report numerous limitations in daily life, restricting, for example, their access to some professions. However, they use basic color terms systematically and in a similar manner as people with normal color vision. We hypothesize that a possible explanation for this discrepancy between color perception and behavioral consequences might be found in the gaze behavior of people with color vision deficiency. Methods: A group of participants with color vision deficiencies and a control group performed several search tasks in a naturalistic setting on a lawn. All participants wore a mobile eye-tracking-driven camera with a high foveal image resolution (EyeSeeCam). Search performance as well as fixations of objects of different colors were examined. Results: Search performance was similar in both groups in a color-unrelated search task as well as in a search for yellow targets. While searching for red targets, participants with color vision deficiencies exhibited a strongly degraded performance. This was closely matched by the number of fixations on red objects shown by the two groups. Importantly, once they fixated a target, participants with color vision deficiencies exhibited only few identification errors. Conclusions: In contrast to controls, participants with color vision deficiencies are not able to enhance their search for red targets on a (green) lawn by an efficient guiding mechanism. The data indicate that the impaired guiding is the main influence on search performance, while foveal identification (verification) is largely unaffected by the color vision deficiency. PMID:26733851

  16. Retinal connectivity and primate vision

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barry B.; Martin, Paul R.; Grünert, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The general principles of retinal organization are now well known. It may seem surprising that retinal organization in the primate, which has a complex visual behavioral repertoire, appears relatively simple. In this review, we primarily consider retinal structure and function in primate species. Photoreceptor distribution and connectivity are considered as are connectivity in the outer and inner retina. One key issue is the specificity of retinal connections; we suggest that the retina shows connectional specificity but this is seldom complete, and we consider here the functional consequences of imprecise wiring. Finally, we consider how retinal systems can be linked to psychophysical descriptions of different channels, chromatic and luminance, which are proposed to exist in the primate visual system. PMID:20826226

  17. Retinal connectivity and primate vision.

    PubMed

    Lee, Barry B; Martin, Paul R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2010-11-01

    The general principles of retinal organization are now well known. It may seem surprising that retinal organization in the primate, which has a complex visual behavioral repertoire, appears relatively simple. In this review, we primarily consider retinal structure and function in primate species. Photoreceptor distribution and connectivity are considered as are connectivity in the outer and inner retina. One key issue is the specificity of retinal connections; we suggest that the retina shows connectional specificity but this is seldom complete, and we consider here the functional consequences of imprecise wiring. Finally, we consider how retinal systems can be linked to psychophysical descriptions of different channels, chromatic and luminance, which are proposed to exist in the primate visual system. PMID:20826226

  18. Unconfounding the Confluence Model: A Test of Sibship Size and Birth Order Effects on Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Mercy, James A.

    1980-01-01

    Based on a study which controlled for the effects of age, sex, maritial disruption, socioeconomic status, race, and other potentially confounding variables, this article explores the theoretical validity of the confluence model in explaining the effects of sibship size and birth order on intelligence. (Author/GC)

  19. The Confluence of Curriculum Theory and the Phenomenological for the Critical Pedagogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author explores the confluence of curriculum theory and the phenomenological by utilizing the assumptions and foundations inherent in critical pedagogical theory. The author will first explore the meaning of these concepts, along with an examination of the relationship between the phenomenological and contemporary curricular…

  20. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines.

    PubMed

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. •Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner.•The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation.•The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines. PMID:26150966

  1. A modeling study of aeolian erosion enhanced by surface wind confluences over Mexico City

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using erosion and air quality models, a study on the effect of PM10 episodes in Mexico City is presented. The important contribution of Aeolian erosion on urban air quality, its genesis, morphology, location and regional implications such as the role played by surface confluences, the dry Lake of T...

  2. Large channel confluences influence geomorphic heterogeneity of a southeastern United States river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, William W.; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Meyer, Judith L.

    2009-10-01

    Detection of biological patterns in structurally complex rivers is difficult but essential in the management of imperiled species. On the basis of the network dynamics hypothesis (NDH), we predicted that tributaries exert a strong influence on main stem morphology, mediated by tributary sediment inputs. We predicted that the likelihood that a tributary will affect main stem geomorphology depends on the ratio of the tributary basin area to the main stem basin area (TBA:MBA). Although the results of this study do not indicate that TBA:MBA is a useful predictor of the presence of shallow alluvium-dominated confluences (i.e., shoals) in the Etowah River, in Georgia, alluvial shoals were closer to tributary mouths than were other shoal types, indicating an association with tributaries. Shoals near large tributary confluences also contained a larger proportion of gravel and cobble bed sediments and were wider than adjacent, downstream shoals. These confluence-associated shoals may be ecologically different in that aquatic macrophyte occurrence is higher in wide shoals with coarse sediments, and several state and federally listed darters (Percidae) are associated with shoals and these aquatic macrophytes. Recognizing confluence-associated shoals as unique shoal types may aid researchers in understanding the distribution patterns of these aquatic organisms.

  3. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Busschots, Steven; O’Toole, Sharon; O’Leary, John J.; Stordal, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. • Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner. • The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation. • The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines. PMID:26150966

  4. Interactions between groundwater and surface water at river banks and the confluence of rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambs, Luc

    2004-03-01

    Riparian vegetation depends on hydrological resources and has to adapt to changes in water levels and soil moisture conditions. The origin and mixing of water in the streamside corridor were studied in detail. The development of riparian woodland often reflects the evolution of hydrological events. River water levels and topography are certainly the main causes of the exchange between groundwater and river water through the riverbank. Stable isotopes, such as 18O, are useful tools that allow water movement to be traced. Two main water sources are typically present: (i) river water, depleted of heavy isotopes, originating upstream, and (ii) groundwater, which comes mainly from the local rainfall. On the Garonne River bank field site downstream of Toulouse, the mixing of these two waters is variable, and depends mainly on the river level and the geographical position. The output of the groundwater into the river water is not diffuse on a large scale, but localised at few places. At the confluence of two rivers, the water-mixing area is more complex because of the presence of a third source of water. In this situation, groundwater supports the hydrologic pressure of both rivers until they merge, this pressure could influence its outflow. Two cases will be presented. The first is the confluence of the Garonne and the Ariège Rivers in the south-west of France, both rivers coming from the slopes of the Pyrénées mountains. Localised groundwater outputs have been detected about 200 m before the confluence. The second case presented is the confluence of the Ganges and the Yamuna Rivers in the north of India, downstream of the city of Allahabad. These rivers are the two main tributaries of the Ganges, and both originate in the Himalayas. A strong stream of groundwater output was measured at the point of confluence.

  5. Floodplain evolution in a confluence zone: Paraná and Ivaí rivers, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Eduardo Souza de; Santos, Manoel Luis dos; Cremon, Édipo Henrique; Stevaux, José Cândido

    2016-03-01

    In this study we investigated floodplain development at the confluence of the Paraná and Ivaí rivers, Brazil. We evaluated paleochannels with sedimentary facies and morphometry from cartographic products, which enabled us to identify compartments that indicate homologous morphogenesis. These results contributed to the distinction in the floodplain of areas reworked by the Paraná, Ivaí, or both river systems. Additionally, investigations that included dating deposits on the terrace that borders the floodplain and an alluvial fan (also in contact with the floodplain) reinforced the interpretation of the fluvial landscape. The identified stages of geomorphological evolution demonstrated the existence of a paleoconfluence of the Paraná and Ivaí rivers during the late Pleistocene that was located 6 km upstream from the current confluence. This paleoconfluence displays a different configuration in relation to the current confluence, and its features resemble and contribute to understanding the former braided channel pattern of the Paraná River. The abandonments of the Paraná River channels identified in this study were initial and crucial process in the development of the floodplain. This channel change favored the formation of extensive wetlands and consequently the confluence migration, which resulted in the fluvial reworking indicated by the paleochannels of the Ivaí River. Another implication from the confluence migration was a base level fall, which contributed to maintaining the stability of the Ivaí River and its embedded meanders. In addition, investigations of an alluvial fan in the Paraná River valley provided evidence of massive deposition of sediments from a tributary of the Ivaí River onto the floodplain, which is associated with a regional dry period in the late Holocene as well as neotectonic control.

  6. [Research proceedings on primate comparative genomics].

    PubMed

    Liao, Cheng-Hong; Su, Bing

    2012-02-01

    With the accomplishment of genome sequencing of human, chimpanzee and other primates, there has been a great amount of primate genome information accumulated. Primate comparative genomics has become a new research field at current genome era. In this article, we reviewed recent progress in phylogeny, genome structure and gene expression of human and nonhuman primates, and we elaborated the major biological differences among human, chimpanzee and other non-human primate species, which is informative in revealing the mechanism of human evolution. PMID:22345018

  7. Pathogenesis of Varicelloviruses in primates

    PubMed Central

    Ouwendijk, Werner J.D.; Verjans, Georges M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Varicelloviruses in primates comprise the prototypic human varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and its non-human primate homologue simian varicella virus (SVV). Both viruses cause varicella as a primary infection, establish latency in ganglionic neurons and reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster in their respective hosts. VZV is endemic worldwide and although varicella is usually a benign disease in childhood, VZV reactivation is a significant cause of neurological disease in the elderly and in immunocompromised individuals. The pathogenesis of VZV infection remains ill-defined, mostly due to the species restriction of VZV that impedes studies in experimental animal models. SVV infection of non-human primates parallels virological, clinical, pathological and immunological features of human VZV infection, thereby providing an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of varicella and herpes zoster in its natural host. In this review, we discuss recent studies that provided novel insight in both the virus and host factors involved in the three elementary stages of Varicellovirus infection in primates: primary infection, latency and reactivation. PMID:25255989

  8. Neuroethology of primate social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Brent, Lauren J. N.; Adams, Geoffrey K.; Klein, Jeffrey T.; Pearson, John M.; Watson, Karli K.; Platt, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    A neuroethological approach to human and nonhuman primate behavior and cognition predicts biological specializations for social life. Evidence reviewed here indicates that ancestral mechanisms are often duplicated, repurposed, and differentially regulated to support social behavior. Focusing on recent research from nonhuman primates, we describe how the primate brain might implement social functions by coopting and extending preexisting mechanisms that previously supported nonsocial functions. This approach reveals that highly specialized mechanisms have evolved to decipher the immediate social context, and parallel circuits have evolved to translate social perceptual signals and nonsocial perceptual signals into partially integrated social and nonsocial motivational signals, which together inform general-purpose mechanisms that command behavior. Differences in social behavior between species, as well as between individuals within a species, result in part from neuromodulatory regulation of these neural circuits, which itself appears to be under partial genetic control. Ultimately, intraspecific variation in social behavior has differential fitness consequences, providing fundamental building blocks of natural selection. Our review suggests that the neuroethological approach to primate behavior may provide unique insights into human psychopathology. PMID:23754410

  9. Temporary resolution of foveal schisis following vitrectomy with silicon oil tamponade in X-linked retinoschisis with retinal detachment

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Neha; Ghosh, Basudeb

    2015-01-01

    X-linked retinoschisis (XLR) is an uncommon bilateral vitreoretinal dystrophy characterized by typical foveoschisis in all patients that may be associated with peripheral retinoschisis. A young male with XLR with retinal detachment in his right eye underwent 23 gauge pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade. Postoperatively, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved to 20/120 with an attached retina. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed macular thinning with the collapse of the schitic cavities with silicone oil in situ. Following silicone oil removal at 6 months follow-up, the retina remained attached with a BCVA of 20/80 however the foveal schitic cavities reappeared. This unusual course has not been described previously. PMID:26669343

  10. Counting primates for conservation: primate surveys in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Plumptre, Andrew J; Cox, Debby

    2006-01-01

    Primate census techniques have been developed over the past 35-40 years yet there is still some confusion and great variation in the methods used. This precludes comparisons between sites where different techniques have been used. This paper discusses the variations between the methods that seem to be practiced currently and then describes a census of primates in the forests of western Uganda. Primate density and biomass varied greatly between forests as well as within forests and this is probably related to food availability. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) density was strongly correlated with nest encounter rates from reconnaissance walks in the forest. This result can be used to estimate chimpanzee density in forests where it is difficult to survey this species (e.g., due to security reasons). A total of 4,980 chimpanzee was estimated for Uganda which is higher than previously guessed, but still of conservation concern. Only four forests had more than 500 individuals which gives concern for long-term population viability. PMID:16132166

  11. Risk Factors for Sexual Aggression in Young Men: An Expansion of the Confluence Model

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; LeBreton, James M.

    2011-01-01

    There are many explanations for high rates of sexual aggression, with no one theory dominating the field. This study extends past research by evaluating an expanded version of the confluence model with a community sample. One hour audio computer-assisted self-interviews were completed by 470 young single men. Using structural equation analyses, delinquency, hostile masculinity, impersonal sex, and misperception of women’s sexual cues were positively and directly associated with the number of sexually aggressive acts committed. There were also indirect effects of childhood victimization, personality traits associated with subclinical levels of psychopathy, and alcohol consumption. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of the confluence model, as well as the importance of broadening this theory to include additional constructs. PMID:21678429

  12. Optogenetics in the nonhuman primate

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xue

    2013-01-01

    The nonhuman primate brain, the model system closest to the human brain, plays a critical role in our understanding of neural computation, cognition, and behavior. The continued quest to crack the neural codes in the monkey brain would be greatly enhanced with new tools and technologies that can rapidly and reversibly control the activities of desired cells at precise times during specific behavioral states. Recent advances in adapting optogenetic technologies to monkeys have enabled precise control of specific cells or brain regions at the millisecond timescale, allowing for the investigation of the causal role of these neural circuits in this model system. Validation of optogenetic technologies in monkeys also represents a critical preclinical step on the translational path of new generation cell-type-specific neural modulation therapies. Here, I discuss the current state of the application of optogenetics in the nonhuman primate model system, highlighting the available genetic, optical and electrical technologies, and their limitations and potentials. PMID:22341328

  13. Flow structure and mixing at the confluence of unequal density rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Amsler, M.; Kostaschuk, R.; Lane, S. N.; Orfeo, O.; Szupiany, R.; Hardy, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    River channel confluences are vital components of all river networks and are often sites of significant hydraulic, morphological and ecological change. Past work has identified the principal controls on flow mixing at river junctions, with the confluence angle, discharge or momentum ratio between the two channels and junction bed morphology being critical. However, little attention has been devoted to the influence of density differences between the two confluent flows, which may exist due to differences in suspended sediment concentration. This paper details a case study of the Río Bermejo and Río Paraguay, Argentina, where there is always a density contrast between the two flows, and shows how this dominates the flow structure, turbulence and flow mixing. Field surveys employed acoustic Doppler current profiling, single- and multi- beam echo sounding and direct sampling of the water column to measure the flow structure. This work reveals the distortion of the mixing layer between the flows as the denser Río Bermejo fluid forms a density underflow that moves beneath that of the clearer water Río Paraguay. Upwellings of dense turbid flow occur in the downstream main channel due to bed roughness, mixing instabilities on the top of the underflow and interaction of the flow with the channel margins. These mixing processes, and the techniques used to visualize and quantify them at such river confluences, will be discussed.

  14. Oligonucleotide uptake in cultured keratinocytes: influence of confluence, cationic liposomes, and keratinocyte cell type.

    PubMed

    White, P J; Fogarty, R D; McKean, S C; Venables, D J; Werther, G A; Wraight, C J

    1999-05-01

    The success of anti-sense strategies has been limited, at least in part, by the poor uptake of these agents into the target cells. In keratinocytes, there is conflicting evidence as to the amount and location of oligonucleotide uptake into these cells, with variable proportions of cells reported to take up oligodeoxynucleotide, and also cytoplasmic and nuclear localization reported. In this study, the uptake of oligodeoxynucleotides in cultured normal human keratinocytes and the HaCaT cell line was quantitated in the presence of various lipids designed to enhance uptake and in varying culture conditions. About 12% of cells in a confluent normal human keratinocyte culture showed nuclear uptake, with a small and variable proportion showing cytoplasmic localization after 24 h incubation with 1 microM oligodeoxynucleotide. Uptake of oligodeoxynucleotide was found to be increased by liposome encapsulation (to a maximum of 28.1% +/- 2.1% of cells), low confluence (39.5% +/- 2.5%), and further increased by a combination of the two conditions (55.4% +/- 4.3%). HaCaT cell populations showed sparse but consistent uptake of oligodeoxynucleotide, with about 1% of cells showing nuclear localization in the presence of 1 microM oligodeoxynucleotide, increasing to 13.5% +/- 4.9% in the presence of cationic lipid (Tfx-50) in low confluence HaCaT monolayers. We conclude that normal keratinocytes exhibit reliable, substantial uptake of oligonucleotides in conditions controlled for confluence and aided by liposome encapsulation. PMID:10233759

  15. Primate Experiments on SLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aochi, J.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments to study how certain body systems are affected by the space environment are described. These experiments are to be conducted on space shuttle flights. How weightlessness affects two body systems of primates are the prime concern. Thermoregulation and fluid and electrolyte homeostasis are the two systems concerned. The thermoregulation project will provide data on how body temperature and circadian rhythms are affected in a weightlessness environment and the homeostasis in fluids and electrolyte levels will address the problem of body fluid shifts.

  16. Post-confluence surface water and sediment distribution patterns of the Solimões-Amazon and Negro Rivers: a remote sensing-based geomorphic study of surface patterns at the large rivers confluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Edward; Latrubesse, Edgardo

    2015-04-01

    River channel confluences are recognized as critical features of the fluvial system, because both intensive and extensive hydro-physical and geo-ecological processes take place within this momentous interface. Despite the relevant findings on confluences as listed above, only a few cases concentrated on field measurements in large rivers. Along with improvements in hydrographic and geochemical surveying techniques, trials have been occasionally made to improve understanding of larger rivers confluences and their downstream hydro-morphodynamics, such as in some reaches of the Amazon, Brahmaputra, Jamuna, and Paraná Rivers. However, finite collections of point-based and cross-sectional measurements obtained from field using acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), multi-beam echo sounder, global positioning system (GPS) or other geochemical applications (e.g. isotope tracing) around river confluences provide limited information of post-confluence hydro-geomorphologic behaviors. The identification of sediment routing through channel junctions and the role of confluence on downstream sediment transport is still poorly understood. Into this context, satellite remote sensing is the most relevant and efficient mean to regularly monitor the river sediment discharge over the large (regional to continental) scale. In this paper, we aim to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of post-confluence sediment transport by mapping the surface water distribution using the ultimate example of large river confluence on Earth, where distinct water types drain: The Solimões-Amazon (muddy-white water) versus Negro (black water) Rivers, exploring the seasonal and inter-annual variations of water types and the spatial distribution patterns of surface waters through the branches of the main stem.

  17. Soils, time, and primate paleoenvironments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Soils are the skin of the earth. From both poles to the equator, wherever rocks or sediment are exposed at the surface, soils are forming through the physical and chemical action of climate and living organisms. The physical attributes (color, texture, thickness) and chemical makeup of soils vary considerably, depending on the composition of the parent material and other variables: temperature, rainfall and soil moisture, vegetation, soil fauna, and the length of time that soil-forming processes have been at work. United States soil scientists1 have classified modern soils into ten major groups and numerous subgroups, each reflecting the composition and architecture of the soils and, to some extent, the processes that led to their formation. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation have been active throughout geologic time; the organic processes have been active at least since the Ordovician.2 Consequently, nearly all sedimentary rocks that were deposited in nonmarine settings and exposed to the elements contain a record of ancient, buried soils or paleosols. A sequence of these rocks, such as most ancient fluvial (stream) deposits, provides a record of soil paleoenvironments through time. Paleosols are also repositories of the fossils of organisms (body fossils) and the traces of those organisms burrowing, food-seeking, and dwelling activities (ichnofossils). Indeed, most fossil primates are found in paleosols. Careful study of ancient soils gives new, valuable insights into the correct temporal reconstruction of the primate fossil record and the nature of primate paleoenvironments. ?? 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Assessing Anxiety in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Kristine; Pierre, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety can be broadly described as a psychological state in which normally innocuous environmental stimuli trigger negative emotional expectations. Human anxiety disorders are multidimensional and may be organic or acquired, situational or pervasive. The broad ranging nature of the anxiety phenotype speaks to the need for models that identify its various components and root causes to develop effective clinical treatments. The cross-species comparative approach to modeling anxiety disorders in animals aims to understand mechanisms that both contribute to and modulate anxiety. Nonhuman primate models provide an important bridge from nonprimate model systems because of the complexity of nonhuman primates’ biobehavioral capacities and their commonalities with human emotion. The broad goal of this review is to provide an overview of various procedures available to study anxiety in the nonhuman primate, with a focus on the behavioral aspects of anxiety. Commonly used methods covered in this review include assessing animals in their home environment or in response to an ethologically relevant threat, associative conditioning and startle response tests, and cognitive bias tests. We also discuss how these procedures can help veterinarians and researchers care for captive nonhuman primates. PMID:25225310

  19. [Reasons for not using primates in research].

    PubMed

    Sauer, U G

    2000-01-01

    In terms of physiological development, non-human primates are our next of kin in the animal kingdom. Scientists who oppose the use of primates for experimental purposes argue that due to the high degree of similarity between primates and humans, experiments that may not be performed on humans due to ethical reasons also should not be performed on primates. Taking neurophysiological experiments with primates as an example, it is discussed which consequences it would have for medical progress if the use of primates in research were abandoned altogether. Taking into account the alternatives available and the results gained with the animal tests, it is concluded that medical progress would be unimpeded, even though in some instances the exact same questions that currently are evaluated with the animal tests might no longer be pursued with the alternatives. PMID:11178554

  20. Primate communities: past, present, and possible future.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kaye E; Bidner, Laura R

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the fundamental causes of the structure of primate communities is important for studies of primate evolutionary history, primate behavioral ecology, and development of conservation strategies. Research into these structuring factors has benefited from new perspectives such as consideration of primate phylogenetic history, metacommunities, and interactions with predators and nonprimate competitors. This review presents the underlying factors of primate community structure within the biogeographic regions of Madagascar, the Neotropics, Africa, and Asia. One of the major differences among these locations likely resulted from the initial primate taxa that colonized each region (a single colonization event in the case of Madagascar and South America, and multiple radiations of higher-level taxa in Africa and Asia). As most primates live in forests, the differences among the forests in these locations, caused by various climatic influences, further influenced speciation and the development of primate communities. Within these habitats, species interactions with different groups of organisms were also instrumental in developing community dynamics. Through an investigation of these fundamental factors, we identify some of the most important effects on primate communities in each region. These findings suggest that low primate richness in Asia may be caused by either the abundance of dipterocarp trees or high levels of monsoon rains. High numbers of frugivores and a lack of folivores in neotropical communities may be associated with competition with sloths that were already present at the time of initial radiation. Climatic patterns which affect forest structure and productivity in Madagascar may be responsible for high numbers of folivorous lemurs. The identification of these factors are important for the conservation of existing primate communities, and indicate directions for future studies. PMID:15605389

  1. The discrepancy between central foveal thickness and best corrected visual acuity in cystoid macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion after intravitreal lucentis® injection.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rui; Li, Chenyan; Hu, Yuedong; Chen, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Cystoid macular edema is a common retinal disorder with the potential for significant vision-related morbidity, and intravitreal lucentis(®) injection is confirmed to be an effective therapy approach. In the present study, we investigated the discrepancy between central foveal thickness and best corrected visual acuity in such lesions and infered that intravitreal lucentis(®) injection may help the visual function, related to the renewal of cells. PMID:25818575

  2. Bion 11 mission: primate experiments.

    PubMed

    Ilyin, E A; Korolkov, V I; Skidmore, M G; Viso, M; Kozlovskaya, I B; Grindeland, R E; Lapin, B A; Gordeev, Y V; Krotov, V P; Fanton, J W; Bielitzki, J T; Golov, V K; Magedov, V S; Hines, J W

    2000-01-01

    A summary is provided of the major operations required to conduct the wide range of primate experiments on the Bion 11 mission, which flew for 14 days beginning December 24, 1996. Information is given on preflight preparations, including flight candidate selection and training; attachment and implantation of bioinstrumentation; flight and ground experiment designs; onboard life support and test systems; ground and flight health monitoring; flight monkey selection and transport to the launch site; inflight procedures and data collection; postflight examinations and experiments; and assessment of results. PMID:11543472

  3. Noninvasive Test for Tuberculosis Detection among Primates

    PubMed Central

    Mugisha, Lawrence; Shoyama, Fernanda Miyagaki; O’Malley, Melanie J.; Flynn, JoAnne L.; Asiimwe, Benon; Travis, Dominic A.; Singer, Randall S.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2015-01-01

    Traditional testing methods have limited epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis among free-living primates. PCR amplification of insertion element IS6110 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from fecal samples was evaluated as a noninvasive screening test for tuberculosis in primates. Active tuberculosis was detected among inoculated macaques and naturally exposed chimpanzees, demonstrating the utility of this test. PMID:25695329

  4. Nonhuman Primate Infections after Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Haustein, Silke V.; Kolterman, Amanda J.; Sundblad, Jeffrey J.; Fechner, John H.; Knechtle, Stuart J.

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates, primarily rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and baboons (Papio spp.), have been used extensively in research models of solid organ transplantation, mainly because the nonhuman primate (NHP) immune system closely resembles that of the human. Nonhuman primates are also frequently the model of choice for preclinical testing of new immunosuppressive strategies. But the management of post-transplant nonhuman primates is complex, because it often involves multiple immunosuppressive agents, many of which are new and have unknown effects. Additionally, the resulting immunosuppression carries a risk of infectious complications, which are challenging to diagnose. Last, because of the natural tendency of animals to hide signs of weakness, infectious complications may not be obvious until the animal becomes severely ill. For these reasons the diagnosis of infectious complications is difficult among post-transplant NHPs. Because most nonhuman primate studies in organ transplantation are quite small, there are only a few published reports concerning infections after transplantation in nonhuman primates. Based on our survey of these reports, the incidence of infection in NHP transplant models is 14%. The majority of reports suggest that many of these infections are due to reactivation of viruses endemic to the primate species, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), polyomavirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–related infections. In this review, we address the epidemiology, pathogenesis, role of prophylaxis, clinical presentation, and treatment of infectious complications after solid organ transplantation in nonhuman primates. PMID:18323582

  5. Modeling Olfactory Bulb Evolution through Primate Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Heritage, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive characterizations of primates have usually included a reduction in olfactory sensitivity. However, this inference of derivation and directionality assumes an ancestral state of olfaction, usually by comparison to a group of extant non-primate mammals. Thus, the accuracy of the inference depends on the assumed ancestral state. Here I present a phylogenetic model of continuous trait evolution that reconstructs olfactory bulb volumes for ancestral nodes of primates and mammal outgroups. Parent-daughter comparisons suggest that, relative to the ancestral euarchontan, the crown-primate node is plesiomorphic and that derived reduction in olfactory sensitivity is an attribute of the haplorhine lineage. The model also suggests a derived increase in olfactory sensitivity at the strepsirrhine node. This oppositional diversification of the strepsirrhine and haplorhine lineages from an intermediate and non-derived ancestor is inconsistent with a characterization of graded reduction through primate evolution. PMID:25426851

  6. Multiyear measurements of the oceanic and atmospheric boundary layers at the Brazil-Malvinas confluence region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi; de Souza, Ronald Buss; Acevedo, OtáVio; Wainer, Ilana; Mata, Mauricio M.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.; de Camargo, Ricardo

    2009-10-01

    This study analyzes and discusses data taken from oceanic and atmospheric measurements performed simultaneously at the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC) region in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. This area is one of the most dynamical frontal regions of the world ocean. Data were collected during four research cruises in the region once a year in consecutive years between 2004 and 2007. Very few studies have addressed the importance of studying the air-sea coupling at the BMC region. Lateral temperature gradients at the study region were as high as 0.3°C km-1 at the surface and subsurface. In the oceanic boundary layer, the vertical temperature gradient reached 0.08°C m-1 at 500 m depth. Our results show that the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) at the BMC region is modulated by the strong sea surface temperature (SST) gradients present at the sea surface. The mean MABL structure is thicker over the warmside of the BMC where Brazil Current (BC) waters predominate. The opposite occurs over the coldside of the confluence where waters from the Malvinas (Falkland) Current (MC) are found. The warmside of the confluence presented systematically higher MABL top height compared to the coldside. This type of modulation at the synoptic scale is consistent to what happens in other frontal regions of the world ocean, where the MABL adjusts itself to modifications along the SST gradients. Over warm waters at the BMC region, the MABL static instability and turbulence were increased while winds at the lower portion of the MABL were strong. Over the coldside of the BC/MC front an opposite behavior is found: the MABL is thinner and more stable. Our results suggest that the sea-level pressure (SLP) was also modulated locally, together with static stability vertical mixing mechanism, by the surface condition during all cruises. SST gradients at the BMC region modulate the synoptic atmospheric pressure gradient. Postfrontal and prefrontal conditions produce opposite thermal

  7. Ultraviolet absorbance by diatom populations from the Weddell-Scotia Confluence

    SciTech Connect

    Neale, P.J.; Spector, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    Austral spring ozone depletion results in exposure of phytoplankton in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence to enhanced surface ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280 to 320 nanometers). Since this is an area of high phytoplankton biomass during the early spring, an investigation was made of possible effects of increased UV-B on the phytoplankton productivity during October and November 1993 aboard the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer (UV-B/Ozone 93). The measurements made during the studies included phytoplankton UV absorbance (this paper) as well as phytoplankton photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, pigment composition, and growth rates. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  8. The influence of flow inertia, buoyancy, wind, and flow unsteadiness on mixing at the asymmetrical confluence of two large rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramón, Cintia L.; Prats, Jordi; Rueda, Francisco J.

    2016-08-01

    The rates and patterns of mixing of two large rivers with large density differences at a strongly asymmetrical confluence in northern Spain are analyzed. We assess the factors controlling the site where the denser river plunges and the mixing rates between the rivers. In particular, we focus on the interaction between inertial and buoyancy forces, the effect of wind forcing, and the unsteady nature of the hydraulic forcing. The steady-state location of the plunge line is shown to be controlled by an inertia-buoyancy balance, which accounts for the relative magnitude of the buoyancy forcing associated with density differences between the confluent rivers, and the magnitudes of both the main-stream and the side-flow (tributary) inertia. The plunge line moves to upstream locations as the inertia of the tributary increases (for low tributary inertia) and/or the density contrast between the rivers increases. This has important consequences for river mixing since mixing rates increase as the plunging occurs at the confluence. The high mixing rates in this case occur as a result of a large mixing interface surface area and high diffusivities. As the plunging area moves upstream or downstream of the confluence, vertical diffusivities or the area of contact available for mixing decrease and constrain mixing rates. Wind forcing, depending on its velocity and direction, affects mixing rates through (1) altering the buoyancy-inertia equilibrium and so changing the location of the plunge line, (2) altering the pattern of secondary circulation within the confluence and/or (3) increasing shear at the confluence. Flow unsteadiness can lead to changes in the location of the plunge line through time and thus can strongly modify mixing rates at the confluence. The downstream movement of the plunge line is advection dominated, while its upstream movement seems to respond to a baroclinic response of the confluence.

  9. Heart xenotransplantation in primate models.

    PubMed

    Postrach, Johannes; Bauer, Andreas; Schmoeckel, Michael; Reichart, Bruno; Brenner, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is a potential solution for the worldwide persisting donor organ shortage. However, immunological and physiological barriers need to be overcome before the first clinical trials can be started. Nonhuman primates are considered the most suitable recipients in preclinical xenotransplantation models. Heterotopic abdominal cardiac xenotransplantation is a well-established nonworking heart model for immunological and biological studies on acute and delayed xenograft rejection and xenograft survival. Nevertheless, orthotopic life-supporting pig-to-baboon heart transplantation is the only accepted model for future cardiac xenotransplantation in humans so far. Survival times of 3 months in at least 60% of consecutive experiments have to be achieved and a minimum number of ten nonhuman primates have to survive for this period of time before clinical transplantation may be started. We recently introduced the heterotopic thoracic technique of pig-to-baboon heart transplantation. We believe that this technique combines the advantages of a working heart model with the safety of heterotopic transplantation. We describe the technical procedure of the three different pig-to-baboon models and give detailed information on perioperative care of the recipients. PMID:22565995

  10. Association of Primate Veterinarians 2014 Nonhuman Primate Housing Survey.

    PubMed

    Bennett, B Taylor

    2016-01-01

    The Board of Directors of the Association of Primate Veterinarians supported conducting a survey to determine how NHP were housed in USDA-registered research facilities. The data generated were to be used to refute allegations in a petition filed with the USDA by the New England Antivivisectionist Society, which alleged that the proportion of NHP housed singly had not improved since the implementation of the standards contained in §3.81 of the Animal Welfare Regulations. The survey gathered housing information on approximately 90% of the NHP housed in research facilities in FY2014. That information documented that the number of NHP housed in groups or pairs has increased by 20 percentage points to 84% since the USDA's survey conducted in 2000 and 2001. This article describes the methodology and approach used to conduct the survey, summarizes the data obtained, and discusses the meaning of those data. PMID:27025809

  11. Interplay of Proximal Flow Confluence and Distal Flow Divergence in Patient-Specific Vertebrobasilar System

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaoping; Huang, Xu; Feng, Yundi; Tan, Wenchang; Liu, Huaijun

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one-quarter of ischemic strokes involve the vertebrobasilar arterial system that includes the upstream flow confluence and downstream flow divergence. A patient-specific hemodynamic analysis is needed to understand the posterior circulation. The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of hemodynamic parameters in the vertebrobasilar system, based on computer tomography angiography images. Here, the interplay of upstream flow confluence and downstream flow divergence was hypothesized to be a determinant factor for the hemodynamic distribution in the vertebrobasilar system. A computational fluid dynamics model was used to compute the flow fields in patient-specific vertebrobasilar models (n = 6). The inlet and outlet boundary conditions were the aortic pressure waveform and flow resistances, respectively. A 50% reduction of total outlet area was found to induce a ten-fold increase in surface area ratio of low time-averaged wall shear stress (i.e., TAWSS ≤ 4 dynes/cm2). This study enhances our understanding of the posterior circulation associated with the incidence of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:27467755

  12. Interplay of Proximal Flow Confluence and Distal Flow Divergence in Patient-Specific Vertebrobasilar System.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaoping; Huang, Xu; Feng, Yundi; Tan, Wenchang; Liu, Huaijun; Huo, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one-quarter of ischemic strokes involve the vertebrobasilar arterial system that includes the upstream flow confluence and downstream flow divergence. A patient-specific hemodynamic analysis is needed to understand the posterior circulation. The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of hemodynamic parameters in the vertebrobasilar system, based on computer tomography angiography images. Here, the interplay of upstream flow confluence and downstream flow divergence was hypothesized to be a determinant factor for the hemodynamic distribution in the vertebrobasilar system. A computational fluid dynamics model was used to compute the flow fields in patient-specific vertebrobasilar models (n = 6). The inlet and outlet boundary conditions were the aortic pressure waveform and flow resistances, respectively. A 50% reduction of total outlet area was found to induce a ten-fold increase in surface area ratio of low time-averaged wall shear stress (i.e., TAWSS ≤ 4 dynes/cm2). This study enhances our understanding of the posterior circulation associated with the incidence of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:27467755

  13. The fate of arsenic in sediments formed at a river confluence affected by acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, P. A.; Pasten, P. A.; Pizarro, G.; Simonson, K.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Gonzalez, C.; Bonilla, C.

    2012-12-01

    Fluvial confluences receiving acid mine drainage may play a critical role in a watershed as a suite of interactions between chemistry and hydrodynamics occur, determining the fate of toxic contaminants like arsenic. Solid reactive phases of iron and/or aluminum oxi-hydroxides may form or transform, ranging from iron oxide nanoparticles that aggregate and form floccules that are transported in the suspended load up to gravel and arsenic-rich rock coatings. In order to further understand the role of reactive fluvial confluences, we have studied the mixing between the Caracarani River (flow=170-640 L/s, pH 8, conductivity 1.5 mS/cm, total As<0.1 mg/L and total Fe< 5 mg/L) and the Azufre River (flow=45-245 L/s, pH<2, conductivity > 10 mS/cm, total As>2 mg/L, total Fe=35-125 mg/L), located in the Lluta watershed in northern Chile. This site is an excellent natural laboratory located in a water-scarce area, where the future construction of a dam has prompted the attention of decision makers and scientists interested in weighing the risks derived by the accumulation of arsenic-rich sediments. Suspended sediments (> 0.45 μm), riverbed sediments, and coated rocks were collected upstream and downstream from the confluence. Suspended sediments >0.45 μm and riverbed sediments were analyzed by total reflection x-ray fluorescence for metals, while coated river bed rocks were analyzed by chemical extractions and a semi-quantitative approach through portable x-ray fluorescence. Water from the Caracarani and Azufre rivers were mixed in the laboratory at different ratios and mixing velocities aiming to characterize the effect of the chemical-hydrodynamic environment where arsenic solids were formed at different locations in the confluence. Despite a wide range of iron and arsenic concentrations in the suspended sediments from the field (As=1037 ± 1372 mg/kg, Fe=21.0 ± 24.5 g/kg), we found a rather narrow As/Fe ratio, increasing from 36.5 to 55.2 mgAs/kgFe when the bulk water p

  14. Special issue: Comparative biogeography of Neotropical primates.

    PubMed

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana; Di Fiore, Anthony; Boubli, Jean P

    2015-01-01

    New research presented in this special issue of Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution on the "Phylogeny and Biogeography of Neotropical Primates" greatly improves our understanding of the evolutionary history of the New World monkeys and provides insights into the multiple platyrrhine radiations, diversifications, extinctions, and recolonizations that have taken place over time and over space in the Neotropics. Here, we synthesize genetic and biogeographic research from the past several years to construct an overarching hypothesis for platyrrhine evolution. We also highlight continuing controversies in Neotropical primate biogeography, such as whether the location of origin of platyrrhines was Africa or Asia; whether Patagonian fossil primates are stem or crown platyrrhines; and whether cis- and trans-Andean Neotropical primates were subject to vicariance through Andes mountain building, or instead diversified through isolation in mountain valleys after skirting around the Andes on the northwestern coast of South America. We also consider the role of the Amazon River and its major tributaries in shaping platyrrhine biodiversity, and how and when primates from the Amazon reached the Atlantic Forest. A key focus is on primate colonizations and extirpations in Central America, the Andes, and the seasonally dry tropical forests and savannas (such as the Llanos, Caatinga, and Cerrado habitats), all ecosystems that have been understudied up until now for primates. We suggest that most primates currently inhabiting drier open habitats are relatively recent arrivals, having expanded from rainforest habitats in the Pleistocene. We point to the Pitheciidae as the taxonomic group most in need of further phylogenetic and biogeographic research. Additionally, genomic studies on the Platyrrhini are deeply needed and are expected to bring new surprises and insights to the field of Neotropical primate biogeography. PMID:25451803

  15. Oligocene primates from China reveal divergence between African and Asian primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xijun; Li, Qiang; Li, Lüzhou; Beard, K Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Profound environmental and faunal changes are associated with climatic deterioration during the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) roughly 34 million years ago. Reconstructing how Asian primates responded to the EOT has been hindered by a sparse record of Oligocene primates on that continent. Here, we report the discovery of a diverse primate fauna from the early Oligocene of southern China. In marked contrast to Afro-Arabian Oligocene primate faunas, this Asian fauna is dominated by strepsirhines. There appears to be a strong break between Paleogene and Neogene Asian anthropoid assemblages. Asian and Afro-Arabian primate faunas responded differently to EOT climatic deterioration, indicating that the EOT functioned as a critical evolutionary filter constraining the subsequent course of primate evolution across the Old World. PMID:27151861

  16. Primates in 21st century ecosystems: does primate conservation promote ecosystem conservation?

    PubMed

    Norconk, Marilyn A; Boinski, Sue; Forget, Pierre-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the American Journal of Primatology were among the participants in an invited symposium at the 2008 Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation meeting in Paramaribo, Suriname. They were asked to assess how essential primates are to tropical ecosystems and, given their research interests, discuss how primate research contributes to the broader understanding about how ecosystems function. This introduction to the issue is divided into three parts: a review of the roles that nonhuman primates play in tropical ecosystems; the implementation of large-scale landscape methods used to identify primate densities; and concerns about the increasingly porous boundaries between humans, nonhuman primates, and pathogens. Although 20th century primate research created a rich database on individual species, including both theoretical and descriptive approaches, the dual effects of high human population densities and widespread habitat destruction should warn us that creative, interdisciplinary and human-related research is needed to solve 21st century problems. PMID:20677224

  17. The Automated Primate Research Laboratory (APRL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of a self-contained automated primate research laboratory to study the effects of weightlessness on subhuman primates. Physiological parameters such as hemodynamics, respiration, blood constituents, waste, and diet and nutrition are analyzed for abnormalities in the simulated space environment. The Southeast Asian pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemistrina) was selected for the experiments owing to its relative intelligence and learning capacity. The objective of the program is to demonstrate the feasibility of a man-tended primate space flight experiment.

  18. [Transient homonymous hemianopsia due to thrombosis of the confluence of sinuses after occipital transtentorial removal of pineal region tumor].

    PubMed

    Meguro, Toshinari; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Haruma, Jun; Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Muraoka, Kenichiro; Terada, Kinya; Hirotsune, Nobuyuki; Nishino, Shigeki

    2010-10-01

    The authors report a case of 74-year-old woman suffering thrombosis of the confluence of sinuses after the left occipital transtentorial removal of a pineal region epidermoid cyst. Four days after the operation, the patient developed left homonymous hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a venous infarct in the right occipital lobe and magnetic resonance venography disclosed a signal defect of the posterior part of the confluence of sinuses. The patients' neurological symptom recovered soon after anticoagulation treatment, and magnetic resonance venography after the sixth week showed recanalization of the confluence of sinuses. Although it might be rare, thrombosis of the dural sinus should be recognized as a complication of craniotomy. PMID:21041894

  19. Prognostic significance of foveal capillary drop-out and previous panretinal photocoagulation for diabetic macular oedema treated with ranibizumab

    PubMed Central

    Ebneter, Andreas; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    Aims To investigate the prognostic significance of macular capillary drop-out and previous panretinal laser photocoagulation in diabetic macular oedema treated with intravitreal ranibizumab. Methods Retrospective observational case series. Treatment-naive patients with diabetic macular oedema that had been treated with intravitreal ranibizumab as per the RESTORE study protocol for at least 12 months were included. Some patients (n=15) had previous panretinal laser photocoagulation. Best-corrected visual acuity and central retina thickness were recorded monthly. The foveal avascular zone and the perifoveal capillaries were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed on fluorescein angiography on two occasions during the observational period. Results From the 46 eyes (46 patients) in this study, 13 (28%) had evidence of perifoveal capillary drop-out. Central retinal thickness was significantly thinner at baseline (p=0.02) and throughout the study period in these eyes compared with those with normal perifoveal capillaries. Both groups responded with a significant gain of best-corrected visual acuity to ranibizumab treatment (7.6±3.3 and 6.3±1.3 ETDRS letters, respectively). Eyes with previous panretinal laser photocoagulation displayed a comparable final outcome regarding function and morphology, requiring a similar intensity of intravitreal injections. Conclusions Perifoveal capillary drop-out did not limit the gain of visual acuity from intravitreal ranibizumab treatment. The reduction of central retina thickness was similar to that seen in eyes with normal perifoveal capillaries. Central retinal thickness in eyes with perifoveal capillary drop-out was generally reduced. However, this did not affect their benefit from treatment. Ranibizumab did not increase the amount of perifoveal capillary loss. PMID:26187951

  20. Complementary global maps for orientation coding in upper and lower layers of the monkey's foveal striate cortex.

    PubMed

    Bauer, R; Dow, B M

    1989-01-01

    A population of 269 cells recorded from the foveal representation of striate cortex in 2 rhesus macaque monkeys was examined for orientation preference as a function of receptive field position relative to the center of gaze. Cells recorded in supragranular and infragranular layers were segregated and compared. Within the foveolar region (0.0-0.5 degrees) supragranular cells showed a vertical bias which was not evident in the infragranular layers. At larger eccentricities (0.5-2.5 degrees) supragranular cells showed a radial bias (preferred orientation points toward the center of gaze), whereas infragranular cells showed a concentric bias (preferred orientation is tangent to a circle around the center of gaze). These results are consistent with our earlier report of an orientation shift between the supragranular and infragranular layers (Bauer et al. 1980, 1983; Dow and Bauer 1984). The diagonal orientation bias which we noted earlier (Bauer et al. 1980; Dow and Bauer 1984) in supragranular cells at eccentricities between 0.5 and 2.5 degrees can be explained by the radial bias, combined with a tendency for recording sites to favor receptive field locations closer to the diagonal meridia than to either the horizontal or vertical meridia. Given other evidence that upper layer cells in macaque striate cortex tend to show either orientation or color selectivity, while lower layer cells tend to show movement sensitivity (Dow 1974; Livingstone and Hubel 1984), the present data suggest a functional dichotomy between a supragranular system involved in fixational eye movements and pattern vision and an infragranular system activated primarily by optical flow fields during ambulation. PMID:2792244

  1. Statistical distribution of foveal transverse chromatic aberration, pupil centration, and angle psi in a population of young adult eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynders, Maurice; Lidkea, Bruce; Chisholm, William; Thibos, Larry N.

    1995-10-01

    Subjective transverse chromatic aberration (sTCA) manifest at the fovea was determined for a population of 85 young adults (19-38 years old) by means of a two-dimensional, two-color, vernier alignment technique. The statistical distribution of sTCA was well fitted by a bivariate Gaussian function with mean values that were not significantly different from zero in either the horizontal or the vertical direction. We conclude from this result that a hypothetical, average eye representing the population mean of human eyes with medium-sized pupils is free of foveal sTCA. However, the absolute magnitude of sTCA for any given individual was often significantly greater than zero and ranged from 0.05 to 2.67 arcmin for the red and the blue lights of a computer monitor (mean wavelengths, 605 and 497 nm, respectively). The statistical distribution of the absolute magnitude of sTCA was well described by a Rayleigh probability distribution with a mean of 0.8 arcmin. A simple device useful for population screening in a clinical setting was also tested and gave concordant results. Assuming that sTCA at the fovea is due to decentering of the pupil with respect to the visual axis, we infer from these results that the pupil is, on average, well centered in human eyes. The average magnitude of pupil decentration in individual eyes is less than 0.5 mm, which corresponds to psi =3 deg for the angle between the achromatic and the visual axes of the eye.

  2. Hydrodynamic Model of Inundation Event at Confluence of Ohio and Mississippi Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, B. A.; Luke, A.; Alsdorf, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this project is to produce an accurate 2-D hydrodynamic model of an inundation event that occurred at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. The inundation occurred in the months of April and May 2011, with the city of interest being Cairo, Illinois. In order to relieve flooding within Cairo, a Bird's Point Levee was detonated by the Army Corps of Engineers. Cairo is a small city of 2,800 people, and is prone to flooding due to its proximity to the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. Cairo is also the only city in the U.S. completely surrounded by levees. The advantage of a 2-D modeling approach compared to a 1-D approach is that the floodplain geomorphological processes are more accurately represented. Understanding non-channelized flow that occurs during inundation events is a subject of growing interest, and is being addressed in other projects such as the NASA-SWOT mission scheduled for launch in 2019. The 2-D model utilized in this study is LISFLOOD-FP. LISFLOOD-FP is a 2-D finite-difference flood inundation model that has been proven to accurately simulate flood inundation for urban, coastal, and fluvial environments. LISFLOOD-FP operates using known hydraulic principles along with continuity and momentum equations to describe the flow of water through channels and floodplains. The digital elevation model used to represent the area's topography was obtained from the USGS National Elevation Data set, and our model uses input data from USGS stream gauges located upstream of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. The gauging station located in Cairo will be used for model validation. Currently, many flood simulations are being modeled with varying conditions and input files. In situ cross sectional data is being used to represent the channel. We have found that using averages of the cross sectional data do not accurately represent the river channels, so future model runs will incorporate interpolation between

  3. Hydrodynamic Model of Inundation Event at Confluence of Ohio and Mississippi Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, B. A.; Luke, A.; Shlaes, M.; Lant, J.; Alsdorf, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this project is to produce an accurate 2-D hydrodynamic model of an inundation event that occurred at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. The inundation occurred in the months of April and May 2011, with the city of interest being Cairo, Illinois. In order to relieve flooding within Cairo, a levee was detonated by the Army Corps of Engineers. Cairo is a small city of 2,800 people, and is prone to flooding due to its proximity to the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. Cairo is also the only city in the U.S. completely surrounded by levees. The advantage of a 2-D modeling approach compared to a 1-D approach is that the floodplain geomorphological processes are more accurately represented. Understanding non-channelized flow that occurs during inundation events is a subject of growing interest, and is being addressed in other projects such as the NASA-SWOT mission scheduled for launch in 2019. The 2-D model utilized in this study is LISFLOOD-FP. LISFLOOD-FP is a 2-D finite-difference flood inundation model that has been proven to accurately simulate flood inundation for urban, coastal, and fluvial environments. LISFLOOD-FP operates using known hydraulic principles along with continuity and momentum equations to describe the flow of water through channels and floodplains. The digital elevation model used to represent the area's topography was obtained from the USGS National Elevation Data set, and our model uses input data from USGS stream gauges located upstream of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. The gauging station located in Cairo will be used for model validation. Currently, the steady state conditions of the Ohio and the Mississippi River are being modeled. In situ cross sectional data is being used to represent the channel. We have found that using averages of the cross sectional data do not accurately represent the river channels, so future model runs will incorporate interpolation between measurements. Once

  4. Biokinetics of Plutonium in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Deepesh; Guilmette, Raymond A; Gesell, Thomas F; Harris, Jason T; Brey, Richard R

    2016-10-01

    A major source of data on metabolism, excretion and retention of plutonium comes from experimental animal studies. Although old world monkeys are one of the closest living relatives to humans, certain physiological differences do exist between these nonhuman primates and humans. The objective of this paper was to describe the metabolism of plutonium in nonhuman primates using the bioassay and retention data obtained from macaque monkeys injected with plutonium citrate. A biokinetic model for nonhuman primates was developed by adapting the basic model structure and adapting the transfer rates described for metabolism of plutonium in adult humans. Significant changes to the parameters were necessary to explain the shorter retention of plutonium in liver and skeleton of the nonhuman primates, differences in liver to bone partitioning ratio, and significantly higher excretion of plutonium in feces compared to that in humans. PMID:27575347

  5. The use of nonhuman primates in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmonds, R. C. (Editor); Bourne, G. H. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Space related biomedical research involving nonhuman primates is reviewed. The scientific assets of various species and the instruments used for monitoring physiological processes during long duration experimentations are described.

  6. A Mitogenomic Phylogeny of Living Primates

    PubMed Central

    Finstermeier, Knut; Zinner, Dietmar; Brameier, Markus; Meyer, Matthias; Kreuz, Eva; Hofreiter, Michael; Roos, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Primates, the mammalian order including our own species, comprise 480 species in 78 genera. Thus, they represent the third largest of the 18 orders of eutherian mammals. Although recent phylogenetic studies on primates are increasingly built on molecular datasets, most of these studies have focused on taxonomic subgroups within the order. Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes have proven to be extremely useful in deciphering within-order relationships even up to deep nodes. Using 454 sequencing, we sequenced 32 new complete mt genomes adding 20 previously not represented genera to the phylogenetic reconstruction of the primate tree. With 13 new sequences, the number of complete mt genomes within the parvorder Platyrrhini was widely extended, resulting in a largely resolved branching pattern among New World monkey families. We added 10 new Strepsirrhini mt genomes to the 15 previously available ones, thus almost doubling the number of mt genomes within this clade. Our data allow precise date estimates of all nodes and offer new insights into primate evolution. One major result is a relatively young date for the most recent common ancestor of all living primates which was estimated to 66-69 million years ago, suggesting that the divergence of extant primates started close to the K/T-boundary. Although some relationships remain unclear, the large number of mt genomes used allowed us to reconstruct a robust primate phylogeny which is largely in agreement with previous publications. Finally, we show that mt genomes are a useful tool for resolving primate phylogenetic relationships on various taxonomic levels. PMID:23874967

  7. Contextualising primate origins--an ecomorphological framework.

    PubMed

    Soligo, Christophe; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2016-04-01

    Ecomorphology - the characterisation of the adaptive relationship between an organism's morphology and its ecological role - has long been central to theories of the origin and early evolution of the primate order. This is exemplified by two of the most influential theories of primate origins: Matt Cartmill's Visual Predation Hypothesis, and Bob Sussman's Angiosperm Co-Evolution Hypothesis. However, the study of primate origins is constrained by the absence of data directly documenting the events under investigation, and has to rely instead on a fragmentary fossil record and the methodological assumptions inherent in phylogenetic comparative analyses of extant species. These constraints introduce particular challenges for inferring the ecomorphology of primate origins, as morphology and environmental context must first be inferred before the relationship between the two can be considered. Fossils can be integrated in comparative analyses and observations of extant model species and laboratory experiments of form-function relationships are critical for the functional interpretation of the morphology of extinct species. Recent developments have led to important advancements, including phylogenetic comparative methods based on more realistic models of evolution, and improved methods for the inference of clade divergence times, as well as an improved fossil record. This contribution will review current perspectives on the origin and early evolution of primates, paying particular attention to their phylogenetic (including cladistic relationships and character evolution) and environmental (including chronology, geography, and physical environments) contextualisation, before attempting an up-to-date ecomorphological synthesis of primate origins. PMID:26830706

  8. Diurnal cycles control the fate of contaminants at an Andean river confluence impacted by legacy mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasten, P.; Guerra, P. A.; Simonson, K.; Bonilla, C.; Pizarro, G. E.; Escauriaza, C. R.; González, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of hydrologic-geochemical interactions in arid environments is a controlling factor in quality and quantity of water available for human consumption and agriculture. When acid drainage affects these watersheds, water quality is gravely degraded. Despite its effect on watersheds, the relationship between time changes in hydrological variables and water quality in arid regions has not been studied thoroughly. Temporal variations in acid drainage can control when the transport of toxic elements is increased. We performed field work at the Azufre River (pH 2, E.C~10.9 mS/cm) and Caracarani River (pH 8.7, E.C~1.2 mS/cm) confluence, located in the Northern Chilean Altiplano (at 4000 m asl). We registered stream flowrates (total flowrate~430 L/s), temperature and electric conductivity (E.C) hourly using in-stream data loggers during one year. We also measured turbidity and pH during one field survey at different distances from the junction, as a proxy of the formation of iron-aluminum particles that cycle trace elements in these environments. We found turbidity-pH diurnal cycles were caused by upstream hourly changes in upstream flowrate: when the Caracarani River flowrate reached its daily peak, particle formation occurred, while the dissolution of particles occurred when the Azufre River reached its maximum value. This last process occurred due to upstream freeze-thaw cycles. This study shows how the dynamics of natural confluences determines chemical transport. The formation of particles enriched in toxic elements can promote settling as a natural attenuation process, while their dissolution will produce their release and transport long distances downstream. It is important to consider time as an important variable in water quality monitoring and in water management infrastructure where pulses of contamination can have potentially negative effects in its use. Acknowledgements: Funding was provided by "Proyecto Fondecyt 1130936" and "CONICYT

  9. Bathymetrically controlled velocity-shear front at a tidal river confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Cheryl Ann; Mied, Richard P.; McKay, Paul; Chen, Wei; Rhea, W. Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Nonbuoyant front formation at the confluence of Nanjemoy Creek and the main Potomac River (MD) channel is examined. Terra satellite ASTER imagery reveals a sediment color front emerging from Nanjemoy Creek when the Potomac is near maximum ebb. Nearly contemporaneous ASTER and Landsat ETM+ imagery are used to extract surface velocities, which suggest a velocity shear front is collocated with the color front. In situ velocities (measured by RiverRay traverses near the Nanjemoy Creek mouth) confirm the shear front's presence. A finite-element simulation (using ADCIRC) replicates the observed velocity-shear front and is applied to decipher its physics. Three results emerge: (1) the velocity-shear front forms, confined to a shoal downstream of the creek-river confluence for most of the tidal cycle, (2) a simulation with a flat bottom in Nanjemoy Creek and Potomac River (i.e., no bathymetry variation) indicates the velocity-shear front never forms, hence the front cannot exist without the bathymetry, and (3) an additional simulation with a blocked-off Creek entrance demonstrates that while the magnitude of the velocity shear is largely unchanged without the creek, shear front formation is delayed in time. Without the Creek, there is no advection of the M6 tidal constituent (generated by nonlinear interaction of the flow with bottom friction) onto the shoals, only a locally generated contribution. A tidal phase difference between Nanjemoy and Potomac causes the ebbing Nanjemoy Creek waters to intrude into the Potomac as far south as its deep channel, and draw from a similar location in the Potomac during Nanjemoy flood.

  10. Perceptions of nonhuman primates in human-wildlife conflict scenarios.

    PubMed

    Hill, Catherine M; Webber, Amanda D

    2010-09-01

    Nonhuman primates (referred to as primates in this study) are sometimes revered as gods, abhorred as evil spirits, killed for food because they damage crops, or butchered for sport. Primates' perceived similarity to humans places them in an anomalous position. While some human groups accept the idea that primates "straddle" the human-nonhuman boundary, for others this resemblance is a violation of the human-animal divide. In this study we use two case studies to explore how people's perceptions of primates are often influenced by these animals' apparent similarity to humans, creating expectations, founded within a "human morality" about how primates should interact with people. When animals transgress these social rules, they are measured against the same moral framework as humans. This has implications for how people view and respond to certain kinds of primate behaviors, their willingness to tolerate co-existence with primates and their likely support for primate conservation initiatives. PMID:20806339

  11. Resolution of foveal detachment in dome-shaped macula after treatment by spironolactone: report of two cases and mini-review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Dirani, Ali; Matet, Alexandre; Beydoun, Talal; Mantel, Irmela; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) was recently described in myopic patients as a convex protrusion of the macula within a posterior pole staphyloma. The pathogenesis of DSM and the development of associated serous foveal detachment (SFD) remain unclear. The obstruction of choroidal outflow and compressive changes of choroidal capillaries have been proposed as causative factors. In this paper, we report two cases of patients with chronic SFD associated with DSM treated with oral spironolactone. After treatment, there was a complete resolution of SFD in both patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of SFD in DSM by a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. PMID:24899797

  12. 76 FR 38013 - Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road Bridge North Sioux City to the Confluence of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... area is a safety zone: All waters of the Big Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge, North Sioux... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road Bridge North Sioux City to the Confluence of the Missouri River, SD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS....

  13. Voice discrimination in four primates.

    PubMed

    Candiotti, Agnès; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-10-01

    One accepted function of vocalisations is to convey information about the signaller, such as its age-sex class, motivation, or relationship with the recipient. Yet, in natural habitats individuals not only interact with conspecifics but also with members of other species. This is well documented for African forest monkeys, which form semi-permanent mixed-species groups that can persist for decades. Although members of such groups interact with each other on a daily basis, both physically and vocally, it is currently unknown whether they can discriminate familiar and unfamiliar voices of heterospecific group members. We addressed this question with playbacks on monkey species known to form polyspecific associations in the wild: red-capped mangabeys, Campbell's monkeys and Guereza colobus monkeys. We tested subjects' discrimination abilities of contact calls of familiar and unfamiliar female De Brazza monkeys. When pooling all species, subjects looked more often towards the speaker when hearing contact calls of unfamiliar than familiar callers. When testing De Brazza monkeys with their own calls, we found the same effect with the longest gaze durations after hearing unfamiliar voices. This suggests that primates can discriminate, not only between familiar and unfamiliar voices of conspecifics, but also between familiar and unfamiliar voices of heterospecifics living within a close proximity. PMID:23800631

  14. Globin gene switching in primates.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert M; Gumucio, Deborah; Goodman, Morris

    2002-11-01

    Evolutionary approaches to the identification of DNA sequences required for transcription of the genes of the beta-globin cluster are reviewed. Sequence alignments of non-coding regions from widely divergent species revealed many conserved motifs (phylogenetic footprints) that were putative transcription factor binding sites and candidate binding proteins were identified. The differential timing of the prosimian and simian gamma-globin genes was analyzed by identifying base changes in the vicinity of the phylogenetic footprints. These differential phylogenetic footprints were shown to bind different nuclear factors, and the behavior of constructs with human or galago gamma-promoters in transgenic mice indicated that DNA motifs near the gamma-globin genes are sufficient to determine the developmental stage of expression. Locus control region alignments have identified many conserved sequence differences outside of the hypersensitive sites. Globin protein and mRNA expression profiles during embryological development in a series of catarrhine (Old World monkeys and apes) and platyrrhine (New World monkeys) primates have been determined. While all catarrhines examined to date have globin expression patterns that are highly similar to the well-established human switching behavior, platyrrhines have inactivated their gamma 1 genes by a variety of mechanisms, and have an earlier gamma-beta switch. PMID:12443943

  15. Fellow Eye Changes in Patients with Nonischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Assessment of Perfused Foveal Microvascular Density and Identification of Nonperfused Capillaries

    PubMed Central

    Pinhas, Alexander; Dubow, Michael; Shah, Nishit; Cheang, Eric; Liu, Chun L.; Razeen, Moataz; Gan, Alexander; Weitz, Rishard; Sulai, Yusufu N.; Chui, Toco Y.; Dubra, Alfredo; Rosen, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Eyes fellow to nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) were examined for abnormalities, which might explain their increased risk for future occlusion, using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography. Methods Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography foveal microvascular densities were calculated. Nonperfused capillaries adjacent to the foveal avascular zone were identified. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography, ultrawide field fluorescein angiographies, and microperimetry were also performed. Results Ten fellow eyes of nine nonischemic CRVO and 1 nonischemic hemi-CRVO subjects and four affected eyes of three nonischemic CRVO and one nonischemic hemi-CRVO subjects were imaged. Ninety percent of fellow eyes and 100% of affected eyes demonstrated at least 1 nonperfused capillary compared with 31% of healthy eyes. Fellow eye microvascular density (35 ± 3.6 mm−1) was significantly higher than that of affected eyes (25 ± 5.2 mm−1) and significantly lower than that of healthy eyes (42 ± 4.2 mm−1). Compared with healthy controls, spectral domain optical coherence tomography thicknesses showed no significant difference, whereas microperimetry and 2/9 ultrawide field fluorescein angiography revealed abnormalities in fellow eyes. Conclusion Fellow eye changes detectable on adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography reflect subclinical pathology difficult to detect using conventional imaging technologies. These changes may help elucidate the pathogenesis of nonischemic CRVO and help identify eyes at increased risk of future occlusion. PMID:25932560

  16. Comparison between open and arthroscopic-assisted foveal triangular fibrocartilage complex repair for post-traumatic distal radio-ulnar joint instability.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, R; Atzei, A; Cozzolino, R; Fairplay, T; Badur, N

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the objective and subjective functional outcomes after foveal reattachment of proximal or complete ulnar-sided triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions by two surgical procedures: an open technique or an arthroscopically assisted repair. The study was done prospectively on 49 wrists affected by post-traumatic distal radio-ulnar joint instability. Twenty-four patients were treated with the open technique (Group 1) and 25 by the arthroscopically assisted technique (Group 2). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a clear foveal detachment of the triangular fibrocartilage complex in 67% of the cases. Arthroscopy showed a positive ulnar-sided detachment of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (positive hook test) in all cases. Distal radio-ulnar joint stability was obtained in all but five patients at a mean follow-up of 6 months. Both groups had improvement of all parameters with significant differences in wrist pain scores, Mayo wrist score, Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire and Patient-Rated Wrist/Hand Evaluation questionnaire scores. There were no significant post-operative differences between the two groups in the outcome parameters except for the Disability of the Arm Shoulder and Hand questionnaire score, which was significantly better in Group 2 (p < 0.001). PMID:23962870

  17. Sperm Morphology Assessment in Captive Neotropical Primates.

    PubMed

    Swanson, W F; Valle, R R; Carvalho, F M; Arakaki, P R; Rodas-Martínez, A Z; Muniz, Japc; García-Herreros, M

    2016-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate sperm morphology in four neotropical primate species to compare the sperm morphological traits and the sperm morphometric parameters as a basis for establishing normative sperm standards for each species. Data from 80 ejaculates collected from four primate species, Callithrix jacchus, Callimico goeldii, Alouatta caraya and Ateles geoffroyi, were analysed for detection of sperm morphological alterations using subjective World Health Organization (WHO-2010) standards and Sperm Deformity Index (SDI) criteria, objective computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA) and subpopulation sperm determination (SSD) methods. There were multiple differences (p < 0.01) observed among primate species in values obtained from WHO-2010, SDI, CASMA and SSD sperm analysis methods. In addition, multiple significant positive and negative correlations were observed between the sperm morphological traits (SDI, Sperm Deformity Index Head Defects, Sperm Deformity Index Midpiece Defects, Sperm Deformity Index Tail Defects, Normal Sperm, Head Defects, Midpiece Defects and Tail Defects) and the sperm morphometric parameters (SSD, Area (A), Perimeter (P), Length (L), Width (W), Ellipticity, Elongation and Rugosity) (p ≤ 0.046). In conclusion, our findings using different evaluation methods indicate that pronounced sperm morphological variation exists among these four neotropical primate species. Because of the strong relationship observed among morphological and morphometric parameters, these results suggest that application of objective analysis methods could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help to establish valid normative sperm values for neotropical primates. PMID:27260333

  18. Ancient single origin for Malagasy primates.

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, A D; Cartmill, M; Ruvolo, M; Smith, K; Vilgalys, R

    1996-01-01

    We report new evidence that bears decisively on a long-standing controversy in primate systematics. DNA sequence data for the complete cytochrome b gene, combined with an expanded morphological data set, confirm the results of a previous study and again indicate that all extant Malagasy lemurs originated from a single common ancestor. These results, as well as those from other genetic studies, call for a revision of primate classifications in which the dwarf and mouse lemurs are placed within the Afro-Asian lorisiforms. The phylogenetic results, in agreement with paleocontinental data, indicate an African origin for the common ancestor of lemurs and lorises (the Strepsirrhini). The molecular data further suggest the surprising conclusion that lemurs began evolving independently by the early Eocene at the latest. This indicates that the Malagasy primate lineage is more ancient than generally thought and places the split between the two strepsirrhine lineages well before the appearance of known Eocene fossil primates. We conclude that primate origins were marked by rapid speciation and diversification sometime before the late Paleocene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8643538

  19. Neocortex size predicts deception rate in primates.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Richard W.; Corp, Nadia

    2004-01-01

    Human brain organization is built upon a more ancient adaptation, the large brain of simian primates: on average, monkeys and apes have brains twice as large as expected for mammals of their size, principally as a result of neocortical enlargement. Testing the adaptive benefit of this evolutionary specialization depends on finding an association between brain size and function in primates. However, most cognitive capacities have been assessed in only a restricted range of species under laboratory conditions. Deception of conspecifics in social circumstances is an exception, because a corpus of field data is available that encompasses all major lines of the primate radiation. We show that the use of deception within the primates is well predicted by the neocortical volume, when observer effort is controlled for; by contrast, neither the size of the rest of the brain nor the group size exert significant effects. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neocortical expansion has been driven by social challenges among the primates. Complex social manipulations such as deception are thought to be based upon rapid learning and extensive social knowledge; thus, learning in social contexts may be constrained by neocortical size. PMID:15306289

  20. Operant Nociception in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Brian D.; Bergman, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The effective management of pain is a longstanding public health concern. Morphine-like opioids have long been front-line analgesics, but produce undesirable side effects that can limit their application. Slow progress in the introduction of novel improved medications for pain management over the last 5 decades has prompted a call for innovative translational research, including new preclinical assays. Most current in vivo procedures (e.g., tail flick, hot plate, warm water tail withdrawal) assay the effects of nociceptive stimuli on simple spinal reflexes or unconditioned behavioral reactions. However, clinical treatment goals may include the restoration of previous behavioral activities, which can be limited by medication-related side-effects that are not measured in such procedures. The present studies describe an apparatus and procedure to study the disruptive effects of nociceptive stimuli on voluntary behavior in nonhuman primates, and the ability of drugs to restore such behavior through their analgesic actions. Squirrel monkeys were trained to pull a cylindrical thermode for access to a highly palatable food. Next, sessions were conducted in which the temperature of the thermode was increased stepwise until responding stopped, permitting the determination of stable nociceptive thresholds. Tests revealed that several opioid analgesics, but not d-amphetamine or Δ9-THC, produced dose-related increases in threshold that were antagonist-sensitive and efficacy-dependent, consistent with their effects using traditional measures of antinociception. Unlike traditional reflex-based measures, however, the results also permitted the concurrent evaluation of response disruption, providing an index with which to characterize the behavioral selectivity of antinociceptive drugs. PMID:24968803

  1. The social nature of primate cognition

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Louise; Henzi, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that the enlarged brain size of the primates was selected for by social, rather than purely ecological, factors has been strongly influential in studies of primate cognition and behaviour over the past two decades. However, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis, also known as the social brain hypothesis, tends to emphasize certain traits and behaviours, like exploitation and deception, at the expense of others, such as tolerance and behavioural coordination, and therefore presents only one view of how social life may shape cognition. This review outlines work from other relevant disciplines, including evolutionary economics, cognitive science and neurophysiology, to illustrate how these can be used to build a more general theoretical framework, incorporating notions of embodied and distributed cognition, in which to situate questions concerning the evolution of primate social cognition. PMID:16191591

  2. Genetic correlates of the evolving primate brain

    PubMed Central

    Vallender, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous shifts in the size, structure, and function of the brain during primate evolution are ultimately caused by changes at the genetic level. Understanding what these changes are and how they effect the phenotypic changes observed lies at the heart of understanding evolutionary change. This chapter focuses on understanding the genetic basis of primate brain evolution, considering the substrates and mechanisms through which genetic change occurs. It also discusses the implications that our current understandings and tools have for what we have already discovered and where our studies will head in the future. While genetic and genomic studies have identified many regions undergoing positive selection during primate evolution, the findings are certainly not exhaustive and functional relevance remains to be confirmed. Nevertheless, a strong foundation has been built upon which future studies will emerge. PMID:22230621

  3. The ecology of primate material culture.

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2014-11-01

    Tool use in extant primates may inform our understanding of the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The 'method of exclusion' has, arguably, confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However, this method neglects ecological influences on culture, which, ironically, may be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the current evidence for the role of ecology in shaping material culture in three habitual tool-using non-human primates: chimpanzees, orangutans and capuchin monkeys. We show that environmental opportunity, rather than necessity, is the main driver. We argue that a better understanding of primate technology requires explicit investigation of the role of ecological conditions. We propose a model in which three sets of factors, namely environment, sociality and cognition, influence invention, transmission and retention of material culture. PMID:25392310

  4. Convergent evolution in primates and an insectivore

    SciTech Connect

    Boffelli, Dario; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin, Edward M.

    2003-04-16

    The cardiovascular risk factor apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) has a puzzling distribution among mammals, its presence being limited to a subset of primates and a member of the insectivore lineage, the hedgehog. To explore the evolutionary history of apo(a), we performed extensive genomic sequence comparisons of multiple species with and without an apo(a) gene product, such as human, baboon, hedgehog, lemurand mouse. This analysis indicated that apo(a) arose independently in a subset of primates, including baboon and human, and an insectivore, the hedgehog, and was not simply lost by species lacking it. The similar structural domains shared by the hedgehog and primate apo(a) indicate that they were formed by a unique molecular mechanism involving the convergent evolution of paralogous genes in these distantspecies.

  5. Ontogeny of the nasopalatine duct in primates.

    PubMed

    Shimp, Kristin L; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P; Bonar, Christopher J; Smith, Timothy D

    2003-09-01

    Ecological explanations have been put forward to account for the precocious or delayed development of patency in ducts leading to the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in certain mammals. Perinatal function may be related, in part, to the patency or fusion of the vomeronasal and nasopalatine (NPD) ducts. However, few studies have focused on NPD development in primates, which generally have a prolonged period of dependence during infancy. In this study we examined 24 prenatal primates and 13 neonatal primates, and a comparative sample of fetal mice and insectivores. In embryonic and early fetal Microcebus murinus, the NPD was completely fused, whereas in fetuses of later stages the duct was partially fused or completely patent. M. myoxinus of all stages demonstrated some degree of NPD fusion. In all other prenatal primates, the NPD was fused to some extent. Four prenatal insectivores (Tenrec ecaudatus) showed some degree of NPD fusion. In Mus musculus at 19 days gestation, the NPD was patent, although the anatomically separate VNO duct was fused. T. ecaudatus and most of the neonatal primates revealed complete NPD patency. An exception was Saguinus geoffroyi, which exhibited fusion of the NPD near the VNO opening. These observations may relate to differences in perinatal VNO function. The differences noted in our study suggest that M. murinus and M. myoxinus may differ in perinatal VNO functionality and perhaps in related behavior. Observations of neonatal primates suggest that NPD patency may be relatively common at birth and could serve other purposes in addition to being an access route for VNO stimuli. PMID:12923897

  6. Mouse-Based Research on Quiescent Primate Malaria Parasites.

    PubMed

    Markus, Miles B

    2016-04-01

    Mice engrafted with primate tissue make two important plasmodial dormancy-related questions researchable. The first is concerned with whether latent merozoites in the lymphatic system can give rise to relapse-like, recurrent malaria in primates. The second is that genetic evidence of hypnozoite activation as the source of relapsing primate malaria can be looked for. PMID:26961183

  7. Flow dynamics at a river confluence on Mississippi River: field measurement and large eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Trung; Khosronejad, Ali; Bartelt, Nicole; Woldeamlak, Solomon; Peterson, Bonnie; Dewall, Petronella; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota Team; Minnesota Department of Transportation Team

    2015-11-01

    We study the dynamics of a river confluence on Mississippi River branch in the city of Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States. Field measurements by Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler using on-board GPS tracking were carried out for five campaigns in the summer of 2014 and 2015 to collect both river bed elevation data and flow fields. Large Eddy Simulation is carried out to simulate the flow field with the total of 100 million grid points for the domain length of 3.2 km. The simulation results agree well with field measurements at measured cross-sections. The results show the existence of wake mode on the mixing interface of two branches near the upstream junction corner. The mutual interaction between the shear layers emanating from the river banks leading to the formation of large scale energetic structures that leads to ``switching'' side of the flow coherent structures. Our result here is a feasibility study for the use of eddy-resolving simulations in predicting complex flow dynamics in medium-size natural rivers. This work is funded by Minnesota Dept. Transportation and Minnesota Institute of Supercomputing.

  8. Confluences of the Painlevé equations, Cherednik algebras and q-Askey scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzocco, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we produce seven new algebras as confluences of the Cherednik algebra of type \\check {{{{C}1}}} {{C}1} and we characterise their spherical-sub-algebras. The limit of the spherical sub-algebra of the Cherednik algebra of type \\check {{{{C}1}}} {{C}1} is the monodromy manifold of the Painlevé VI equation (Oblomkov 2004 Int. Math. Res. Not. 2004 877–912). Here we prove that by considering the limits of the spherical sub-algebras of our new confluent algebras, one obtains the monodromy manifolds of all other Painlevé differential equations. Moreover, we introduce confluent versions of the Zhedanov algebra and prove that each of them (quotiented by their Casimir) is isomorphic to the corresponding spherical sub-algebra of our new confluent Cherednik algebras. We show that in the basic representation our confluent Zhedanov algebras act as symmetries of certain elements of the q-Askey scheme, thus setting a stepping stone towards the solution of the open problem of finding the corresponding quantum algebra for each element of the q-Askey scheme. These results establish a new link between the theory of the Painlevé equations and the theory of the q-Askey scheme making a step towards the construction of a representation theoretic approach for the Painlevé theory.

  9. Why do mental health courts work? A confluence of treatment, support & adroit judicial supervision.

    PubMed

    Edgely, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The article contributes to the understanding of 'what works' in mental health courts (MHCs). There are now almost 400 MHCs in the US and more worldwide. A substantial body of evidence demonstrates that MHCs can succeed in reducing recidivism among offenders who suffer mental disorders. This article argues that MHCs succeed when they have achieved the right confluence of essential elements, including providing evidence-based treatment and psychosocial supports and using adroit judge-craft. After a brief review of some of the studies demonstrating MHC success, this article discusses the research into the necessary foundations of rehabilitation programs. It is argued that, although treatment and psychosocial services should be supplied within an evidence-based framework, neither of the two leading conceptual models - Risk-Needs-Responsivity and the Good Lives Model - are empirically proven with offenders who suffer from mental disorders. Despite the absence of proof, the Good Lives Model is argued to be appropriate for MHCs because it is normatively consonant with therapeutic jurisprudence. The MHC judge is another essential element. The judicial role is assayed to elucidate how it functions to promote the rehabilitation of offenders with mental disorders. It is argued that the role of the MHC judge during supervisory status hearings is to establish a therapeutic alliance and practice motivational psychology with each MHC participant. PMID:24656743

  10. Southern elephant seal trajectories, fronts and eddies in the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagna, Claudio; Piola, Alberto R.; Rosa Marin, Maria; Lewis, Mirtha; Fernández, Teresita

    2006-12-01

    This study describes the association between transient, mesoscale hydrographic features along the axis of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence, in the SW Atlantic, and the foraging behavior of 2-3-year-old (focal) juvenile southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, from Península Valdés, Argentina. Departing from the dominant pattern of foraging on predictable bathymetric fronts on the Patagonian shelf and slope, three females out of 12 satellite-tracked juveniles remained at the edge of young warm-core eddies and near the outer core of cold-core eddies, coinciding with the most productive areas of these temperature fronts. Seal trajectories along high-temperature gradients were always consistent with the speed and direction of surface currents inferred from the temperature distribution and confirmed by surface drifters. Movements of foraging seals were compared with those of surface drifters, coinciding in time and space and yielding independent and consistent data on regional water circulation parameters. The diving pattern recorded for one focal seal yielded shallower dives and a loose diel pattern in the eddy, and a marked diurnal cycle compatible with foraging on vertically migrating prey in the cold waters of the Malvinas Current. Pre-reproductive females that use the mesoscale fronts of the Argentine Basin as an alternative foraging area would benefit from lower competition with more experienced seals and with other top predators that reproduce along the coast of Patagonia.

  11. LLC-PK sub 1 cells express Na sup + -lactate cotransport in apical membranes after confluency

    SciTech Connect

    Poustis-Delpont, C.; Mengual, R.; Sudaka, P. )

    1988-12-01

    L-({sup 3}H)lactate uptake was characterized in LLC-PK{sub 1} cell apical membrane vesicles obtained by intensive culture on microcarrier beads. The apical membrane preparation technique involved MgCl{sub 2} precipitation. Na{sup +}-dependent L-({sup 3}H)lactate uptake was present only after confluency; its appearance paralleled the subcellular localization of aminopeptidase in apical membranes. L-({sup 3}H)lactate uptake was Na{sup +}-dependent and electrogenic. Only the Na{sup +}-dependent component of L({sup 3}H)lactate uptake was saturable with one family of independent carriers. The apparent affinity constant was 1.1 {plus minus} 0.25 mM and the apparent maximal velocity was 29 {plus minus} 3 nmol{center dot}mg{sup {minus}1}{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}. The Na{sup +}-lactate cotransport stoichiometry was 2 Na{sup +} for 1 lactate. The specificity of the L-lactate transport system was compatible with that of the monocarboxylic acid pathway described previously brush-border membranes of kidney cortex and discrete from the tricarboxylic acid carrier, the D-glucose transporter, and the general pathway for anions. The LLC-PK{sub 1} cell line appears to be a useful tool for study of the regulation of L-lactate uptake and biosynthesis of the renal monocarboxylic acid transporter.

  12. Fronts and thermohaline structure of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severov, Dmitri Nikolaevich; Pshennikov, Valentina; Remeslo, Alexsandr Vasilievich

    2012-05-01

    Fronts and thermohaline structure of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence System (BMCS) are studied from climatic data, "Marathon Exp. Leg.8, 1984" data, and Sea surface temperature (SST) data base "ds277-Reynolds" (1981-2000). The South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is divided in two main types: tropical (TW) and subtropical water (ST). Water masses, Fronts, Inter-Frontal and Frontal Zones are analysed and classified: (a) the water masses: Tropical Low-Salinity Water, Tropical Surface Water, Tropical Tropospheric Water, Subtropical Low-Salinity Water, Subtropical Surface Water, Subtropical Tropospheric Water. T,S characteristics of intermediate, deep and bottom water defined by different authors are confirmed and completed; (b) the Inter-Frontal Zones: Tropical/Brazil Current Zone, Subtropical Zone and Subantarctic Zone; (c) the Frontal Zones: Subtropical, Subantarctic and Polar, and (d) the Fronts: Subtropical Front of the Brazil Current, Principal Subtropical Front, North Subtropical Front, Subtropical Surface Front, South Subtropical Front, Subantarctic Surface Front, Subantarctic Front and Polar Front. Several stable T-S relationships are found below the friction layer and at the Fronts. The maximum gradient of the oceanographic characteristics occurs at the Brazil Current Front, which can be any of the subtropical Fronts, depending on season. Minimum mean depth of the pycnocline coincides with the Fronts of the BMCS, indicating the paths of low-salinity shelf waters into the open ocean. In the work it is shown how to recover the horizontal and vertical thermohaline structure of waters from satellite data RSMAS SST.

  13. The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Spoor, Fred; Garland, Theodore; Krovitz, Gail; Ryan, Timothy M.; Silcox, Mary T.; Walker, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The semicircular canal system of vertebrates helps coordinate body movements, including stabilization of gaze during locomotion. Quantitative phylogenetically informed analysis of the radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals in 91 extant and recently extinct primate species and 119 other mammalian taxa provide support for the hypothesis that canal size varies in relation to the jerkiness of head motion during locomotion. Primate and other mammalian species studied here that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have significantly larger canals relative to body mass than those that move more cautiously. PMID:17576932

  14. Predictive value of primate models for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Haigwood, Nancy L

    2004-01-01

    A number of obstacles remain in the search for an animal model for HIV infection and pathogenesis that can serve to predict efficacy in humans. HIV-1 fails to replicate and cause disease except in humans or chimpanzees, thereby limiting our ability to evaluate compounds or vaccines prior to human testing. Despite this limitation, nonhuman primate lentivirus models have been established that recapitulate the modes of infection, disease course, and antiviral immunity that is seen in HIV infection of humans. These models have been utilized to understand key aspects of disease and to evaluate concepts in therapies and vaccine development. By necessity, animal models can only be validated after successful trials in humans and the determination of correlates of protection. Because the only vaccine product tested in phase III trials in humans failed to achieve the desired protective threshold, we are as yet unable to validate any of the currently used nonhuman primate models for vaccine research. In the absence of a validated model, many experts in the field have concluded that prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic concepts should bypass primate models, and rely solely upon the systematic testing of each individual and combined vaccine element in human phase I or I/II trials to determine their relative merits. Indeed, a large effort is underway to expand efforts to test all products as part of an international effort termed "The HIV Vaccine Enterprise", with major contributions from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. This Herculean task could potentially be reduced if it were possible to utilize even partially validated nonhuman primate models as part of the screening efforts. The purpose of this article is to review the data from nonhuman primate models that have contributed to our understanding of lentivirus infection and pathogenesis, and to critically evaluate how well these models have predicted outcomes in humans. Key features of the models developed to date are

  15. Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

  16. Disproportional Representation of Primates in the Ecological Literature

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Eckhard W.; Zinner, Dietmar; Ganzhorn, Jörg U.

    2013-01-01

    We address the question why papers dealing with the ecology of primates are so sparsely represented in the general ecological literature. A literature analyses based on entries in Web of Science and PrimateLit reveals that despite a large number of papers published on primates in general and on the ecology of primates, only a very small fraction of these papers is published in high-ranking international ecological journals. We discuss a number of potential reasons for the disproportion and highlight the problems associated with experimental research on wild primates and constraints on sample size as major issues. PMID:24339882

  17. Vocal turn-taking in a non-human primate is learned during ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Cecilia P.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Miller, Cory T.

    2015-01-01

    Conversational turn-taking is an integral part of language development, as it reflects a confluence of social factors that mitigate communication. Humans coordinate the timing of speech based on the behaviour of another speaker, a behaviour that is learned during infancy. While adults in several primate species engage in vocal turn-taking, the degree to which similar learning processes underlie its development in these non-human species or are unique to language is not clear. We recorded the natural vocal interactions of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) occurring with both their sibling twins and parents over the first year of life and observed at least two parallels with language development. First, marmoset turn-taking is a learned vocal behaviour. Second, marmoset parents potentially played a direct role in guiding the development of turn-taking by providing feedback to their offspring when errors occurred during vocal interactions similarly to what has been observed in humans. Though species-differences are also evident, these findings suggest that similar learning mechanisms may be implemented in the ontogeny of vocal turn-taking across our Order, a finding that has important implications for our understanding of language evolution. PMID:25904663

  18. Remarkable ancient divergences amongst neglected lorisiform primates

    PubMed Central

    Nekaris, K. Anne‐Isola; Perkin, Andrew; Bearder, Simon K.; Pimley, Elizabeth R.; Schulze, Helga; Streicher, Ulrike; Nadler, Tilo; Kitchener, Andrew; Zischler, Hans; Zinner, Dietmar; Roos, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Lorisiform primates (Primates: Strepsirrhini: Lorisiformes) represent almost 10% of the living primate species and are widely distributed in sub‐Saharan Africa and South/South‐East Asia; however, their taxonomy, evolutionary history, and biogeography are still poorly understood. In this study we report the largest molecular phylogeny in terms of the number of represented taxa. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for 86 lorisiform specimens, including ∼80% of all the species currently recognized. Our results support the monophyly of the Galagidae, but a common ancestry of the Lorisinae and Perodicticinae (family Lorisidae) was not recovered. These three lineages have early origins, with the Galagidae and the Lorisinae diverging in the Oligocene at about 30 Mya and the Perodicticinae emerging in the early Miocene. Our mitochondrial phylogeny agrees with recent studies based on nuclear data, and supports Euoticus as the oldest galagid lineage and the polyphyletic status of Galagoides. Moreover, we have elucidated phylogenetic relationships for several species never included before in a molecular phylogeny. The results obtained in this study suggest that lorisiform diversity remains substantially underestimated and that previously unnoticed cryptic diversity might be present within many lineages, thus urgently requiring a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this primate group. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London PMID:26900177

  19. Quantification of neocortical ratios in stem primates.

    PubMed

    Long, Adam; Bloch, Jonathan I; Silcox, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Extant euprimates (=crown primates) have a characteristically expanded neocortical region of the brain relative to that of other mammals, but the timing of that expansion in their evolutionary history is poorly resolved. Examination of anatomical landmarks on fossil endocasts of Eocene euprimates suggests that significant neocortical expansion relative to contemporaneous mammals was already underway. Here, we provide quantitative estimates of neocorticalization in stem primates (plesiadapiforms) relevant to the question of whether relative neocortical expansion was uniquely characteristic of the crown primate radiation. Ratios of neocortex to endocast surface areas were calculated for plesiadapiforms using measurements from virtual endocasts of the paromomyid Ignacius graybullianus (early Eocene, Wyoming) and the microsyopid Microsyops annectens (middle Eocene, Wyoming). These data are similar to a published estimate for the plesiadapid, Plesiadapis tricuspidens, but contrast with those calculated for early Tertiary euprimates in being within the 95% confidence intervals for archaic mammals generally. Interpretation of these values is complicated by the paucity of sampled endocasts for older stem primates and euarchontogliran outgroups, as well as by a combination of effects related to temporal trends, allometry, and taxon-unique specializations. Regardless, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that a shift in brain organization occurred in the first euprimates, likely in association with elaborations to the visual system. PMID:25693873

  20. Chewing variation in lepidosaurs and primates.

    PubMed

    Ross, C F; Baden, A L; Georgi, J; Herrel, A; Metzger, K A; Reed, D A; Schaerlaeken, V; Wolff, M S

    2010-02-15

    Mammals chew more rhythmically than lepidosaurs. The research presented here evaluated possible reasons for this difference in relation to differences between lepidosaurs and mammals in sensorimotor systems. Variance in the absolute and relative durations of the phases of the gape cycle was calculated from kinematic data from four species of primates and eight species of lepidosaurs. The primates exhibit less variance in the duration of the gape cycle than in the durations of the four phases making up the gape cycle. This suggests that increases in the durations of some gape cycle phases are accompanied by decreases in others. Similar effects are much less pronounced in the lepidosaurs. In addition, the primates show isometric changes in gape cycle phase durations, i.e. the relative durations of the phases of the gape cycle change little with increasing cycle time. In contrast, in the lepidosaurs variance in total gape cycle duration is associated with increases in the proportion of the cycle made up by the slow open phase. We hypothesize that in mammals the central nervous system includes a representation of the optimal chew cycle duration maintained using afferent feedback about the ongoing state of the chew cycle. The differences between lepidosaurs and primates do not lie in the nature of the sensory information collected and its feedback to the feeding system, but rather the processing of that information by the CNS and its use feed-forward for modulating jaw movements and gape cycle phase durations during chewing. PMID:20118308

  1. Processing Of Visual Information In Primate Brains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H.; Van Essen, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews and analyzes information-processing strategies and pathways in primate retina and visual cortex. Of interest both in biological fields and in such related computational fields as artificial neural networks. Focuses on data from macaque, which has superb visual system similar to that of humans. Authors stress concept of "good engineering" in understanding visual system.

  2. Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Meade-White, Kimberly D.; Phillips, Katie; Striebel, James; Race, Richard; Chesebro, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease is a prion disease of cervids. Assessment of its zoonotic potential is critical. To evaluate primate susceptibility, we tested monkeys from 2 genera. We found that 100% of intracerebrally inoculated and 92% of orally inoculated squirrel monkeys were susceptible, but cynomolgus macaques were not, suggesting possible low risk for humans. PMID:24751215

  3. Homeostasis in primates in hyperacceleration fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Various homeostatic responses of a nonhuman primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) to acute changes in the acceleration environment were examined. When these animals were exposed to a hyperdynamic field the body temperature was consistently depressed and the animals showed behavioral indications of increased drowsiness. Further, time of day played a significant role in influencing these responses.

  4. Primate Thalamus: More Than Meets an Eye.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Damian J; Fitzpatrick, David; Kerr, Jason N D

    2016-01-25

    A recent study shows conclusively that the koniocellular layers of the marmoset dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus have binocularly responsive neurons. This adds a new twist to the traditional view about binocular processing in the primate visual system and raises questions about the role of dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in early binocular processing. PMID:26811887

  5. Alu insertion loci and platyrrhine primate phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ray, David A; Xing, Jinchuan; Hedges, Dale J; Hall, Michael A; Laborde, Meredith E; Anders, Bridget A; White, Brittany R; Stoilova, Nadica; Fowlkes, Justin D; Landry, Kate E; Chemnick, Leona G; Ryder, Oliver A; Batzer, Mark A

    2005-04-01

    Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) make very useful phylogenetic markers because the integration of a particular element at a location in the genome is irreversible and of known polarity. These attributes make analysis of SINEs as phylogenetic characters an essentially homoplasy-free affair. Alu elements are primate-specific SINEs that make up a large portion of the human genome and are also widespread in other primates. Using a combination wet-bench and computational approach we recovered 190 Alu insertions, 183 of which are specific to the genomes of nine New World primates. We used these loci to investigate branching order and have produced a cladogram that supports a sister relationship between Atelidae (spider, woolly, and howler monkeys) and Cebidae (marmosets, tamarins, and owl monkeys) and then the joining of this two family clade to Pitheciidae (titi and saki monkeys). The data support these relationships with a homoplasy index of 0.00. In this study, we report one of the largest applications of SINE elements to phylogenetic analysis to date, and the results provide a robust molecular phylogeny for platyrrhine primates. PMID:15737586

  6. Olfactory receptor patterning in a higher primate.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Lisa F; Saraiva, Luis R; Kuang, Donghui; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Buck, Linda B

    2014-09-10

    The mammalian olfactory system detects a plethora of environmental chemicals that are perceived as odors or stimulate instinctive behaviors. Studies using odorant receptor (OR) genes have provided insight into the molecular and organizational strategies underlying olfaction in mice. One important unanswered question, however, is whether these strategies are conserved in primates. To explore this question, we examined the macaque, a higher primate phylogenetically close to humans. Here we report that the organization of sensory inputs in the macaque nose resembles that in mouse in some respects, but not others. As in mouse, neurons with different ORs are interspersed in the macaque nose, and there are spatial zones that differ in their complement of ORs and extend axons to different domains in the olfactory bulb of the brain. However, whereas the mouse has multiple discrete band-like zones, the macaque appears to have only two broad zones. It is unclear whether the organization of OR inputs in a rodent/primate common ancestor degenerated in primates or, alternatively became more sophisticated in rodents. The mouse nose has an additional small family of chemosensory receptors, called trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), which may detect social cues. Here we find that TAARs are also expressed in the macaque nose, suggesting that TAARs may also play a role in human olfactory perception. We further find that one human TAAR responds to rotten fish, suggesting a possible role as a sentinel to discourage ingestion of food harboring pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25209267

  7. Nonhuman primate models in translational regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Daadi, Marcel M; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell-based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena. PMID:25457970

  8. Nonhuman Primate Models in Translational Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Daadi, Marcel M.; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell–based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena. PMID:25457970

  9. The Neuroendocrinology of Primate Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or postpartum estrogens and progestogens on maternal behavior are less clear. Prolactin is thought to play a role in promoting paternal and alloparental care in primates, but little is known about the relationship between this hormone and maternal behavior. High circulating cortisol levels appear to enhance arousal and responsiveness to infant stimuli in young, relatively inexperienced female primates, but interfere with the expression of maternal behavior in older and more experienced mothers. Among neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, preliminary evidence indicates that oxytocin and endogenous opioids affect maternal attachment to infants, including maintenance of contact, grooming, and responses to separation. Brain serotonin affects anxiety and impulsivity, which in turn may affect maternal behaviors such as infant retrieval or rejection of infants’ attempts to make contact with the mother. Although our understanding of the neuroendocrine correlates of primate maternal behavior has grown substantially in the last two decades, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying these effects, e.g., the extent to which these mechanisms may involve changes in perception, emotion, or cognition. PMID:20888383

  10. Olfactory Receptor Patterning in a Higher Primate

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Lisa F.; Saraiva, Luis R.; Kuang, Donghui; Yoon, Kyoung-hye

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system detects a plethora of environmental chemicals that are perceived as odors or stimulate instinctive behaviors. Studies using odorant receptor (OR) genes have provided insight into the molecular and organizational strategies underlying olfaction in mice. One important unanswered question, however, is whether these strategies are conserved in primates. To explore this question, we examined the macaque, a higher primate phylogenetically close to humans. Here we report that the organization of sensory inputs in the macaque nose resembles that in mouse in some respects, but not others. As in mouse, neurons with different ORs are interspersed in the macaque nose, and there are spatial zones that differ in their complement of ORs and extend axons to different domains in the olfactory bulb of the brain. However, whereas the mouse has multiple discrete band-like zones, the macaque appears to have only two broad zones. It is unclear whether the organization of OR inputs in a rodent/primate common ancestor degenerated in primates or, alternatively became more sophisticated in rodents. The mouse nose has an additional small family of chemosensory receptors, called trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), which may detect social cues. Here we find that TAARs are also expressed in the macaque nose, suggesting that TAARs may also play a role in human olfactory perception. We further find that one human TAAR responds to rotten fish, suggesting a possible role as a sentinel to discourage ingestion of food harboring pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25209267

  11. Description of interview data regarding Pittsburgh and confluence toxic chemical accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Shumpert, B.L.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1990-11-01

    Evacuation is the protective action most often recommended in response to chemical releases in the United States. The appropriateness of a decision to evacuate depends on whether the affected areas can be cleared of residents before it is contaminated by the chemical release. In determining whether an evacuation can be completed in time, emergency officials must consider both technical and behavioral aspects. The technical components can be readily conceived and quantified. In contrast, the behavioral components are much more abstract and more difficult to estimate. This report summarizes the univariate analysis of responses to surveys conducted in two communities where evacuation was recommended following train derailments involving hazardous chemicals. The surveys were designed to identify the actions taken by residents upon receiving the emergency warning; determine when people received the warning, decided to take action, and implemented the action; and ascertain factors that might explain the nature and timing of their actions. The surveys were conducted in the Bloomfield section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and in the town of Confluence, Pennsylvania. The study confirms that compliance with an emergency warning to evacuate varies and that potentially dangerous delays can be expected. Significant differences were noted, however, in the rate and speed of compliance in the two communities. The surveys provide information on several factors that may be useful in determining the reasons for differences in the responses from the two communities as well as differences among individual respondents. Such factors include the time of day when the accident occurred, where the respondent was at the time, whether the family was together, previous disaster experience, pet ownership, the content of the warning message, and demographic characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. [From influence to confluence : positioning the history of pre-modern Korean medicine in East Asia].

    PubMed

    Suh, Soyoung

    2010-12-31

    This article surveys studies focusing on pre-modern Korean medicine, which are both written in English and analyzed primary sources up to 1876. Overall, the history of pre-modern Korean medicine is an unknown filed in Anglophone academia. Yung Sik Kim's, James Palais's, and Carter Ecart's problematization of the nationalist framework of Korean scholarship partially explains the marginality of the field. Addressing these criticisms, this review argues that pre-modern Korean medicine's uneasy task lies in both elaborating Korea's own experience of medicine, while simultaneously avoiding making the "Korean" category itself essential. Korean narratives of premodern medicine need to go beyond the mere territorilalization of Korean medicine against its Chinese, Japanese, or Western counterparts, thereby to tackle the field's own boundary of research objects. The existing scholarship in English responds to this challenge by primarily examining the way in which Korea has shared textual tradition with China. Sirhak scholars' innovation in medicine, visual representation of Tongŭi bogam, Korean management of epidemics in the eleventh century, and Korean indexing of local botanicals, engages not only native achievements, but also the process of modifying medicine across geographical and political boundaries. More to the point, the emerging native narratives, although written in Korean, are implicitly resonant with those currently present in Anglophone academia. Taking "tension," "intertextuality," and "local traits" as a lens, this article assesses a series of current research in Korea. Aiming to go beyond appeals for a "distinctively" Korean experience of medicine, the future study of Korean pre-modern medicine will further elucidate confluences of different flows, such as "Chinese and Korean," "universal and local," "center and periphery," and "native and foreign," which will eventually articulate a range of Korean techniques of creating a bricolage in medicine. PMID

  13. Taxonomy and conservation of Vietnam's primates: a review.

    PubMed

    Blair, Mary E; Sterling, Eleanor J; Hurley, Martha M

    2011-11-01

    Vietnam has the highest number of primate taxa overall (24-27) and the highest number of globally threatened primate taxa (minimum 20) in Mainland Southeast Asia. Conservation management of these species depends in part on resolving taxonomic uncertainties, which remain numerous among the Asian primates. Recent research on genetic, morphological, and acoustic diversity in Vietnam's primates has clarified some of these uncertainties, although a number of significant classification issues still remain. Herein, we summarize and compare the major current taxonomic classifications of Vietnam's primates, discuss recent advances in the context of these taxonomies, and suggest key areas for additional research to best inform conservation efforts in a region crucial to global primate diversity. Among the most important next steps for the conservation of Vietnam's primates is a new consensus list of Asian primates that resolves current differences between major taxonomies, incorporates recent research advances, and recognizes units of diversity at scales below the species-level, whether termed populations, morphs, or subspecies. Priority should be placed on recognizing distinct populations, regardless of the species concept in use, in order to foster the evolutionary processes necessary for primate populations to cope with inevitable environmental changes. The long-term conservation of Vietnam's primates depends not only on an accepted and accurate taxonomy but also on funding for on-the-ground conservation activities, including training, and the continued dedication and leadership of Vietnamese researchers and managers. PMID:21948330

  14. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, David H; Nicol, Lindsey E; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. Late gestational T exposure, while inducing adult ovarian hyperandrogenism and menstrual abnormalities, has less dysfunctional metabolic accompaniment. Fetal exposures to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest androgenic and estrogenic aspects of fetal programming. Neonatal exposure to T produces no PCOS-like outcome, while continuous T treatment of juvenile females causes precocious weight gain and early menarche (high T), or high LH and weight gain (moderate T). Acute T exposure of adult females generates polyfollicular ovaries, while chronic T exposure induces subtle menstrual irregularities without metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23370180

  15. Effective primate conservation education: gaps and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Susan K

    2010-05-01

    Conservation education goals generally include influencing people's conservation awareness, attitudes, and behaviors. Effective programs can help foster sustainable behavior, improve public support for conservation, reduce vandalism and poaching in protected areas, improve compliance with conservation regulations, increase recreation carrying capacities, and influence policies and decisions that affect the environment. Primate conservation problems cut across many disciplines, and primate conservation education must likewise address cross-disciplinary issues. Conservation educators must incorporate both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills to develop effective programs, and the skill set must stretch beyond pedagogy. Expertise needed comes from the areas of planning, collaboration, psychology, entertainment, and evaluation. Integration of these elements can lead to greater program success. PMID:20041471

  16. Nonhuman primate dermatology: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Joseph A.; Didier, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In general, veterinary dermatologists do not have extensive clinical experience of nonhuman primate (NHP) dermatoses. The bulk of the published literature does not provide an organized evidence-based approach to the NHP dermatologic case. The veterinary dermatologist is left to extract information from both human and veterinary dermatology, an approach that can be problematic as it forces the clinician to make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions based on two very disparate bodies of literature. A more cohesive approach to NHP dermatology – without relying on assumptions that NHP pathology most commonly behaves similarly to other veterinary and human disease – is required. This review of the dermatology of NHP species includes discussions of primary dermatoses, as well as diseases where dermatologic signs represent a significant secondary component, provides a first step towards encouraging the veterinary community to study and report the dermatologic diseases of nonhuman primates. PMID:19490576

  17. The neurobiology of primate vocal communication

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Asif A.; Eliades, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations of non-human primate communication revealed vocal behaviors far more complex than previously appreciated. Understanding the neural basis of these communicative behaviors is important as it has the potential to reveal the basic underpinnings of the still more complex human speech. The latest work revealed vocalization-sensitive regions both within and beyond the traditional boundaries of the central auditory system. The importance and mechanisms of multi-sensory face-voice integration in vocal communication are also increasingly apparent. Finally, studies on the mechanisms of vocal production demonstrated auditory-motor interactions that may allow for self-monitoring and vocal control. We review the current work in these areas of primate communication research. PMID:25062473

  18. [Ecotourism disturbances to non-human primates].

    PubMed

    Fan, Peng-Lai; Xiang, Zuo-Fu

    2013-02-01

    In tandem with economic growth and rising living conditions, ecotourism has increasingly gained popularity among the Chinese public. Non-human primates, as charismatic animals and the closest relatives of human beings, have shown a strong affinity in attracting the general public and raising money, and for that reason a variety of monkey parks, valleys, and islands are becoming increasingly popular in China. Though successful in raising a substantial sum of money for the managing agency of a nature reserve, there may be negative impacts on monkey groups used in ecotourism. Here, to establish effective guards for non-human primates involved in ecotourism, we present a review on tourism disturbance and summarize the negative impacts on behavioral patterns, reproduction, and health condition of animals. PMID:23389980

  19. Classification and automatic transcription of primate calls.

    PubMed

    Versteegh, Maarten; Kuhn, Jeremy; Synnaeve, Gabriel; Ravaux, Lucie; Chemla, Emmanuel; Cäsar, Cristiane; Fuller, James; Murphy, Derek; Schel, Anne; Dunbar, Ewan

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports on an automated and openly available tool for automatic acoustic analysis and transcription of primate calls, which takes raw field recordings and outputs call labels time-aligned with the audio. The system's output predicts a majority of the start times of calls accurately within 200 milliseconds. The tools do not require any manual acoustic analysis or selection of spectral features by the researcher. PMID:27475207

  20. [Experimental whooping cough of nonhuman primate].

    PubMed

    Kubrava, D T; Medkova, A Iu; Siniashina, L N; Shevtsova, Z V; Matua, A Z; Kondzharia, I G; Barkaia, V S; Elistratova, Zh V; Karataev, G I; Mikvabia, Z Ia; Gintsburg, A L

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable success in study of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors, pathogenesis of whooping cough, duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence, types and mechanisms of immune response are still keep underinvestigated. It can be explained by the absence ofadequate experimental animal model for pertussis study. Our study estimates clinical and laboratory parameters of whooping cough in non-human primates of the Old World in the process of intranasan infection by virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Also the duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence in animals was investigated. 14 animal units of 4 species of non-human primates of the Old World were used for intranasal infection. The examination of infect animals included: visual exploration of nasopharynx, thermometry, clinical and biochemical blood analyses, identification ofB. pertussis, using microbiologic and molecular genetic analyses, estimation of innate and adoptive immune factors. The development of infectious process was accompanied by generation of B. pertussis bacteria, catarrhal inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa, leucocytosis, hypoglycemia specific for pertussis, and activation of innate and adaptive immunity for all primates regardless of specie were seen. While repeated experimental infection in primates single bacterial colonies were registered during only first week after challenge. It occurs like the absence of inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa and the lack of laboratory marks of whooping cough, recorded after first challenge. The evident booster effect of humoral immunity was observed. As a model for investigation of B. pertussis bacteria persistence and immune response against whooping cough we suggest the usage of rhesus macaque as more available to experiments. PMID:24340642

  1. Fear generalization in the primate amygdala.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Jennifer; Paz, Rony

    2015-02-01

    Broad generalization of negative memories is a potential etiology for anxiety disorders, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We developed a non-human primate model that replicates behavioral observations in humans and identifies specific changes in tuning properties of amygdala neurons: the width of auditory tuning increases with the distance of its center from the conditioned stimulus. This center-width relationship can account for better detection and at the same time explain the wide stimulus generalization. PMID:25531573

  2. Molecular evolution of prolactin in primates.

    PubMed

    Wallis, O Caryl; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa O; Makri, Georgia; Wallis, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Pituitary prolactin, like growth hormone (GH) and several other protein hormones, shows an episodic pattern of molecular evolution in which sustained bursts of rapid change contrast with long periods of slow evolution. A period of rapid change occurred in the evolution of prolactin in primates, leading to marked sequence differences between human prolactin and that of nonprimate mammals. We have defined this burst more precisely by sequencing the coding regions of prolactin genes for a prosimian, the slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus), and a New World monkey, the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Slow loris prolactin is very similar in sequence to pig prolactin, so the episode of rapid change occurred during primate evolution, after the separation of lines leading to prosimians and higher primates. Marmoset prolactin is similar in sequence to human prolactin, so the accelerated evolution occurred before divergence of New World monkeys and Old World monkeys/apes. The burst of change was confined largely to coding sequence (nonsynonymous sites) for mature prolactin and is not marked in other components of the gene sequence. This and the observations that (1) there was no apparent loss of function during the episode of rapid evolution, (2) the rate of evolution slowed toward the basal rate after this burst, and (3) the distribution of substitutions in the prolactin molecule is very uneven support the idea that this episode of rapid change was due to positive adaptive selection. In the slow loris and marmoset there is no evidence for duplication of the prolactin gene, and evidence from another New World monkey (Cebus albifrons) and from the chimpanzee and human genome sequences, suggests that this is the general position in primates, contrasting with the situation for GH genes. The chimpanzee prolactin sequence differs from that of human at two residues and comparison of human and chimpanzee prolactin gene sequences suggests that noncoding regions associated with regulating

  3. Ecological importance of trichromatic vision to primates.

    PubMed

    Dominy, N J; Lucas, P W

    2001-03-15

    Trichromatic colour vision, characterized by three retinal photopigments tuned to peak wavelengths of approximately 430 nm, approximately 535 nm and approximately 562 nm (refs 1, 2), has evolved convergently in catarrhine primates and one genus of New World monkey, the howlers (genus Alouatta). This uniform capacity to discriminate red-green colours, which is not found in other mammals, has been proposed as advantageous for the long-range detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves (which frequently flush red in the tropics) against a background of mature foliage. Here we show that four trichromatic primate species in Kibale Forest, Uganda, eat leaves that are colour discriminated only by red-greenness, a colour axis correlated with high protein levels and low toughness. Despite their divergent digestive systems, these primates have no significant interspecific differences in leaf colour selection. In contrast, eaten fruits were generally discriminated from mature leaves on both red-green and yellow-blue channels and also by their luminance, with a significant difference between chimpanzees and monkeys in fruit colour choice. Our results implicate leaf consumption, a critical food resource when fruit is scarce, as having unique value in maintaining trichromacy in catarrhines. PMID:11268211

  4. Ontogenetic correlates of diet in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Leigh, S R

    1994-08-01

    This study assesses ontogenetic correlates of diet in anthropoid primates. Associations between body weight growth, adult size, and diet are evaluated for a sample of 42 primate species, of which 8 are classifiable as "folivores." The hypothesis that folivores show a pattern of growth that differs from "nonfolivores" is tested. Ontogenetic variation is summarized through use of parametric and nonparametric regression analysis. Several analytical techniques, including broad interspecific and detailed comparisons among species of similar adult size, are applied. This investigation indicates a clear association between body weight ontogeny and diet: folivorous species grow more rapidly over a shorter duration than comprably sized nonfolivorus species. A positive correlation between adult size and diet is not unambiguously established in this sample. A threshold (at around 1 kg) below which insectivory is very common may adequately characterize the association between adult size and diet in anthropoid primates. Above this threshold, adult size does not appear to covary predictably with diet. Evolutionary correlates of the ontogenetic pattern seen in folivores may include a variety of factors. The distinctive pattern of development in folivores may relate to the profile of ecological and social risks that these species face. Morphophysiological advantages to rapid growth may relate to a need for accelerated alimentary (dental and gut) development. The implications of ontogenetic variation in folivores are discussed. PMID:7977677

  5. Dietary quality and encephalization in platyrrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kari L; Kay, Richard F

    2012-02-22

    The high energetic costs of building and maintaining large brains are thought to constrain encephalization. The 'expensive-tissue hypothesis' (ETH) proposes that primates (especially humans) overcame this constraint through reduction of another metabolically expensive tissue, the gastrointestinal tract. Small guts characterize animals specializing on easily digestible diets. Thus, the hypothesis may be tested via the relationship between brain size and diet quality. Platyrrhine primates present an interesting test case, as they are more variably encephalized than other extant primate clades (excluding Hominoidea). We find a high degree of phylogenetic signal in the data for diet quality, endocranial volume and body size. Controlling for phylogenetic effects, we find no significant correlation between relative diet quality and relative endocranial volume. Thus, diet quality fails to account for differences in platyrrhine encephalization. One taxon, in particular, Brachyteles, violates predictions made by ETH in having a large brain and low-quality diet. Dietary reconstructions of stem platyrrhines further indicate that a relatively high-quality diet was probably in place prior to increases in encephalization. Therefore, it is unlikely that a shift in diet quality was a primary constraint release for encephalization in platyrrhines and, by extrapolation, humans. PMID:21831898

  6. The appropriation of glucose through primate neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Bauernfeind, Amy L; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2014-12-01

    The human brain is considerably larger and more energetically costly than that of other primate species. As such, discovering how human ancestors were able to provide sufficient energy to their brains is a central theme in the study of hominin evolution. However, many discussions of metabolism frequently omit the different ways in which energy, primarily glucose, is used once made available to the brain. In this review, we discuss two glucose metabolic pathways, oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis, and their respective contributions to the energetic and anabolic budgets of the brain. While oxidative phosphorylation is a more efficient producer of energy, aerobic glycolysis contributes essential molecules for the growth of the brain and maintaining the structure of its cells. Although both pathways occur in the brain throughout the lifetime, aerobic glycolysis is a critical pathway during development, and oxidative phosphorylation is highest during adulthood. We outline how elevated levels of aerobic glycolysis may support the protracted neurodevelopmental sequence of humans compared with other primates. Finally, we review the genetic evidence for differences in metabolic function in the brains of primates and explore genes that may provide insight into how glucose metabolism may differ across species. PMID:25110208

  7. Nonhuman Primates, Human Need, and Ethical Constraints.

    PubMed

    DeGrazia, David

    2016-07-01

    "The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates," by Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller, is an exceptionally timely contribution to the literature on animal research ethics. Animal research has long been both a source of high hopes and a cause for moral concern. When it comes to infection challenge studies with nonhuman primates, neither the hope-to save thousands of human lives from such diseases as Ebola and Marburg-nor the concern-the conviction that primates deserve especially strong protections-could be much higher. Coming just a few years after the National Institutes of Health adopted the Institute of Medicine's recommendations regarding chimpanzees, Barnhill and colleagues attempt to nudge the clarification and specification-one might say the evolution-of NHP research ethics and regulation. They assert that NHP challenge studies "are not justified by marginal gains in human safety or by efficacy gains that are unlikely to translate directly into saving human lives or preventing morbidity." How, in turn, is their standard-which, although stringent, does permit causing NHPs to suffer and die for human benefit-to be justified? PMID:27417866

  8. THE KINEMATICS OF PRIMATE MIDFOOT FLEXIBILITY

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Thomas M.; Ball, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a unique assessment of primate intrinsic foot joint kinematics based upon bone pin rigid cluster tracking. It challenges the assumption that human evolution resulted in a reduction of midfoot flexibility, which has been identified in other primates as the “midtarsal break.” Rigid cluster pins were inserted into the foot bones of human, chimpanzee, baboon and macaque cadavers. The positions of these bone pins were monitored during a plantarflexion-dorsiflexion movement cycle. Analysis resolved flexion-extension movement patterns and the associated orientation of rotational axes for the talonavicular, calcaneocuboid and lateral cubometatarsal joints. Results show that midfoot flexibility occurs primarily at the talonavicular and cubometatarsal joints. The rotational magnitudes are roughly similar between humans and chimps. There is also a similarity among evaluated primates in the observed rotations of the lateral cubometatarsal joint, but there was much greater rotation observed for the talonavicular joint, which may serve to differentiate monkeys from the hominines. It appears that the capability for a midtarsal break is present within the human foot. A consideration of the joint axes shows that the medial and lateral joints have opposing orientations, which has been associated with a rigid locking mechanism in the human foot. However, the potential for this same mechanism also appears in the chimpanzee foot. These findings demonstrate a functional similarity within the midfoot of the hominines. Therefore, the kinematic capabilities and restrictions for the skeletal linkages of the human foot may not be as unique as has been previously suggested. PMID:25234343

  9. Emotions, stress, and maternal motivation in primates.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2011-06-01

    Recent research conducted with nonhuman primates confirms that adaptive emotional processes, such as maternal attraction arousability and maternal anxiety arousability, enhance and sustain female motivation to interact with infants, invest in them, and protect them during the postpartum period. Changes in these emotional processes, and concomitant changes in maternal motivation, facilitate the reduction and eventual termination of maternal investment associated with infant weaning. Although laboratory studies of rodents and socially deprived rhesus monkeys have suggested that nulliparous females are neophobic and find infant stimuli aversive, recent primate research indicates that neophobia or aversion to infant stimuli do not occur in females with normal developmental experience. Furthermore, although some rodent and human studies have shown that lactation is accompanied by physiological hyporesponsiveness to stress, other studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans indicate that mothers are highly vulnerable to stress and that stress-induced dysregulation of emotions can interfere with maternal motivation and parenting behavior. It is possible that some aspects of the emotional and experiential regulation of maternal motivation and parental behavior are different in different mammalian species. However, variation in the environments in which subjects are tested and in their developmental experience may also be responsible for the some discrepancies between the results of different studies. PMID:20872879

  10. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research. PMID:14965782

  11. Phylogenomics of primates and their ancestral populations

    PubMed Central

    Siepel, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Genome assemblies are now available for nine primate species, and large-scale sequencing projects are underway or approved for six others. An explicitly evolutionary and phylogenetic approach to comparative genomics, called phylogenomics, will be essential in unlocking the valuable information about evolutionary history and genomic function that is contained within these genomes. However, most phylogenomic analyses so far have ignored the effects of variation in ancestral populations on patterns of sequence divergence. These effects can be pronounced in the primates, owing to large ancestral effective population sizes relative to the intervals between speciation events. In particular, local genealogies can vary considerably across loci, which can produce biases and diminished power in many phylogenomic analyses of interest, including phylogeny reconstruction, the identification of functional elements, and the detection of natural selection. At the same time, this variation in genealogies can be exploited to gain insight into the nature of ancestral populations. In this Perspective, I explore this area of intersection between phylogenetics and population genetics, and its implications for primate phylogenomics. I begin by “lifting the hood” on the conventional tree-like representation of the phylogenetic relationships between species, to expose the population-genetic processes that operate along its branches. Next, I briefly review an emerging literature that makes use of the complex relationships among coalescence, recombination, and speciation to produce inferences about evolutionary histories, ancestral populations, and natural selection. Finally, I discuss remaining challenges and future prospects at this nexus of phylogenetics, population genetics, and genomics. PMID:19801602

  12. Water-quality conditions near the confluence of the Snake and Boise Rivers, Canyon County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Etheridge, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) have been established under authority of the Federal Clean Water Act for the Snake River-Hells Canyon reach, on the border of Idaho and Oregon, to improve water quality and preserve beneficial uses such as public consumption, recreation, and aquatic habitat. The TMDL sets targets for seasonal average and annual maximum concentrations of chlorophyll-a at 14 and 30 micrograms per liter, respectively. To attain these conditions, the maximum total phosphorus concentration at the mouth of the Boise River in Idaho, a tributary to the Snake River, has been set at 0.07 milligrams per liter. However, interactions among chlorophyll-a, nutrients, and other key water-quality parameters that may affect beneficial uses in the Snake and Boise Rivers are unknown. In addition, contributions of nutrients and chlorophyll-a loads from the Boise River to the Snake River have not been fully characterized. To evaluate seasonal trends and relations among nutrients and other water-quality parameters in the Boise and Snake Rivers, a comprehensive monitoring program was conducted near their confluence in water years (WY) 2009 and 2010. The study also provided information on the relative contribution of nutrient and sediment loads from the Boise River to the Snake River, which has an effect on water-quality conditions in downstream reservoirs. State and site-specific water-quality standards, in addition to those that relate to the Snake River-Hells Canyon TMDL, have been established to protect beneficial uses in both rivers. Measured water-quality conditions in WY2009 and WY2010 exceeded these targets at one or more sites for the following constituents: water temperature, total phosphorus concentrations, total phosphorus loads, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and chlorophyll-a concentrations (WY2009 only). All measured total phosphorus concentrations in the Boise River near Parma exceeded the seasonal target of 0.07 milligram per liter. Data collected

  13. "Monogamy" in Primates: Variability, Trends, and Synthesis: Introduction to special issue on Primate Monogamy.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L; Bales, Karen L

    2016-03-01

    This paper is the introduction to a special issue on "'Monogamy' in Primates: Variability, Trends, and Synthesis." The term "monogamy" has undergone redefinition over the years, and is now generally understood to refer to certain social characteristics rather than to genetic monogamy. However, even the term "social monogamy" is used loosely to refer to species which exhibit a spectrum of social structures, mating patterns, and breeding systems. Papers in this volume address key issues including whether or not our definitions of monogamy should change in order to better represent the social and mating behaviors that characterize wild primates; whether or not primate groups traditionally considered monogamous are actually so (by any definition); ways in which captive studies can contribute to our understanding of monogamy; and what selective pressures might have driven the evolution of monogamous and non-monogamous single female breeding systems. Am. J. Primatol. 78:283-287, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26317875

  14. Comparative primate genomics: emerging patterns of genome content and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Preface Advances in genome sequencing technologies have created new opportunities for comparative primate genomics. Genome assemblies have been published for several primates, with analyses of several others underway. Whole genome assemblies for the great apes provide remarkable new information about the evolutionary origins of the human genome and the processes involved. Genomic data for macaques and other nonhuman primates provide valuable insight into genetic similarities and differences among species used as models for disease-related research. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding primate genome content and dynamics and offers a series of goals for the near future. PMID:24709753

  15. Why is a landscape perspective important in studies of primates?

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Fahrig, Lenore

    2014-10-01

    With accelerated deforestation and fragmentation through the tropics, assessing the impact that landscape spatial changes may have on biodiversity is paramount, as this information is required to design and implement effective management and conservation plans. Primates are expected to be particularly dependent on the landscape context; yet, our understanding on this topic is limited as the majority of primate studies are at the local scale, meaning that landscape-scale inferences are not possible. To encourage primatologists to assess the impact of landscape changes on primates, and help future studies on the topic, we describe the meaning of a "landscape perspective" and evaluate important assumptions of using such a methodological approach. We also summarize a number of important, but unanswered, questions that can be addressed using a landscape-scale study design. For example, it is still unclear if habitat loss has larger consistent negative effects on primates than habitat fragmentation per se. Furthermore, interaction effects between habitat area and other landscape effects (e.g., fragmentation) are unknown for primates. We also do not know if primates are affected by synergistic interactions among factors at the landscape scale (e.g., habitat loss and diseases, habitat loss and climate change, hunting, and land-use change), or whether landscape complexity (or landscape heterogeneity) is important for primate conservation. Testing for patterns in the responses of primates to landscape change will facilitate the development of new guidelines and principles for improving primate conservation. PMID:24715680

  16. Comparative primate genomics: emerging patterns of genome content and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Richard A

    2014-05-01

    Advances in genome sequencing technologies have created new opportunities for comparative primate genomics. Genome assemblies have been published for various primate species, and analyses of several others are underway. Whole-genome assemblies for the great apes provide remarkable new information about the evolutionary origins of the human genome and the processes involved. Genomic data for macaques and other non-human primates offer valuable insights into genetic similarities and differences among species that are used as models for disease-related research. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding primate genome content and dynamics, and proposes a series of goals for the near future. PMID:24709753

  17. Comparative analysis of the primate X-inactivation center region and reconstruction of the ancestral primate XIST locus

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Julie E.; Sheedy, Christina B.; Merrett, Stephanie L.; Diallo, Abdoulaye Banire; Swofford, David L.; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program; Green, Eric D.; Willard, Huntington F.

    2011-01-01

    Here we provide a detailed comparative analysis across the candidate X-Inactivation Center (XIC) region and the XIST locus in the genomes of six primates and three mammalian outgroup species. Since lemurs and other strepsirrhine primates represent the sister lineage to all other primates, this analysis focuses on lemurs to reconstruct the ancestral primate sequences and to gain insight into the evolution of this region and the genes within it. This comparative evolutionary genomics approach reveals significant expansion in genomic size across the XIC region in higher primates, with minimal size alterations across the XIST locus itself. Reconstructed primate ancestral XIC sequences show that the most dramatic changes during the past 80 million years occurred between the ancestral primate and the lineage leading to Old World monkeys. In contrast, the XIST locus compared between human and the primate ancestor does not indicate any dramatic changes to exons or XIST-specific repeats; rather, evolution of this locus reflects small incremental changes in overall sequence identity and short repeat insertions. While this comparative analysis reinforces that the region around XIST has been subject to significant genomic change, even among primates, our data suggest that evolution of the XIST sequences themselves represents only small lineage-specific changes across the past 80 million years. PMID:21518738

  18. Monitoring and Simulating the 3-D Density Currents at the Confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Chris B.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2004-12-01

    Summer temperatures in the Lower Snake River can be altered by releasing cold waters that originate from deep depths within Dworshak Reservoir. These cold releases are used to lower temperatures in the Clearwater River, a major tributary to the Lower Snake River, and to improve hydrodynamic and water quality conditions for migrating aquatic species. This project monitored the complex three-dimensional density currents at the Clearwater and Snake River confluence and the processes that led to stratification of Lower Granite Reservoir (LGR) during the late spring, summer, and fall of 2002. In addition to monitoring the LGR environment, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was also applied. By utilizing both field data and a numerical model, a more holistic view of the 3-D density currents was discovered than by either method alone. During this process, it was discovered that several predictable stratification patterns would develop depending upon the discharge ratio and the thermal gradient between the two rivers. These results illustrate the complex hydrodynamic structure at the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake Rivers, which has previously been shown by fish biologists to be a difficult passage zone for migrating salmonids of various life stages.

  19. Diurnality, nocturnality, and the evolution of primate visual systems.

    PubMed

    Ankel-Simons, F; Rasmussen, D T

    2008-01-01

    Much of the recent research on the evolution of primate visual systems has assumed that a minimum number of shifts have occurred in circadian activity patterns over the course of primate evolution. The evolutionary origins of key higher taxonomic groups have been interpreted by some researchers as a consequence of a rare shift from nocturnality to diurnality (e.g., Anthropoidea) or from diurnality to nocturnality (e.g., Tarsiidae). Interpreting the evolution of primate visual systems with an ecological approach without parsimony constraints suggests that the evolutionary transitions in activity pattern are more common than what would be allowed by parsimony models, and that such transitions are probably less important in the origin of higher level taxa. The analysis of 17 communities of primates distributed widely around the world and through geological time shows that primate communities consistently contain both nocturnal and diurnal forms, regardless of the taxonomic sources of the communities. This suggests that primates in a community will adapt their circadian pattern to fill empty diurnal or nocturnal niches. Several evolutionary transitions from one pattern to the other within narrow taxonomic groups are solidly documented, and these cases probably represent a small fraction of such transitions throughout the Cenozoic. One or more switches have been documented among platyrrhine monkeys, Malagasy prosimians, Eocene omomyids, Eocene adapoids, and early African anthropoids, with inconclusive but suggestive data within tarsiids. The interpretation of living and extinct primates as fitting into one of two diarhythmic categories is itself problematic, because many extant primates show significant behavioral activity both nocturnally and diurnally. Parsimony models routinely interpret ancestral primates to have been nocturnal, but analyses of morphological and genetic data indicate that they may have been diurnal, or that early primate radiations were likely to

  20. Why Primates? The Importance of Nonhuman Primates for Understanding Human Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Daniel J.; Santos, Laurie R.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the thematic collection by noting some striking similarities in the cognitive abilities of human infants and nonhuman primates. What are the implications of these similarities for our comprehension of human infant cognition? After providing a brief historical and conceptual background on comparative behavioral research, we discuss how…

  1. The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Anne; Joffe, Steven; Miller, Franklin G

    2016-07-01

    In the midst of the recent Ebola outbreak, scientific developments involving infection challenge experiments on nonhuman primates (NHPs) sparked hope that successful treatments and vaccines may soon become available. Yet these studies pose a stark ethical quandary. On the one hand, they represent an important step in developing novel therapies and vaccines for Ebola and the Marburg virus, with the potential to save thousands of human lives and to protect whole communities from devastation; on the other hand, they intentionally expose sophisticated animals to severe suffering and a high risk of death. Other studies that infect NHPs with a lethal disease in order to test interventions that may prove beneficial for humans pose the same ethical difficulty. Some advocates have argued that all research on primates should be phased out, and ethicists have questioned whether a moral justification of primate research is possible. A 2010 European Union directive banned virtually all research on great apes, and 2013 guidelines from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), based upon recommendations in an influential 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, eliminated most biomedical research with chimpanzees in the United States. But studies involving other NHPs face no comparable restrictions. Should research on NHPs other than great apes be subject to tighter restrictions than it currently is? In this article, we explore this general question in the context of one particular type of biomedical research: infection challenge studies. We advocate a presumptive prohibition on infection challenge experiments in NHPs, but we also argue that exceptions to this prohibition are permissible, subject to strict substantive and procedural safeguards, when necessary to avert substantial loss of human life or severe morbidity for a substantial number of people. PMID:27417865

  2. Evolutionary time-scale of primate bocaviruses.

    PubMed

    Babkin, Igor V; Tyumentsev, Alexander I; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Kurilshikov, Alexander M; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Zhirakovskaya, Elena V; Netesov, Sergei V; Tikunova, Nina V

    2013-03-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is associated with acute gastroenteritis in humans, occurring mostly in young children and elderly people. Four bocavirus genotypes (HBoV1-HBoV4) have been found so far. Since there were no data on the contribution of HBoV to gastroenteritis in Russia, 1781 fecal samples collected from infants hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Novosibirsk, Russia during one year were tested for the presence of nucleic acids from HBoV and three major gastrointestinal viruses (rotavirus A, norovirus II, and astrovirus). HBoV was detected only in 1.9% of the samples: HBoV1 was detected in 0.6% and HBoV2, in 1.3%. Complete genome sequencing of three Novosibirsk isolates was performed. An evolutionary analysis of these sequences and the available sequences of human and great apes bocaviruses demonstrated that the current HBoV genotypes diverged comparatively recently, about 60-300years ago. The independent evolution of bocaviruses from chimpanzees and gorillas commenced at the same time period. This suggests that these isolates of great apes bocaviruses belong to separate genotypes within the species of human bocavirus, which is actually the primate bocavirus. The rate of mutation accumulation in the genome of primate bocaviruses has been estimated as approximately 9×10(-4)substitutions/site/year. It has been demonstrated that HBoV1 diverged from the ancestor common with chimpanzee bocavirus approximately 60-80years ago, while HBoV4 separated from great apes bocaviruses about 200-300years ago. The hypothesis postulating independent evolution of HBoV1 and HBoV4 genotypes from primate bocaviruses has been proposed. PMID:23313830

  3. Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Nico M.; Pier, Naomi M.; Reeder, Deeann M.; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    Classifications and phylogenies of perceived natural entities change in the light of new evidence. Taxonomic changes, translated into Code-compliant names, frequently lead to name:meaning dissociations across succeeding treatments. Classification standards such as the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) may experience significant levels of taxonomic change from one edition to the next, with potential costs to long-term, large-scale information integration. This circumstance challenges the biodiversity and phylogenetic data communities to express taxonomic congruence and incongruence in ways that both humans and machines can process, that is, to logically represent taxonomic alignments across multiple classifications. We demonstrate that such alignments are feasible for two classifications of primates corresponding to the second and third MSW editions. Our approach has three main components: (i) use of taxonomic concept labels, that is name sec. author (where sec. means according to), to assemble each concept hierarchy separately via parent/child relationships; (ii) articulation of select concepts across the two hierarchies with user-provided Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) relationships; and (iii) the use of an Answer Set Programming toolkit to infer and visualize logically consistent alignments of these input constraints. Our use case entails the Primates sec. Groves (1993; MSW2–317 taxonomic concepts; 233 at the species level) and Primates sec. Groves (2005; MSW3–483 taxonomic concepts; 376 at the species level). Using 402 RCC-5 input articulations, the reasoning process yields a single, consistent alignment and 153,111 Maximally Informative Relations that constitute a comprehensive meaning resolution map for every concept pair in the Primates sec. MSW2/MSW3. The complete alignment, and various partitions thereof, facilitate quantitative analyses of name:meaning dissociation, revealing that nearly one in three taxonomic names are not reliable across

  4. Biorhythms and space experiments with nonhuman primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    Man's response to exposure to spaceflight and weightlessness is expressed in physiological adjustments which involve his health and ability to function. The amplitude and periodicity of fluctuations in biological processes affect various functions and responses to provocative stimuli. Primates and other species are subjected to tests to determine the consequences of an altered biorhythm on work and performance, emotional stability, biomedical evaluation in space, the ability to cope with the unexpected, and susceptibility to infection, toxicity, radiation, drugs, and stress. Factors in the environment or operational setup which can change the physiological baseline must be determined and controlled.

  5. Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned.

    PubMed

    Franz, Nico M; Pier, Naomi M; Reeder, Deeann M; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram

    2016-07-01

    Classifications and phylogenies of perceived natural entities change in the light of new evidence. Taxonomic changes, translated into Code-compliant names, frequently lead to name:meaning dissociations across succeeding treatments. Classification standards such as the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) may experience significant levels of taxonomic change from one edition to the next, with potential costs to long-term, large-scale information integration. This circumstance challenges the biodiversity and phylogenetic data communities to express taxonomic congruence and incongruence in ways that both humans and machines can process, that is, to logically represent taxonomic alignments across multiple classifications. We demonstrate that such alignments are feasible for two classifications of primates corresponding to the second and third MSW editions. Our approach has three main components: (i) use of taxonomic concept labels, that is name sec. author (where sec. means according to), to assemble each concept hierarchy separately via parent/child relationships; (ii) articulation of select concepts across the two hierarchies with user-provided Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) relationships; and (iii) the use of an Answer Set Programming toolkit to infer and visualize logically consistent alignments of these input constraints. Our use case entails the Primates sec. Groves (1993; MSW2-317 taxonomic concepts; 233 at the species level) and Primates sec. Groves (2005; MSW3-483 taxonomic concepts; 376 at the species level). Using 402 RCC-5 input articulations, the reasoning process yields a single, consistent alignment and 153,111 Maximally Informative Relations that constitute a comprehensive meaning resolution map for every concept pair in the Primates sec. MSW2/MSW3. The complete alignment, and various partitions thereof, facilitate quantitative analyses of name:meaning dissociation, revealing that nearly one in three taxonomic names are not reliable across treatments

  6. Primates, Provisioning and Plants: Impacts of Human Cultural Behaviours on Primate Ecological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R.; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions. The rhesus macaque is a major human-commensal species but is also an important seed disperser in the wild. In this study, we investigated the potential impacts of provisioning on the role of rhesus macaques as seed dispersers in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. We studied a troop of macaques which were provisioned for a part of the year and were dependent on natural resources for the rest. We observed feeding behaviour, seed handling techniques and ranging patterns of the macaques and monitored availability of wild fruits. Irrespective of fruit availability, frugivory and seed dispersal activities decreased when the macaques were provisioned. Provisioned macaques also had shortened daily ranges implying shorter dispersal distances. Finally, during provisioning periods, seeds were deposited on tarmac roads that were unconducive for germination. Provisioning promotes human-primate conflict, as commensal primates are often involved in aggressive encounters with humans over resources, leading to negative consequences for both parties involved. Preventing or curbing provisioning is not an easy task as feeding wild animals is a socio-cultural tradition across much of South and South-East Asia, including India. We recommend the initiation of literacy programmes that educate lay citizens about the ill-effects of provisioning and strongly caution them against the practice. PMID:26536365

  7. Primates, Provisioning and Plants: Impacts of Human Cultural Behaviours on Primate Ecological Functions.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions. The rhesus macaque is a major human-commensal species but is also an important seed disperser in the wild. In this study, we investigated the potential impacts of provisioning on the role of rhesus macaques as seed dispersers in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. We studied a troop of macaques which were provisioned for a part of the year and were dependent on natural resources for the rest. We observed feeding behaviour, seed handling techniques and ranging patterns of the macaques and monitored availability of wild fruits. Irrespective of fruit availability, frugivory and seed dispersal activities decreased when the macaques were provisioned. Provisioned macaques also had shortened daily ranges implying shorter dispersal distances. Finally, during provisioning periods, seeds were deposited on tarmac roads that were unconducive for germination. Provisioning promotes human-primate conflict, as commensal primates are often involved in aggressive encounters with humans over resources, leading to negative consequences for both parties involved. Preventing or curbing provisioning is not an easy task as feeding wild animals is a socio-cultural tradition across much of South and South-East Asia, including India. We recommend the initiation of literacy programmes that educate lay citizens about the ill-effects of provisioning and strongly caution them against the practice. PMID:26536365

  8. Multimedia in Anthropology: A Guide to the Nonhuman Primates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Frances D.

    This paper describes a primatology project using computer assisted learning and interactive multimedia to help students at the University of Toronto (Canada) learn about non-human primates. The purpose of the interactive program is to present the "natural history" of the majority of the 200-plus species of non-human primates in constant…

  9. Very young infants' responses to human and nonhuman primate vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Brock; Perszyk, Danielle R; Waxman, Sandra R

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence from very young human infants' responses to human and nonhuman primate vocalizations offers new insights - and brings new questions - to the forefront for those who seek to integrate primate-general and human-specific mechanisms of acoustic communication with theories of language acquisition. PMID:25514943

  10. What Cognitive Representations Support Primate Theory of Mind?

    PubMed

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-01

    Much recent work has examined the evolutionary origins of human mental state representations. This work has yielded strikingly consistent results: primates show a sophisticated ability to track the current and past perceptions of others, but they fail to represent the beliefs of others. We offer a new account of the nuanced performance of primates in theory of mind (ToM) tasks. We argue that primates form awareness relations tracking the aspects of reality that other agents are aware of. We contend that these awareness relations allow primates to make accurate predictions in social situations, but that this capacity falls short of our human-like representational ToM. We end by explaining how this new account makes important new empirical predictions about primate ToM. PMID:27052723

  11. Linking genotypes, phenotypes, and fitness in wild primate populations.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Brenda J; Lawler, Richard R

    2011-01-01

    In the decade since the first draft of the human genome was announced, genome sequencing projects have been initiated for an additional twenty-some primate species. Within the next several years, genome sequence data will likely become available for all primate genera and for most individuals within some primate populations. At the same time, gene mapping and association studies of humans and other organisms are rapidly advancing our understanding of the genetic bases of behavioral and morphological traits. Primatologists are especially well-placed to take advantage of this coming flood of genetic data. Here we discuss what this new era of primate genomics means for field primatology and highlight some of the unprecedented opportunities it will afford, particularly with regard to examining the genetic basis of primate adaptation and diversity. PMID:22034168

  12. Primate vaginal microbiomes exhibit species specificity without universal Lactobacillus dominance

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Suleyman; Yeoman, Carl J; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Thomas, Susan M; Ho, Mengfei; Leigh, Steven R; Consortium, Primate Microbiome; White, Bryan A; Wilson, Brenda A; Stumpf, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial communities colonizing the reproductive tracts of primates (including humans) impact the health, survival and fitness of the host, and thereby the evolution of the host species. Despite their importance, we currently have a poor understanding of primate microbiomes. The composition and structure of microbial communities vary considerably depending on the host and environmental factors. We conducted comparative analyses of the primate vaginal microbiome using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of a phylogenetically broad range of primates to test for factors affecting the diversity of primate vaginal ecosystems. The nine primate species included: humans (Homo sapiens), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), olive baboons (Papio anubis), lemurs (Propithecus diadema), howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus), vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops), mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Our results indicated that all primates exhibited host-specific vaginal microbiota and that humans were distinct from other primates in both microbiome composition and diversity. In contrast to the gut microbiome, the vaginal microbiome showed limited congruence with host phylogeny, and neither captivity nor diet elicited substantial effects on the vaginal microbiomes of primates. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance and Wilcoxon tests revealed correlations among vaginal microbiota and host species-specific socioecological factors, particularly related to sexuality, including: female promiscuity, baculum length, gestation time, mating group size and neonatal birth weight. The proportion of unclassified taxa observed in nonhuman primate samples increased with phylogenetic distance from humans, indicative of the existence of previously unrecognized microbial taxa. These findings contribute to our understanding of host–microbe variation and coevolution, microbial biogeography, and disease risk, and have important

  13. Men, primates, and germs: an ongoing affair.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jean Paul; Prugnolle, Frank; Leroy, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates are phylogenetically (i.e., genetically) related and share pathogens that can jump from one species to another. The specific strategies of three groups of pathogens for crossing the species barrier among primates will be discussed. In Africa, gorillas and chimpanzees have succumbed for years to simultaneous epizootics (i.e.. "multi-emergence") of Ebola virus in places where they are in contact with Chiropters, which could be animal reservoirs of these viruses. Human epidemics often follow these major outbreaks. Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have an ancient history of coevolution and many interspecific exchanges with their natural hosts. Chimpanzee and gorilla SIVs have crossed the species barrier at different times and places, leading to the emergence of HIV-1 and HIV-2. Other retroviruses, such as the Simian T-Lymphotropic Viruses and Foamiviruses, have also a unique ancient or recent history of crossing the species barrier. The identification of gorilla Plasmodium parasites that are genetically close to P. falciparum suggests that gorillas were the source of the deadly human P. falciparum. Nonhuman plasmodium species that can infect humans represent an underestimated risk. PMID:23239237

  14. Incisor microwear of Sumatran anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Ungar, P S

    1994-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that incisor microwear reflects diet and feeding adaptations of anthropoids. However, such studies have been largely qualitative, and interpretations have relied on anecdotal references to diet and tooth use reported in the socioecology literature. The current study relates incisor microwear in four anthropoid primates to specific ingestive behaviors and food types. Central incisor casts of wild-shot museum specimens of Hylobates lar, Macaca fascicularis, Pongo pygmaeus, and Presbytis thomasi were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and analyzed using a semiautomated image analysis procedure. Microwear patterns were used to generate predictions regarding diet and anterior tooth use. These predictions were evaluated using data collected during a 1 year study of feeding behavior of these same taxa in the wild (Ungar, 1992, 1994a,b). Results suggest that (1) enamel prism relief is associated with the effectiveness of etching reagents in foods, (2) dental calculus buildup results from a lack of incisor use and perhaps the ingestion of sugar-rich foods, (3) striation density varies with degree of anterior tooth use in the ingestion of abrasive food items, (4) striation breadth is proposed to relate to the ratio of exogenous grit to phytoliths consumed; and (5) preferred striation orientation indicates the direction that food items are pulled across the incisors during ingestion. It is concluded that incisor microwear studies can contribute to the understanding of diets and feeding behaviors of extinct primates. PMID:7943190

  15. Primate Socioecology: New Insights from Males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappeler, Peter M.

    Primate males have only recently returned to the center stage of socioecological research. This review surveys new studies that examine variation in the behavior of adult males and their role in social evolution. It is shown that group size, composition, and social behavior are determined not only by resource distribution, predation risk, and other ecological factors, but that life history traits and social factors, especially those related to sexual coercion, can have equally profound consequences for social systems. This general point is illustrated by examining male behavior at three levels: the evolution of permanent associations between males and females, the causes and consequences of variation in the number of males between group-living species, and the determinants of social relationships within and between the sexes. Direct and indirect evidence reviewed in connection with all three questions indicates that the risk of infanticide has been a pervasive force in primate social evolution. Several areas are identified for future research on male life histories that should contribute to a better understanding of male reproductive strategies and corresponding female counterstrategies.

  16. The role of piloerection in primate thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, George; Jablonski, Nina G; Sussman, Robert W; Kelley, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The insulating properties of the primate integument are influenced by many factors, including piloerection, which raises the hair and insulates the body by creating motionless air near the skin's surface. The involuntary muscles that control piloerection, the musculi arrectores pilorum (MAP), are mostly absent except on the tail in most strepsirhines, and are entirely absent in tarsiers and some lorisids. The absence of piloerection and the reduced effectiveness of pilary insulation in preventing heat loss affected the evolution of behavior and metabolic thermoregulation in these animals. In lemurs, this situation contributed to the use of positional and social behaviors such as sunning and huddling that help maintain thermal homeostasis during day-night and seasonal temperature cycles. It also contributed in many lemurs and lorises to the evolution of a wide variety of activity patterns and energy-conserving metabolic patterns such as cathemerality, daily torpor, and hibernation. The absence of functional MAP in strepsirhines and tarsiers implies the absence of effective piloerection in early primates, and the reacquisition of whole-body MAP in ancestral anthropoids prior to the separation of platyrrhine and catarrhine lineages. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24192984

  17. Evolutionary history of chromosome 10 in primates.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Lucia; Ventura, Mario; Tempesta, Sergio; Rocchi, Mariano; Archidiacono, Nicoletta

    2002-11-01

    We have tracked the evolutionary history of chromosomes homologous to HSA10 (PHYL-10) in primates using appropriate panels of PCP, YAC, and BAC probes. This approach allowed us to delineate more precisely the PHYL-10 constitution in the ancestor of catarrhine, platyrrhine, and prosimians. The results suggest that (i) in the ancestor of prosimians PHYL-10 was organized in two separate PHYL-10p and PHYL-10q chromosomes; (ii) in the progenitor of New World monkeys PHYL-10p was a separate chromosome, while PHYL-10q was associated with a chromosome homologous to HSA16; (iii) in the ancestor of Old World monkeys PHYL-10 was a unique chromosome with a marker order corresponding to the orang form. We have also analyzed the cat, chosen as an outgroup for its very conserved karyotype. In agreement with published data our experiments show that the PHYL-10 in cat is structured in two blocks, PHYL-10p and PHYL-10q, both as part of larger chromosomes. The overall data indicate that, contrary to common opinion, PHYL-10p and PHYL-10q were distinct chromosomes in the primate ancestor. Analysis of the Saimiri sciureus (SSC) PHYL-10q marker order showed that it was isosequential with the Callithrix jacchus PHYL-10q, as well as with the PHYL-10q platyrrhine ancestral form. The SSC centromere, nevertheless, was located in a different chromosomal region, therefore suggesting that a centromeric repositioning event occurred in this species. PMID:12424526

  18. Short hyperdynamic profiles influence primate temperature regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.; Williams, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    Primates have been shown to be sensitive to hyperdynamic fields. That is, when exposed to + 2Gz, body temperature falls. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative sensitivity of these animals to short centrifugation profiles which mimic the gravitational envelope seen on the Space Shuttle during launch (8 minutes, 2.9 Gz max) and re-entry (19 min, 1.7 Gz max). Four loosely restrained squirrel monkeys, isolated from additional external stimuli, were exposed to these profiles. During launch simulation, the temperatures never fell markedly below control levels. However, subsequent to return to 1G, the recovery phase showed decreases in body temperature in all four animals averaging 0.4 C over the next 10 to 15 minutes. The two animals exposed to the reentry profile showed decreases in body temperature within five minutes of the onset of centrifugation. Maximum fall in body temperature was reached by the end of the centrifugation phase and averaged 0.7 C. Thus, the temperature regulation system of this primate is sensitive to short hyperdynamic field exposures.

  19. Social inequalities in health in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Shively, Carol A.; Day, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Overall health has been linked to socioeconomic status, with the gap between social strata increasing each year. Studying the impact of social position on health and biological functioning in nonhuman primates has allowed researchers to model the human condition while avoiding ethical complexities or other difficulties characteristic of human studies. Using female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), our lab has examined the link between social status and stress for 30 years. Female nonhuman primates are especially sensitive to social stressors which can deleteriously affect reproductive health, leading to harmful consequences to their overall health. Subordinates have lower progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of menstrual cycle, which is indicative of absence or impairment of ovulation. Subordinate animals receive more aggression, less affiliative attention, and are more likely to exhibit depressive behaviors. They also express higher stress-related biomarkers such as increased heart rates and lower mean cortisol. While no differences in body weight between dominant and subordinate animals are observed, subordinates have lower bone density and more visceral fat than their dominant counterparts. The latter increases risk for developing inflammatory diseases. Differences are also observed in neurological and autonomic function. A growing body of data suggests that diet composition may amplify or diminish physiological stress responses which have deleterious effects on health. More experimental investigation of the health effects of diet pattern is needed to further elucidate these differences in an ongoing search to find realistic and long-term solutions to the declining health of individuals living across the ever widening socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:27589665

  20. Social inequalities in health in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Day, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Overall health has been linked to socioeconomic status, with the gap between social strata increasing each year. Studying the impact of social position on health and biological functioning in nonhuman primates has allowed researchers to model the human condition while avoiding ethical complexities or other difficulties characteristic of human studies. Using female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), our lab has examined the link between social status and stress for 30 years. Female nonhuman primates are especially sensitive to social stressors which can deleteriously affect reproductive health, leading to harmful consequences to their overall health. Subordinates have lower progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase of menstrual cycle, which is indicative of absence or impairment of ovulation. Subordinate animals receive more aggression, less affiliative attention, and are more likely to exhibit depressive behaviors. They also express higher stress-related biomarkers such as increased heart rates and lower mean cortisol. While no differences in body weight between dominant and subordinate animals are observed, subordinates have lower bone density and more visceral fat than their dominant counterparts. The latter increases risk for developing inflammatory diseases. Differences are also observed in neurological and autonomic function. A growing body of data suggests that diet composition may amplify or diminish physiological stress responses which have deleterious effects on health. More experimental investigation of the health effects of diet pattern is needed to further elucidate these differences in an ongoing search to find realistic and long-term solutions to the declining health of individuals living across the ever widening socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:27589665

  1. Dynamic actin gene family evolution in primates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liucun; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Yijun; Wen, Tieqiao; Wang, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Actin is one of the most highly conserved proteins and plays crucial roles in many vital cellular functions. In most eukaryotes, it is encoded by a multigene family. Although the actin gene family has been studied a lot, few investigators focus on the comparison of actin gene family in relative species. Here, the purpose of our study is to systematically investigate characteristics and evolutionary pattern of actin gene family in primates. We identified 233 actin genes in human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, rhesus monkey, and marmoset genomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that actin genes in the seven species could be divided into two major types of clades: orthologous group versus complex group. Codon usages and gene expression patterns of actin gene copies were highly consistent among the groups because of basic functions needed by the organisms, but much diverged within species due to functional diversification. Besides, many great potential pseudogenes were found with incomplete open reading frames due to frameshifts or early stop codons. These results implied that actin gene family in primates went through "birth and death" model of evolution process. Under this model, actin genes experienced strong negative selection and increased the functional complexity by reproducing themselves. PMID:23841080

  2. Chemical carcinogenesis studies in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Shozo; Thorgeirsson, Unnur P.; Adamson, Richard H.

    2008-01-01

    This review covers chemical carcinogenesis studies in nonhuman primates performed by the National Cancer Institute, USA, to provide hitherto unavailable information on their susceptibility to compounds producing carcinogenic effects in rodents. From autopsy records of 401 breeders and untreated controls, incidences of spontaneous malignant tumors were found to be relatively low in cynomolgus (1.9%) and rhesus monkeys (3.8%), but higher in African green monkeys (8%). Various chemical compounds, and in particular 6 antineoplastic agents, 13 food-related compounds including additives and contaminants, 1 pesticide, 5 N-nitroso compounds, 3 heterocyclic amines, and 7 “classical” rodent carcinogens, were tested during the 34 years period, generally at doses 10∼40 times the estimated human exposure. Results were inconclusive in many cases but unequivocal carcinogenicity was demonstrated for IQ, procarbazine, methylnitrosourea and diethylnitrosamine. Furthermore, negative findings for saccharine and cyclamate were in line with results in other species. Thus susceptibility to carcinogens is at least partly shared by nonhuman primates and rodents. PMID:18941297

  3. Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth

    PubMed Central

    Trevathan, Wenda

    2015-01-01

    The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an ‘obstetric dilemma’ whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate. PMID:25602069

  4. Primate pelvic anatomy and implications for birth.

    PubMed

    Trevathan, Wenda

    2015-03-01

    The pelvis performs two major functions for terrestrial mammals. It provides somewhat rigid support for muscles engaged in locomotion and, for females, it serves as the birth canal. The result for many species, and especially for encephalized primates, is an 'obstetric dilemma' whereby the neonate often has to negotiate a tight squeeze in order to be born. On top of what was probably a baseline of challenging birth, locomotor changes in the evolution of bipedalism in the human lineage resulted in an even more complex birth process. Negotiation of the bipedal pelvis requires a series of rotations, the end of which has the infant emerging from the birth canal facing the opposite direction from the mother. This pattern, strikingly different from what is typically seen in monkeys and apes, places a premium on having assistance at delivery. Recently reported observations of births in monkeys and apes are used to compare the process in human and non-human primates, highlighting similarities and differences. These include presentation (face, occiput anterior or posterior), internal and external rotation, use of the hands by mothers and infants, reliance on assistance, and the developmental state of the neonate. PMID:25602069

  5. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    PubMed

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. PMID:22394275

  6. Conditioned sexual arousal in a nonhuman primate.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Charles T; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Ziegler, Toni E; Ferris, Craig F

    2011-05-01

    Conditioning of sexual arousal has been demonstrated in several species from fish to humans but has not been demonstrated in nonhuman primates. Controversy exists over whether nonhuman primates produce pheromones that arouse sexual behavior. Although common marmosets copulate throughout the ovarian cycle and during pregnancy, males exhibit behavioral signs of arousal, demonstrate increased neural activation of anterior hypothalamus and medial preoptic area, and have an increase in serum testosterone after exposure to odors of novel ovulating females suggestive of a sexually arousing pheromone. Males also have increased androgens prior to their mate's ovulation. However, males presented with odors of ovulating females demonstrate activation of many other brain areas associated with motivation, memory, and decision making. In this study, we demonstrate that male marmosets can be conditioned to a novel, arbitrary odor (lemon) with observation of erections, and increased exploration of the location where they previously experienced a receptive female, and increased scratching in post-conditioning test without a female present. This conditioned response was demonstrated up to a week after the end of conditioning trials, a much longer lasting effect of conditioning than reported in studies of other species. These results further suggest that odors of ovulating females are not pheromones, strictly speaking and that marmoset males may learn specific characteristics of odors of females providing a possible basis for mate identification. PMID:21029736

  7. Patterns in diversity and community structure of epipelagic copepods from the Brazil Malvinas Confluence area, south-western Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berasategui, A. D.; Ramírez, F. C.; Schiariti, A.

    2005-06-01

    Diversity and structure of epipelagic copepod communities were investigated using 70 zooplankton samples collected from the top 50 m of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence area between 35° and 55°S. Biogeographic patterns were investigated using multivariate analysis. Biodiversity patterns were examined using different univariate indexes. Representatives of 35 species of copepods from 23 genera and 13 families were found. Two zones were delimited based on their copepod composition, one in the subtropical waters of the Brazil current, and the other in the subantarctic waters of the Malvinas current. Both environments displayed contrasting patterns of biodiversity depending upon which element is measured (regional species richness as well as mean point species richness were significantly higher in the subtropical group of stations, whereas taxonomic distinctness was significantly higher in the subantarctic community). Based on these contrasting results, we suggest the use of both kind of indexes when defining priority areas for conservation.

  8. Induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE/sub 2/) synthesis by human keratinocyte cultures is determined by culture confluence

    SciTech Connect

    Pentland, A.; Moran, C.; George, J.; Needleman, P.

    1986-03-01

    The authors recent data show PGE/sub 2/ is a growth promoting autocoid in non-confluent (NC) keratinocyte cultures. To study how confluence modulates PGE/sub 2/ synthesis induced by injury, an in vitro injury model was developed. Confluent keratinocyte cultures were focally lethally irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV), 320nm. Arachidonate (AA) metabolism in the resulting non-confluent cell network (C-UV) was then compared with metabolism in confluent (C), NC and NC-UV cultures. After UV, 24 hour collections of medium were obtained from C, NC and C-UV cultures and were measured for PGE/sub 2/ by RIA. NC cultures PGE/sub 2/ synthesis/..mu..g protein was 10X more than C cultures (controls), and decreased over 6 days until confluence. C-UV cultures PGE/sub 2/ synthesis/..mu..g protein increased for 2 days after UV, to 8X more than controls, then decreased to control values by day 6. Focal UV to NC cultures (killing isolated colonies), caused no change in PGE/sub 2/ synthesis. When C and C-UV cultures were exposed to (/sup 14/C)-AA for 1 hour, and the products formed analyzed by TLC, a 3 fold increase in PGE/sub 2//..mu..g protein as seen in C-UV cultures relative to C controls. NC synthesis was 4X greater than C controls. The products formed by all groups were the same. These data indicate that the pattern of metabolism of AA seen in NC cultures is similar to that seen in injury, and that the cell-cell contact modulates enhanced PGE/sub 2/ synthesis.

  9. Contributions of Nonhuman Primates to Research on Aging.

    PubMed

    Didier, E S; MacLean, A G; Mohan, M; Didier, P J; Lackner, A A; Kuroda, M J

    2016-03-01

    Aging is the biological process of declining physiologic function associated with increasing mortality rate during advancing age. Humans and higher nonhuman primates exhibit unusually longer average life spans as compared with mammals of similar body mass. Furthermore, the population of humans worldwide is growing older as a result of improvements in public health, social services, and health care systems. Comparative studies among a wide range of organisms that include nonhuman primates contribute greatly to our understanding about the basic mechanisms of aging. Based on their genetic and physiologic relatedness to humans, nonhuman primates are especially important for better understanding processes of aging unique to primates, as well as for testing intervention strategies to improve healthy aging and to treat diseases and disabilities in older people. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are the predominant monkeys used in studies on aging, but research with lower nonhuman primate species is increasing. One of the priority topics of research about aging in nonhuman primates involves neurologic changes associated with cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. Additional areas of research include osteoporosis, reproductive decline, caloric restriction, and their mimetics, as well as immune senescence and chronic inflammation that affect vaccine efficacy and resistance to infections and cancer. The purpose of this review is to highlight the findings from nonhuman primate research that contribute to our understanding about aging and health span in humans. PMID:26869153

  10. Primate assemblage structure in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests.

    PubMed

    Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Peres, Carlos A

    2005-10-01

    There is considerable variation in primate species richness across neotropical forest sites, and the richest assemblages are found in western Amazonia. Forest type is an important determinant of the patterns of platyrrhine primate diversity, abundance, and biomass. Here we present data on the assemblage structure of primates in adjacent unflooded (terra firme) and seasonally inundated (várzea and igapó) forests in the lower Purús region of central-western Brazilian Amazonia. A line-transect census of 2,026 km in terra firme, 2,309 km in várzea, and 277 km in igapó was conducted. Twelve primate species were recorded from 2,059 primate group sightings. Although terra firme was found to be consistently more species-rich than várzea, the aggregate primate density in terra firme forest was considerably lower than that in the species-poor várzea. Consequently, the total biomass estimate was much higher in várzea compared to either terra firme or igapó forest. Brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were the most abundant species in terra firme, but were outnumbered by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri cf. ustus) in the várzea. The results suggest that floodplain forest is a crucial complement to terra firme in terms of primate conservation in Amazonian forests. PMID:16229024

  11. Evolution of the primate cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene.

    PubMed

    Adkins, R M; Honeycutt, R L

    1994-03-01

    We examined the nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene from 25 primates (4 hominoids, 8 Old World monkeys, 2 New World monkeys, 2 tarsiers, 7 lemuriforms, 2 lorisiforms). Marginal support was found for three phylogenetic conclusions: (1) sister-group relationship between tarsiers and a monkey/ape clade, (2) placement of the aye-aye (Daubentonia) sister to all other strepsirhine primates, and (3) rejection of a sister-group relationship of dwarf lemurs (i.e., Cheirogaleus) with lorisiform primates. Stronger support was found for a sister-group relationship between the ring-tail lemur (Lemur catta) and the gentle lemurs (Hapalemur). In congruence with previous studies on COII, we found that the monkeys and apes have undergone a nearly two-fold increase in the rate of amino acid replacement relative to other primates. Although functionally important amino acids are generally conserved among all primates, the acceleration in amino acid replacements in higher primates is associated with increased variation in the amino terminal end of the protein. Additionally, the replacement of two carboxyl-bearing residues (glutamate and aspartate) at positions 114 and 115 may provide a partial explanation for the poor enzyme kinetics in cross-reactions between the cytochromes c and cytochrome c oxidases of higher primates and other mammals. PMID:8006990

  12. The comparative anatomy of the forelimb veins of primates.

    PubMed Central

    Thiranagama, R; Chamberlain, A T; Wood, B A

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and thirteen forelimbs taken from 62 individuals belonging to 17 primate genera were dissected to reveal the entire course of the superficial venous system. The course of the deep venous system was also documented in at least one forelimb of each primate genus, and the number and location of perforating veins was recorded in 18 human and 45 non-human primate limbs. In Pan, Gorilla and in about 25% of human specimens the lateral superficial vein was confined to the forearm, while in all other primates, and in the majority of humans, this vein extended from the carpus to the clavicular region. Only Pongo and humans exhibited a second main superficial vein on the medial side of the forearm. In all primates the deep veins of the forelimb usually accompanied the arteries. Thus variation in the deep venous system reflected the different arterial patterns exhibited by these primates. The number of perforating veins in the forelimb was related to the length of the limb. Primate genera with longer forelimbs had more perforators, though not as many as would be expected if the number of perforators scaled linearly with limb length. PMID:2514175

  13. Primate chromosome evolution: ancestral karyotypes, marker order and neocentromeres.

    PubMed

    Stanyon, R; Rocchi, M; Capozzi, O; Roberto, R; Misceo, D; Ventura, M; Cardone, M F; Bigoni, F; Archidiacono, N

    2008-01-01

    In 1992 the Japanese macaque was the first species for which the homology of the entire karyotype was established by cross-species chromosome painting. Today, there are chromosome painting data on more than 50 species of primates. Although chromosome painting is a rapid and economical method for tracking translocations, it has limited utility for revealing intrachromosomal rearrangements. Fortunately, the use of BAC-FISH in the last few years has allowed remarkable progress in determining marker order along primate chromosomes and there are now marker order data on an array of primate species for a good number of chromosomes. These data reveal inversions, but also show that centromeres of many orthologous chromosomes are embedded in different genomic contexts. Even if the mechanisms of neocentromere formation and progression are just beginning to be understood, it is clear that these phenomena had a significant impact on shaping the primate genome and are fundamental to our understanding of genome evolution. In this report we complete and integrate the dataset of BAC-FISH marker order for human syntenies 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 12, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22 and the X. These results allowed us to develop hypotheses about the content, marker order and centromere position in ancestral karyotypes at five major branching points on the primate evolutionary tree: ancestral primate, ancestral anthropoid, ancestral platyrrhine, ancestral catarrhine and ancestral hominoid. Current models suggest that between-species structural rearrangements are often intimately related to speciation. Comparative primate cytogenetics has become an important tool for elucidating the phylogeny and the taxonomy of primates. It has become increasingly apparent that molecular cytogenetic data in the future can be fruitfully combined with whole-genome assemblies to advance our understanding of primate genome evolution as well as the mechanisms and processes that have led to the origin of the human genome. PMID

  14. Predictors of short-term outcomes related to central subfield foveal thickness after intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei-Zi; Feng, Kang; Lu, Yao; Qian, Fang; Lu, Xin-Rong; Zang, Si-Wen; Zhao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the predictive factors for short-term effects of intravitreal bevacizumab injections on central subfield foveal thickness (CSFT) in patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). METHODS This was a retrospective study in 60 eyes treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections for ME due to CRVO. Follow-up was three months. The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) score and CSFT measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were used to observe the changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Baseline BCVA, CSFT, age, CRVO duration and the presence of cystoid macular edema (CME) or subretinal fluid (SRF) were analyzed as potential predictive factors of the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab injections. RESULTS BCVA improved from 0.9 logMAR at baseline to 0.6 logMAR at 3mo, which was associated with a significant reduction in CSFT from 721 µm to 392 µm 3mo after injection. About 50% of CME cases and more than 90% of SRF cases responded to treatment with a complete resolution at 3mo. Age (P=0.036) and low baseline CSFT (P=0.037) were associated with a good 3-month prognosis. Patients >60 years old achieved better CME resolution (P=0.031) and lower CSFT at 3mo (305 µm vs 474 µm, P=0.003). CONCLUSION Intravitreal bevacizumab significantly improved visual acuity and CSFT in patients with CRVO after 3mo. Older age and lower baseline CSFT were good predictors of short-term CSFT outcomes. The retinal thickness response to bevacizumab might depend on the resolution of CME rather than SRF. PMID:26949616

  15. The Evolution of Primate Communication and Metacommunication

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Against the prior view that primate communication is based only on signal decoding, comparative evidence suggests that primates are able, no less than humans, to intentionally perform or understand impulsive or habitual communicational actions with a structured evaluative nonconceptual content. These signals convey an affordance‐sensing that immediately motivates conspecifics to act. Although humans have access to a strategic form of propositional communication adapted to teaching and persuasion, they share with nonhuman primates the capacity to communicate in impulsive or habitual ways. They are also similarly able to monitor fluency, informativeness and relevance of messages or signals through nonconceptual cues. PMID:27134332

  16. Biomechanical research of joints: IV. the biohinge of primates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renxiang; Yu, Jie; Lan, Zu-yun; Qu, Wen-ji; Zhang, Hong-zi; Zhang, Kui; Zhang, Liang

    1991-04-01

    In this paper moire topography is applied to study the femoral articular facies of the knee of Primates. For compari son with each other of different families of Primates we suggest the comparative targets a y and the grade G of the moire contour fringes on two condyles of knee of Primates and comparative study of the articulation of knee between the Macaca assamensis M cellaud Presbytis phayrei Rhinopithecus roxellanae Hylobates concolor leucogenys Nycticebus concany Gorilla gorilla Anthropopithecus troglodytes Sirnia satyrus and human being are given. The results may be useful reference in the study of Biomechanics Zoology and Anthropology.

  17. Neurobiological roots of language in primate audition: common computational properties

    PubMed Central

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L.; Rauschecker, Josef P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective on an old question: how does the neurobiology of human language relate to brain systems in nonhuman primates? We argue that higher-order language combinatorics – including sentence and discourse processing – can be situated in a unified, cross-species dorsal-ventral streams architecture for higher auditory processing, and that the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams in higher-order language processing can be grounded in their respective computational properties in primate audition. This view challenges an assumption, common in the cognitive sciences, that a nonhuman primate model forms an inherently inadequate basis for modeling higher-level language functions. PMID:25600585

  18. Neurobiological roots of language in primate audition: common computational properties.

    PubMed

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2015-03-01

    Here, we present a new perspective on an old question: how does the neurobiology of human language relate to brain systems in nonhuman primates? We argue that higher-order language combinatorics, including sentence and discourse processing, can be situated in a unified, cross-species dorsal-ventral streams architecture for higher auditory processing, and that the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams in higher-order language processing can be grounded in their respective computational properties in primate audition. This view challenges an assumption, common in the cognitive sciences, that a nonhuman primate model forms an inherently inadequate basis for modeling higher-level language functions. PMID:25600585

  19. Hydrographic survey of Chaktomuk, the confluence of the Mekong, Tonlé Sap, and Bassac Rivers near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Densmore, Brenda K.; Wilson, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed hydrographic maps of Mekong, Tonlé Sap, and Bassac Rivers showing the riverbed elevations surveyed April 21–May 2, 2012, referenced to Ha Tien 1960 were produced. The surveyed area included a 2-km stretch of the Mekong River between the confluence with the Tonlé Sap and Bassac Rivers, and extended 4 km upstream and 3.6 km downstream from the 2,000-m confluence stretch of the Mekong River. In addition, 0.7 km of the Bassac River downstream and 3.5 km of the Tonlé Sap River (from the confluence to Chroy Changvar Bridge) upstream from their confluence with the Mekong River were surveyed. Riverbed features (such as dunes, shoals, and the effects of sediment mining, which were observed during data collection) are visible on the hydrographic maps. All surveys were completed at low annual water levels as referenced to nearby Mekong River Commission streamflow-gaging stations. Riverbed elevations surveyed ranged from 24.08 m below to 1.54 m above Ha Tien 1960.

  20. 33 CFR 165.T11-0511 - Safety Zone; Big Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge North Sioux City to the confluence of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) In accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart C, operation inthis zone is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone; Big Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge North Sioux City to the confluence of the Missouri River, SD....

  1. [Characteristics of absorption and fluorescence spectra of dissolved organic matter from confluence of rivers: case study of Qujiang River-Jialing River and Fujiang River-Jialing River].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin-Long; Jiang, Tao; Gao, Jie; Wei, Shi-Qiang; Lu, Song; Liu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combined with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra was used to investigate the change characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in confluences water of Qujiang River-Jialing River and Fujiang River-Jialing River, respectively. The results suggested that DOM showed a significant terrestrial input signal in all the sampling sites, FI < 1.4, HIX > 0.8, possibly representing remarkable signals of humus resulted from humic-like component. Moreover, the mixing zone of this study showed a non-conservative mixed behavior, which had a limited contribution, and was not the dominant factor to interpret the change characteristics of DOM in confluences zones. Different land-use types along all the rivers had an obvious impact on DOM inputs. Results of cluster analysis showed that a higher degree of aromaticity and humification components was observed as the predominant contributor to DOM when the land-use type was forest and farmland ecosystem, for example the confluences of Qujiang River-Jialing River. On the other hand, high concentrations of DOM with relative simple structures were found in the water when the urban land-use type was predominant, for example the confluences of Fujiang River-Jialing River. Meanwhile, a new fluorescent signal of protein-like components (peak T) appeared, which manifested a significant effect on the water quality resulted from anthropogenic activities. PMID:25929053

  2. Character displacement of Cercopithecini primate visual signals

    PubMed Central

    Allen, William L.; Stevens, Martin; Higham, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal visual signals have the potential to act as an isolating barrier to prevent interbreeding of populations through a role in species recognition. Within communities of competing species, species recognition signals are predicted to undergo character displacement, becoming more visually distinctive from each other, however this pattern has rarely been identified. Using computational face recognition algorithms to model primate face processing, we demonstrate that the face patterns of guenons (tribe: Cercopithecini) have evolved under selection to become more visually distinctive from those of other guenon species with whom they are sympatric. The relationship between the appearances of sympatric species suggests that distinguishing conspecifics from other guenon species has been a major driver of diversification in guenon face appearance. Visual signals that have undergone character displacement may have had an important role in the tribe’s radiation, keeping populations that became geographically separated reproductively isolated on secondary contact. PMID:24967517

  3. IACUC Review of Nonhuman Primate Research

    PubMed Central

    Tardif, Suzette D.; Coleman, Kristine; Hobbs, Theodore R.; Lutz, Corrine

    2013-01-01

    This article will detail some of the issues that must be considered as institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) review the use of nonhuman primates (NHPs) in research. As large, intelligent, social, long-lived, and non-domesticated animals, monkeys are amongst the most challenging species used in biomedical research and the duties of the IACUC in relation to reviewing research use of these species can also be challenging. Issues of specific concern for review of NHP research protocols that are discussed in this article include scientific justification, reuse, social housing requirements, amelioration of distress, surgical procedures, and humane endpoints. Clear institutional policies and procedures as regards NHP in these areas are critical, and the discussion of these issues presented here can serve as a basis for the informed establishment of such policies and procedures. PMID:24174445

  4. MBL1 gene in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Segat, Ludovica; Crovella, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    With the aim of investigating the evolution of MBL1P1 (MBL1) gene, we analyzed the MBL1 coding region sequences in several specimens of two species of great apes, two species of Hylobatidae, four species of Cercopithecidae, and one Platyrrhine species, and in human beings. An indication for a progressive silencing of the molecule has been found. We found a ∼300 bp insertion in the first intron of MBL1 in the Cercopithecidae that could explain the different splicing between primates species and possibly why Macaca mulatta is able to produce a complete protein, whereas in human beings the protein product is truncated. Based on our genetic findings, we could speculate that all the Cercopithecidae (presenting the 300-bp insertion) may express MBL1 mature protein like the M mulatta, whereas the lesser and great apes, which lack this insertion as do human beings, may have only the truncated pseudogene. PMID:21889966

  5. Isolation of Pancreatic Islets from Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Berman, Dora M

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHP) constitute a highly relevant pre-clinical animal model to develop strategies for beta cell replacement. The close phylogenetic and immunologic relationship between NHP and humans results in cross-reactivity of various biological agents with NHP cells, as well as a very similar cytoarchitecture between islets from human and NHP that is strikingly different from that observed in rodent islets. The composition and location of endocrine cells in human or NHP islets, randomly distributed and associated with blood vessels, have functional consequences and a predisposition for paracrine interactions. Furthermore, translation of approaches that proved successful in rodent models to the clinic has been limited. Consequently, data collected from NHP studies can form the basis for an IND submission to the FDA. This chapter describes in detail the key aspects for isolation of islets from NHP, from organ procurement up to assessment of islet function, comparing and emphasizing the similarities between isolation procedures for human and NHP islets. PMID:27586422

  6. MULTIPLEXING IN THE PRIMATE MOTION PATHWAY

    PubMed Central

    Huk, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    This article begins by reviewing recent work on 3D motion processing in the primate visual system. Some of these results suggest that 3D motion signals may be processed in the same circuitry already known to compute 2D motion signals. Such “multiplexing” has implications for the study of visual cortical circuits and neural signals. A more explicit appreciation of multiplexing— and the computations required for demultiplexing— may enrich the study of the visual system by emphasizing the importance of a structured and balanced “encoding / decoding” framework. In addition to providing a fresh perspective on how successive stages of visual processing might be approached, multiplexing also raises caveats about the value of “neural correlates” for understanding neural computation. PMID:22811986

  7. Environmental enrichment for primates in laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan-Smith, H. M.

    2010-06-01

    Environmental enrichment is a critical component of Refinement, one of the 3Rs underlying humane experimentation on animals. In this paper I discuss why primates housed in laboratories, which often have constraints of space and study protocols, are a special case for enrichment. I outline a framework for categorising the different types of enrichment, using the marmoset as a case study, and summarise the methods used to determine what animals want/prefer. I briefly review the arguments that enrichment does not negatively affect experimental outcomes. Finally I focus on complexity and novelty, choice and control, the underlying features of enrichment that makes it successful, and how combined with a thorough understanding of natural history we can put effective enrichment into practice in laboratories. Throughout the paper I emphasise the need to evaluate enrichment to ensure it is having the desired effect.

  8. Effect of toloxatone on behaviour of primates.

    PubMed

    Giono-Barber, H; Giono-Barber, P; Milhaud, C L; Klein, M J; Gouret, C; Raynaud, G

    1977-01-01

    1. The effects of (3-methyl)-3-phenyl-5-hydroxy-methyl-2-oxazolidinone (toloxatone) were studied on the behaviour of three species of primates: baboon, rhesus monkeys and chimpanzee. 2. The activity against reserpine-induced depression is observed in baboon as in rodents. 2. The administration of toloxatone induces three effects which probably have the same origin: suppression of feeding inhibition of the subordinate baboon, improvement of escape reaction in the conditioned chimpanzee, increase in general activity and the active component of social behaviour in grouped rhesus monkeys. These three effects can be interpreted as resulting from the stimulating effect of toloxatone, or more precisely from a disinhibiting effect. 4. Contrary to amphetamine, toloxatone does not induce, even at high or repeated doses, behavioural disturbances. PMID:409416

  9. Theory of mind in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Heyes, C M

    1998-02-01

    Since the BBS article in which Premack and Woodruff (1978) asked "Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?," it has been repeatedly claimed that there is observational and experimental evidence that apes have mental state concepts, such as "want" and "know." Unlike research on the development of theory of mind in childhood, however, no substantial progress has been made through this work with nonhuman primates. A survey of empirical studies of imitation, self-recognition, social relationships, deception, role-taking, and perspective-taking suggests that in every case where nonhuman primate behavior has been interpreted as a sign of theory of mind, it could instead have occurred by chance or as a product of nonmentalistic processes such as associative learning or inferences based on nonmental categories. Arguments to the effect that, in spite of this, the theory of mind hypothesis should be accepted because it is more parsimonious than alternatives or because it is supported by convergent evidence are not compelling. Such arguments are based on unsupportable assumptions about the role of parsimony in science and either ignore the requirement that convergent evidence proceed from independent assumptions, or fail to show that it supports the theory of mind hypothesis over nonmentalist alternatives. Progress in research on theory of mind requires experimental procedures that can distinguish the theory of mind hypothesis from nonmentalist alternatives. A procedure that may have this potential is proposed. It uses conditional discrimination training and transfer tests to determine whether chimpanzees have the concept "see." Commentators are invited to identify flaws in the procedure and to suggest alternatives. PMID:10097012

  10. Early primate evolution in Afro-Arabia.

    PubMed

    Seiffert, Erik R

    2012-11-01

    The peculiar mammalian fauna that inhabited Afro-Arabia during the Paleogene first came to the attention of the scientific community in the early part of the twentieth century, when Andrews1 and Schlosser2 published their landmark descriptions of fossil mammals from the Fayum Depression in northern Egypt. Their studies revealed a highly endemic assemblage of land mammals that included the first known Paleogene records of hyraxes, proboscideans, and anthropoid primates, but which lacked ancestors of many iconic mammalian lineages that are found in Africa today, such as rhinos, zebras, bovids, giraffes, and cats. Over the course of the last century, the Afro-Arabian Paleogene has yielded fossil remains of several other endemic mammalian lineages,3 as well as a diversity of prosimian primates,4 but we are only just beginning to understand how the continent's faunal composition came to be, through ancient processes such as the movement of tectonic plates, changes in climate and sea level, and early phylogenetic splits among the major groups of placental mammals. These processes, in turn, made possible chance dispersal events that were critical in determining the competitive landscape--and, indeed, the survival--of our earliest anthropoid ancestors. Newly discovered fossils indicate that the persistence and later diversification of Anthropoidea was not an inevitable result of the clade's competitive isolation or adaptive superiority, as has often been assumed, but rather was as much due to the combined influences of serendipitous geographic conditions, global cooling, and competition with a group of distantly related extinct strepsirrhines with anthropoid-like adaptations known as adapiforms. Many of the important details of this story would not be known, and could never have been predicted, without the fossil evidence that has recently been unearthed by field paleontologists. PMID:23280921

  11. Prosocial primates: selfish and unselfish motivations.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Frans B M; Suchak, Malini

    2010-09-12

    Non-human primates are marked by well-developed prosocial and cooperative tendencies as reflected in the way they support each other in fights, hunt together, share food and console victims of aggression. The proximate motivation behind such behaviour is not to be confused with the ultimate reasons for its evolution. Even if a behaviour is ultimately self-serving, the motivation behind it may be genuinely unselfish. A sharp distinction needs to be drawn, therefore, between (i) altruistic and cooperative behaviour with knowable benefits to the actor, which may lead actors aware of these benefits to seek them by acting cooperatively or altruistically and (ii) altruistic behaviour that offers the actor no knowable rewards. The latter is the case if return benefits occur too unpredictably, too distantly in time or are of an indirect nature, such as increased inclusive fitness. The second category of behaviour can be explained only by assuming an altruistic impulse, which-as in humans-may be born from empathy with the recipient's need, pain or distress. Empathy, a proximate mechanism for prosocial behaviour that makes one individual share another's emotional state, is biased the way one would predict from evolutionary theories of cooperation (i.e. by kinship, social closeness and reciprocation). There is increasing evidence in non-human primates (and other mammals) for this proximate mechanism as well as for the unselfish, spontaneous nature of the resulting prosocial tendencies. This paper further reviews observational and experimental evidence for the reciprocity mechanisms that underlie cooperation among non-relatives, for inequity aversion as a constraint on cooperation and on the way defection is dealt with. PMID:20679114

  12. The major histocompatibility complex of primates.

    PubMed

    Heise, E R; Cook, D J; Schepart, B S; Manning, C H; McMahan, M R; Chedid, M; Keever, C A

    1987-08-31

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encodes cell surface glycoproteins that function in self-nonself recognition and in allograft rejection. Among primates, the MHC has been well defined only in the human; in the chimpanzee and in two species of macaque monkeys the MHC is less well characterized. Serologic, biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that the basic organization of the MHC linkage group has been phylogenetically conserved. However, the number of genes and their linear relationship on the chromosomes differ between species. Class I MHC loci encode molecules that are the most polymorphic genes known. These molecules are ubiquitous in their tissue distribution and typically are recognized together with nominal antigens by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Class II MHC loci constitute a smaller family of serotypes serving as restricting elements for regulatory T lymphocytes. The distribution of class II antigens is limited mainly to cell types serving immune functions, and their expression is subject to up and down modulation. Class III loci code for components C2, C4 and Factor B (Bf) of the complement system. Interspecies differences in the extent of polymorphism occur, but the significance of this finding in relation to fitness and natural selection is unclear. Detailed information on the structure and regulation of MHC gene expression will be required to understand fully the biologic role of the MHC and the evolutionary relationships between species. Meanwhile, MHC testing has numerous applications to biomedical research, especially in preclinical tissue and organ transplantation studies, the study of disease mechanisms, parentage determination and breeding colony management. In this review, the current status of MHC definition in nonhuman primates will be summarized. Special emphasis is placed on the CyLA system of M. fascicularis which is a major focus in our laboratory. A highly polymorphic cynomolgus MHC has been partially characterized and consists

  13. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  14. Prosocial primates: selfish and unselfish motivations

    PubMed Central

    de Waal, Frans B. M.; Suchak, Malini

    2010-01-01

    Non-human primates are marked by well-developed prosocial and cooperative tendencies as reflected in the way they support each other in fights, hunt together, share food and console victims of aggression. The proximate motivation behind such behaviour is not to be confused with the ultimate reasons for its evolution. Even if a behaviour is ultimately self-serving, the motivation behind it may be genuinely unselfish. A sharp distinction needs to be drawn, therefore, between (i) altruistic and cooperative behaviour with knowable benefits to the actor, which may lead actors aware of these benefits to seek them by acting cooperatively or altruistically and (ii) altruistic behaviour that offers the actor no knowable rewards. The latter is the case if return benefits occur too unpredictably, too distantly in time or are of an indirect nature, such as increased inclusive fitness. The second category of behaviour can be explained only by assuming an altruistic impulse, which—as in humans—may be born from empathy with the recipient's need, pain or distress. Empathy, a proximate mechanism for prosocial behaviour that makes one individual share another's emotional state, is biased the way one would predict from evolutionary theories of cooperation (i.e. by kinship, social closeness and reciprocation). There is increasing evidence in non-human primates (and other mammals) for this proximate mechanism as well as for the unselfish, spontaneous nature of the resulting prosocial tendencies. This paper further reviews observational and experimental evidence for the reciprocity mechanisms that underlie cooperation among non-relatives, for inequity aversion as a constraint on cooperation and on the way defection is dealt with. PMID:20679114

  15. Transport, distribution and speciation of mercury in the Amazon River at the confluence of black and white waters of the Negro and Solimões Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice-Bourgoin, Laurence; Quemerais, Bernadette; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Seyler, Patrick

    2003-05-01

    This study describes the transport and speciation of mercury (Hg) and the associated role of organic matter in these processes at the confluence of the Negro (black waters) and Solimões (white waters) Rivers, which form the Amazon River. The Negro has the highest total Hg content (11·6 to 18·2 ng l-1) due to the extreme particulate Hg concentrations (2074 ng g-1 at the surface), 10 to 20 times higher than those measured in other Amazon tributaries. The total organic carbon (TOC) consists primarily of dissolved organic carbon, which corresponds to 89% and 66% of the TOC in the Negro and Solimões Rivers respectively, and is mainly composed of humic substances, carriers for most of the metal ions transported in rivers. At the confluence of the Negro and Solimões Rivers, the total Hg concentrations decrease markedly. An isotopic mass balance showed that the complete mixing of the two rivers was achieved 25 km downstream of the confluence. At 60 km downstream of the confluence, the flux of Hg decreases to 73 kg day-1, which represents a net losses of 5 kg day-1 and 15 kg day-1 of dissolved Hg and particulate Hg respectively, assuming that the discharge was constant during the sampling survey and without significant lateral input. Moreover, the Hg losses are correlated with the total suspended matter concentrations, which vary throughout the mixing zone, and also with the particulate and dissolved organic carbon distribution. We suggest that the dissolved loss occurs during the flocculation of organic matter within the zone of rapidly changing physical and chemical conditions downstream of the confluence, and that the particulate loss is by the deposition of particles along the mixing zone favoured by decreasing stream velocities during the sampling survey. Adsorption processes of Hg on dissolved organic matter seem to be responsible for the decrease of dissolved Hg concentrations in the mixing zone.

  16. Harms and deprivation of benefits for nonhuman primates in research.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope; Fuentes, Agustín

    2014-04-01

    The risks of harm to nonhuman primates, and the absence of benefits for them, are critically important to decisions about nonhuman primate research. Current guidelines for review and practice tend to be permissive for nonhuman primate research as long as minimal welfare requirements are fulfilled and human medical advances are anticipated. This situation is substantially different from human research, in which risks of harms to the individual subject are typically reduced to the extent feasible. A risk threshold is needed for the justification of research on nonhuman primates, comparable to the way risk thresholds are set for vulnerable human subjects who cannot provide informed consent. Much of the laboratory research conducted today has inadequate standards, leading to common physical, psychological, and social harms. PMID:24627264

  17. Bat hepadnaviruses and the origins of primate hepatitis B viruses.

    PubMed

    Rasche, Andrea; Souza, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2016-02-01

    The origin of primate HBV (family Hepadnaviridae) is unknown. Hepadnaviruses are ancient pathogens and may have been associated with old mammalian lineages like bats for prolonged time. Indeed, the genetic diversity of bat hepadnaviruses exceeds that of extant hepadnaviruses in other host orders, suggesting a long evolution of hepadnaviruses in bats. Strikingly, a recently detected New World bat hepadnavirus is antigenically related to HBV and can infect human hepatocytes. Together with genetically diverse hepadnaviruses from New World rodents and a non-human primate, these viruses argue for a New World origin of ancestral orthohepadnaviruses. Multiple host switches of bat and primate viruses are evident and bats are likely sources of ancestral hepadnaviruses acquired by primates. PMID:26897577

  18. The scaling of frontal cortex in primates and carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Eliot C.; Allman, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Size has a profound effect on the structure of the brain. Many brain structures scale allometrically, that is, their relative size changes systematically as a function of brain size. Here we use independent contrasts analysis to examine the scaling of frontal cortex in 43 species of mammals including 25 primates and 15 carnivores. We find evidence for significant differences in scaling between primates and carnivores. Primate frontal cortex hyperscales relative to the rest of neocortex and the rest of the brain. The slope of frontal cortex contrasts on rest of cortex contrasts is 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.30) for primates, which is significantly greater than isometric. It is also significantly greater than the carnivore value of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.07). This finding supports the idea that there are substantial differences in frontal cortex structure and development between the two groups. PMID:15007170

  19. Light responses of primate and other mammalian cones

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Li-Hui; Luo, Dong-Gen; Yau, King-Wai

    2014-01-01

    Retinal cones are photoreceptors for daylight vision. For lower vertebrates, cones are known to give monophasic, hyperpolarizing responses to light flashes. For primate cones, however, they have been reported to give strongly biphasic flash responses, with an initial hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization beyond the dark level, now a textbook dogma. We have reexamined this primate-cone observation and, surprisingly, found predominantly monophasic cone responses. Correspondingly, we found that primate cones began to adapt to steady light at much lower intensities than previously reported, explainable by a larger steady response to background light for a monophasic than for a biphasic response. Similarly, we have found a monophasic cone response for several other mammalian species. Thus, a monophasic flash response may in fact be the norm for primate and other mammalian cones as for lower-vertebrate cones. This revised information is important for ultimately understanding human retinal signal processing and correlating with psychophysical data. PMID:24550304

  20. Comparative Triceps Surae Morphology in Primates: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jandy B.; Schmitt, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Primate locomotor evolution, particularly the evolution of bipedalism, is often examined through morphological studies. Many of these studies have examined the uniqueness of the primate forelimb, and others have examined the primate hip and thigh. Few data exist, however, regarding the myology and function of the leg muscles, even though the ankle plantar flexors are highly important during human bipedalism. In this paper, we draw together data on the fiber type and muscle mass variation in the ankle plantar flexors of primates and make comparisons to other mammals. The data suggest that great apes, atelines, and lorisines exhibit similarity in the mass distribution of the triceps surae. We conclude that variation in triceps surae may be related to the shared locomotor mode exhibited by these groups and that triceps surae morphology, which approaches that of humans, may be related to frequent use of semiplantigrade locomotion and vertical climbing. PMID:22567288

  1. The earliest fossil evidence for sexual dimorphism in primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishtalka, Leonard; Stucky, Richard K.; Beard, K. C.

    1990-01-01

    Recently obtained material of the early Eocene primate Notharctus venticolus, including two partial skulls from a single stratigraphic horizon, provides the geologically earliest evidence of sexual dimorphism in canine size and shape in primates and the only unequivocal evidence for such dimorphism in strepsirhines. By analogy with living platyrrhines, these data suggest that Notharctus venticolus may have lived in polygynous social groups characterized by a relatively high level of intermale competition for mates and other limited resources. The anatomy of the upper incisors and related evidence imply that Notharctus is not as closely related to extant lemuriform primates as has been recently proposed. The early Eocene evidence for canine sexual dimorphism reported here, and its occurrence in a nonanthropoid, indicates that in the order Primates such a condition is either primitive or evolved independently more than once.

  2. Molecular cytotaxonomy of primates by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wienberg, J; Jauch, A; Stanyon, R; Cremer, T

    1990-10-01

    A new strategy for analyzing chromosomal evolution in primates is presented using chromosomal in situ suppression (CISS) hybridization. Biotin-labeled DNA libraries from flow-sorted human chromosomes are hybridized to chromosome preparations of catarrhines, platyrrhines, and prosimians. By this approach rearrangements of chromosomes that occurred during hominoid evolution are visualized directly at the level of DNA sequences, even in primate species with pronounced chromosomal shuffles. PMID:2249853

  3. Primate postcrania from the late middle Eocene of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Ciochon, R L; Gingerich, P D; Gunnell, G F; Simons, E L

    2001-07-01

    Fossil primates have been known from the late middle to late Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar since the description of Pondaungia cotteri in 1927. Three additional primate taxa, Amphipithecus mogaungensis, Bahinia pondaungensis and Myanmarpithecus yarshensis, were subsequently described. These primates are represented mostly by fragmentary dental and cranial remains. Here we describe the first primate postcrania from Myanmar, including a complete left humerus, a fragmentary right humerus, parts of left and right ulnae, and the distal half of a left calcaneum, all representing one individual. We assign this specimen to a large species of Pondaungia based on body size and the known geographic distribution and diversity of Myanmar primates. Body weight estimates of Pondaungia range from 4,000 to 9,000 g, based on humeral length, humeral midshaft diameter, and tooth area by using extant primate regressions. The humerus and ulna indicate that Pondaungia was capable of a wide variety of forelimb movements, with great mobility at the shoulder joint. Morphology of the distal calcaneus indicates that the hind feet were mobile at the transverse tarsal joint. Postcrania of Pondaungia present a mosaic of features, some shared in common with notharctine and adapine adapiforms, some shared with extant lorises and cebids, some shared with fossil anthropoids, and some unique. Overall, Pondaungia humeral and calcaneal morphology is most consistent with that of other known adapiforms. It does not support the inclusion of Pondaungia in Anthropoidea. PMID:11438722

  4. Primate spatial strategies and cognition: introduction to this special issue.

    PubMed

    Garber, Paul A; Dolins, Francine L

    2014-05-01

    Wild primates face significant challenges associated with locating resources that involve learning through exploration, encoding, and recalling travel routes, orienting to single landmarks or landmark arrays, monitoring food availability, and applying spatial strategies that reduce effort and increase efficiency. These foraging decisions are likely to involve tradeoffs between traveling to nearby or distant feeding sites based on expectations of resource productivity, predation risk, the availability of other nearby feeding sites, and individual requirements associated with nutrient balancing. Socioecological factors that affect primate foraging decisions include feeding competition, intergroup encounters, mate defense, and opportunities for food sharing. The nine research papers in this Special Issue, "Primate Spatial Strategies and Cognition," address a series of related questions examining how monkeys, apes, and humans encode, internally represent, and integrate spatial, temporal, and quantity information in efficiently locating and relocating productive feeding sites in both small-scale and large-scale space. The authors use a range of methods and approaches to study wild and captive primates, including computer and mathematical modeling, virtual reality, and detailed examinations of animal movement using GPS and GIS analyses to better understand primate cognitive ecology and species differences in decision-making. We conclude this Introduction by identifying a series of critical questions for future research designed to document species-specific differences in primate spatial cognition. PMID:24395033

  5. A Genome-Wide Landscape of Retrocopies in Primate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Fábio C.P.; Galante, Pedro A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplication is a key factor contributing to phenotype diversity across and within species. Although the availability of complete genomes has led to the extensive study of genomic duplications, the dynamics and variability of gene duplications mediated by retrotransposition are not well understood. Here, we predict mRNA retrotransposition and use comparative genomics to investigate their origin and variability across primates. Analyzing seven anthropoid primate genomes, we found a similar number of mRNA retrotranspositions (∼7,500 retrocopies) in Catarrhini (Old Word Monkeys, including humans), but a surprising large number of retrocopies (∼10,000) in Platyrrhini (New World Monkeys), which may be a by-product of higher long interspersed nuclear element 1 activity in these genomes. By inferring retrocopy orthology, we dated most of the primate retrocopy origins, and estimated a decrease in the fixation rate in recent primate history, implying a smaller number of species-specific retrocopies. Moreover, using RNA-Seq data, we identified approximately 3,600 expressed retrocopies. As expected, most of these retrocopies are located near or within known genes, present tissue-specific and even species-specific expression patterns, and no expression correlation to their parental genes. Taken together, our results provide further evidence that mRNA retrotransposition is an active mechanism in primate evolution and suggest that retrocopies may not only introduce great genetic variability between lineages but also create a large reservoir of potentially functional new genomic loci in primate genomes. PMID:26224704

  6. Primates and the Evolution of Long-Slow Life Histories

    PubMed Central

    Jones, James Holland

    2011-01-01

    Summary Primates are characterized by relatively late ages at first reproduction, long lives and low fertility. Together, these traits define a life-history of reduced reproductive effort. Understanding the optimal allocation of reproductive effort, and specifically reduced reproductive effort, has been one of the key problems motivating the development of life history theory. Because of their unusual constellation of life-history traits, primates play an important role in the continued development of life history theory. In this review, I present the evidence for the reduced reproductive effort life histories of primates and discuss the ways that such life-history tactics are understood in contemporary theory. Such tactics are particularly consistent with the predictions of stochastic demographic models, suggesting a key role for environmental variability in the evolution of primate life histories. The tendency for primates to specialize in high-quality, high-variability food items may make them particularly susceptible to environmental variability and explain their low reproductive-effort tactics. I discuss recent applications of life history theory to human evolution and emphasize the continuity between models used to explain peculiarities of human reproduction and senescence with the long, slow life histories of primates more generally. PMID:21959161

  7. Afrotarsius chatrathi, first tarsiiform primate (? Tarsiidae) from Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, E.L.; Bown, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    Tarsiiform primates have long been regarded as a Laurasian group, with an extensive fossil record in the Eocene of North America and Europe1-4 and two important but less well-known records from Asia5,6. The only living genus is Tarsius (Tarsiidae), whereas all of the fossil tarsier-like primates are usually placed in the extinct family Omomyidae3. We now report the discovery of Afrotarsius chatrathi from early Oligocene rocks of Fayum Province, Egypt. This is the first known tarsiiform primate from Africa. Compared with fossil primates, the molar tooth morphology of this diminutive prosimian is most similar to that of the European Eocene microchoerine Pseudoloris; however, the closest similarity is to the molars of Tarsius. Because the phylogenetic relationships among living Tarsius and the omomyids remain unclear7,8 and because of the fragmentary nature of the only known specimen of this new primate, allocation of Afrotarsius to either Omomyidae or Tarsiidae is necessarily provisional. As we believe that its molar teeth are more like those of Tarsius than of any omomyids (including Pseudoloris), we tentatively assign the new genus to the extant family Tarsiidae as its only known fossil representative. Recovery of a Tarsius-like primate from Africa suggests that it or its ancestors might have been immigrants from Europe, may have been derived from an unknown Asian stock related to the ancestry of Tarsius, or may have originated in Africa. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissues

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Melinda L.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Koch, Paul L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Isotopic studies of wild primates have used a wide range of tissues to infer diet and model the foraging ecologies of extinct species. The use of mismatched tissues for such comparisons can be problematic because differences in amino acid compositions can lead to small isotopic differences between tissues. Additionally, physiological and dietary differences among primate species could lead to variable offsets between apatite carbonate and collagen. To improve our understanding of the isotopic chemistry of primates, we explored the apparent enrichment (ε*) between bone collagen and muscle, collagen and fur or hair keratin, muscle and keratin, and collagen and bone carbonate across the primate order. We found that the mean ε* values of proteinaceous tissues were small (≤1‰), and uncorrelated with body size or phylogenetic relatedness. Additionally, ε* values did not vary by habitat, sex, age, or manner of death. The mean ε* value between bone carbonate and collagen (5.6 ± 1.2‰) was consistent with values reported for omnivorous mammals consuming monoisotopic diets. These primate-specific apparent enrichment values will be a valuable tool for cross-species comparisons. Additionally, they will facilitate dietary comparisons between living and fossil primates. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00442-010-1701-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20628886

  9. Primate postcrania from the late middle Eocene of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Ciochon, Russell L.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Simons, Elwyn L.

    2001-01-01

    Fossil primates have been known from the late middle to late Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar since the description of Pondaungia cotteri in 1927. Three additional primate taxa, Amphipithecus mogaungensis, Bahinia pondaungensis and Myanmarpithecus yarshensis, were subsequently described. These primates are represented mostly by fragmentary dental and cranial remains. Here we describe the first primate postcrania from Myanmar, including a complete left humerus, a fragmentary right humerus, parts of left and right ulnae, and the distal half of a left calcaneum, all representing one individual. We assign this specimen to a large species of Pondaungia based on body size and the known geographic distribution and diversity of Myanmar primates. Body weight estimates of Pondaungia range from 4,000 to 9,000 g, based on humeral length, humeral midshaft diameter, and tooth area by using extant primate regressions. The humerus and ulna indicate that Pondaungia was capable of a wide variety of forelimb movements, with great mobility at the shoulder joint. Morphology of the distal calcaneus indicates that the hind feet were mobile at the transverse tarsal joint. Postcrania of Pondaungia present a mosaic of features, some shared in common with notharctine and adapine adapiforms, some shared with extant lorises and cebids, some shared with fossil anthropoids, and some unique. Overall, Pondaungia humeral and calcaneal morphology is most consistent with that of other known adapiforms. It does not support the inclusion of Pondaungia in Anthropoidea. PMID:11438722

  10. The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence.

    PubMed

    Reader, Simon M; Hager, Yfke; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-04-12

    There are consistent individual differences in human intelligence, attributable to a single 'general intelligence' factor, g. The evolutionary basis of g and its links to social learning and culture remain controversial. Conflicting hypotheses regard primate cognition as divided into specialized, independently evolving modules versus a single general process. To assess how processes underlying culture relate to one another and other cognitive capacities, we compiled ecologically relevant cognitive measures from multiple domains, namely reported incidences of behavioural innovation, social learning, tool use, extractive foraging and tactical deception, in 62 primate species. All exhibited strong positive associations in principal component and factor analyses, after statistically controlling for multiple potential confounds. This highly correlated composite of cognitive traits suggests social, technical and ecological abilities have coevolved in primates, indicative of an across-species general intelligence that includes elements of cultural intelligence. Our composite species-level measure of general intelligence, 'primate g(S)', covaried with both brain volume and captive learning performance measures. Our findings question the independence of cognitive traits and do not support 'massive modularity' in primate cognition, nor an exclusively social model of primate intelligence. High general intelligence has independently evolved at least four times, with convergent evolution in capuchins, baboons, macaques and great apes. PMID:21357224

  11. A Genome-Wide Landscape of Retrocopies in Primate Genomes.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Fábio C P; Galante, Pedro A F

    2015-08-01

    Gene duplication is a key factor contributing to phenotype diversity across and within species. Although the availability of complete genomes has led to the extensive study of genomic duplications, the dynamics and variability of gene duplications mediated by retrotransposition are not well understood. Here, we predict mRNA retrotransposition and use comparative genomics to investigate their origin and variability across primates. Analyzing seven anthropoid primate genomes, we found a similar number of mRNA retrotranspositions (∼7,500 retrocopies) in Catarrhini (Old Word Monkeys, including humans), but a surprising large number of retrocopies (∼10,000) in Platyrrhini (New World Monkeys), which may be a by-product of higher long interspersed nuclear element 1 activity in these genomes. By inferring retrocopy orthology, we dated most of the primate retrocopy origins, and estimated a decrease in the fixation rate in recent primate history, implying a smaller number of species-specific retrocopies. Moreover, using RNA-Seq data, we identified approximately 3,600 expressed retrocopies. As expected, most of these retrocopies are located near or within known genes, present tissue-specific and even species-specific expression patterns, and no expression correlation to their parental genes. Taken together, our results provide further evidence that mRNA retrotransposition is an active mechanism in primate evolution and suggest that retrocopies may not only introduce great genetic variability between lineages but also create a large reservoir of potentially functional new genomic loci in primate genomes. PMID:26224704

  12. Eye-Blink Behaviors in 71 Species of Primates

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Hideoki; Omori, Yasuko; Hirokawa, Kumi; Ohira, Hideki; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the associations between eye-blink behaviors and various other factors in primates. We video-recorded 141 individuals across 71 primate species and analyzed the blink rate, blink duration, and “isolated” blink ratio (i.e., blinks without eye or head movement) in relation to activity rhythms, habitat types, group size, and body size factors. The results showed close relationships between three types of eye-blink measures and body size factors. All of these measures increased as a function of body weight. In addition, diurnal primates showed more blinks than nocturnal species even after controlling for body size factors. The most important findings were the relationships between eye-blink behaviors and social factors, e.g., group size. Among diurnal primates, only the blink rate was significantly correlated even after controlling for body size factors. The blink rate increased as the group size increased. Enlargement of the neocortex is strongly correlated with group size in primate species and considered strong evidence for the social brain hypothesis. Our results suggest that spontaneous eye-blinks have acquired a role in social communication, similar to grooming, to adapt to complex social living during primate evolution. PMID:23741522

  13. Functional Analysis of the Primate Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Hohn, Bianca; Scherf, Heike; Schmidt, Manuela; Krause, Cornelia; Witzel, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the shoulder girdle are in most cases restricted to morphological comparisons and rarely aim at elucidating function in a strictly biomechanical sense. To fill this gap, we investigated the basic functional conditions that occur in the shoulder joint and shoulder girdle of primates by means of mechanics. Because most of nonhuman primate locomotion is essentially quadrupedal walking—although on very variable substrates—our analysis started with quadrupedal postures. We identified the mechanical situation at the beginning, middle, and end of the load-bearing stance phase by constructing force parallelograms in the shoulder joint and the scapulo-thoracal connection. The resulting postulates concerning muscle activities are in agreement with electromyographical data in the literature. We determined the magnitude and directions of the internal forces and explored mechanically optimal shapes of proximal humerus, scapula, and clavicula using the Finite Element Method. Next we considered mechanical functions other than quadrupedal walking, such as suspension and brachiation. Quadrupedal walking entails muscle activities and joint forces that require a long scapula, the cranial margin of which has about the same length as the axillary margin. Loading of the hand in positions above the head and suspensory behaviors lead to force flows along the axillary margin and so necessitate a scapula with an extended axillary and a shorter cranial margin. In all cases, the facies glenoidalis is nearly normal to the calculated joint forces. In anterior view, terrestrial monkeys chose a direction of the ground reaction force requiring (moderate) activity of the abductors of the shoulder joint, whereas more arboreal monkeys prefer postures that necessitate activity of the adductors of the forelimb even when walking along branches. The same adducting and retracting muscles are recruited in various forms of suspension. As a mechanical consequence, the scapula is in a more

  14. Comparative primate energetics and hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Leonard, W R; Robertson, M L

    1997-02-01

    There is currently great interest in developing ecological models for investigating human evolution. Yet little attention has been given to energetics, one of the cornerstones of modern ecosystem ecology. This paper examines the ecological correlates of variation in metabolic requirements among extant primate species, and uses this information to draw inferences about the changes in energy demands over the course of human evolution. Data on body size, resting metabolism, and activity budgets for selected anthropoid species and human hunter-gatherers are used to estimate total energy expenditure (TEE). Analyses indicate that relative energy expenditure levels and day ranges are positively correlated with diet quality; that is, more active species tend to consume more energy-rich diets. Human foragers fall at the positive extremes for modern primates in having high expenditure levels, large ranges, and very high quality diets. During hominid evolution, it appears that TEE increased substantially with the emergence of Homo erectus. This increase is partly attributable to larger body size as well as likely increases in day range and activity level. Assuming similar activity budgets for all early hominid species, estimated TEE for H. erectus is 40-45% greater than for the australopithecines. If, however, it is assumed that the evolution of early Homo was also associated with a shift to a more "human-like" foraging strategy, estimated expenditure levels for H. erectus are 80-85% greater than in the australopithecines. Changing patterns of resource distribution associated with the expansion of African savannas between 2.5 and 1.5 mya may been the impetus for a shift in foraging behavior among early members of the genus Homo. Such ecological changes likely would have made animal foods a more attractive resource. Moreover, greater use of animal foods and the resulting higher quality diet would have been important for supporting the larger day ranges and greater energy

  15. The dissolved chemical and isotopic signature downflow the confluence of two large rivers: The case of the Parana and Paraguay rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campodonico, Verena Agustina; García, María Gabriela; Pasquini, Andrea Inés

    2015-09-01

    The Paraná River basin is one of the largest hydrological systems in South America (∼2.6 × 106 km2). Downflow the confluence of tributaries, most large rivers exhibit transverse and longitudinal inhomogeneities that can be detected for tens or even hundreds of kilometers. Concordantly, a noticeable cross-sectional chemical asymmetry in the dissolved load was distinguished in the Middle Paraná River, after the confluence of its main tributaries (i.e., the Paraguay and Upper Paraná rivers). Water chemistry and isotopic signature in three cross-sections along the Middle Paraná River, as well as from main and minor tributaries, and some deep (∼105 m bs) and shallow boreholes (∼15 m bs) located near both river banks, were analyzed in order to define the extent of mixing and identify possible contributions from groundwater discharges. Downflow the confluence of the Upper Paraná and Paraguay rivers a chemical and isotopic asymmetry was observed, mainly through the values of EC, major ions (Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO42-), some trace elements (Fe, U, Th, Ba, Sr, As and REE) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). Toward its western margin, higher elemental concentrations which resembled that of the Paraguay River were measured, whereas at the eastern border, waters were more diluted and preserved the chemical signature of the Upper Paraná River. This variability remained detectable at least until ∼225 km downflow the confluence, where differences between western and eastern margins were less evident. At ∼580 km downflow the confluence, a slight inversion in the transverse chemical asymmetry was observed. This trend switch can be the result of the input of solutes from minor tributaries that reach the main channel from the East and/or may be due to higher groundwater discharges from the East bank. A mass balance model was applied, as a first approach, to estimate the groundwater inflow using the geochemical tracer 222Rn. The results indicate that groundwater

  16. Response of rapidly developing extratropical cyclones to sea surface temperature variations over the western Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Hidetaka; Kawamura, Ryuichi; Kato, Masaya; Shinoda, Taro

    2016-04-01

    The dynamical response of rapidly developing extratropical cyclones to sea surface temperature (SST) variations over the western Kuroshio-Oyashio confluence (WKOC) region was examined by using regional cloud-resolving simulations. This study specifically highlights an explosive cyclone that occurred in early February 2014 and includes a real SST experiment (CNTL run) and two sensitivity experiments with warm and cool SST anomalies over the WKOC region (warm and cool runs). The results derived from the CNTL run indicated that moisture supply from the ocean was enhanced when the dry air associated with the cold conveyor belt (CCB) overlapped with warm currents. Further, the evaporated moisture contributed substantially to latent heat release over the bent-back front with the aid of the CCB, leading to cyclone intensification and strengthening of the asymmetric structure around the cyclone's center. Such successive processes were more active in the warm run than in the cool run. The dominance of the zonally asymmetric structure resulted in a difference in sea level pressure around the bent-back front between the two runs. The WKOC SST variations have the potential to affect strong wind distributions along the CCB through modification of the cyclone's inner system. Additional experiments with two other cyclones showed that the cyclone response to the WKOC SST variations became evident when the CCB north of the cyclone's center overlapped with that region, confirming that the dry nature of the CCB plays an important role in latent heat release by allowing for larger moisture supply from the ocean.

  17. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of the fish assemblage in a floodplain lake at the confluence of the Negro and Amazon Rivers.

    PubMed

    Röpke, C P; Amadio, S A; Winemiller, K O; Zuanon, J

    2016-07-01

    The temporal effect of discharge and limnology on fish composition and species diversity in a floodplain lake at the confluence of the Amazon and Negro Rivers was evaluated. Species richness, abundance and assemblage composition were strongly influenced by seasonal discharge of the Amazon and Negro Rivers, which affects lateral connectivity, water conductivity and temperature. As a consequence, temporal β-diversity was high in the lake and the assemblage was dominated by seasonally transient species. Relatively large species known to feed on resources within the floodplain were captured almost exclusively during the flood period. During the dry season, the assemblage was dominated by fishes adapted to harsh conditions of high temperature and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. An open system with high spatial and temporal heterogeneity created by the meeting of two large rivers with different water chemistry, Lago Catalão has a dynamic fish assemblage. Given its high temporal β-diversity and abundance of fishes, many of great importance in local fisheries, Lago Catalão and other floodplain lakes in this region merit special attention for conservation. PMID:26563716

  19. Evolutionary pressures on primate intertemporal choice.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeffrey R

    2014-07-01

    From finding food to choosing mates, animals must make intertemporal choices that involve fitness benefits available at different times. Species vary dramatically in their willingness to wait for delayed rewards. Why does this variation across species exist? An adaptive approach to intertemporal choice suggests that time preferences should reflect the temporal problems faced in a species's environment. Here, I use phylogenetic regression to test whether allometric factors relating to body size, relative brain size and social group size predict how long 13 primate species will wait in laboratory intertemporal choice tasks. Controlling for phylogeny, a composite allometric factor that includes body mass, absolute brain size, lifespan and home range size predicted waiting times, but relative brain size and social group size did not. These findings support the notion that selective pressures have sculpted intertemporal choices to solve adaptive problems faced by animals. Collecting these types of data across a large number of species can provide key insights into the evolution of decision making and cognition. PMID:24827445

  20. Evolutionary pressures on primate intertemporal choice

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    From finding food to choosing mates, animals must make intertemporal choices that involve fitness benefits available at different times. Species vary dramatically in their willingness to wait for delayed rewards. Why does this variation across species exist? An adaptive approach to intertemporal choice suggests that time preferences should reflect the temporal problems faced in a species's environment. Here, I use phylogenetic regression to test whether allometric factors relating to body size, relative brain size and social group size predict how long 13 primate species will wait in laboratory intertemporal choice tasks. Controlling for phylogeny, a composite allometric factor that includes body mass, absolute brain size, lifespan and home range size predicted waiting times, but relative brain size and social group size did not. These findings support the notion that selective pressures have sculpted intertemporal choices to solve adaptive problems faced by animals. Collecting these types of data across a large number of species can provide key insights into the evolution of decision making and cognition. PMID:24827445

  1. Stereometrics In Primate Taxonomy And Phylogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creel, Norman

    1980-07-01

    Studies of the systematic relationships within the primate taxa Homo, Hylobatidae (lesser apes), Hominoidea (apes and man) and Colobinae (Asian and African leaf monkeys) are described. All are based in large part on multivariate statistical analyses of cranial morphology. Adequate quantification of the frequently complex and subtle differences in the morphology of the animals being compared, as well as the inclusion of statistically adequate samples of as many presumed species or other groups of interest as possible, are essential to the success of such analyses. Two methods of stereometric measurement have been developed to make this possible. In initial studies of the Hylobatidae and the Hominoidea, a simple mechanical device was designed which determines the tri-dimensional coordinates of an anatomical point by measuring an angle and two distances. An improved version was used in an investigation of Subsaharan human crania. In a taxonomic revision of the Colobinae now in progress, crania are photographed in several views with a pair of metric cameras; point coordinates are then measured in a modified stereoplotter and the views rotated mathematically into a single coordinate system. Although stereometrics is only one component in a complex system of analysis, it is an extremely important one. Taxonomic revisions of the described scope and depth could not be carried out with conventional methods of measurement without a much greater commitment of resources, if at all.

  2. FTIR study of primate color visual pigments

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kota; Kandori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    How do we distinguish colors? Humans possess three color pigments; red-, green-, and blue-sensitive proteins, which have maximum absorbance (λmax) at 560, 530, and 420 nm, respectively, and contribute to normal human trichromatic vision (RGB). Each color pigments consists of a different opsin protein bound to a common chromophore molecule, 11-cis-retinal, whereas different chromophore-protein interactions allow preferential absorption of different colors. However, detailed experimental structural data to explain the molecular basis of spectral tuning of color pigments are lacking, mainly because of the difficulty in sample preparation. We thus started structural studies of primate color visual pigments using low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which needs only 0.3 mg protein for a single measurement. Here we report the first structural data of monkey red- (MR) and green- (MG) sensitive pigments, in which the information about the protein, retinal chromophore, and internal water molecules is contained. Molecular mechanism of color discrimination between red and green pigments will be discussed based on the structural data by FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:27493516

  3. Experimental schistosomiasis in primates in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, P.; von Lichtenberg, F.; Goatly, K. D.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory infection of animals with Schistosoma haematobium is generally unsatisfactory as adult worms invariably inhabit the portal venous system rather than the vesical plexus as in man. However, it was thought that certain primates might prove more valuable for experimental studies of schistosomiasis than the usual laboratory animals. Baboons, Papio anubis, were therefore exposed to cercariae of S. haematobium and the pattern of egg excretion in stools and urine was followed quantitatively. Histological studies of various organs were made and it was found that although eggs were excreted in the faeces, they were also passed in the urine and that tissue changes in the bladder were similar to those found in human infections. It is suggested that the sequelae of S. haematobium infection found in man might develop in baboons and that the animal may be useful for studying their development in the laboratory. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 8FIG. 11FIG. 4FIG. 10FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 5 PMID:4968348

  4. Nepotistic cooperation in non-human primate groups

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Joan B.

    2009-01-01

    Darwin was struck by the many similarities between humans and other primates and believed that these similarities were the product of common ancestry. He would be even more impressed by the similarities if he had known what we have learned about primates over the last 50 years. Genetic kinship has emerged as the primary organizing force in the evolution of primate social organization and the patterning of social behaviour in non-human primate groups. There are pronounced nepotistic biases across the primate order, from tiny grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) that forage alone at night but cluster with relatives to sleep during the day, to cooperatively breeding marmosets that rely on closely related helpers to rear their young, rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females who acquire their mother's rank and form strict matrilineal dominance hierarchies, male howler monkeys that help their sons maintain access to groups of females and male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that form lasting relationships with their brothers. As more evidence of nepotism has accumulated, important questions about the evolutionary processes underlying these kin biases have been raised. Although kin selection predicts that altruism will be biased in favour of relatives, it is difficult to assess whether primates actually conform to predictions derived from Hamilton's rule: br > c. In addition, other mechanisms, including contingent reciprocity and mutualism, could contribute to the nepotistic biases observed in non-human primate groups. There are good reasons to suspect that these processes may complement the effects of kin selection and amplify the extent of nepotistic biases in behaviour. PMID:19805431

  5. Nepotistic cooperation in non-human primate groups.

    PubMed

    Silk, Joan B

    2009-11-12

    Darwin was struck by the many similarities between humans and other primates and believed that these similarities were the product of common ancestry. He would be even more impressed by the similarities if he had known what we have learned about primates over the last 50 years. Genetic kinship has emerged as the primary organizing force in the evolution of primate social organization and the patterning of social behaviour in non-human primate groups. There are pronounced nepotistic biases across the primate order, from tiny grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) that forage alone at night but cluster with relatives to sleep during the day, to cooperatively breeding marmosets that rely on closely related helpers to rear their young, rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females who acquire their mother's rank and form strict matrilineal dominance hierarchies, male howler monkeys that help their sons maintain access to groups of females and male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that form lasting relationships with their brothers. As more evidence of nepotism has accumulated, important questions about the evolutionary processes underlying these kin biases have been raised. Although kin selection predicts that altruism will be biased in favour of relatives, it is difficult to assess whether primates actually conform to predictions derived from Hamilton's rule: br > c. In addition, other mechanisms, including contingent reciprocity and mutualism, could contribute to the nepotistic biases observed in non-human primate groups. There are good reasons to suspect that these processes may complement the effects of kin selection and amplify the extent of nepotistic biases in behaviour. PMID:19805431

  6. Anatomical evidence for classical and extra-classical receptive field completion across the discontinuous horizontal meridian representation of primate area V2.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Janelle; Ichida, Jennifer M; Federer, Frederick; Angelucci, Alessandra

    2009-04-01

    In primates, a split of the horizontal meridian (HM) representation at the V2 rostral border divides this area into dorsal (V2d) and ventral (V2v) halves (representing lower and upper visual quadrants, respectively), causing retinotopically neighboring loci across the HM to be distant within V2. How is perceptual continuity maintained across this discontinuous HM representation? Injections of neuroanatomical tracers in marmoset V2d demonstrated that cells near the V2d rostral border can maintain retinotopic continuity within their classical and extra-classical receptive field (RF), by making both local and long-range intra- and interareal connections with ventral cortex representing the upper visual quadrant. V2d neurons located <0.9-1.3 mm from the V2d rostral border, whose RFs presumably do not cross the HM, make nonretinotopic horizontal connections with V2v neurons in the supra- and infragranular layers. V2d neurons located <0.6-0.9 mm from the border, whose RFs presumably cross the HM, in addition make retinotopic local connections with V2v neurons in layer 4. V2d neurons also make interareal connections with upper visual field regions of extrastriate cortex, but not of MT or MTc outside the foveal representation. Labeled connections in ventral cortex appear to represent the "missing" portion of the connectional fields in V2d across the HM. We conclude that connections between dorsal and ventral cortex can create visual field continuity within a second-order discontinuous visual topography. PMID:18755777

  7. No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics. PMID:25829853

  8. LOGISMOS-B for primates: primate cortical surface reconstruction and thickness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Sanchez, Mar; Shi, Yundi; Sonka, Milan

    2015-03-01

    Cortical thickness and surface area are important morphological measures with implications for many psychiatric and neurological conditions. Automated segmentation and reconstruction of the cortical surface from 3D MRI scans is challenging due to the variable anatomy of the cortex and its highly complex geometry. While many methods exist for this task in the context of the human brain, these methods are typically not readily applicable to the primate brain. We propose an innovative approach based on our recently proposed human cortical reconstruction algorithm, LOGISMOS-B, and the Laplace-based thickness measurement method. Quantitative evaluation of our approach was performed based on a dataset of T1- and T2-weighted MRI scans from 12-month-old macaques where labeling by our anatomical experts was used as independent standard. In this dataset, LOGISMOS-B has an average signed surface error of 0.01 +/- 0.03mm and an unsigned surface error of 0.42 +/- 0.03mm over the whole brain. Excluding the rather problematic temporal pole region further improves unsigned surface distance to 0.34 +/- 0.03mm. This high level of accuracy reached by our algorithm even in this challenging developmental dataset illustrates its robustness and its potential for primate brain studies.

  9. Observation of water quality in the mixed reach below the confluence of the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, California, August and November 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira, Rodger F.; Hoffman, Ray J.

    1978-01-01

    THe area near the confluence of the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, Calif., was selected for study of water-quality changes that occur when two large rivers mix. Water-quality measurements made during August 13-14 and November 4-5, 1975, indicated the mixing of the Sacramento and Feather River generally occurs as simple dilution. Specific conductance and silica had consistently larger measured values than theoretical values in the mixed reach. Some deviations from he theoretical value for any one characteristic in the mixed water are probably the result of physical forces such as upwelling near the confluence, or the concentrating effect of evaporation as the mixed water in the Sacramento River flows downstream. Other deviations in values of constituent concentrations or other properties may be the reslt of plant and animal activities. Benthic invertebrates and phytoplanktonic similarity indexes between seleted paired sites correspond to the quantity of water common to each site. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Effects of foveal information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1984-01-01

    The scanning behavior of pilots must be understood so that cockpit displays can be assembled which will provide the most information accurately and quickly to the pilot. The results of seven years of collecting and analyzing pilot scanning data are summarized. The data indicate that pilot scanning behavior is: (1) subsconscious; (2) situation dependent; and (3) can be disrupted if pilots are forced to make conscious decisions. Testing techniques and scanning analysis techniques have been developed that are sensitive to pilot workload.

  11. Use of multi-objective dredging for remediation of contaminated sediments: a case study of a typical heavily polluted confluence area in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Shao, Shiguang; Shen, Qiushi; Fan, Chengxin; Zhou, Qilin; Yin, Hongbin; Xu, Fuliu

    2015-11-01

    Sediments in confluence areas are typically contaminated by various pollutants that have been transported there by inflowing rivers. In this study, we evaluated the pollution status of a confluence area in Lake Chaohu (China). Both the nutrients and hazardous pollutants were analysed. Most sediment cores showed large variations in nutrient concentrations at depths of 10 to 18 cm. Positive release rates of NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P were detected in sediment cores. Hg and Cd were the most typical problematic metal contaminants encountered, and their contamination levels extended to depths of 20 and 25 cm, respectively. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (mostly acenaphthene and fluorine) were the primary persistent organic pollutants (POPs) present in sediments, and contamination levels frequently could be detected up to a depth of 16 cm. Simulated dredging operations were implemented in the laboratory, with a dredging depth of 15 cm found to be suitable for nutrient suppression. With the goal of suppressing nutrients release and removing high-risk metals and POPs, a multi-objective dredging plan was developed. This plan subdivides the confluence area into five parts that were treated with different dredging depths. A demonstration area was dredged in the most heavily polluted part, and the observed dredging effects were consistent with those expected on the basis of the plan. Such an approach to dredging might also be useful in other areas in the future. PMID:26162442

  12. Three-magnon splitting and confluence processes for spin-wave excitations in yttrium iron garnet films: Wave vector selective Brillouin light scattering measurements and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Romero, César L.; Kalinikos, Boris A.; Krivosik, Pavol; Tong, Wei; Kabos, Pavel; Patton, Carl E.

    2009-04-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has been used to observe and confirm the existence of nonlinear three magnon splitting and confluence processes for propagating spin waves in the magnetostatic backward volume wave configuration. Wave vector and frequency selective BLS techniques were also used to provide a quantitative map of the wave vector make-up for the parametrically excited half-frequency dipole-exchange spin wave (DESW) split magnons and the confluence magnons that result from the recombination of these DESW modes. The experimental wave vector maps for the product splitting and confluence magnons matched nicely with those expected from spin-wave theory. The data were obtained with (1) a strip line excitation/detection transducer structure, (2) forward-scattering BLS optics, (3) a fixed magnetic field of 352 Oe applied along the propagation direction, (4) pumping frequencies from 2.5 down to 2.1 GHz, (5) and cw input powers from 200μW to 6 mW. The wave vector selective measurements utilized variable diameter circular diaphragms, rotatable slit apertures, and circular light blocks to access spin waves with wave numbers from about 100 to 3.6×104rad/cm and the full 360° range of propagation angles.

  13. Depolarising primate experimentation: the good, the bad and the determined.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Michelle

    2009-12-01

    Until I began working at FRAME, I was not really aware of the Three Rs or FRAME's work to promote and progress them. It soon became clear to me that it made scientific sense and that it could make a difference to many thousands of laboratory animals. As an alternatives advocate, I regularly experience optimism, frustration and determination. This is illustrated most clearly by the primate research dilemma. Here, I describe the positive and negative experiences I have had whilst working toward the goal of replacing primate experiments, and how these have led me to undertake a multidisciplinary PhD project on primate use in biomedical research. The aim is to examine how research scientists view the opportunities and challenges involved in the use of primates in biomedical science, and to investigate the feasibility of phasing out their use. As a result of the research, I hope to provide a new perspective, to depolarise the debate and bring about a constructive dialogue between all parties as to how and when primate research could be replaced. PMID:20105018

  14. Led by the nose: Olfaction in primate feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Omer; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction, the sense of smell, was a latecomer to the systematic investigation of primate sensory ecology after long years in which it was considered to be of minor importance. This view shifted with the growing understanding of its role in social behavior and the accumulation of physiological studies demonstrating that the olfactory abilities of some primates are on a par with those of olfactory-dependent mammals such as dogs and rodents. Recent years have seen a proliferation of physiological, behavioral, anatomical, and genetic investigations of primate olfaction. These investigations have begun to shed light on the importance of olfaction in the process of food acquisition. However, integration of these works has been limited. It is therefore still difficult to pinpoint large-scale evolutionary scenarios, namely the functions that the sense of smell fulfills in primates' feeding ecology and the ecological niches that favor heavier reliance on olfaction. Here, we review available behavioral and physiological studies of primates in the field or captivity and try to elucidate how and when the sense of smell can help them acquire food. PMID:26267435

  15. The bony labyrinth of the early platyrrhine primate Chilecebus.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xijun; Flynn, John J; Wyss, André R

    2010-12-01

    We document the morphology of the bony labyrinth of Chilecebus carrascoensis, one of the best preserved early platyrrhines known, based on high resolution CT scanning and 3D digital reconstruction. The cochlea is low and conical in form, as in other anthropoids, but has only 2.5 spiral turns. When the allometric relationship with body mass is considered, cochlear size is similar to that in extant primates. The relative size of the semicircular canals, which is well within the range of other primates, indicates that Chilecebus carrascoensis was probably not as agile in its locomotion as other small-bodied platyrrhines such as Leontopithecus rosalia, Saguinus oedipus, and Callithrix jacchus, but it probably was not a suspensory acrobat or a slow climber. The proportion, shape, and orientation of the semicircular canals in Chilecebus carrascoensis also mirror that typically seen in extant primates. However, no single variable can be used for predicting the locomotor pattern in Chilecebus carrascoensis. Based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA) scores we calculated rescaled Euclidean distances for various taxa; primates with similar locomotor patterns tend to share shorter distances. Results for Chilecebus carrascoensis underscore its general resemblance to living quadrupedal primate taxa, but it is not positioned especially near any single living taxon. PMID:20952046

  16. Primate iPS cells as tools for evolutionary analyses.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Stephanie; Kircher, Martin; Vieth, Beate; Haase, Alexandra; Merkert, Sylvia; Beier, Jennifer; Göhring, Gudrun; Glage, Silke; Schambach, Axel; Curnow, Eliza C; Pääbo, Svante; Martin, Ulrich; Enard, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are regarded as a central tool to understand human biology in health and disease. Similarly, iPSCs from non-human primates should be a central tool to understand human evolution, in particular for assessing the conservation of regulatory networks in iPSC models. Here, we have generated human, gorilla, bonobo and cynomolgus monkey iPSCs and assess their usefulness in such a framework. We show that these cells are well comparable in their differentiation potential and are generally similar to human, cynomolgus and rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs). RNA sequencing reveals that expression differences among clones, individuals and stem cell type are all of very similar magnitude within a species. In contrast, expression differences between closely related primate species are three times larger and most genes show significant expression differences among the analyzed species. However, pseudogenes differ more than twice as much, suggesting that evolution of expression levels in primate stem cells is rapid, but constrained. These patterns in pluripotent stem cells are comparable to those found in other tissues except testis. Hence, primate iPSCs reveal insights into general primate gene expression evolution and should provide a rich source to identify conserved and species-specific gene expression patterns for cellular phenotypes. PMID:24631741

  17. Reproductive aging patterns in primates reveal that humans are distinct

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara S.; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.; Bronikowski, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    Women rarely give birth after ∼45 y of age, and they experience the cessation of reproductive cycles, menopause, at ∼50 y of age after a fertility decline lasting almost two decades. Such reproductive senescence in mid-lifespan is an evolutionary puzzle of enduring interest because it should be inherently disadvantageous. Furthermore, comparative data on reproductive senescence from other primates, or indeed other mammals, remains relatively rare. Here we carried out a unique detailed comparative study of reproductive senescence in seven species of nonhuman primates in natural populations, using long-term, individual-based data, and compared them to a population of humans experiencing natural fertility and mortality. In four of seven primate species we found that reproductive senescence occurred before death only in a small minority of individuals. In three primate species we found evidence of reproductive senescence that accelerated throughout adulthood; however, its initial rate was much lower than mortality, so that relatively few individuals experienced reproductive senescence before death. In contrast, the human population showed the predicted and well-known pattern in which reproductive senescence occurred before death for many women and its rate accelerated throughout adulthood. These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that reproductive senescence in midlife, although apparent in natural-fertility, natural-mortality populations of humans, is generally absent in other primates living in such populations. PMID:23898189

  18. Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L.; Schülke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity “concessions” by investigating how paternity covaries with the number of males, female estrous synchrony, and rates of extragroup paternity. In multivariate and phylogenetically controlled analyses of data from 27 studies on 19 species, we found strong support for a limited control skew model, with reproductive skew within groups declining as female reproductive synchrony and the number of males per group increase. Of these 2 variables, female reproductive synchrony explained more of the variation in paternity distributions. To test whether dominant males provide incentives to subordinates to resist matings by extragroup males, that is, whether dominants make concessions of paternity, we derived a novel prediction that skew is lower within groups when threat from outside the group exists. This prediction was not supported as a primary factor underlying patterns of reproductive skew among primate species. However, our approach revealed that if concessions occur in primates, they are most likely when female synchrony is low, as these conditions provide alpha male control of paternity that is assumed by concessions models. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that aspects of male reproductive competition are the primary drivers of reproductive skew in primates. PMID:19018288

  19. Primate Anatomy, Kinematics, and Principles for Humanoid Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.; Ambrose, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    The primate order of animals is investigated for clues in the design of Humanoid Robots. The pursuit is directed with a theory that kinematics, musculature, perception, and cognition can be optimized for specific tasks by varying the proportions of limbs, and in particular, the points of branching in kinematic trees such as the primate skeleton. Called the Bifurcated Chain Hypothesis, the theory is that the branching proportions found in humans may be superior to other animals and primates for the tasks of dexterous manipulation and other human specialties. The primate taxa are defined, contemporary primate evolution hypotheses are critiqued, and variations within the order are noted. The kinematic branching points of the torso, limbs and fingers are studied for differences in proportions across the order, and associated with family and genus capabilities and behaviors. The human configuration of a long waist, long neck, and short arms is graded using a kinematic workspace analysis and a set of design axioms for mobile manipulation robots. It scores well. The re emergence of the human waist, seen in early Prosimians and Monkeys for arboreal balance, but lost in the terrestrial Pongidae, is postulated as benefiting human dexterity. The human combination of an articulated waist and neck will be shown to enable the use of smaller arms, achieving greater regions of workspace dexterity than the larger limbs of Gorillas and other Hominoidea.

  20. Male infanticide leads to social monogamy in primates

    PubMed Central

    Opie, Christopher; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Shultz, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Although common in birds, social monogamy, or pair-living, is rare among mammals because internal gestation and lactation in mammals makes it advantageous for males to seek additional mating opportunities. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of social monogamy among mammals: as a male mate-guarding strategy, because of the benefits of biparental care, or as a defense against infanticidal males. However, comparative analyses have been unable to resolve the root causes of monogamy. Primates are unusual among mammals because monogamy has evolved independently in all of the major clades. Here we combine trait data across 230 primate species with a Bayesian likelihood framework to test for correlated evolution between monogamy and a range of traits to evaluate the competing hypotheses. We find evidence of correlated evolution between social monogamy and both female ranging patterns and biparental care, but the most compelling explanation for the appearance of monogamy is male infanticide. It is only the presence of infanticide that reliably increases the probability of a shift to social monogamy, whereas monogamy allows the secondary adoption of paternal care and is associated with a shift to discrete ranges. The origin of social monogamy in primates is best explained by long lactation periods caused by altriciality, making primate infants particularly vulnerable to infanticidal males. We show that biparental care shortens relative lactation length, thereby reducing infanticide risk and increasing reproductive rates. These phylogenetic analyses support a key role for infanticide in the social evolution of primates, and potentially, humans. PMID:23898180

  1. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  2. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1995-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  3. Calorie Restriction and Aging in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Kemnitz, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    In the 75 years since the seminal observation of Clive McCay that restriction of calorie intake extends the lifespan of rats, a great deal has been learned about the effects of calorie restriction (CR; reduced intake of a nutritious diet) on aging in various short-lived animal models. Studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of CR on health, the rate of aging, and longevity. Two prospective investigations of the effects of CR on long-lived nonhuman primate (NHP) species began nearly 25 years ago and are still under way. This review presents the design, methods, and main findings of these and other important contributing studies, which have generally revealed beneficial effects of CR on physiological function and the retardation of disease consistent with studies in other species. Specifically, prolonged CR appears to extend the lifespan of rhesus monkeys, which exhibited lower body fat; slower rate of muscle loss with age; lower incidence of neoplasia, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and endometriosis; improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; and no apparent adverse effect on bone health, as well as a reduction in total energy expenditure. In addition, there are no reports of deleterious effects of CR on reproductive endpoints, and brain morphology is preserved by CR. Adrenal and thyroid hormone profiles are inconsistently affected. More research is needed to delineate the mechanisms of the desirable outcomes of CR and to develop interventions that can produce similar beneficial outcomes for humans. This research offers tremendous potential for producing novel insights into aging and risk of disease. PMID:21411859

  4. [Differentiation of human and nonhuman primate ribs].

    PubMed

    May, E; Martins, M

    1985-01-01

    The ribs of 9 human beings and 6 animal-primates (4 Pongidae and 2 Cercopithecidae of 2 different species) had been examined metrically with regard to their relative dimensions and proportions. Special care was taken as well of the differentiation of single ribs of one individual as of interspecific differentiation. Generally the Pongidae show the greatest relative-dimensions. This concerns both the diameter as the length. The individuals of the genus Homo have medium-sized dimensions, while the Cercopithecidae have the smallest. In this way a first grouping of the measurements becomes possible. As for the rib-diameter Homo concurs more with the Pongidae than with the Cercopithecidae. At first from the rib-proportions resulted an indication to special similarity between the Pongidae and recent man from whom the Cercopithecidae distinctively differ as it is shown by the indices angulus-sternal end/tuberculum-angulus. A divariate presentation of the measurements of this index, however, proves that Homo concerning the single measurements occupies an intermediate position between the Pongidae and the Cercopithecidae in this case, too (Fig. 5). The examination of the craniocaudal trend of different ribmeasurements (length, depth and area of the rib-arc) produced a special similarity of the 4 upper ribs between the Pongidae and Homo. In the region of the lower chest a great conformity between the Pongidae and the Cercopithecidae became obvious in this respect. A different trend shows up in Homo - probably as an expression of the transformation-process in the human chest. The intraspecific morphometric discrimination of the single ribs proves to be especially difficult, above all between the 7th to 10th rib, if the ribs of an individual are not completely present. It is, however, possible in some cases by means of some measurements and indices of these ribs. PMID:4083514

  5. Primate Kinship: Contributions from Cayo Santiago.

    PubMed

    Berman, Carol M

    2016-01-01

    Research on Cayo Santiago and Japan deserves credit for launching the study of primate kinship and for continuing to help shape it in important ways. This review describes the origins of kinship research on Cayo Santiago, beginning with Donald Sade's pioneering work establishing the concepts of kin preferences, matrilineal dominance systems and incest avoidance. It then reviews subsequent research by later Cayo Santiago researchers and alumni, focusing primarily on maternal kinship. Together these researchers have greatly expanded our knowledge of kin preferences in rhesus in terms of (i) what age-sex classes, behaviors and types of kin show them, (ii) the ways in which kinship interfaces with rank, sex, age, and dispersal patterns, and (iii) the graded and variably limited nature of kin preferences in terms of degree of relatedness. Second, the argument for kin selection at least for some types of behavior has survived challenges posed by several alternative explanations, and has been both strengthened by recent findings of paternal kin preferences and narrowed by studies showing that unilateral altruism may extend only to very close kin. Third, work on Cayo Santiago has contributed to an appreciation that both current conditions and inherent social characteristics may influence the strength of kin preferences, and fourth, it has contributed to an understanding of the possible origins of our own species' family systems. Cayo Santiago became a leader in kinship research in large part because of management practices that produce known extended lineages. These lineages have promoted and accelerated research on kinship, prompting other researchers to investigate its importance in other groups and species, where its effects only then became clear. The extended lineages remain valuable tools for research on a species that lives in a broad range of environments in the wild, including those with key parallels to Cayo Santiago. PMID:25704962

  6. Forest fragmentation as cause of bacterial transmission among nonhuman primates, humans, and livestock, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Tony L; Gillespie, Thomas R; Rwego, Innocent B; Estoff, Elizabeth L; Chapman, Colin A

    2008-09-01

    We conducted a prospective study of bacterial transmission among humans, nonhuman primates (primates hereafter), and livestock in western Uganda. Humans living near forest fragments harbored Escherichia coli bacteria that were approximately 75% more similar to bacteria from primates in those fragments than to bacteria from primates in nearby undisturbed forests. Genetic similarity between human/livestock and primate bacteria increased approximately 3-fold as anthropogenic disturbance within forest fragments increased from moderate to high. Bacteria harbored by humans and livestock were approximately twice as similar to those of red-tailed guenons, which habitually enter human settlements to raid crops, than to bacteria of other primate species. Tending livestock, experiencing gastrointestinal symptoms, and residing near a disturbed forest fragment increased genetic similarity between a participant's bacteria and those of nearby primates. Forest fragmentation, anthropogenic disturbance within fragments, primate ecology, and human behavior all influence bidirectional, interspecific bacterial transmission. Targeted interventions on any of these levels should reduce disease transmission and emergence. PMID:18760003

  7. Multi-scale field characterization, data assimilation, and 2-D model development for a complex river confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, H.; Fisher, J. C.; Villamizar, S. R.; Butler, C. A.; Kaiser, W.; Harmon, T. C.

    2009-12-01

    Questions pertaining to stream restoration ecology, environmental flows, and hydrology may require higher resolution observation and simulation capabilities than are typical of hydrologic investigations. Multi-dimensional models can provide more insight into the coupled biogeochemical processes needed to fully understand these systems. Of course, such models require a large amount of data relative to more simplistic models to accurately represent real conditions. This work summarizes an end-to-end exercise spanning from data collection to model calibration at the shallow confluence of the San Joaquin River (SJR) and Merced River in Central California. A raster pattern of point velocity measurements was collected using an automated device known as Rapidly Deployable Networked Infomechanical System (NIMSRD) transporting an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) over river cross sections, and flow was then calculated using the midsection method. Flow estimates were within 12% of those from a nearby USGS gaging station. Bathymetric data were collected by surveying depths for shallow stretches and by echosounding for deeper stretches, and then smoothed using multilevel B-spline interpolation (MBI). The resulting flow, bathymetry, and water surface elevation (WSE) datasets were used as boundary conditions in a commercially available modeling software package, Surface water Modeling Systems (SMS), comparing two different finite element modeling modules: FESWMS and RMA2. Modeled flow and WSEs were compared to observed values to determine model performance and evaluated for three cases with differing mesh element sizes, model type, and bathymetry interpolation method (MBI or inverse distance). Simulations indicated that for similar numerical discretization, FESWMS outperformed RMA2, with finer mesh size and interpolated bathymetry leading to better model performance in both cases. Overall, the integrated field characterization and modeling approach demonstrates the feasibility

  8. Primate-specific evolution of an LDLR enhancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qian-Fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Wang, Qianben; Moses, Alan M.; Chanan, Sumita; Brown, Myles; Eisen, Michael B.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin,Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2005-12-01

    Sequence changes in regulatory regions have often been invoked to explain phenotypic divergence among species, but molecular examples of this have been difficult to obtain. In this study we identified an anthropoid primate-specific sequence element that contributed to the regulatory evolution of the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Using a combination of close and distant species genomic sequence comparisons coupled with in vivo and in vitro studies, we found that a functional cholesterol-sensing sequence motif arose and was fixed within a pre-existing enhancer in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Our study demonstrates one molecular mechanism by which ancestral mammalian regulatory elements can evolve to perform new functions in the primate lineage leading to human.

  9. Primate evolution of the recombination regulator PRDM9

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jerrod J.; Roach, David J.; Thomas, James H.; Shendure, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The PRDM9 gene encodes a protein with a highly variable tandem-repeat zinc finger (ZF) DNA-binding domain that plays a key role in determining sequence-specific hotspots of meiotic recombination genome-wide. Here we survey the diversity of the PRDM9 ZF domain by sequencing this region in 64 primates from 18 species, revealing 68 unique alleles across all groups. We report ubiquitous positive selection at nucleotide positions corresponding to DNA contact residues and the expansion of ZFs within clades, which confirms the rapid evolution of the ZF domain throughout the primate lineage. Alignment of Neanderthal and Denisovan sequences suggests that PRDM9 in archaic hominins was closely related to present-day human alleles that are rare and specific to African populations. In the context of its role in reproduction, our results are consistent with variation in PRDM9 contributing to speciation events in primates. PMID:25001002

  10. Infant abuse and neglect: lessons from the primate laboratory.

    PubMed

    Reite, M

    1987-01-01

    We review the several areas in which research on nonhuman primates contributes to our understanding of child abuse and neglect in human children. One special advantage of primate studies is that the experimental method can be utilized to examine the short- and long-term effects of relatively well-defined and circumscribed alterations in early experience and the manner in which they can affect later behavioral and physiological development. Four studies in M. nemestrina (pigtail) monkeys are described in which relatively short social separation experiences in infancy were associated with evidence of persistent changes in certain aspects of social behavioral functioning and immunological functioning, up to six years later, when the previously separated animals were in late adolescence or early adulthood. Such findings suggest that nonhuman primates may be used as animal model systems with considerable relevance to issues surrounding human child abuse and neglect. PMID:3676891

  11. The Jaw Adductor Resultant and Estimated Bite Force in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jonathan M. G.; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Logan, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    We reconstructed the jaw adductor resultant in 34 primate species using new data on muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and data on skull landmarks. Based on predictions by Greaves, the resultant should (1) cross the jaw at 30% of its length, (2) lie directly posterior to the last molar, and (3) incline more anteriorly in primates that need not resist large anteriorly-directed forces. We found that the resultant lies significantly posterior to its predicted location, is significantly posterior to the last molar, and is significantly more anteriorly inclined in folivores than in frugivores. Perhaps primates emphasize avoiding temporomandibular joint distraction and/or wide gapes at the expense of bite force. Our exploration of trends in the data revealed that estimated bite force varies with body mass (but not diet) and is significantly greater in strepsirrhines than in anthropoids. This might be related to greater contribution from the balancing-side jaw adductors in anthropoids. PMID:22611496

  12. First evidence for functional vomeronasal 2 receptor genes in primates.

    PubMed

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Mundy, Nicholas I; Zimmermann, Elke; Radespiel, Ute

    2013-02-23

    Two classes of vomeronasal receptor genes, V1R and V2R, occur in vertebrates. Whereas, V1R loci are found in a wide variety of mammals, including primates, intact V2R genes have thus far only been described in rodents and marsupials. In primates, the V2R repertoire has been considered degenerate. Here, we identify for the first time two intact V2R loci in a strepsirrhine primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), and demonstrate their expression in the vomeronasal organ. Putatively functional orthologues are present in two other strepsirrhines, whereas, both loci are pseudogenes in a range of anthropoid species. The functional significance of the loci is unknown, but positive selection on one of them is consistent with an adaptive role in pheromone detection. Finally, conservation of V2R loci in strepsirrhines is notable, given their high diversity and role in MUP and MHC detection in rodents. PMID:23269843

  13. Comparative RNA sequencing reveals substantial genetic variation in endangered primates

    PubMed Central

    Perry, George H.; Melsted, Páll; Marioni, John C.; Wang, Ying; Bainer, Russell; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Michelini, Katelyn; Zehr, Sarah; Yoder, Anne D.; Stephens, Matthew; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Gilad, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genomic studies in primates have yielded important insights into the evolutionary forces that shape genetic diversity and revealed the likely genetic basis for certain species-specific adaptations. To date, however, these studies have focused on only a small number of species. For the majority of nonhuman primates, including some of the most critically endangered, genome-level data are not yet available. In this study, we have taken the first steps toward addressing this gap by sequencing RNA from the livers of multiple individuals from each of 16 mammalian species, including humans and 11 nonhuman primates. Of the nonhuman primate species, five are lemurs and two are lorisoids, for which little or no genomic data were previously available. To analyze these data, we developed a method for de novo assembly and alignment of orthologous gene sequences across species. We assembled an average of 5721 gene sequences per species and characterized diversity and divergence of both gene sequences and gene expression levels. We identified patterns of variation that are consistent with the action of positive or directional selection, including an 18-fold enrichment of peroxisomal genes among genes whose regulation likely evolved under directional selection in the ancestral primate lineage. Importantly, we found no relationship between genetic diversity and endangered status, with the two most endangered species in our study, the black and white ruffed lemur and the Coquerel's sifaka, having the highest genetic diversity among all primates. Our observations imply that many endangered lemur populations still harbor considerable genetic variation. Timely efforts to conserve these species alongside their habitats have, therefore, strong potential to achieve long-term success. PMID:22207615

  14. Euarchontan Opsin Variation Brings New Focus to Primate Origins

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Amanda D.; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L.; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D.; Timm, Robert M.; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B.; Perry, George H.; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders Scandentia (treeshrews), Dermoptera (colugos), and Primates. The ancestral state of primate color vision is therefore uncertain. Here, we report on the genes (OPN1SW and OPN1LW) that encode SWS1 and M/LWS opsins in seven species of treeshrew, including the sole nocturnal scandentian Ptilocercus lowii. In addition, we examined the opsin genes of the Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), an enduring ecological analogue in the debate on primate origins. Our results indicate: 1) retention of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity in C. derbianus and a shift from UV to blue spectral sensitivities at the base of Euarchonta; 2) ancient pseudogenization of OPN1SW in the ancestors of P. lowii, but a signature of purifying selection in those of C. derbianus; and, 3) the absence of OPN1LW polymorphism among diurnal treeshrews. These findings suggest functional variation in the color vision of nocturnal mammals and a distinctive visual ecology of early primates, perhaps one that demanded greater spatial resolution under light levels that could support cone-mediated color discrimination. PMID:26739880

  15. Euarchontan Opsin Variation Brings New Focus to Primate Origins.

    PubMed

    Melin, Amanda D; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D; Timm, Robert M; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B; Perry, George H; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2016-04-01

    Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders Scandentia (treeshrews), Dermoptera (colugos), and Primates. The ancestral state of primate color vision is therefore uncertain. Here, we report on the genes (OPN1SW and OPN1LW) that encode SWS1 and M/LWS opsins in seven species of treeshrew, including the sole nocturnal scandentian Ptilocercus lowii. In addition, we examined the opsin genes of the Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), an enduring ecological analogue in the debate on primate origins. Our results indicate: 1) retention of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity in C. derbianus and a shift from UV to blue spectral sensitivities at the base of Euarchonta; 2) ancient pseudogenization of OPN1SW in the ancestors of P. lowii, but a signature of purifying selection in those of C. derbianus; and, 3) the absence of OPN1LW polymorphism among diurnal treeshrews. These findings suggest functional variation in the color vision of nocturnal mammals and a distinctive visual ecology of early primates, perhaps one that demanded greater spatial resolution under light levels that could support cone-mediated color discrimination. PMID:26739880

  16. Primate dietary ecology in the context of food mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Coiner-Collier, Susan; Scott, Robert S; Chalk-Wilayto, Janine; Cheyne, Susan M; Constantino, Paul; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Elgart, Alison A; Glowacka, Halszka; Loyola, Laura C; Ossi-Lupo, Kerry; Raguet-Schofield, Melissa; Talebi, Mauricio G; Sala, Enrico A; Sieradzy, Pawel; Taylor, Andrea B; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wright, Barth W; Yamashita, Nayuta; Lucas, Peter W; Vogel, Erin R

    2016-09-01

    Substantial variation exists in the mechanical properties of foods consumed by primate species. This variation is known to influence food selection and ingestion among non-human primates, yet no large-scale comparative study has examined the relationships between food mechanical properties and feeding strategies. Here, we present comparative data on the Young's modulus and fracture toughness of natural foods in the diets of 31 primate species. We use these data to examine the relationships between food mechanical properties and dietary quality, body mass, and feeding time. We also examine the relationship between food mechanical properties and categorical concepts of diet that are often used to infer food mechanical properties. We found that traditional dietary categories, such as folivory and frugivory, did not faithfully track food mechanical properties. Additionally, our estimate of dietary quality was not significantly correlated with either toughness or Young's modulus. We found a complex relationship among food mechanical properties, body mass, and feeding time, with a potential interaction between median toughness and body mass. The relationship between mean toughness and feeding time is straightforward: feeding time increases as toughness increases. However, when considering median toughness, the relationship with feeding time may depend upon body mass, such that smaller primates increase their feeding time in response to an increase in median dietary toughness, whereas larger primates may feed for shorter periods of time as toughness increases. Our results emphasize the need for additional studies quantifying the mechanical and chemical properties of primate diets so that they may be meaningfully compared to research on feeding behavior and jaw morphology. PMID:27542555

  17. Primate-Specific Evolution of an LDLR Enhancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qian-fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Wang, Qianben; Moses, Alan M.; Chanan, Sumita; Brown, Myles; Eisen, Michael B.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin,Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2006-06-28

    Sequence changes in regulatory regions have often beeninvoked to explain phenotypic divergence among species, but molecularexamples of this have been difficult to obtain. In this study, weidentified an anthropoid primate specific sequence element thatcontributed to the regulatory evolution of the LDL receptor. Using acombination of close and distant species genomic sequence comparisonscoupled with in vivo and in vitro studies, we show that a functionalcholesterol-sensing sequence motif arose and was fixed within apre-existing enhancer in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Ourstudy demonstrates one molecular mechanism by which ancestral mammalianregulatory elements can evolve to perform new functions in the primatelineage leading to human.

  18. Internet-based atlas of the primate spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Tokuno, Hironobu; Tanaka, Ikuko; Senoo, Aya; Umitsu, Yoshitomo; Akazawa, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Yasuhisa; Watson, Charles

    2011-05-01

    In 2009, we reported an online brain atlas of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) at http://marmoset-brain.org:2008. Here we report new digital images of the primate spinal cord sections added to the website. We prepared histological sections of every segment of the spinal cord of the common marmoset, rhesus monkey and Japanese monkey with various staining techniques. The sections were scanned with Carl Zeiss MIRAX SCAN at light microscopic resolution. Obtained digital data were processed and converted into multi-resolutionary images with Adobe Photoshop and Zoomify Design. These images of the primate spinal cords are now available on the web via the Internet. PMID:21291922

  19. Induction of hepatocellular carcinoma in nonhuman primates by chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, R.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Several compounds were evaluated in nonhuman primates for their potential to induce neoplasms, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The compounds can be classified into three groups: food contaminants, model rodent carcinogens, and nitrosamines. All three compounds in the food contaminants group, namely, aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin, and methylazoxymethanol acetate, induced HCC. None of the model rodent carcinogens tested consistently induced HCC in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Three of four nitrosamines evaluated induced HCC in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. One nitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, is a predictable and potent inducer of HCC and is useful for establishment of a nonhuman primate model for numerous oncologic studies.

  20. Using non-human primates to benefit humans: research and organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Emerging biotechnology may soon allow the creation of genetically human organs inside animals, with non-human primates (henceforth simply "primates") and pigs being the best candidate species. This prospect raises the question of whether creating organs in primates in order to then transplant them into humans would be more (or less) acceptable than using them for research. In this paper, we examine the validity of the purported moral distinction between primates and other animals, and analyze the ethical acceptability of using primates to create organs for human use. PMID:24807743

  1. Alopecia: Possible Causes and Treatments, Particularly in Captive Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2009-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) occurs in some nonhuman primates housed in captivity and is of concern to colony managers and veterinarians. Here we review the characteristics, potential causes, and treatments for this condition. Although we focus on nonhuman primates, relevant research on other mammalian species is discussed also, due to the relative paucity of studies on alopecia in the primate literature. We first discuss the cycle of hair growth and explain how this cycle can be disrupted to produce alopecia. Numerous factors may be related to hair loss and range from naturally occurring processes (for example, seasonality, aging) to various biologic dysfunctions, including vitamin and mineral imbalances, endocrine disorders, immunologic diseases, and genetic mutations. We also address bacterial and fungal infections, infestation by parasites, and atopic dermatitis as possible causes of alopecia. Finally, we examine the role of psychogenic factors, such as stress. Depending on the presumed cause of the hair loss, various treatment strategies can be pursued. Alopecia in nonhuman primates is a multifaceted disorder with many potential sources. For this reason, appropriate testing for various disease conditions should be completed before alopecia is considered to be related to stress. PMID:19295051

  2. As Threats of Violence Escalate, Primate Researchers Stand Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Scientists doing research on primates are increasingly being subjected to threats and acts of violence from animal rights groups. The intimidation has resulted in many laboratories taking extensive security measures. Some scientists claim, however, that there is no surrogate for animal research in understanding human diseases. There are fears that…

  3. Primate follicular development and oocyte maturation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Xu, Min; Bernuci, Marcelo P; Fisher, Thomas E; Shea, Lonnie D; Woodruff, Teresa K; Zelinski, Mary B; Stouffer, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The factors and processes involved in primate follicular development are complex and not fully understood. An encapsulated three-dimensional (3D) follicle culture system could be a valuable in vitro model to study the dynamics and regulation of folliculogenesis in intact individual follicles in primates. Besides the research relevance, in vitro follicle maturation (IFM) is emerging as a promising approach to offer options for fertility preservation in female patients with cancer. This review summarizes the current published data on in vitro follicular development from the preantral to small antral stage in nonhuman primates, including follicle survival and growth, endocrine (ovarian steroid hormone) and paracrine/autocrine (local factor) function, as well as oocyte maturation and fertilization. Future directions include major challenges and strategies to further improve follicular growth and differentiation with oocytes competent for in vitro fertilization and subsequent embryonic development, as well as opportunities to investigate primate folliculogenesis by utilizing this 3D culture system. The information may be valuable in identifying optimal conditions for human follicle culture, with the ultimate goal of translating the experimental results and products to patients, thereby facilitating diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for female fertility. PMID:24097381

  4. The Gateway to the Brain: Dissecting the Primate Eye

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Mark; Zangenehpour, Shahin; Bouskila, Joseph; Boire, Denis; Ptito, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    The visual system in humans is considered the gateway to the world and plays a principal role in the plethora of sensory, perceptual and cognitive processes. It is therefore not surprising that quality of vision is tied to quality of life . Despite widespread clinical and basic research surrounding the causes of visual disorders, many forms of visual impairments, such as retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration, lack effective treatments. Non-human primates have the closest general features of eye development to that of humans. Not only do they have a similar vascular anatomy, but amongst other mammals, primates have the unique characteristic of having a region in the temporal retina specialized for high visual acuity, the fovea1. Here we describe a general technique for dissecting the primate retina to provide tissue for retinal histology, immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection, as well as light and electron microscopy. With the extended use of the non-human primate as a translational model, our hope is that improved understanding of the retina will provide insights into effective approaches towards attenuating or reversing the negative impact of visual disorders on the quality of life of affected individuals. PMID:19488028

  5. Distinct Lineages of Bufavirus in Wild Shrews and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Anindita, Paulina D; Ishii, Akihiro; Ueno, Keisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    Viral metagenomic analysis identified a new parvovirus genome in the intestinal contents of wild shrews in Zambia. Related viruses were detected in spleen tissues from wild shrews and nonhuman primates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these viruses are related to human bufaviruses, highlighting the presence and genetic diversity of bufaviruses in wildlife. PMID:26079728

  6. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  7. Functional morphology of the primate head and neck.

    PubMed

    Nalley, Thierra K; Grider-Potter, Neysa

    2015-04-01

    The vertebral column plays a key role in maintaining posture, locomotion, and transmitting loads between body components. Cervical vertebrae act as a bridge between the torso and head and play a crucial role in the maintenance of head position and the visual field. Despite its importance in positional behaviors, the functional morphology of the cervical region remains poorly understood, particularly in comparison to the thoracic and lumbar sections of the spinal column. This study tests whether morphological variation in the primate cervical vertebrae correlates with differences in postural behavior. Phylogenetic generalized least-squares analyses were performed on a taxonomically broad sample of 26 extant primate taxa to test the link between vertebral morphology and posture. Kinematic data on primate head and neck postures were used instead of behavioral categories in an effort to provide a more direct analysis of our functional hypothesis. Results provide evidence for a function-form link between cervical vertebral shape and postural behaviors. Specifically, taxa with more pronograde heads and necks and less kyphotic orbits exhibit cervical vertebrae with longer spinous processes, indicating increased mechanical advantage for deep nuchal musculature, and craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies and more coronally oriented zygapophyseal articular facets, suggesting an emphasis on curve formation and maintenance within the cervical lordosis, coupled with a greater resistance to translation and ventral displacement. These results not only document support for functional relationships in cervical vertebrae features across a wide range of primate taxa, but highlight the utility of quantitative behavioral data in functional investigations. PMID:25752265

  8. Human Quadrupeds, Primate Quadrupedalism, and Uner Tan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Liza J.; Cole, Whitney G.; Young, Jesse W.; Raichlen, David A.; Robinson, Scott R.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005, an extensive literature documents individuals from several families afflicted with “Uner Tan Syndrome (UTS),” a condition that in its most extreme form is characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia, loss of balance and coordination, impaired cognitive abilities, and habitual quadrupedal gait on hands and feet. Some researchers have interpreted habitual use of quadrupedalism by these individuals from an evolutionary perspective, suggesting that it represents an atavistic expression of our quadrupedal primate ancestry or “devolution.” In support of this idea, individuals with “UTS” are said to use diagonal sequence quadrupedalism, a type of quadrupedal gait that distinguishes primates from most other mammals. Although the use of primate-like quadrupedal gait in humans would not be sufficient to support the conclusion of evolutionary “reversal,” no quantitative gait analyses were presented to support this claim. Using standard gait analysis of 518 quadrupedal strides from video sequences of individuals with “UTS”, we found that these humans almost exclusively used lateral sequence–not diagonal sequence–quadrupedal gaits. The quadrupedal gait of these individuals has therefore been erroneously described as primate-like, further weakening the “devolution” hypothesis. In fact, the quadrupedalism exhibited by individuals with UTS resembles that of healthy adult humans asked to walk quadrupedally in an experimental setting. We conclude that quadrupedalism in healthy adults or those with a physical disability can be explained using biomechanical principles rather than evolutionary assumptions. PMID:25029457

  9. Consideration of other primate species as flight animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    The different types of primates which might be used as flight animals are surveyed, and the pros and cons of using them are discussed. Various factors suggest that the most desirable animals for space studies are the rhesus, pig-tailed, Java, and squirrel monkeys. The capuchin monkey has assets for certain types of space experimentation.

  10. 76 FR 677 - Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...CDC is proposing to amend its regulations for the importation of live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing requirements for the importation of Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus), Chlorocebus aethiops (African green), and Macaca mulatta (rhesus) monkeys to all NHPs. Filovirus testing will continue to be required only for Old World NHPs. CDC also is proposing to reduce the frequency at......

  11. Voice processing in human and non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Belin, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Humans share with non-human primates a number of voice perception abilities of crucial importance in social interactions, such as the ability to identify a conspecific individual from its vocalizations. Speech perception is likely to have evolved in our ancestors on the basis of pre-existing neural mechanisms involved in extracting behaviourally relevant information from conspecific vocalizations (CVs). Studying the neural bases of voice perception in primates thus not only has the potential to shed light on cerebral mechanisms that may be—unlike those involved in speech perception—directly homologous between species, but also has direct implications for our understanding of how speech appeared in humans. In this comparative review, we focus on behavioural and neurobiological evidence relative to two issues central to voice perception in human and non-human primates: (i) are CVs ‘special’, i.e. are they analysed using dedicated cerebral mechanisms not used for other sound categories, and (ii) to what extent and using what neural mechanisms do primates identify conspecific individuals from their vocalizations? PMID:17118926

  12. Efficient Generation of Nonhuman Primate Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Bonan; Trobridge, Grant D.; Zhang, Xiaobing; Watts, Korashon L.; Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Wohlfahrt, Martin; Adair, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great potential for regenerative medicine and gene therapy. Thus far, iPS cells have typically been generated using integrating viral vectors expressing various reprogramming transcription factors; nonintegrating methods have been less effective and efficient. Because there is a significant risk of malignant transformation and cancer involved with the use of iPS cells, careful evaluation of transplanted iPS cells will be necessary in small and large animal studies before clinical application. Here, we have generated and characterized nonhuman primate iPS cells with the goal of evaluating iPS cell transplantation in a clinically relevant large animal model. We developed stable Phoenix-RD114-based packaging cell lines that produce OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC, and KLF4 (OSCK) expressing gammaretroviral vectors. Using these vectors in combination with small molecules, we were able to efficiently and reproducibly generate nonhuman primate iPS cells from pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). The established nonhuman primate iPS cells exhibited pluripotency and extensive self-renewal capacity. The facile and reproducible generation of nonhuman primate iPS cells using defined producer cells as a source of individual reprogramming factors should provide an important resource to optimize and evaluate iPS cell technology for studies involving stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:21058905

  13. Comparative Analysis of Alu Repeats in Primate Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Alu repeats are SINEs (Short intersperse repetitive elements) which enjoy a successful application in genome evolution, population biology, phylogenetics and forensics. Human Alu consensus sequences were widely used as surrogates in nonhuman primate studies with an assumption that all p...

  14. Social drive and the evolution of primate hearing

    PubMed Central

    Ramsier, Marissa A.; Cunningham, Andrew J.; Finneran, James J.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and function of primate communication have attracted much attention, and vocal signals, in particular, have been studied in detail. As a general rule, larger social groups emit more types of vocal signals, including those conveying the presence of specific types of predators. The adaptive advantages of receiving and responding to alarm calls are expected to exert a selective pressure on the auditory system. Yet, the comparative biology of primate hearing is limited to select species, and little attention has been paid to the effects of social and vocal complexity on hearing. Here, we use the auditory brainstem response method to generate the largest number of standardized audiograms available for any primate radiation. We compared the auditory sensitivities of 11 strepsirrhine species with and without independent contrasts and show that social complexity explains a significant amount of variation in two audiometric parameters—overall sensitivity and high-frequency limit. We verified the generality of this latter result by augmenting our analysis with published data from nine species spanning the primate order. To account for these findings, we develop and test a model of social drive. We hypothesize that social complexity has favoured enhanced hearing sensitivities, especially at higher frequencies. PMID:22641824

  15. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: Contributions from Comparative Research with Nonhuman Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental psychology is a discipline that has the potential to integrate conceptual approaches to the study of behavioral development derived from psychology and biology as well as empirical data from humans and animals. Comparative research with animals, and especially with nonhuman primates, can provide evidence of adaptation in…

  16. Nonhuman primate vocalizations support categorization in very young human infants.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Alissa L; Hespos, Susan J; Waxman, Sandra R

    2013-09-17

    Language is a signature of our species and our primary conduit for conveying the contents of our minds. The power of language derives not only from the exquisite detail of the signal itself but also from its intricate link to human cognition. To acquire a language, infants must identify which signals are part of their language and discover how these signals are linked to meaning. At birth, infants prefer listening to vocalizations of human and nonhuman primates; within 3 mo, this initially broad listening preference is tuned specifically to human vocalizations. Moreover, even at this early developmental point, human vocalizations evoke more than listening preferences alone: they engender in infants a heightened focus on the objects in their visual environment and promote the formation of object categories, a fundamental cognitive capacity. Here, we illuminate the developmental origin of this early link between human vocalizations and cognition. We document that this link emerges from a broad biological template that initially encompasses vocalizations of human and nonhuman primates (but not backward speech) and that within 6 mo this link to cognition is tuned specifically to human vocalizations. At 3 and 4 mo, nonhuman primate vocalizations promote object categorization, mirroring precisely the advantages conferred by human vocalizations, but by 6 mo, nonhuman primate vocalizations no longer exert this advantageous effect. This striking developmental shift illuminates a path of specialization that supports infants as they forge the foundational links between human language and the core cognitive processes that will serve as the foundations of meaning. PMID:24003164

  17. Molecular identification of Entamoeba spp. in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Levecke, B; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  18. Long-Term Lung Transplantation in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, A.; Tonsho, M.; Ng, C. Y.; Lee, S.; Millington, T.; Nadazdin, O.; Wain, J. C.; Cosimi, A. B.; Sachs, D. H.; Smith, R. N.; Colvin, R. B.; Kawai, T.; Madsen, J. C.; Benichou, G.; Allan, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical technique and clinical care, lung transplantation still remains a short-term solution for the treatment of end-stage lung disease. To date, there has been limited experience in experimental lung transplantation using nonhuman primate models. Therefore, we have endeavored to develop a long-term, nonhuman primate model of orthotopic lung transplantation for the ultimate purpose of designing protocols to induce tolerance of lung grafts. Here, we report our initial results in developing this model and our observation that the nonhuman primate lung is particularly prone to rejection. This propensity toward rejection may be a consequence of 1) upregulated nonspecific inflammation, and 2) a larger number of pre-existing alloreactive memory T cells, leading to augmented deleterious immune responses. Our data show that triple-drug immunosuppression mimicking clinical practice is not sufficient to prevent acute rejection in nonhuman primate lung transplantation. The addition of horse-derived anti-thymocyte globulin and a monoclonal antibody to the IL-6 receptor allowed six out of six lung recipients to be free of rejection for over 120 days. PMID:25772308

  19. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial colour patterns and pigmentation within Neotropical primates. Consistent with the hypothesis that facial patterns function in communication and species recognition, we find that species living in smaller groups and in sympatry with a higher number of congener species have evolved more complex patterns of facial colour. The evolution of facial pigmentation and hair length is linked to ecological factors, and ecogeographical rules related to UV radiation and thermoregulation are met by some facial regions. Our results demonstrate the interaction of behavioural and ecological factors in shaping one of the most outstanding facial diversities of any mammalian lineage. PMID:22237906

  20. Lifespan of mice and primates correlates with immunoproteasome expression

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Andrew M.; Lehr, Marcus; Miller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    There is large variation in lifespan among different species, and there is evidence that modulation of proteasome function may contribute to longevity determination. Comparative biology provides a powerful tool for identifying genes and pathways that control the rate of aging. Here, we evaluated skin-derived fibroblasts and demonstrate that among primate species, longevity correlated with an elevation in proteasomal activity as well as immunoproteasome expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Immunoproteasome enhancement occurred with a concurrent increase in other elements involved in MHC class I antigen presentation, including β-2 microglobulin, (TAP1), and TAP2. Fibroblasts from long-lived primates also appeared more responsive to IFN-γ than cells from short-lived primate species, and this increase in IFN-γ responsiveness correlated with elevated expression of the IFN-γ receptor protein IFNGR2. Elevation of immunoproteasome and proteasome activity was also observed in the livers of long-lived Snell dwarf mice and in mice exposed to drugs that have been shown to extend lifespan, including rapamycin, 17-α-estradiol, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. This work suggests that augmented immunoproteasome function may contribute to lifespan differences in mice and among primate species. PMID:25866968

  1. Nonhuman Primates Prefer Slow Tempos but Dislike Music Overall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21]…

  2. Immunological Consequences of Maternal Separation in Infant Primates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Christopher L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports recent studies which establish that maternal separation and early rearing conditions can influence the development and expression of immune responses of the primate infant. Current findings extend an earlier finding on alterations in lymphocyte proliferation responses to a number of other immune parameters. (NH)

  3. A survey of diabetes prevalence in zoo-housed primates.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, C W; Fuller, G A; Dennis, P M

    2013-01-01

    In humans, type II diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas is capable of producing insulin but cells do not appropriately respond to insulin with an uptake of glucose. While multiple factors are associated with type II diabetes in humans, a high calorie diet and limited exercise are significant risk factors for the development of this disease. Zoo primates, with relatively high caloric density diets and sedentary lifestyles, may experience similar conditions that could predispose them to the development of diabetes. We surveyed all Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) facilities with primates in their collections to determine the prevalence of diabetes, diagnosis and treatment methods, and treatment outcomes. Nearly 30% of responding institutions reported at least one diabetic primate in their current collection. Although the majority of reported cases were in Old World Monkeys (51%), all major taxonomic groups were represented. Females represented nearly 80% of the diagnosed cases. A wide variety of diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment techniques were reported. It is clear from these results diabetes should be considered prominently in decisions relating to diet, weight and activity levels in zoo-housed primates, as well as discussions surrounding animal health and welfare. PMID:22847472

  4. Led by the nose: Olfaction in primate feeding ecology

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, Omer; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction, the sense of smell, was a latecomer to the systematic investigation of primate sensory ecology after long years in which it was considered to be of minor importance.1 This view shifted with the growing understanding of its role in social behavior2 and the accumulation of physiological studies demonstrating that the olfactory abilities of some primates are on a par with those of olfactory-dependent mammals such as dogs and rodents.3,4 Recent years have seen a proliferation of physiological, behavioral, anatomical, and genetic investigations of primate olfaction. These investigations have begun to shed light on the importance of olfaction in the process of food acquisition. However, integration of these works has been limited. It is therefore still difficult to pinpoint large-scale evolutionary scenarios, namely the functions that the sense of smell fulfills in primates’ feeding ecology and the ecological niches that favor heavier reliance on olfaction. Here, we review available behavioral and physiological studies of primates in the field or captivity and try to elucidate how and when the sense of smell can help them acquire food. PMID:26267435

  5. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J M; Klink, P Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2011-06-24

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly reported in humans. This functional asymmetry is especially evident in the context of the unilateral neglect, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of space, that more frequently occurs after right-side rather than left-side brain damage. Since most of the research efforts are concentrated on vocalization in primates, much less is known about the presence or absence of spatial functions lateralization. Obtaining this knowledge can provide insight into the evolutionary aspect of the functionally lateralized brain of Homo sapiens and deliver refinement and validation of the nonhuman primate unilateral neglect model. This paper reviews the literature on functional brain asymmetries in processing spatial information, limiting the search to nonhuman primates, and concludes there is no clear evidence that monkeys process spatial information with different efficiency in the two hemispheres. We suggest that lateralization of spatial cognition in humans represents a relatively new feature on the evolutionary time scale, possibly developed as a by-product of the left hemisphere intrusion of language competence. Further, we argue that the monkey model of hemispatial neglect requires reconsideration. PMID:21059373

  6. Evolutionary and ecological implications of primate seed dispersal.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J E; Garber, P A

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate patterns of fruit eating and seed dispersal in monkeys and apes and draw an important distinction between 1) the ecological consequences of primates as seed dispersers and 2) the evolutionary implications of primates on the seed and fruit traits of the plant species they exploit. In many forest communities, primates act as both seed predators and seed dispersers and are likely to have an important ecological impact on patterns of forest regeneration and tree species diversity. Evidence from Kibale National Park, Uganda, and Manu National Park, Peru, as well as several other South American sites indicates that monkeys and apes display a wide range of fruit-processing behaviors, including spitting seeds, dropping seeds, masticating seeds, and swallowing seeds. Differences in consumer body size, diet, ranging patterns, and oral and digestive morphology result in different patterns in the distance and distribution of seeds from the parent plant. In the case of South American monkeys, for example, despite their relatively small body size, platyrrhines were found to exploit larger fruits and swallow larger seeds on average than did Old World monkeys and apes of the Kibale forest. We found little evidence to support the existence of a coevolutionary relationship between a single or set of primate dispersers and the particular plant species they disperse. This is due to variability in the manner in which monkeys and apes select fruits and treat seeds, the fact that many species of primates and nonprimates exploit and disperse the same fruit species, and the fact that extremely high levels of postdispersal seed, seedling, and sapling mortality serve to dilute the influence that any primate species may have on the recruitment of the next generation of adult trees. It is apparent that many primate lineages exhibit dental, digestive, and/or sensory adaptations that aid in the exploitation of particular food types and that many lineages of flowering

  7. Primate phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jason A.; Burrell, Andrew S.; Sterner, Kirstin N.; Raaum, Ryan L.; Disotell, Todd R.

    2014-01-01

    The origins and the divergence times of the most basal lineages within primates have been difficult to resolve mainly due to the incomplete sampling of early fossil taxa. The main source of contention is related to the discordance between molecular and fossil estimates: while there are no crown primate fossils older than 56 Ma, most molecule-based estimates extend the origins of crown primates into the Cretaceous. Here we present a comprehensive mitogenomic study of primates. We assembled 87 mammalian mitochondrial genomes, including 62 primate species representing all the families of the order. We newly sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes, including eight Old World monkeys and three strepsirrhines. Phylogenetic analyses support a strong topology, confirming the monophyly for all the major primate clades. In contrast to previous mitogenomic studies, the positions of tarsiers and colugos relative to strepsirrhines and anthropoids are well resolved. In order to improve our understanding of how fossil calibrations affect age estimates within primates, we explore the effect of seventeen fossil calibrations across primates and other mammalian groups and we select a subset of calibrations to date our mitogenomic tree. The divergence date estimates of the Strepsirrhine/Haplorhine split support an origin of crown primates in the Late Cretaceous, at around 74 Ma. This result supports a short fuse model of primate origins, whereby relatively little time passed between the origin of the order and the diversification of its major clades. It also suggests that the early primate fossil record is likely poorly sampled. PMID:24583291

  8. Nonhuman Primate IFITM Proteins Are Potent Inhibitors of HIV and SIV

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Jordan; Zheng, Yi-Min; Yu, Jingyou; Liang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are potent antiviral factors shown to restrict the infection of many enveloped viruses, including HIV. Here we report cloning and characterization of a panel of nonhuman primate IFITMs. We show that, similar to human IFITM, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins inhibit HIV and other primate lentiviruses. While some nonhuman primate IFITM proteins are more potent than human counterparts to inhibit HIV-1, they are generally not effective against HIV-2 similar to that of human IFITMs. Notably, depending on SIV strains and also IFITM species tested, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins exhibit distinct activities against SIVs; no correlation was found to support the notion that IFITM proteins are most active in non-natural primate hosts. Consistent with our recent findings for human IFITMs, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins interact with HIV-1 Env and strongly act in viral producer cells to impair viral infectivity and block cell-to-cell transmission. Accordingly, knockdown of primate IFITM3 increases HIV-1 replication in nohuman primate cells. Interestingly, analysis of DNA sequences of human and nonhuman primate IFITMs suggest that IFITM proteins have been undergoing purifying selection, rather than positive selection typical for cellular restriction factors. Overall, our study reveals some new and unexpected features of IFITMs in restricting primate lentiviruses, which enhances our understanding of virus-host interaction and AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:27257969

  9. Impact factors on water quality in the confluence zone of the Daning River and the Yangtze River at different hydrological conditions in the Three Gorges Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbach, A.; Wang, L.; Chen, H.; Hu, W.; Schleicher, N.; Zheng, B.; Norra, S.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in the Yangtze River became a major concern since the first closure of the dam in 2003. Increasing eutrophication and algal bloom events, especially in confluence bays and backwater areas are observed. Substance transport, water exchange and interaction between water masses in confluence areas of tributaries and the Yangtze main stream are of special interest and mainly driven by large scale water level fluctuations and temporal discharge variations in the reservoir. The Daning River, one tributary of the TGR also adjoins to Dachang city and Wushan city which are by backwater of the TGR. In the frame of the Sino-German "Yangtze-Project" [1] water quality data and samples were collected in the Daning River and its confluence zone with the Yangtze River during two fieldtrips in August and December, 2011. Remarkable hydrological changes during the sampling time were present in August whereas conditions in December were rather stable. Water quality data was recorded in-situ and on-line in varying depths with a towed underwater sensor system. The monitored data comprise seven important physico-chemical water parameters (temperature, electrical conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, pH, chlorophyll a) coupled with a 3D positioning system. Geostatistical evaluation and interpolation of the physico-chemical water parameter data was conducted to get 3D distribution models for the parameters in the water bodies. Selective water samples for analysis of inorganic components (anions, cations, nutrients) in the dissolved and particulate phases were taken from different depths by a free flow sampler. Results reveal that pollutant plumes in the water above the thermocline surround the urban areas during the stable conditions of December. In August the degree of mixing of Yangtze main stream water with the Daning River water was the main driving force for the water chemistry. Contrarily, water quality was

  10. Indices of environmental temperatures for primates in open habitats.

    PubMed

    Hill, Russell A; Weingrill, Tony; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, S Peter; Hill, Russel A; Barrett, Luise

    2004-01-01

    Studies of thermoregulation in primates are under-represented in the literature, although there is sufficient evidence to suggest that temperature represents an important ecological constraint. One of the problems in examining thermoregulation in primates, however, is the difficulty in quantifying the thermal environment, since shade temperatures, solar radiation, humidity and wind speed all serve to alter an animal's 'perceived' temperature. Since animals respond to their perceived temperature, we need methods to account for each of these factors, both individually and collectively, if we are to understand the integrated impact of the thermal environment on primates. Here, we present a review of some thermal indices currently available. Black bulb temperatures can account for the effect of solar radiation, with wind chill equivalent temperatures and the heat index providing quantifiable estimates of the relative impact of wind speed and humidity, respectively. We present three potential indices of the 'perceived environmental temperature' (PET) that account for the combined impact of solar radiation, humidity and wind speed on temperature, and perform a preliminary test of all of the climatic indices against behavioural data from a field study of chacma baboons ( Papio cynocephalus ursinus) at De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. One measure of the perceived environmental temperature, PET2, is an effective thermal index, since it enters the models for feeding and resting behaviour, and also accounts for levels of allogrooming. Solar radiation intensity is an important factor underlying these relationships, although the wind chill equivalent temperature and humidity enter the models for other behaviours. Future studies should thus be mindful of the impact of each of these elements of the thermal environment. A detailed understanding of primate thermoregulation will only come with the development of biophysical models of the thermal characteristics of the species

  11. Evolutionary molecular cytogenetics of catarrhine primates: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Stanyon, R; Rocchi, M; Bigoni, F; Archidiacono, N

    2012-01-01

    The catarrhine primates were the first group of species studied with comparative molecular cytogenetics. Many of the fundamental techniques and principles of analysis were initially applied to comparisons in these primates, including interspecific chromosome painting, reciprocal chromosome painting and the extensive use of cloned DNA probes for evolutionary analysis. The definition and importance of chromosome syntenies and associations for a correct cladistics analysis of phylogenomic relationships were first applied to catarrhines. These early chromosome painting studies vividly illustrated a striking conservation of the genome between humans and macaques. Contemporarily, it also revealed profound differences between humans and gibbons, a group of species more closely related to humans, making it clear that chromosome evolution did not follow a molecular clock. Chromosome painting has now been applied to more that 60 primate species and the translocation history has been mapped onto the major taxonomic divisions in the tree of primate evolution. In situ hybridization of cloned DNA probes, primarily BAC-FISH, also made it possible to more precisely map breakpoints with spanning and flanking BACs. These studies established marker order and disclosed intrachromosomal rearrangements. When applied comparatively to a range of primate species, they led to the discovery of evolutionary new centromeres as an important new category of chromosome evolution. BAC-FISH studies are intimately connected to genome sequencing, and probes can usually be assigned to a precise location in the genome assembly. This connection ties molecular cytogenetics securely to genome sequencing, assuring that molecular cytogenetics will continue to have a productive future in the multidisciplinary science of phylogenomics. PMID:22710640

  12. Darwin's legacy and the study of primate visual communication.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Frans B M

    2003-12-01

    After Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, published in 1872, we had to wait 60 years before the theme of animal expressions was picked up by another astute observer. In 1935, Nadezhda Ladygina-Kohts published a detailed comparison of the expressive behavior of a juvenile chimpanzee and of her own child. After Kohts, we had to wait until the 1960s for modern ethological analyses of primate facial and gestural communication. Again, the focus was on the chimpanzee, but ethograms on other primates appeared as well. Our understanding of the range of expressions in other primates is at present far more advanced than that in Darwin's time. A strong social component has been added: instead of focusing on the expressions per se, they are now often classified according to the social situations in which they typically occur. Initially, quantitative analyses were sequential (i.e., concerned with temporal associations between behavior patterns), and they avoided the language of emotions. I will discuss some of this early work, including my own on the communicative repertoire of the bonobo, a close relative of the chimpanzee (and ourselves). I will provide concrete examples to make the point that there is a much richer matrix of contexts possible than the common behavioral categories of aggression, sex, fear, play, and so on. Primate signaling is a form of negotiation, and previous classifications have ignored the specifics of what animals try to achieve with their exchanges. There is also increasing evidence for signal conventionalization in primates, especially the apes, in both captivity and the field. This process results in group-specific or "cultural" communication patterns. PMID:14766618

  13. Two Dimensional Modeling of the Extent and Stability of Cold Water Refugia at the Confluences of the South Fork of the Eel River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, G.; Thompson, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Like many large rivers draining from forested uplands, the South Fork of the Eel River is characterized by a warm main stem fed by small cold water tributaries along its length. The confluences of the tributaries with the main stem form localized zones of cold water which provide habitat for anadromous fish species such as salmon. These cold water refugia are likely to be increasingly important for fish as temperatures warm and rainfall becomes more erratic due to projected climate change. These sites are protected from drying out over summer (unlike the tributaries, which can fragment if flows become too low), and they are accessible to migrating fish (as tributaries may not be if winter flows are too low to submerge in-channel obstacles). The overall significance of these refugia, however, is controlled by their spatial extent and temporal persistence. The factors that determine the shape, persistence, and stability of these refugia (as a function of varying flow and temperature regimes) remain poorly understood. A combination of scaling arguments and a 2D model is used to estimate the effects of varying flow and thermal regimes on the spatial extent of the cold water zones in the main stem. The stability of the cold water zones is also assessed in light of diurnal flow and temperature variations. The results are compared to in situ temperature data collected at the confluence of the South Fork of the Eel River and Elder Creek, and are used to project the likely significance of tributary confluences for generating cold-water habitat throughout the South Fork of the Eel River.

  14. Surface water types and sediment distribution patterns at the confluence of mega rivers: The Solimões-Amazon and Negro Rivers junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Edward; Latrubesse, Edgardo M.

    2015-08-01

    Large river channel confluences are recognized as critical fluvial features because both intensive and extensive hydrophysical and geoecological processes take place at this interface. However, identifications of suspended sediment routing patterns through channel junctions and the roles of tributaries on downstream sediment transport in large rivers are still poorly explored. In this paper, we propose a remote sensing-based approach to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of the postconfluence suspended sediment transport by mapping the surface water distribution in the ultimate example of large river confluence on Earth where distinct water types meet: The Solimões-Amazon (white water) and Negro (black water) rivers. The surface water types distribution was modeled for three different years: average hydrological condition (2007) and 2 years when extreme events occurred (drought-2005 and flood-2009). Amazonian surface water domination along the main channel is highest during the water discharge rising season. Surface water mixing along the main channel depends on the hydrological seasons with the highest mixed-homogenized area observed during water discharge peak season and the lowest during discharge rising season. Water mixture also depends on the yearly hydrological regime with the highest rates of water mixing in 2009, followed by 2005 and 2007. We conclude that the dominant mixing patterns observed in this study have been persistent over a decadal scale and the anabranching patterns contribute to avoid a faster mixing in a shorter distance. Our proposed approach can be applied to a variety of morphodynamic and environmental analyses in confluences of large rivers around the world.

  15. [Photobleaching of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from confluence of two rivers under natural solar radiation: a case study of Fujiang River-Jialingjiang River].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Jiang, Tao; Yan, Jin-long; Wei, Shi-qiang; Wang, Ding-yong; Lu, Song; Li, Lu-lu

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combined with ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was used to investigate the photobleaching process of dissolved organic matter (DOM) sampled from Fujiang River (FJ), Jialingjiang River (JLJ) and the confluence (FJ-JLJ) under natural solar radiation. The results indicated that obvious photochemical degradation of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) concentration [ α(280) ] and all fluorescence peaks intensity (A, C, M and T) occurred under natural solar radiation, and the degradation degree was in order of JLJ > FJ-JLJ > FJ. Photobleaching properties of DOM samples from different locations showed significant differences, which could be partially explained by the sampling sites surroundings including various landuse types, and dilution effect of river confluence. Light-induced bleaching activity of JLJ samples, which was mainly terrestrial input from forest system, was the highest as compared to the lowest activity of FJ samples, which was predominated by urban inputs. Samples from confluence were in the middle. Additionally, the spectrum slope(S) and absorbance ratio (A250/A350) were increased, while the humification index(HIX) was decreased with increasing irradiation time, which can be used as important indicators for photobleaching properties changes during the process. More importantly, the predominantly allochthonous (terrigenous) characteristics of DOM almost showed a tendency of transferring to autochthonous (authigenic) characteristics due to photobleaching. Especially, IT/Ic firstly decreased and then increased significantly in the process. Thus the photodegradation process may exaggerate DOM autochthonous contribution, and further interfere with the assessment of anthropogenic impacted-water quality by using IT/Ic. In addition, mechanisms of light-induced DOM degradation process consistently showed by absorption and fluorescence spectrum parameters suggested the validation of analyzing DOM geochemical

  16. Structure of turbulent flow at a river confluence with momentum and velocity ratios close to 1: Insight provided by an eddy-resolving numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, George; Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Rhoads, Bruce; Sukhodolov, Alexander; Kirkil, Gokhan

    2011-05-01

    River confluences are complex hydrodynamic environments where convergence of incoming flows produces complicated patterns of fluid motion, including the development of large-scale turbulence structures. Accurately simulating confluence hydrodynamics represents a considerable challenge for numerical modeling of river flows. This study uses an eddy-resolving numerical model to simulate the mean flow and large-scale turbulence structure at an asymmetrical river confluence with a concordant bed when the momentum ratio between the two incoming streams is close to 1. Results of the simulation are compared with field data on mean flow and turbulence structure. The simulation shows that the mixing interface is populated by quasi-two-dimensional eddies. Successive eddies have opposing senses of rotation. The mixing layer structure resembles that of a wake behind a bluff body (wake mode). Strong streamwise-oriented vortical (SOV) cells form on both sides of the mixing layer, a finding consistent with patterns inferred from the field data. The predicted mean flow fields show that flow curvature has an important influence on streamwise variation of circulation within the cores of the two primary SOV cells. These SOV cells, along with vortices generated by flow over a submerged block of sediment at one of the banks, strongly influence distributions of the streamwise velocity and turbulent kinetic energy downstream of the junction. Comparison of the eddy-resolving simulation results with predictions from the steady Spalart-Allmaras RANS model shows that the latter fails to predict important features of the measured distributions of streamwise velocity and turbulent kinetic energy because the RANS model underpredicts the strength of the SOV cells. Analysis of instantaneous and mean bed shear stress distributions indicates that the SOV cells enhance bed shear stresses to a greater degree than the quasi-two-dimensional eddies in the mixing interface.

  17. White Paper on the Use of Team Calendars with the JIRA Issue Tracking System and Confluence Collaboration Tools for the xLPR Project

    SciTech Connect

    Klasky, Hilda B; Williams, Paul T; Bass, Bennett Richard

    2012-09-01

    ORNL was tasked by xLPR project management to propose a team calendar for use within the xLPR consortium. Among various options that were considered, the approach judged by ORNL to best fit the needs of the xLPR project is presented in this document. The Atlassian Team Calendars plug-in used with the Confluence collaboration tool was recommended for several reasons, including the advantage that it provides for a tight integration between Confluence (found at https://xlpr.ornl.gov/wiki ) and xLPR s JIRA issue tracking system (found at https://xlpr.ornl.gov/jira ). This document is divided into two parts. The first part (Sections 1-6) consists of the white paper, which highlights some of the ways that Team Calendars can improve com mun ication between xLPR project managers, group leads, and team members when JIRA is applied for both issue tracking and change-management activities. Specific points emphasized herein are as follows: The Team Calendar application greatly enhances the added value that the JIRA and Confluence tools bring to the xLPR Project. The Team Calendar can improve com mun ication between xLPR project managers, group leads, and team members when JIRA is applied for both issue tracking and change-management activities. The Team Calendar works across different email tools such as Outlook 2011, Outlook 2010, Outlook 2007, Google Calendars and Mac s iCalendar to name a few. xLPR users can now access the wiki Confluence (with embedded Team Calendars) directly from JIRA without having to re-validate their login. The second part consists of an Annex (Section 7), which describes how users can subscribe to Team Calendars from different calendar applications. Specific instructions are given in the Annex that describe how to Import xLPR Team Calendar to Outlook Version Office 2010 Import xLPR Team Calendar to Outlook Version Office 2007 Subscribe to Team Calendar from Google Calendar The reader is directed to Section 4 for instructions on adding events to the

  18. Primates as Predictors of Mammal Community Diversity in the Forest Ecosystems of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Muldoon, Kathleen M.; Goodman, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of species is the typical metric for identifying priority areas for conservation. Since most biodiversity remains poorly studied, a subset of charismatic species, such as primates, often stand as surrogates for total biodiversity. A central question is therefore, how effectively do primates predict the pooled species richness of other mammalian taxa? We used lemurs as indicator species to predict total non-primate mammal community richness in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar. We combine environmental and species occurrence data to ascertain the extent to which primate diversity can predict (1) non-primate mammal α-diversity (species richness), (2) non-primate complementarity, and (3) non-primate β-diversity (species turnover). Our results indicate that primates are effective predictors of non-primate mammal community diversity in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar after controlling for habitat. When individual orders of mammals are considered, lemurs effectively predict the species richness of carnivorans and rodents (but not afrosoricids), complementarity of rodents (but not carnivorans or afrosoricids), and all individual components of β-diversity. We conclude that lemurs effectively predict total non-primate community richness. However, surrogate species alone cannot achieve complete representation of biodiversity. PMID:26334525

  19. The Narrow Niche hypothesis: gray squirrels shed new light on primate origins.

    PubMed

    Orkin, Joseph D; Pontzer, Herman

    2011-04-01

    Current hypotheses for primate origins propose that nails and primate-like grasping hands and feet were important early adaptations for feeding in fine branches. Comparative research in this area has focused on instances of convergence in extant animals, showing that species with primate-like morphology feed predominantly from terminal branches. Little has been done to test whether animals without primate-like morphology engage in similar behavior. We tested the fine-branch niche hypothesis for primate origins by observing branch use in Eastern gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, a species lacking primate grasping adaptations that has been understudied in the context of primate origins. We hypothesized that because gray squirrels lack primate-like grasping adaptations, they would avoid feeding and foraging in terminal branches. Instantaneous focal animal sampling was used to examine the locomotor and postural behaviors used while feeding and foraging. Our results demonstrate habitual and effective usage of terminal branches by gray squirrels while feeding and foraging, primarily on tree seeds (e.g., oak, maple, and elm). Discriminant function analysis indicates that gray squirrels feed and forage like primates, unlike some other tree squirrel species. Given the absence of primate-like features in gray squirrels, we suggest that although selection for fine-branch foraging may be a necessary condition for primate origins, it is not sufficient. We propose an alternative model of primate origins. The Narrow Niche hypothesis suggests that the primate morphological suite evolved not only from selection pressure for fine branch use, but also from a lack of engagement in other activities. PMID:21404237

  20. Sorption of dissolved organic carbon by hydrous aluminum and iron oxides occurring at the confluence of deer creek with the Snake River, Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, K.E.; Zellweger, G.W.; Aiken, G.R.; Feder, G.L.; Thorn, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    Organic solute sorption by hydrous iron and aluminum oxides was studied in an acidic, metal-enriched stream (the Snake River) at its confluence with a pristine stream (Deer Creek). From 1979 to 1986, typically 40% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was removed from solution by sorption onto aluminum and iron oxides, which precipitate as the two streamwaters mix. Upstream DOC concentrations, which increase during snowmelt, were identified as the most significant variables in a multiple regression for determining the DOC concentration below the confluence, and the extent of Al and Fe precipitation was much less significant. On hourly timescales, removal of Al and Fe varied erratically but DOC removal was steady, indicating that "sorbable" organic solutes are sorbed either by precipitating oxides or by oxides on the streambed. Characterization of two reactive DOC fractions (fulvic and hydrophilic acids) showed that sorption results in chemical fractionation. Molecules with greater contents of aromatic moieties, carboxylic acid groups, and amino acid residues were preferentially sorbed, which is consistent with the ligand exchange-surface complexation model.

  1. Multi-biomarker approach to investigate the state of contamination of the R. Lambro/R. Po confluence (Italy) by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Binelli, A; Cogni, D; Parolini, M; Provini, A

    2010-04-01

    This study assesses the response of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to chemical pollution derived from the R. Lambro/R. Po confluence, which is one of the most polluted aquatic environments in Europe. The mussels were tested under laboratory conditions to water sampled in the spring and fall at three sites located upstream or downstream of the confluence or directly in R. Lambro alone. We performed on mussel specimens a biomarker battery composed by eight different assays: single cell gel electrophoresis, apoptosis determination, the micronucleus test and Neutral Red retention, as well as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase activities. We also evaluated the bioaccumulation of several organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCHs and HCB) to characterize the sampling sites. Significant increases in DNA strand breaks, apoptosis and micronuclei were observed, with no significant seasonal differences. We observed a clear induction of the enzyme activities measured in the spring, but the enzymatic activity trend in the fall was very complex, with several enzymes returning to baseline levels of activity, suggesting a possible seasonal change in chemical mixture characteristics. PMID:20202670

  2. Investigating the evolution of gravel bar at river confluence during flood events using a 2D many-fraction river morphodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Wu, F.; Ecohydraulics Lab.

    2010-12-01

    The knowledge of river morphology is fundamental and useful information for engineering and habitat restoration purposes. Many interesting phenomena such as armoring and downstream fining significantly affect the quality of riverine habitats. These phenomena could be even more devastating when they occur during the extreme flood events. Therefore, the development of meso-scale bedforms during flood events and the change in their sediment composition have become important topics of study. However, the complex interactions between flood flow, nonuniform particles and sediment transport make these problems difficult to tackle. In this study, we develop a 2D (two-dimensional) many-fraction FE (finite element) morphodynamic model to investigate the evolution of gravel bar during flood events. The proposed model adopts the characteristic dissipative Galerkin (CDG) scheme such that the convection-dominated bar evolution can be computed without numerical instabilities. A two-year record of DEM (digital elevation model) is obtained by airborne Lidar at the confluence of the Xin-Dian River (Taiwan), which is used to verify the model results. The proposed model is further applied to determine the best operation scheme of the Feitsui reservoir for mitigating blockage of river confluence by the gravel bar and sustaining the bed composition favorable to the river biota.

  3. Body size and species-richness in carnivores and primates.

    PubMed

    Gittleman, J L; Purvis, A

    1998-01-22

    We use complete species-level phylogenies of extant Carnivora and Primates to perform the first thorough phylogenetic tests, in mammals, of the hypothesis that small body size is associated with species-richness. Our overall results, based on comparisons between sister clades, indicate a weak tendency for lineages with smaller bodies to contain more species. The tendency is much stronger within caniform carnivores (canids, procyonids, pinnipeds, ursids and mustelids), perhaps relating to the dietary flexibility and hence lower extinction rates in small, meat-eating species. We find significant heterogeneity in the size-diversity relationship within and among carnivore families. There is no significant association between body mass and species-richness in primates or feliform carnivores. Although body size is implicated as a correlate of species-richness in mammals, much of the variation in diversity cannot be attributed to size differences. PMID:9474795

  4. The origins of non-human primates' manual gestures

    PubMed Central

    Liebal, Katja; Call, Josep

    2012-01-01

    The increasing body of research into human and non-human primates' gestural communication reflects the interest in a comparative approach to human communication, particularly possible scenarios of language evolution. One of the central challenges of this field of research is to identify appropriate criteria to differentiate a gesture from other non-communicative actions. After an introduction to the criteria currently used to define non-human primates' gestures and an overview of ongoing research, we discuss different pathways of how manual actions are transformed into manual gestures in both phylogeny and ontogeny. Currently, the relationship between actions and gestures is not only investigated on a behavioural, but also on a neural level. Here, we focus on recent evidence concerning the differential laterality of manual actions and gestures in apes in the framework of a functional asymmetry of the brain for both hand use and language. PMID:22106431

  5. Body size and species-richness in carnivores and primates.

    PubMed Central

    Gittleman, J L; Purvis, A

    1998-01-01

    We use complete species-level phylogenies of extant Carnivora and Primates to perform the first thorough phylogenetic tests, in mammals, of the hypothesis that small body size is associated with species-richness. Our overall results, based on comparisons between sister clades, indicate a weak tendency for lineages with smaller bodies to contain more species. The tendency is much stronger within caniform carnivores (canids, procyonids, pinnipeds, ursids and mustelids), perhaps relating to the dietary flexibility and hence lower extinction rates in small, meat-eating species. We find significant heterogeneity in the size-diversity relationship within and among carnivore families. There is no significant association between body mass and species-richness in primates or feliform carnivores. Although body size is implicated as a correlate of species-richness in mammals, much of the variation in diversity cannot be attributed to size differences. PMID:9474795

  6. Primate paternal care: interactions between biology and social experience

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Anne E.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2016-01-01

    We review recent research on the roles of hormones and social experiences on the development of paternal care in humans and non-human primates. Generally, lower concentrations of testosterone and higher concentrations of oxytocin are associated with greater paternal responsiveness. Hormonal changes prior to the birth appear to be important in preparation for fatherhood and changes after the birth are related to how much time fathers spend with offspring and whether they provide effective care. Prolactin may facilitate approach and the initiation of infant care, and in some biparental non-human primates, it affects body mass regulation. Glucocorticoids are involved in coordinating reproductive and parental behavior between mates. New research involving intranasal oxytocin and neuropeptide receptor polymorphisms may help us understand individual variation in paternal responsiveness. This area of research, integrating both biological factors and the role of early and adult experience, has the potential to suggest individually designed interventions that can strengthen relationships between fathers and their offspring. PMID:26253726

  7. The primate caecum and appendix vermiformis: a comparative study.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, G B

    1980-01-01

    The examination of the caecum of two groups of cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys, two orang-utans and a chimpanzee, as well as an extensive review of the available literature, confirmed that the length of the caecum, relative to that of the colon, decreased as the position of the species in the primate scale rose. Although absent in prosimians and New World monkeys, there was evidence that the appendix vermiformis began to develop in certain Old World monkeys and became fully developed in the anthropoid apes, showing that, far from being a vestigial organ, it has actually developed progressively in primates. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8(cont.) Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:7216918

  8. Efficacy of auditory enrichment in a prosimian primate (Otolemur garnettii).

    PubMed

    Hanbury, David B; Fontenot, M Babette; Highfill, Lauren E; Bingham, Willie; Bunch, David; Watson, Sheree L

    2009-04-01

    Research suggests that auditory environmental enrichment might reduce abnormal behavior in certain primate species. The authors evaluated the behavioral effects of exposure to music in a prosimian primate (Garnett's bushbaby; Otolemur garnettii). They exposed bushbabies to a Mozart concerto for 15 min per day for 20 d (5 h exposure total), video-recorded them and subsequently analyzed the frequency of subjects' grooming and stereotypic behaviors. The authors compared the data with baseline behavioral data that had been recorded over a 20-d period before the experimental treatment. Neither stereotypy nor grooming behavior varied as a result of exposure to music. These results do not support the hypothesis that auditory enrichment in the form of exposure to music is an effective means of reducing stereotypic behavior in O. garnettii. PMID:19308062

  9. Molecular cladistic markers in New World monkey phylogeny (Platyrrhini, Primates).

    PubMed

    Singer, Silke S; Schmitz, Jürgen; Schwiegk, Claudia; Zischler, Hans

    2003-03-01

    Transpositions of primate-specific Alu elements were applied as molecular cladistic markers in a phylogenetic analysis of South American primates. Seventy-four human and platyrrhine loci containing intronic Alu elements were PCR screened in various New World monkeys and the human outgroup to detect the presence of orthologous retrotransposons informative of New World monkey phylogeny. Six loci revealed size polymorphism in the amplification pattern, indicating a shared derived character state due to the presence of orthologous Alu elements confirmed by subsequent sequencing. Three markers corroborate (1) New World monkey monophyly and one marker supports each of the following callitrichine relationships: (2) Callithrix and Cebuella are more closely related to each other than to any other callitrichine, (3) the callitrichines form a monophyletic clade including Callimico, and (4) the next living relatives to the callitrichines are Cebus, Saimiri, and Aotus. PMID:12644406

  10. Associative Hebbian Synaptic Plasticity in Primate Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiyong; Rozas, Carlos; Treviño, Mario; Contreras, Jessica; Yang, Sunggu; Song, Lihua; Yoshioka, Takashi; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    In primates, the functional connectivity of adult primary visual cortex is susceptible to be modified by sensory training during perceptual learning. It is widely held that this type of neural plasticity might involve mechanisms like long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). NMDAR-dependent forms of LTP and LTD are particularly attractive because in rodents they can be induced in a Hebbian manner by near coincidental presynaptic and postsynaptic firing, in a paradigm termed spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). These fundamental properties of LTP and LTD, Hebbian induction and NMDAR dependence, have not been examined in primate cortex. Here we demonstrate these properties in the primary visual cortex of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), and also show that, like in rodents, STDP is gated by neuromodulators. These findings indicate that the cellular principles governing cortical plasticity are conserved across mammalian species, further validating the use of rodents as a model system. PMID:24872561

  11. Bridging the bonding gap: the transition from primates to humans.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, R I M

    2012-07-01

    Primate societies are characterized by bonded social relationships of a kind that are rare in other mammal taxa. These bonded relationships, which provide the basis for coalitions, are underpinned by an endorphin mechanism mediated by social grooming. However, bonded relationships of this kind impose constraints on the size of social groups that are possible. When ecological pressures have demanded larger groups, primates have had to evolve new mechanisms to facilitate bonding. This has involved increasing the size of vocal and visual communication repertoires, increasing the time devoted to social interaction and developing a capacity to manage two-tier social relationships (strong and weak ties). I consider the implications of these constraints for the evolution of human social communities and argue that laughter was an early evolutionary innovation that helped bridge the bonding gap between the group sizes characteristic of chimpanzees and australopithecines and those in later hominins. PMID:22641822

  12. Bridging the bonding gap: the transition from primates to humans

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, R. I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Primate societies are characterized by bonded social relationships of a kind that are rare in other mammal taxa. These bonded relationships, which provide the basis for coalitions, are underpinned by an endorphin mechanism mediated by social grooming. However, bonded relationships of this kind impose constraints on the size of social groups that are possible. When ecological pressures have demanded larger groups, primates have had to evolve new mechanisms to facilitate bonding. This has involved increasing the size of vocal and visual communication repertoires, increasing the time devoted to social interaction and developing a capacity to manage two-tier social relationships (strong and weak ties). I consider the implications of these constraints for the evolution of human social communities and argue that laughter was an early evolutionary innovation that helped bridge the bonding gap between the group sizes characteristic of chimpanzees and australopithecines and those in later hominins. PMID:22641822

  13. Infection of Nonhuman Primate Cells by Pig Endogenous Retrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Blusch, Juergen H.; Patience, Clive; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Templin, Christian; Roos, Christian; Von Der Helm, Klaus; Steinhoff, Gustav; Martin, Ulrich

    2000-01-01

    The ongoing shortage of human donor organs for transplantation has catalyzed new interest in the application of pig organs (xenotransplantation). One of the biggest concerns about the transplantation of porcine grafts into humans is the transmission of pig endogenous retroviruses (PERV) to the recipients or even to other members of the community. Although nonhuman primate models are excellently suited to mimic clinical xenotransplantation settings, their value for risk assessment of PERV transmission at xenotransplantation is questionable since all of the primate cell lines tested so far have been found to be nonpermissive for PERV infection. Here we demonstrate that human, gorilla, and Papio hamadryas primary skin fibroblasts and also baboon B-cell lines are permissive for PERV infection. This suggests that a reevaluation of the suitability of the baboon model for risk assessment in xenotransplantation is critical at this point. PMID:10906227

  14. The coevolution of innovation and technical intelligence in primates.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Ana F; Reader, Simon M; Street, Sally E; Whalen, Andrew; Laland, Kevin N

    2016-03-19

    In birds and primates, the frequency of behavioural innovation has been shown to covary with absolute and relative brain size, leading to the suggestion that large brains allow animals to innovate, and/or that selection for innovativeness, together with social learning, may have driven brain enlargement. We examined the relationship between primate brain size and both technical (i.e. tool using) and non-technical innovation, deploying a combination of phylogenetically informed regression and exploratory causal graph analyses. Regression analyses revealed that absolute and relative brain size correlated positively with technical innovation, and exhibited consistently weaker, but still positive, relationships with non-technical innovation. These findings mirror similar results in birds. Our exploratory causal graph analyses suggested that technical innovation shares strong direct relationships with brain size, body size, social learning rate and social group size, whereas non-technical innovation did not exhibit a direct relationship with brain size. Nonetheless, non-technical innovation was linked to brain size indirectly via diet and life-history variables. Our findings support 'technical intelligence' hypotheses in linking technical innovation to encephalization in the restricted set of primate lineages where technical innovation has been reported. Our findings also provide support for a broad co-evolving complex of brain, behaviour, life-history, social and dietary variables, providing secondary support for social and ecological intelligence hypotheses. The ability to gain access to difficult-to-extract, but potentially nutrient-rich, resources through tool use may have conferred on some primates adaptive advantages, leading to selection for brain circuitry that underlies technical proficiency. PMID:26926276

  15. Evolution of metamorphism in thymidylate synthases within the primate lineages.

    PubMed

    Luo, BeiBei; Johnson, Saphronia R; Lebioda, Lukasz; Berger, Sondra H

    2011-03-01

    Crystal structures of human thymidylate synthase (hTS) revealed that the protein exists in active and inactive conformations, defined by the position of a loop containing the active site nucleophile. TS is highly homologous among diverse species; however, the residue at position 163 (hTS) differs among species. Arginine at this position is predicted by structural modeling to enable conformational switching. Arginine or lysine is reported at this position in all mammals in the GenBank and Ensembl databases, with arginine reported in only primates. Sequence analysis of the TS gene of representative primates revealed that arginine occurs at this relative position in all primates except a representative of prosimians. Mutant human proteins were created with residues at position 163 that occur in TSs from prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Catalytic constants (k(cat)) of mutant enzymes were 45-149% of hTS, with the lysine mutant (R163K) exhibiting the highest k(cat). The effect of lysine substitution on solution structure and on ligand binding was investigated. R163K exhibited higher intrinsic fluorescence, a more negative molar ellipticity, and higher dissociation constants (K(d)) for ligands that modulate protein conformation than hTS. Temperature effects on intrinsic fluorescence and catalytic activity of hTS and R163K are consistent with proteins populating different conformational states. The data indicate that the enzyme with arginine at the position corresponding to 163 (hTS) evolved after the divergence of prosimians and simians and that substitution of lysine by arginine confers unique structural and functional properties to the enzyme expressed in simian primates. PMID:21318388

  16. A metagenomic study of primate insect diet diversity.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Sarah B; Bergey, Christina M; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Descriptions of primate diets are generally based on either direct observation of foraging behavior, morphological classification of food remains from feces, or analysis of the stomach contents of deceased individuals. Some diet items (e.g. insect prey), however, are difficult to identify visually, and observation conditions often do not permit adequate quantitative sampling of feeding behavior. Moreover, the taxonomically informative morphology of some food species (e.g. swallowed seeds, insect exoskeletons) may be destroyed by the digestive process. Because of these limitations, we used a metagenomic approach to conduct a preliminary, "proof of concept" study of interspecific variation in the insect component of the diets of six sympatric New World monkeys known, based on observational field studies, to differ markedly in their feeding ecology. We used generalized arthropod polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and cloning to sequence mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the arthropod cytochrome b (CYT B) gene from fecal samples of wild woolly, titi, saki, capuchin, squirrel, and spider monkeys collected from a single sampling site in western Amazonia where these genera occur sympatrically. We then assigned preliminary taxonomic identifications to the sequences by basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) comparison to arthropod CYT B sequences present in GenBank. This study is the first to use molecular techniques to identify insect prey in primate diets. The results suggest that a metagenomic approach may prove valuable in augmenting and corroborating observational data and increasing the resolution of primate diet studies, although the lack of comparative reference sequences for many South American insects limits the approach at present. As such reference data become available for more animal and plant taxa, this approach also holds promise for studying additional components of primate diets. PMID:22553123

  17. Improving Genome Assemblies and Annotations for Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Norgren, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    The study of nonhuman primates (NHP) is key to understanding human evolution, in addition to being an important model for biomedical research. NHPs are especially important for translational medicine. There are now exciting opportunities to greatly increase the utility of these models by incorporating Next Generation (NextGen) sequencing into study design. Unfortunately, the draft status of nonhuman genomes greatly constrains what can currently be accomplished with available technology. Although all genomes contain errors, draft assemblies and annotations contain so many mistakes that they make currently available nonhuman primate genomes misleading to investigators conducting evolutionary studies; and these genomes are of insufficient quality to serve as references for NextGen studies. Fortunately, NextGen sequencing can be used in the production of greatly improved genomes. Existing Sanger sequences can be supplemented with NextGen whole genome, and exomic genomic sequences to create new, more complete and correct assemblies. Additional physical mapping, and an incorporation of information about gene structure, can be used to improve assignment of scaffolds to chromosomes. In addition, mRNA-sequence data can be used to economically acquire transcriptome information, which can be used for annotation. Some highly polymorphic and complex regions, for example MHC class I and immunoglobulin loci, will require extra effort to properly assemble and annotate. However, for the vast majority of genes, a modest investment in money, and a somewhat greater investment in time, can greatly improve assemblies and annotations sufficient to produce true, reference grade nonhuman primate genomes. Such resources can reasonably be expected to transform nonhuman primate research. PMID:24174438

  18. Analgesic Use in Nonhuman Primates Undergoing Neurosurgical Procedures

    PubMed Central

    DiVincenti, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Animals experiencing major invasive surgery during biomedical research must receive appropriate and sufficient analgesia. The concept of pain management in veterinary medicine has evolved over the past several decades, and a multimodal, preemptive approach to postoperative analgesia is the current standard of care. Here, the pathophysiology of pain and a multimodal approach to analgesia for neurosurgical procedures is discussed, with emphasis on those involving nonhuman primates. PMID:23562027

  19. 76 FR 13120 - Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...On January 5, 2011 HHS/CDC published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register (76 FR 678) proposing to amend its regulations (42 CFR 71.53) for the importation of live nonhuman primates (NHPs). Written comments were to be received on or before March 7, 2011. We have received a request asking for a 45 day extension of the comment period. In consideration of that request,......

  20. DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.; Higley, D.; O`Brien, S.

    1994-09-01

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

  1. Understanding the Control of Ingestive Behavior in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark E.; Moore, Carla J.; Ethun, Kelly F.; Johnson, Zachary P.

    2014-01-01

    Ingestive behavior in free-ranging populations of nonhuman primates is influenced by resource availability and social group organization and provides valuable insight on the evolution of ecologically adaptive behaviors and physiological systems. As captive populations were established, questions regarding proximate mechanisms that regulate food intake in these animals could be more easily be addressed. The availability of these captive populations has lead to the use of selected species to understand appetite control or metabolic physiology in humans. Recognizing the difficulty of quantitating food intake in free ranging groups, the use of captive, singly-housed animals provided a distinct advantage though, at the same time, produced a different social ecology from the animals’ natural habitat. However, with the recent application of novel technologies to quantitate caloric intake and energy expenditure in free feeding, socially-housed monkeys permits prospective studies that can accurately define how food intake changes in response to any number of interventions in the context of a social environment. This review provides an overview of studies examining food intake using captive nonhuman primates organized into three areas: a) neurochemical regulation of food intake in nonhuman primates; b) whether exposure to specific diets during key developmental periods program differences in diet preferences or changes the expression of feeding related neuropeptides; and c) how psychosocial factors influence appetite regulation. Because feeding patterns are driven by more than just satiety and orexigenic signals, appreciating how the social context influences pattern of feeding in nonhuman primates may be quite informative for understanding the biological complexity of feeding in humans. PMID:24727080

  2. Cortical bone distribution in the femoral neck of strepsirhine primates.

    PubMed

    Demes, B; Jungers, W L; Walker, C

    2000-10-01

    The thickness of the inferior and superior cortices of the femoral neck was measured on X-rays of 181 strepsirhine primate femora representing 24 species. Neck length, neck depth and neck-shaft angle were also measured. The strength of the femoral neck in frontal bending was estimated by modeling the neck as a hollow cylinder, with neck depth as the outer diameter and cortical thickness representing the superior and inferior shell dimensions. Results indicate that the inferior cortex is always thicker than the superior cortex. The ratio of superior to inferior cortical thickness is highly variable but distinguishes two of the three locomotor groups in the sample. Vertical clingers and leapers have higher ratios (i.e., a more even distribution of cortical bone) than quadrupeds. The slow climbers tend to have the lowest ratios, although they do not differ significantly from the leapers and quadrupeds. These results do not confirm prior theoretical expectations and reported data for anthropoid primates that link greater asymmetry of the cortical shell to more stereotypical hip excursions. The ratio of superior to inferior cortical thickness is unrelated to body mass, femoral neck length, and neck-shaft angle, calling into question whether the short neck of strepsirhine primates acts as a cantilever beam in bending. On the other hand, the estimated section moduli are highly correlated with body mass and neck length, a correlation that is driven primarily by body mass. In conclusion, we believe that an alternative interpretation to the cantilever beam model is needed to explain the asymmetry in bone distribution in the femoral neck, at least in strepsirhine primates (e.g., a thicker inferior cortex is required to reinforce the strongly curved inferior surface). As in prior studies of cross-sectional geometry of long bones, we found slightly positive allometry of cortical dimensions with body mass. PMID:11006046

  3. Social consequences of disability in a nonhuman primate.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sarah E; Fedigan, Linda M; Matthews, H Damon; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2014-03-01

    Debates about the likelihood of conspecific care for disabled individuals in ancestral hominins rely on evidence from extant primates, yet little is known about social treatment (positive, neutral or negative) of physically disabled individuals in nonhuman primates. A group of free-ranging Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at the Awajishima Monkey Center (AMC) in Japan presents a unique opportunity to investigate the relationships between physical impairment and social behavior, in the context of congenital limb malformation in adult nonhuman primates. We collected behavioral data on 23 focal animals, taking 30-minute continuous time samples on disabled and nondisabled adult female Japanese macaques during three consecutive birth seasons (May-August 2005, 2006, and 2007). Disabled females were less social overall compared with nondisabled controls, a pattern that was evident from a variety of measures. Disabled females rested significantly more and socialized significantly less compared with controls, had fewer adult female affiliates, fewer adult female grooming partners, and spent less time engaged in grooming with adult females. Some measures suggested that the social differences were the result of behavioral flexibility on the part of disabled females compensating for their disabilities with lower levels of social involvement and more rest. Disabled females were as successful at groom solicitations as were nondisabled females and the ratio of disabled and nondisabled affiliates was similar among focal animals; there was no strong preference related to the disability status of affiliates. Disabled females were also bitten and chased less frequently. Overall, there was little evidence either for conspecific care or for social selection against disability. In general, there was a socially neutral response to disability, and while neutral social context allows for the possibility of care behaviors, our findings emphasize the self-reliant abilities of these

  4. Analog VLSI-based modeling of the primate oculomotor system.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, T K; Koch, C

    1999-01-01

    One way to understand a neurobiological system is by building a simulacrum that replicates its behavior in real time using similar constraints. Analog very large-scale integrated (VLSI) electronic circuit technology provides such an enabling technology. We here describe a neuromorphic system that is part of a long-term effort to understand the primate oculomotor system. It requires both fast sensory processing and fast motor control to interact with the world. A one-dimensional hardware model of the primate eye has been built that simulates the physical dynamics of the biological system. It is driven by two different analog VLSI chips, one mimicking cortical visual processing for target selection and tracking and another modeling brain stem circuits that drive the eye muscles. Our oculomotor plant demonstrates both smooth pursuit movements, driven by a retinal velocity error signal, and saccadic eye movements, controlled by retinal position error, and can reproduce several behavioral, stimulation, lesion, and adaptation experiments performed on primates. PMID:9950732

  5. Suffixation influences receivers' behaviour in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Coye, Camille; Ouattara, Karim; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Compared to humans, non-human primates have very little control over their vocal production. Nonetheless, some primates produce various call combinations, which may partially offset their lack of acoustic flexibility. A relevant example is male Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli), which give one call type (‘Krak’) to leopards, while the suffixed version of the same call stem (‘Krak-oo’) is given to unspecific danger. To test whether recipients attend to this suffixation pattern, we carried out a playback experiment in which we broadcast naturally and artificially modified suffixed and unsuffixed ‘Krak’ calls of male Campbell's monkeys to 42 wild groups of Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana diana). The two species form mixed-species groups and respond to each other's vocalizations. We analysed the vocal response of male and female Diana monkeys and overall found significantly stronger vocal responses to unsuffixed (leopard) than suffixed (unspecific danger) calls. Although the acoustic structure of the ‘Krak’ stem of the calls has some additional effects, subject responses were mainly determined by the presence or the absence of the suffix. This study indicates that suffixation is an evolved function in primate communication in contexts where adaptive responses are particularly important. PMID:25925101

  6. Behavioral flexibility and the evolution of primate social states.

    PubMed

    Strier, Karen B; Lee, Phyllis C; Ives, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the evolution of primate social behavior have typically involved two distinct lines of inquiry. One has focused on phylogenetic analyses that treat social traits as static, species-specific characteristics; the other has focused on understanding the behavioral flexibility of particular populations or species in response to local ecological or demographic variables. Here, we combine these approaches by distinguishing between constraining traits such as dispersal regimes (male, female, or bi-sexual), which are relatively invariant, and responding traits such as grouping patterns (stable, fission-fusion, sometimes fission-fusion), which can reflect rapid adjustments to current conditions. Using long-term and cross-sectional data from 29 studies of 22 species of wild primates, we confirm that dispersal regime exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal in our sample. We then show that primate species with high variation in group size and adult sex ratios exhibit variability in grouping pattern (i.e., sometimes fission-fusion) with dispersal regime constraining the grouping response. When assessing demographic variation, we found a strong positive relationship between the variability in group size over time and the number of observation years, which further illustrates the importance of long-term demographic data to interpretations of social behavior. Our approach complements other comparative efforts to understand the role of behavioral flexibility by distinguishing between constraining and responding traits, and incorporating these distinctions into analyses of social states over evolutionary and ecological time. PMID:25470593

  7. Characterization of interleukin-8 receptors in non-human primates

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, V.; Coto, E.; Gonzalez-Roces, S.; Lopez-Larrea, C.

    1996-09-01

    Interleukin-8 is a chemokine with a potent neutrophil chemoatractant activity. In humans, two different cDNAs encoding human IL8 receptors designated IL8RA and IL8RB have been cloned. IL8RA binds IL8, while IL8RB binds IL8 as well as other {alpha}-chemokines. Both human IL8Rs are encoded by two genes physically linked on chromosome 2. The IL8RA and IL8RB genes have open reading frames (ORF) lacking introns. By direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction products, we sequenced the IL8R genes of cell lines from four non-human primates: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and macaca. The IL8RB encodes an ORF in the four non-human primates, showing 95%-99% similarity to the human IL8RB sequence. The IL8RA homologue in gorilla and chimpanzee consisted of two ORF 98%-99% identical to the human sequence. The macaca and orangutan IL8RA homologues are pseudogenes: a 2 base pair insertion generated a sequence with several stop codons. In addition, we describe the physical linkage of these genes in the four non-human primates and discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Suffixation influences receivers' behaviour in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Coye, Camille; Ouattara, Karim; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-05-22

    Compared to humans, non-human primates have very little control over their vocal production. Nonetheless, some primates produce various call combinations, which may partially offset their lack of acoustic flexibility. A relevant example is male Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli), which give one call type ('Krak') to leopards, while the suffixed version of the same call stem ('Krak-oo') is given to unspecific danger. To test whether recipients attend to this suffixation pattern, we carried out a playback experiment in which we broadcast naturally and artificially modified suffixed and unsuffixed 'Krak' calls of male Campbell's monkeys to 42 wild groups of Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana diana). The two species form mixed-species groups and respond to each other's vocalizations. We analysed the vocal response of male and female Diana monkeys and overall found significantly stronger vocal responses to unsuffixed (leopard) than suffixed (unspecific danger) calls. Although the acoustic structure of the 'Krak' stem of the calls has some additional effects, subject responses were mainly determined by the presence or the absence of the suffix. This study indicates that suffixation is an evolved function in primate communication in contexts where adaptive responses are particularly important. PMID:25925101

  9. Diversity and evolution of the primate skin microbiome.

    PubMed

    Council, Sarah E; Savage, Amy M; Urban, Julie M; Ehlers, Megan E; Skene, J H Pate; Platt, Michael L; Dunn, Robert R; Horvath, Julie E

    2016-01-13

    Skin microbes play a role in human body odour, health and disease. Compared with gut microbes, we know little about the changes in the composition of skin microbes in response to evolutionary changes in hosts, or more recent behavioural and cultural changes in humans. No studies have used sequence-based approaches to consider the skin microbe communities of gorillas and chimpanzees, for example. Comparison of the microbial associates of non-human primates with those of humans offers unique insights into both the ancient and modern features of our skin-associated microbes. Here we describe the microbes found on the skin of humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, rhesus macaques and baboons. We focus on the bacterial and archaeal residents in the axilla using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We find that human skin microbial communities are unique relative to those of other primates, in terms of both their diversity and their composition. These differences appear to reflect both ancient shifts during millions of years of primate evolution and more recent changes due to modern hygiene. PMID:26763711

  10. Behavioral Flexibility and the Evolution of Primate Social States

    PubMed Central

    Strier, Karen B.; Lee, Phyllis C.; Ives, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the evolution of primate social behavior have typically involved two distinct lines of inquiry. One has focused on phylogenetic analyses that treat social traits as static, species-specific characteristics; the other has focused on understanding the behavioral flexibility of particular populations or species in response to local ecological or demographic variables. Here, we combine these approaches by distinguishing between constraining traits such as dispersal regimes (male, female, or bi-sexual), which are relatively invariant, and responding traits such as grouping patterns (stable, fission-fusion, sometimes fission-fusion), which can reflect rapid adjustments to current conditions. Using long-term and cross-sectional data from 29 studies of 22 species of wild primates, we confirm that dispersal regime exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal in our sample. We then show that primate species with high variation in group size and adult sex ratios exhibit variability in grouping pattern (i.e., sometimes fission-fusion) with dispersal regime constraining the grouping response. When assessing demographic variation, we found a strong positive relationship between the variability in group size over time and the number of observation years, which further illustrates the importance of long-term demographic data to interpretations of social behavior. Our approach complements other comparative efforts to understand the role of behavioral flexibility by distinguishing between constraining and responding traits, and incorporating these distinctions into analyses of social states over evolutionary and ecological time. PMID:25470593

  11. Assessing olfactory performance in an Old World primate, Macaca nemestrina.

    PubMed

    Hübener, F; Laska, M

    1998-06-15

    The present study demonstrates that an operant conditioning paradigm, originally designed for assessing olfactory performance in a small New World primate, the squirrel monkey, can successfully be adapted for use with a large Old World primate, the pigtail macaque. Using a task designed to simulate olfactory-guided foraging behavior, based on multiple discrimination of simultaneously presented odor stimuli, we could show that Macaca nemestrina is able to learn to discriminate between objects on the basis of odor cues. Moreover, they could readily transfer to new S+ and S- stimuli and could remember the significance of previously learned odor stimuli even after a 3-week break. Furthermore, we could show that this method is suitable for obtaining reliable measures of olfactory sensitivity. The few modifications of the original method employed here did not affect essential features such as the mode of stimulus presentation (odorized paper strips attached to manipulation objects) and the choice criterion (opening or rejecting the odorized manipulation objects), thus for the first time enabling valid interspecific comparisons of olfactory capabilities between a catarrhine and a platyrrhine primate species. Our results indicate that M. nemestrina and Saimiri sciureus are similar with regard to several measures of olfactory performance, such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master transfer tasks as well as their sensitivity to a food-related odorant. PMID:9761227

  12. Carboxyfullerene neuroprotection post injury in parkinsonian nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Laura L.; Tian, LinLin; Quick, Kevin L.; Hardt, Josh I.; Karimi, Morvarid; Brown, Chris; Loftin, Susan; Flores, Hugh; Moerlein, Stephen M.; Polich, John; Tabbal, Samer D.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the efficacy of the potent antioxidant C3 to salvage nigrostriatal neuronal function after MPTP exposure in nonhuman primates. C3 is a first-in-class functionalized water-soluble fullerene which reduces oxygen radical species associated with neurodegeneration in in vitro studies. However, C3 has not been evaluated as a neuroprotective agent in a Parkinson model in vivo. Methods Macaque fascicularis monkeys were used in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study design. MPTP-lesioned primates were given systemic C3 (n = 8) or placebo (n = 7) for two months starting one week after MPTP. Outcomes included in vivo behavioral measures of motor parkinsonism using a validated non-human primate rating scale, kinematic analyses of peak upper extremity velocity, PET imaging of 6-[18F]fluorodopa (FD, reflects dopa decarboxylase) and [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ; reflects vesicular monoamine transporter type 2), as well as ex vivo quantification of striatal dopamine (DA) and stereologic counts of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostained neurons in substantia nigra. Results After two months, C3 treated monkeys had significantly improved parkinsonian motor ratings, greater striatal FD and DTBZ uptake, and higher striatal dopamine levels. None of the C3 treated animals developed any toxicity. Interpretation Systemic treatment with C3 reduced striatal injury and improved motor function despite administration after the MPTP injury process had begun. These data strongly support further development of C3 as a promising therapeutic agent for PD. PMID:25043598

  13. Comparative analysis of Meissner's corpuscles in the fingertips of primates.

    PubMed

    Verendeev, Andrey; Thomas, Christian; McFarlin, Shannon C; Hopkins, William D; Phillips, Kimberley A; Sherwood, Chet C

    2015-07-01

    Meissner's corpuscles (MCs) are tactile mechanoreceptors found in the glabrous skin of primates, including fingertips. These receptors are characterized by sensitivity to light touch, and therefore might be associated with the evolution of manipulative abilities of the hands in primates. We examined MCs in different primate species, including common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, n = 5), baboon (Papio anubis, n = 2), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta, n = 3), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, n = 3), bonobo (Pan paniscus, n = 1) and human (Homo sapiens, n = 8). Fingertips of the first, second and fourth digits were collected from both hands of specimens, dissected and histologically stained using hematoxylin and eosin. The density (MCs per 1 mm(2) ) and the size (cross-sectional diameter of MCs) were quantified. Overall, there were no differences in the densities of MCs or their size among the digits or between the hands for any species examined. However, MCs varied across species. We found a trend for higher densities of MCs in macaques and humans compared with chimpanzees and bonobos; moreover, apes had larger MCs than monkeys. We further examined whether the density or size of MCs varied as a function of body mass, measures of dexterity and dietary frugivory. Among these variables, only body size accounted for a significant amount of variation in the size of MCs. PMID:26053332

  14. The Development of Primate Raiding: Implications for Management and Conservation.

    PubMed

    Strum, Shirley C

    2010-02-01

    Ecosystems and habitats are fast becoming human dominated, which means that more species, including primates, are compelled to exploit new human resources to survive and compete. Primate "pests" pose major management and conservation challenges. I here present the results from a unique opportunity to document how well-known individuals and groups respond to the new opportunity to feed on human foods. Data are from a long-term study of a single population in Kenya at Kekopey, near Gilgil, Kenya. Some of the naïve research baboons became raiders while others did not. I compare diet, activity budgets, and home range use of raiders and nonraiders both simultaneously, after the incursion of agriculture, and historically compared to the period before agriculture appeared. I present measures of the relative benefits (female reproduction) and costs (injuries, mortality, and survivorship) of incorporating human food into the diet and discuss why the baboons raid and their variations in raiding tendencies. Guarding and chasing are evaluated as control techniques. I also suggest conflict mitigation strategies by identifying the most likely options in different contexts. I end with a proposal for a rapid field assessment of human wildlife conflict involving primates. PMID:20174437

  15. The Development of Small Primate Models for Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kathleen E.; Austad, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primate (NHP) aging research has traditionally relied mainly on the rhesus macaque. But the long lifespan, low reproductive rate, and relatively large body size of macaques and related Old World monkeys make them less than ideal models for aging research. Manifold advantages would attend the use of smaller, more rapidly developing, shorter-lived NHP species in aging studies, not the least of which are lower cost and the ability to do shorter research projects. Arbitrarily defining “small” primates as those weighing less than 500 g, we assess small, relatively short-lived species among the prosimians and callitrichids for suitability as models for human aging research. Using the criteria of availability, knowledge about (and ease of) maintenance, the possibility of genetic manipulation (a hallmark of 21st century biology), and similarities to humans in the physiology of age-related changes, we suggest three species—two prosimians (Microcebus murinus and Galago senegalensis) and one New World monkey (Callithrix jacchus)—that deserve scrutiny for development as major NHP models for aging studies. We discuss one other New World monkey group, Cebus spp., that might also be an effective NHP model of aging as these species are longer-lived for their body size than any primate except humans. PMID:21411860

  16. Evolution of base-substitution gradients in primate mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Sameer Z.; Faith, Jeremiah J.; Disotell, Todd R.; Seligmann, Hervé; Stewart, Caro-Beth; Pollock, David D.

    2005-01-01

    Inferences of phylogenies and dates of divergence rely on accurate modeling of evolutionary processes; they may be confounded by variation in substitution rates among sites and changes in evolutionary processes over time. In vertebrate mitochondrial genomes, substitution rates are affected by a gradient along the genome of the time spent being single-stranded during replication, and different types of substitutions respond differently to this gradient. The gradient is controlled by biological factors including the rate of replication and functionality of repair mechanisms; little is known, however, about the consistency of the gradient over evolutionary time, or about how evolution of this gradient might affect phylogenetic analysis. Here, we evaluate the evolution of response to this gradient in complete primate mitochondrial genomes, focusing particularly on A⇒G substitutions, which increase linearly with the gradient. We developed a methodology to evaluate the posterior probability densities of the response parameter space, and used likelihood ratio tests and mixture models with different numbers of classes to determine whether groups of genomes have evolved in a similar fashion. Substitution gradients usually evolve slowly in primates, but there have been at least two large evolutionary jumps: on the lineage leading to the great apes, and a convergent change on the lineage leading to baboons (Papio). There have also been possible convergences at deeper taxonomic levels, and different types of substitutions appear to evolve independently. The placements of the tarsier and the tree shrew within and in relation to primates may be incorrect because of convergence in these factors. PMID:15867428

  17. Applying Quantitative Genetic Methods to Primate Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, behavioral ecologists have applied quantitative genetic methods to investigate the evolution of behaviors in wild animal populations. The promise of quantitative genetics in unmanaged populations opens the door for simultaneous analysis of inheritance, phenotypic plasticity, and patterns of selection on behavioral phenotypes all within the same study. In this article, we describe how quantitative genetic techniques provide studies of the evolution of behavior with information that is unique and valuable. We outline technical obstacles for applying quantitative genetic techniques that are of particular relevance to studies of behavior in primates, especially those living in noncaptive populations, e.g., the need for pedigree information, non-Gaussian phenotypes, and demonstrate how many of these barriers are now surmountable. We illustrate this by applying recent quantitative genetic methods to spatial proximity data, a simple and widely collected primate social behavior, from adult rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago. Our analysis shows that proximity measures are consistent across repeated measurements on individuals (repeatable) and that kin have similar mean measurements (heritable). Quantitative genetics may hold lessons of considerable importance for studies of primate behavior, even those without a specific genetic focus. PMID:24659839

  18. Field endocrinology of nonhuman primates: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Higham, James P

    2016-08-01

    In the past few decades, research on nonhuman primate endocrinology has moved from the lab to the field, leading to a huge increase in both the breadth and depth of primate field studies. Here, I discuss the past, present, and future of primate field endocrinology. I review the history of the field, and go on to discuss methodological developments and the issues that they sometimes entail. Next, I consider ways in which we might conceptualize the role of hormones, and focus on the need to distinguish proximate from ultimate levels of explanation. Current potentially problematic issues in the field include: 1) an inability to obtain noninvasive measurements of Central Nervous System (CNS) rather than peripheral hormone concentrations; 2) research questions that become stuck (e.g., questions regarding sexual swelling expression mechanisms); 3) data dredging and post-hoc linking of hormones to any plausible variable, leading to a lack of clarity on their role in animal ecology and behavior. I finish by discussing several unanswered questions that might benefit from further research. These are how we might: 1) best obtain measurements for CNS hormone concentrations non-invasively; 2) measure hormone receptor expression alongside hormone concentrations; 3) consider the human endocrinology literature more thoroughly and perhaps take more multimarker approaches; 4) better consider the social environment, including audience and dyadic familiarity effects; and 5) apply our findings to conservation issues. PMID:27469069

  19. The role of terrestriality in promoting primate technology.

    PubMed

    Meulman, Ellen J M; Sanz, Crickette M; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-03-01

    "Complex technology" has often been considered a hallmark of human evolution. However, recent findings show that wild monkeys are also capable of habitual tool use. Here we suggest that terrestriality may have been of crucial importance for the innovation, acquisition, and maintenance of "complex" technological skills in primates. Here we define complex technological skills as tool-use variants that include at least two tool elements (for example, hammer and anvil), flexibility in manufacture or use (that is, tool properties are adjusted to the task at hand), and that skills are acquired in part by social learning. Four lines of evidence provide support for the terrestriality effect. First, the only monkey populations exhibiting habitual tool use seem to be particularly terrestrial. Second, semi-terrestrial chimpanzees have more complex tool variants in their repertoire than does their arboreal Asian relative, the orangutan. Third, tool variants of chimpanzees used in a terrestrial setting tend to be more complex than those used exclusively in arboreal contexts. Fourth, the higher frequency in tool use among captive versus wild primates of the same species may be attributed in part to a terrestriality effect. We conclude that whereas extractive foraging, intelligence, and social tolerance are necessary for the emergence of habitual tool use, terrestriality seems to be crucial for acquiring and maintaining complex tool variants, particularly expressions of cumulative technology, within a population. Hence, comparative evidence among primates supports the hypothesis that the terrestriality premium may have been a major pacemaker of hominin technological evolution. PMID:22499440

  20. Role of transposable elements in genomic rearrangement, evolution, gene regulation and epigenetics in primates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Eun; Ayarpadikannan, Selvam; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2016-03-23

    The Human Genome Project revealed that almost half of the human genome consists of transposable elements (TEs), which are also abundant in non-human primates. Various studies have confirmed the roles of different TE families in primate evolution. TEs such as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), long terminal repeats (LTRs), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) all have numerous effects on the primate genome, including genomic rearrangement, regulatory functions and epigenetic mechanisms. This review offers an overview of research on TEs, including our current understanding of their presence in modern primate lineages, their evolutionary origins, and their regulatory and modifying effects on primate as well as human genomes. The information provided here should be useful for the study of primate genomics. PMID:26781081

  1. Evolutionary genetics in wild primates: combining genetic approaches with field studies of natural populations

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Alberts, Susan C; Wray, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Ecological and evolutionary studies of wild primates hold important keys to understanding both the shared characteristics of primate biology and the genetic and phenotypic differences that make specific lineages, including our own, unique. Although complementary genetic research on nonhuman primates has long been of interest, recent technological and methodological advances now enable functional and population genetic studies in an unprecedented manner. In the past several years, novel genetic data sets have revealed new information about the demographic history of primate populations and the genetics of adaptively important traits. In combination with the rich history of behavioral, ecological, and physiological work on natural primate populations, genetic approaches promise to provide a compelling picture of primate evolution in the past and in the present day. PMID:20580115

  2. Species diversity and postcranial anatomy of eocene primates from Shanghuang, China.

    PubMed

    Gebo, Daniel L; Dagosto, Marian; Ni, Xijun; Beard, K Christopher

    2012-11-01

    The middle Eocene Shanghuang fissure-fillings, located in southern Jiangsu Province in China near the coastal city of Shanghai (Fig. 1), contain a remarkably diverse array of fossil primates that provide a unique window into the complex role played by Asia during early primate evolution.1 Compared to contemporaneous localities in North America or Europe, the ancient primate community sampled at the Shanghuang fissure-fillings is unique in several ways. Although Shanghuang has some typical Eocene primates (Omomyidae and Adapoidea), it also contains the earliest known members of the Tarsiidae and Anthropoidea (Fig. 2), and some new taxa that are not as yet known from elsewhere. It exhibits a large number of primate species, at least 18, most of which are very small (15-500 g), including some of the smallest primates that have ever been recovered. PMID:23280920

  3. Effects of Glen Canyon Dam discharges on water velocity and temperatures at the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and implications for habitat for young-of-year humpback chub (Gila cypha-

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Protiva, Frank R.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Stone, Dennis M.; Kohl, Keith A.; Yard, Michael D.; Haden, G. Allen

    2010-01-01

    Water velocity and temperature are physical variables that affect the growth and survivorship of young-of-year (YOY) fishes. The Little Colorado River, a tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, is an important spawning ground and warmwater refuge for the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) from the colder mainstem Colorado River that is regulated by Glen Canyon Dam. The confluence area of the Little Colorado River and the Colorado River is a site where YOY humpback chub (size 30-90 mm) emerging from the Little Colorado River experience both colder temperatures and higher velocities associated with higher mainstem discharge. We used detailed surveying and mapping techniques in combination with YOY velocity and temperature preferenda (determined from field and lab studies) to compare the areal extent of available habitat for young fishes at the confluence area under four mainstem discharges (227, 368, 504, and 878 m3/s). Comparisons revealed that the areal extent of low-velocity, warm water at the confluence decreased when discharges exceeded 368 m3/s. Furthermore, mainstem fluctuations, depending on the rate of upramp, can affect velocity and temperature dynamics in the confluence area within several hours. The amount of daily fluctuations in discharge can result in the loss of approximately 1.8 hectares of habitat favorable to YOY humpback chub. Consequently, flow fluctuations and the accompanying changes in velocity and temperature at the confluence may diminish the recruitment potential of humpback chub that spawn in the tributary stream. This study illustrates the utility of multiple georeferenced data sources to provide critical information related to the influence of the timing and magnitude of discharge from Glen Canyon Dam on potential rearing environment at the confluence area of the Little Colorado River.

  4. A fossil primate of uncertain affinities from the earliest late Eocene of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Seiffert, Erik R.; Simons, Elwyn L.; Boyer, Doug M.; Perry, Jonathan M. G.; Ryan, Timothy M.; Sallam, Hesham M.

    2010-01-01

    Paleontological work carried out over the last 3 decades has established that three major primate groups were present in the Eocene of Africa—anthropoids, adapiforms, and advanced strepsirrhines. Here we describe isolated teeth of a previously undocumented primate from the earliest late Eocene (≈37 Ma) of northern Egypt, Nosmips aenigmaticus, whose phylogenetic placement within Primates is unclear. Nosmips is smaller than the sympatric adapiform Afradapis but is considerably larger than other primate taxa known from the same paleocommunity. The species bears an odd mosaic of dental features, combining enlarged, elongate, and molariform premolars with simple upper molars that lack hypocones. Phylogenetic analysis across a series of different assumption sets variously places Nosmips as a stem anthropoid, a nonadapiform stem strepsirrhine, or even among adapiforms. This phylogenetic instability suggests to us that Nosmips likely represents a highly specialized member of a previously undocumented, and presumably quite ancient, endemic African primate lineage, the subordinal affinities of which have been obscured by its striking dental autapomorphies. Discriminant functions based on measurements of lower molar size and topography reliably classify extant prosimian primates into their correct dietary groups and identify Nosmips and Afradapis as omnivores and folivores, respectively. Although Nosmips currently defies classification, this strange and unexpected fossil primate nevertheless provides additional evidence for high primate diversity in northern Africa ≈37 million years ago and further underscores the fact that our understanding of early primate evolution on that continent remains highly incomplete. PMID:20457923

  5. Experimental primates and non-human primate (NHP) models of human diseases in China: current status and progress

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Xiao-Liang; PANG, Wei; HU, Xin-Tian; LI, Jia-Li; YAO, Yong-Gang; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Non-human primates (NHPs) are phylogenetically close to humans, with many similarities in terms of physiology, anatomy, immunology, as well as neurology, all of which make them excellent experimental models for biomedical research. Compared with developed countries in America and Europe, China has relatively rich primate resources and has continually aimed to develop NHPs resources. Currently, China is a leading producer and a major supplier of NHPs on the international market. However, there are some deficiencies in feeding and management that have hampered China’s growth in NHP research and materials. Nonetheless, China has recently established a number of primate animal models for human diseases and achieved marked scientific progress on infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, endocrine diseases, reproductive diseases, neurological diseases, and ophthalmic diseases, etc. Advances in these fields via NHP models will undoubtedly further promote the development of China’s life sciences and pharmaceutical industry, and enhance China’s position as a leader in NHP research. This review covers the current status of NHPs in China and other areas, highlighting the latest developments in disease models using NHPs, as well as outlining basic problems and proposing effective countermeasures to better utilize NHP resources and further foster NHP research in China. PMID:25465081

  6. Experimental primates and non-human primate (NHP) models of human diseases in China: current status and progress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Pang, Wei; Hu, Xin-Tian; Li, Jia-Li; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2014-11-18

    Non-human primates (NHPs) are phylogenetically close to humans, with many similarities in terms of physiology, anatomy, immunology, as well as neurology, all of which make them excellent experimental models for biomedical research. Compared with developed countries in America and Europe, China has relatively rich primate resources and has continually aimed to develop NHPs resources. Currently, China is a leading producer and a major supplier of NHPs on the international market. However, there are some deficiencies in feeding and management that have hampered China's growth in NHP research and materials. Nonetheless, China has recently established a number of primate animal models for human diseases and achieved marked scientific progress on infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, endocrine diseases, reproductive diseases, neurological diseases, and ophthalmic diseases, etc. Advances in these fields via NHP models will undoubtedly further promote the development of China's life sciences and pharmaceutical industry, and enhance China's position as a leader in NHP research. This review covers the current status of NHPs in China and other areas, highlighting the latest developments in disease models using NHPs, as well as outlining basic problems and proposing effective countermeasures to better utilize NHP resources and further foster NHP research in China. PMID:25465081

  7. Assessment of Tropism and Effectiveness of New Primate-Derived Hybrid Recombinant AAV Serotypes in the Mouse and Primate Retina

    PubMed Central

    Lipinski, Daniel M.; Singh, Mandeep S.; Mouravlev, Alexandre; You, Qisheng; Barnard, Alun R.; Hankins, Mark W.; During, Matthew J.; MacLaren, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) have been shown to be safe in the treatment of retinal degenerations in clinical trials. Thus, improving the efficiency of viral gene delivery has become increasingly important to increase the success of clinical trials. In this study, structural domains of different rAAV serotypes isolated from primate brain were combined to create novel hybrid recombinant AAV serotypes, rAAV2/rec2 and rAAV2/rec3. The efficacy of these novel serotypes were assessed in wild type mice and in two models of retinal degeneration (the Abca4−/− mouse which is a model for Stargardt disease and in the Pde6brd1/rd1 mouse) in vivo, in primate tissue ex-vivo, and in the human-derived SH-SY5Y cell line, using an identical AAV2 expression cassette. We show that these novel hybrid serotypes can transduce retinal tissue in mice and primates efficiently, although no more than AAV2/2 and rAAV2/5 serotypes. Transduction efficiency appeared lower in the Abca4−/− mouse compared to wild type with all vectors tested, suggesting an effect of specific retinal diseases on the efficiency of gene delivery. Shuffling of AAV capsid domains may have clinical applications for patients who develop T-cell immune responses following AAV gene therapy, as specific peptide antigen sequences could be substituted using this technique prior to vector re-treatments. PMID:23593201

  8. Descriptions of the Animas River-Cement Creek confluence and mixing zone near Silverton, Colorado, during the late summers of 1996 and 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Cox, Marisa H.

    2005-01-01

    Acidic waters from Cement Creek discharge into the circum-neutral Animas River in a high-elevation region of the San Juan Mountains near Silverton, Colorado. Cement Creek is acidic and enriched in metals and sulfate because it is fed by discharges from abandoned mines and natural mineral deposits. Mixing with the Animas River raises the pH and produces precipitates of iron and aluminum (oxy)hydroxides, which in turn can adsorb other metals. This confluence was studied in 1996 and 1997 to better understand mixing and sorption processes which are common during the neutralization of acidic streams. The photographs in this report show flow braiding and other features that influenced the way the two streams mixed during the late summers of the two years. They also show 'banding' due to incomplete mixing and 'opalescence' due to chemical reactions and the formation of colloidal-size particles in the mixing zone.

  9. On folivory, competition, and intelligence: generalisms, overgeneralizations, and models of primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Considerations of primate behavioral evolution often proceed by assuming the ecological and competitive milieus of particular taxa via their relative exploitation of gross food types, such as fruits versus leaves. Although this "fruit/leaf dichotomy" has been repeatedly criticized, it continues to be implicitly invoked in discussions of primate socioecology and female social relationships and is explicitly invoked in models of brain evolution. An expanding literature suggests that such views have severely limited our knowledge of the social and ecological complexities of primate folivory. This paper examines the behavior of primate folivore-frugivores, with particular emphasis on gray langurs (traditionally, Semnopithecus entellus) within the broader context of evolutionary ecology. Although possessing morphological characteristics that have been associated with folivory and constrained activity patterns, gray langurs are known for remarkable plasticity in ecology and behavior. Their diets are generally quite broad and can be discussed in relation to Liem's Paradox, the odd coupling of anatomical feeding specializations with a generalist foraging strategy. Gray langurs, not coincidentally, inhabit arguably the widest range of habitats for a nonhuman primate, including high elevations in the Himalayas. They provide an excellent focal point for examining the assumptions and predictions of behavioral, socioecological, and cognitive evolutionary models. Contrary to the classical descriptions of the primate folivore, Himalayan and other gray langurs-and, in actuality, many leaf-eating primates-range widely, engage in resource competition (both of which have previously been noted for primate folivores), and solve ecological problems rivaling those of more frugivorous primates (which has rarely been argued for primate folivores). It is maintained that questions of primate folivore adaptation, temperate primate adaptation, and primate evolution more generally cannot be

  10. Chronology of primate discoveries in Myanmar: influences on the anthropoid origins debate.

    PubMed

    Ciochon, Russell L; Gunnell, Gregg F

    2002-01-01

    The history of primate paleontology in Asia is long and complex, beginning with the first discoveries of fossil primates on the Indian subcontinent in the early 1830's. The first Eocene mammals from Asia were collected in Myanmar and described in 1916, while the first primates, Pondaungia and Amphipithecus, were described in 1927 and 1937, respectively, both from the Pondaung Formation in Myanmar. For the next 60 years, these two Pondaung taxa remained as the only known Eocene primates from Myanmar and one of the few records of Eocene primates from all of Asia. Taxonomically, Pondaungia and Amphipithecus were linked with a number of different groups, including archaic, hoofed ungulates (condylarths), adapiform primates, omomyid primates, and anthropoids. While no consensus existed, Pondaungia and Amphipithecus were most commonly compared with anthropoids. Beginning in the late 1990s, new primates were discovered in Myanmar, including smaller-bodied forms such as Bahinia and Myanmarpithecus. Also, new and better specimens of the larger-bodied Pondaungia and Amphipithecus began to appear, including the first cranial and postcranial fragments. Evaluations based on these new specimens, especially the postcrania, indicate that the two larger-bodied Myanmar taxa are adapiform primates that show their closest affinities to North American notharctines. The smaller-bodied taxa remain enigmatic, but may share their closest affinities with North American and Asian omomyid primates and Asian Tarsius. None of the known Asian primate taxa appear closely related to African anthropoids, which suggests that true anthropoids did not reach Asia until the latest Oligocene or earliest Miocene. These facts make an Asian origin for Anthropoidea unlikely. Additional and earlier evidence from both Asia and Africa is required before the ultimate origin of anthropoids can be determined. It appears possible that true anthropoids were an ancient radiation that may have been part of a Gondwanan

  11. A new pitheciin primate from the middle Miocene of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kay, R F; Johnson, D; Meldrum, D J

    1998-01-01

    We report here a new fossil primate from the middle Miocene of Argentina. The material consists of isolated teeth, mandibular fragments, and a talus. The fossils were collected in the Collón Cura formation at Cañadón del Tordillo in Neuquén Province. An age of 15.71 +/- 0.07 Ma has been reported for the Pilcaniyeu Ignimbrite, which lies just below the paleosols in which the fossils were found. This material is thus the youngest occurrence of fossil primates in Argentina (hitherto documented in the Santacrucian and older land mammal ages) but still is older than the middle Miocene platyrrhine primates from La Venta, Colombia, in particular the pitheciins Nuciruptor and Cebupithecia. The material is recognized as a new genus and species of Pitheciinae, Propithecia neuquenensis. The mesiodistally compressed, high-crowned incisors are specialized and similar to species in the tribe Pithecini and to the nonpitheciin Soriacebus (early Miocene, Patagonia). We rule out a phylogenetic relationship to the latter because of differences in molar morphology. Propithecia does, however, fit well into the pattern of pitheciin evolution, being more derived than the middle Miocene pitheciin Nuciruptor but not as much as another middle Miocene taxon, Cebupithecia. As such, this makes Propithecia the oldest taxon that can be confidently placed within this modern New World monkey subfamily. By analogy with the molar structures and diets of extant platyrrhines, Propithecia has a molar structure consistent with a variety of low-fiber diets ranging from fruit and gum to seeds. Its incisors suggest seed-eating in much the same way as extant pitheciins, like Pithecia. The talus resembles that of Callicebus, suggesting arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. PMID:9702279

  12. The retinal ganglion cell classes of New World primates.

    PubMed

    Yamada, E S; Silveira, L C; Gomes, F L; Lee, B B

    1996-12-01

    In the primate retina there are distinct ganglion cell classes, exhibiting particular morphologies and central projections, each responsible for conveying particular types of visual information to the brain. The chief retinal inputs to the cortex arise from specific ganglion cell classes, M-ganglion cells, responsible for carrying the luminance signal, and P-ganglion cells, that convey the red-green color opponent signal, as well as high contrast luminance signal. There are other ganglion cell classes, such as small-field bistratified cells, exhibiting dendrites that stratify at two different levels in the inner plexiform layer, which convey the blue-yellow color opponent signal. Most published data concerning primate retinal ganglion cell anatomy and physiology have been obtained from Old World species. Studies on New World monkeys have recently become of interest since they differ from the Old World monkeys with respect to the color vision inheritance pattern. On reviewing retinal ganglion cell layer organization in New World monkeys, it seems that there are more similarities than differences in relation to the Old World monkeys. Diurnal genera of New World monkeys exhibit a well-developed fovea centralis and ganglion cell density peak, as well as peripheral density values which are in the range reported for Old World monkeys and human. Moreover, all the major ganglion cell classes identified in Old World monkeys are also present in New World primates. Up to now, no obvious anatomical differences between dichromats and trichromats have been reported. The only genus that is significantly different from the others is the Aotus. It exhibits lower ganglion cell density in the central retina, and apparently lacks the small-field bistratified cells. PMID:9394516

  13. Considering the Influence of Nonadaptive Evolution on Primate Color Vision.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Rachel L; Bradley, Brenda J

    2016-01-01

    Color vision in primates is variable across species, and it represents a rare trait in which the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation are fairly well-understood. Research on primate color vision has largely focused on adaptive explanations for observed variation, but it remains unclear why some species have trichromatic or polymorphic color vision while others are red-green color blind. Lemurs, in particular, are highly variable. While some species are polymorphic, many closely-related species are strictly dichromatic. We provide the first characterization of color vision in a wild population of red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer, Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar) with a sample size (87 individuals; NX chromosomes = 134) large enough to detect even rare variants (0.95 probability of detection at ≥ 3% frequency). By sequencing exon 5 of the X-linked opsin gene we identified opsin spectral sensitivity based on known diagnostic sites and found this population to be dichromatic and monomorphic for a long wavelength allele. Apparent fixation of this long allele is in contrast to previously published accounts of Eulemur species, which exhibit either polymorphic color vision or only the medium wavelength opsin. This unexpected result may represent loss of color vision variation, which could occur through selective processes and/or genetic drift (e.g., genetic bottleneck). To indirectly assess the latter scenario, we genotyped 55 adult red-bellied lemurs at seven variable microsatellite loci and used heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests to assess if this population may have experienced a recent genetic bottleneck. Results of heterozygosity excess but not M-ratio tests suggest a bottleneck might have occurred in this red-bellied lemur population. Therefore, while selection may also play a role, the unique color vision observed in this population might have been influenced by a recent genetic bottleneck. These results emphasize the need to

  14. Endocrine and Local Control of the Primate Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Richard L.; Bishop, Cecily V.; Bogan, Randy L.; Xu, Fuhua; Hennebold, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    The primate corpus luteum is a transient endocrine gland that differentiates from the ovulatory follicle midway through the ovarian (menstrual) cycle. Its formation and limited lifespan is critical for fertility, as luteal-derived progesterone is the essential steroid hormone required for embryo implantation and maintenance of intra-uterine pregnancy until the placenta develops. It is well-established that LH and the LH-like hormone, CG, are the vital luteotropic hormones during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy, respectively. Recent advances, particularly through genome analyses and cellular studies, increased our understanding of various local factors and cellular processes associated with the development, maintenance and repression of the corpus luteum. These include paracrine or autocrine factors associated with angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF), and that mediate LH/CG actions (e.g., progesterone), or counteract luteotropic effects (i.e., local luteolysis; e.g., PGF2α). However, areas of mystery and controversy remain, particularly regarding the signals and events that initiate luteal regression in the non-fecund cycle. Novel approaches capable of gene “knockdown” or amplification”, in vivo as well as in vitro, should identify novel or underappreciated gene products that are regulated by or modulate LH/CG actions to control the functional lifespan of the primate corpus luteum. Further advances in our understanding of luteal physiology will help to improve or control fertility for purposes ranging from preservation of endangered primate species to designing novel ovary-based contraceptives and treating ovarian disorders in women. R01 HD020869, R01 HD042000, U54 HD018185, U54 HD055744, P51 OD011092, T32 HD007133, Bayer Schering Pharma AG. PMID:24287034

  15. Paleogenesis and paleo-epidemiology of primate malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.

    1965-01-01

    The Haemosporidia, which comprise the malaria parasites, have probably evolved from Coccidia of the intestinal epithelium of the vertebrate host by adaptation first to some tissues of the internal organs and then to life in the circulating cells of the blood. The present opinion is that, among the malaria parasites of primates, the genus Hepatocystis and the “quartan group” of plasmodia are the most ancestral, followed by the “tertian group”; from the evolutionary viewpoint the subgenus Laverania is probably the most recent. Studies recently completed and research in hand on malaria parasites of apes and monkeys, combined with the possibility of assessing the infectivity of new simian parasites to Anopheles and to man, will be of great importance for a better understanding of the probable evolution of primate malarias. The fact that several genera of the Anthropoidea evolved in an ecological area where the association with the existing insect vectors of various plasmodia was close is suggestive of Africa as the original home of primate malaria. It is probable that the disease spread up the Nile valley to the Mediterranean shores and Mesopotamia, to the Indian peninsula and to China. From these main centres malaria invaded a large part of the globe. It is also probable (though not proved) that malaria existed in the Americas before the Spanish conquest, and there is some likelihood that sea-going peoples brought it to the New World long before Columbus's voyages. Modern immunological methods applied to the study of the mummified remains of ancient inhabitants of America may help to solve this question. PMID:14315710

  16. Dietary correlates of temporomandibular joint morphology in New World primates.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Claire E

    2011-11-01

    Previous analyses of the masticatory apparatus have demonstrated that the shape of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is functionally and adaptively linked to variation in feeding behavior and diet in primates. Building on previous research, this study presents an analysis of the link between diet and TMJ morphology in the context of functional and dietary differences among New World primates. To evaluate this proposed relationship, I used three-dimensional morphometric methods to quantify TMJ shape across a sample of 13 platyrrhine species. A broad interspecific analysis of this sample found strong relationships among TMJ size, TMJ shape, and diet, suggesting that both size and diet are significant factors influencing TMJ morphology in New World primates. However, it is likely that at least some of these differences are related to a division of dietary categories along clade lines. A series of hypotheses related to load resistance capabilities and range of motion in the TMJ were then tested among small groups of closely related taxa with documented dietary differences. These pairwise analyses indicate that some aspects of TMJ morphology can be used to differentiate among closely related species with different diets. However, not all of my predictions were upheld. The anteroposterior dimensions of the TMJ were most strongly consistent with hypothesized differences in ingestive/masticatory behaviors and jaw gape, whereas the predictions generated for variation in entoglenoid and articular tubercle height were not upheld. These results imply that while some features can be reliably associated with increased load resistance and facilitation of wider jaw gapes in the masticatory apparatus, other features are less strongly correlated with masticatory function. PMID:21920583

  17. Encephalization and diversification of the cranial base in platyrrhine primates.

    PubMed

    Aristide, Leandro; Dos Reis, Sergio F; Machado, Alessandra C; Lima, Inaya; Lopes, Ricardo T; Perez, S Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The cranial base, composed of the midline and lateral basicranium, is a structurally important region of the skull associated with several key traits, which has been extensively studied in anthropology and primatology. In particular, most studies have focused on the association between midline cranial base flexion and relative brain size, or encephalization. However, variation in lateral basicranial morphology has been studied less thoroughly. Platyrrhines are a group of primates that experienced a major evolutionary radiation accompanied by extensive morphological diversification in Central and South America over a large temporal scale. Previous studies have also suggested that they underwent several evolutionarily independent processes of encephalization. Given these characteristics, platyrrhines present an excellent opportunity to study, on a large phylogenetic scale, the morphological correlates of primate diversification in brain size. In this study we explore the pattern of variation in basicranial morphology and its relationship with phylogenetic branching and with encephalization in platyrrhines. We quantify variation in the 3D shape of the midline and lateral basicranium and endocranial volumes in a large sample of platyrrhine species, employing high-resolution CT-scans and geometric morphometric techniques. We investigate the relationship between basicranial shape and encephalization using phylogenetic regression methods and calculate a measure of phylogenetic signal in the datasets. The results showed that phylogenetic structure is the most important dimension for understanding platyrrhine cranial base diversification; only Aotus species do not show concordance with our molecular phylogeny. Encephalization was only correlated with midline basicranial flexion, and species that exhibit convergence in their relative brain size do not display convergence in lateral basicranial shape. The evolution of basicranial variation in primates is probably more complex

  18. A fully resolved genus level phylogeny of neotropical primates (Platyrrhini).

    PubMed

    Wildman, Derek E; Jameson, Natalie M; Opazo, Juan C; Yi, Soojin V

    2009-12-01

    There are more than 125 species of extant New World monkeys (Primates: Platyrrhini) found in approximately 15 genera. The phylogenetic relationships of these neotropical primates have been extensively studied from a molecular perspective. While these studies have been successful at inferring many of the relationships within the platyrrhines, key questions remain. The current study provides a framework for using non-genic, non-coding markers in comparative primate phylogenomic studies in species whose genomes are not yet scheduled for complete sequencing. A random genomic shotgun library was generated from the nocturnal Owl monkey Aotus lemurinus. Eleven unlinked, non-coding, non-genic, non-repetitive, nuclear DNA markers derived from this library were sequenced in at least one representative species of every platyrrhine genus. The combined sequence from these markers yielded a 7.7 kb multiple sequence alignment of 22 taxa. We analyzed these markers independently and combined with a 10 kb dataset consisting of "traditional," previously published markers located within or directly adjacent to genes. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis converged on a single topology for the platyrrhine generic relationships. Notably, we confidently inferred that Pitheciidae is the sister taxon to the other two platyrrhine families (Cebidae, Atelidae). This relationship is supported by high values of branch support as well as topology tests. Additionally, Aotus formed a sister taxon to a clade comprising Cebus and Saimiri. With a fully resolved platyrrhine phylogeny in place it is now possible to design and test hypotheses regarding the evolution and diversification of platyrrhine phenotypes and life histories. PMID:19632342

  19. Manganese Neurotoxicity: Lessons Learned from Longitudinal Studies in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Neal C.; Guilarte, Tomás R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to excess levels of the essential trace element manganese produces cognitive, psychiatric, and motor abnormalities. The understanding of Mn neurotoxicology is heavily governed by pathologic and neurochemical observations derived from rodent studies that often employ acute Mn exposures. The comparatively sparse studies incorporating in vivo neuroimaging in nonhuman primates provide invaluable insights on the effects of Mn on brain chemistry. Objectives The purpose of this review is to discuss important aspects of Mn neurotoxicology and to synthesize recent findings from one of the largest cohorts of nonhuman primates used to study the neurologic effects of chronic Mn exposure. Discussion We reviewed our recent in vivo and ex vivo studies that have significantly advanced the understanding of Mn-induced neurotoxicity. In those studies, we administered weekly doses of 3.3–5.0 (n = 4), 5.0–6.7 (n = 5), or 8.3–10.0 mg Mn/kg (n = 3) for 7–59 weeks to cynomolgus macaque monkeys. Animals expressed subtle deficits in cognition and motor function and decreases in the N-acetylaspartate-to-creatine ratio in the parietal cortex measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflective of neuronal dysfunction. Impaired striatal dopamine release measured by positron emission tomography was observed in the absence of changes in markers of dopamine neuron degeneration. Neuropathology indicated decreased glutamine synthetase expression in the globus pallidus with otherwise normal markers of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. Increased amyloid beta (A4) precursor-like protein 1 gene expression with multiple markers of neurodegeneration and glial cell activation was observed in the frontal cortex. Conclusions These findings provide new information on mechanisms by which Mn affects behavior, neurotransmitter function, and neuropathology in nonhuman primates. PMID:19337503

  20. Considering the Influence of Nonadaptive Evolution on Primate Color Vision

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rachel L.; Bradley, Brenda J.

    2016-01-01

    Color vision in primates is variable across species, and it represents a rare trait in which the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation are fairly well-understood. Research on primate color vision has largely focused on adaptive explanations for observed variation, but it remains unclear why some species have trichromatic or polymorphic color vision while others are red-green color blind. Lemurs, in particular, are highly variable. While some species are polymorphic, many closely-related species are strictly dichromatic. We provide the first characterization of color vision in a wild population of red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer, Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar) with a sample size (87 individuals; NX chromosomes = 134) large enough to detect even rare variants (0.95 probability of detection at ≥ 3% frequency). By sequencing exon 5 of the X-linked opsin gene we identified opsin spectral sensitivity based on known diagnostic sites and found this population to be dichromatic and monomorphic for a long wavelength allele. Apparent fixation of this long allele is in contrast to previously published accounts of Eulemur species, which exhibit either polymorphic color vision or only the medium wavelength opsin. This unexpected result may represent loss of color vision variation, which could occur through selective processes and/or genetic drift (e.g., genetic bottleneck). To indirectly assess the latter scenario, we genotyped 55 adult red-bellied lemurs at seven variable microsatellite loci and used heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests to assess if this population may have experienced a recent genetic bottleneck. Results of heterozygosity excess but not M-ratio tests suggest a bottleneck might have occurred in this red-bellied lemur population. Therefore, while selection may also play a role, the unique color vision observed in this population might have been influenced by a recent genetic bottleneck. These results emphasize the need to

  1. Modeling the biomechanics of articular eminence function in anthropoid primates

    PubMed Central

    Terhune, Claire E

    2011-01-01

    One of the most prominent features of the cranial component of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the articular eminence (AE). This bar of bone is the primary surface upon which the condyle translates and rotates during movements of the mandible, and is therefore the primary point at which forces are transmitted from the mandible to the cranium during loading of the masticatory apparatus. The shape of the AE is highly variable across primates, and the raised eminence of humans has often been considered a defining feature of the human TMJ, yet few data exist to address whether this variation is functionally significant. This study used a broad interspecific sample of anthropoid primates to elaborate upon and test the predictions of a previously proposed model of AE function. This model suggests that AE inclination acts to resist non-normal forces at the TMJ, thereby maximizing bite forces (BFs). AE inclination was predicted to covary with two specific features of the masticatory apparatus: height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane; and inclination of the masticatory muscles. A correlate of this model is that taxa utilizing more resistant food objects should also exhibit relatively more inclined AEs. Results of the correlation analyses found that AE inclination is strongly correlated with height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane, but less so with inclination of the masticatory muscles. Furthermore, pairwise comparisons of closely related taxa with documented dietary differences found that the AE is consistently more inclined in taxa that utilize more resistant food items. These data preliminarily suggest that variation in AE morphology across anthropoid primates is functionally related to maximizing BFs, and add to the growing dataset of masticatory morphologies linked to feeding behavior. PMID:21923720

  2. Red-green color vision in three catarrhine primates

    PubMed Central

    Fornalé, Francesca; Vaglio, Stefano; Spiezio, Caterina; Previde, Emanuela Prato

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, specifically the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage, and to the intraspecific socio-sexual communication, namely the signal of the male rank, the mate choice and the reproductive strategies in females. New data should be added to the debate regarding the evolution of trichromatic color vision. Three catarrhine primates were observed to achieve this goal. The research was performed on captive groups of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Parco Natura Viva - Garda Zoological Park (Italy). Using pairs of red-green bags containing the same hidden reward in comparable outdoor enclosures, we recorded the choices by observed individuals (n = 25) to investigate the role of color cues in choosing an object. The results indicate that chimpanzees used red color as cue to choose an object that contains food by showing a preference toward red objects; in contrast, vervet monkeys and pig-tailed macaques do not demonstrate a clear choice based on the color of the object. Our findings highlight the importance of the foraging hypothesis but not rule out the potential role of the intraspecific socio-sexual communication and may serve to add useful information to the debate regarding the adaptive value of the evolution of color vision in order to fill a phylogenetic gap from Old World monkeys to humans. Future studies should address the role of socio-sexual communication, such as the selection of the reproductive partner of both high genetic quality and with compatible genes, to determine how this influenced the evolution of color vision in non-human primates. PMID:23336029

  3. Observation of arterial blood pressure of the primate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, J. P.; Henry, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The developments are reported in physiological instrumentation, surgical procedures, measurement and data analysis techniques, and the definition of flight experiments to determine the effects of prolonged weightlessness on the cardiovascular system of subhuman primates. The development of an implantable telemetric data acquisition system is discussed along with cardiovascular research applications in renal hemodynamics. It is concluded that the implant technique permits a valid interpretation, free of emotional response, for the manipulated variable on physiological functions. It also allows a better definition of normal physiological baseline conditions.

  4. Studies of primate protein variation and evolution: microelectrophoretic detection.

    PubMed

    Palmour, R M; Cronin, J E; Childs, A; Grunbaum, B W

    1980-08-01

    Genetic variation at 16 protein and enzyme loci in Ceropithecus aethiops and several other primate species has been surveyed, using cellulose acetate microelectrophoresis. Resolution of several standard variant proteins is comparable to that achieved on starch gel or polyacrylamide gel. Although both intraspecific and interspecific variation was observed for some loci, the data generally support the concept that extracellular proteins are more likely to be polymorphic within a species, while intracellular proteins generally vary between species, if at all. These methodologies are particularly appropriate for screening multiple-locus variation in large numbers of samples; their relevance to studies of molecular evolution and evaluation of theories of kin selection is discussed. PMID:7470021

  5. Discovery of the smallest Fayum Egyptian primates (Anchomomyini, Adapidae).

    PubMed

    Simons, E L

    1997-01-01

    Two new adapiform primate species from locality 41, Jebel Qatrani Formation, Egypt, are described. The first, here named Wadilemur elegans genus novum species novum (holotype Cairo Geological Museum 42211), consists of a right mandible with P3-M3. The second is assigned to Anchomomys milleri species novum, with a holotype Cairo Geological Museum 42842, that includes the right mandible with lower canine to M3. Both species are allied closely with genera that are known to be from Eocene deposits either in Europe, Tunisia, or the Sultanate of Oman (Arabia), thus enhancing earlier paleomagnetic evidence that locality 41 was deposited in Eocene times. PMID:11038538

  6. Coevolution of vocal communication and sociality in primates

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Karen; Semple, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the rules that link communication and social behaviour is an essential prerequisite for discerning how a communication system as complex as human language might have evolved. The comparative method offers a powerful tool for investigating the nature of these rules, since it provides a means to examine relationships between changes in communication abilities and changes in key aspects of social behaviour over evolutionary time. Here we present empirical evidence from phylogenetically controlled analyses indicating that evolutionary increases in the size of the vocal repertoire among non-human primate species were associated with increases in both group size and time spent grooming (our measure of extent of social bonding). PMID:17148212

  7. Nonhuman gamblers: lessons from rodents, primates, and robots

    PubMed Central

    Paglieri, Fabio; Addessi, Elsa; De Petrillo, Francesca; Laviola, Giovanni; Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico; Petrosino, Giancarlo; Ventricelli, Marialba; Zoratto, Francesca; Adriani, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The search for neuronal and psychological underpinnings of pathological gambling in humans would benefit from investigating related phenomena also outside of our species. In this paper, we present a survey of studies in three widely different populations of agents, namely rodents, non-human primates, and robots. Each of these populations offers valuable and complementary insights on the topic, as the literature demonstrates. In addition, we highlight the deep and complex connections between relevant results across these different areas of research (i.e., cognitive and computational neuroscience, neuroethology, cognitive primatology, neuropsychiatry, evolutionary robotics), to make the case for a greater degree of methodological integration in future studies on pathological gambling. PMID:24574984

  8. Mixed chimerism to induce tolerance: lessons learned from nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Toru; Cosimi, A. Benedict; Kawai, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    The mixed chimerism approach has been demonstrated to be an effective means of inducing allograft tolerance. Based on our rodent studies on mixed chimerism, we previously developed a clinically relevant nonmyeloablative preparative regimen that permits the induction of mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance following donor bone marrow transplantation in major histocompatibility complex fully mismatched cynomolgus monkeys. This approach has been successfully extended to HLA matched or mismatched kidney transplant recipients. In the manuscript, we summarize some of the important conclusions made in our laboratories regarding induction of mixed chimerism and allograft tolerance in a nonhuman primate model. PMID:19027614

  9. Instrumentation for space flight experiments. [using nonhuman primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccutcheon, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    The selection of measurement systems for experiments conducted in the context of a space flight must be guided by the criteria applicable to any scientific study requiring objective measurements of physiological variables. Steps fundamental to the process of choosing the best instrumentation system are identified and the key factors in matching the operational characteristics of the instrumentation to its intended use are discussed. Special problems in obtaining data from nonhuman primates, whether restrained or unrestrained, are explored. Choices for data processing are evaluated as well as the use of prototype flight tests and simulations to assess future life science experiments for spacelab or payloads for the space shuttle biomedical scientific satellite.

  10. Evolutionary trajectories of primate genes involved in HIV pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Millán; Guex, Nicolas; Patin, Etienne; Martin, Olivier; Xenarios, Ioannis; Ciuffi, Angela; Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Telenti, Amalio

    2009-12-01

    The current availability of five complete genomes of different primate species allows the analysis of genetic divergence over the last 40 million years of evolution. We hypothesized that the interspecies differences observed in susceptibility to HIV-1 would be influenced by the long-range selective pressures on host genes associated with HIV-1 pathogenesis. We established a list of human genes (n = 140) proposed to be involved in HIV-1 biology and pathogenesis and a control set of 100 random genes. We retrieved the orthologous genes from the genome of humans and of four nonhuman primates (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus abeli, Macaca mulatta, and Callithrix jacchus) and analyzed the nucleotide substitution patterns of this data set using codon-based maximum likelihood procedures. In addition, we evaluated whether the candidate genes have been targets of recent positive selection in humans by analyzing HapMap Phase 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in a region centered on each candidate gene. A total of 1,064 sequences were used for the analyses. Similar median K(A)/K(S) values were estimated for the set of genes involved in HIV-1 pathogenesis and for control genes, 0.19 and 0.15, respectively. However, genes of the innate immunity had median values of 0.37 (P value = 0.0001, compared with control genes), and genes of intrinsic cellular defense had K(A)/K(S) values around or greater than 1.0 (P value = 0.0002). Detailed assessment allowed the identification of residues under positive selection in 13 proteins: AKT1, APOBEC3G, APOBEC3H, CD4, DEFB1, GML, IL4, IL8RA, L-SIGN/CLEC4M, PTPRC/CD45, Tetherin/BST2, TLR7, and TRIM5alpha. A number of those residues are relevant for HIV-1 biology. The set of 140 genes involved in HIV-1 pathogenesis did not show a significant enrichment in signals of recent positive selection in humans (intraspecies selection). However, we identified within or near these genes 24 polymorphisms showing strong signatures of recent positive

  11. Enumeration of Objects and Substances in Non-Human Primates: Experiments with Brown Lemurs ("Eulemur Fulvus")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Neha; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Blanco, Marissa; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    Both human infants and adult non-human primates share the capacity to track small numbers of objects across time and occlusion. The question now facing developmental and comparative psychologists is whether similar mechanisms give rise to this capacity across the two populations. Here, we explore whether non-human primates' object tracking…

  12. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transport nonhuman primates. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3) must not transport or deliver for transport in commerce a nonhuman primate unless it is contained in a... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary enclosures used to...

  13. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  14. Can Human-Taught Primates Produce a Non-Verbal Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, James A.

    The debate over whether primates can be taught visual language is examined, and evidence of use of nonverbal language in primate studies is compared with the language criteria of a number of linguistic researchers. Background information on language, visual language (including sign language), and the parameters of the studies is offered, including…

  15. Oldest known euarchontan tarsals and affinities of Paleocene Purgatorius to Primates.

    PubMed

    Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Boyer, Doug M; Clemens, William A

    2015-02-01

    Earliest Paleocene Purgatorius often is regarded as the geologically oldest primate, but it has been known only from fossilized dentitions since it was first described half a century ago. The dentition of Purgatorius is more primitive than those of all known living and fossil primates, leading some researchers to suggest that it lies near the ancestry of all other primates; however, others have questioned its affinities to primates or even to placental mammals. Here we report the first (to our knowledge) nondental remains (tarsal bones) attributed to Purgatorius from the same earliest Paleocene deposits that have yielded numerous fossil dentitions of this poorly known mammal. Three independent phylogenetic analyses that incorporate new data from these fossils support primate affinities of Purgatorius among euarchontan mammals (primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Astragali and calcanei attributed to Purgatorius indicate a mobile ankle typical of arboreal euarchontan mammals generally and of Paleocene and Eocene plesiadapiforms specifically and provide the earliest fossil evidence of arboreality in primates and other euarchontan mammals. Postcranial specializations for arboreality in the earliest primates likely played a key role in the evolutionary success of this mammalian radiation in the Paleocene. PMID:25605875

  16. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... transport nonhuman primates. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... nonhuman primates. 3.87 Section 3.87 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... absorb and cover excreta. The litter must be of a suitably absorbent material that is safe and...

  17. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transport nonhuman primates. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... nonhuman primates. 3.87 Section 3.87 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... absorb and cover excreta. The litter must be of a suitably absorbent material that is safe and...

  18. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transport nonhuman primates. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... nonhuman primates. 3.87 Section 3.87 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... absorb and cover excreta. The litter must be of a suitably absorbent material that is safe and...

  19. Oldest known euarchontan tarsals and affinities of Paleocene Purgatorius to Primates

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Stephen G. B.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Boyer, Doug M.; Clemens, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Earliest Paleocene Purgatorius often is regarded as the geologically oldest primate, but it has been known only from fossilized dentitions since it was first described half a century ago. The dentition of Purgatorius is more primitive than those of all known living and fossil primates, leading some researchers to suggest that it lies near the ancestry of all other primates; however, others have questioned its affinities to primates or even to placental mammals. Here we report the first (to our knowledge) nondental remains (tarsal bones) attributed to Purgatorius from the same earliest Paleocene deposits that have yielded numerous fossil dentitions of this poorly known mammal. Three independent phylogenetic analyses that incorporate new data from these fossils support primate affinities of Purgatorius among euarchontan mammals (primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Astragali and calcanei attributed to Purgatorius indicate a mobile ankle typical of arboreal euarchontan mammals generally and of Paleocene and Eocene plesiadapiforms specifically and provide the earliest fossil evidence of arboreality in primates and other euarchontan mammals. Postcranial specializations for arboreality in the earliest primates likely played a key role in the evolutionary success of this mammalian radiation in the Paleocene. PMID:25605875

  20. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F; Campbell, Kenneth E; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-23

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups. PMID:25652825

  1. On folivory, competition, and intelligence: generalism, overgeneralizations, and models of primate evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Considerations of primate behavioral evolution often proceed by assuming the ecological and competitive milieus of particular taxa via their relative exploitation of gross food types, such as fruits versus leaves. Although this “fruit/leaf dichotomy” has been repeatedly criticized, it continues to be implicitly invoked in discussions of primate socioecology and female social relationships, and explicitly invoked in models of brain evolution. An expanding literature suggests that such views have severely limited our knowledge of the social and ecological complexities of primate folivory. This paper examines the behavior of primate folivore-frugivores, with particular emphasis on gray langurs (traditionally, Semnopithecus entellus) within the broader context of evolutionary ecology. Although possessing morphological characters that have been associated with folivory and constrained activity patterns, gray langurs are known for remarkable plasticity in ecology and behavior. Their diets are generally quite broad and can be discussed in relation to “Liem’s paradox,” the odd coupling of anatomical feeding specializations with a generalist foraging strategy. Gray langurs, not coincidentally, inhabit arguably the widest range of habitats for a nonhuman primate, including high elevations in the Himalayas. They provide an excellent focal point for examining the assumptions and predictions of behavioral, socioecological, and cognitive evolutionary models. Contrary to the classical descriptions of the primate folivore, Himalayan and other gray langurs—and, in actuality, many leaf eating primates—range widely and engage in resource competition (both of which have previously been noted for primate folivores) as well as solve ecological problems rivaling those of more frugivorous primates (which has rarely been argued for primate folivores). It is maintained that questions of primate folivore adaptation, temperate primate adaptation, and primate evolution more

  2. Meeting Report: Spontaneous Lesions and Diseases in Wild, Captive-Bred, and Zoo-Housed Nonhuman Primates and in Nonhuman Primate Species Used in Drug Safety Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, V. G.; Mansfield, K. G.; Mankowski, J. L.; Tremblay, C.; Terio, K. A.; Mätz-Rensing, K.; Gruber-Dujardin, E.; Delaney, M. A.; Schmidt, L. D.; Liu, D.; Markovits, J. E.; Owston, M.; Harbison, C.; Shanmukhappa, S.; Miller, A. D.; Kaliyaperumal, S.; Assaf, B. T.; Kattenhorn, L.; Macri, S. Cummings; Simmons, H. A.; Baldessari, A.; Sharma, P.; Courtney, C.; Bradley, A.; Cline, J. M.; Reindel, J. F.; Hutto, D. L.; Montali, R. J.; Lowenstine, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    The combination of loss of habitat, human population encroachment, and increased demand of select nonhuman primates for biomedical research has significantly affected populations. There remains a need for knowledge and expertise in understanding background findings as related to the age, source, strain, and disease status of nonhuman primates. In particular, for safety/biomedical studies, a broader understanding and documentation of lesions would help clarify background from drug-related findings. A workshop and a minisymposium on spontaneous lesions and diseases in nonhuman primates were sponsored by the concurrent Annual Meetings of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology held December 3–4, 2011, in Nashville, Tennessee. The first session had presentations from Drs Lowenstine and Montali, pathologists with extensive experience in wild and zoo populations of nonhuman primates, which was followed by presentations of 20 unique case reports of rare or newly observed spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates (see online files for access to digital whole-slide images corresponding to each case report at http://www.scanscope.com/ACVP%20Slide%20 Seminars/2011/Primate%20Pathology/view.apml). The minisymposium was composed of 5 nonhuman-primate researchers (Drs Bradley, Cline, Sasseville, Miller, Hutto) who concentrated on background and spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates used in drug safety studies. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques were emphasized, with some material presented on common marmosets. Congenital, acquired, inflammatory, and neoplastic changes were highlighed with a focus on clinical, macroscopic, and histopathologic findings that could confound the interpretation of drug safety studies. PMID:23135296

  3. Hunter-gatherers and other primates as prey, predators, and competitors of snakes.

    PubMed

    Headland, Thomas N; Greene, Harry W

    2011-12-27

    Relationships between primates and snakes are of widespread interest from anthropological, psychological, and evolutionary perspectives, but surprisingly, little is known about the dangers that serpents have posed to people with prehistoric lifestyles and nonhuman primates. Here, we report ethnographic observations of 120 Philippine Agta Negritos when they were still preliterate hunter-gatherers, among whom 26% of adult males had survived predation attempts by reticulated pythons. Six fatal attacks occurred between 1934 and 1973. Agta ate pythons as well as deer, wild pigs, and monkeys, which are also eaten by pythons, and therefore, the two species were reciprocally prey, predators, and potential competitors. Natural history data document snake predation on tree shrews and 26 species of nonhuman primates as well as many species of primates approaching, mobbing, killing, and sometimes eating snakes. These findings, interpreted within the context of snake and primate phylogenies, corroborate the hypothesis that complex ecological interactions have long characterized our shared evolutionary history. PMID:22160702

  4. A unified framework for the organization of the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Simon; Petkov, Christopher I; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2013-01-01

    In non-human primates a scheme for the organization of the auditory cortex is frequently used to localize auditory processes. The scheme allows a common basis for comparison of functional organization across non-human primate species. However, although a body of functional and structural data in non-human primates supports an accepted scheme of nearly a dozen neighboring functional areas, can this scheme be directly applied to humans? Attempts to expand the scheme of auditory cortical fields in humans have been severely hampered by a recent controversy about the organization of tonotopic maps in humans, centered on two different models with radically different organization. We point out observations that reconcile the previous models and suggest a distinct model in which the human cortical organization is much more like that of other primates. This unified framework allows a more robust and detailed comparison of auditory cortex organization across primate species including humans. PMID:23641203

  5. Aging in the Natural World: Comparative Data Reveal Similar Mortality Patterns Across Primates

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowski, Anne M.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Morris, William F.; Strier, Karen B.; Alberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Human senescence patterns—late onset of mortality increase, slow mortality acceleration, and exceptional longevity—are often described as unique in the animal world. Using an individual-based data set from longitudinal studies of wild populations of seven primate species, we show that contrary to assumptions of human uniqueness, human senescence falls within the primate continuum of aging; the tendency for males to have shorter life spans and higher age-specific mortality than females throughout much of adulthood is a common feature in many, but not all, primates; and the aging profiles of primate species do not reflect phylogenetic position. These findings suggest that mortality patterns in primates are shaped by local selective forces rather than phylogenetic history. PMID:21393544

  6. Behavioral and brain asymmetries in primates: a preliminary evaluation of two evolutionary hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William D; Misiura, Maria; Pope, Sarah M; Latash, Elitaveta M

    2015-11-01

    Contrary to many historical views, recent evidence suggests that species-level behavioral and brain asymmetries are evident in nonhuman species. Here, we briefly present evidence of behavioral, perceptual, cognitive, functional, and neuroanatomical asymmetries in nonhuman primates. In addition, we describe two historical accounts of the evolutionary origins of hemispheric specialization and present data from nonhuman primates that address these specific theories. Specifically, we first discuss the evidence that genes play specific roles in determining left-right differences in anatomical and functional asymmetries in primates. We next consider and present data on the hypothesis that hemispheric specialization evolved as a by-product of increasing brain size relative to the surface area of the corpus callosum in different primate species. Last, we discuss some of the challenges in the study of hemispheric specialization in primates and offer some suggestions on how to advance the field. PMID:26426409

  7. Primate cognition: attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, self-control, and metacognition as examples of cognitive control in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A

    2016-09-01

    Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27284790

  8. Assessing p16 Status of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Combined Assessment of the Number of Cells Stained and the Confluence of p16 Staining: A Validation by Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Barasch, Samuel; Mohindra, Pranshu; Hennrick, Kenneth; Hartig, Gregory K; Harari, Paul M; Yang, David T

    2016-09-01

    Human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has favorable prognosis relative to other head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Criteria for predicting human papillomavirus status based upon p16 staining, including difficult cases with partial staining patterns, have been developed; however, clinical validation of these criteria and the clinical significance of partial p16 staining have not been reported. Eighty-one archival OPSCC cases were initially stained for p16 by immunohistochemistry with clone G175-405. The percentage of p16 cells and percentage of confluence of p16 cells were categorized as 25%, 26% to 75%, or >75%. Of all cases, 16 (20%) had partial p16 expression, with 26% to 75% p16 cells. Applying previously developed criteria of >75% p16 cells or >50% positive cells with >25% confluence, 48 (59%) patients were categorized p16 and demonstrated expected clinical characteristics and superior disease-free survival and overall survival (P<0.001) compared with p16 patients. By themselves, the partial staining patients had intermediate outcomes; however, separating the partial staining cases by degree of confluence showed that those with >75% confluence had superior disease-free survival (P=0.042). When the 16 original partial staining cases were re-stained with the alternative anti-p16 E6H4 clone, p16 status remained concordant for all cases, but only 3 of the 16 were interpreted as demonstrating partial staining. This report shows that the prevalence of partial p16 staining varies with the antibody utilized and clinically validates the application of a graded evaluation of both the number as well as confluence of positive cells for risk stratification of patients with OPSCC. PMID:27186851

  9. Scaling of Convex Hull Volume to Body Mass in Modern Primates, Non-Primate Mammals and Birds

    PubMed Central

    Brassey, Charlotte A.; Sellers, William I.

    2014-01-01

    The volumetric method of ‘convex hulling’ has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (volCH) from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb) to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within volCH has remained unclear. Specifically, when volCH scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.97–0.99) and low mean percentage prediction error (11–20%). Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85–1.00, p = 0.08). Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.91, p = 0.011) and apparent density (volCH/Mb) therefore decreases with mass (r2 = 0.36, p<0.05). In contrast, primates scale body mass to volCH with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01–1.12, p = 0.05) and apparent density therefore increases with size (r2 = 0.46, p = 0.025). We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the ‘missing mass’ of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat

  10. Primates' Socio-Cognitive Abilities: What Kind of Comparisons Makes Sense?

    PubMed

    Byrnit, Jill T

    2015-09-01

    Referential gestures are of pivotal importance to the human species. We effortlessly make use of each others' referential gestures to attend to the same things, and our ability to use these gestures show themselves from very early in life. Almost 20 years ago, James Anderson and colleagues presented an experimental paradigm with which to examine the use of referential gestures in non-human primates: the object-choice task. Since then, numerous object-choice studies have been made, not only with primates but also with a range of other animal taxa. Surprisingly, several non-primate species appear to perform better in the object-choice task than primates do. Different hypotheses have been offered to explain the results. Some of these have employed generalizations about primates or subsets of primate taxa that do not take into account the unparalleled diversity that exists between species within the primate order on parameters relevant to the requirements of the object-choice task, such as social structure, feeding ecology, and general morphology. To examine whether these broad primate generalizations offer a fruitful organizing framework within which to interpret the results, a review was made of all published primate results on the use of gazing and glancing cues with species ordered along the primate phylogenetic tree. It was concluded that differences between species may be larger than differences between ancestry taxa, and it is suggested that we need to start rethinking why we are testing animals on experimental paradigms that do not take into account what are the challenges of their natural habitat. PMID:26016621

  11. Interactions between Social Structure, Demography, and Transmission Determine Disease Persistence in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Sadie J.; Jones, James H.; Dobson, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic declines in African great ape populations due to disease outbreaks have been reported in recent years, yet we rarely hear of similar disease impacts for the more solitary Asian great apes, or for smaller primates. We used an age-structured model of different primate social systems to illustrate that interactions between social structure and demography create ‘dynamic constraints’ on the pathogens that can establish and persist in primate host species with different social systems. We showed that this varies by disease transmission mode. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) require high rates of transmissibility to persist within a primate population. In particular, for a unimale social system, STIs require extremely high rates of transmissibility for persistence, and remain at extremely low prevalence in small primates, but this is less constrained in longer-lived, larger-bodied primates. In contrast, aerosol transmitted infections (ATIs) spread and persist at high prevalence in medium and large primates with moderate transmissibility;, establishment and persistence in small-bodied primates require higher relative rates of transmissibility. Intragroup contact structure – the social network - creates different constraints for different transmission modes, and our model underscores the importance of intragroup contacts on infection prior to intergroup movement in a structured population. When alpha males dominate sexual encounters, the resulting disease transmission dynamics differ from when social interactions are dominated by mother-infant grooming events, for example. This has important repercussions for pathogen spread across populations. Our framework reveals essential social and demographic characteristics of primates that predispose them to different disease risks that will be important for disease management and conservation planning for protected primate populations. PMID:24204688

  12. Strategies for targeting primate neural circuits with viral vectors.

    PubMed

    El-Shamayleh, Yasmine; Ni, Amy M; Horwitz, Gregory D

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how the brain works requires understanding how different types of neurons contribute to circuit function and organism behavior. Progress on this front has been accelerated by optogenetics and chemogenetics, which provide an unprecedented level of control over distinct neuronal types in small animals. In primates, however, targeting specific types of neurons with these tools remains challenging. In this review, we discuss existing and emerging strategies for directing genetic manipulations to targeted neurons in the adult primate central nervous system. We review the literature on viral vectors for gene delivery to neurons, focusing on adeno-associated viral vectors and lentiviral vectors, their tropism for different cell types, and prospects for new variants with improved efficacy and selectivity. We discuss two projection targeting approaches for probing neural circuits: anterograde projection targeting and retrograde transport of viral vectors. We conclude with an analysis of cell type-specific promoters and other nucleotide sequences that can be used in viral vectors to target neuronal types at the transcriptional level. PMID:27052579

  13. Euthanasia assessment in ebola virus infected nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Warren, Travis K; Trefry, John C; Marko, Shannon T; Chance, Taylor B; Wells, Jay B; Pratt, William D; Johnson, Joshua C; Mucker, Eric M; Norris, Sarah L; Chappell, Mark; Dye, John M; Honko, Anna N

    2014-11-01

    Multiple products are being developed for use against filoviral infections. Efficacy for these products will likely be demonstrated in nonhuman primate models of filoviral disease to satisfy licensure requirements under the Animal Rule, or to supplement human data. Typically, the endpoint for efficacy assessment will be survival following challenge; however, there exists no standardized approach for assessing the health or euthanasia criteria for filovirus-exposed nonhuman primates. Consideration of objective criteria is important to (a) ensure test subjects are euthanized without unnecessary distress; (b) enhance the likelihood that animals exhibiting mild or moderate signs of disease are not prematurely euthanized; (c) minimize the occurrence of spontaneous deaths and loss of end-stage samples; (d) enhance the reproducibility of experiments between different researchers; and (e) provide a defensible rationale for euthanasia decisions that withstands regulatory scrutiny. Historic records were compiled for 58 surviving and non-surviving monkeys exposed to Ebola virus at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Clinical pathology parameters were statistically analyzed and those exhibiting predicative value for survival are reported. These findings may be useful for standardization of objective euthanasia assessments in rhesus monkeys exposed to Ebola virus and may serve as a useful approach for other standardization efforts. PMID:25421892

  14. Genetic Requirements for the Survival of Tubercle Bacilli in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Noton K.; Mehra, Smriti; Didier, Peter J.; Roy, Chad J.; Doyle, Lara A.; Alvarez, Xavier; Ratterree, Marion; Be, Nicholas A.; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Jain, Sanjay K.; Lacey, Michelle R.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Kaushal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Background TB leads to the annual death of 1.7 million people. The failure of the BCG vaccine, synergy between AIDS and TB, and the emergence of drug-resistance have worsened this situation. It is imperative to delineate the mechanisms employed by Mtb to successfully infect and persist in mammalian lungs. Methods NHPs are arguably the best animal system to model critical aspects of human TB. We studied genes essential for growth/survival of Mtb in the lungs of NHPs experimentally exposed to aerosols of an Mtb transposon mutant library. Results Mutants in 108 Mtb genes (33.13% of all tested) were attenuated for in-vivo growth. Comparable studies have reported the attenuation of only ~6% of mutants in mice. The Mtb mutants attenuated for in-vivo survival in primates were involved in the transport of various biomolecules including lipid virulence factors; biosynthesis of cell-wall arabinan and peptidoglycan; DNA repair; sterol metabolism and mammalian cell-entry. Conclusions Our study highlights the various virulence-mechanisms employed by Mtb to overcome the hostile environment encountered during infection of primates. Prophylactic approaches aimed against bacterial factors which respond to such in-vivo stressors, have the potential to prevent infection at an early stage, thus likely reducing the extent of transmission of Mtb. PMID:20394526

  15. Evolution of Primate Gene Expression: Drift and Corrective Sweeps?

    PubMed Central

    Chaix, R.; Somel, M.; Kreil, D. P.; Khaitovich, P.; Lunter, G. A.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in gene expression play an important role in species' evolution. Earlier studies uncovered evidence that the effect of mutations on expression levels within the primate order is skewed, with many small downregulations balanced by fewer but larger upregulations. In addition, brain-expressed genes appeared to show an increased rate of evolution on the branch leading to human. However, the lack of a mathematical model adequately describing the evolution of gene expression precluded the rigorous establishment of these observations. Here, we develop mathematical tools that allow us to revisit these earlier observations in a model-testing and inference framework. We introduce a model for skewed gene-expression evolution within a phylogenetic tree and use a separate model to account for biological or experimental outliers. A Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo inference procedure allows us to infer the phylogeny and other evolutionary parameters, while quantifying the confidence in these inferences. Our results support previous observations; in particular, we find strong evidence for a sustained positive skew in the distribution of gene-expression changes in primate evolution. We propose a “corrective sweep” scenario to explain this phenomenon. PMID:18791252

  16. Social odours, sexual arousal and pairbonding in primates

    PubMed Central

    Snowdon, Charles T; Ziegler, Toni E; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Ferris, Craig F

    2006-01-01

    We describe the role of social odours in sexual arousal and maintaining pairbonds in biparental and cooperatively breeding primates. Social odours are complex chemical mixtures produced by an organism that can simultaneously provide information about species, kinship, sex, individuality and reproductive state. They are long lasting and have advantages over other modalities. Both sexes are sensitive to changes in odours over the reproductive cycle and experimental disruption of signals can lead to altered sexual behaviour within a pair. We demonstrate, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that social odours indicating reproductive state directly influence the brain areas responsible for sexual behaviour. Social odours also influence other brain areas typically involved in motivation, memory and decision making, suggesting that these signals have more complex functions in primates than mere sexual arousal. We demonstrate a rapid link between social odours and neuroendocrine responses that are modulated by a male's social status. Recent work on humans shows similar responses to social odours. We conclude with an integration of the importance of social odours on sexual arousal and maintaining pairbonds in socially biparental and cooperatively breeding species, suggesting new research directions to integrate social behaviour, neural activation and neuroendocrine responses. PMID:17118925

  17. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species.

    PubMed

    Bronikowski, Anne M; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K; Fedigan, Linda M; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B; Morris, William F

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution. PMID:26928014

  18. Whisper-like behavior in a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Rachel; Reiss, Diana

    2013-01-01

    In humans, whispering has evolved as a counteractive strategy against eavesdropping. Some evidence for whisper-like behavior exists in a few other species, but has not been reported in non-human primates. We discovered the first evidence of whisper-like behavior in a non-human primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), in the course of investigating their use of human-directed mobbing calls. We exposed a family of captive cotton-top tamarins to a supervisor who previously elicited a strong mobbing response. Simultaneous audio-video recordings documented the animals' behavioral and vocal responses in the supervisor's presence and absence. Rather than exhibiting a mobbing response and producing loud human-directed mobbing calls, the tamarins exhibited other anti-predator behaviors and produced low amplitude vocalizations that initially eluded our detection. A post-hoc analysis of the data was conducted to test a new hypothesis-the tamarins were reducing the amplitude of their vocalizations in the context of exposure to a potential threat. Consistent with whisper-like behavior, the amplitude of the tamarins' vocalizations was significantly reduced only in the presence of the supervisor. Due to its subtle properties, this phenomenon may have eluded detection in this species. Increasing evidence of whisper-like behavior in non-human species suggests that such low amplitude signaling may represent a convergence in a communication strategy amongst highly social and cooperative species. PMID:24038444

  19. Cognitive consilience: primate non-primary neuroanatomical circuits underlying cognition.

    PubMed

    Solari, Soren Van Hout; Stoner, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia form the basis of cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Understanding the principles of neuroanatomical organization in these structures is critical to understanding the functions they perform and ultimately how the human brain works. We have manually distilled and synthesized hundreds of primate neuroanatomy facts into a single interactive visualization. The resulting picture represents the fundamental neuroanatomical blueprint upon which cognitive functions must be implemented. Within this framework we hypothesize and detail 7 functional circuits corresponding to psychological perspectives on the brain: consolidated long-term declarative memory, short-term declarative memory, working memory/information processing, behavioral memory selection, behavioral memory output, cognitive control, and cortical information flow regulation. Each circuit is described in terms of distinguishable neuronal groups including the cerebral isocortex (9 pyramidal neuronal groups), parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus, thalamus (4 neuronal groups), basal ganglia (7 neuronal groups), metencephalon, basal forebrain, and other subcortical nuclei. We focus on neuroanatomy related to primate non-primary cortical systems to elucidate the basis underlying the distinct homotypical cognitive architecture. To display the breadth of this review, we introduce a novel method of integrating and presenting data in multiple independent visualizations: an interactive website (http://www.frontiersin.org/files/cognitiveconsilience/index.html) and standalone iPhone and iPad applications. With these tools we present a unique, annotated view of neuroanatomical consilience (integration of knowledge). PMID:22194717

  20. Lithium Protects Against Anaesthesia Neurotoxicity In The Infant Primate Brain

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Kevin K.; Johnson, Stephen A.; Kristich, Lauren E.; Martin, Lauren D.; Dissen, Gregory A.; Olsen, Emily A.; Olney, John W.; Brambrink, Ansgar M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of infant animals, including non-human primates (NHPs), to anaesthetic drugs causes apoptotic death of neurons and oligodendrocytes (oligos) and results in long-term neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Moreover, retrospective clinical studies document an association between anaesthesia exposure of human infants and significant increase in NDI. These findings pose a potentially serious dilemma because millions of human infants are exposed to anaesthetic drugs every year as part of routine medical care. Lithium (Li) at clinically established doses is neuroprotective in various cerebral injury models. We therefore investigated whether Li also protects against anaesthesia neurotoxicity in infant NHPs. On postnatal day 6 NHPs were anaesthetized with the widely used anaesthetic isoflurane (ISO) for 5 h employing the same standards as in a human pediatric surgery setting. Co-administration of Li completely prevented the acute ISO-induced neuroapoptosis and significantly reduced ISO-induced apoptosis of oligodendroglia. Our findings are highly encouraging as they suggest that a relatively simple pharmacological manipulation might protect the developing primate brain against the neurotoxic action of anaesthetic drugs while not interfering with the beneficial actions of these drugs. Further research is needed to determine Li’s potential to prevent long-term NDI resulting from ISO anaesthesia, and to establish its safety in human infants. PMID:26951756